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Sample records for activity cardiorespiratory fitness

  1. Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Are Beneficial for White Matter in Low-Fit Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Zofia; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Knecht, Anya; Lewis, Andrew; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Chung, Hyondo David; Awick, Elisabeth; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM) integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60–78). Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA) over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging) was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle. PMID:25229455

  2. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Meghan K.; Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs. PMID:28058238

  3. Sedentary behavior, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Meghan K; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: Emerging work is starting to investigate the cumulative effects of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on health. The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative and independent associations of MVPA, sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness on leukocyte telomere length (LTL). Methods: Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 1868 adults 20+ years); analyzed in 2016. Sedentary behavior and MVPA were subjectively assessed with cardiorespiratory fitness determined from a submaximal treadmill-based test; participants were classified as above or below the median values for each of these three parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each participant to assess LTL via quantitative polymerase chain reaction, with participants grouped into LTL tertiles. Results: Participants who engaged in higher MVPA, sat less and had higher cardiorespiratory fitness had an increased odds (ranging from 85% to 105%) of being in LTL tertile 3 (vs. 1). In an extended adjusted multinomial logistic regression model, only MVPA was positively associated with LTL (odds ration [OR] = 1.37; 95% CI: 0.99-1.90; P = 0.05). Conclusion: All three behavior characteristics, but particularly MVPA, may be important in preserving LTLs.

  4. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool.

  6. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness in 16 025 adults aged 18-91 years and associations with physical activity and sitting time.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, L; Grønbaek, M; Helge, J W; Tolstrup, J S

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to provide up-to-date cardiorespiratory fitness reference data for adults of all ages and to investigate associations between cardiores-piratory fitness and leisure time physical activity as well as sitting time. In the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008, cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated in 16 025 individuals aged 18-91 years from validated cycle ergometer exercise tests. Level of leisure time physical activity (sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous) and daily sitting time in hours was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Men had 20-33% higher cardiorespiratory fitness than women, depending on age, and cardiorespiratory fitness decreased by 0.26 and 0.23 mL/min/kg per year in men and women, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was higher among participants who reported a high level of physical activity in leisure time compared with participants who were sedentary. Among sedentary or lightly physically active participants, inverse associations between total daily sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness were found, while there was no association between sitting time and cardiorespiratory fitness among moderately or vigorously physically active participants. These data on cardiorespiratory fitness can serve as useful reference material. Although reluctant to conclude on causality, sitting time might impact cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with low levels of leisure time physical activity.

  8. Physical activity versus cardiorespiratory fitness: two (partly) distinct components of cardiovascular health?

    PubMed

    DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Willis, Benjamin L; Barlow, Carolyn E; Finley, Carrie E; Levine, Benjamin D; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) both have inverse relationships to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recent position papers and guidelines have identified the important role of both of these factors in CV health. The benefits of PA and CRF in the prevention of CV disease and risk factors are reviewed. In addition, assessment methodology and utilization in the research and clinical arenas are discussed. Finally, the benefits, methodology, and utilization are compared and contrasted to better understand the two (partly) distinct components and their impact on CV health.

  9. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management.

  10. Serum metabolites related to cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity energy expenditure, sedentary time and vigorous activity.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Floegel, Anna; Knüppel, Sven; Vigl, Matthaeus; Drogan, Dagmar; Adamski, Jerzy; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and serum metabolites measured by targeted metabolomics in a population- based study. A total of 100 subjects provided 2 fasting blood samples and engaged in a CRF and PA measurement at 2 visits 4 months apart. CRF was estimated from a step test, whereas physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE), time spent sedentary and time spend in vigorous activity were measured by a combined heart rate and movement sensor for a total of 8 days. Serum metabolite concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS/MS). Linear mixed models were applied with multivariable adjustment and p-values were corrected for multiple testing. Furthermore, we explored the associations between CRF, PA and two metabolite factors that have previously been linked to risk of Type 2 diabetes. CRF was associated with two phosphatidylcholine clusters independently of all other exposures. Lysophosphatidylcholine C14:0 and methionine were significantly negatively associated with PAEE and sedentary time. CRF was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. Vigorous activity was positively associated with the Type 2 diabetes risk factor in the mutually adjusted model. Our results suggest that CRF and PA are associated with serum metabolites, especially CRF with phosphatidylcholines and with the Type 2 diabetes protective factor. PAEE and sedentary time were associated with methionine. The identified metabolites could be potential mediators of the protective effects of CRF and PA on chronic disease risk.

  11. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  12. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  13. Age-Related Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness among Career Firefighters: Modification by Physical Activity and Adiposity.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Cook, E Francis; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-01-01

    Firefighting is a very hazardous occupation, and strenuous fire duties require high levels of physical fitness. In the general adult population, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) declines with aging. We sought to investigate the effect of increasing age on CRF in male career firefighters as well as the modifying effects of physical activity and adiposity. We cross-sectionally examined 804 male career firefighters from two Midwestern states. CRF was determined from symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise testing in metabolic equivalents (METS) following the Bruce protocol. Physical activity self-reports were extracted from responses to a health and lifestyle questionnaire. We found as expected that CRF declines with advancing age; however, the decline is greatly attenuated among leaner firefighters who report more physical activity. Furthermore, in a linear regression model including age, BMI, and variables describing physical activity behaviors, we could predict CRF (R(2) = 0.6286). The total weekly duration of aerobic exercise as well as the duration of weight lifting sessions both had significant impacts on age-related decline. We conclude that firefighters are more likely to maintain the high levels of CRF needed to safely perform their duties if they engage in frequent exercise and maintain healthy weights.

  14. C-reactive protein, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in Portuguese adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Agostinis Sobrinho, Cesar Aparecido; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Mota, Jorge Augusto Pinto da Silva; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness with C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in adolescents. The sample included 386 Portuguese adolescents (n = 207, female), age 12-18 years, assessed in the year 2012. The PA was assessed with the use of accelerometers, and the cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the Fitnessgram Pacer test. Blood samples were collected after a 10-hour fasting, and high-sensitivity PCR concentration was further assessed. Significant associations between CRP and cardiorespiratory fitness were found for females (r = -0.313; p < 0.001) and males (r = -0.163; p < 0.05); however, when adjusted by the BMI, the associations remained significant only for females (r = -0.215; p < 0.001). Regarding the association between CRP and PA, no significant associations were found for both genders. Therefore, CRP is apparently negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, with differences between males and females; for females it seems less dependent than BMI.

  15. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Evidence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been diagnosed in adolescents and among the associated factors are low levels of physical activity, sedentary behavior over long periods and low cardiorespiratory fitness. However, specifically in adolescents, studies present conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, in order to map the association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness and MetS in adolescents. Methods A search was performed in the databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, LILACS and the Cochrane Library. For the meta-analysis, the odds ratio (OR) was calculated together with the respective confidence intervals (95% CI), in which the measures of effect were analyzed by dichotomous data (exposure variables) with MetS used as events. Results Eighteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Primary analysis demonstrated that low levels of physical activity (OR = 1.35 [1.03 to 1.79]; p = 0.03) and low cardiorespiratory fitness (OR = 4.05 [2.09 to 7.87]; p < 0.01) were significantly associated with the development of MetS, while for sedentary behavior, represented by screen time > 2 hours/day, a significant association was not identified (OR = 1.20 [0.91 to 1.59]; p = 0.20). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the association between low physical activity and MetS was dependent on the use of the accelerometry technique (OR = 2.93 [1.56 to 5.47]; p < 0.01). Screen time > 2 hours/day was significantly associated with MetS only on weekends (OR = 2.05 [1.13 to 3.73]; p = 0.02). With respect to cardiorespiratory fitness, a significant association with MetS was found independent of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurement method. Conclusions Low levels of physical activity, low indices of cardiorespiratory fitness and sedentary behavior, represented by screen time > 2 hours/day on weekends, were significantly associated with the development of MetS in

  16. Correlates of Heart Rate Measures with Incidental Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Laís; Reichert, Felipe F.; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Leicht, Anthony S.; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) levels and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). However, previous studies evaluating PA levels did not discriminate between incidental PA and regular exercise. We hypothesized that incidental PA “per se” would influence cardiac autonomic indices as assessed via HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR) in non-exercisers. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective PA levels, CRF, and cardiac autonomic indices in adult, regular non-exercising female workers. After familiarization with procedures and evaluation of body composition, 21 women completed a submaximal cycling test and evaluation of HRR on four different days. Resting (2-min seated and standing) and ambulatory (4-h) HRV were also recorded. Levels of PA were assessed by accelerometry over five consecutive days (i.e., Wednesday to Sunday). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured as an index of CRF. As reliability was low to moderate for most HR measures, relationships between these and PA and CRF were examined using the 4-day average measures. Significant correlations were identified between post-exercise HRR in the first min with various PA indices (daily moderate PA, daily vigorous PA, and the sum of vigorous and very vigorous daily PA). Additionally, VO2max was significantly correlated to HRV but not to HRR. The current results indicated that CRF was influential in enhancing HRV while incidental or non-exercise based PA was associated with greater autonomic reactivation in adult overweight women. Therefore, both CRF and non-exercise based PA contribute significant but diverse effects on cardiac health. The use of 4-day averages instead of single measures for evaluation of autonomic control of HR may provide a better indication of regular cardiac autonomic function that remains to be refined. PMID:26779034

  17. Lack of Association Between ACE Indel Polymorphism and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Physically Active and Sedentary Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Verlengia, Rozangela; Rebelo, Ana C.; Crisp, Alex H.; Kunz, Vandeni C.; dos Santos Carneiro Cordeiro, Marco A.; Hirata, Mario H.; Crespo Hirata, Rosario D.; Silva, Ester

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polymorphisms at the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), such as the indel [rs1799752] variant in intron 16, have been shown to be associated with aerobic performance of athletes and non-athletes. However, the relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been always demonstrated. Objectives: The relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory fitness was investigated in a sample of young Caucasian Brazilian women. Patients and Methods: This study investigated 117 healthy women (aged 18 to 30 years) who were grouped as physically active (n = 59) or sedentary (n = 58). All subjects performed an incremental exercise test (ramp protocol) on a cycle-ergometer with 20-25 W/min increments. Blood samples were obtained for DNA extraction and to analyze metabolic and hormonal profiles. ACE indel polymorphism was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fragment size analysis. Results: The physically active group had higher values of peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), carbon dioxide output (VCO2), ventilation (VE) and power output than the sedentary group (P < 0.05) at the peak of the exercise test. However, heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) did not differ between groups. There was no relationship between ACE indel polymorphism and cardiorespiratory variables during the test in both the physically active and sedentary groups, even when the dominant (DD vs. D1 + 2) and recessive (2 vs. DI + DD) models of inheritance were tested. Conclusions: These results do not support the concept that the genetic variation at the ACE locus contributes to the cardiorespiratory responses at the peak of exercise test in physically active or sedentary healthy women. This indicates that other factors might mediate these responses, including the physical training level of the women. PMID:25520764

  18. Physical Activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcalá-Sánchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Conchas-Ramirez, Miguel; Brage, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua, México including 64 adult Tarahumara, mean (SD) age 40.7 (12.9) years. Using a combined accelerometer and heart rate sensor, PAEE was measured over three consecutive days and nights and a sub-maximal step test was carried out in order to (1) calibrate heart rate at the individual level and (2) to estimate CRF. Random blood glucose level and resting blood pressure (BP) were measured with standard anthropometrics. Results Mean (SD) PAEE was 71.2 (30.3) kJ kg−1 day−1 and CRF was 36.6 (6.5) mlO2 min−1 kg−1. Mean (SD) glucose was 127.9 (32.4) mg/dl, with 3.3% having diabetes. Mean (SD) systolic and diastolic BP was 122 (20.8) and 82 (14.8) mm Hg, respectively, with 28.1% having hypertension. Mean body mass index was 27.5 (4.2) kg m−2, with 71.9% being overweight. Following adjustment for age and sex, weak inverse associations were observed between PAEE and systolic BP (β = −0.20, P = 0.27) and diastolic BP (β = −0.16, P = 0.23); and between CRF and systolic BP (β = −0.51, P = 0.14) and diastolic BP (β = −0.53, P = 0.06). The inverse associations with glucose were also weak and not statistically significant for neither PAEE (β = −0.01, P = 0.63) nor CRF (β = −0.05, P = 0.27). Conclusions This study suggests high levels of overweight and hypertension in the Tarahumara, and points to fitness and physical activity as potential intervention targets although findings should be confirmed in larger samples. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22308165

  19. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  20. Linking diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity to serum metabolite networks: findings from a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Floegel, A; Wientzek, A; Bachlechner, U; Jacobs, S; Drogan, D; Prehn, C; Adamski, J; Krumsiek, J; Schulze, M B; Pischon, T; Boeing, H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: It is not yet resolved how lifestyle factors and intermediate phenotypes interrelate with metabolic pathways. We aimed to investigate the associations between diet, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity with serum metabolite networks in a population-based study. Methods: The present study included 2380 participants of a randomly drawn subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam. Targeted metabolomics was used to measure 127 serum metabolites. Additional data were available including anthropometric measurements, dietary assessment including intake of whole-grain bread, coffee and cake and cookies by food frequency questionnaire, and objectively measured physical activity energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness in a subsample of 100 participants. In a data-driven approach, Gaussian graphical modeling was used to draw metabolite networks and depict relevant associations between exposures and serum metabolites. In addition, the relationship of different exposure metabolite networks was estimated. Results: In the serum metabolite network, the different metabolite classes could be separated. There was a big group of phospholipids and acylcarnitines, a group of amino acids and C6-sugar. Amino acids were particularly positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. C6-sugar and acylcarnitines were positively associated with obesity and inversely with intake of whole-grain bread. Phospholipids showed opposite associations with obesity and coffee intake. Metabolite networks of coffee intake and obesity were strongly inversely correlated (body mass index (BMI): r=−0.57 and waist circumference: r=−0.59). A strong positive correlation was observed between metabolite networks of BMI and waist circumference (r=0.99), as well as the metabolite networks of cake and cookie intake with cardiorespiratory fitness and intake of whole-grain bread (r=0.52 and r=0

  1. The influence of active and passive smoking on the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of active and passive smoking on cardiorespiratory responses in asymptomatic adults during a sub-maximal-exertion incremental test. Methods The participants (n = 43) were divided into three different groups: active smokers (n = 14; aged 36.5 ± 8 years), passive smokers (n = 14; aged 34.6 ± 11.9 years) and non-smokers (n = 15; aged 30 ± 8.1 years). They all answered the Test for Nicotine Dependence and underwent anthropometric evaluation, spirometry and ergospirometry according to the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Results VO2max differed statistically between active and non-smokers groups (p < 0.001) and between non-smokers and passive group (p=0.022). However, there was no difference between the passive and active smokers groups (p=0.053). Negative and significant correlations occurred between VO2max and age (r = - 0.401, p = 0.044), percentage of body fat (r = - 0.429, p = 0.011), and waist circumference (WC) (r = - 0.382, p = 0.025). Conclusion VO2max was significantly higher in non-smokers compared to active smokers and passive smokers. However, the VO2max of passive smokers did not differ from active smokers. PMID:25009739

  2. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  3. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  4. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  5. Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in childrenand adolescents.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa; Mota, Jorge; Oliveira, Jose; Ribeiro, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with 60 min · day(-1) in MVPA (OR = 2.612; 95%confidence interval [CI] = 1.614-4.225) in comparison with those who do not. Participation in competitive sports at club levels increased the chances of being fit (OR = 13.483; 95%CI = 4.560-39.864), independently of MVPA levels. There were positive and significant trends in CRF and objectively measured PA across the levels of engagement in competitive sports (P < 0.05). Concluding, participation in competitive sports at club level is more effective than other organised or non-organised sports to reach healthier levels of CRF and recommend levels of MVPA.

  6. A prospective study of cardiorespiratory fitness and breast cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Adams, Swann A.; Hébert, James R.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity may protect against breast cancer. Few prospective studies have evaluated breast cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective marker of physiologic response to physical activity habits. Methods We examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and risk of death from breast cancer in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Women (N=14,811), aged 20 to 83 years with no prior breast cancer history, received a preventive medical examination at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, TX, between 1970 and 2001. Mortality surveillance was completed through December 31, 2003. Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified as maximal treadmill exercise test duration and was categorized for analysis as low (lowest 20% of exercise duration), moderate (middle 40%), and high (upper 40%). At baseline, all participants were able to complete the exercise test to at least 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Results A total of 68 breast cancer deaths occurred during follow-up (mean=16 years). Age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rates per 10,000 woman-years were 4.4, 3.2, and 1.8 for low, moderate, and high cardiorespiratory fitness groups, respectively (trend P = 0.008). After further controlling for body mass index, smoking, drinking, chronic conditions, abnormal exercise electrocardiogram responses, family history of breast cancer, oral contraceptive use, and estrogen use, hazard ratios (95% CI) for breast cancer mortality across incremental cardiorespiratory fitness categories were 1.00 (referent), 0.67 (0.35–1.26), 0.45 (0.22–0.95); trend P = 0.04. Conclusions These results indicate that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with a reduced risk of dying from breast cancer in women. PMID:19276861

  7. Validity of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Danish cohort 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations'.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Lene; Olsen, Anja; Petersen, Kristina Elin Nielsen; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha Linn; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjaer, Jytte

    2017-03-07

    Valid assessments of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is essential in epidemiological studies to define dose-response relationship for e.g. formulating thorough recommendations of an appropriate pattern of PA to maintain good health. The aim of this study was to validate the Danish step test, the physical activity questionnaire Active-Q and self-rated fitness against directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). A population based subsample (n=125) was included from the 'Diet, Cancer and Health - Next Generations' (DCH-NG) cohort which is under establishment. Validity coefficients, which express the correlation between measured and 'true' exposure, were calculated and misclassification across categories was evaluated. The validity of the Danish step test was moderate (women: r=0.66, and men: r=0.56), however, men were systematically underestimated (43% misclassification). When validating the questionnaire-derived measures of PA, leisure time physical activity was not correlated with VO2 max. Positive correlations were found for sports overall, but these were only significant for men: total hours per week of sports (r=0.26), MET-hours per week of sports (r=0.28) and vigorous sports (0.28) alone were positively correlated with VO2 max. Finally, the percentage of misclassification was low for self-rated fitness (women: 9% and men: 13%). Thus, self-rated fitness was found to be a superior method to the Danish step test, as well as being less cost prohibitive and more practical than the VO2 max method. Finally, even if correlations were low, they support the potential for questionnaire outcomes, particularly sports, vigorous sports and self-rated fitness to be used to estimate CRF. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Commuting Distance, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Allen, Peg; Schootman, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited evidence exists on themetabolic and cardiovascul ar risk correlates of commuting by vehicle, a habitual form of sedentary behavior. Purpose To examine the association between commuting distance, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and metabolic risk indicators. Methods This cross-sectional study included 4297 adults who had a comprehensive medical examination between 2000 and 2007 and geocoded home and work addresses in 12 Texas metropolitan counties. Commuting distance was measured along the road network. Outcome variables included weekly MET-minutes of self-reported physical activity, CRF, BMI, waist circumference, triglycerides, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and continuously measured metabolic syndrome. Outcomes were also dichotomized using established cut-points. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, and history of high cholesterol, as well as BMI and weekly MET-minutes of physical activity and CRF (for BMI and metabolic risk models). Analyses were conducted in 2011. Results Commuting distance was negatively associated with physical activity and CRF and positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and continuous metabolic score in fully adjusted linear regression models. Logistic regression analyses yielded similar associations; however, of the models with metabolic risk indicators as outcomes, only the associations with elevated blood pressure remained significant after adjustment for physical activity and CRF. Conclusions Commuting distance was adversely associated with physical activity, CRF, adiposity, and indicators of metabolic risk. PMID:22608372

  9. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  10. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).

    PubMed

    Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical activity categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical activity guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p <0.05) but additively only improved R(2) by 2%. There was a significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) subjects achieved higher CRF for a given level of physical activity compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men

  11. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity.

  12. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Hand, Gregory A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of physical activity and incidence of physician-diagnosed depression have been limited to a single estimate of self-reported physical activity exposure, despite follow-up periods lasting many years. Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective marker of habitual physical activity, and incident depression complaints made to a physician. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at four clinic visits between 1971 and 2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used to objectively measure cumulative physical activity exposure in cohorts of 7936 men and 1261 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who did not complain of depression at their first clinic visit in 1971–2003. Data were analyzed in August 2010. Results Across subsequent visits, there were 446 incident cases in men and 153 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, BMI at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each 1-minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately 1 half-MET) between ages 51 and 55 years in men and ages 53 and 56 years in women, increased the odds of incident depression complaints by approximately 2% and 9.5%, respectively. The increased odds remained significant but were attenuated to 1.3% and 5.4% after further adjustment at each visit for smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, anxiety, and sleep problems. Conclusions Maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during late middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates, helps protect against the onset of depression complaints made to a physician. PMID:22992353

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Unintentional Nonfatal Injury Among the United States Air Force Active Duty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    physiological co- conditions; geographic morbidities; nutritional status; location of AFB; time of fatigue ; psychosocial & cultural day/week; assigned...from cycle ergometry fitness evaluations for the duration of the pregnancy and six months postpartum . All confirmed cases of any injury-related...Air Force Special Operations Command AFSPC Air Force Space Command ASIS Abbreviated Severity of Injury Scale AMC Air Mobility Command AMSA Army

  14. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and obesity with metabolic syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese midlife women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have simultaneously examined physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the independent roles of both PA and CRF with MS are less firmly established. The combined contributions of PA and CRF with MS are less studied, particularly among Chinese women. There is uncertainty over the extent to which metabolically healthy but overweight/obese individuals have a higher CRF level. Methods The sample included 184 Chinese women aged 55 to 69 years with available metabolic data and lifestyle factors. PA was assessed by self-reported questionnaire; CRF was assessed by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) during a symptom-limited maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Metabolically healthy/abnormal was defined on the basis of absence or presence of MS. Overweight was defined as a body mass index (BMI) of ≥ 23 kg/m2 and obese was defined as a BMI of ≥ 25 kg/m2. Results The prevalence of MS was 21.7%. PA was inversely associated with the prevalence of MS after adjustment for age, BMI, and dietary total calories intake, but the association was eliminated after further adjustment for CRF. CRF was inversely associated with the prevalence of MS independent of age, BMI, and dietary total calories intake, and the association remained significant after further adjustment for PA. In the PA and CRF combined analysis, compared with those in the lowest tertile of PA (inactive) and lowest tertile of CRF (unfit), the OR (95%CI) of having MS was 0.31 (0.09–1.06) for subjects in the higher tertiles (2nd–3rd) of PA (active) but were unfit, 0.23 (0.06–0.88) for subjects who were inactive but in the higher tertiles (2nd–3rd) of CRF (fit), and 0.14 (0.04–0.45) for subjects who were active and fit. Metabolically healthy but overweight/obese subjects had a higher CRF level than their metabolically abnormal and overweight/obese peers. However, the difference did not reach statistically significance

  15. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among U.S. youth aged 12-15 years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Gahche, Jaime; Fakhouri, Tala; Carroll, Dianna D; Burt, Vicki L; Wang, Chia-Yih; Fulton, Janet E

    2014-05-01

    Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 1999-2004 and the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey, 2012 In 2012, about 42% of U.S. youth aged 12-15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness did not differ by race and Hispanic origin, or by family income-to-poverty ratio. The percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness decreased as weight status increased. The percentage of youth aged 12-15 who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness decreased from 52.4% in 1999-2000 to 42.2% in 2012. Physical fitness has been defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity" (1). Cardiorespiratory fitness is one component of physical fitness and is defined as the "ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity and to eliminate fatigue products after supplying fuel" (1). Cardiorespiratory fitness is most often measured by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), which is the maximum capacity of the body to transport and use oxygen during physical activity (2). This report presents the most recent national data on the percentage of youth who had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are based on standards that are age- and sex-specific and established based on how fit children need to be for good health.

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Accelerated Cognitive Decline With Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Growing evidence suggests that self-reported physical activity accounts for variability in cognitive function among older adults, and aerobic intervention may improve cognitive function in this population. However, much less is known about the longitudinal association between direct measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function across the life span. The present study examined the prospective association between symptom-limited maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and longitudinal performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Methods. Up to 1,400 participants aged 19–94 years underwent initial VO2max assessment and completed subsequent tests of memory, attention, perceptuomotor speed, language, and executive function, in addition to cognitive screening measures, on up to six occasions (mean, M = 2; standard deviation, SD = 1) for up to 18 years (M = 7, SD = 3). Mixed-effects regression models were adjusted for demographic, biomedical, and behavioral confounders. Results. Analyses revealed significant longitudinal associations between baseline VO2max and trajectory of performance on multiple measures of verbal and visual memory, as well as on a cognitive screening test (all ps < .05). Individuals with lower VO2max demonstrated accelerated trajectories of cognitive decline over time. Conclusions. Baseline cardiorespiratory fitness is related to longitudinal neuropsychological performance, and memory appears to be a particularly vulnerable domain. Evidence that aerobic fitness is associated with accelerated cognitive decline emphasizes the possible importance of behavioral interventions to optimize cognitive aging over time. PMID:24192540

  18. Physical inactivity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, R. W.; Goldman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We examined the associations among physical activity, neurological disability, and cardiorespiratory fitness in two studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Method Study 1 included 25 women with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) who undertook an incremental exercise test for measuring peak oxygen (V̇O2peak) consumption, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ). Study 2 was a follow-up of Study 1 and included 24 women with RRMS who completed the self-reported Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), undertook an incremental exercise test, wore an accelerometer during a 7-day period, and completed the GLTEQ. Results Study 1 indicated that V̇O2peak was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.69) and GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.63) even after controlling for age and MS duration. Study 2 indicated that V̇O2peak was significantly correlated with accelerometer counts (pr = 0.50), GLTEQ scores (pr = 0.59), and EDSS scores (pr = −0.43) even after controlling for age and MS duration; there was a moderate partial correlation between accelerometer counts and EDSS scores (pr = −0.43). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that both accelerometer counts (β = 0.32) and EDSS scores (β = −0.40) had statistically significant associations with V̇O2peak. Conclusion The findings indicate that physical inactivity and neurological disability might represent independent risk factors for reduced levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. PMID:21108624

  19. Association between cardiorespiratory fitness and body fat in girls

    PubMed Central

    Minatto, Giseli; de Sousa, Thiago Ferreira; de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto Gomes; Ribeiro, Roberto Régis; Santos, Keila Donassolo; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with excess body fat, considering the sexual maturation and economic level in female adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional, epidemiological study of 1223 adolescents (10-17 years) from the public school system of Cascavel, PR, Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed the self-assessed sexual maturation level (prepubertal, pubertal and post-pubertal), the economic level (high and low) through a questionnaire and body fat (normal and high) through triceps and subscapular skinfolds. The 20-meter back-and-forth test was applied to estimate maximum oxygen consumption. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed according to reference criteria and considered low when the minimum health criterion for age and sex was not met. Chi-square test and logistic regression were applied, with a significance level of 5%. Results: The prevalence of low cardiorespiratory fitness was 51.3%, being associated with all study variables (p<0.001). At the crude analysis, adolescents with high body fat were associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness, when compared to those with normal body fat (OR=2.76; 95%CI: 2.17-3.52). After adjustment by sexual maturation, this association remained valid and showed an effect that was 1.8-fold higher (95%CI: 1.39-2.46) and after adjusting by economic level, the effect was 1.9-fold higher (95%CI: 1.45-2.61). Conclusions: Approximately half of the assessed girls showed unsatisfactory levels of cardiorespiratory fitness for health, which was associated with high body fat, regardless of sexual maturation level and economic level. Effective public health measures are needed, with particular attention to high-risk groups. PMID:27131896

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Erus, Guray; Battapady, Harsha; Bryan, R. Nick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower odds of having unfavorable brain MRI findings. Methods: We studied 565 healthy, middle-aged, black and white men and women in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study. The fitness measure was symptom-limited maximal treadmill test duration (Maxdur); brain MRI was measured 5 years later. Brain MRI measures were analyzed as means and as proportions below the 15th percentile (above the 85th percentile for white matter abnormal tissue volume). Results: Per 1-minute-higher Maxdur, the odds ratio for having less whole brain volume was 0.85 (p = 0.04) and for having low white matter integrity was 0.80 (p = 0.02), adjusted for age, race, sex, clinic, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, education, blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, and lung function (plus intracranial volume for white matter integrity). No significant associations were observed between Maxdur and abnormal tissue volume or blood flow in white matter. Findings were similar for associations with continuous brain MRI measures. Conclusions: Greater physical fitness was associated with more brain volume and greater white matter integrity measured 5 years later in middle-aged adults. PMID:25957331

  1. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Hippocampal Volume and Frequency of Forgetting in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Amanda N.; McAuley, Edward; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Mailey, Emily L.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; White, Siobhan M.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to extend our earlier work to determine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with the frequency of memory problems via its effects on the hippocampus and spatial working memory. We hypothesized that age, sex, education, body composition, and physical activity were direct determinants of fitness which, in turn, influenced frequency of forgetting indirectly through hippocampal volume and spatial working memory. Method We conducted assessments of hippocampal volume, spatial working memory, frequency of forgetting, BMI, physical activity, demographic characteristics, and cardiorespiratory fitness in 158 older adults (M age = 66.49). Path analyses within a covariance modeling framework were used to examine relationships among these constructs. Results Sex, age, BMI, and education were all significant determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesized path models testing the effects of fitness on frequency of forgetting through hippocampal volume and accuracy and speed of spatial working memory all fit the data well. Conclusions Our findings suggest that older adults with higher levels of fitness show greater preservation of hippocampal volume which, in turn, is associated with more accurate and faster spatial memory and fewer episodes of forgetting. Given the proportion of older adults reporting memory problems, it is necessary to determine whether improvements in fitness brought about by physical activity interventions can result in subsequent attenuation of memory problems or potentially improvements in memory. PMID:21500917

  2. Exercise Test Performance Reveals Evidence of the Cardiorespiratory Fitness Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Billinger, Sandra A; Vidoni, Eric D; Morris, Jill K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Positive physiologic and cognitive responses to aerobic exercise have resulted in a proposed cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness hypothesis in which fitness gains drive changes leading to cognitive benefit. The purpose of this study was to directly assess the CR fitness hypothesis. Using data from an aerobic exercise trial, we examined individuals who completed cardiopulmonary and cognitive testing at baseline and 26 weeks. Change in cognitive test performance was not related to CR fitness change (r(2) = .06, p = .06). However, in the subset of individuals who gave excellent effort during exercise testing, change in cognitive test performance was related to CR fitness change (r(2) = .33, p < .01). This was largely due to change in the cognitive domain of attention (r(2) = .36, p < .01). The magnitude of change was not explained by duration of exercise. Our findings support further investigation of the CR fitness hypothesis and mechanisms by which physiologic adaptation may drive cognitive change.

  3. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness and training in quadriplegics and paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    1986-01-01

    With the growing interest in exercise and sport and the significance of cardiovascular disease in the spinal cord injured population, the role of endurance training in improving cardiovascular health is of particular interest. Ordinary daily activities of those with spinal cord injury are usually not adequate to maintain cardiovascular fitness, and lack of participation in a regular activity programme may result in a debilitative cycle. As this occurs, there is a reduction in functional work capacity which may limit independence, and the reduction in cardiovascular fitness may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Work capacity in those with spinal cord injury is limited by loss of functional muscle mass and sympathetic control. Sympathetic nervous system impairment limits control of regional blood flow and cardiac output, and maximum heart rate following cervical lesions may be reduced to 110 to 130 beats/min. However, endurance training in quadriplegics and paraplegics can elicit improvements in exercise performance similar to those observed in able-bodied individuals. Review of 13 cardiorespiratory training studies involving spinal cord injured subjects revealed average improvements of 20% in VO2max and 40% in physical work capacity after 4 to 20 weeks of training. Based upon the positive results of these studies, the general endurance training guidelines for the normal population appear to also be appropriate for the spinal cord injured population. These guidelines can be followed during participation in a number of different activities and sports including wheelchair pushing, arm crank ergometry, aerobic swimming, ambulation training, canoeing and wheelchair basketball. There is no evidence that intense training and competition is harmful, but special areas of risk as a result of impairments in sensation, cardiovascular function, autonomic function and temperature regulation must be considered. The long term benefits of endurance training in those with

  5. Efficacy of multimodal exercise-based rehabilitation on physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and patient-reported outcomes in cancer survivors: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Midtgaard, J.; Christensen, J. F.; Tolver, A.; Jones, L. W.; Uth, J.; Rasmussen, B.; Tang, L.; Adamsen, L.; Rørth, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior and impaired cardiovascular reserve capacity are common late effects of cancer therapy emphasizing the need for effective strategies to increase physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors. We examined the efficacy of a 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program on self-reported PA, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), strength, and patient-reported outcomes. Patients and methods Two hundred fourteen post-treatment cancer survivors were randomly assigned to a 12-month rehabilitation program consisting of individual (x3) and group-based (x6) counseling in combination with once weekly high-intensity group-based exercise training (the Copenhagen Physical Activity after Cancer Treatment, PACT; n = 108) or to a health evaluation program (HE, n = 106). Study outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results After 12 months, the percentage of patients reporting meeting PA goal behavior (≥3 h/week) was significantly increased in the PACT group versus the HE group (70.4% versus 43.4%, P = 0.001). Repeated measures analyses indicated a statistically significant improvement in VO2peak (l min−1) in favour of PACT (treatment effect ratio = 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.07; P = 0.032). Significant between group differences were also observed for strength (P < 0.001), depression (P = 0.020) and mental health (P = 0.040). Conclusion A 12-month exercise-based rehabilitation program is an effective strategy to promote PA and improve VO2peak in cancer survivors. PMID:23704198

  6. How Much Walking Is Needed to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness? An Examination of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Duncan, Glenn E.; Limacher, Marian C.; Martin, Anthony D.; Perri, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) indicated that two approaches can be used to achieve the activity threshold needed to derive health benefits. Individuals may engage in either 150 min (2 hr 30 min) of moderate intensity activity (e.g., moderate-paced walking), or 75 min (1 hr…

  7. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness and laboratory stress: a meta-regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Erica M; Dishman, Rod K

    2006-01-01

    We performed a meta-regression analysis of 73 studies that examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness mitigates cardiovascular responses during and after acute laboratory stress in humans. The cumulative evidence indicates that fitness is related to slightly greater reactivity, but better recovery. However, effects varied according to several study features and were smallest in the better controlled studies. Fitness did not mitigate integrated stress responses such as heart rate and blood pressure, which were the focus of most of the studies we reviewed. Nonetheless, potentially important areas, particularly hemodynamic and vascular responses, have been understudied. Women, racial/ethnic groups, and cardiovascular patients were underrepresented. Randomized controlled trials, including naturalistic studies of real-life responses, are needed to clarify whether a change in fitness alters putative stress mechanisms linked with cardiovascular health.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness in urban adolescent girls: associations with race and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Gammon, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Kazanis, Anamaria; Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B

    2017-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness affords health benefits to youth. Among females, weight-relative fitness declines during puberty and is lower among African American (AA) than Caucasian girls. Data indicate racial differences in pubertal timing and tempo, yet the interactive influence of puberty and race on fitness, and the role of physical activity (PA) in these associations have not been examined. Thus, independent and interactive associations of race and pubertal development with fitness in adolescent girls, controlling for PA were examined. Girls in grades 5-8 (n = 1011; Caucasian = 25.2%, AA = 52.3%, Other Race group = 22.5%) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (pubertal stage assessment) and Fitnessgram® Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test (cardiorespiratory fitness assessment). PA was assessed by accelerometry. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine associations among race, pubertal stage and fitness, controlling for vigorous PA, AA, and pubertally advanced girls demonstrated lower fitness than Caucasian and less mature counterparts. Puberty and race remained significantly associated with fitness after controlling for vigorous PA. The interaction effect of race and puberty on fitness was non-significant. The pubertal influence on fitness is observed among AA adolescents. Associations between fitness and race/puberty appear to be independent of each other and vigorous PA. Pubertally advanced AA girls represent a priority group for fitness interventions.

  10. Contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness to the obesity paradox.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Paul A; Beavers, Kristen M

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been overlooked as a potential modifier of the inverse association between obesity and mortality (the so-called obesity paradox), observed in patients with known or suspected cardiovascular (CV) disease. Evidence from five observational cohort studies of 30,104 patients (87% male) with CV disease indicates that CRF significantly alters the obesity paradox. There is general agreement across studies that the obesity paradox persists among patients with low CRF, regardless of whether adiposity is assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, or percentage body fat. However, among patients with high CRF, risk of all-cause mortality is lowest for the overweight category in some, but not all, studies, suggesting that higher levels of fitness may modify the relationship between body fatness and survival in patients manifesting an obesity paradox. Further study is needed to better characterize the joint contribution of CRF and obesity on mortality in diverse populations.

  11. Validation of a cardiorespiratory fitness assessment for firefighters.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Anthony T; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K; Cowen, Tiffany L; Huq, Mona B Sayedul; Delisle, Alexis D; Stopka, Christine B; Tillman, Mark D

    2014-10-01

    Currently, a submaximal protocol is used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters by estimating their true aerobic capacity (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max); however, this submaximal test has not been cross-validated among firefighters. Thirty firefighters (85% male, 15% female), completed the submaximal protocol and the maximal (Bruce) treadmill protocol on separate occasions. Pearson's correlation analyses between the submaximal and Bruce protocol revealed a significant moderate positive correlation (r = 0.635, p = 0.005). The range of mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values and SDs produced from the submaximal and maximal protocols varied greatly (35.4-50.9 vs. 28.6-58.4 ml·kg·min, and SD of 3.91 vs. 7.22, respectively). The submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test underestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the majority of firefighters (72.4%) and overestimated the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in the remainder of firefighters. Participants with a higher body fat percentage were more likely (p = 0.0157) to have an overestimated true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max than those with a lower-body fat percentage. Our results indicate the current submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 test used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in firefighters is an improvement over previous protocols. However, our findings also show that the accuracy of this submaximal test for predicting the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in firefighters is questionable, and may not identify firefighters who possess substandard cardiorespiratory fitness, particularly in those with a higher percentage of body fat. Thus, the results of this study indicate that improvements to the current Fire Service Joint Management, Wellness & Fitness Initiative (WFI) V[Combining Dot Above]O2 assessment is still needed to accurately reflect the true V[Combining Dot Above]O2max of individual firefighters.

  12. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Smoking-Related and Total Cancer Mortality in Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Do.; Blair, Steven N.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and smoking-related, nonsmoking-related, and total cancer mortality, following 25,892 men age 30-87 years who had a preventive medical evaluation that included a maximal exercise test and self-reported health habits. Results indicated that cardiorespiratory fitness may have provided…

  13. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness, cardiovascular workload and risk factors among cleaners; a cluster randomized worksite intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health

  15. Children Are Fit but Not Active!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Neil

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between exercise, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Data is presented from a study of 300 British children which indicated surprisingly low levels of physical activity, with significant differences occurring along age and gender lines. (IAH)

  16. Assessment of Cardiorespiratory Fitness of College Aged Students in Large Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vehrs, Pat R.; George, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Most colleges and universities provide physical fitness classes plus courses teaching basic concepts of healthy living. Such courses empower students to learn physical fitness assessment, make wise lifetime physical fitness decisions, and design customized exercise programs. The paper examines types of cardiorespiratory fitness testing, explaining…

  17. Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Coronary Heart Disease in Asymptomatic Men

    PubMed Central

    Gander, Jennifer C.; Sui, Xuemei; Hébert, James R.; Hazlett, Linda J.; Cai, Bo; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) while controlling for an individual’s Framingham Risk Score (FRS)–predicted CHD risk. Patients and Methods The study included 29,854 men from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, who received a baseline examination from January 1, 1979, to December 31, 2002. Coronary heart disease events included self-reported myocardial infarction or revascularization or CHD death. Multivariable survival analysis investigated the association between CRF, FRS, and CHD. Cardiorespiratory fitness was analyzed as both a continuous and a categorical variable. The population was stratified by “low” and “moderate or high” risk of CHD to test for differences in the FRS stratified by CRF. Results Compared with men without incident CHD, men with incident CHD were older (mean age, 51.6 years vs 44.6 years), had lower average maximally achieved fitness (10.9 metabolic equivalent of tasks vs 12.0 metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]), and were more likely to have moderate or high 10-year CHD risk (P<.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness, defined as maximal METs, exhibited a 20% lower risk of CHD (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.77–0.83) for each 1-unit MET increase. Among men in the low CRF strata, individuals with moderate or high 10-year CHD risk, according to the FRS, had a higher CHD risk (hazard ratio, 6.55; 95% CI, 3.64–11.82) than men with low CHD risk according to the FRS. Conclusion Clinicians should promote physical activity to improve CRF so as to reduce CHD risk, even to patients with otherwise low CHD risk. PMID:26434963

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the influence of amyloid on cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Stephanie A.; Boots, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Rodrigo P.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Einerson, Jean; Korcarz, Claudia E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Christian, Bradley T.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Stein, James H.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. Results There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p= .041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p= .025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p <.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden—i.e., increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42—individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. Conclusion In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. PMID:26581795

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Influence of Amyloid on Cognition.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Einerson, Jean; Korcarz, Claudia E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Christian, Bradley T; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Stein, James H; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD.

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Reis, Jared; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with better cognitive function 25 years later. Methods: We studied 2,747 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study of black and white men and women aged 18 to 30 years at recruitment in 1985–1986 (baseline year 0). Symptom-limited maximal treadmill test durations at years 0 and 20 provided measures of CRF. Cognitive tests at year 25 measured verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST]), and executive function (Stroop Test). Results: Per minute of baseline CRF, the RAVLT was 0.12 words recalled higher (standard error [SE] = 0.03, p < 0.0001), the DSST was 0.92 digits higher (SE = 0.13, p < 0.0001), and the Stroop Test score was 0.52 lower (better performance, SE = 0.11, p < 0.0001), after accounting for race, sex, age, education, and clinical center. Compared with the lowest quartile of CRF, each cognitive test was 21% to 34% of an SD better in the highest CRF quartile. Further adjustment for lifestyle and clinical measures attenuated coefficients for RAVLT and DSST slightly, while the coefficient predicting the Stroop Test lost more than half its value (p = 0.07). Analysis in the subset of 1,957 participants who also completed the year-20 treadmill test showed that 20-year change in CRF was positively associated only with DSST (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Better verbal memory and faster psychomotor speed at ages 43 to 55 years were clearly associated with better CRF 25 years earlier. PMID:24696506

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness predicts insulin action and secretion in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Filip J; Anderson, Martin; Ekblom, Björn; Nyström, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Long-term cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus are inversely correlated. Here, we examined the relationships between peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)peak), on the one hand, and glucose infusion rate at rest (GIR(rest)) and during exercise (GIR(exercise)), as well as insulin secretion (both the early and late phases of response [area under the curve {AUC}(insulin)]), on the other. Eight male and 4 female healthy, lean, nonsmoking volunteers were recruited. The VO(2)peak was measured during graded exercise on a cycle ergometer until exhaustion was reached. The GIR(rest) and GIR(exercise) were determined using a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and insulin secretion at rest was evaluated with an intravenous glucose tolerance test. The VO(2)peak correlated positively to GIR(rest) (r = 0.81, P = .001) and GIR(exercise) (r = 0.87, P < .001) and negatively to AUC(insulin) (r = -0.64, P = .03). The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) during insulin infusion was positively correlated to GIR(rest) (r = 0.83, P < .001) and GIR(exercise) (r = 0.86, P < .01) and negatively correlated to both the early insulin response (r = -0.86, P < .0001) and AUC(insulin) (r = -0.87, P = .001). The VO(2)peak accounted for 45% of the variability in RER (R(2) = 0.45, P = .035). In this healthy population, CRF and RER were highly correlated to insulin sensitivity and secretion, as well as to the ability to alter the substrate being oxidized during exercise. These findings highlight the importance of good CRF to maintaining normal insulin action.

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    PubMed

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m(-2)) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO2: 150 mmHg, FIO2: 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO2: 117 mmHg, FIO2: 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2peak), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min(-1) (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min(-1) (+26.1%)] and peak O2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM (p < 0.05). Although the 5-wk HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C (p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C (p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either

  3. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K.; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m−2) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO2: 150 mmHg, FIO2: 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO2: 117 mmHg, FIO2: 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake (V·O2peak), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in V·O2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min−1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min−1 (+26.1%)] and peak O2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM (p < 0.05). Although the 5-wk HIIT led to significant improvements in the ratios of TC/HDL-C (p = 0.035) and TG/HDL-C (p = 0.027), no significant group effects were found on the serum variables. Further, no significant changes in body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  5. Visualization of multivariate physiological data for cardiorespiratory fitness assessment through ECG (R-peak) analysis.

    PubMed

    Munoz, J E; Bermudez I Badia, S; Rubio, E; Cameirao, M S

    2015-01-01

    The recent rise and popularization of wearable and ubiquitous fitness sensors has increased our ability to generate large amounts of multivariate data for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) assessment. Consequently, there is a need to find new methods to visualize and interpret CRF data without overwhelming users. Current visualizations of CRF data are mainly tabular or in the form of stacked univariate plots. Moreover, normative data differs significantly between gender, age and activity, making data interpretation yet more challenging. Here we present a CRF assessment tool based on radar plots that provides a way to represent multivariate cardiorespiratory data from electrocardiographic (ECG) signals within its normative context. To that end, 5 parameters are extracted from raw ECG data using R-peak information: mean HR, SDNN, RMSSD, HRVI and the maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max. Our tool processes ECG data and produces a visualization of the data in a way that it is easy to compare between the performance of the user and normative data. This type of representation can assist both health professionals and non-expert users in the interpretation of CRF data.

  6. Association between bone mineralization, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young Australian men.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    The critical age for attainment of peak bone mineralization is however 20-30 yr, but few studies have investigated bone mineralization and its association with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young men. This study aimed to investigate relationships between age, bone mineral measurements, body composition measurements, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in a group of young healthy Australian men. Thirty-five healthy men aged 18-25 yr had anthropometric measures, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed. Bone mineral content was significantly associated with height, body mass and lean mass, and bone mineral density positively correlated with lean mass and body mass. Bone mineral measurements did not correlate with fat mass, percentage of fat mass, or cardiorespiratory fitness level. Age was directly correlated with total body mass, body fat, and percentage of fat mass. Body mineral measurements correlated with lean mass but not with fat mass or with cardiorespiratory fitness in this group of young healthy men. Positive association between body fat and age in such young group suggests that more studies with young men are warranted and may help inform strategies to optimize increase in bone mineral measurements.

  7. White matter microstructure mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Verstynen, Timothy D; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Wong, Chelsea; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha; Phillips, Siobhan M; Mailey, Emily; Ehlers, Diane; Olson, Erin; Wojcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    White matter structure declines with advancing age and has been associated with a decline in memory and executive processes in older adulthood. Yet, recent research suggests that higher physical activity and fitness levels may be associated with less white matter degeneration in late life, although the tract-specificity of this relationship is not well understood. In addition, these prior studies infrequently associate measures of white matter microstructure to cognitive outcomes, so the behavioral importance of higher levels of white matter microstructural organization with greater fitness levels remains a matter of speculation. Here we tested whether cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) levels were associated with white matter microstructure and whether this relationship constituted an indirect pathway between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in two large, cognitively and neurologically healthy older adult samples. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to determine white matter microstructure in two separate groups: Experiment 1, N=113 (mean age=66.61) and Experiment 2, N=154 (mean age=65.66). Using a voxel-based regression approach, we found that higher VO2max was associated with higher fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter microstructure, in a diverse network of white matter tracts, including the anterior corona radiata, anterior internal capsule, fornix, cingulum, and corpus callosum (PFDR-corrected<.05). This effect was consistent across both samples even after controlling for age, gender, and education. Further, a statistical mediation analysis revealed that white matter microstructure within these regions, among others, constituted a significant indirect path between VO2max and spatial working memory performance. These results suggest that greater aerobic fitness levels are associated with higher levels of white matter microstructural organization, which may, in turn, preserve spatial memory performance in older adulthood.

  8. The HALO submaximal treadmill protocol to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children and youth: a proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Peter; Adamo, Kristi B; Colley, Rachel C

    2012-04-01

    Many limitations exist with completing cardiorespiratory fitness testing in obese children. The aim of this study was to determine if the new Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group's (HALO's) submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing protocol for obese children and youth provides a comparable estimate of peak oxygen uptake to that measured using validated maximal and submaximal, equation-based protocols in the obese pediatric population. A group of obese children (n = 21; all ≥95th body mass index percentile; aged 10-17 years) completed 3 exercise testing protocols. Testing was completed as part of an ongoing cohort study and 2 submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests were completed, in randomized order, during a second visit. Significant correlations were found between observed peak oxygen uptake (mL·min(-1)) and predicted peak oxygen uptake for both the HALO (r = 0.75, p = 0.001) and Nemeth (r = 0.66, p = 0.001) submaximal protocols. A similar correlation was found, after accounting for body mass, between measured and predicted HALO peak oxygen uptake (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) values (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). HALO predicted peak oxygen uptake values showed a significant correlation when plotted against the measured values (r = 0.99). A Bland-Altman analysis found agreement between the maximal and HALO submaximal protocols (mean bias = -201.75 mL·min(-1)). The significant relationships found between estimates of peak oxygen uptake from the HALO submaximal protocol and measures of peak oxygen uptake during maximal cardiorespiratory testing support the use of the HALO submaximal protocol as a valid measure to estimate maximal cardiorespiratory fitness within the obese pediatric population. Given the proof of principle goal of this study, future research in the obese, pediatric population is encouraged to confirm the generalizability of the protocol.

  9. Cardiorespiratory Fitness as a Predictor of Dementia Mortality in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Sui, Xuemei; Laditka, James N.; Church, Timothy S.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hussey, Jim; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that physical activity may reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. However, few reports have examined the physical activity-dementia association with objective measures of physical activity. Cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter called fitness) is an objective reproducible measure of recent physical activity habits. Purpose: We sought to determine whether fitness is associated with lower risk for dementia mortality in women and men. Methods: We followed 14,811 women and 45,078 men, ages 20-88 at baseline, for an average of 17 years. All participants completed a preventive health examination at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas during 1970-2001. Fitness was measured with a maximal treadmill exercise test, with results expressed in maximal metabolic equivalents (METs). The National Death Index identified deaths through 2003. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between baseline fitness and dementia mortality, adjusting for age, sex, examination year, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, abnormal ECGs, and health status. Results: There were 164 deaths with dementia listed as the cause during 1,012,125 person-years of exposure. Each 1-MET increase in fitness was associated with a 14% lower adjusted risk of dementia mortality (95% confidence interval, CI 6%-22%). With fitness expressed in tertiles, adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for those in the middle and high fitness groups suggest their risk of dementia mortality was less than half that of those in the lowest fitness group (respectively: HR 0.44, CI 0.26-0.74; HR 0.49, CI 0.26-0.90). Conclusion: Greater fitness was associated with lower risk of mortality from dementia in a large cohort of men and women. PMID:21796048

  10. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Flexible Modulation of Cognitive Control in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Cohen, Neal J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on the modulation of cognitive control was assessed in preadolescent children separated into higher- and lower-fit groups. Participants completed compatible and incompatible stimulus-response conditions of a modified flanker task, consisting of congruent and incongruent arrays, while ERPs and task…

  12. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  13. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Dash, Chiranjeev; Kim, Bang Hyun; Hicks, Jennifer C.; Makambi, Kepher; Hagberg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. Pooled baseline data on 170 African- American women from two exercise trials were examined. Metabolic syndrome was defined as at least three of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high triglycerides. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was determined using the Bruce treadmill protocol and categorized as: Very Low (VLCRF < 18 mL·kg−1 ·min−1), Low (LCRF = 18.0 – 22.0 mL·kg−1 ·min−1), and Moderate (MCRF > 22.0 mL·kg−1 ·min−1). Associations of metabolic syndrome with cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and linear regression. VO2peak was significantly lower in the VLCRF compared to the MCRF group. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL among overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. In fully adjusted models, higher waist circumference and triglycerides were associated with lower VO2peak levels (P < 0.01) and higher HDL-C was associated with higher VO2peak levels (P = 0.03). Overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women with very low cardiorespiratory fitness are more likely to have metabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and unhealthier levels of certain metabolic syndrome components than women with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26837934

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Metabolic Syndrome in Postmenopausal African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Adams-Campbell, L L; Dash, C; Kim, B H; Hicks, J; Makambi, K; Hagberg, J

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness with metabolic syndrome in overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. Pooled baseline data on 170 African-American women from 2 exercise trials were examined. Metabolic syndrome was defined as at least 3 of the following: abdominal obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and high triglycerides. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) was determined using the Bruce treadmill protocol and categorized as: Very Low (VLCRF<18 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)), Low (LCRF=18.0-220-22-22.0 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)), and Moderate (MCRF>22.0 mL·kg(-1) min(-1)). Associations of metabolic syndrome with cardiorespiratory fitness were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and linear regression. VO2peak was significantly lower in the VLCRF compared to the MCRF group. Lower cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL among overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women. In fully adjusted models, higher waist circumference and triglycerides were associated with lower VO2peak levels (P<0.01) and higher HDL-C was associated with higher VO2peak levels (P=0.03). Overweight/obese postmenopausal African-American women with very low cardiorespiratory fitness are more likely to have metabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and unhealthier levels of certain metabolic syndrome components than women with moderate cardiorespiratory fitness.

  15. Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Larizza, Daniela; Codrons, Erwan; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Brambilla, Paola; Abela, Sebastiano; Arpesella, Marisa; Vandoni, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity may protect from the adverse effects of obesity. In obese children, an increased adherence and a decreased drop-out rate during exercise could be achieved with adapted activities. We studied a recreational 12-week controlled training program for sedentary obese children, including interactive video games. We enrolled 22 obese subjects (13.23±1.76 years) in an exercise program, implemented twice a week for a 12-week period. The program consisted of a combination of circuit-based aerobics, strength and resistance exercises; specifically soccer, rugby, volleyball and basketball and interactive video game exercises. Outcome measurements included body composition, metabolic profile and cardiorespiratory fitness. During the 12-week training program there was a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002), SDS-BMI (p=0.003), waist circumference (p=0.004), waist circumference/height ratio (p=0.001),% fat mass (p=0.001), blood glucose (p=0.001), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.04), triglycerides (p=0.03) and systolic pressure (p=0.04) before and after exercise. Improvement in estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (p<0.001) correlated with a decrease in fat mass (p=0.01), triglycerides (p=0.04) and insulin resistance (p=0.02). Exercise improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children. Exercise training does not necessarily need to be vigorous, recreational programs are also effective and may encourage children to participate in physical activity and limit initial drop-out.

  16. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task. PMID:27536259

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  18. The Sexual Dimorphic Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Working Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Davis Moore, R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the sexual dimorphic patterns of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in preadolescent children (age range: 7.7-10.9). Data were collected in three separate studies (Study 1: n = 97, 42 females; Study 2: n = 95, 45 females; Study 3: n = 84, 37 females). All participants completed a cardiorespiratory…

  19. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    PubMed Central

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with thalamic, hippocampal, and basal ganglia volumes in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Hubbard, Elizabeth A.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is little known about cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in multiple sclerosis (MS). Such inquiry is important for identifying a possible behavioral approach (e.g., aerobic exercise training) that might change volumes of deep gray matter (DGM) structures associated with cognitive and motor functions in MS. Purpose This study examined the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in MS. Method We enrolled 35 persons with MS who underwent a maximal exercise test for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and brain MRI. Volumes of the thalamus, hippocampus, caudate, putamen, and pallidum were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We examined associations using partial (pr) correlations controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results VO2peak was significantly associated with composite scaled volumes of the caudate(pr = .47, p < .01), putamen (pr = .44, p < .05), pallidum (pr = .40, p < .05), and hippocampus (pr = .42, p < .05), but not thalamus (pr = .31, p = .09), when controlling for sex, age, disability, and duration of MS. Conclusion Our results provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with volumes of DGM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS. PMID:25844320

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a cohort study of Japanese male athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, although the incidence of overweight (BMI ≥ 25) is still low compared with that in Europe and the United States, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased over the last 15 years,. In both Japanese and Caucasian populations it has been reported that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness protects against the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no reports focused specifically on athletes that investigate whether high cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can prevent disease later in life. We examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age and the development of type 2 diabetes in Japanese athletes using a cohort study. Methods The cardiorespiratory fitness of male alumni of the physical education department of Juntendo University, as measured by stored data of a 1,500-m endurance run in college (1971–1991) was compared with their incidence of type 2 diabetes as determined by follow-up questionnaires (2007–2009). This study used Cox’s proportional hazards models and adjusted for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports club participation at college age. Results We collected data on cardiorespiratory fitness at college age and medical history survey data during 2007–2009 from 570 male alumni. The median follow-up period was 26 years (IQR: 23–29 years), and 22 men had developed type 2 diabetes. An inverse relationship was observed between incidence of type 2 diabetes and level of cardiorespiratory fitness at time of college after adjustment for age, year of graduation, BMI, smoking, and sports participation. The adjusted hazards ratio and 95% CI by category (low, medium, and high) were 1.00 (reference), 0.40 (0.14–1.13) and 0.26 (0.07–1.00) (p = 0.03 for trend). Conclusions A high level of cardiorespiratory fitness at a young age can help prevent type 2 diabetes later in life. PMID:24885699

  2. Sudomotor function as a tool for cardiorespiratory fitness level evaluation: comparison with maximal exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Raisanen, Anu; Eklund, Jyrki; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2014-05-30

    Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disorders. VO2max is the best method to assess cardio-respiratory fitness level but it is poorly adopted in clinical practice. Sudomotor dysfunction may develop early in metabolic diseases. This study aimed at comparing established CV risk evaluation techniques with SUDOSCAN; a quick and non-invasive method to assess sudomotor function. A questionnaire was filled-in; physical examination and VO2max estimation using a maximal test on a bicycle ergometer were performed on active Finish workers. Hand and foot electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) were measured to assess sudomotor function. Subjects with the lowest fitness level were involved in a 12 month training program with recording of their weekly physical activity and a final fitness level evaluation. Significant differences in BMI; waist and body fat were seen according to SUDOSCAN risk score classification. Correlation between the risk score and estimated VO2max was r = -0.57, p < 0.0001 for women and -0.48, p < 0.0001 for men. A significant increase in estimated VO2max, in hand and foot ESC and in risk score was observed after lifestyle intervention and was more important in subjects with the highest weekly activity. SUDOSCAN could be used to assess cardio-metabolic disease risk status in a working population and to follow individual lifestyle interventions.

  3. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; de Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Results Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Conclusion Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. PMID:25628191

  4. Does Cardiorespiratory Fitness Modify the Association between Birth Weight and Insulin Resistance in Adult Life?

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Tomoko; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Numata, Takeyuki; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tabata, Izumi; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lower birth weight is associated with higher insulin resistance in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the association of birth weight with insulin resistance in adults. Methods The subjects were 379 Japanese individuals (137 males, 242 females) aged 20–64 years born after 1943. Insulin resistance was assessed using a homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), which is calculated from fasting blood glucose and insulin levels. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max) was assessed by a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Birth weight was reported according to the Maternal and Child Health Handbook records or the subject’s or his/her mother’s memory. Results The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that birth weight was inversely associated with HOMA-IR (β = −0.141, p = 0.003), even after adjustment for gender, age, current body mass index, mean blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and smoking status. Further adjustments for VO2max made little difference in the relationship between birth weight and HOMA-IR (β = −0.148, p = 0.001), although VO2max (β = −0.376, p<0.001) was a stronger predictor of HOMA-IR than birth weight. Conclusions The results showed that the association of lower birth weight with higher insulin resistance was little modified by cardiorespiratory fitness in adult life. However, cardiorespiratory fitness was found to be a stronger predictor of insulin resistance than was birth weight, suggesting that increasing cardiorespiratory fitness may have a much more important role in preventing insulin resistance than an individual’s low birth weight. PMID:24069257

  5. Relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and physiological responses to films.

    PubMed

    Cantor, J R; Zillmann, D; Day, K D

    1978-06-01

    Subject's physiological responses and rated reactions to a medical film and an erotic film were assessed. Later cardiovascular fitness levels were determined by subject's physiological responses to an exercise task. The greater the increase in the subject's systolic blood pressure after exercise and the slower the recovery, the lower the fitness level. A median split on the fitness scores of males and females separately was used to determine levels of relatively low and high fitness. Subjects in low fitness had significantly greater sympathetic-arousal responses to the two films as measured in systolic blood-pressure increases and skin-temperature decreases. Subjects in the two fitness levels did not differ in ratings of their own physiological or emotional responses to the films. Reported interoception of the magnitude of physiological responses was inaccurate, especially for subjects in low fitness.

  6. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity.

  7. Acute exercise stress reveals cerebrovascular benefits associated with moderate gains in cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Brugniaux, Julien V; Marley, Christopher J; Hodson, Danielle A; New, Karl J; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness improves resting cerebral perfusion, although to what extent this is further amplified during acute exposure to exercise stress and the corresponding implications for cerebral oxygenation remain unknown. To examine this, we recruited 12 moderately active and 12 sedentary healthy males. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and prefrontal cortical oxyhemoglobin (cO(2)Hb) concentration were monitored continuously at rest and throughout an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Despite a subtle elevation in the maximal oxygen uptake (active: 52±9 ml/kg per minute versus sedentary: 33±5 ml/kg per minute, P<0.05), resting MCAv was not different between groups. However, more marked increases in both MCAv (+28±13% versus +18±6%, P<0.05) and cO(2)Hb (+5±4% versus -2±3%, P<0.05) were observed in the active group during the transition from low- to moderate-intensity exercise. Collectively, these findings indicate that the long-term benefits associated with moderate increase in physical activity are not observed in the resting state and only become apparent when the cerebrovasculature is challenged by acute exertional stress. This has important clinical implications when assessing the true extent of cerebrovascular adaptation.

  8. The MILE study: a motivational, individual and locally anchored exercise intervention among 30–49 year-olds with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomised controlled study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with high risk of non-communicable diseases and all-cause mortality. Physical activity level is the primary determinant of cardiorespiratory fitness in adults. However, knowledge on how to motivate people to engage in physical activity and maintain an active lifestyle is lacking. This study aims to investigate whether a motivational, individual, and locally anchored exercise intervention, in primary care, can improve cardiorespiratory fitness in 30 to 49 year olds with a low or very low cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/Design Two-armed randomised controlled trial with 6 and 12 months follow-up. The primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness estimated via a maximal incremental exercise test. Secondary outcomes include physical activity level and sedentary behavior (objectively measured), self-reported physical activity, biochemical parameters (HbA1C, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride), anthropometric parameters and health-related quality of life. A total of 236 participants with low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness classified at a local health check programme will be randomised. The intervention consists of four motivational interviews, a six months membership to a sport club, and a global positioning watch to upload training activity to Endomondo.com. The comparison group will receive standard care: a one hour motivational interview followed by another interview if requested. Effects will be estimated by evaluating the differences in mean changes in cardiorespiratory fitness between the two groups. Discussion In new and innovative ways the focus of this study will be to improve cardiorespiratory fitness among a 30–49 year-old at-risk group using social media, Global Positioning System-technology, on-going personal support and individually tailored physical activity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (no.NCT01801956). PMID:24365174

  9. Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Women with and without Lymphedema following Breast Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smoot, Betty; Johnson, Morgan; Duda J, John; Krasnoff, Joanne; Dodd, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer (BC) treatment, many women develop impairments that may impact cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate CR fitness in women following BC treatment, 2) evaluate differences in CR fitness in those with and without breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) and compare these to age-matched norms, and 3) evaluate the contribution of predictor variables to CR fitness. 136 women post-BC treatment completed testing: 67 with BCRL, and 69 without. VO2 peak was lower in participants compared to published healthy age-matched norms. VO2 peak was statistically significantly lower in women with BCRL. Age, BMI, meeting recommended exercise criteria, and DASH scores explained 50% of the variance in VO2 peak (R=0.708, p<0.001). Following BC treatment CR fitness may be impaired, more-so in women with BCRL. This should be considered when providing rehabilitation for women following BC treatment as cardiorespiratory fitness has linked to improved health outcomes and survivorship. PMID:24058390

  10. Insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure: contribution of abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Huot, Maxime; Arsenault, Benoit J; Gaudreault, Valérie; Poirier, Paul; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance and low cardiorespiratory fitness are frequently found to have an increased waist circumference and high exercise blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that the relationships among insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure may be mediated by an elevated waist circumference. This study included 317 apparently healthy men and women (mean age: 34.8±12.8 years; mean body mass index: 26.1±5.2 kg/m(2)). Exercise blood pressure values were measured using a submaximal ergometer test evaluating physical working capacity. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were measured during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariate regression analyses showed that waist circumference accounted for 32.8% (P<0.0001) and 45.1% (P<0.0001) of the variance in exercise systolic blood pressure in men and women, respectively. Participants were classified into tertiles according to either insulin response, measured during the oral glucose tolerance test, or fitness levels and then further subdivided into 2 subgroups using sex-specific waist circumference thresholds. Individuals with an increased waist circumference (≥94 cm and ≥80 cm for men and women, respectively) had higher exercise systolic blood pressure compared with individuals with low waist circumference, irrespective of their level of insulin resistance (10.6 versus 6.8, 12.2 versus 7.7, and 13.2 versus 8.7 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; P<0.05) or fitness levels (13.1 versus 8.2, 12.0 versus 7.9, and 10.6 versus 7.1 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; P<0.05). Individuals with a higher waist circumference have elevated exercise systolic blood pressure, regardless of their insulin sensitivity or level of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  11. The effect of walking on cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Larose, Joanie; King, Judy; Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A; Reid, Robert; Maetzel, Andreas; Tugwell, Peter; Huijbregts, Maria; McCullough, Carolyn; Loew, Laurianne; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-08-01

    Walking programs alone or in combination with behavioral interventions have proven effective at improving quality of life among older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). It is unclear, however, whether the combination of both of these treatments is more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults with knee OA than a walking program alone or than unsupervised self-directed walking. In this study, we assessed cardiorespiratory fitness with 3 programs: a structured supervised community-based aerobic walking program with a behavioral intervention (WB; n = 41); a supervised program of walking only (W; n = 42); and an unsupervised self-directed walking program (n = 32). We measured maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak), exercise test duration, and workload, heart rate, and ventilation at maximum aerobic capacity in older adults with knee OA after 6 months of WB, W, or self-directed walking. Overall, V̇O2peak improved by 4% in female walkers (+0.9 ± 2.5 mL O2·kg(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.001) and 5% in male walkers (+1.3 ± 2.7 mL O2·kg(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.001), and the change in fitness was similar with all 3 walking interventions. In conclusion, low- to moderate-intensity walking may improve and (or) prevent decrements in cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults with OA. This response was comparable in supervised walkers with and without a behavioral intervention and in unsupervised self-directed walkers.

  12. Assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Cairney, John; Hsairi, Ines; Triki, Chahinez; Moalla, Wassim

    2014-12-01

    The decreased participation in physical activity by children with probable developmental coordination disorder (pDCD) has raised concerns about their aerobic fitness and lung function levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine assessment of cardiorespiratory and neuromotor fitness, using laboratory-based tests during an incremental treadmill protocol in healthy children with and without pDCD. Twenty sex children ages 6-9 years took part in this study. Motor coordination was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). All participants performed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) on a cycle ergometer. Pulmonary function was assessed by spirometric measurements (forced vital capacity: FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1s: FEV1) and walking distance (6MWD) was assessed using the 6-min walking test. The children with pDCD had lower VO2max than children without pDCD (p < 0.01). Moreover, FVC and FEV1 were significantly higher in children without pDCD than in children with the disorder (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 respectively). Likewise, children with pDCD had poorer performance on the 6MWD than children without pDCD (p < 0.01). A significant correlation between the absolute value for FEV1 and 6MWD (r = 0.637, p < 0.05) in pDCD group was observed. We found a significant correlation between VO2max and MABC score (r = -0.612, p < .001) and between VO2max and 6MWD (r = 0.502, p < .001) for all children. Moreover, a significant correlation between VO2max and FEV1 (r = 0.668, p < .05) was found in children with pDCD. Overall, the reduced aerobic capacity of DCD was associated with decreased of lung function, as well as an alteration of peripheral muscle responses.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain diffusion tensor imaging in adults over 80 years of age.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Glynn, Nancy W; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara; Rosano, Caterina

    2014-11-07

    A positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and white matter integrity has been consistently reported in older adults. However, it is unknown whether this association exists in adults over 80 with a range of chronic disease conditions and low physical activity participation, which can influence both CRF and brain health. This study examined whether higher CRF was associated with greater microstructural integrity of gray and white matter in areas related to memory and information processing in adults over 80 and examined moderating effects of chronic diseases and physical activity. CRF was measured as time to walk 400 m as quickly as possible with concurrent 3T diffusion tensor imaging in 164 participants (57.1% female, 40.3% black). Fractional anisotropy (FA) was computed for cingulum, uncinate and superior longitudinal fasciculi. Mean diffusivity (MD) was computed for dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, parahippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Moderating effects were tested using hierarchical regression models. Higher CRF was associated with higher FA in cingulum and lower MD in hippocampus and entorhinal cortex (β, sex-adjusted p: -0.182, 0.019; 0.165, 0.035; and 0.220, 0.006, respectively). Hypertension attenuated the association with MD in entorhinal cortex. Moderating effects of chronic diseases and physical activity in walking and climbing stairs on these associations were not significant. The association of higher CRF with greater microstructural integrity in selected subcortical areas appears robust, even among very old adults with a range of chronic diseases. Intervention studies should investigate whether increasing CRF can preserve memory and information processing by improving microstructure and potential effects of hypertension management.

  14. Associations among executive function, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration in a number of cognitive functions. Previous reports have demonstrated the beneficial effect of physical fitness on cognitive function, especially executive function (EF). The graph theoretical approach models the brain as a complex network represented graphically as nodes and edges. We analyzed several measures of EF, an index of physical fitness, and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from healthy older volunteers to elucidate the associations among EF, cardiorespiratory fitness, and brain network properties. The topological neural properties were significantly related to the level of EF and/or physical fitness. Global efficiency, which represents how well the whole brain is integrated, was positively related, whereas local efficiency, which represents how well the brain is functionally segregated, was negatively related, to the level of EF and fitness. The associations among EF, physical fitness and topological resting-state functional network property appear related to compensation and dedifferentiation in older age. A mediation analysis showed that high-fit older adults gain higher global efficiency of the brain at the expense of lower local efficiency. The results suggest that physical fitness may be beneficial in maintaining EF in healthy aging by enhancing the efficiency of the global brain network. PMID:28054664

  15. The Effectiveness of a Pre-Exercise Performance Drink (PRX) on Indices of Maximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    PubMed

    Byars, Allyn; Greenwood, Mike; Greenwood, Lori; Simpson, Warren K

    2006-06-12

    This study examined the effectiveness of a pre-exercise drink (PRX) called EM.PACT on indices of maximal cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-four males (n = 12) and females (n = 12) ages 18-24 years (20.25 + 1.42), volunteered as subjects. Each subject performed two randomized trials of a VO2max treadmill test within a week of each other. Subjects in this randomized, placebo controlled, counter balanced, crossover design, ingested either a placebo (water) or PRX 20 minutes before each exercise bout. VO2max and time to exhaustion (Time) during graded exercise testing were evaluated. Using paired samples t-tests, significantly greater mean values were found in VO2max and Time for the PRX trial compared to the placebo trial (p < .05). Results indicate that indices of cardiorespiratory fitness; specifically VO2max and Time are enhanced by ingestion of PRX prior to exercise testing. The combined results of this investigation may provide meaningful practical applications for coaches and athletes alike regarding ergogenic hydration options.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C O; Catai, A M; Moura-Tonello, S C G; Lopes, S L B; Benze, B G; Del Vale, A M; Leal, A M O

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3 ± 22.3 vs 135.1 ± 25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149 ± 12 vs 139 ± 10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2 ± 3.2 vs 18.9 ± 2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1 ± 3.4 vs 12.2 ± 2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels.

  18. Longitudinal Relationships of Fitness, Physical Activity, and Weight Status with Academic Achievement in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchert, Vivien; Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: To examine associations of cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity (PA) and weight status with academic achievement 1 year later. In addition, the mediating role of psychological variables was tested. Methods: Longitudinal analyses included 1011 German students (M = 14.1 years, SD = 0.6 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness was…

  19. Relationship between ambulatory capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness in chronic stroke: Influence of stroke-specific impairments

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J; Dawson, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives To identify in individuals with chronic stroke (1) the relationship between the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) during cycle ergometry and the distance covered in the Six Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and (2) the stroke-specific impairments which are important determinants for the 6MWT distance. Design Cross-sectional study using a convenience sample. Setting Exercise testing laboratory in a tertiary rehabilitation center. Participants Sixty-three older adults (mean age ± standard deviation, 65.3 ± 8.7) with an average post-stroke interval of 5.5 ± 4.9 years. Intervention Not applicable Main Outcome Measures Each subject underwent a maximal cycle ergometer test and a 6MWT. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured during both tests. Subjects were also evaluated for Berg Balance Scale, Modified Ashworth Scale of Spasticity, isometric knee extension strength and percent body fat. Results The 6MW distance had a low correlation with the VO2max (r=0.402). Balance, knee extension strength and spasticity were all significant determinants for the 6MWT distance, with balance being the major contributor for the 6MWT distance, accounting for 66.5% of its variance. Conclusions Factors other than the cardiorespiratory status considerably influenced the ambulatory capacity as measured by the 6MWT. The 6MWT distance alone should not be used to indicate cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with chronic stroke. PMID:15705987

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult women: relationships with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Jessica A.; Gower, Barbara A.; Hunter, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that circulating 25(OH)D may favorably influence cardiorespiratory fitness and fat oxidation. However, these relationships have not been examined in older adult women of different ethnic groups. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is related to cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in sedentary women ages ≥60 years and to determine whether these associations differ between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). A secondary aim was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is correlated with respiratory quotient (RQ) during submaximal exercise. This cross-sectional analysis included 67 AA and EA women ages 60–74 years. VO2max was measured by a modified Bruce graded treadmill protocol, and measurements were adjusted for percent fat and lean body mass assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure RQ at rest and during four submaximal exercise tests. Fasting blood samples were obtained to quantify serum 25(OH)D. Serum 25(OH)D was associated with VO2max (ml/kg LBM/min) independent of percent body fat (r = 0.316, p = 0.010). However, subgroup analysis revealed that this relationship was specific to AA (r = 0.727, p = 0.005 for AA; r = 0.064, p = 0.643 for EA). In all subjects combined, 25(OH)D was inversely correlated (p < 0.01) with all measures of submaximal RQ. Higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with greater cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult AA women. Among both AA and EA, inverse associations between serum 25(OH)D and RQ suggest that women with higher levels of circulating vitamin D also demonstrated greater fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. PMID:24563162

  1. Improved Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Increased Cortical Thickness in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Katherine; Nielson, Kristy A; Smith, Theresa J; Weiss, Lauren R; Alfini, Alfonso J; Smith, J Carson

    2015-11-01

    Cortical atrophy is a biomarker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that correlates with clinical symptoms. This study examined changes in cortical thickness from before to after an exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and healthy elders. Thirty physically inactive older adults (14 MCI, 16 healthy controls) underwent MRI before and after participating in a 12-week moderate intensity walking intervention. Participants were between the ages of 61 and 88. Change in cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using residualized scores of the peak rate of oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) from pre- to post-intervention. Structural magnetic resonance images were processed using FreeSurfer v5.1.0. V̇O2peak increased an average of 8.49%, which was comparable between MCI and healthy elders. Overall, cortical thickness was stable except for a significant decrease in the right fusiform gyrus in both groups. However, improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness due to the intervention (V̇O2peak) was positively correlated with cortical thickness change in the bilateral insula, precentral gyri, precuneus, posterior cingulate, and inferior and superior frontal cortices. Moreover, MCI participants exhibited stronger positive correlations compared to healthy elders in the left insula and superior temporal gyrus. A 12-week moderate intensity walking intervention led to significantly improved fitness in both MCI and healthy elders. Improved V̇O2peak was associated with widespread increased cortical thickness, which was similar between MCI and healthy elders. Thus, regular exercise may be an especially beneficial intervention to counteract cortical atrophy in all risk groups, and may provide protection against future cognitive decline in both healthy elders and MCI.

  2. Non-Exercise Estimated Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Associations with Brain Structure, Cognition, and Memory Complaints in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, Edward; Szabo, Amanda N.; Mailey, Emily L.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle; White, Siobhan M.; Wójcicki, Thomas R.; Gothe, Neha; Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with brain structure and function, and improvements in CRF through exercise training have been associated with neural and cognitive functioning in older adults. The objectives of this study were to validate the use of a non-exercise estimate of CRF, and to examine its association with cognitive function, brain structure and subjective memory complaints. Low active, older adults (N = 86; M age= 65.14) completed a physician-supervised maximal exercise test, a 1-mile timed walk, several measures of cognitive function, and a 3 Tesla structural MRI. Fitness was also calculated from an equation derived by (Jurca et al., 2005) based on age, sex, body mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported physical activity level. Analyses indicated that all three measures of CRF were significantly correlated with one another. In addition, measures of cognitive function, hippocampus volume, and memory complaints were significantly correlated with each measure of fitness. These findings have implications for using a low-risk, low-cost, non-exercise estimate of CRF in determining fitness associations with brain structure and cognitive function in older adults. As such, this measure may have utility for larger population based studies. Further validation is required, as is determination of whether such relationships hold over the course of exercise interventions. PMID:21808657

  3. Obesity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Self-Reported Sleep Patterns in Chilean School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, A; Aguilar, M M; Vergara, F A; Velásquez, E J A; Marina, R

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to examine the association of sleep patterns with being overweight or obese and to analyze the association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with sleep patterns in children. The study involved 395 schoolchildren (12-13 years old). Sleep patterns were assessed with the Sleep Self-Report (SSR) questionnaire, grouped into four subscales: sleep quality, sleep-related anxiety, bedtime refusal, and sleep routines. CRF was predicted by the 20-m shuttle-run test. Logistic regression models showed that sleep-related anxiety problems predicted being overweight or obese in both sexes, and sleep quality problems predicted being overweight or obese in girls. Also, girls who had better CRF levels were less susceptible to sleep-related anxiety problems. Studies are required to determine if increasing CRF could be a possible strategy for improving sleep quality.

  4. Personalized Home-based Interval Exercise Training May Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Cancer Patients Preparing to Undergo Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William A; Phillips, Brett; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Wilson, Doug; Deal, Allison M; Bailey, Charlotte; Meeneghan, Mathew; Reeve, Bryce B; Basch, Ethan M; Bennett, Antonia V; Shea, Thomas C; Battaglini, Claudio L

    2016-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with inferior survival in patients preparing to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Exercise training based on short, higher-intensity intervals has the potential to efficiently improve cardiorespiratory fitness. We studied home-based interval exercise training (IET) in 40 patients prior to autologous (N=20) or allogeneic (N=20) HCT. Each session consisted of 5, three-minute intervals of walking, jogging, or cycling at 65-95% maximal heart rate (MHR) with 3 minutes of low intensity exercise (<65% MHR) between intervals. Participants were asked to perform sessions at least 3 times weekly. The duration of the intervention was at least 6 weeks, depending on each patient’s scheduled transplantation date. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from a peak oxygen consumption test (VO2peak) and a 6 minute walk (6MWD) before and after the intervention period. For the autologous HCT cohort, improvements in VO2peak (p=0.12) and 6MWD (p=0.19) were not statistically significant. For the allogeneic cohort, the median VO2peak improvement was 3.7ml/kg*min (p=0.005) and the median 6MWD improvement was 34 meters (p=0.006). Home-based, interval exercise training can be performed prior to HCT and has the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26999467

  5. Accuracy of predicted resting metabolic rate and relationship between resting metabolic rate and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese men

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Kyung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine that not only the relationship of the resting metabolic rate (RMR) and cardiorespiratory fitness(VO2peak), but also the comparison between measured and predicted results of RMR in obese men. [Methods] 60 obese men (body fat>32%) were recruited for this study. They did not participate in regular exercising programs at least 6 months. The RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry and predicted RMR using Herris-Benedicte equation. The cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by directly measuring the oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise on the treadmill. [Results] The significance for the difference between the measured results and predicted result of RMR were tested by paired t-test. Correlation of measured date was obtained by Pearson correlation coefficient. The value of predicted RMR and measured RMR were significantly different in these obese subjects. (p < 0.001). The difference between RMR cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiorespiratory fitness showed significant correlation (r=0.67, p < 0.05). [Conclusion] The current formulas of predicted RMR have limited the evaluation of measured RMR for Korean obese men. Therefore, this study suggests that new formula should be designed for Korean in order to obtain more accurate results in obese. PMID:25566436

  6. Validation of 2 Submaximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness Tests in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Daniele; Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Rundqvist, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with breast cancer have an impaired cardiorespiratory fitness, in part, due to the toxic effects of anticancer therapy. Physical exercise as a means of rehabilitation for patients with cancer is an emerging area of research and treatment, emphasizing the need for accurate and feasible physical capacity measurements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of peak oxygen consumption (o2peak) predicted by the Ekblom-Bak test (E-B) and the Åstrand-Rhyming prediction model (A-R). Methods: Eight patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy participated in the study. Submaximal exercise tests were performed at 2 different submaximal workloads. Estimated o2peak values were obtained by inserting the heart rate (HR) from the 2 workloads into the E-B prediction model and the HR of only the higher workload into the Åstrand nomogram. A 20-W incremental cycle test-to-peak effort was performed to obtain o2peak values. Results: Results from A-R overestimated o2peak by 6% (coefficient of variation = 7%), whereas results from E-B overestimated o2peak with 42% (coefficient of variation = 21%) compared with measured o2peak. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed a significant strong relationship between the estimated o2peak from A-R and the measured o2peak (r = 0.86; P < .05), whereas the relationship between the estimated o2peak from E-B and the measured o2peak resulted in a nonsignificant weak correlation (r = 0.21). Conclusion: In a situation where maximal exercise testing is not practical or undesirable from a patient safety perspective, submaximal exercise testing provides an alternative way of estimating o2peak. The A-R prediction model appears to be a valid submaximal exercise test for determining cardiorespiratory fitness in this population. PMID:27812433

  7. Low cardiorespiratory fitness in people at risk for type 2 diabetes: early marker for insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Purpose There is a significant association between insulin resistance and low cardiorespiratory fitness in nondiabetic subjects. In a population with risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), before they are insulin resistant, we investigated low exercise capacity (VO2max) as an early marker of impaired insulin sensitivity in order to determine earlier interventions to prevent development of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) and T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of data on 369 (78 men and 291 women) people at risk for IRS and T2DM, aged 45.6 +/- 10 years (20-65 years) old from the Community Diabetes Prevention Project in Minnesota were carried out. The cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) by respiratory gas exchange and bicycle ergometer were measured in our at risk non insulin resistant population and compared with a control group living in the same geographic area. Both groups were equally sedentary, matched for age, gender and BMI. Results The most prevalent abnormality in the study population was markedly low VO2max when compared with general work site screening control group, (n = 177; 137F; 40 M, mean age 40 ± 11 years; BMI = 27.8 ± 6.1 kg/m2). Individuals at risk for IRS and T2DM had a VO2max (22 ± 6 ml/kg/min) 15% lower than the control group VO2max (26 ± 9 ml/kg/min) (p < 0.001). It was foun that VO2max was inversely correlated with HOMA-IR (r = -0.30, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Decreased VO2max is correlated with impaired insulin sensitivity and was the most prevalent abnormality in a population at risk for IRS and T2DM but without overt disease. This raises the possibility that decreased VO2 max is among the earliest indicators of IRS and T2DM therefore, an important risk factor for disease progression. PMID:19825145

  8. Relationship between peak cardiac pumping capability and indices of cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Popadic-Gacesa, Jelena Z; Barak, Otto F; Nunan, David; Donovan, Gay; Trenell, Michael I; Grujic, Nikola G; Brodie, David A

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac power output (CPO) is a unique and direct measure of overall cardiac function (i.e. cardiac pumping capability) that integrates both flow- and pressure-generating capacities of the heart. The present study assessed the relationship between peak exercise CPO and selected indices of cardio-respiratory fitness. Thirty-seven healthy adults (23 men and 14 women) performed an incremental exercise test to volitional fatigue using the Bruce protocol with gas exchange and ventilatory measurements. Following a 40-min recovery, the subjects performed a constant maximum workload exercise test at or above 95% of maximal oxygen consumption. Cardiac output was measured using the exponential CO(2) rebreathing method. The CPO, expressed in W, was calculated as the product of the mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. At peak exercise, CPO was well correlated with cardiac output (r = 0·92, P<0·01), stroke volume (r = 0·90, P<0·01) and peak oxygen consumption (r = 0·77, P<0·01). The coefficient of correlation was moderate between CPO and anaerobic threshold (r = 0·47, P<0·01), oxygen pulse (r = 0·57, P<0·01), minute ventilation (r = 0·53, P<0·01) and carbon dioxide production (r = 0·56, P<0·01). Small but significant relationship was found between peak CPO and peak heart rate (r = 0·23, P<0·05). These findings suggest that only peak cardiac output and stroke volume truly reflect CPO. Other indices of cardio-respiratory fitness such as oxygen consumption, anaerobic threshold, oxygen pulse, minute ventilation, carbon dioxide production and heart rate should not be used as surrogates for overall cardiac function and pumping capability of the heart.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness is differentially associated with cortical thickness in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Williams, Victoria J; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Forman, Daniel E; Salat, David H; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke; Hayes, Scott M

    2017-02-01

    Aging is associated with reductions in gray matter volume and cortical thickness. One factor that may play a role in mitigating age-associated brain decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Although previous work has identified a positive association between CRF and gray matter volume, the relationship between CRF and cortical thickness, which serves as a more sensitive indicator of gray matter integrity, has yet to be assessed in healthy young and older adults. To address this gap in the literature, 32 young and 29 older adults completed treadmill-based progressive maximal exercise testing to assess CRF (peak VO2), and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine vertex-wise surface-based cortical thickness metrics. Results indicated a significant CRF by age group interaction such that Peak VO2 was associated with thicker cortex in older adults but with thinner cortex in young adults. Notably, the majority of regions demonstrating a positive association between peak VO2 and cortical thickness in older adults overlapped with brain regions showing significant age-related cortical thinning. Further, when older adults were categorized as high or low fit based on normative data, we observed a stepwise pattern whereby cortex was thickest in young adults, intermediate in high fit older adults and thinnest in low fit older adults. Overall, these results support the notion that CRF-related neuroplasticity may reduce although not eliminate age-related cortical atrophy.

  10. Relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in young adults: a mediation analysis of body composition.

    PubMed

    Díez-Fernández, Ana; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Nieto, José Antonio; González-García, Alberto; Miota-Ibarra, José; Ortiz-Galeano, Ignacio; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2017-01-12

    High blood pressure levels are among the most important cardiovascular disease risk factors and are influenced by physical fitness and body composition. However, the degree to which obesity may attenuate or modify the beneficial effects of physical fitness on blood pressure levels in young adults is uncertain. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze whether body composition is a mediator between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and blood pressure levels in young adults. This work was a cross-sectional study involving first-year college students (n=386) at the University Campus of Cuenca (Spain). We measured weight, height, waist circumference, fat mass percentage (by densitometry), systolic and diastolic blood pressure and CRF levels (by a 20 m shuttle run test). Partial correlation coefficients were estimated to examine the relationships among adiposity variables, CRF and blood pressure variables, controlling for age and sex. ANCOVA models were conducted to explore differences in blood pressure levels across adiposity and CRF categories. Hayes's PROCESS macro was used for the simple mediation analysis. The indirect effect and Sobel test were significant (P<0.001), confirming that all body composition variables mediate between CRF and all of the included blood pressure variables. All body composition variables acted as mediators between CRF and blood pressure. These results highlight the importance of maintaining a healthy body composition to prevent hypertension in young adults.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 12 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2016.177.

  11. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise.

  12. High cardiorespiratory fitness in early to late middle age preserves the cortical circuitry associated with brain-heart integration during volitional exercise.

    PubMed

    Wood, Katelyn N; Luchyshyn, Torri A; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that high cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake) preserves the cortical circuitry associated with cardiac arousal during exercise in middle- to older-aged individuals. Observations of changes in heart rate (HR) and in cortical blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) images were made in 52 healthy, active individuals (45-73 yr; 16 women, 36 men) across a range of fitness (26-66 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)). Seven repeated bouts of isometric handgrip (IHG) at 40% maximal voluntary contraction force were performed with functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T, with each contraction lasting 20 s and separated by 40 s of rest. HR responses to IHG showed high variability across individuals. Linear regression revealed that cardiorespiratory fitness was not a strong predictor of the HR response (r(2) = 0.09). In a region-of-interest analysis both the IHG task and the HR time course correlated with increased cortical activation in the bilateral insula and decreased activation relative to baseline in the anterior and posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). t-Test results revealed greater deactivation at the MPFC with higher fitness levels beyond that of guideline-based activity. Therefore, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness failed to affect absolute HR responses to IHG in this age range, a select effect was observed in cortical regions known to be associated with cardiovascular arousal.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our first observation suggests that fitness does not strongly predict the heart rate (HR) response to a volitional handgrip task in middle- to older-aged adults. Second, the BOLD response associated with the handgrip task, and with the HR time course, was associated with response patterns in the cortical autonomic network. Finally, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness failed to affect absolute HR responses to isometric handgrip in this age range, a select effect was observed in cortical regions known to be

  13. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (rp = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (rp = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger’s protocol was statistically higher for adults (rp = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key points Overall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness mediates the effects of aging on cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Benjamin; Sutton, Bradley P.; Low, Kathy A.; Fletcher, Mark A.; Tan, Chin Hong; Schneider-Garces, Nils; Li, Yanfen; Ouyang, Cheng; Maclin, Edward L.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The brain's vasculature is likely to be subjected to the same age-related physiological and anatomical changes affecting the rest of the cardiovascular system. Since aerobic fitness is known to alleviate both cognitive and volumetric losses in the brain, it is important to investigate some of the possible mechanisms underlying these beneficial changes. Here we investigated the role that estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF) plays in determining the relationship between aging and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a group of older adults (ages 55–85). Using arterial spin labeling to quantify CBF, we found that blood flow in the gray matter was positively correlated with eCRF and negatively correlated with age. Subsequent analyses revealed that eCRF fully mediated the effects of age on CBF in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. Additionally, regional measures of CBF were related to regional measures of brain volume. These findings provide evidence that age-related effects on cerebrovascular health and perfusion in older adults are largely influenced by their eCRF levels. PMID:24778617

  15. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition of Soccer Referees; Do These Correlate With Proper Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Reza; Halabchi, Farzin; Seif Barghi, Tohid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The elite-level referee is exposed to similar physical demands to those placed on a midfield soccer player. They have an important responsibility to implement the rules of the game. So, good health and performance of soccer referees have a great importance. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of all 78 soccer referees officiating at the Iranian Premier League and determine the correlation between these parameters and performance. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all referees selected for the competitions were enrolled. Participants underwent exercise stress test, pulmonary function test and body composition assessment. Then the weekly scores of each referee, assessed by qualified supervisors of national federation were obtained using the FIFA standard form throughout the season (34 weeks) and registered. Results: Among 78 participants (including 32 center and 46 side referees), mean and standard deviation of age, body mass index, percent of body fat, VO2max and performance scores were 37 ± 3.8, 23.6 ± 2.1, 20.7 ± 3.9, 59.9 ± 7.1 and 85.8 ± 0.25, respectively. No significant correlation between referees’ mean score and selected parameters were found. Conclusions: It seems that the acquired scores of top-class referees may be influenced by multiple factors other than the laboratory findings of cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition. PMID:27231524

  16. Is moderate intensity exercise training combined with high intensity interval training more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness than moderate intensity exercise training alone?

    PubMed

    Roxburgh, Brendon H; Nolan, Paul B; Weatherwax, Ryan M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). It was 'unclear' if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains 'unclear' whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key PointsBoth continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit 'possibly beneficial' clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Adiposity, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Daza, Fernando; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E

    2016-08-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in schoolchildren. A secondary aim was to evaluate the degree of association between overall and abdominal adiposity and CRF in a total of 1,875 children and adolescents attending public schools. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption. A CVRF (Z score) was calculated and participants were divided into tertiles according to low and high levels of overall (sum of the skinfold thicknesses) and abdominal adiposity. Schoolchildren with a high-level of overall adiposity demonstrated significant differences in seven of the 10 variables analyzed (i.e., systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, triglycerides/high density lipoproteins [HDL-c] ratio, total cholesterol, glucose, C-reactive protein [usCRP], HDL-c, low density lipoproteins [LDL-c], and cardiovascular risk score). Schoolchildren with high levels of both overall and abdominal adiposity and low CRF had the least favorable CVRF score.

  18. The Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Insulin Resistance in Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaomin; Cao, Zhen-Bo; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Oshima, Satomi; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Here, we aim to investigate the independent and combined associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with glucose metabolism. Fasting blood samples of 107 men aged 40–79 years were analyzed for 25(OH)D, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and lipid profile. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated from the fasting concentrations of glucose and insulin. Visceral fat area (VFA) was determined by magnetic resonance imaging and CRF by measuring maximal oxygen uptake. Median 25(OH)D concentration was 36.3 nmol/L, while the prevalence of 25(OH)D deficiency was 74.8%. Participants with high CRF had significantly lower HOMA-IR, glycated hemoglobin, and insulin values than participants with low CRF (p < 0.05). Higher 25(OH)D concentration was strongly correlated with lower HOMA-IR and insulin values independent of VFA (p < 0.01) but significantly affected by CRF. In the high CRF group, participants with higher 25(OH)D concentration had lower HOMA-IR values than participants with low 25(OH)D concentration (p < 0.05). Higher 25(OH)D and CRF are crucial for reducing insulin resistance regardless of abdominal fat. In addition, higher 25(OH)D concentration may strengthen the effect of CRF on reducing insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Japanese men with high CRF. PMID:25551248

  19. [Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in preschool children: adaptation of the 20 metres shuttle run test].

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Alcántara-Moral, Francisco; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Femia, Pedro; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong indicator of present and future health in children and adolescents, however it is unknown whether it is for pre-schoolers, from 3 to 5 years. In the present study, we described the adaptation of the original 20m shuttle run test, it feasibility and acceptance in children from 3 to 5 years and its maximality and reliability. A total of 130 students (4.91 ± 0.89 years; 77 boys) performed the test twice, two weeks apart. The test adaptation consisted mainly in reducing the initial speed of 8.5 km/h to 6.5 km/h. The test was feasible and was well accepted in both boys and girls and the three age groups, 3, 4 and 5 years. The maximum heart rate (MHR) achieved for the entire sample was 199.4 ± 12.5 beats/min, equivalent to 97% of the estimated theoretical MHR, and no significant differences by gender or age. Mean test-retest difference (systematic error) in the number of laps achieved was 2 laps, with no significant differences between sex or age. There was no evidence of heteroscedasticity. Our results suggest the test is maximum and reliable in this age group. Future longitudinal or intervention studies using this test should take into account that changes in the test performance of 2 laps may be due to the variability of the measure, while wider changes would be attributable to the intervention or changes associated with age.

  20. Rationale and design of the cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces study in Eastern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gen-Min; Li, Yi-Hwei; Lee, Chung-Jen; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Lin, Ko-Huan; Chen, Kai-Wen; Chen, Yu-Jung; Wu, Ching-Fen; Lin, Been-Sheng; Yu, Yun-Shun; Lin, Felicia; Su, Fung-Ying; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in a cohort of large voluntary arm forces in Taiwan. METHODS The cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces (CHIEF) is a retrospective cohort consisting of more than 4000 professional military members aged 18-50 years in Eastern Taiwan. All participants received history taking, physical examination, chest radiography, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood tests for cell counts and fasting glucose, lipid profiles, uric acid, renal function and liver function in the Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital during 2014. In addition, participants were required to undergo two indoor resistant exercise tests including 2-min push-up and 2-min sit-up, both scored by infrared sensing, and one outdoor endurance 3000-m none weight-bearing running test, the main indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in the Military Physical Training and Testing Center in Eastern Taiwan in 2014. RESULTS Hospitalization events for cardiovascular disease, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, severe infectious disease, acute psychiatric illness, diabetes, orthopedic surgery and mortality will be identified in the National Insurance Research Database for 10 years. CONCLUSION CHIEF will be among the largest Eastern Asian armed forces cohort, in which physical status was strictly evaluated to follow up the hospitalization events for severe illness. PMID:27621774

  1. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children

    PubMed Central

    Starzak, Dorota E.; Konkol, Kristen F.; McKune, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30–8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p < 0.01). SIgA secretion rate was significantly lower in obese and overweight vs. normal weight children (p < 0.01). Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of sAA with CRF acting as a mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.05) with BMI (p < 0.001) found to be an independent predictor of SIgA secretion rate. Obesity, based on BMI, was associated with elevated SNS activity and lowered mucosal immunity. CRF-mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity. PMID:27483329

  2. Higher Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Older Trained Women is Due to Preserved Stroke Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Shilpa; Spencer, Matthew D.; Paterson, Donald H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous literature has shown that sedentary older women rely on peripheral adaptations to improve cardiorespiratory fitness with endurance training i.e. they show minimal increases in central parameters (cardiac output, Q) in response to endurance training. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine whether endurance trained older women were able to preserve maximal exercise Q and were characterized by a high stroke volume (SV) when compared to physically inactive older women. Trained (n = 7) and untrained (n = 1 0) women attended two maximal and one submaximal laboratory session. Breath-by-breath analysis was conducted using mass spectrometry and Q was assessed using acetylene open circuit inert gas wash-in. Multivariate analysis of variance and paired samples t-tests were used to determine between and within group differences. Trained women had a significantly higher VO2max (37.5 vs. 24.1 ml-1·kg·min-1) compared to untrained women. There were no differences for peripheral oxygen extraction (VO2/Q) at either submaximal or maximal work rates; however trained women had a significantly higher SV at maximal (119.3 vs. 94.6 ml) exercise compared to untrained women. In both trained and untrained women, SV did not rise significantly between submaximal and maximal exercise. Conclusion: Highly fit, endurance trained older women are able to preserve central parameters of VO2max. Peripheral oxygen extraction is similar between older trained and untrained women. Key points Older women are able to preserve stroke volume with high volumes of endurance training. Stroke volume of endurance trained older women does not continue to rise until maximal exercise, as is the case in young endurance trained adults. Peripheral oxygen extraction does not differ between endurance trained and physically inactive older women. PMID:24150087

  3. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  4. Associations of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged Chinese women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are each associated with a favorable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile. However, the relationship between CRF and obesity is still inconsistent across studies, and there has been no thorough exploration of the independent contribution of CRF to different CVD risk factors in Chinese women. This study investigated the relationship between CRF and CVD risk factors in 40–49 year old women in Beijing. Methods The study included 231 urban-dwelling asymptomatic 40–49 year old women. Body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at rest. Cycle ergometer exercise tests were conducted to assess CRF as indicated by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Participants were categorized into three CRF levels (low, moderate and high). Results High CRF level was associated with significantly less BF%, lower PWV, and higher weekly physical activity compared with low and moderate CRF (P < 0.05). Compared to high CRF, the odds ratios for having ≥3 main CVD risk factors (overweight, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) in low and moderate CRF were 2.09 (95% CI: 1.48-2.94) and 1.84 (95% CI: 1.29-2.62), respectively. The proportion of participants with clinical ST segment depression and prolonged QTC interval during cycle ergometer testing was significantly higher in women with low CRF. Conclusions Overall, Chinese middle-aged women demonstrated a moderate level of CRF. CRF was independently associated with CVD risk factors, including overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, arterial stiffness, and abnormal ECG during exercise, with the least fit women exhibiting the highest number of CVD risk factors. PMID:24885417

  5. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Gjesing, Anette P.; Sandholt, Camilla H.; Jonsson, Anna; Mahendran, Yuvaraj; Have, Christian T.; Ekstrøm, Claus T.; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise; Brage, Soren; Witte, Daniel R.; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Aadahl, Mette; Thuesen, Betina H.; Linneberg, Allan; Eiberg, Hans; Pedersen, Oluf; Grarup, Niels; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Hansen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It has long been discussed whether fitness or fatness is a more important determinant of health status. If the same genetic factors that promote body fat percentage (body fat%) are related to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), part of the concurrent associations with health outcomes could reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus associates with CRF. Methods Genetic correlations based on pedigree information were examined in a family based cohort (n = 230 from 55 families). For the genetic association analyses, we examined two Danish population-based cohorts (ntotal = 3206). The body fat% GRS was created by summing the alleles of twelve independent risk variants known to associate with body fat%. We assessed CRF as maximal oxygen uptake expressed in millilitres of oxygen uptake per kg of body mass (VO2max), per kg fat-free mass (VO2maxFFM), or per kg fat mass (VO2maxFM). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex, and when relevant, for body composition. Results We found a significant negative genetic correlation between VO2max and body fat% (ρG = -0.72 (SE ±0.13)). The body fat% GRS associated with decreased VO2max (β = -0.15 mL/kg/min per allele, p = 0.0034, age and sex adjusted). The body fat%-increasing FTO allele was associated with a 0.42 mL/kg/min unit decrease in VO2max per allele (p = 0.0092, age and sex adjusted). Both associations were abolished after additional adjustment for body fat%. The fat% increasing GRS and FTO risk allele were associated with decreased VO2maxFM but not with VO2maxFFM. Conclusions Our findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF. PMID:27846319

  6. Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in children from two commonly used field tests after accounting for body fatness and maturity.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Michael J; Fraser, Meegan; Lizamore, Catherine A; Draper, Nick; Shearman, Jeremy P; Kimber, Nicholas E

    2014-03-27

    Body fat and maturation both influence cardiorespiratory fitness, however few studies have taken these variables into account when using field tests to predict children's fitness levels. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between two field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m Maximal Multistage Shuttle Run [20-MST], 550 m distance run [550-m]) and direct measurement of VO2max after adjustment for body fatness and maturity levels. Fifty-three participants (25 boys, 28 girls, age 10.6 ± 1.2 y, mean ± SD) had their body fat levels estimated using bioelectrical impedance (16.6% ± 6.0% and 20.0% ± 5.8% for boys and girls, respectively). Participants performed in random order, the 20-MST and 550-m run followed by a progressive treadmill test to exhaustion during which gas exchange measures were taken. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed that the participants' performance in the 20-MST and 550-m run were highly correlated to VO2max obtained during the treadmill test to exhaustion (r = 0.70 and 0.59 for 20-MST and 550-m run, respectively). Adjusting for body fatness and maturity levels in a multivariate regression analysis increased the associations between the field tests and VO2max (r = 0.73 for 20-MST and 0.65 for 550-m). We may conclude that both the 20-MST and the 550-m distance run are valid field tests of cardiorespiratory fitness in New Zealand 8-13 year old children and incorporating body fatness and maturity levels explains an additional 5-7% of the variance.

  7. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  8. Comparison of two-hand kettlebell exercise and graded treadmill walking: effectiveness as a stimulus for cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James F; Larson, Kurtis L; Hollander, Daniel B; Kraemer, Robert R

    2014-04-01

    Prevailing interest in the use of kettlebell (KB) exercises for rehabilitation and improvement of muscular strength has led to several recent studies, some suggesting that KB exercise may be useful for improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether KB exercise would produce similar cardiovascular stress to that of walking and thus provide an additional exercise mode for the improvement of cardiorespiratory fitness. It was hypothesized that a moderate-intensity, continuous KB protocol, would produce similar metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses as a brisk bout of graded treadmill (TM) walking, but greater rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten novice volunteers (5 men, 5 women) completed a preliminary session to determine body composition and VO2max and to familiarize participants with standardized KB exercise technique. Subsequently, they completed a 30-minute KB session that included 3 continuous 10-minute sets of 10 KB swings followed by 10 sumo deadlifts, with 3-minute rests between 10-minute exercise periods. The third session was a 30-minute TM regimen that began at the walking speed and 4% grade that matched the VO2 from the KB session and included 3-minute rest intervals after 10-minute TM exercise periods. VO2, respiratory exchange ratio, kcal·min, and blood pressure were similar for KB and moderate-intensity TM exercise, but RPE and heart rate were greater during KB exercise. Data indicate that a KB routine consisting of 2-hand swings and sumo deadlifts with 3-minute rest periods produces similar metabolic responses to those of a moderate-intensity TM walking protocol designed for the improvement of aerobic fitness.

  9. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p < 0.0001). Compared to men with higher CRF, those with lower CRF developed abnormal values earlier in life: TC (≥200 mg/dl), LDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), non-HDL-C (≥160 mg/dl), and TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.0). Notably, abnormal values for TC and LDL-C in men with low CRF were observed around 15 years earlier than in those with high CRF. After adjusting for time-varying covariates, a significant interaction was found between age and CRF in each trajectory, indicating that CRF was more strongly associated with the aging trajectories of lipids and lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  10. Association Between Sitting Time and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors After Adjustment for Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Cooper Center Longitudinal Study, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Radford, Nina B.; DeFina, Laura F.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Objective estimates, based on waist-worn accelerometers, indicate that adults spend over half their day (55%) in sedentary behaviors. Our study examined the association between sitting time and cardiometabolic risk factors after adjustment for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with 4,486 men and 1,845 women who reported daily estimated sitting time, had measures for adiposity, blood lipids, glucose, and blood pressure, and underwent maximal stress testing. We used a modeling strategy using logistic regression analysis to assess CRF as a potential effect modifier and to control for potential confounding effects of CRF. Results Men who sat almost all of the time (about 100%) were more likely to be obese whether defined by waist girth (OR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.25–5.47) or percentage of body fat (OR, 3.33; 95% CI, 1.35–8.20) than were men who sat almost none of the time (about 0%). Sitting time was not significantly associated with other cardiometabolic risk factors after adjustment for CRF level. For women, no significant associations between sitting time and cardiometabolic risk factors were observed after adjustment for CRF and other covariates. Conclusion As health professionals struggle to find ways to combat obesity and its health effects, reducing sitting time can be an initial step in a total physical activity plan that includes strategies to reduce sedentary time through increases in physical activity among men. In addition, further research is needed to elucidate the relationships between sitting time and CRF for women as well as the underlying mechanisms involved in these relationships. PMID:28033088

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness estimation using wearable sensors: Laboratory and free-living analysis of context-specific submaximal heart rates.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Casale, Pierluigi; Penders, Julien; Ten Velde, Gabrielle; Plasqui, Guy; Amft, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose to use pattern recognition methods to determine submaximal heart rate (HR) during specific contexts, such as walking at a certain speed, using wearable sensors in free living, and using context-specific HR to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CRF of 51 participants was assessed by a maximal exertion test (V̇o2 max). Participants wore a combined accelerometer and HR monitor during a laboratory-based simulation of activities of daily living and for 2 wk in free living. Anthropometrics, HR while lying down, and walking at predefined speeds in laboratory settings were used to estimate CRF. Explained variance (R(2)) was 0.64 for anthropometrics, and increased up to 0.74 for context-specific HR (0.73-0.78 when including fat-free mass). Next, we developed activity recognition and walking speed estimation algorithms to determine the same contexts (i.e., lying down and walking) in free living. Context-specific HR in free living was highly correlated with laboratory measurements (Pearson's r = 0.71-0.75). R(2) for CRF estimation was 0.65 when anthropometrics were used as predictors, and increased up to 0.77 when including free-living context-specific HR (i.e., HR while walking at 5.5 km/h). R(2) varied between 0.73 and 0.80 when including fat-free mass among the predictors. Root mean-square error was reduced from 354.7 to 281.0 ml/min by the inclusion of context-specific HR parameters (21% error reduction). We conclude that pattern recognition techniques can be used to contextualize HR in free living and estimated CRF with accuracy comparable to what can be obtained with laboratory measurements of HR response to walking.

  12. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  13. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  14. Exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise are impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rate response to exercise and the exercise-induced improvements in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response between normal-weight and overweight/obese postmenopausal women. METHODS: Sedentary women (n = 155) were divided into normal-weight (n = 79; BMI <25 kg/m2; 58.3±8.6 years) and overweight/obese (n = 76; BMI ≥25 kg/m2; 58.3±8.6 years) groups, and have their 1-repetition maximum strength (adjusted for body mass), cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to a graded exercise test compared before and after 12 months of a three times-per-week exercise-training program. RESULTS: Overweight/obese women displayed decreased upper and lower extremity muscle strengths, decreased cardiorespiratory fitness, and lower peak and reserve heart rates compared to normal-weight women. After follow-up, both groups improved their upper (32.9% and 41.5% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) and lower extremity(49.5% and 47.8% in normal-weight and overweight/obese women, respectively) muscle strength. However, only normal-weight women improved their cardiorespiratory fitness (6.6%) and recovery heart rate (5 bpm). Resting, reserve and peak heart rates did not change in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight/obese women displayed impaired heart rate response to exercise. Both groups improved muscle strength, but only normal-weight women improved cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise. These results suggest that exercise-induced improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate response to exercise may be impaired in overweight/obese postmenopausal women. PMID:21655751

  15. The effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and acute aerobic exercise on executive functioning and EEG entropy in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael J.; O’Hora, Denis; Kiefer, Markus; Kubesch, Sabine; Kilmartin, Liam; Collins, Peter; Dimitrova, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, identified with a continuous graded cycle ergometry, and aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning and entropy of the electroencephalogram (EEG) in 30 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Higher and lower fit participants performed an executive function task after a bout of acute exercise and after rest while watching a film. EEG entropy, using the sample entropy measure, was repeatedly measured during the 1500 ms post-stimulus interval to evaluate changes in entropy over time. Analysis of the behavioral data for lower and higher fit groups revealed an interaction between fitness levels and acute physical exercise. Notably, lower fit, but not higher fit, participants had higher error rates (ER) for No Go relative to Go trials in the rest condition, whereas in the acute exercise condition there were no differences in ER between groups; higher fit participants also had significantly faster reaction times in the exercise condition in comparison with the rest condition. Analysis of EEG data revealed that higher fit participants demonstrated lower entropy post-stimulus than lower fit participants in the left frontal hemisphere, possibly indicating increased efficiency of early stage stimulus processing and more efficient allocation of cognitive resources to the task demands. The results suggest that EEG entropy is sensitive to stimulus processing demands and varies as a function of physical fitness levels, but not acute exercise. Physical fitness, in turn, may enhance cognition in adolescence by facilitating higher functionality of the attentional system in the context of lower levels of frontal EEG entropy. PMID:26539093

  16. Leptin, vitamin D, and cardiorespiratory fitness as risk factors for insulin resistance in European adolescents: gender differences in the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Pavón, David; Sesé, María A; Valtueña, Jara; Cuenca-García, Magdalena; González-Gross, Marcela; Gottrand, Frederic; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Widhalm, Kurt; de Henauw, Stefaan; Polito, Angela; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Moreno, Luis A

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the relevance of a set of risk factors for insulin resistance in adolescents from Europe and to consider their possible gender-specific associations. The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS) was conducted in 1053 European adolescents (mean age, 14.9 years) in a school setting in 9 countries. Three anthropometric markers of body fat and a dietary index were calculated. Total energy intake was estimated from a questionnaire. C-reactive protein, leptin, and vitamin D were assessed, and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular strength were measured. Center, socioeconomic status, pubertal status, and season were used as potential confounders. The main outcome was the homeostasis model assessment used as a marker of insulin resistance. Correlations, analyses of covariance, and logistic regression models were used. In males, leptin was the only risk factor for insulin resistance after adjusting for confounders including markers of body fat (odds ratios (ORs) from 1.49 to 1.60). In females, leptin, vitamin D, and fitness were the remaining independent risk factors for insulin resistance after adjustments (OR 2.11; 95% confidential interval (CI) 1.29-3.45; OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.31-0.80; and OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.87, respectively). Our observations suggest a gender dimorphism in the identification of risk factors for high insulin resistance. Preventive strategies should focus on improving modifiable factors such as cardiorespiratory fitness and on ensuring vitamin D sufficiency. Randomized controlled trials focusing on these strategies are necessary to test their efficacy.

  17. Less Sitting, More Physical Activity, or Higher Fitness?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that time spent in sedentary behaviors, levels of physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness are all associated with mortality rates. They are also related to the risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, aging-associated frailty, and cancer. The evidence is such that the National Institutes of Health recently launched a new Common Fund initiative aimed at identifying the molecular transducers of adaptation to physical activity in various tissues and organs. It has been estimated that 9.4% of all 57 million deaths in the world in 2008 could be attributed to physical inactivity, which translates into more than 5 million deaths worldwide. Physical inactivity has a deleterious effect that is comparable to smoking and obesity. Importantly, this global estimate relates to levels of physical activity and does not take into account sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness. Currently, there are national and international guidelines for physical activity level that are highly concordant. The weekly recommendations include 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity, or some combination of moderate and vigorous activity with 2 days of resistance exercise. However, these guidelines offer no recommendations regarding sedentary time or goals for cardiorespiratory fitness levels. It will be increasingly important for disease prevention, successful aging, and reduction of premature mortality to broaden the focus of the public health message to include not only more physical activity but also less sitting and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. We briefly review the evidence and discuss key issues to be addressed to make this approach a reality.

  18. A non-exercise testing method for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness: associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a pooled analysis of eight population-based cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Hamer, Mark; O'Donovan, Gary; Batty, George David; Kivimaki, Mika

    2013-01-01

    Aims Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a key predictor of chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD), but its assessment usually requires exercise testing which is impractical and costly in most health-care settings. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (NET-F)-estimating methods are a less resource-demanding alternative, but their predictive capacity for CVD and total mortality has yet to be tested. The objective of this study is to examine the association of a validated NET-F algorithm with all-cause and CVD mortality. Methods and results The participants were 32 319 adults (14 650 men) aged 35–70 years who took part in eight Health Survey for England and Scottish Health Survey studies between 1994 and 2003. Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness (a metabolic equivalent of VO2max) was calculated using age, sex, body mass index (BMI), resting heart rate, and self-reported physical activity. We followed participants for mortality until 2008. Two thousand one hundred and sixty-five participants died (460 cardiovascular deaths) during a mean 9.0 [standard deviation (SD) = 3.6] year follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounders including diabetes, hypertension, smoking, social class, alcohol, and depression, a higher fitness score according to the NET-F was associated with a lower risk of mortality from all-causes (hazard ratio per SD increase in NET-F 0.85, 95% confidence interval: 0.78–0.93 in men; 0.88, 0.80–0.98 in women) and CVD (men: 0.75, 0.63–0.90; women: 0.73, 0.60–0.92). Non-exercise testing cardiorespiratory fitness had a better discriminative ability than any of its components (CVD mortality c-statistic: NET-F = 0.70–0.74; BMI = 0.45–0.59; physical activity = 0.60–0.64; resting heart rate = 0.57–0.61). The sensitivity of the NET-F algorithm to predict events occurring in the highest risk quintile was better for CVD (0.49 in both sexes) than all-cause mortality (0.44 and 0.40 for men and women

  19. Exercise therapy, cardiorespiratory fitness and their effect on brain volumes: a randomised controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Scheewe, Thomas W; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Sarkisyan, Gayane; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; de Glint, Maria; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Backx, Frank J G; Kahn, René S; Cahn, Wiepke

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine exercise effects on global brain volume, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Irrespective of diagnosis and intervention, associations between brain changes and cardiorespiratory fitness improvement were examined. Sixty-three schizophrenia patients and fifty-five healthy controls participated in this randomised controlled trial. Global brain volumes, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness were estimated from 3-Tesla MRI scans. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a cardiopulmonary ergometer test. Subjects were assigned exercise therapy or occupational therapy (patients) and exercise therapy or life-as-usual (healthy controls) for six months 2h weekly. Exercise therapy effects were analysed for subjects who were compliant at least 50% of sessions offered. Significantly smaller baseline cerebral (grey) matter, and larger third ventricle volumes, and thinner cortex in most areas of the brain were found in patients versus controls. Exercise therapy did not affect global brain and hippocampal volume or cortical thickness in patients and controls. Cardiorespiratory fitness improvement was related to increased cerebral matter volume and lateral and third ventricle volume decrease in patients and to thickening in the left hemisphere in large areas of the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortex irrespective of diagnosis. One to 2h of exercise therapy did not elicit significant brain volume changes in patients or controls. However, cardiorespiratory fitness improvement attenuated brain volume changes in schizophrenia patients and increased thickness in large areas of the left cortex in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

  20. Relationship of cardiac structure and function to cardiorespiratory fitness and lean body mass in adolescents and young adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the relationships of cardiac structure and function with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among adolescents with type 2 diabetes in the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) Study Group. Cross-sectional evaluation of 233 participant...

  1. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  2. Impact of a walking intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical function, and pain in patients undergoing treatment for solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kathleen; Wenzel, Jennifer; Shang, JingJing; Thompson, Carol; Stewart, Kerry; Mock, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer treatment is associated with decline in measured and self-reported physical function and increased pain. We evaluated the impact of a walking intervention on these outcomes during chemotherapy/radiation. Methods 126 patients with breast, prostate, and other cancers were randomized to a home-based walking intervention (exercise) or usual care (control). Exercise dose during the intervention was assessed using a five-item Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, expressed as peak oxygen uptake (VO2) measured during treadmill testing (n=85) or estimated by 12-minute walk (n=27), and self-reported physical function, role limitations, and pain derived from Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) SF-36. Linear regression was used to evaluate pre-to-post intervention change outcomes between groups. Results Mean (SD) age of patients was 60.2 (10.6). Diagnoses included prostate (55.6%) and breast (32.5%) cancer. Treatment included external beam radiation (52.3%) and chemotherapy (34.9%). Exercise patients reported worsening MOS-physical function role limitations by end of cancer treatment (p=.037). Younger age was associated with improved MOS-physical function (p=.048). In all patients, increased exercise dose was associated with decreased MOS-pain (p=.046), regardless of diagnosis. The percent change of peak VO2 between prostate and non-prostate cancer patients when adjusted for baseline peak VO2 and PAQ values was 17.45% (p=0.008), with better peak VO2 maintenance in the prostate group. Conclusion Exercise during cancer treatment improves cardiorespiratory fitness and self-reported physical function in prostate cancer patients and in younger patients, regardless of diagnosis, and may attenuate loss of those capacities in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Exercise also reduces the pain experience. PMID:19637345

  3. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop standards for cardiorespiratory fitness by establishing reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in the United States. Patients and Methods Eight laboratories in the US experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed data from January 1, 2014, through February 1, 2015, from 7783 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.0) treadmill tests from men and women (aged 20–79 years) without cardiovascular disease (CVD) to the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND). Percentiles of maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from 20 years of age through 79 years of age. Comparisons of V̇O2maxwere made to reference data established with CPX data from Norway and to US reference data established without CPX measurements. Results There were significant differences between sex and age groups for V̇O2max. In FRIEND, the 50th percentile V̇O2max of men and women aged 20 to 29 years decreased from 48.0 and 37.6 mLO2·kg−1·min−1 to 24.4 and 18.3 mLO2·kg−1·min−1 for ages 70 to 79 years, respectively. The rate of decline in this cohort during a 5-decade period was approximately 10% per decade. Conclusion These are the first cardiorespiratory fitness reference data using measures obtained from CPX in the United States. FRIEND can be used to provide a more accurate interpretation of measured V̇O2max from maximal exercise tests for the US population compared with previous standards on the basis of workload-derived estimations. PMID:26455884

  4. [Measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Finger, J D; Gößwald, A; Härtel, S; Müters, S; Krug, S; Hölling, H; Kuhnert, R; Bös, K

    2013-05-01

    A state of good fitness is related to a better health state and a lower mortality risk. In the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1), aerobic fitness was measured among adults between 18 and 64 years old using a submaximal cycle ergometry test. The total sample comprised 5,263 persons, amongst those 3,111 were categorized as being test-qualified according to the Physical Activity Readiness-Questionnaire. There were 3,030 persons who absolved a submaximal exercise test according to the exercise protocol of the WHO (25/25/2). The test-participation rate was 57.2 % in relation to the total sample and 97.4 % among test-qualified persons. Apart from the continuous heart-rate monitoring, capillary blood was taken prior to starting the test and at the end of each workload stage for performing blood lactate analyses. The test ended when 85 % of the age-predicted maximal heart rate was exceeded. In all 11.9 % of the tests were terminated earlier, the mean exercise duration was 10.8 min, and the anticipated submaximal exertion in the highest workload stage was on average achieved with a mean of 15 on the 20-point RPE scale. The nationwide data can now be used for the national health monitoring system, epidemiological research and for the calculation of reference values. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  5. The effect of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness on the lung diffusing capacity response to exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Coffman, Kirsten E; Carlson, Alex R; Miller, Andrew D; Johnson, Bruce D; Taylor, Bryan Joseph

    2017-03-23

    Aging is associated with deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation. We characterized the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DmCO), and pulmonary-capillary blood volume (VC) response to discontinuous incremental exercise at 25, 50, 75, and 90% of peak work (Wpeak) in four groups: 1) Young [27 ± 3 y, maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) 110 ± 18% age-predicted]; 2) Young Highly-Fit (27 ± 3 y, V̇O2max 147 ± 8% age-predicted); 3) Old (69 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 116 ± 13% age-predicted); and 4) Old Highly-Fit (65 ± 5 y, V̇O2max 162 ± 18% age-predicted). At rest and at 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO, and VC were decreased with age. At 90% Wpeak, DLCO, DmCO and VC were greater in Old Highly-Fit vs. Old adults. The slope of the DLCO-cardiac output (Q̇) relationship from rest to end-exercise at 90% Wpeak was not different between Young, Young Highly-Fit, Old and Old Highly-Fit (1.35 vs. 1.44 vs. 1.10 vs. 1.35 mlCO·mmHg(-1)·Lblood(-1), P = 0.388), with no evidence of a plateau in this relationship during exercise; this was also true for DmCO-Q̇ and VC-Q̇. V̇O2max was positively correlated with: 1) DLCO, DmCO, and VC at rest; 2) the rest to end-exercise change in DLCO, DmCO, and VC In conclusion, these data suggest that despite the age-associated deterioration in the structure and function of the pulmonary circulation, expansion of the pulmonary capillary network does not become limited during exercise in healthy individuals regardless of age or cardiorespiratory fitness level.

  6. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matute-Llorente, A; González-Agüero, A; Gómez-Cabello, A; Vicente-Rodríguez, G; Casajús, J A

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Comprobar si los adolescentes con síndrome de Down (SD) cumplen las guías de actividad física (AF) y evaluar la relación entre AF y la condición cardiorrespiratoria. Métodos: 42 adolescentes (27 con SD) participaron en este estudio. La AF se midió usando acelerometría. La condición cardiorrespiratoria se evaluó mediante ergoespirometría en tapiz rodante con un protocolo progresivo continuo. Resultados: Los adolescentes con SD pasaron menos tiempo en AF sedentaria, moderada (MAF), vigorosa (VAF) y moderada-vigorosa (MVAF) que los adolescentes sin SD. El VO2peak mostró correlación con minutos totales en AF ligera, MAF, VAF y MVAF en el grupo control (desde r = 0,55 hasta r = 0,61, p < 0,05) y con MAF y VAF en el grupo de adolescentes con SD (desde r = 0,38 hasta r = 0,41, p < 0,05). Conclusión: Ningún grupo alcanzó 60 minutos de MAF diaria. La capacidad cardiorrespiratoria en adolescentes con SD se asoció con una mayor participación en MAF.

  7. Variability of cardio-respiratory, electromyographic, and perceived exertion responses at the walk-run transition in a sample of young men controlled for anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Walace D; Farinatti, Paulo T V; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2011-06-01

    The cardio-respiratory (heart rate, HR; oxygen uptake, VO(2;) expired carbon dioxide, VCO(2); ventilation, VE), electromyographic (EMG; medial gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoralis, and anterior tibialis), and perceived exertion (PE) responses during a protocol for the determination of the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) were investigated. From an initial sample of 453 volunteers, 12 subjects matched for age, anthropometric characteristics [height, weight, lower limb length (LLL)], cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption, VO(2peak); ventilatory threshold, VT; maximal HR), and habitual physical activity levels were selected (age = 18.6 ± 0.5 years; height = 174.5 ± 1.4 cm; weight = 66.4 ± 1.1 kg; LLL = 83.3 ± 1.2 cm, VO(2peak) = 52.2 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1); VT = 39.8 ± 2.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The highly reproducible WRTS determination protocol (ICC = 0.92; p < 0.0001) consisted in 2-min warm-up at 5.5 km h(-1) followed by increments of 0.1 km h(-1) every 15 s. Between-subjects variability of the measured variables during 24 walking and 12 running velocities (from 80 to 120% of WRTS) was compared to WRTS variation. The coefficient of variation for WRTS was 7.8%, which was within the range of variability for age, anthropometric variables, VO(2peak), and maximal HR (from 5 to 12%). Cardio-respiratory responses at WRTS had a greater variation (VO(2) about 50%; VE/VCO(2) about 35%; VE/VO(2) about 45%; HR about 30%). The highest variation was found for PE (from 70 to 90%) whereas EMG variables showed the lowest variation (from 25 to 30%). Linear regression between EMG series and VO(2) data showed that VO(2) reflected the increase in muscle activity only before the WRTS. These results support the hypothesis that the walk-run transition phenomenon is determined by mechanical variables such as limb length and its relationship to biomechanical model rather than by metabolic factors.

  8. Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Overweight with Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Japanese Men

    PubMed Central

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Uehara, Akihiko; Kurotani, Kayo; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Nanri, Akiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Existing evidence is limited on what extent fitness can counterbalance type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk associated with obesity. We investigated the joint association of weight status and estimated VO2max, a marker of fitness, with the risk of developing T2DM among Japanese men using haemoglobin A1c and fasting glucose criterion. Methods The present study included 3,523 male employees aged 18–61 years without diabetes who provided health check-up and fitness data in Japan in 2003–2005. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for incident diabetes using the Cox regression model. Results During a mean follow-up of 6.0 years, 199 men developed diabetes. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of diabetes were 1.00 (reference), 1.44 (1.01–2.07), and 1.48 (1.03–2.13) for the highest through the lowest tertile of fitness (P for trend  = 0.04). Additional adjustment for body mass index largely attenuated the association of fitness with diabetes. Joint analysis showed that adjusted hazard ratios of diabetes were 1.00, 1.32, 2.94, and 1.83 in normal weight high-fit men, normal weight low-fit men, overweight high-fit men, and overweight low-fit men, respectively. Conclusion The results suggest that weight control is more important than fitness in prevention of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men. PMID:24896640

  9. A Systematic Review of the Association Between Physical Fitness and Musculoskeletal Injury Risk: Part 1 - Cardiorespiratory Endurance.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Peter; de la Motte, Sarah J; Gribbin, Timothy C; Jaffin, Dianna Purvis; Murphy, Kaitlin; Deuster, Patricia A

    2017-02-13

    Musculoskeletal injuries (MSK-I) are a significant health problem for both military and athletic populations. Research indicates MSK-I is associated with physical fitness; however, the association between specific components of physical fitness and MSK-I in military and athletic populations has not been systematically examined. Our goal was to systematically review the literature to provide a best evidence synthesis on the relationship between components of physical fitness and MSK-I risk in military and civilian athletic populations. This first of three manuscripts focuses on cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE). MEDLINE, EBSCO, EMBASE, and the Defense Technical Information Center were searched for original studies published from 1970 through 2015 that examined associations between physical fitness and MSK-I. Forty-nine of 4,229 citations met our inclusion criteria. Primary findings indicate there is 1) strong evidence that poor performance on a set distance run for time is a predictor for MSK-I risk in both genders; 2) strong evidence that poor performance on timed shuttle runs is a predictor for MSK-I risk in males; 3) moderate evidence in males and limited evidence in females that poor performance on a timed step test is a predictor of MSK-I risk; and 4) limited or insufficient evidence that poor performance on the Cooper run test, maximal and submaximal aerobic graded exercise tests, and the Conconi test are predictors of MSK-I risk in males and/or females. Several measures of CRE are risk factors for training-related MSK-I in military and civilian athletic populations, indicating CRE may be an important measure for MSK-I risk stratification.

  10. The Association of ACE Genotypes on Cardiorespiratory Variables Related to Physical Fitness in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Salomão; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; de Araújo, Gustavo; Eduardo Lima-Silva, Adriano; Bertuzzi, Rômulo

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic power (VO2max), aerobic capacity (RCP), and running efficiency (RE) are important markers of aerobic fitness. However, the influence of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) polymorphism on these markers has not been investigated in healthy individuals. One hundred and fifty physically active young men (age 25 ± 3 years; height 1.77 ± 0.06 m; body mass 76.6 ± 0.9 kg; VO2max 47.7 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) visited the laboratory on two separate occasions, and performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test to determine VO2max and RCP, and b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km·h-1 and 12 km·h-1) to determine RE. The genotype frequency was II = 21%; ID = 52%; and DD = 27%. There was a tendency for higher VO2max with the ACE II genotype (p = 0.08) compared to DD and ID genotypes. Magnitude based inferences suggested a likely beneficial effect on VO2max with the ACE II genotype. There was no association between genotypes for other variable. These findings suggest that individuals with the ACE II genotype have a tendency towards better values in aerobic power, but not with aerobic capacity or running economy. PMID:27861507

  11. Occupational demand and human rights. Public safety officers and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1991-08-01

    The issue of discrimination in physically demanding employment, such as police, firefighters, prison guards and military personnel, is contentious. In terms of oxygen transport, the 'action limit' (calling for personnel selection or task redesign) is a steady oxygen consumption of 0.7 L/min, while the maximum permissible limit is 2.1 L/min. Note is taken of the commonly expressed belief that public safety duties are physically demanding, calling for personnel with an aerobic power of at least 3 L/min, or 42 to 45 ml/kg/min. The actual demands of such work can be assessed on small samples by physiological measurements (using heart rate or oxygen consumption meters), but the periods sampled may not be typical of a normal day. A Gestalt can also be formed as to the heaviness of a given job, or a detailed task analysis can be performed; most such analyses of public safety work list distance running and other aerobic activities infrequently. An arbitrary requirement of 'above average fitness' is no longer accepted by courts, but a further approach is to examine the characteristics of those currently meeting the demands of public safety jobs satisfactorily. Young men commonly satisfy the 3 L/min standard, but this is not usually the case for women or older men; in the case of female employees, it also seems unreasonable that they should be expected to satisfy the same standards as men, since a lower body mass reduces the energy cost of most of the tasks that they must perform. A second criterion sometimes applied to physically demanding work (a low vulnerability to heart attacks) is examined critically. It is concluded that the chances that a symptom-free public safety officer will develop a heart attack during a critical solo mission are so low that cardiac risk should not be a condition of employment. Arbitrary age- and sex-related employment criteria are plainly discriminatory, since some women and 65-year-old men have higher levels of physical fitness than the

  12. Relation of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of systemic hypertension in men.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Lee, Chong-Do; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-06-15

    We investigated the relation between inflammation and incident hypertension, independent of obesity, and tested the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) and indexes of inflammation for the development of hypertension in 2,475 normotensive men. Inflammatory markers were C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen. Fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake during sign/symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing to volitional fatigue; 266 men (10.7%) developed hypertension during an average of 4 years follow-up. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident hypertension in those in the upper tertile versus lower tertile were 1.55 (95% CI 1.15 to 2.09) for CRP and 1.51 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.06) for fibrinogen. Although the association between fibrinogen and incident hypertension persisted after adjusting for body mass index (p = 0.049), the relation between CRP and incident hypertension was no longer statistically significant (p = 0.08). Fit men had a 27% decreased (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.94) risk of incident hypertension compared with unfit men in a multivariable adjusted model. In the joint analysis, unfit men with upper CRP had 1.81 times (95% CI 1.21 to 2.70) and unfit men with upper fibrinogen had 2.03 times (95% CI 1.33 to 3.12) greater risks of incident hypertension compared with fit men with low CRP and fibrinogen, respectively. However, these risks did not significantly increase in fit men with upper CRP (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.63) and fibrinogen (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.85) groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that heightened levels of fibrinogen, but not CRP, are associated with incident hypertension, independent of body weight, and that high fitness attenuates the risk of incident hypertension across upper levels of inflammatory markers in men.

  13. Sprint interval training (SIT) is an effective method to maintain cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis in Scottish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R; Baker, JS; Young, J; Sculthorpe, N; Grace, FM

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the physiological impact of a school based sprint interval training (SIT) intervention in replacement of standard physical education (SPE) class on cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis during the semester following summer vacation. Participants (n=49) were randomly allocated to either intervention (SIT; n=26, aged 16.9 ± 0.3 yrs) or control group who underwent standard physical education (SPE; n=23, aged 16.8 ± 0.6 yrs). CRF (VO2max) and glucose homeostasis were obtained prior-to and following 7 weeks of SIT exercise. Significant group x time interaction was observed for CRF (P < 0.01) with non-significant trends for fasting insulin (P= 0.08), and HOMA-IR (P=0.06). CRF decreased (P < 0.01) in SPE such that POST intervention CRF was significantly lower (P< 0.05) in SPE. Fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.01), insulin (P< 0.01) and HOMA-IR (P< 0.01) increased significantly amongst SPE. The main finding of the present study is that 7-weeks of SIT exercise is an effective method of maintaining (but not improving) CRF and fasting insulin homeostasis amongst school-going adolescents. SIT exercise demonstrates potential as a time efficient physiological adjunct to standard PE class in order to maintain CRF during the school term. PMID:26681833

  14. Understanding the independent and joint associations of the home and workplace built environments on cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Schootman, Mario

    2013-10-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20-88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000-2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group-level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health.

  15. Recent advances in the link between physical activity, sedentary behavior, physical fitness, and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Lim, Sam

    2017-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a well-established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Recent studies have characterized physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness as distinct, interrelated constructs that influence the risk of CRC and related outcomes. PA levels required to confer protection against CRC may be higher than previously thought. Sedentary behavior, defined as time spent sitting, increases CRC risk independent of PA and may require novel interventions distinct from those targeting PA. Finally, cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with CRC risk and mortality and may provide a potential tool for risk stratification and intervention. PMID:28344777

  16. Functional Connectivity: A Source of Variance in the Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Chaddock, Laura; Malkowski, Edward; Alves, Heloisa; Kim, Jennifer S.; Morris, Katherine S.; White, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Hu, Liang; Szabo, Amanda; Klamm, Emily; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Over the next 20 years the number of Americans diagnosed with dementia is expected to more than double (CDC, 2007). It is, therefore, an important public health initiative to understand what factors contribute to the longevity of a healthy mind. Both default mode network (DMN) function and increased aerobic fitness have been associated with better…

  17. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged <50 years, men, and people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome appeared to benefit more. Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  18. Parental education level is associated with clustering of metabolic risk factors in adolescents independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have reported associations between clustering metabolic risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) in youth. This study aimed to analyze the association between clustering metabolic risk factors and SES in adolescents. It was hypothesized that SES is inversely related to clustering metabolic risk factors. This 2009 cross-sectional school-based study investigated 517 Portuguese adolescents ages 15-18 years. The study considered the age- and sex-adjusted z-scores for the ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, homeostasis model, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure, and a metabolic risk score was constructed by summing all the z-scores (≥1 standard deviation was considered high risk). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the 20 m shuttle-run test and dietary intake by a food frequency questionnaire. The best of parental education was used as a proxy measure of SES. The results showed that adolescents with low SES were more likely to have a high metabolic risk score (odds ratio [OR], 1.96; p < 0.020) regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage. In conclusion, a lower SES was associated with increased risk for a high metabolic risk score among Azorean adolescents after adjustment for pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Future health-promotion strategies among Azorean adolescents should consider the impact of SES on their health.

  19. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A.; Bonomi, Alberto G.; Moore, Jonathan P.; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included. PMID:27959935

  20. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  1. Importance of Assessing Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Clinical Practice: A Case for Fitness as a Clinical Vital Sign: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    PubMed

    Ross, Robert; Blair, Steven N; Arena, Ross; Church, Timothy S; Després, Jean-Pierre; Franklin, Barry A; Haskell, William L; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Levine, Benjamin D; Lavie, Carl J; Myers, Jonathan; Niebauer, Josef; Sallis, Robert; Sawada, Susumu S; Sui, Xuemei; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2016-12-13

    Mounting evidence has firmly established that low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with a high risk of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality, and mortality rates attributable to various cancers. A growing body of epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates not only that CRF is a potentially stronger predictor of mortality than established risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, but that the addition of CRF to traditional risk factors significantly improves the reclassification of risk for adverse outcomes. The purpose of this statement is to review current knowledge related to the association between CRF and health outcomes, increase awareness of the added value of CRF to improve risk prediction, and suggest future directions in research. Although the statement is not intended to be a comprehensive review, critical references that address important advances in the field are highlighted. The underlying premise of this statement is that the addition of CRF for risk classification presents health professionals with unique opportunities to improve patient management and to encourage lifestyle-based strategies designed to reduce cardiovascular risk. These opportunities must be realized to optimize the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease and hence meet the American Heart Association's 2020 goals.

  2. Associations between showering behaviours following physical education, physical activity and fitness in English schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Ogunleye, Ayodele; Voss, Christine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the frequency of showering after physical education (PE) in English high-school pupils. We examined differences in physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness according to showering behaviours and examined predictors of showering. We measured PA and cardiorespiratory fitness of n = 3921 pupils (11-16 years, 53.5% males) from eight high schools. Pupils self-reported showering behaviour and parental PA levels. We calculated deprivation and distance travelled to school from their home postcode. Overall, 53% of boys and 68% of girls said they never shower after PE. Pupils who did not shower after PE were less physically active and engaged in fewer team sports. Girls who did not shower also had lower cardiorespiratory fitness than those who did. Showering behaviour varied greatly by school, so we adjusted for clustering at the school level. Pupils were more likely to shower if they were active with their parents [odds ratio (OR) = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.43, 2.07] and less likely to shower if they were from deprived areas (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.88). Showering after PE is relatively rare in English schoolchildren, particularly girls. While we cannot infer causality regarding the relationships found here, the low rates of showering and the lower PA and cardiorespiratory fitness (in girls) observed in schoolchildren who do not shower suggest research is needed to determine whether showering is a barrier to being physically active during PE.

  3. Effects of a modified dance-based exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness, psychological state and health status of persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Noreau, L; Martineau, H; Roy, L; Belzile, M

    1995-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory function and exercise tolerance appear very limited in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Many studies have demonstrated that aerobic exercise training is beneficial to prevent physical deconditioning without inducing adverse effects on an individual's joints and general health. The present study was conducted to demonstrate that a dance-based exercise program is a safe and efficient activity to improve physical fitness and psychological state in persons with RA. A group of 19 persons (mean age, 49.3 +/- 13 yr) participated in a 12-wk exercise program (twice weekly), whereas 10 persons (mean age, 49.4 +/- 12 yr) served as controls. Health status, use of medication, joint pain and swelling, physical fitness, activity of daily living and psychological state were assessed at baseline, after the 12-wk training program and 6 mo after the end of the program. Exercise training induced a mean improvement of 13% in aerobic power, with the highest values reaching 40%. No significant changes were observed in joint status, even though the count of painful joints tended to decrease in the exercise group. Positive changes in depression, anxiety, fatigue and tension were observed after the 12-wk exercise program. These findings provide some evidences in favor of aerobic exercise in individuals with RA. Furthermore, it is of primary interest to note that a weight-bearing activity with limited ground impacts do not provoke short-term adverse effects on joint status. Further studies, however, are required to determine the long-term effect of weight-bearing exercise on the health status of individuals with RA.

  4. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Heidi M; Wharton, Christopher M; Johnston, Carol S

    2016-11-15

    In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220). VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p < 0.05) but not for males (62.6 ± 15.4 and 55.7 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min respectively). Peak torque did not differ significantly between diet groups. Results from this study indicate that vegetarian endurance athletes' cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes.

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Peak Torque Differences between Vegetarian and Omnivore Endurance Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Heidi M.; Wharton, Christopher M.; Johnston, Carol S.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of well-documented health benefits of vegetarian diets, less is known regarding the effects of these diets on athletic performance. In this cross-sectional study, we compared elite vegetarian and omnivore adult endurance athletes for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and strength. Twenty-seven vegetarian (VEG) and 43 omnivore (OMN) athletes were evaluated using VO2 max testing on the treadmill, and strength assessment using a dynamometer to determine peak torque for leg extensions. Dietary data were assessed using detailed seven-day food logs. Although total protein intake was lower among vegetarians in comparison to omnivores, protein intake as a function of body mass did not differ by group (1.2 ± 0.3 and 1.4 ± 0.5 g/kg body mass for VEG and OMN respectively, p = 0.220). VO2 max differed for females by diet group (53.0 ± 6.9 and 47.1 ± 8.6 mL/kg/min for VEG and OMN respectively, p < 0.05) but not for males (62.6 ± 15.4 and 55.7 ± 8.4 mL/kg/min respectively). Peak torque did not differ significantly between diet groups. Results from this study indicate that vegetarian endurance athletes’ cardiorespiratory fitness was greater than that for their omnivorous counterparts, but that peak torque did not differ between diet groups. These data suggest that vegetarian diets do not compromise performance outcomes and may facilitate aerobic capacity in athletes. PMID:27854281

  6. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Huybrechts, I; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Ottevaere, C; Sjöström, M; Dìaz, L E; Ciarapica, D; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Plada, M; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Kersting, M; Castillo, M J

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.

  8. Antepartum cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) quantification by estimation of maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max) in pregnant South Indian women.

    PubMed

    Chakaravertty, Biswajit; Parkavi, K; Coumary, Sendhil A; Felix, A J W

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2max) for pregnant women of varying trimesters and to quantify the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)with the objective of being able to determine the exercise dose for antenatal women which can be prescribed to achieve optimal exercise benefits during various trimesters. A study group comprising 64 pregnant women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancy and control group with 77 non-pregnant women were subjected to Cooper's 12 minutes walk test. From the distance covered in 12 minutes, Vo2max was calculated. The Vo2max values were statistically analysed between the non-pregnant and pregnant and also its variability among the trimesters. Percentile tables of Vo2max were drawn and multiple comparisons were applied. Results show that the Vo2max values among non-pregnant and first trimester ranges between 18 and 22 ml/kg/minute. Trimesters II and III had a range of Vo2max values between 16-20 and 14-18 ml/kg/minute respectively. The CRF of pregnant women significantly reduced to 6%, 9% and 18% in each trimester respectively when compared with the reference table framed out of non-pregnant Vo2max values. Among the study group the reduction in Vo2max values had no statistical significance between first 2 trimesters but trimester III significantly differs from other trimesters. The exercise prescription cannot be the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women. Even among the pregnant women, III trimester needs separate exercise prescription from the other two trimesters as CRF is markedly compromised towards term.

  9. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Using Cycle Ergometry: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database (FRIEND) Registry.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Leonard A; Imboden, Mary T; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    The importance of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established. This report provides newly developed standards for CRF reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) using cycle ergometry in the United States. Ten laboratories in the United States experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed to the "Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Database" (FRIEND) Registry from April 2014 through May 2016. Data from 4494 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.1) cycle ergometer tests from men and women (20-79 years) from 27 states, without cardiovascular disease, were used to develop these references values. Percentiles of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from age 20 years through age 79 years. Comparisons of VO2max were made to reference data established with CPX data from treadmill data in the FRIEND Registry and previously published reports. As expected, there were significant differences between sex and age groups for VO2max (P<.01). For cycle tests within the FRIEND Registry, the 50th percentile VO2max of men and women aged 20 to 29 years declined from 41.9 and 31.0 mLO2/kg/min to 19.5 and 14.8 mLO2/kg/min for ages 70 to 79 years, respectively. The rate of decline in this cohort was approximately 10% per decade. The FRIEND Registry reference data will be useful in providing more accurate interpretations for the US population of CPX-measured VO2max from exercise tests using cycle ergometry compared with previous approaches based on estimations of standard differences from treadmill testing reference values.

  10. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  11. Psychological distress leads to reduced physical activity and fitness in children: the Australian longitudinal LOOK study.

    PubMed

    Olive, L S; Telford, R M; Byrne, D G; Abhayaratna, W P; Telford, R D

    2016-08-01

    Stress and depression can affect an individual's level of physical activity and fitness, which may place them at risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This study investigates the longitudinal effects of stress and depression on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness among youth. Six hundred and seventy-six children, initially aged 8 years, from the LOOK study completed a modified version of the Children's Depression Inventory, the Children's Stress Questionnaire, and objective physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness assessments on three occasions, every 4 years. Depressive symptoms had a direct effect (longitudinal) on the cardiorespiratory fitness of girls, with a similar trend for boys. In cross-sectional analyses, a child who identified with more symptoms of depression and stress was likely to be less fit and less physically active, which in girls extended to less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Our findings, that both physical activity and fitness are impacted by depression and stress may contribute to strategies directed towards achieving enhanced physical activity and reductions in obesity.

  12. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. Results From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42–0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73–0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72–0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. Conclusions When the evaluation of an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26987118

  13. Abdominal Adiposity, Not Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Mediates the Exercise-Induced Change in Insulin Sensitivity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Gifferd; Davidson, Lance E.; Brennan, Andrea M.; Lam, Miu; Ross, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity and low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with insulin resistance in older adults. Exercise is associated with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Whether this association is mediated by change in CRF and/or abdominal obesity is unclear. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in Kingston, Ontario. Sedentary older adults (60–80 years) (N = 80) who completed the exercise (N = 59) or control (N = 21) conditions for 6 months were included. CRF was measured using a treadmill test, adipose tissue (AT) by magnetic resonance imaging, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Waist circumference (WC) was measured at the iliac crest. Mediation analyses were used to assess whether abdominal AT and/or CRF mediated the exercise-induced change in insulin sensitivity. By comparison to controls, reduction (mean ± SD) was observed for visceral (-0.4 ± 0.4 kg) and abdominal subcutaneous (-0.4 ± 0.4) AT depots, WC (-4.1 ± 3.2 cm) and BMI (-0.9 ± 0.8 kg/m2) (p < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity (4.2 ± 5.2 M/I) and CRF (0.2 ± 0.3 L/min) improved in the exercise group (p < 0.05). All AT variables, BMI and WC were mediators of the change in insulin sensitivity (p < 0.05). After adjustment for change in total AT, abdominal AT remained a mediator with an effect ratio of 0.79 (p < 0.05), whereas total AT was not significant when adjusted for abdominal AT (p > 0.05). The effect ratio for change in WC and BMI combined (0.63, p<0.05) was greater than either alone. In conclusion, CRF did not mediate the exercise-induced change in insulin sensitivity in older adults. Abdominal adiposity was a strong mediator independent of change in total adiposity. PMID:27936206

  14. The Effect of Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Weight on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Reboussin, David M.; Foster, Gary D.; Rice, Thomas B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Jakicic, John M.; Millman, Richard P.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Newman, Anne B.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Zammit, Gary; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the effect of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity prior to and following adjustment for changes in weight over the course of a 4-y weight loss intervention. Methods: As secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial, 263 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA participated in an intensive lifestyle intervention or education control condition. Measures of OSA severity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body weight were obtained at baseline, year 1, and year 4. Change in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) served as the primary outcome. The percentage change in fitness (submaximal metabolic equivalents [METs]) and change in weight (kg) were the primary independent variables. Primary analyses collapsed intervention conditions with statistical adjustment for treatment group and baseline METs, weight, and AHI among other relevant covariates. Results: At baseline, greater METs were associated with lower AHI (B [SE] = −1.48 [0.71], P = 0.038), but this relationship no longer existed (B [SE] = −0.24 [0.73], P = 0.75) after adjustment for weight (B [SE] = 0.31 [0.07], P < 0.0001). Fitness significantly increased at year 1 (+16.53 ± 28.71% relative to baseline), but returned to near-baseline levels by year 4 (+1.81 ± 24.48%). In mixed-model analyses of AHI change over time without consideration of weight change, increased fitness at year 1 (B [SE] = −0.15 [0.04], P < 0.0001), but not at year 4 (B [SE] = 0.04 [0.05], P = 0.48), was associated with AHI reduction. However, with weight change in the model, greater weight loss was associated with AHI reduction at years 1 and 4 (B [SE] = 0.81 [0.16] and 0.60 [0.16], both P < 0.0001), rendering the association between fitness and AHI change at year 1 nonsignificant (B [SE] = −0.04 [0.04], P = 0.31). Conclusions: Among overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes, fitness change did not influence OSA severity change when weight change was

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with brain structure, cognition, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Boots, Elizabeth A; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective measure of habitual physical activity (PA), and has been linked to increased brain structure and cognition. The gold standard method for measuring CRF is graded exercise testing (GXT), but GXT is not feasible in many settings. The objective of this study was to examine whether a non-exercise estimate of CRF is related to gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, objective and subjective memory function, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred and fifteen cognitively healthy adults (mean age =58.58 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent structural MRI scanning, cognitive testing, anthropometric assessment, venipuncture for laboratory tests, and completed a self-reported PA questionnaire. A subset (n = 85) underwent maximal GXT. CRF was estimated using a previously validated equation incorporating sex, age, body-mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported PA. Results indicated that the CRF estimate was significantly associated with GXT-derived peak oxygen consumption, validating its use as a non-exercise CRF measure in our sample. Support for this finding was seen in significant associations between the CRF estimate and several cardiovascular risk factors. Higher CRF was associated with greater GM volumes in several AD-relevant brain regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Increased CRF was also associated with lower WMH and better cognitive performance in Verbal Learning & Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visuospatial Ability. Lastly, CRF was negatively correlated with self- and informant-reported memory complaints, and depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that habitual participation in physical activity may provide protection for brain structure and cognitive function, thereby decreasing future risk for AD.

  16. The inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein is mediated by autonomic function: a possible role of the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Jae, Sae Young; Heffernan, Kevin S; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Fernhall, Bo; Park, Won Hah

    2009-01-01

    Although studies have shown an inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. There is emerging evidence that autonomic nervous system function is related to CRP levels. Because high CRF is related to improved autonomic function, we hypothesized that the association between high CRF and low CRP levels would be affected by autonomic nervous system function. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on 2,456 asymptomatic men who participated in a medical screening program. Fasting blood samples for cardiovascular disease risk factors were analyzed, and CRF was measured by maximal exercise treadmill test with expired gas analysis. We used an index of cardiac autonomic imbalance defined as the ratio of resting heart rate to 1 min of heart rate recovery after exercise (RHR/HRR). CRF was significantly correlated with CRP (r = -0.16, P < 0.05), and RHR/HRR (r = -0.48, P < 0.05), while RHR/HRR was significantly correlated with CRP (r = 0.25, P < 0.05). In multivariable linear regression models that adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, disease status, medications, lipid profiles, glucose, and systolic blood pressure, CRF was inversely associated with CRP (beta = -0.09, P < 0.05). However, this relationship was no longer significant after adjusting for RHR/HRR in a multivariable linear regression model (beta = -0.03, P = 0.29). These results suggest that autonomic nervous system function significantly affects the relationship between CRF and inflammation in middle-aged men. Thus, physical activity or exercise training may favorably affect the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway, but additional research is needed to confirm this finding.

  17. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  18. Effect of Walking Exercise on Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Metabolic Syndrome Markers, and High-molecular-weight Adiponectin in Obese Middle-aged Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Kim, Dong-Je

    2014-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 24-week exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome markers, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin among obese middle-aged women. [Subjects] The subjects were 14 obese middle-aged women. [Methods] The exercise program involved walking at 50-60% of the maximum oxygen consumption, 3 times a week, for 24 weeks. Body composition analysis, blood pressure measurements, and blood analysis were performed before the exercise program and at weeks 6, 12, 18, and 24. [Results] The results showed that after 24 weeks in the exercise program, the obesity indices and metabolic risk factors, namely, weight, body fat, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and triglycerides decreased significantly, whereas HDLC, a metabolic improvement factor, increased significantly. Additionally, VO2max increased significantly, together with the level of total and HMW adiponectins. Correlation analysis of the changes in measured variables (∆ score) during resulting from the 24-week exercise program showed that body fat had a significant negative correlation and VO2max had a significant positive correlation with HMW adiponectin. [Conclusion] Among obese middle-aged women, regular exercise increases cardiorespiratory fitness and HMW adiponectin expression and therefore can be effective in the prevention and treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  20. Both poor cardiorespiratory and weak muscle fitness are related to a high concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein lipids.

    PubMed

    Kosola, J; Ahotupa, M; Kyröläinen, H; Santtila, M; Vasankari, T

    2012-12-01

    Good physical fitness is associated with favorable serum lipids. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) could be even more atherogenic than serum lipids. We studied the association of ox-LDL and serum lipids with physical fitness. Healthy young (mean age 25 years) men (n=846) underwent maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and muscle fitness index (MFI) tests and completed a leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) questionnaire. Age (ANCOVA1), age+waist circumference+systolic blood pressure+fasting blood glucose+smoking (ANCOVA3) were used as covariates. The groups with the lowest VO(2max), MFI and LTPA had 23%, 16% and 8% higher concentrations of ox-LDL than the groups with the highest VO(2max) (P<0.0001), MFI (P=0.022) and LTPA (P=0.039) groups, respectively. Subjects with poor fitness (low VO(2max) or low MFI) or low LTPA had elevated levels of ox-LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, in all, P<0.05). Furthermore, low VO(2max) is associated with a high level of ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and with a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA3, in all, P<0.05). Also, subjects with low LTPA had a high ratio of ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, P=0.001). In conclusion, both poor fitness (both low VO(2max) and low MFI) and low LTPA are associated with a higher concentration of ox-LDL lipids and serum lipids, which may indicate a higher risk for atherosclerosis.

  1. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise.

    PubMed

    Garber, Carol Ewing; Blissmer, Bryan; Deschenes, Michael R; Franklin, Barry A; Lamonte, Michael J; Lee, I-Min; Nieman, David C; Swain, David P

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide guidance to professionals who counsel and prescribe individualized exercise to apparently healthy adults of all ages. These recommendations also may apply to adults with certain chronic diseases or disabilities, when appropriately evaluated and advised by a health professional. This document supersedes the 1998 American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) Position Stand, "The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Healthy Adults." The scientific evidence demonstrating the beneficial effects of exercise is indisputable, and the benefits of exercise far outweigh the risks in most adults. A program of regular exercise that includes cardiorespiratory, resistance, flexibility, and neuromotor exercise training beyond activities of daily living to improve and maintain physical fitness and health is essential for most adults. The ACSM recommends that most adults engage in moderate-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥30 min·d on ≥5 d·wk for a total of ≥150 min·wk, vigorous-intensity cardiorespiratory exercise training for ≥20 min·d on ≥3 d·wk (≥75 min·wk), or a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise to achieve a total energy expenditure of ≥500-1000 MET·min·wk. On 2-3 d·wk, adults should also perform resistance exercises for each of the major muscle groups, and neuromotor exercise involving balance, agility, and coordination. Crucial to maintaining joint range of movement, completing a series of flexibility exercises for each the major muscle-tendon groups (a total of 60 s per exercise) on ≥2 d·wk is recommended. The exercise program should be modified according to an individual's habitual physical activity, physical function, health status, exercise responses, and stated goals. Adults who are unable or unwilling to meet the exercise targets outlined here still can benefit

  2. Self‐Reported Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Prediction and Classification of Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Longevity—A Prospective Investigation in the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Søgaard, Karen; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Prescott, Eva; Schnohr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background The predictive value and improved risk classification of self‐reported cardiorespiratory fitness (SRCF), when added to traditional risk factors on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and longevity, are unknown. Methods and Results A total of 3843 males and 5093 females from the Copenhagen City Heart Study without CVD in 1991–1994 were analyzed using multivariate Cox hazards regression to assess the predictive value and survival benefit for CVD and all‐cause mortality from SRCF. The category‐free net reclassification improvement from SRCF was calculated at 15‐year follow‐up on CVD and all‐cause mortality. Overall, 1693 individuals died from CVD. In the fully adjusted Cox model, those reporting the same (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.32) and lower (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.62 to 2.24) SRCF than peers had an increased risk of CVD mortality, compared with individuals with higher SRCF. Compared with individuals with higher SRCF, those with the same and lower SRCF had 1.8 (95% CI, 1.0 to 2.5) and 5.1 (95% CI, 4.1 to 6.2) years lower life expectancy, respectively. Individuals with lower SRCF had a significantly increased risk of CVD mortality, compared with individuals with higher SRCF, within each strata of leisure time physical activity and self‐rated health, and SRCF significantly predicted CVD mortality independently of self‐rated health and walking pace. A net reclassification improvement of 30.5% (95% CI, 22.1% to 38.9%) for CVD mortality was found when adding SRCF to traditional risk factors. Comparable findings were found for all‐cause mortality. Conclusions SRCF has independent predictive value, is related to a considerable survival benefit, and improves risk classification when added to traditional risk factors of CVD and all‐cause mortality. SRCF might prove useful in improved risk stratification in primary prevention. PMID:25628408

  3. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database.

  4. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3-12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  5. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20–45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance. PMID:26717568

  6. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Di Thommazo-Luporini, Luciana; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20-45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance.

  7. CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS MODULATES THE ACUTE FLOW-MEDIATED DILATION RESPONSE FOLLOWING HIGH-INTENSITY BUT NOT MODERATE-INTENSITY EXERCISE IN ELDERLY MEN.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Tom G; Perissiou, Maria; Windsor, Mark; Russell, Fraser D; Golledge, Jonathan; Green, Daniel J; Askew, Christopher D

    2017-02-16

    Impaired endothelial function is observed with ageing and with low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) whilst improvements in both are suggested to be reliant on higher-intensity exercise in the elderly. This may be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise of varying intensity. We examined the hypothesis that exercise-intensity alters the FMD response in healthy elderly adults, and would be modulated by VO2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower- (VO2peak = 24.3±2.9 ml.kg(-1)min(-1), n=27) and higher-fit groups (VO2peak = 35.4±5.5 ml.kg(-1)min(-1), n=20) after a test of cycling peak power output (PPO). In randomised order, participants undertook 27 min moderate-intensity continuous (MICE; 40% PPO) or high-intensity interval cycling exercise (HIIE; 70% PPO), or no-exercise control. Brachial FMD was assessed at rest, 10 and 60 min after exercise. In control, FMD reduced in both groups (P=0.05). FMD increased after MICE in both groups [increase of 0.86 % (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.56), P=0.01], and normalised after 60 min. In the lower-fit, FMD reduced after HIIE [reduction of 0.85 % (95% CI, 0.12 to 1.58), P=0.02), and remained decreased at 60 min (P=0.05). In the higher-fit FMD was unchanged immediately after HIIE and increased after 60 min [increase of 1.52 % (95% CI, 0.41 to 2.62), P<0.01], which was correlated with VO2peak (r =0.41; P<0.01). Exercise-intensity alters the FMD response in elderly adults, and VO2peak modulates the FMD response following HIIE, but not MICE. The sustained decrease in FMD in the lower-fit may represent a signal for vascular adaptation or endothelial fatigue.

  8. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  9. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  10. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf; Froberg, Karsten; Brage, Søren; Andersen, Lars B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the independent and combined association of isometric muscle strength of the abdomen and back and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in youth with indices of glucose metabolism in young adulthood among boys and girls from the European Youth Heart Study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from a population-based prospective cohort study among youth followed up for up to 12 years (n = 317). In youth, maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and CRF was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood. RESULTS For each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed by −11.3% (95% CI −17.0 to −5.2), −12.2% (−18.2 to −5.7), and −8.9% (−14.4 to −3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B were additive, and adolescents in the highest sex-specific tertile for both isometric muscle strength and CRF had the lowest levels of these glucose metabolism outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing muscle strength and CRF should be targets in youth primordial prevention strategies of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. PMID:23579180

  11. Relationship between exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy: a pilot study1

    PubMed Central

    Crowgey, Theresa; Peters, Katherine B.; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Lane, Amy; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E.; West, Miranda J.; Williams, Christina L.; Jones, Lee W.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients. Thirty-seven breast cancer patients following completion of chemotherapy (median 16 months) and 14 controls were studied. Cognitive function was assessed using the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs software (CNS Vital Signs, LLC, Morrisville, N.C., USA), a computerized test battery consisting of 9 cognitive subtests. Exercise behavior was evaluated using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and CRF was assessed via a cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess peak oxygen consumption. Patients’ mean total exercise was 184 ± 141 min·week−1 compared with 442 ± 315 min·week−1 in controls (p < 0.001). Significantly fewer patients (32%) were meeting exercise guidelines (i.e., ≥150 min of moderate-intensity or vigorous exercise per week) compared with 57% of controls (p = 0.014). Patients’ peak oxygen consumption averaged 23.5 ± 6.3 mL·kg−1·min−1 compared with 30.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg−1·min−1 in controls (p < 0.01). Scores on the cognitive subdomains were generally lower in patients compared with controls, although only the difference in verbal memory was significant (unadjusted p = 0.041). In patients, weak to moderate correlations were indicated between exercise, peak oxygen consumption, and the majority of cognitive subdomain scores; however, there was a significant positive correlation between exercise and visual memory (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). In conclusion, breast cancer patients following the completion of primary adjuvant chemotherapy exhibit, in general, worse cognitive performance than healthy women from the general population, and such performance may be related to their level of exercise behavior. PMID:24869976

  12. Relationship between exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients treated with doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Crowgey, Theresa; Peters, Katherine B; Hornsby, Whitney E; Lane, Amy; McSherry, Frances; Herndon, James E; West, Miranda J; Williams, Christina L; Jones, Lee W

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and cognitive function in early breast cancer patients. Thirty-seven breast cancer patients following completion of chemotherapy (median 16 months) and 14 controls were studied. Cognitive function was assessed using the Central Nervous System (CNS) Vital Signs software (CNS Vital Signs, LLC, Morrisville, N.C., USA), a computerized test battery consisting of 9 cognitive subtests. Exercise behavior was evaluated using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire, and CRF was assessed via a cardiopulmonary exercise test to assess peak oxygen consumption. Patients' mean total exercise was 184 ± 141 min·week(-1) compared with 442 ± 315 min·week(-1) in controls (p < 0.001). Significantly fewer patients (32%) were meeting exercise guidelines (i.e., ≥150 min of moderate-intensity or vigorous exercise per week) compared with 57% of controls (p = 0.014). Patients' peak oxygen consumption averaged 23.5 ± 6.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) compared with 30.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) in controls (p < 0.01). Scores on the cognitive subdomains were generally lower in patients compared with controls, although only the difference in verbal memory was significant (unadjusted p = 0.041). In patients, weak to moderate correlations were indicated between exercise, peak oxygen consumption, and the majority of cognitive subdomain scores; however, there was a significant positive correlation between exercise and visual memory (r = 0.47, p = 0.004). In conclusion, breast cancer patients following the completion of primary adjuvant chemotherapy exhibit, in general, worse cognitive performance than healthy women from the general population, and such performance may be related to their level of exercise behavior.

  13. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active.

  14. Chute the Works. Motivating for Fitness and Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nancy L.

    1989-01-01

    Movement activities which utilize a rectangular chute are described. The chute, in addition to its motivational qualities, can be employed in several fitness areas--flexibility, muscular strength and endurance, and cardiorespiratory endurance. (IAH)

  15. Impact of coenzyme Q-10 on parameters of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle performance in older athletes taking statins.

    PubMed

    Deichmann, Richard E; Lavie, Carl J; Dornelles, Adriana C

    2012-11-01

    Many older athletes take statins, which are known to have potential for muscle toxicity. The adverse effects of statins on muscles and the influence thereof on athletic performance remain uncertain. Coenzyme Q-10 (CoQ10) may improve performance and reduce muscle toxicity in older athletes taking statins. This trial was designed to evaluate the benefits of CoQ10 administration for mitochondrial function in this population. Twenty athletes aged ≥ 50 years who were taking stable doses of statins were randomized to receive either CoQ10 (200 mg daily) or placebo for 6 weeks in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to evaluate the impact of CoQ10 on the anaerobic threshold (AT). Several secondary endpoints, including muscle function, cardiopulmonary exercise function, and subjective feelings of fitness, were also assessed. The mean (SD) change in AT from baseline was -0.59 (1.2) mL/kg/min during placebo treatment and 2.34 (0.8) mL/kg/min during CoQ10 treatment (P = 0.116). The mean change in time to AT from baseline was significantly greater during CoQ10 treatment than during placebo treatment (40.26 s vs 0.58 s, P = 0.038). Furthermore, muscle strength as measured by leg extension repetitions (reps) increased significantly during CoQ10 treatment, with a mean (SD) increase from baseline of 1.73 (2.9) reps during placebo treatment versus 3.78 (5.0) reps during CoQ10 treatment (P = 0.031). Many other parameters also tended to improve in response to CoQ10 treatment. Treatment with CoQ10 improved AT in comparison with baseline values in 11 of 19 (58%) subjects and in comparison with placebo treatment values in 10 of 19 (53%) subjects. Treatment with CoQ10 (200 mg daily) did not significantly improve AT in older athletes taking statins. However, it did improve muscle performance as measured by time to AT and leg strength (quadriceps muscle reps). Many other measures of mitochondrial function also tended to improve during CoQ10 treatment.

  16. Four-year change in cardiorespiratory fitness and influence on glycemic control in adults with Type 2 diabetes in a randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE To examine an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared with diabetes support and education (DSE) on 4-year change in fitness and physical activity (PA), and to examine the effect of change in fitness and PA, adjusting for potential confounders, on glycemic control in the Look AHEAD ...

  17. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  18. Muscle-Enriched MicroRNAs Isolated from Whole Blood Are Regulated by Exercise and Are Potential Biomarkers of Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Denham, Joshua; Prestes, Priscilla R.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Evidence indicating miRNAs influence exercise-induced health and performance adaptations is mounting. Circulating miRNAs are responsible for intercellular communication and could serve as biomarkers for disease and exercise-related traits. Such biomarkers would contribute to exercise screening, monitoring, and the development of personalized exercise prescription. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of long-term strenuous aerobic exercise training and a single bout of maximal aerobic exercise on five muscle-enriched miRNAs implicated in exercise adaptations (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494). We also determined linear correlations between miRNAs, resting heart rate, and maximum oxygen uptake (O2 max). We used TaqMan assay quantitative polymerase chain reaction to analyze the abundance of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494 in resting whole blood of 67 endurance athletes and 61 healthy controls. Relative to controls, endurance athletes exhibited increased miR-1, miR-486, and miR-494 content (1.26- to 1.58-fold change, all p < 0.05). miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-486 were decreased immediately after maximal aerobic exercise (0.64- to 0.76-fold change, all p < 0.01) performed by 19 healthy, young men (20.7 ± 2.4 years). Finally, we observed positive correlations between miRNA abundance and O2 max (miR-1 and miR-486) and an inverse correlation between miR-486 and resting heart rate. Therefore, muscle-enriched miRNAs isolated from whole blood are regulated by acute and long-term aerobic exercise training and could serve as biomarkers of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:27895662

  19. Muscle-Enriched MicroRNAs Isolated from Whole Blood Are Regulated by Exercise and Are Potential Biomarkers of Cardiorespiratory Fitness.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Prestes, Priscilla R

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Evidence indicating miRNAs influence exercise-induced health and performance adaptations is mounting. Circulating miRNAs are responsible for intercellular communication and could serve as biomarkers for disease and exercise-related traits. Such biomarkers would contribute to exercise screening, monitoring, and the development of personalized exercise prescription. Accordingly, we investigated the impact of long-term strenuous aerobic exercise training and a single bout of maximal aerobic exercise on five muscle-enriched miRNAs implicated in exercise adaptations (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494). We also determined linear correlations between miRNAs, resting heart rate, and maximum oxygen uptake (O2 max). We used TaqMan assay quantitative polymerase chain reaction to analyze the abundance of miR-1, miR-133a, miR-181a, miR-486, and miR-494 in resting whole blood of 67 endurance athletes and 61 healthy controls. Relative to controls, endurance athletes exhibited increased miR-1, miR-486, and miR-494 content (1.26- to 1.58-fold change, all p < 0.05). miR-1, miR-133a, and miR-486 were decreased immediately after maximal aerobic exercise (0.64- to 0.76-fold change, all p < 0.01) performed by 19 healthy, young men (20.7 ± 2.4 years). Finally, we observed positive correlations between miRNA abundance and O2 max (miR-1 and miR-486) and an inverse correlation between miR-486 and resting heart rate. Therefore, muscle-enriched miRNAs isolated from whole blood are regulated by acute and long-term aerobic exercise training and could serve as biomarkers of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  20. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth. PMID:18687148

  1. Adiposity and Age Explain Most of the Association between Physical Activity and Fitness in Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sánchez, José A.; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Olmedillas, Hugo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquín; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine if there is an association between physical activity assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Methodology/Principal Findings One hundred and eighty-two young males (age range: 20–55 years) completed the short form of the IPAQ to assess physical activity. Body composition (dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry), muscular fitness (static and dynamic muscle force and power, vertical jump height, running speed [30 m sprint], anaerobic capacity [300 m running test]) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max: 20 m shuttle run test) were also determined in all subjects. Activity-related energy expenditure of moderate and vigorous intensity (EEPAmoderate and EEPAvigorous, respectively) was inversely associated with indices of adiposity (r = −0.21 to −0.37, P<0.05). Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was positively associated with LogEEPAmoderate (r = 0.26, P<0.05) and LogEEPAvigorous (r = 0.27). However, no association between VO2max with LogEEPAmoderate, LogEPPAvigorous and LogEEPAtotal was observed after adjusting for the percentage of body fat. Multiple stepwise regression analysis to predict VO2max from LogEEPAwalking, LogEEPAmoderate, LogEEPAvigorous, LogEEPAtotal, age and percentage of body fat (%fat) showed that the %fat alone explained 62% of the variance in VO2max and that the age added another 10%, while the other variables did not add predictive value to the model [VO2max  = 129.6−(25.1× Log %fat) − (34.0× Log age); SEE: 4.3 ml.kg−1. min−1; R2 = 0.72 (P<0.05)]. No positive association between muscular fitness-related variables and physical activity was observed, even after adjusting for body fat or body fat and age. Conclusions/Significance Adiposity and age are the strongest predictors of VO2max in healthy men. The energy expended in moderate and vigorous physical activities is inversely associated with

  2. The Chemistry of Fitness. Active Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandine, David R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The outline for a unit on the chemistry of fitness and nutrition is presented. Topics discussed include the organic basis of life, functional groups, kitchen experiments, micronutrients, energetics, fitness vs. fatness, current topics, and evaluation. This unit reviews the basic concepts of chemical bonding, acid-base chemistry, stoichiometry, and…

  3. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  4. Influence of a medium-impact exercise program on health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness in females with subclinical hypothyroidism: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  5. [Metabolic fitness: physical activity and health].

    PubMed

    Saltin, Bengt; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2002-04-15

    Physical inactivity is strongly associated with an increased risk of premature disease and death, and the falling level of physical activity in Denmark (as in many other countries) makes physical inactivity a major life-style risk factor in many western countries today. Both aerobic fitness (maximum oxygen uptake) and metabolic capacity of the muscles are important in this matter. The present paper focuses on the role of the metabolic capacity/fitness of muscle, because this appears to be especially critical for the development of metabolic-related diseases and thus for the health of the individual. A definition of metabolic fitness is proposed as the ratio between mitochondrial capacity for substrate utilisation and maximum oxygen uptake of the muscle. Indirect means of determining this parameter are discussed. Skeletal muscle is an extraordinarily plastic tissue and metabolic capacity/fitness changes quickly when the level of physical activity is altered. High metabolic fitness includes an elevated use of fat at rest and during exercise. The capacity for glucose metabolism is also enhanced in trained muscle. Some of these adaptations to physical activity are explained. Exercise-induced activation of genes coding for proteins involved in metabolism is described as an underlying mechanism for some of these adaptations. The increased gene expression is of relatively short duration, which implies that a certain regularity of physical activity is required to maintain high metabolic fitness. Thus, metabolic fitness is directly related to how much the muscle is used, but even low levels of physical activity have a beneficial effect on metabolic fitness and the overall health of the individual.

  6. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    PubMed

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  7. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  8. Relation between self-reported physical activity level, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Minder, Camille Michael; Shaya, Gabriel E; Michos, Erin D; Keenan, Tanya E; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Carvalho, Jose A M; Conceição, Raquel D; Santos, Raul D; Blaha, Michael J

    2014-02-15

    Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with improved cardiovascular health and reduced all-cause mortality. The relation between self-reported physical activity, objective physical fitness, and the association of each with cardiometabolic risk has not been fully described. We studied 2,800 healthy Brazilian subjects referred for an employer-sponsored health screening. Physical activity level was determined as "low," "moderate," or "high" with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: Short Form (IPAQ-SF). Fitness was measured as METs achieved on a maximal, symptom-limited, treadmill stress test. Using multivariate linear regression analysis, we calculated age, gender, and smoking-adjusted correlation coefficients among IPAQ-SF, fitness, and cardiometabolic risk factors. Mean age of study participants was 43 ± 9 years; 81% were men, and 43% were highly active. Mean METs achieved was 12 ± 2. IPAQ-SF category and fitness were moderately correlated (r = 0.377). Compared with IPAQ-SF category, fitness was better correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors including anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, dyslipidemia, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis (all p <0.01). Among these, anthropomorphic measurements, blood pressure, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and hepatic steatosis had the largest discrepancies in correlation, whereas lipid factors had the least discrepant correlation. When IPAQ-SF and fitness were discordant, poor fitness drove associations with elevated cardiometabolic risk. In conclusion, self-reported physical activity level and directly measured fitness are moderately correlated, and the latter is more strongly associated with a protective cardiovascular risk profile.

  9. Routine Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162856.html Routine Checkup Should Assess Fitness, Too Cardiorespiratory test would help gauge patients' heart ... checked regularly, but an exercise expert says cardiorespiratory fitness should also be part of a routine medical ...

  10. More Cooperative and Fitness Activities on Scooters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes both individual and team cooperative and fitness activities that can be played with scooters. The activities include but are not limited to: (1) Traffic Jam; (2) Chariot; (3) Crab Walk; (4) Pom Pom Pull Away; (5) Clothespin Hustle; (6) Four Corners; (7) Spider; (8) Carousel; (9) Amoeba; (10) Caterpillar; (11) Centipede; (12)…

  11. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  12. Effects of Between- and Within-Subject Variability on Autonomic Cardiorespiratory Activity during Sleep and Their Limitations on Sleep Staging: A Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Long, Xi; Haakma, Reinder; Leufkens, Tim R M; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic cardiorespiratory activity changes across sleep stages. However, it is unknown to what extent it is affected by between- and within-subject variability during sleep. As it is hypothesized that the variability is caused by differences in subject demographics (age, gender, and body mass index), time, and physiology, we quantified these effects and investigated how they limit reliable cardiorespiratory-based sleep staging. Six representative parameters obtained from 165 overnight heartbeat and respiration recordings were analyzed. Multilevel models were used to evaluate the effects evoked by differences in sleep stages, demographics, time, and physiology between and within subjects. Results show that the between- and within-subject effects were found to be significant for each parameter. When adjusted by sleep stages, the effects in physiology between and within subjects explained more than 80% of total variance but the time and demographic effects explained less. If these effects are corrected, profound improvements in sleep staging can be observed. These results indicate that the differences in subject demographics, time, and physiology present significant effects on cardiorespiratory activity during sleep. The primary effects come from the physiological variability between and within subjects, markedly limiting the sleep staging performance. Efforts to diminish these effects will be the main challenge.

  13. Influence of Goal Setting on Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Low-Income Children Enrolled in CSPAP Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fu, You

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school physical activity programming (CSPAP) has been shown to increase school day physical activity and health-related fitness. The use of goal setting may further enhance the outcomes of CSPAP. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of physical activity leader (PAL) goal setting on school day…

  14. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  15. Association between Modified Shuttle Walk Test and cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight/obese adults with primary hypertension: EXERDIET-HTA study.

    PubMed

    Jurio-Iriarte, Borja; Gorostegi-Anduaga, Ilargi; Aispuru, G Rodrigo; Pérez-Asenjo, Javier; Brubaker, Peter H; Maldonado-Martín, Sara

    2017-02-07

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the relationship between Modified Shuttle Walk Test (MSWT) with peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) in overweight/obese people with primary hypertension (HTN) and to develop an equation for the MSWT to predict V˙O2peak. Participants (N = 256, 53.9 ± 8.1 years old) with HTN and overweight/obesity performed a cardiorespiratory exercise test to peak exertion on an upright bicycle ergometer using an incremental ramp protocol and the 15-level MSWT. The formula of Singh et al was used as a template to predict V˙O2peak, and a new equation was generated from the measured V˙O2peak-MSWT relationship in this investigation. The correlation between measured and predicted V˙O2peak for Singh et al equation was moderate (r = 0.60, P < .001) with a standard error of the estimate (SEE) of 4.92 mL·kg(-1) minute(-1), SEE% = 21%. The correlation between MSWT and measured V˙O2peak as well as for the new equation was strong (r = 0.72, P < .001) with a SEE of 4.35 mL·kg(-1) minute(-1), SEE% = 19%. These results indicate that MSWT does not accurately predict functional capacity in overweight/obese people with HTN and questions the validity of using this test to evaluate exercise intolerance. A more accurate determination from a new equation in the current study incorporating more variables from MSWT to estimate V˙O2peak has been performed but still results in substantial error.

  16. Smoking, Exercise, and Physical Fitness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-30

    activity , smoking behavior, and physical fitness were examined in 3,045 Navy personnel. Exercise and smoking behaviors were measured using a "life-style... physical endurance-both cardiorespiratory (1.5-mile run) and muscular (sit-ups). After controlling for the effects of exercise activity , smoking was...although smoking has been associated with lower physical activity in supervised exercise programs (Dishman, Sallis, & Orenstein, 1985). There has also

  17. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with children's physical activity during self-paced games.

    PubMed

    Belcastro, Angelo N; Morrison, Katherine S; Hicks, Emma; Matta, Helin

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of identifying clusters of children's games based on estimated energy expenditures and (or) intensity when performed in a guided active play format. The study also investigated whether the identified active play game clusters were repeatable when the games were performed on different days. Children (9.7 ± 1.1 years; n = 12) were assessed for oxygen consumption, heart rate, energy expenditure (EE), and metabolic equivalent (MET) on a treadmill (at 4, 6, and 8 km·h(-1) (0% grade)). HR and ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer (ACC) generated linear regression equations were used to estimate EE. The ACC (3 s epochs) were used for estimating METs in assigning percent time at medium-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) of 10 self-paced games. The results showed a consistent range of EEs (ACC-equation) from 13.57 kcal·(5 min)(-1) to 25.00 kcal·(5 min)(-1) (p < 0.05); EEs (HR-equation) from 29.72 to 42.49 kcal·(5 min)(-1) (p < 0.05); and %MVPA from 10% to 34% (p < 0.05) (from ACC equations) across all games. These were reproducible from day to day (p > 0.05). This study confirms the existence of active play children's game clusters that might be useful in formatting guided active play in a dose-response manner for children.

  18. Physical Activity and Fitness of First Nations Youth in a Remote and Isolated Northern Ontario Community: A Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona; Gates, Allison; Stephen, Judy; Fehst, Andrew; Tsuji, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Among a group of First Nations youth, this research aimed to obtain objective measures of anthropometry, physical activity (PA) and fitness; to identify any group-level differences by sex, body mass index, waist circumference and body fat categories; to assess the barriers and supports to PA. Youth participated in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), PA assessment (3 days of accelerometry) and fitness testing (guided by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach). Barriers and supports were assessed via environmental scan and focus groups. Descriptive statistics were compared to reference data. Group differences by sex, BMI status, waist circumference and body fat categories were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative data were assembled into one file and coded manually for categories and themes. Seventy-two youth (12.1 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% male) participated in at least one measure; 36 completed the accelerometry. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese, 51% were abdominally obese and 21% had excess body fat. Most (86.1%) met Canada's PA guidelines. Boys were more active than girls (p = 0.025) and had greater cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.003). Overweight, obese, or abdominally obese youth had lower cardiorespiratory endurance than normal weight youth (p < 0.001). Barriers and supports fell under the main themes: motivation, role models, personnel and facilities, environment and programs. Based on this assessment, youth in this community are active, but not sufficiently physically fit, especially among those affected by obesity and abdominal obesity. The findings, in addition to the numerous barriers to PA, support the community's desire for school-based PA programming.

  19. Active and Passive Optical Imaging Modality for Unobtrusive Cardiorespiratory Monitoring and Facial Expression Assessment.

    PubMed

    Blazek, Vladimir; Blanik, Nikolai; Blazek, Claudia R; Paul, Michael; Pereira, Carina; Koeny, Marcus; Venema, Boudewijn; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Because of their obvious advantages, active and passive optoelectronic sensor concepts are being investigated by biomedical research groups worldwide, particularly their camera-based variants. Such methods work noninvasively and contactless, and they provide spatially resolved parameter detection. We present 2 techniques: the active photoplethysmography imaging (PPGI) method for detecting dermal blood perfusion dynamics and the passive infrared thermography imaging (IRTI) method for detecting skin temperature distribution. PPGI is an enhancement of classical pulse oximetry. Approved algorithms from pulse oximetry for the detection of heart rate, heart rate variability, blood pressure-dependent pulse wave velocity, pulse waveform-related stress/pain indicators, respiration rate, respiratory variability, and vasomotional activity can easily be adapted to PPGI. Although the IRTI method primarily records temperature distribution of the observed object, information on respiration rate and respiratory variability can also be derived by analyzing temperature change over time, for example, in the nasal region, or through respiratory movement. Combined with current research areas and novel biomedical engineering applications (eg, telemedicine, tele-emergency, and telemedical diagnostics), PPGI and IRTI may offer new data for diagnostic purposes, including assessment of peripheral arterial and venous oxygen saturation (as well as their differences). Moreover, facial expressions and stress and/or pain-related variables can be derived, for example, during anesthesia, in the recovery room/intensive care unit and during daily activities. The main advantages of both monitoring methods are unobtrusive data acquisition and the possibility to assess vital variables for different body regions. These methods supplement each other to enable long-term monitoring of physiological effects and of effects with special local characteristics. They also offer diagnostic advantages for

  20. Excitatory amino acid transporters tonically restrain nTS synaptic and neuronal activity to modulate cardiorespiratory function

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) is the initial central termination site for visceral afferents and is important for modulation and integration of multiple reflexes including cardiorespiratory reflexes. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the nTS and is removed from the extracellular milieu by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of EAATs in the nTS on basal synaptic and neuronal function and cardiorespiratory regulation. The majority of glutamate clearance in the central nervous system is believed to be mediated by astrocytic EAAT 1 and 2. We confirmed the presence of EAAT 1 and 2 within the nTS and their colocalization with astrocytic markers. EAAT blockade with dl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) produced a concentration-related depolarization, increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency, and enhanced action potential discharge in nTS neurons. Solitary tract-evoked EPSCs were significantly reduced by EAAT blockade. Microinjection of TBOA into the nTS of anesthetized rats induced apneic, sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic responses. These effects mimicked the response to microinjection of exogenous glutamate, and glutamate responses were enhanced by EAAT blockade. Together these data indicate that EAATs tonically restrain nTS excitability to modulate cardiorespiratory function. PMID:26719090

  1. Physical activity and physical fitness in African-American girls with and without obesity.

    PubMed

    Ward, D S; Trost, S G; Felton, G; Saunders, R; Parsons, M A; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

    1997-11-01

    Lack of physical activity and low levels of physical fitness are thought to be contributing factors to the high prevalence of obesity in African-American girls. To examine this hypothesis, we compared habitual physical activity and physical fitness in 54 African-American girls with obesity and 96 African-American girls without obesity residing in rural South Carolina. Participation in vigorous (> or = 6 METs) (VPA) or moderate and vigorous physical activity (> or = 4 METs) (MVPA) was assessed on three consecutive days using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the PWC 170 cycle ergometer test. Upper body strength was determined at two sites via isometric cable tensiometer tests. Relative to their counterparts without obesity, girls with obesity reported significantly fewer 30-minute blocks of VPA (0.90 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.14) and MVPA (1.2 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.16) (p < 0.01). Within the entire sample, VPA and MVPA were inversely associated with body mass index (r = -0.17 and r = -0.19) and triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.19 and r = -0.22) (p < 0.05). In the PWC 170 test and isometric strength tests, girls with obesity demonstrated absolute scores that were similar to, or greater than, those of girls without obesity; however, when scores were expressed relative to bodyweight, girls with obesity demonstrated significantly lower values (p < 0.05). The results support the hypothesis that lack of physical activity and low physical fitness are important contributing factors in the development and/or maintenance of obesity in African-American girls.

  2. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  3. Cardiorespiratory Coupling in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alfredo J.; Koschnitzky, Jenna E.; Dashevskiy, Tatiana; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac and respiratory activities are intricately linked both functionally as well as anatomically through highly overlapping brainstem networks controlling these autonomic physiologies that are essential for survival. Cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC) has many potential benefits creating synergies that promote healthy physiology. However, when such coupling deteriorates autonomic dysautonomia may ensue. Unfortunately there is still an incomplete mechanistic understanding of both normal and pathophysiological interactions that respectively give rise to CRC and cardiorespiratory dysautonomia. Moreover, there is also a need for better quantitative methods to assess CRC. This review addresses the current understanding of CRC by discussing: (1) the neurobiological basis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA); (2) various disease states involving cardiorespiratory dysautonomia; and (3) methodologies measuring heart rate variability and RSA. PMID:23497744

  4. Media device ownership and media use: Associations with sedentary time, physical activity and fitness in English youth.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Alibrahim, Mohammed; Bellamy, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ownership and use of electronic media were associated with sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) in youth. We also aimed to determine if associations were independent of physical activity (PA). Fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle-run. PA, sedentary time, ownership of media devices and media use were self-reported. Participants (n = 678, age 10-15 years) reported daily sedentary time of 620 (± 210) min. Forty-one percent of participants had low PA and 50.4% had low fitness. Higher weekend sedentary time was associated with low fitness in girls (p = 0.005) and boys (p < 0.001) and remained significant when adjusted for PA in the latter (p = 0.006). Using social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and low fitness in girls. High sedentary time was more likely (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 2.0-14.4) in boys who owned game consoles. Low fitness was more likely in boys who owned digital/satellite TV receivers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.8-3.2). Schoolchildren spent > 10 h or ~ 85% of each waking day sedentary. Use of social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and with low fitness in girls. Reducing social media use in youth offers one potential target for intervention. Behaviours associated with sedentary time differed from predictors of low fitness. The complex and often sex-specific interactions identified between sedentary time, PA and fitness suggest the need for carefully targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time and improve fitness in English youth.

  5. The effects of basic fitness parameters on the implementation of specific military activities.

    PubMed

    Sporiš, Goran; Harasin, Dražen; Baić, Mario; Krističević, Tomislav; Krakan, Ivan; Milanović, Zoran; Cular, Dražen; Bagarić-Krakan, Lucija

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether basic fitness parameters have the impact on the specific military activity such as walking 18 km with 25 kg of load. The members of Croatian Armed Forces (30 soldiers) were tested before the beginning of the training program. The study has included variables for the assessment of muscular endurance: push-ups in 2 minutes, sit-ups in 2 minutes, maximum number of pull-ups before dropping from the bar, bench press with 70% of body weight-max number of repetitions, max number of squats for 60 seconds, then the variables for the assessment of aerobic capacity: the 3200m run and relative oxygen uptake using the direct method of measurement on a treadmill as well as the variable for the assessment of body fat (body fat %). As the criterion variable, it was used the 18 km walking with 25 kg of load. The results of the regression analysis have shown statistically significant relation of predictor variables with the criterion variable. The two variables, 3200m run and RVO2 had a significant Beta coefficient. Based on the obtained results it could be concluded that great cardio-respiratory endurance has a much larger impact on the walking length of 18 km with a load of 25 kg than other fitness parameters.

  6. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C.; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between students’ school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine. School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents’ physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  7. Association of School Environment and After-School Physical Activity with Health-Related Physical Fitness among Junior High School Students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kai-Yang; Wu, Min-Chen; Tung, Shu-Chin; Hsieh, City C; Yao, Hsueh-Hua; Ho, Chien-Chang

    2017-01-15

    The relationship between students' school environment and exercise habits is complex, and is affected by numerous factors. However, the few studies that have been conducted on this relationship have reported inconsistent results, especially regarding Taiwanese students. We conducted this cross-sectional study to investigate the association of school environment and after-school physical activity with health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents. Data were drawn from a national survey conducted by the Ministry of Education in Taiwan in 2008 of health-related physical fitness measurements among junior high school students (649,442 total) in grades seven to nine.School environment (level of urbanization, school size, presence of sports field or gymnasium) and after-school physical activity were assessed for their association with adolescents' physical fitness measurements (body mass index (BMI), bent-leg sit-ups, 800-/1600-m run, sit-and-reach, standing long jump). Urban boys and girls perform significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; girls from rural areas exhibited significantly worse scores in body composition. Boys from large-size schools performed the worst in cardiorespiratory endurance, flexibility, and explosive power; whereas girls from large-size schools performed the worst in muscle strength, muscle endurance, and explosive power, but had the best score for body composition. However, the differences in body composition of boys from large-, medium-, and small- size schools did not reach a statistically significant level. Adolescents of both genders in schools with a sports field or gymnasium exhibited significantly better in muscle strength and endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, and explosive power. Boys in schools with a sports field or gymnasium had significantly better body composition; girls in schools with sports field or gymnasium differed significantly in

  8. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  9. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Chillón, Palma

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  10. Novel risk factors of cardiovascular disease and their associations between obesity, physical activity and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Duncan S; Thomas, Non E; Baker, Julien S

    2012-02-17

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD.

  11. Summer Alterations in Youth Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastad, Douglas N.; Pangrazi, Robert P.

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated changes in children's physical fitness during summer vacation. Children's cardiorespiratory fitness decreased, as did their body weight, especially for boys. Fall curriculum offerings should be designed to accommodate detrained students. (PP)

  12. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  13. A preseason cardiorespiratory profile of dancers in nine professional ballet and modern companies.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Lora, Jennifer Bailey; Southwick, Heather; Kulak, Michelina Cassella; Gamboa, Jennifer; Rooney, Megan; Gilman, Greg; Gibbs, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While studies have investigated the physical demands of dance in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, there are no recent comparisons of cardiorespiratory response to exercise among professional dancers of different genres. Our purpose was to: 1. develop a cardiorespiratory profile of professional dancers; 2. investigate differences in peak and recovery heart rate (HR) between professional modern and ballet dancers using an accelerated 3-minute step test; 3. demonstrate the relationship between cardiorespiratory variables; and 4. investigate the effects of company and work variables on the dancers' cardiorespiratory profiles. We hypothesized greater cardiorespiratory fitness in modern dancers than in ballet dancers, due to the nature of their repertory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that company profiles would reflect differences in work variables. Two hundred and eleven dancers (mean age 24.6 ± 4.7) from nine companies (two modern and seven ballet) performed a 3-minute step test. Demographics, height, mass, blood pressure (BP), smoking history, and resting peak and recovery HR were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) and fitness category were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences in demographics and cardiorespiratory variables due to genre, MANOVA were conducted to compare differences due to company, and correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between cardiorespiratory variables (p < 0.05). Modern dancers demonstrated higher mass and BMI, lower BP, lower resting HR and HR recovery, and a higher percentage were categorized as "fit" compared to ballet dancers (p < 0.03). There were differences between companies in age, experience, BMI, BP, resting, peak, and recovery HR, and fitness category (p < 0.001). The differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels that may be related to rigor of repertory, rehearsal and performance seasons, or off-season exercise training are discussed. Results support the need for comprehensive

  14. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  15. StayFit: a wearable application for Gym based power training.

    PubMed

    Maheedhar, Maram; Gaurav, Aman; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2016-08-01

    Comprehensive fitness training involves both cardiorespiratory and power components. Often power/muscle strength training is confused with cardiorespiratory endurance training. However, each of them target different physiological aspects of fitness. Although, wearable based fitness trackers designed towards cardiorespiratory endurance training are available in the market, a dedicated wearable based fitness application designed for power training/tracking is still not readily available to fitness enthusiasts. With growing usage of wearable technology to manage and track personal health, it is imperative to develop health/fitness applications for wearables. A wearable based application for power training will allow the user to track build-up of muscle strength unobtrusively over a period of time. This work provides a framework and design for automatic detection, counting repetitions of strength training Gym exercises (covering all the major muscle groups), estimate personalized calories spent in each session and track power on a standalone Gear watch (both analysis and display including User Experience(UX) design). Our proposed method detects activity with ~96% sensitivity and ~96% specificity on an average and count repetitions with an overall accuracy of >95% using motion sensor data (accelerometer, gyroscope) for eight major Gym exercises. Additionally, using heart rate sensor data we have provided a mechanism to individually track the power/muscle strength of a person. This work will give further impetus towards developing wearable based systems for personalized fitness tracking and training. This will also give an option for wearable users to address both the crucial aspects of fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscle strength).

  16. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  17. Self-Efficacy and the Stages and Processes of Change Associated with Adopting and Maintaining Muscular Fitness-Promoting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kosma, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The majority of physical activity initiatives have been directed toward promoting cardiorespiratory fitness and general health. Far less attention has been devoted to encouraging or understanding muscular fitness-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if constructs from the Transtheoretical Model, a contemporary behavior…

  18. Physical Activity and Fitness for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Janet A.; Corbin, Chuck, Ed.; Pangrazi, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the approach to physical activity for people with disabilities has been couched in medical rationale and focused on rehabilitation. This does not account for physical activity for the joy of it as in play, exercise to improve or maintain fitness, or activity required in employment. The new paradigm of healthy, active lifestyles for…

  19. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  20. Effects of physical activity on exercise tests and respiratory function

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y; Macera, C; Addy, C; Sy, F; Wieland, D; Blair, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Exercise is an important component of pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with chronic lung disease. Objective: To explore the role of physical activity in maintaining cardiac and respiratory function in healthy people. Methods: Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a maximal treadmill test (MTT), and respiratory function was tested by spirometry. The cross sectional study included data from 24 536 healthy persons who were examined at the Cooper Clinic between 1971 and 1995; the longitudinal study included data from 5707 healthy persons who had an initial visit between 1971 and 1995 and a subsequent visit during the next five years. All participants were aged 25–55 years and completed a cardiorespiratory test and a medical questionnaire. Results: In the cross sectional study, after controlling for covariates, being active and not being a recent smoker were associated with better cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function in both men and women. In the follow up study, persons who remained or became active had better MTT than persons who remained or became sedentary. Men who remained active had higher forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) than the other groups. Smoking was related to lower cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory function. Conclusions: Physical activity and non-smoking or smoking cessation is associated with maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness. Change in physical activity habits is associated with change in cardiorespiratory fitness, but respiratory function contributed little to this association during a five year follow up. PMID:14665592

  1. Apps for IMproving FITness and Increasing Physical Activity Among Young People: The AIMFIT Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the global prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA), effective interventions that attenuate age-related decline in PA levels are needed. Mobile phone interventions that positively affect health (mHealth) show promise; however, their impact on PA levels and fitness in young people is unclear and little is known about what makes a good mHealth app. Objective The aim was to determine the effects of two commercially available smartphone apps (Zombies, Run and Get Running) on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA levels in insufficiently active healthy young people. A second aim was to identify the features of the app design that may contribute to improved fitness and PA levels. Methods Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) was a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through advertisements in electronic mailing lists, local newspapers, flyers posted in community locations, and presentations at schools. Eligible young people aged 14-17 years were allocated at random to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) use of an immersive app (Zombies, Run), (2) use of a nonimmersive app (Get Running), or (3) usual behavior (control). Both smartphone apps consisted of a fully automated 8-week training program designed to improve fitness and ability to run 5 km; however, the immersive app featured a game-themed design and narrative. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using data collected face-to-face at baseline and 8 weeks, and all regression models were adjusted for baseline outcome value and gender. The primary outcome was cardiorespiratory fitness, objectively assessed as time to complete the 1-mile run/walk test at 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes were PA levels (accelerometry and self-reported), enjoyment, psychological need satisfaction, self-efficacy, and acceptability and usability of the apps. Results A total of 51 participants were randomized to the immersive app intervention (n=17), nonimmersive

  2. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises.

    PubMed

    Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M

    2013-06-01

    A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients.

  3. Exercise Do's and Don'ts: Guidelines for Fitness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sharon

    Many common exercises are contraindicated due to their potential for injury relative to benefit produced. Specific contraindicated exercises are discussed, and safer, more effective exercises are recommended. Current stretching and toning guidelines are also given which apply to all fitness activities. (Author)

  4. Physical fitness assessment: an update.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Greene, Jill Amanda; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) gives the following definition of health-related physical fitness: Physical fitness is defined as a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. It is also characterized by (1) an ability to perform daily activities with vigor, and (2) a demonstration of traits and capacities that are associated with a low risk of premature development of hypokinetic diseases (e.g., those associated with physical inactivity). Information from an individual's health and medical records can be combined with information from physical fitness assessment to meet the specific health goals and rehabilitative needs of that individual. Attaining adequate informed consent from participants prior to exercise testing is mandatory because of ethical and legal considerations.A physical fitness assessment includes measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness, and musculoskeletal flexibility. The three common techniques for assessing body composition are hydrostatic weighing, and skinfold measurements, and anthropometric measurements. Cardiorespiratory endurance is a crucial component of physical fitness assessment because of its strong correlation with health and health risks. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is the traditionally accepted criterion for measuring cardiorespiratory endurance. Although maximal-effort tests must be used to measure VO2max, submaximal exercise can be used to estimate this value. Muscular fitness has historically been used to describe an individual's integrated status of muscular strength and muscular endurance. An individual's muscular strength is specific to a particular muscle or muscle group and refers to the maximal force (N or kg) that the muscle or muscle group can generate. Dynamic strength can be assessed by measuring the movement of an individual's body against an external load. Isokinetic testing may be performed by assessing

  5. Information dynamics in cardiorespiratory analyses: application to controlled breathing.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Devy; Faes, Luca; Montalto, Alessandro; Van Diest, Ilse; Marinazzo, Daniele; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary adjustment of the breathing pattern is widely used to deal with stress-related conditions. In this study, effects of slow and fast breathing with a low and high inspiratory to expiratory time on heart rate variability (HRV) are evaluated by means of information dynamics. Information transfer is quantified both as the traditional transfer entropy as well as the cross entropy, where the latter does not condition on the past of HRV, thereby taking the highly unidirectional relation between respiration and heart rate into account. The results show that the cross entropy is more suited to quantify cardiorespiratory information transfer as this measure increases during slow breathing, indicating the increased cardiorespiratory coupling and suggesting the shift towards vagal activation during slow breathing. Additionally we found that controlled breathing, either slow or fast, results as well in an increase in cardiorespiratory coupling, compared to spontaneous breathing, which demonstrates the beneficial effects of instructed breathing.

  6. Aerobic fitness testing: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, N; Sykes, K

    1996-12-01

    This study confirms that all three tests are reliable tools for the assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness and the prediction of aerobic capacity. While this particular study consisted of active, youthful subjects, subsequent studies at University College Chester have found similar findings with larger databases and a wider cross-section of subjects. The Astrand cycle test and Chester step test are submaximal tests with error margins of 5-15 per cent and therefore, not as precise as maximal testing. However, they still give a reasonably accurate reflection of an individual's fitness without the cost, time, effort and risk on the part of the subject. The bleep test is a low-cost maximal test designed for well-motivated, active individuals who are used to running to physical exhaustion. Used on other groups, results will not accurately reflect cardiorespiratory fitness values. While all three tests have inherent advantages and disadvantages, perhaps the most important factors are the knowledge and skills of the tester. Without a sound understanding of the physiological principles underlying these tests, and the ability to conduct an accurate assessment and evaluation of results in a knowledgeable and meaningful way, then the credibility of the tests and the results become suspect. However, used correctly, aerobic capacity tests can provide valuable baseline data about the fitness levels of individuals and data from which exercise programmes may be developed. The tests also enable fitness improvements to be monitored, help to motivate participants by establishing reasonable and achievable goals, assist in risk stratification and facilitate participants' education about the importance of physical fitness for work and for life. Since this study was completed, further tests have been repeated on 140 subjects of a wider age and ability range. This large database confirms the results found in this study.

  7. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  8. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  9. Tracking of physical activity and fitness during the early years.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Hilary A T; Proudfoot, Nicole A; King-Dowling, Sara; Di Cristofaro, Natascja A; Cairney, John; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-05-01

    The early years are characterized by rapid physical growth and the development of behaviours such as physical activity. The objectives of this study were to assess the 12-month changes in and the tracking of physical activity and fitness in 400 preschoolers (201 boys, 4.5 ± 0.9 years of age). Physical activity data, expressed as minutes per day and as the percentage of time spent at various intensities while wearing an accelerometer, were collected in 3-s epochs for 7 days. Short-term muscle power, assessed with a 10-s modified Wingate Anaerobic Test, was expressed as absolute (W) and relative (W/kg) peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). Aerobic fitness, assessed with the Bruce Protocol progressive treadmill test, was expressed as maximal treadmill time and heart rate recovery (HRR). Light physical activity decreased by 3.2 min/day (p < 0.05), whereas vigorous physical activity increased by 3.7 min/day (p < 0.001), from year 1 to year 2. Physical activity exhibited moderate tracking on the basis of Spearman correlations (r = 0.45-0.59, p < 0.001) and fair tracking on the basis of κ statistics (κ = 0.26-0.38). PP and MP increased from year 1 (PP, 94.1 ± 37.3 W; MP, 84.1 ± 30.9 W) to year 2 (PP, 125.6 ± 36.2 W; MP, 112.3 ± 32.2 W) (p < 0.001) and tracked moderately to substantially (PP, r = 0.89, κ = 0.61; MP, r = 0.86, κ = 0.56). Time to exhaustion on the treadmill increased from 9.4 ± 2.3 min to 11.8 ± 2.3 min (p < 0.001) and tracked strongly (r = 0.82, κ = 0.56). HRR was unchanged at 65 ± 14 beats/min (p = 0.297) and tracked fairly (r = 0.52, κ = 0.23). The findings indicate that fitness tracks better than physical activity over a 12-month period during the early years.

  10. Effect of female sex hormones on cardiorespiratory parameters

    PubMed Central

    Godbole, Gayatri; Joshi, A. R.; Vaidya, Savita M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone regulate various phases of the menstrual cycle. Hormonal changes tend to affect various parameters of physical fitness. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) is a measure of aerobic power. This study was planned to assess effect of different phases of menstrual cycle on cardiorespiratory parameters like pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max. Methods: 100 female medical students in the age group of 17-22 years were studied for three consecutive menstrual cycles. Weight, resting pulse rate, respiratory rate and VO2 max were measured during premenstrual phase (20th-25th day) and postmenstrual phase (5th to 10th day). Results: It was observed that there was a significant increase in body weight, pulse rate, and respiratory rate during premenstrual phase. There was a decrease in VO2 max during the premenstrual phase. Conclusion: This study indicates that there is decreased cardio-respiratory efficiency during premenstrual phase. PMID:28348998

  11. Exercise using the Wii Fit plus with a child with primary Raynaud's disease and obesity: a case report.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Kathlene K; Arnold, Sandra H; McEwen, Irene R; Jeffries, Lynn M

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the use of the Nintendo® Wii Fit Plus as an alternative exercise for an 11-year-old child with primary Raynaud's disease (PRD) and obesity who was not involved in organized sports and had limited outdoor physical activity and exercise. The Wii Fit Plus exercise parameters are described as well as outcomes measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. Specifically, we evaluated changes in body mass index (BMI), cardiorespiratory fitness, and health related quality of life (HRQL). Following the 24-week exercise program, the child's BMI decreased, cardiorespiratory fitness increased, and HRQL increased and were comparable to values in healthy children. These findings suggest that the Wii Fit Plus may have been an effective exercise strategy for this child.

  12. When 'fit' leads to fit, and when 'fit' leads to fat: how message framing and intrinsic vs. extrinsic exercise outcomes interact in promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kristel M; Updegraff, John A

    2011-07-01

    A unique aspect of exercise is that people may choose to engage in it to achieve a variety of outcomes, ranging from extrinsic (appearance, health) to intrinsic (satisfaction, enjoyment). We examined how the impact of gain- vs. loss-framed messages depends on the type of outcome emphasised. Drawing from regulatory focus theory (Higgins, E.T. (1997). Beyond pleasure and pain. American Psychologist, 52, 1280-1300; Higgins, E.T. (2000). Making a good decision: Value from fit. American Psychologist, 55, 1217-1230), we predicted that gain-framed messages would 'fit' with intrinsic outcomes and loss-framed messages would 'fit' with extrinsic outcomes, but the effect of such fit on physical activity would depend on the participants' need for cognition (NC). We tested these hypotheses with a sample of 176 sedentary young adults who read an exercise message with randomly assigned frame (gain/loss) and outcome (intrinsic/extrinsic). Participants provided daily reports of exercise over the following week. The predicted interaction between frame, outcome and NC was found (p=0.001) such that a 'fit' message promoted somewhat, but not significantly, greater exercise for those with high NC, but a 'non-fit' message promoted significantly greater exercise for those with low NC. Furthermore, differences in physical activity were partially mediated by attitudes towards exercise. Findings shed light on how the outcomes and motivations associated with physical activity shape people's behavioural responses to framed health communications.

  13. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or

  14. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities.

  15. Cardiorespiratory Considerations in Dance: From Classes to Performances.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-09-01

    When attempting to ascertain dancers' fitness levels, essential parameters, such as aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular power and strength, flexibility, and body composition, must be considered. Dance is characterized as an intermittent type of exercise, demanding energy from different metabolic pathways (aerobic and anaerobic, lactic or alactic). A dancer's maximum aerobic capacity (ranging from 37 to 57 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) is related to his or her dance style, gender, level of technical ability, and status in a dance company. However, dancers' cardiorespiratory requirements during dance classes (essentially designed for the development of technical skills) are significantly lower than during dance performances, indicating that there is a divergence between dance training and performance with regard to demands on dancers' physical fitness. It follows that supplementary fitness training is needed in order to optimize dancers' technical and artistic performance and to reduce the incidence of injury. Traditional aerobic and strength training have been proposed to cover dancers' lack of conditioning; however, it seems likely that high-intensity interval training would more properly meet the requirements of today's choreography. Therefore, with an approach that applies basic exercise physiology to dance characteristics, this review covers the following topics: 1. dance as physical exercise; 2. dancers' aerobic capacity; 3. cardiorespiratory demands of dance classes and performances; 4. supplementary fitness training for dancers; and 5. fitness testing and assessment for dancers.

  16. Amino acids intake and physical fitness among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Pedrero-Chamizo, Raquel; Manios, Yannis; Marcos, Ascensión; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Polito, Angela; Vanhelst, Jeremy; Hagströmer, Maria; Sjöström, Michael; Kafatos, Anthony; de Henauw, Stefaan; Gutierrez, Ángel; Castillo, Manuel J; Moreno, Luis A

    2017-03-17

    The aim was to investigate whether there was an association between amino acid (AA) intake and physical fitness and if so, to assess whether this association was independent of carbohydrates intake. European adolescents (n = 1481, 12.5-17.5 years) were measured. Intake was assessed via two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Lower and upper limbs muscular fitness was assessed by standing long jump and handgrip strength tests, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by the 20-m shuttle run test. Physical activity was objectively measured. Socioeconomic status was obtained via questionnaires. Lower limbs muscular fitness seems to be positively associated with tryptophan, histidine and methionine intake in boys, regardless of centre, age, socioeconomic status, physical activity and total energy intake (model 1). However, these associations disappeared once carbohydrates intake was controlled for (model 2). In girls, only proline intake seems to be positively associated with lower limbs muscular fitness (model 2) while cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be positively associated with leucine (model 1) and proline intake (models 1 and 2). None of the observed significant associations remained significant once multiple testing was controlled for. In conclusion, we failed to detect any associations between any of the evaluated AAs and physical fitness after taking into account the effect of multiple testing.

  17. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  18. Cardio-Respiratory Effects of Air Pollution in a Panel Study of Outdoor Physical Activity and Health in Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stieb, David M.; Shutt, Robin; Kauri, Lisa; Mason, Sarah; Chen, Li; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Dobbin, Nina A.; Rigden, Marc; Jovic, Branka; Mulholland, Marie; Green, Martin S.; Liu, Ling; Pelletier, Guillaume; Weichenthal, Scott A.; Dales, Robert E.; Luginaah, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine cardio-respiratory effects of air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors. Methods: Adults 55 and over completed measurements of blood pressure, peak expiratory flow and oximetry daily, and of heart rate variability, endothelial function, spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and urinary oxidative stress markers weekly, before and after outdoor exercise, for 10 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Results: Pooled estimates combining 2013 (n = 36 participants) and 2014 (n = 41) indicated that an interquartile increase in the air quality health index (AQHI) was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in heart rate (2.1%) and significant decreases in high frequency power (−19.1%), root mean square of successive differences (−9.5%), and reactive hyperemia index (−6.5%). Conclusions: We observed acute subclinical adverse effects of air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors.

  19. Increasing Student Physical Fitness through Increased Choice of Fitness Activities and Student Designed Fitness Activities for Ninth through Twelfth Graders in Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Margo A.

    2011-01-01

    This action research project report began when the teacher researcher determined that students exhibited physical fitness levels below that of the state and national norms, and also displayed negative attitudes about physical education. The purpose of this action research project was to increase physical fitness and fitness attitudes through…

  20. The Relationship between Farming Activities, Physical Fitness and Body Fat,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Military training, *Military personnel, *Research management, *Physical fitness, *Measurement, National Guard, Statistical analysis, Mean, Fat cells, Human body , Questionnaires, Field tests, Test methods, Variables, Scoring

  1. The importance of physical fitness for injury prevention: part 1.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness can be defined as a set of attributes that allows the ability to perform physical activity. The attributes or components of fitness were identified by testing large numbers of individuals on physical performance tests (e.g., sit-ups, push-ups, runs, pull-ups, rope climbs, vertical jump, long jumps), and using statistical techniques to find tests that seem to share common performance requirements. These studies identified strength, muscular endurance, cardiorespiratory endurance, coordination, balance, flexibility, and body composition as important fitness components. Military studies have clearly shown that individuals with lower levels of cardiorespiratory endurance or muscular endurance are more likely to be injured and that improving fitness lowers injury risk. Those who are more fit perform activity at a lower percentage of their maximal capability and so can perform the task for a longer period of time, fatigue less rapidly, recover faster, and have greater reserve capacity for subsequent tasks. Fatigue alters movement patterns, putting stress on parts of the body unaccustomed to it, possibly increasing the likelihood of injury. Soldiers should develop and maintain high levels of physical fitness, not only for optimal performance of occupational tasks but also to reduce injury risk.

  2. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  3. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break. PMID:28377791

  4. Effect of a 12-Week Summer Break on School Day Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness in Low-Income Children from CSPAP Schools.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Brusseau, Timothy A; Hannon, James C; Burns, Ryan D

    2017-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a 12-week summer break on school day physical activity and health-related fitness (HRF) in children from schools receiving a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Methods. Participants were school-aged children (N = 1,232; 624 girls and 608 boys; mean age = 9.5 ± 1.8 years) recruited from three low-income schools receiving a CSPAP. Physical activity and HRF levels were collected during the end of spring semester 2015 and again during the beginning of fall semester 2015. Physical activity was assessed using the Yamax DigiWalker CW600 pedometer. HRF measures consisted of body mass index (BMI) and the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Results. Results from a doubly MANCOVA analysis indicated that pedometer step counts decreased from 4,929 steps in the spring to 4,445 steps in the fall (mean difference = 484 steps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.30) and PACER laps decreased from 31.2 laps in the spring to 25.8 laps in the fall (mean difference = 5.4 laps; P < 0.001; Cohen's d = 0.33). Conclusions. Children from schools receiving a CSPAP intervention had lower levels of school day physical activity and cardiorespiratory endurance following a 12-week summer break.

  5. Activity Book. Fitting in Fitness: An Integrated Approach to Health, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bruce; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This integrated unit focuses on healthy hearts and how to use exercise and nutrition to be "heart smart" for life. The unit includes activities on heart function, exercise, workouts, family activities, nutrition, cholesterol, and food labels. The activities help develop research techniques, thinking skills, and cooperative learning…

  6. Synchronization and modulation in the human cardiorespiratory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotrič, Maja Bračič; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2000-08-01

    We analyse phase and frequency synchronization in the human cardio-respiratory system. The method for analysis of noisy nonstationary bivariate data is applied to simultaneously measured cardiac and respiratory activity. Short epochs of phase and/or frequency locking between respiratory and cardiac rhythms are detected in healthy relaxed subjects (non-athletes). We reveal that the strength of phase synchronization is inversely related to the extent of respiratory modulation of the heart rate.

  7. Fitness: A Family Affair. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Joy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ways parents can help children create a lifestyle that supports physical fitness, focusing on motivation for children and parents. Defines the components of fitness: cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and flexibility. Presents information on developing adult and child fitness programs, including a workout…

  8. Is Olympic inspiration associated with fitness and physical activity in English schoolchildren? A repeated cross-sectional comparison before and 18 months after London 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Beedie, Chris; Mann, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare cardiovascular fitness and physical activity of schoolchildren 18 months after London 2012 according to Olympic ‘inspiration’. Design A cross-sectional comparison between groups of schoolchildren categorised according to self-reported Olympic inspiration and a repeated cross-sectional comparison using data collected pre-2012. Setting Schools within a 50 km radius of the Olympic Park, Stratford, London. Participants 931 students (10.0–15.9-year-olds) attending 6 schools assessed in 2013 and 2014 (18 (range: 14–20) months after London 2012) and 733 students from the same schools assessed in 2008–2009 (42 (range: 38–46) months before London 2012). Primary outcome measures Self-reported Olympic inspiration; cardiorespiratory fitness ( mL/kg/min) assessed using the 20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity. Secondary outcomes measures Differences in before and after London 2012. Results 53% of children reported being inspired to try new sports or activities. Compared with those not inspired by the Games, was higher in boys (d=0.43) and girls (d=0.27), who continued to participate in activities at 18(14–20) months. This 45% of sample was also more physically active (boys, d=0.23; girls, d=0.38) than those not or only briefly inspired to participate in activities (boys, d=0.24; girls, d=0.21). Compared with pre-2012 values, was lower post-2012 in boys (d=0.37) and in girls (d=0.38). Conclusions High levels of inspiration to participate in new activities reported following London 2012 and positive associations with fitness are encouraging. We cannot discount the possibility that inspired participants may have already been fitter and more active pre-2012. These associations must be interpreted in the context of the significant declines in fitness shown by our repeated cross-sectional comparison. Olympic host countries should employ longitudinal monitoring using objectively measured fitness and physical activity to

  9. Constructing cardiovascular fitness knowledge in physical education.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on cardiorespiratory fitness and health. Fourth grade students (N = 616) from 15 randomly sampled urban elementary schools completed 34 cognitive assignments related to the cardiorespiratory physical activities they were engaged in across 10 lessons. Performance on the assignments were analyzed in relation to their knowledge gain measured using a standardized knowledge test. A multivariate discriminant analysis revealed that the cognitive assignments contributed to knowledge gain but the contribution varied assignment by assignment. A multiple regression analysis indicated that students' assignment performance by lesson contributed positively to their knowledge growth scores. A content analysis based on the constructivist learning framework showed that observing-reasoning assignments contributed the most to knowledge growth. Analytical and analytical-application assignments contributed less than the constructivist theories would predict.

  10. Let's Get Fit!: Fitness Activities for Children with Severe/Profound Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Scott J.; Cox, Thomas Alan

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for developing a physical activity program for students with severe/profound disabilities address medical clearance; levels of participation; staffing; equipment; and program components, including warm-up, range of motion/flexibility activities, aerobics, resistance training, and cool-down. (DB)

  11. Keep Fit. Suggested Fitness Activities for Forms 1-4 Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinataci, S.

    This booklet is designed for teachers who conduct physical education programs and who coach sports in schools where modern training equipment is not available. Most of the equipment described or shown in this booklet can be improvised. The activities are designed for girls in grades seven through ten. The following activities are covered in the…

  12. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  13. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.

  14. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  15. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  16. Self-reported physical activity and preaccession fitness testing in U.S. Army applicants.

    PubMed

    Gubata, Marlene E; Cowan, David N; Bedno, Sheryl A; Urban, Nadia; Niebuhr, David W

    2011-08-01

    The Assessment of Recruit Motivation and Strength (ARMS) study evaluated a physical fitness screening test for Army applicants before basic training. This report examines applicants' self-reported physical activity as a predictor of objective fitness measured by ARMS. In 2006, the ARMS study administered a fitness test and physical activity survey to Army applicants during their medical evaluation, using multiple logistic regression for comparison. Among both men and women, "qualified" and "exceeds-body-fat" subjects who met American College of Sports Medicine adult physical activity guidelines were more likely to pass the fitness test. Overall, subjects who met physical activity recommendations, watched less television, and played on sports teams had a higher odds of passing the ARMS test after adjustment for age, race, and smoking status. This study demonstrates that self-reported physical activity was associated with physical fitness and may be used to identify those at risk of failing a preaccession fitness test.

  17. Aging, Tolerance to High Altitude, and Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul; Lhuissier, François J

    2015-06-01

    Richalet, Jean-Paul, and François J. Lhuissier. Aging, tolerance to high altitude, and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:117-124, 2015.--It is generally accepted that aging is rather protective, at least at moderate altitude. Some anecdotal reports even mention successful ascent of peaks over 8000 m and even Everest by elderly people. However, very few studies have explored the influence of aging on tolerance to high altitude and prevalence of acute high altitude related diseases, taking into account all confounding factors such as speed of ascent, altitude reached, sex, training status, and chemo-responsiveness. Changes in physiological responses to hypoxia with aging were assessed through a cross-sectional 20-year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 yrs old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4-year interval. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased, while desaturation was less pronounced with aging. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with aging in both genders. Similar results were found in the longitudinal study, with a decrease in cardiac and an increase in ventilatory response to hypoxia with aging. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal untrained women. In conclusion, in normal healthy and active subjects, aging has no deleterious effect on cardiac and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, at least up to the eighth decade. Aging is not a contraindication for high altitude, as far as no pathological condition interferes and physical fitness is compatible with the intensity of the expected physical demand of one's individual. Physiological evaluation through hypoxic exercise testing before going to high altitude is helpful to detect risk factors of severe high altitude-related diseases.

  18. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Overground Among Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Pharo, Elizabeth; Clesson, Ismari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton technology is being developed with the promise of affording people with spinal cord injury (SCI) the opportunity to stand and walk. The mobility benefits of exoskeleton-assisted walking can be realized immediately, however the cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits of this technology have not been thoroughly investigated. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with exoskeleton-assisted walking overground and to determine the degree to which these responses change at differing walking speeds. Methods: Five subjects (4 male, 1 female) with chronic SCI (AIS A) volunteered for the study. Expired gases were collected during maximal graded exercise testing and two, 6-minute bouts of exoskeleton-assisted walking overground. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), average oxygen consumption (V̇O2avg), peak heart rate (HRpeak), walking economy, metabolic equivalent of tasks for SCI (METssci), walk speed, and walk distance. Results: Significant differences were observed between walk-1 and walk-2 for walk speed, total walk distance, V̇O2avg, and METssci. Exoskeleton-assisted walking resulted in %V̇O2peak range of 51.5% to 63.2%. The metabolic cost of exoskeleton-assisted walking ranged from 3.5 to 4.3 METssci. Conclusion: Persons with motor-complete SCI may be limited in their capacity to perform physical exercise to the extent needed to improve health and fitness. Based on preliminary data, cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands of exoskeleton-assisted walking are consistent with activities performed at a moderate intensity. PMID:26364281

  19. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions

    PubMed Central

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2013-01-01

    During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

  20. Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

    PubMed

    Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.

  1. Use of SPARK to Promote After-School Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Heidi; Thompson, Hannah; Kinder, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The after-school period is potentially an important venue for increasing physical activity for youth. We sought to assess the effectiveness of the Sports, Play, and Recreation for Youth (SPARK) program to increase physical activity and improve cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status among elementary students after school. Methods:…

  2. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  3. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  4. Moderate Hyperbilirubinemia Alters Neonatal Cardiorespiratory Control and Induces Inflammation in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

    PubMed Central

    Specq, Marie-Laure; Bourgoin-Heck, Mélisande; Samson, Nathalie; Corbin, François; Gestreau, Christian; Richer, Maxime; Kadhim, Hazim; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) occurs in 90% of preterm newborns. Moderate HB can induce acute neurological disorders while severe HB has been linked to a higher incidence of apneas of prematurity. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that even moderate HB disrupts cardiorespiratory control in preterm lambs. Two groups of preterm lambs (born 14 days prior to term), namely control (n = 6) and HB (n = 5), were studied. At day 5 of life, moderate HB (150–250 μmol/L) was induced during 17 h in the HB group after which cardiorespiratory control as well as laryngeal and pulmonary chemoreflexes were assessed during baseline recordings and during hypoxia. Recordings were repeated 72 h after HB induction, just before euthanasia. In addition, neuropathological studies were performed to investigate for cerebral bilirubin deposition as well as for signs of glial reactivity in brainstem structures involved in cardiorespiratory control. Results revealed that sustained and moderate HB: (i) decreased baseline respiratory rate and increased the time spent in apnea; (ii) blunted the cardiorespiratory inhibition normally observed during both laryngeal and pulmonary chemoreflexes; and (iii) increased heart rate in response to acute hypoxia. These acute physiological changes were concurrent with an activation of Alzheimer type II astrocytes throughout the brain, including the brainstem. Concomitantly, bilirubin deposits were observed in the leptomeninges, but not in brain parenchyma. While most cardiorespiratory alterations returned to normal 72 h after HB normalization, the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) was still increased within the nucleus tractus solitarius. In conclusion, moderate and sustained HB in preterm lambs induced cardiorespiratory alterations, the latter of which were associated with neurohistopathological changes. These changes are indicative of an inflammatory response in the brainstem

  5. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  6. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels.

  7. III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-12-01

    In this chapter, we review literature that examines the association among physical activity, aerobic fitness, cognition, and the brain in elementary school children (ages 7-10 years). Specifically, physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness in children have been found to benefit brain structure, brain function, cognition, and school achievement. For example, higher fit children have larger brain volumes in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, which relate to superior performance on tasks of cognitive control and memory, respectively, when compared to their lower fit peers. Higher fit children also show superior brain function during tasks of cognitive control, better scores on tests of academic achievement, and higher performance on a real-world street crossing task, compared to lower fit and less active children. The cross-sectional findings are strengthened by a few randomized, controlled trials, which demonstrate that children randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention group show greater brain and cognitive benefits compared to a control group. Because these findings suggest that the developing brain is plastic and sensitive to lifestyle factors, we also discuss typical structural and functional brain maturation in children to provide context in which to interpret the effects of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the developing brain. This research is important because children are becoming increasingly sedentary, physically inactive, and unfit. An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth.

  8. Orexin, cardio-respiratory function, and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Li, Aihua; Nattie, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    In this review we focus on the role of orexin in cardio-respiratory functions and its potential link to hypertension. (1) Orexin, cardiovascular function, and hypertension. In normal rats, central administration of orexin can induce significant increases in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which can be blocked by orexin receptor antagonists. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), antagonizing orexin receptors can significantly lower blood pressure under anesthetized or conscious conditions. (2) Orexin, respiratory function, and central chemoreception. The prepro-orexin knockout mouse has a significantly attenuated ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex, and in normal rats, central application of orexin stimulates breathing while blocking orexin receptors decreases the ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. Interestingly, SHRs have a significantly increased ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex relative to normotensive WKY rats and blocking both orexin receptors can normalize this exaggerated response. (3) Orexin, central chemoreception, and hypertension. SHRs have higher ABP and SNA along with an enhanced ventilatory CO2 chemoreflex. Treating SHRs by blocking both orexin receptors with oral administration of an antagonist, almorexant (Almxt), can normalize the CO2 chemoreflex and significantly lower ABP and SNA. We interpret these results to suggest that the orexin system participates in the pathogenesis and maintenance of high blood pressure in SHRs, and the central chemoreflex may be a causal link to the increased SNA and ABP in SHRs. Modulation of the orexin system could be a potential target in treating some forms of hypertension. PMID:24574958

  9. Are American Children and Youth Fit?: It's Time We Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The current state of physical fitness in American youth is unknown. While evidence exists that obesity levels are increasing in children and youth, data on declines in physical fitness measures (i.e., cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness) are lacking. Tracking of physical fitness components has been poorly done. Surveillance of behaviors…

  10. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-12-01

    The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks.

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Atherosclerosis: Recent Data and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Mehanna, Emile; Hamik, Anne; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Historically, the relationship between exercise and the cardiovascular system was viewed as unidirectional, with a disease resulting in exercise limitation and hazard. This article reviews and explores the bidirectional nature, delineating the effects, generally positive, on the cardiovascular system and atherosclerosis. Exercise augments eNOS, affects redox potential, and favorably affects mediators of atherosclerosis including lipids, glucose homeostasis, and inflammation. There are direct effects on the vasculature as well as indirect benefits related to exercise-induced changes in body composition and skeletal muscle. Application of aerobic exercise to specific populations is described, with the hope that this knowledge will move the science forward and improve individual patient outcome.

  12. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  13. Parent influences on physical activity participation and physical fitness of deaf children.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J; Dummer, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that parents' values toward physical activity and fitness have strongly influenced the physical activity habits of hearing children (Welk, G. J., Wood, K., & Morss, G. [2003]. Parental influences on physical activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 19-33). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether similar findings are obtained for deaf (1) children. The influence of parents' hearing status and parents' involvement in Deaf sport (2) was assessed in addition to their values toward sports participation and physical fitness for their deaf children. Deaf children's physical activity habits were determined by the number of activities participated per week, and fitness levels by the number of scores within the Healthy Fitness Zone from the Fitnessgram test. Parents demonstrated positive values toward physical fitness regardless of hearing status; this finding was strongest among deaf parents of deaf children. Significant positive relationships were found among parents' values toward physical fitness and sport participation and children's physical activity and fitness levels, as well as between Deaf sport involvement by deaf parents and children's physical activity levels.

  14. Running Mileage, Movement Mileage, and Fitness in Male U.S. Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    related swimming, cycling, and brisk walking. Cardiorespiratory musculoskeletal injuries that result in lost training time, fitness also offers protection...pp. 1033-1038. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between overall fitness improvement and varying...Words: FITNESS IMPROVEMENT, RUN MILEAGE, MOVEMENT MILEAGE N ieman (21) defined cardiorespiratory fitness as "the ally with similar poor exercise habits

  15. Health-Related Fitness and Physical Activity Courses in U.S. Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Brad; Egeberg, James; Mozumdar, Arupendra

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of health-related fitness (HRF) and physical activity (PA) courses at U.S. institutions of higher learning. Data were obtained from 116 two- and four-year colleges and universities. The results show that health-related fitness courses were offered at many 2-year (89.2%)…

  16. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  17. The Impact of Postsecondary Fitness and Wellness Courses on Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Joshua Charles

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to decreasing health risk factors. With the intent of establishing long-term behavioral changes that attribute to overall physical wellbeing, many U.S. universities offer fitness and wellness courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a postsecondary fitness and wellness course on physical…

  18. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  19. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  20. Influence of physical fitness on antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde level in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Régis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how physical fitness level could affect antioxidant activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level at rest and in response to exhaustive exercise in healthy older adults. Fifty older adults (average age: 66.1 ± 3.8 years) were divided according to their physical fitness level into an unfit group (UG) (n = 15), a low fitness level group (LFG) (n = 18), and a high fitness level group (HFG) (n = 17). Fitness status was classified based on answers to a questionnaire about physical activity in the previous 12 months. Before and after an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, the following markers were assessed: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, and MDA. At rest, SOD, GPX, and α-tocopherol activities were higher in the HFG (p < 0.05), whereas MDA level was lower in the LFG in comparison with the 2 other groups (p < 0.05). During the postexercise period, antioxidant activity increased only in the LFG and the HFG (GPX, SOD, and α-tocopherol). MDA level increased in all groups after the exercise (p < 0.05). In addition, MDA level was higher during the recovery period in the HFG as compared with the others groups. This study concluded that both low and high physical fitness levels help maintain better antioxidant defenses in older adults. However, a higher physical fitness level, rather than a lower physical fitness level, could increase lipid peroxidation.

  1. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  2. Sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity with physical fitness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, T; Tanaka, H; Naoi, K; Ueno, K; Yanaoka, T; Kashiwabara, K; Miyashita, M

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity (VPA) with physical fitness in 300 Japanese adolescents aged 12-14 years. Participants were asked to wear an accelerometer to evaluate physical activity (PA) levels of various intensities (i.e. moderate PA (MPA), 3-5.9 metabolic equivalents (METs); VPA, ≥6 METs; moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), ≥3 METs). Eight fitness items were assessed (grip strength, bent-leg sit-up, sit-and-reach, side step, 50 m sprint, standing long jump, handball throw, and distance running) as part of the Japanese standardised fitness test. A fitness composite score was calculated using Japanese fitness norms, and participants were categorised according to their score from category A (most fit) to category E (least fit), with participants in categories D and E defined as having low fitness. It was found that for boys, accumulating more than 80.7 min/day of MVPA may reduce the probability of low fitness (odds ratio (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.17 [0.06-0.47], p = .001). For girls, accumulating only 8.4 min of VPA could reduce the likelihood of exhibiting low fitness (ORs [95% CI] = 0.23 [0.05-0.89], p = .032). These results reveal that there are sex-specific differences in the relationship between PA and physical fitness in adolescents, suggesting that sex-specific PA recommendation may be needed to improve physical fitness in adolescents.

  3. Active pollinator choice by Heliconia 'fits the bill'.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Judith L; Richman, Sarah K

    2015-07-01

    A new study documents that a tropical plant only reproduces when pollen has been deposited by a visitor capable of extracting nectar from its deep flowers. Large, long-billed hummingbirds generally carry greater quantities of, and more genetically diverse, pollen. Thus, plants can exert more active partner choice than previously considered possible.

  4. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  5. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  6. Associations of Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Screen Time With Cardiovascular Fitness in United States Adolescents: Results from the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS).

    PubMed

    Porter, Anna K; Matthews, Krystin J; Salvo, Deborah; Kohl, Harold W

    2017-03-14

    Background Most US adolescents do not meet guidelines of at least 60 daily minutes of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. Additionally, sedentary behaviors among this age group are of increasing concern. This study examined the association of movement behaviors with cardiovascular fitness among US adolescents. Methods Data from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey were used to assess the association of movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary time, screen time) with cardiovascular fitness among adolescent males and females. Multiple logistic regressions were used to test the independent and interactive effects of movement behaviors on cardiovascular fitness. Results Among females, physical activity was directly associated with cardiovascular fitness; no significant association was observed between sedentary behaviors and CVF. Among males, sedentary time moderated the relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, such that a significant, direct association was only observed among those with high sedentary time (OR: 5.01, 95% CI: 1.60, 15.70). Conclusions Results from this cross-sectional analysis suggest that among female US adolescents, physical activity, but not sedentary behavior, is associated with cardiovascular fitness. Among males, the interaction between physical activity and sedentary time seems to be important for cardiovascular fitness. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these findings.

  7. Functional fitness and physical activity of Portuguese community-residing older adults.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Maia, José A; Beunen, Gaston P; Blimkie, Cameron J; Fena, Ercília M; Freitas, Duarte L

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate functional-fitness norms for Portuguese older adults, to determine age and sex differences, and to analyze the physical activity-associated variation in functional fitness. The sample was composed of 802 older adults, 401 men and 401 women, age 60-79 yr. Functional fitness was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test. Physical activity level was estimated via the Baecke questionnaire. The P50 values decreased from 60 to 64 to 75 to 79 yr of age. A significant main effect for age group was found in all functional-fitness tests. Men scored significantly better than women in the chair stand, 8-ft up-and-go, and 6-min walk. Women scored significantly better than men in chair sit-and-reach and back scratch. Active participants scored better in functional-fitness tests than their average and nonactive peers. This study showed a decline in functional fitness with age, better performance of men, and increased proficiency in active participants.

  8. Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity to acute exercise: influence of fitness.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Hall, E E; Ekkekakis, P

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that regional brain activation, assessed via frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts affective responsivity to aerobic exercise. To replicate and extend this work, in the present study we examined whether resting brain activation was associated with affective responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and the extent to which aerobic fitness mediated this relationship. Participants (high-fit, n = 22; low/moderate-fit, n = 45) ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-min postexercise. Resting EEG asymmetry predicted positive affect (as measured by the energetic arousal subscale of the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List) postexercise. Furthermore, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted affect only in the high-fit group, suggesting the effect might be mediated by some factor related to fitness. It was also shown that subjects with relatively greater left frontal activation had significantly more energy (i.e., activated pleasant affect) following exercise than subjects with relatively greater right frontal activation. In conclusion, aerobic fitness influenced the relationship between resting frontal asymmetry and exercise-related affective responsivity.

  9. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; James, Peter; Robinson, Jamaica R. M.; Eastman, Kyler M.; Conley, Kevin D.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales. PMID:24653982

  10. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  11. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  12. Contribution of Organized and Nonorganized Activity to Children's Motor Skills and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Louise L.; O'Hara, Blythe J.; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16?years (N?=?4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report,…

  13. Long-term effects of activity status in the elderly on cardiorespiratory capacity, blood pressure, blood lipids, and body composition: a five-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Carmeli, Eli; Orbach, Pini; Lowenthal, David T; Merrick, Joav; Coleman, Raymond

    2003-08-20

    It is generally recognized that physical activity levels in the elderly do not remain constant over time, and typically there is a marked reduction in physical activities in the elderly. The long-term benefits of regular physical training programs in the elderly are still not fully understood. This is a study of 55 elderly healthy subjects (over 65 years old) and re-evaluated for the effects of different physical activity patterns (sedentary, moderately active, and highly active) on several physiological parameters (pre- and post-training) after a 5-year period (5.30 +/- 1.14 years). Measurements included: body composition, blood lipid profiles, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, maximal oxygen uptake, and pulmonary function. Results indicated a larger decrease in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the group of elderly sedentary individuals (1.5 +/- 0.5 l/min) compared to the moderately active (1.7 +/- 0.6 l/min) and the highly active groups (1.9 +/- 0.4 l/min). An active lifestyle was not sufficient to increase the physiological function of an individual. This study could not clearly demonstrate favorable differences for the physically active groups over the sedentary group with regard to several important physiological factors over the 5-year follow-up and it appears that the recommendation for, and the initiation of, adopting active lifestyles may not be sufficient on their own to significantly increase an individual's physiological functioning.

  14. Sport: A Leap into Learning? A Study of Participation in Sport and Fitness Activities in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldridge, Fiona

    Participation in sport or fitness activities in Great Britain was examined through a survey of more than 6,000 adults throughout Great Britain. As of April 2001, 35% of adults surveyed were currently participating in sport or fitness activities. Those most likely to participate in sport or fitness activities were male, young, in high social…

  15. An evaluation of the Exer-Genie exerciser and the Collins pedal mode ergometer for developing physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments that were conducted over a 52-month period showed that isometric and isotonic training on the Exer-Genie gave negligible increases in cardiorespiratory fitness whereas training on the ergometer at a programmed pulse rate increased fitness moderately.

  16. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  17. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E.; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key points During cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiing Approximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling. Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit. By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing. Male, fit and young

  18. Health Awareness, Motor Performance and Physical Activity of Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konczos, Csaba; Bognar, Jozsef; Szakaly, Zsolt; Barthalos, Istvan; Simon, Istvan; Olah, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body composition, health awareness and cardiorespiratory fitness in female university students differing in volume of obligatory physical activity classes. Material and methods: 109 female students of the University of West Hungary volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to…

  19. The Effects of an Afterschool Physical Activity Program on Working Memory in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Wu, Chien-Ting; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 9-month randomized control physical activity intervention aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness on changes in working memory performance in preadolescent children relative to a waitlist control group. Participants performed a modified Sternberg task, which manipulated working memory demands based…

  20. Does increased physical activity in school affect children's executive function and aerobic fitness?

    PubMed

    Kvalø, S E; Bru, E; Brønnick, K; Dyrstad, S M

    2017-02-16

    This study seeks to explore whether increased PA in school affects children's executive function and aerobic fitness. The "Active school" study was a 10-month randomized controlled trial. The sample included 449 children (10-11 years old) in five intervention and four control schools. The weekly interventions were 2×45 minutes physically active academic lessons, 5×10 minutes physically active breaks, and 5×10 minutes physically active homework. Aerobic fitness was measured using a 10-minute interval running test. Executive function was tested using four cognitive tests (Stroop, verbal fluency, digit span, and Trail Making). A composite score for executive function was computed and used in analyses. Mixed ANCOVA repeated measures were performed to analyze changes in scores for aerobic fitness and executive function. Analysis showed a tendency for a time×group interaction on executive function, but the results were non-significant F(1, 344)=3.64, P=.057. There was no significant time×group interaction for aerobic fitness. Results indicate that increased physical activity in school might improve children's executive function, even without improvement in aerobic fitness, but a longer intervention period may be required to find significant effects.

  1. The Relation between Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Fitness, and Obesity in Children from Three Countries at Different Stages of the Physical Activity Transition

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, M.; Onywera, V.; Tremblay, M. S.; Adamo, K. B.; Lopez Taylor, J.; Jáuregui Ulloa, E.; Janssen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The physical activity transition is contributing to an increase in childhood obesity and a decrease in fitness worldwide. This study compared body composition and fitness measures in children from three countries and examined intercountry differences in the relationship between these variables. Methods. Participants consisted of 736 Canadian, 193 Mexican, and 179 Kenyan children aged 9–13 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfolds, aerobic fitness, and muscular fitness were measured. Linear regression was used to examine associations between variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was the highest in Mexican children (9.2% boys, 8.4% girls) and the lowest in Kenyan children (0.9% boys, 2.8% girls). Aerobic fitness (VO2max in mL/kg/min) was the highest in Kenyan children (50.2 boys, 46.7 girls) and the lowest in Canadian children (41.3 boys, 38.3 girls). Aerobic fitness was negatively associated with body composition measures irrespective of country and sex. Mexican children with low aerobic fitness had higher body composition measures than Canadian and Kenyan children. Muscular fitness was not associated with the body composition measures in Kenyan children but was a weak positive correlate of BMI and waist circumference in Canadian and Mexican children. Conclusion. The current study provides some evidence to support the physical activity transition hypothesis. PMID:24533216

  2. Marine Corps Semper Fit Program Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-08

    Fitness Test and Weight Control requirements, per references (k) and (1). This will be accomplished through group exercise or individual instruction...for either test preparation, physical fitness training and/or as part of a remedial training program. 2005. USER FEES AND CHARGES. In accordance...paragraph 2010. 2. A Fitness Assessment is a test measuring: a. Cardiorespiratory capacity (VO? max) . The ability to perform large muscle

  3. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  4. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  5. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  6. Barriers to physical activity in an on-site corporate fitness center.

    PubMed

    Schwetschenau, Heather M; O'Brien, William H; Cunningham, Christopher J L; Jex, Steve M

    2008-10-01

    Many corporations provide employees the option of participating in on-site fitness centers, but utilization rates are low. Perceived barriers to physical activity have been established as important correlates of physical activity, and recent research indicates that barriers may vary across settings. Work-site fitness centers may present unique barriers to participation, but there are currently no standardized measures that assess such barriers. Eighty-eight employees of a midwestern corporation completed a survey designed to identify and evaluate the extent to which barriers influence participation in an on-site corporate fitness center. Regression analyses revealed that external environmental barriers (e.g., inadequate exercise facilities) significantly accounted for not joining the fitness center, and for decreased duration of visits to the facility among members. Internal barriers (e.g., feeling embarrassed to exercise around coworkers) significantly accounted for frequency of fitness center visits among members. This corporate specific measure may lead to more effective interventions aimed to increase use of on-site corporate fitness centers.

  7. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  8. Fast and exact Newton and Bidirectional fitting of Active Appearance Models.

    PubMed

    Kossaifi, Jean; Tzimiropoulos, Yorgos; Pantic, Maja

    2016-12-21

    Active Appearance Models (AAMs) are generative models of shape and appearance that have proven very attractive for their ability to handle wide changes in illumination, pose and occlusion when trained in the wild, while not requiring large training dataset like regression-based or deep learning methods. The problem of fitting an AAM is usually formulated as a non-linear least squares one and the main way of solving it is a standard Gauss-Newton algorithm. In this paper we extend Active Appearance Models in two ways: we first extend the Gauss-Newton framework by formulating a bidirectional fitting method that deforms both the image and the template to fit a new instance. We then formulate a second order method by deriving an efficient Newton method for AAMs fitting. We derive both methods in a unified framework for two types of Active Appearance Models, holistic and part-based, and additionally show how to exploit the structure in the problem to derive fast yet exact solutions. We perform a thorough evaluation of all algorithms on three challenging and recently annotated inthe- wild datasets, and investigate fitting accuracy, convergence properties and the influence of noise in the initialisation. We compare our proposed methods to other algorithms and show that they yield state-of-the-art results, out-performing other methods while having superior convergence properties.

  9. Effects of a 10-Day Intensive Health Promotion Program Combining Diet and Physical Activity on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Blood Factors of Young Adults: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Lee, Jae Koo; Yeun, Young Ran

    2017-04-11

    BACKGROUND A lifestyle characterized by poor eating habits and physical inactivity is a risk factor for multiple lifestyle diseases in young adults. This study assessed the effects of implementing an intensive 10-day health promotion program combining diet and physical activities on body composition, physical fitness, and biochemical parameters of young adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this randomized pilot study, 30 female undergraduate students were randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. The health promotion program consisted of unlimited amounts of vegetarian food; aerobic, flexibility, and strength exercises (3 hours/day); lectures on health (3 hours/day); massage practice (2 hours/day); and healthy cooking practice (1 hour/day). The effects of the intervention were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS The intensive 10-day health promotion program significantly reduced body weight, body mass index, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood glucose, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. At the same time, participants demonstrated increased back muscle, leg muscle, and grip strength; waist and shoulder flexibility; balance; and cardiorespiratory endurance. CONCLUSIONS The intensive 10-day health promotion program is a viable intervention for improving body composition, physical fitness, glycemic control, and blood lipid levels in young adults.

  10. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  11. "Oh, Chute??" A Fully Illustrated Booklet of Parachute Activities for Fun and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Doug

    Exercise and games performed with a parachute are outlined in this booklet. At school the parachute can be used on the playground or in the gymnasium. It may be used to teach locomotor and fundamental movements; to develop rhythm, coordination, and physical fitness; and encourage creative play. This activity is designed for groups, enhancing…

  12. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  13. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  14. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  15. Weight Status, Physical Activity, and Fitness among Third-Grade Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie; Barrett, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in…

  16. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  17. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Adolescents: A Self-Organizing Maps Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The…

  18. What Every Physical Educator Should Know about Teaching Physical Activity and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2004-01-01

    As teachers, their goal is to help all their students to become physically educated people. Each of the five characteristics of the physically educated person is important, but consistent with the focus of this article, the author has concentrated on those characteristics that relate most to physical activity and fitness promotion. The following…

  19. C. H. McCloy Lecture: Fifty Years of Advancements in Fitness and Activity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years progress in fitness and activity research has been influenced by social events, technical innovations, and changes in the field of physical education and kinesiology. The conventional wisdom of the 1950s yielded to a new wisdom based on research evidence. The author's research, as well as the research of others, from 1960 to…

  20. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  1. Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6–11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6–12 (N = 732) that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N = 682). Cardiovascular endurance was estimated by heart rate reserve. Results. Compared to the highest percentile of heart rate reserve, those in the first percentile had 3.52 (2.36, 5.24) odds and those in the second percentile had 3.61 (1.84, 7.06) odds of being in the overweight/obese as compared to the under/normal weight category. Considering the highest percentile, boys had a heart rate reserve of 35%, whereas girls had a heart rate reserve of 13% (less than half that of boys). Conclusion. Having an overweight or obese classification for children in this study demonstrated a compromise in cardiovascular endurance. Parental awareness should be raised as to the detrimental consequence of overweight and heart health. PMID:27774315

  2. 75 FR 2546 - Opportunity for Co-Sponsorship of the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Opportunity for Co-Sponsorship of the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program; Correction AGENCY: President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports published a document in...

  3. A Community-based Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) Program for Older Adults with Chronic Stroke: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco Y.C.; Eng, Janice J.; Dawson, Andrew S.; McKay, Heather A.; Harris, Jocelyn E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the effects of a community-based group exercise program for older individuals with chronic stroke. DESIGN Prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING Intervention was community-based. Data collection was performed in a research laboratory located in a rehabilitation hospital. PARTICIPANTS Sixty-three older individuals (≥50 years) with a chronic stroke (post-stroke duration ≥ 1 year) who were living in the community. INTERVENTION Participants were randomized into intervention group (n=32) or control group (n=31). The intervention group underwent a Fitness and Mobility Exercise (FAME) program designed to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility, leg muscle strength, balance and hip bone mineral density (BMD) (1-hour sessions, 3 sessions/week, for 19 weeks). The control group underwent a seated upper extremity program. MEASUREMENTS (1) cardiorespiratory fitness (maximal oxygen consumption), (2) mobility (Six Minute Walk Test), (3) leg muscle strength (isometric knee extension), (4) balance (Berg Balance Scale), (5) activity and participation (Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities) and (6) femoral neck BMD (Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). RESULTS The intervention group had significantly more gains in cardiorespiratory fitness, mobility, and paretic leg muscle strength than controls. Femoral neck BMD of the paretic leg was maintained in the intervention group whereas a significant decline of the same occurred in controls. There was no significant time × group interaction for balance, activity and participation, non-paretic leg muscle strength and non-paretic femoral neck BMD. CONCLUSION The FAME program is feasible and beneficial for improving some of the secondary complications resulting from physical inactivity in older adults living with stroke. It may serve as a good model of community-based fitness program for preventing secondary diseases in older adults living with

  4. Assessing sustainability of InSHAPE participants' fitness activities in a community mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Lesley, Marsha L; Livingood, Kristi; Livingwood, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    InSHAPE (Self Help Action Plan for Empowerment), an exercise and nutrition wellness program, is gaining national recognition for its success in helping individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) improve physical fitness and dietary habits. Although gains have been reported in objective measures of fitness as participants progressed through the year-long program, there is little information about what happens with participants after program completion. To address this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted a longitudinal qualitative study in which 11 InSHAPE participants were interviewed both near the end of their year in the program and 9 months later. Participants identified the trainer's ability to contain their initial feelings of distress and form a working alliance as factors that contributed to their exercise persistence. Current findings suggest that individuals with SMI may need a longer period of time working closely with fitness trainers to sustain physical activity levels achieved during the program.

  5. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in daily functioning in older adults with intellectual disabilities: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-10-01

    A high incidence of limitations in daily functioning is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for daily functioning after 3 years, in 602 older adults with borderline to profound ID (≥ 50 years). At baseline, physical fitness levels and daily functioning (operationalized as basic activities of daily living [ADL] and mobility) were assessed. After 3 years, the measurements of daily functioning were repeated. At follow-up, 12.6% of the participants were completely independent in ADL and 48.5% had no mobility limitations. More than half of the participants (54.8%) declined in their ability to perform ADL and 37.5% declined in their mobility. Manual dexterity, visual reaction time, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in ADL. For a decline in mobility, manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast walking speed, grip strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were all significant predictors. This proves the predictive validity of these physical fitness tests for daily functioning and stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and implementing physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  6. Augmented limb blood flow during neurovascular stress in physically fit women.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Jackson, Erica M; Nakamura, Yoshio; Ray, Chester A

    2013-09-01

    The study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness modifies cardiovascular responses by normotensive men and women during the Stroop color-word interference test. Independent of age and an estimate of body fatness, fitness level was positively related (R²  = .39 and .51) to increases in limb blood flow and vascular conductance, coherent with cardiac-vagal withdrawal and a decrease in heart period, among women but not men. Fitness was unrelated to changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressures and muscle sympathetic nerve activity. The augmented hemodynamic responses among fitter women were not consistent with passive vasodilation via withdrawal of sympathetic neural tone. The results encourage further gender comparisons testing whether fitness augments limb blood flow during mental stress by neurohumoral and flow-mediated vasodilatory mechanisms or by increased cardiac output.

  7. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year.

  8. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  9. Fitness activity classification by using multiclass support vector machines on head-worn sensors.

    PubMed

    Loh, Darrell; Lee, Tien J; Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh; Hoskinson, Reynald; Park, Edward J

    2015-08-01

    Fitness activity classification on wearable devices can provide activity-specific information and generate more accurate performance metrics. Recently, optical head-mounted displays (OHMD) like Google Glass, Sony SmartEyeglass and Recon Jet have emerged. This paper presents a novel method to classify fitness activities using head-worn accelerometer, barometric pressure sensor and GPS, with comparisons to other common mounting locations on the body. Using multiclass SVM on head-worn sensors, we obtained an average F-score of 96.66% for classifying standing, walking, running, ascending/descending stairs and cycling. The best sensor location combinations were found to be on the ankle plus another upper body location. Using three or more sensors did not show a notable improvement over the best two-sensor combinations.

  10. [Identifying children at risk for cardiorespiratory arrest].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Alvarez, A; Martínez Gutiérrez, A; Salvat Germán, F

    2004-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory arrest in children with severe disease does not usually present suddenly or unexpectedly but is often the result of a progressive deterioration of respiratory and/or circulatory function. Before failure of these functions occurs, there is a series of clinical signs that serve as a warning. Health professionals should not only evaluate clinical signs of respiratory and/or circulatory insufficiency but should also be able to identify these warning signs as early as possible, preferably in the compensation phase, given that the possibility that this process can be reversed by therapeutic measures decreases as the process progresses.

  11. Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: a self-organizing maps approach.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The aim of this study was to perform a visual analysis of this relationship with self-organizing maps and to monitor the subject's evolution during the 4 years of secondary school. Four hundred and forty-four students participated in the study. The physical activity and physical fitness of the participants were measured, and the participants' grade point averages were obtained from the five participant institutions. Four main clusters representing two primary student profiles with few differences between boys and girls were observed. The clustering demonstrated that students with higher energy expenditure and better physical fitness exhibited lower body mass index (BMI) and higher academic performance, whereas those adolescents with lower energy expenditure exhibited worse physical fitness, higher BMI and lower academic performance. With respect to the evolution of the students during the 4 years, ∼25% of the students originally clustered in a negative profile moved to a positive profile, and there was no movement in the opposite direction.

  12. Optimization of Active Muscle Force-Length Models Using Least Squares Curve Fitting.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Goran Abdulrahman; Hou, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose an asymmetric Gaussian function as an alternative to the existing active force-length models, and to optimize this model along with several other existing models by using the least squares curve fitting method. The minimal set of coefficients is identified for each of these models to facilitate the least squares curve fitting. Sarcomere simulated data and one set of rabbits extensor digitorum II experimental data are used to illustrate optimal curve fitting of the selected force-length functions. The results shows that all the curves fit reasonably well with the simulated and experimental data, while the Gordon-Huxley-Julian model and asymmetric Gaussian function are better than other functions in terms of statistical test scores root mean squared error and R-squared. However, the differences in RMSE scores are insignificant (0.3-6%) for simulated data and (0.2-5%) for experimental data. The proposed asymmetric Gaussian model and the method of parametrization of this and the other force-length models mentioned above can be used in the studies on active force-length relationships of skeletal muscles that generate forces to cause movements of human and animal bodies.

  13. Cardiorespiratory effects of water ingestion during and after exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In prolonged exercise, the state of hypohydration due to sweating raises physiological stress and induces a drop in sports performance. However, the impact of water intake in cardiorespiratory parameters when administered during and after physical activity has not been well studied. This study aimed to analyze the effects of water intake in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), partial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate during and after prolonged exercise. Methods Thirty-one young males (21.55 ± 1.89 yr) performed three different protocols (48 h interval between each stage): I) maximal exercise test to determine the load for the protocols; II) Control protocol (CP) and; III) Experimental protocol (EP). The protocols consisted of 10 min at rest with the subject in the supine position, 90 min of treadmill exercise (60% of VO2 peak) and 60 min of rest placed in the dorsal decubitus position. No rehydration beverage consumption was allowed during CP. During EP, however, the subjects were given water (Vittalev, Spaipa, Brazil). The parameters HR, SBP, DBP, SpO2 and respiratory rate were measured at the end of the rest, in 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the activity, except the respiratory rate parameter, and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minute post- exercise. Results The hydration protocol provided minimal changes in SBP and DBP and a smaller increase in HR and did not significantly affect SpO2 during exercise and better HR recovery, faster return of SBP and DBP and a better performance for SpO2 and respiratory rate post-exercise. Conclusion Hydration with water influenced the behavior of cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young subjects. PMID:24059759

  14. Physical fitness of primary school children in relation to overweight prevalence and physical activity habits.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; Ceciliani, Andrea; Garulli, Andrea; Masotti, Andrea; Poletti, Giuseppe; Beltrami, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyse, through a limited number of fitness tests, the main conditioning and coordinative abilities in children aged 8-9 years, and their relationship with gender, anthropometric variables and physical activity habits. The height and weight of 256 boys and 241 girls were measured and information about physical activity habits was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical performance was assessed by means of a few standardised tests: 'sit & reach', medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll test. In both boys and girls, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were positively correlated with the medicine-ball throw performances and negatively correlated for the standing long jump and speed tests, while no association was found with tests measuring back flexibility and total body coordination. Daily physical activity and participation in sport were not significantly correlated with body weight and BMI, but were positively associated with children's motor performance. The standardised fitness tests selected in the current study have been found to be suitable to identify fitness levels of primary school children. Thanks to their limited number and ease of measurement, they can be used in any school context to classify children and for monitoring the effects of targeted interventions promoting physical activity.

  15. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood pressure profile in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal C; Singh, S K

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine how physical activity level and physical fitness affects the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to help in developing preventive strategies for the local population as ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 Gujarati Indian adolescent boys and girls of age group 16-19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using Johnson Space Center/NASA Physical Activity Rating Scale and VO2 max was used to assess the physical fitness. Body composition was assessed in terms of Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Blood Pressure was measured by oscillometry. One-way ANOVA was used to study if any significant differences (P<0.05) existed in the blood pressure profile between the high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to assess the relationship between VO2 max and blood pressure profile. In girls, physical activity level was not found to have a significant effect on the blood pressure profile. In boys, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity Group as compared to Low Physical Activity Group. PVO2 max was found to have a significant negative correlationship with SBP, DBP and MAP in girls and a significant negative correlationship with SBP, PP and MAP in boys. It could thus be concluded that a better physical fitness rather than a higher physical activity level could keep the blood pressure in check in the Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  16. Experience of Postpartum Active Duty Women in Training for the Fitness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-10

    complications N=6 Breastfeeding Issues N=8 Sadness/lowered self- esteem N=4 Fear of failing fitness assessment N=11 *Known data from 3 pilot...to breastfeeding . Emotional changes included feelings of sadness, feeling emotionally drained, feeling overwhelmed, and lowered self-esteem... breastfeeding would be beneficial. These results strongly suggest that close follow-up of active duty women after delivery is essential in order to

  17. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases: implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; McAuley, Paul A; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Blair, Steven N

    2014-04-15

    Obesity has been increasing in epidemic proportions, with a disproportionately higher increase in morbid or class III obesity, and obesity adversely affects cardiovascular (CV) hemodynamics, structure, and function, as well as increases the prevalence of most CV diseases. Progressive declines in physical activity over 5 decades have occurred and have primarily caused the obesity epidemic. Despite the potential adverse impact of overweight and obesity, recent epidemiological data have demonstrated an association of mild obesity and, particularly, overweight on improved survival. We review in detail the obesity paradox in CV diseases where overweight and at least mildly obese patients with most CV diseases seem to have a better prognosis than do their leaner counterparts. The implications of cardiorespiratory fitness with prognosis are discussed, along with the joint impact of fitness and adiposity on the obesity paradox. Finally, in light of the obesity paradox, the potential value of purposeful weight loss and increased physical activity to affect levels of fitness is reviewed.

  18. Daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in institutionalized elderly women: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Tome; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Shima, Hiroto; Kishibuchi, Kaoru; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between daytime physical activity patterns and physical fitness in elderly women. The subjects comprised 19 elderly women who resided in a nursing home. Time spent lying, sitting, standing and walking and the number of steps taken during the daytime from 10:00 to 16:00 were measured to determine physical activity patterns. Physical fitness measures included muscle strength, balance, flexibility and physical performance. The elderly women spent 18.3% of their daytime walking, 7.31% in a standing position, 56.9% sitting and 17.4% lying down. Our results showed that the time spent in walking or standing positions was significantly associated with balance and physical performance such as walking speed, while the time spent in a sitting position was inversely associated with muscle strength, balance and physical performance. The results of this study suggest that the time the elderly spend on weight-bearing activities and in sedentary behavior are associated with physical fitness.

  19. Long-Term Effects of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Physical Fitness and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third…

  20. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  1. Self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness in middle school children: examination of a pedometer intervention program.

    PubMed

    Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI.

  2. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p < 0.001). In spite of this, girls had higher levels of GSSG (p < 0.001) and TG (p = 0.001), and a lower GSH/GSSG ratio (p < 0.001) than boys. For the antioxidant response, girls had higher levels of SOD (p = 0.002) than boys. All analyses were adjusted for BMI, age, fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  3. Accelerometer-measured daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars B

    2011-06-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)) is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. While a positive relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness has been established in adults, the relationship appears less clear in children and adolescents. The purpose of this paper is to summarise recently published data on the relationship between daily physical activity, as measured by accelerometers, and VO(2PEAK) in children and adolescents. A PubMed search was performed on 29 October 2010 to identify relevant articles. Studies were considered relevant if they included measurement of daily physical activity by accelerometry and related to a VO(2PEAK) either measured directly at a maximal exercise test or estimated from maximal power output. A total of nine studies were identified, with a total number of 6116 children and adolescents investigated. Most studies reported a low-to-moderate relationship (r = 0.10-0.45) between objectively measured daily physical activity and VO(2PEAK). No conclusive evidence exists that physical activity of higher intensities are more closely related to VO(2PEAK), than lower intensities.

  4. Daily physical activity and blood lactate indices of aerobic fitness in children.

    PubMed Central

    Welsman, J R; Armstrong, N

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between daily physical activity and aerobic fitness in 11-16-year-olds. Habitual physical activity was assessed in 28 boys (mean(s.d.) age 13.6(1.3) years) and 45 girls (mean(s.d) age 13.7(1.3) years) from minute-by-minute heart rate monitoring during 3 school days. Aerobic fitness was assessed by determining the percentage peak VO2 at blood lactate reference values of 2.5 and 4.0 mmol l-1 during incremental treadmill running. The 4.0 mmol l-1 level occurred at a mean(s.d.) value of 89(7)% peak VO2 in both boys and girls and mean(s.d.) values at the 2.5 mmol l-1 level were 82(9)% peak VO2 in girls. Mean(s.d.) percentage time with heart rates at or above 140 beats min-1 was 6(3)% in boys and 5(3)% in girls. Corresponding values for percentage time at or above 160 beats min-1 were 3(2) for boys and 2(1) for girls. The number of 10- and 20-min periods of activity with the heart rate sustained above the 140 and 160 beats min-1 thresholds were also totalled over the 3 days. No significant relationships were identified between percentage peak VO2 at the 2.5 or 4.0 mmol l-1 blood lactate reference levels and either percentage time or number of 10- or 20-min periods above 140 or 160 beats min-1 (P > 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that daily physical activity levels in 11-16-year-old children do not stress aerobic metabolism sufficiently to influence aerobic fitness. PMID:1490213

  5. Relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and multiple metabolic risk in youths from Muzambinho's study.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza; Basso, Luciano; Seabra, André; Prista, Antonio; Tani, Go; Maia, José António Ribeiro; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia De Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Negative associations between physical activity (PA), physical fitness and multiple metabolic risk factors (MMRF) in youths from populations with low PA are reported. The persistence of this association in moderately-to highly active populations is not, however, well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association in a Brazilian city with high frequency of active youths. We assessed 122 subjects (9.9 ± 1.3 years) from Muzambinho city. Body mass index, waist circumference, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. Maximal handgrip strength and one-mile walk/run test were used. Leisure time PA was assessed by interview. Poisson regression was used in the analysis. The model explained 11% of the total variance. Only relative muscular strength and one-mile walk/run were statistically significant (p < .05). Those who needed more time to cover the one-mile walk/run test had an increased in metabolic risk of 11%, and those with greater strength reduced the risk by about 82%. In conclusion, children and youths from an active population who need less time to cover the one-mile walk/run test or who had greater muscular strength showed a reduced metabolic risk. These results suggest that even in children and youths with high leisure time PA, a greater aerobic fitness and strength might help to further reduce their MMRF.

  6. Relations of sex, age, perceived fitness, and aerobic activity with social physique anxiety in adults sixty years and older.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Bowden, Rodney G; Owens, Robin; Massey-Stokes, Marilyn

    2004-12-01

    Self-reported physical activity, and perceived fitness were examined to assess their effects on social physique anxiety in a sample of older individuals (N= 249; M age=70.4 yr., SD=8.2). Participants reported their fitness as "average" to "above average." There were no significant effects of perceived fitness or age on social physique anxiety scores. The women had significantly higher social physique anxiety scores than the men.

  7. Cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Vernon; Curry, Bryan H.; Adams, Richard G.; Millis, Richard M.; Haddad, Georges E.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of medical nutrition therapy and nutritional physiology affords the opportunity to link diet to specific cardiovascular mechanisms, suggesting novel treatments for cardiovascular disease. This study tests the hypothesis that beetroot juice increases the plasma nitric oxide (NO) concentration, which is associated with improvements in cardiorespiratory function at rest and during submaximal aerobic exercise. The subjects were 12 healthy, young adult, normotensive African-American females, with a body mass of 61 ± 2 kg, body fat of 28% ± 4%, and peak oxygen consumption of 26 ± 3 mL·kg−1·min−1. The subjects were studied at rest and during cycle ergometer exercise at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption. Plasma NO concentration, respiratory quotient (RQ), minute ventilation, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), heart rate, and oxygen consumption were compared between isocaloric, isovolumetric placebo control orange juice and experimental beetroot juice treatments on separate days. The beetroot juice treatment increased plasma NO concentration and decreased oxygen consumption, SBP, and the heart rate-SBP product at rest and at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak oxygen consumption in the absence of significant effects on RQ, minute ventilation, heart rate, and DBP. These findings suggest that, in healthy subjects, beetroot juice treatments increase plasma NO concentration and decrease cardiac afterload and myocardial oxygen demand at rest and during 3 submaximal levels of aerobic exercise. Future studies should determine the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the improvement in cardiorespiratory function associated with dietary nitrate supplementation and whether they translate into better cardiovascular function and exercise tolerance in individuals with a compromised cardiovascular system. PMID:24476472

  8. Efficient parallel implementation of active appearance model fitting algorithm on GPU.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinwei; Ma, Xirong; Zhu, Yuanping; Sun, Jizhou

    2014-01-01

    The active appearance model (AAM) is one of the most powerful model-based object detecting and tracking methods which has been widely used in various situations. However, the high-dimensional texture representation causes very time-consuming computations, which makes the AAM difficult to apply to real-time systems. The emergence of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) that feature a many-core, fine-grained parallel architecture provides new and promising solutions to overcome the computational challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficient parallel implementation of the AAM fitting algorithm on GPUs. Our design idea is fine grain parallelism in which we distribute the texture data of the AAM, in pixels, to thousands of parallel GPU threads for processing, which makes the algorithm fit better into the GPU architecture. We implement our algorithm using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the Nvidia's GTX 650 GPU, which has the latest Kepler architecture. To compare the performance of our algorithm with different data sizes, we built sixteen face AAM models of different dimensional textures. The experiment results show that our parallel AAM fitting algorithm can achieve real-time performance for videos even on very high-dimensional textures.

  9. Cardiorespiratory responses to maximal arm and leg exercise in national-class marathon runners.

    PubMed

    deJong, Adam T; Bonzheim, Kimberly; Franklin, Barry A; Saltarelli, William

    2009-06-01

    Marathon runners (MR) are among the most aerobically fit athletes in the world. Although aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) during arm exercise generally varies between 64% and 80% of leg VO(2)max (mean 70%) in healthy men, few data are available regarding the comparative arm fitness of MR. To clarify the relationship between arm and leg fitness in MR, we studied 10 national-class MR (mean + or - standard deviation age 30 + or - 4 years) whose best marathon times averaged < 2 hours and 40 minutes. Each MR underwent lower and upper body maximal exercise evaluations with measurement of cardiorespiratory variables using indirect calorimetry during treadmill testing (standard Bruce protocol) and arm-crank ergometry, respectively. Our subjects achieved VO(2)max levels equaling 75.8 + or - 7.1 mL/kg/min (5.2 + or - 0.6 L/min) during treadmill testing, which was significantly higher than the level of cardiorespiratory fitness achieved during maximal arm exercise (45.4 + or - 12.4 mL/kg/min [3.1 + or - 0.9 L/min]; P < 0.01). In addition, maximal heart rate (183.2 + or - 8.2 vs 163.7 + or - 10 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (201.8 + or - 10.1 vs 186.6 + or - 12.1 mm Hg) were significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) during maximal leg versus arm exercise. Relative arm fitness (arm VO(2)max/leg VO(2)max) was extremely variable (41%-76%), averaging 60% + or - 13%. Although MR are able to achieve significantly higher VO(2)max values during treadmill testing than those observed in the general population, their relative arm fitness appears to be slightly reduced. These findings add to and strongly support the specificity of measurement and training concept.

  10. Low 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Adolescents: Race, Season, Adiposity, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yanbin; Pollock, Norman; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger Susanne; Gutin, Bernard; Lan, Ling; Chen, Tai C; Keeton, Daniel; Petty, Karen; Holick, Michael F; Zhu, Haidong

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to characterize the vitamin D status of black and white adolescents residing in the southeastern United States (latitude: 33°N) and to investigate relationships with adiposity. Methods Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy for 559 adolescents 14 to 18 years of age (45% black and 49% female). Fat tissues, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness also were measured. Results The overall prevalences of vitamin D insufficiency (<75nmol/L) and deficiency (≤50 nmol/L) were 56.4% and 28.8%, respectively. Black versus white subjects had significantly lower plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in every season (winter, 35.9±2.5 vs 77.4±2.7 nmol/L; spring, 46.4±3.5 vs 101.3±3.5 nmol/L; summer, 50.7±4.0 vs 104.3±4.0 nmol/L; autumn, 54.4± 4.0 vs 96.8±2.7 nmol/L). With adjustment for age, gender, race, season, height, and sexual maturation, there were significant inverse correlations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and all adiposity measurements, including BMI percentile (P=.02), waist circumference (P<.01), total fat mass (P<.01), percentage of body fat (P <.01), visceral adipose tissue (P <.015), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (P<.039). There were significant positive associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vigorous physical activity (P <.01) and cardiovascular fitness (P =.025). Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent among adolescents living in a year-round sunny climate, particularly among black youths. The relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, adiposity, physical activity, and fitness seem to be present in adolescence. PMID:20439594

  11. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    PubMed

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/<22 years = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.21-2.18), higher BMI ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), and total distance ran per week during unit PT (OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.15-2.41). A lower risk of an RRI was associated with total distance run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  12. A randomized controlled trial of an office-based physical activity and physical fitness intervention for older adults.

    PubMed

    Purath, Janet; Keller, Colleen S; McPherson, Sterling; Ainsworth, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    This primary care-based study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a 24-week intervention on physical activity and physical fitness in a group of community-dwelling older adults. Secondary aims were to determine the effect of the intervention on self-efficacy and barriers to physical activity. Intervention participants (n = 36) received an exercise prescription based on physical fitness test results and personal choice. Comparison participants (n = 36) received a nutrition intervention. Both groups received 10 follow-up telephone calls. Repeated measures ANOVA analyses showed no direct effects of the intervention on the primary outcomes of physical activity or physical fitness in the intervention group (p > 0.05). Secondary analyses with ANCOVA that included potential moderating variables of age, gender, income, BMI, and support for physical activity showed that the intervention group significantly increased frequency of all physical activity (F = 3.50, p < 0.05) as well as the fitness outcomes of lower body strength (F = 3.63, p < 0.05) and aerobic endurance (F = 4.03, p < 0.05). This is one of the first studies to evaluate the use of fitness measures to increase physical activity and fitness in the primary care setting. The intervention improved some aspects of physical activity and fitness for selected participants.

  13. Leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness of male adolescents in Oman.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Al-Shamli, Ali Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a hand grip test; and a 1-minute sit-up test. Students spent an average of 19.20 ± 6.77 hours on sedentary activities, 3.46 ± 2.11 hours on sports activities, and 11.22 ± 9.24 hours working per week. The students had an average body fat percentage of 6.38% ± 4.67%, muscle strength 38.04 ± 7.55 kg, flexibility 38.01 ± 7.41 cm, abdominal muscle endurance 38.85 ± 8.15 times/min, and cardiovascular endurance 8.10 ± 1.65 minutes.

  14. Economic evaluation of the benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity associated with air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Stieb, David M; De Civita, Paul; Johnson, F Reed; Manary, Matthew P; Anis, Aslam H; Beveridge, Robert C; Judek, Stan

    2002-01-01

    Background Few assessments of the costs and benefits of reducing acute cardiorespiratory morbidity related to air pollution have employed a comprehensive, explicit approach to capturing the full societal value of reduced morbidity. Methods We used empirical data on the duration and severity of episodes of cardiorespiratory disease as inputs to complementary models of cost of treatment, lost productivity, and willingness to pay to avoid acute cardiorespiratory morbidity outcomes linked to air pollution in epidemiological studies. A Monte Carlo estimation procedure was utilized to propagate uncertainty in key inputs and model parameters. Results Valuation estimates ranged from $13 (1997, Canadian) (95% confidence interval, $0–28) for avoidance of an acute respiratory symptom day to $5,200 ($4,000–$6,400) for avoidance of a cardiac hospital admission. Cost of treatment accounted for the majority of the overall value of cardiac and respiratory hospital admissions as well as cardiac emergency department visits, while lost productivity generally represented a small proportion of overall value. Valuation estimates for days of restricted activity, asthma symptoms and acute respiratory symptoms were sensitive to alternative assumptions about level of activity restriction. As an example of the application of these values, we estimated that the observed decrease in particulate sulfate concentrations in Toronto between 1984 and 1999 resulted in annual benefits of $1.4 million (95% confidence interval $0.91–1.8 million) in relation to reduced emergency department visits and hospital admissions for cardiorespiratory disease. Conclusion Our approach to estimating the value of avoiding a range of acute morbidity effects of air pollution addresses a number of limitations of the current literature, and is applicable to future assessments of the benefits of improving air quality. PMID:12537591

  15. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  16. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  17. Physical fitness and shapes of subcortical brain structures in children.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Campos, Daniel; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Altmäe, Signe; Martínez-Zaldívar, Cristina; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Catena, Andrés; Campoy, Cristina

    2017-03-27

    A few studies have recently reported that higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with higher volumes of subcortical brain structures in children. It is, however, unknown how different fitness measures relate to shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. We aimed to examine the association of the main health-related physical fitness components with shapes of subcortical brain structures in a sample of forty-four Spanish children aged 9·7 (sd 0·2) years from the NUtraceuticals for a HEALthier life project. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and speed agility were assessed using valid and reliable tests (ALPHA-fitness test battery). Shape of the subcortical brain structures was assessed by MRI, and its relationship with fitness was examined after controlling for a set of potential confounders using a partial correlation permutation approach. Our results showed that all physical fitness components studied were significantly related to the shapes of subcortical brain nuclei. These associations were both positive and negative, indicating that a higher level of fitness in childhood is related to both expansions and contractions in certain regions of the accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen and thalamus. Cardiorespiratory fitness was mainly associated with expansions, whereas handgrip was mostly associated with contractions in the structures studied. Future randomised-controlled trials will confirm or contrast our findings, demonstrating whether changes in fitness modify the shapes of brain structures and the extent to which those changes influence cognitive function.

  18. Associations Between Physical Fitness Indices and Working Memory in Breast Cancer Survivors and Age-Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle E.; Raine, Lauren B.; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, heart rate recovery, and physical activity on working memory in breast cancer survivors and age-matched controls. Method: Using a case-control design, 32 women who had received a breast cancer diagnosis and completed primary treatment within the past 36-months (11 radiation only; 21 chemotherapy) and 30 age-matched women with no previous cancer diagnosis completed a n-back continuous performance task commonly used as an assessment of working memory. In addition, cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery were measured during a submaximal graded exercise test and physical activity was measured using 7-days of accelerometer monitoring. Results: Breast cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy had poorer heart rate recovery (p = .010) and engaged in less physical activity than women who had received radiation only (p = .004) or non-cancer controls (p = .029). Cancer treatment (radiation; chemotherapy) predicted differences in reaction times on the 1-back working memory task (p = .029). However, more rapid heart rate recovery predicted shorter reaction times on the 1-back task in the age-matched control group (p = .002). All participants with greater cardiorespiratory fitness displayed greater accuracy independent of disease status on the 1-back task (p = .017). No significant group differences in reaction times were observed for 2-back target trials between breast cancer survivors and controls. However, greater total physical activity predicted shorter reaction times in breast cancer survivors (radiation, chemotherapy) on the 2-back task (p = .014). In addition, all participants who exhibited more rapid heart rate recovery demonstrated better greater accuracy regardless of disease status (p = .013). Conclusion: These findings support differences in physical activty participation, heart rate recovery, and 1- and 2-back working memory reaction

  19. The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular defence and physical fitness in man.

    PubMed

    Szołomicki, J; Samochowiec, L; Wójcicki, J; Droździk, M; Szołomicki, S

    2000-02-01

    The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus, contained in Taiga Wurzel preparation, were studied on cellular defence and physical fitness in man. 50 healthy volunteers of both sexes were selected, and basic clinical examination and laboratory tests were performed in all subjects. All were randomly subdivided into two study groups: group A with 35 subjects receiving Taiga Wurzel and group B with 15 subjects receiving Echinacea. 20 healthy males were randomly selected from both groups and underwent an ergospirometric study. The preparations were administered for 30 days as follows: Taiga Wurzel 25 drops three times daily, Echinacea 40 drops three times daily. After 1 month blood was drawn for control tests. Changes in the following blood parameters were observed in comparison to initial values in group A: total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. No alterations were seen in group B. The ergospirometric test revealed a higher oxygen plateau in group A (Taiga Wurzel). On the basis of the present study the following conclusions were drawn: active components in Eleutherococcus senticosus contained in Taiga Wurzel preparation affect cellular defence and physical fitness, as well as lipid metabolism.

  20. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  1. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  2. Injury and Fitness Outcomes during Implementation of Physical Readiness Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and...J. J. Knapik’ K. G. Hauret’ S. Arnold’ M. Canham-Chervak’ A. J. Mansfield’ E. l. Hoedebecke’ D. McMillian2 Injury and Fitness Outcomes During... fitness outcomes in Ba- sic Combat Training (BCT) during implementation of Physical Readiness Training (PRT). PRT is the U.S. Army’s emerging physi- cal

  3. Chronic Effects of Strength Training Vs. Hydro Aerobics on Functional and Cardiorespiratory Ability in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Novaes, Giovanni S.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Vilaça-Alves, José; Silva, Gabriel Costa e; Garrido, Nuno D.; Furtado, Hélio; Reis, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aimed to compare the effects of two exercise programs (Strength Training and Hydro Gymnastics) on the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. The study population consisted of 38 volunteers (age: 66.9 ± 6.1 years, body mass: 73.70 ± 10.38 kg, and body height: 1.55 ± 0.10 m). Subjects were randomly divided into two experimental groups and one control group: one group performed 24 weeks of strength training (GST; n = 14), another performed 24 weeks of hydro gymnastics (GH; n = 17) and a control group (CG; n = 7), where the subjects continued with their regular daily activities without involvement in any physical exercise program. Three assessments were performed: before the beginning of the program, 12 weeks after the start of the training program and 24 weeks after the start of the program. To assess the functional ability of the participants, several tests proposed by Jones and Rikli (2002) were performed. To evaluate the cardiorespiratory ability of the participants, a modified treadmill Bruce test was applied. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between the two training methods in the tests, which primarily demanded muscular strength. Body mass and the body mass index showed significant differences during the three stages of assessment in the GST group (p<0.05). With respect to the values that represent the variables of cardiorespiratory ability, positive and significant changes were observed in the two experimental groups. It was concluded that both exercise programs promoted improvements in some indicators of the functional and cardiorespiratory abilities of Portuguese postmenopausal women. PMID:25713645

  4. "Altered Short-Term Dynamics of Cardio-Respiratory Interaction during Propofol-Induced Yawning".

    PubMed

    Tsou, Chih-Hsiang; Yu, Pei-Yeh; Tu, Pai-Yu; Fan, Kuo-Tung; Luk, Hsiang-Ning; Kao, Tsair

    2012-06-30

    "Cardiac and respiratory oscillations have been shown to interact with each other. This interaction could reflect autonomic nervous system functionality. Propofol-induced yawning during anesthesia induction seems to be associated with sympathetic activation. Presumptively, there is high linearity among interaction of different physiologic system behaviors. Recently, investigators used coherence analysis to quantify the existence and strength of linearity between system signals for study of cardio-respiratory interaction under different physiological conditions. In this investigation, we used a method of time-frequency coherence function to analyze ECG and respiration signals to investigate the linearity of cardio-respiratory dynamics in patients undergoing routine propofol induction procedures for elective surgery. In this prospective, observational clinical study, a total of 84 eligible patients were enrolled. The patients were categorized into yawning and no-yawning groups during propofol induction. During induction, both groups demonstrated significant reduction in high frequency coherence (coh-HF) with simultaneously significant increase in very low frequency coherence (coh-VLF) compared to the pre-induction period. As yawning occurred, the yawning group had more significant changes of cardio-respiratory coherences than the no-yawning group at coh-LF and coh-VLF bands. The yawning group also showed loss of linearity at high frequency band (coh-HF > 0.5) as compared with the pre-induction period, and also showed increases in linearity at low (coh-LF > 0.5) and very low (coh-VLF > 0.5) frequency bands compared with the no-yawning group. Propofol-induced yawning alters cardio-respiratory dynamics with changes of linearity between cardio-vascular and respiratory system behaviors."

  5. Toxic Chemical from Plastics Attenuates Phenylbiguanide-induced Cardio-respiratory Reflexes in Anaesthetized Rats.

    PubMed

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya P; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) attenuated phenylbiguanide (PBG)-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes involving decreased vagal afferent activity. BPA leaches out from plastics thus it is expected that chronic exposure to plastic boiled (PBW) water will also produce similar changes. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of chronic ingestion of PBW on PBG evoked reflexes and were compared with BPA. Adult female rats were ingested BPA containing pellets (2 µg/kg body weight)/PBW/tap water (ad libitum) for 30 days. On day 30, the animals were anaesthetized and BP, ECG and respiratory excursions were recorded. Further, PBG was injected intravenously to evoke cardio-respiratory reflexes and at the end lungs were excised for histopathological examination. BPA concentration in PBW was 6.6 µg/ml estimated by HPLC. In rats receiving tap water, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea. In PBW/BPA treated groups, PBG-induced reflexes were attenuated significantly along with emphysematous and consolidative changes in lungs. The present results indicate that PBW attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes and also produces histopathological changes in lungs.

  6. Cardiorespiratory Improvements Achieved by American College of Sports Medicine’s Exercise Prescription Implemented on a Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Rospo, Gianluca; Valsecchi, Viola; Bonomi, Alberto G; Thomassen, Inge WJ; van Dantzig, Saskia; La Torre, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence shows that an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To test whether a scientifically endorsed program to increase CRF and PA, implemented on an easy-to-use, always-accessible mobile app would be effective in improving CRF. Methods Of 63 healthy volunteers participating, 18 tested the user interface of the Cardio-Fitness App (CF-App); and 45 underwent a 2-week intervention period, of whom 33 eventually concluded it. These were assigned into three groups. The Step-based App (Step-App) group (n=8), followed 10,000 steps/day prescription, the CF-App group (n=13), and the Supervised Cardio-Fitness (Super-CF) group (n=12), both followed a heart rate (HR)-based program according to American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, but either implemented on the app, or at the gym, respectively. Participants were tested for CRF, PA, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP), resting, exercise, and recovery HR. Results CRF increased in all groups (+4.9%; P<.001). SBP decreased in all groups (-2.6 mm Hg; P=.03). DBP decrease was higher in the Super-CF group (-3.5 mm Hg) than in the Step-App group (-2.1 mm Hg; P<.001). Posttest exercise HR decreased in all groups (-3.4 bpm; P=.02). Posttest recovery HR was lower in the Super-CF group (-10.1 bpm) than in the other two groups (CF-App: -4.9 bpm, Step-App: -3.3 bpm; P<.001). The CF-App group, however, achieved these improvements with more training heart beats (P<.01). Conclusions A 10,000 steps/day target-based app improved CRF similar to an ACSM guideline-based program whether it was implemented on a mobile app or in supervised gym sessions. PMID:27339153

  7. Active Contours Driven by Multi-Feature Gaussian Distribution Fitting Energy with Application to Vessel Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhang, Huimao; He, Kan; Chang, Yan; Yang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Active contour models are of great importance for image segmentation and can extract smooth and closed boundary contours of the desired objects with promising results. However, they cannot work well in the presence of intensity inhomogeneity. Hence, a novel region-based active contour model is proposed by taking image intensities and 'vesselness values' from local phase-based vesselness enhancement into account simultaneously to define a novel multi-feature Gaussian distribution fitting energy in this paper. This energy is then incorporated into a level set formulation with a regularization term for accurate segmentations. Experimental results based on publicly available STructured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) demonstrate our model is more accurate than some existing typical methods and can successfully segment most small vessels with varying width.

  8. Predictive validity of health-related fitness in youth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J R; Castro-Piñero, J; Artero, E G; Ortega, F B; Sjöström, M; Suni, J; Castillo, M J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the present systematic review was to investigate whether physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is a predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, events and syndromes, quality of life and low back pain later in life. Physical fitness-related components were: cardiorespiratory fitness, musculoskeletal fitness, motor fitness and body composition. Adiposity was considered as both exposure and outcome. The results of 42 studies reporting the predictive validity of health-related physical fitness for CVD risk factors, events and syndromes as well as the results of five studies reporting the predictive validity of physical fitness for low back pain in children and adolescents were summarised. Strong evidence was found indicating that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood and adolescence are associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile later in life. Muscular strength improvements from childhood to adolescence are negatively associated with changes in overall adiposity. A healthier body composition in childhood and adolescence is associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile later in life and with a lower risk of death. The evidence was moderate for the association between changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and CVD risk factors, and between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and arterial stiffness. Moderate evidence on the lack of a relationship between body composition and low back pain was found. Due to a limited number of studies, inconclusive evidence emerged for a relationship between muscular strength or motor fitness and CVD risk factors, and between flexibility and low back pain.

  9. Proteasome-mediated turnover of the transcriptional activator FIT is required for plant iron-deficiency responses.

    PubMed

    Sivitz, Alicia; Grinvalds, Claudia; Barberon, Marie; Curie, Catherine; Vert, Grégory

    2011-06-01

    Plants display a number of responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. To maintain iron homeostasis, the expression of FRO2 and IRT1 is tightly controlled by iron deficiency at the transcriptional level. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor FIT represents the most upstream actor known in the iron-deficiency signaling pathway, and directly regulates the expression of the root iron uptake machinery genes FRO2 and IRT1. However, how FIT is controlled by iron and acts to activate transcription of its targets remains obscure. Here we show that FIT mRNA and endogenous FIT protein accumulate in Arabidopsis roots upon iron deficiency. However, using plants constitutively expressing FIT, we observed that FIT protein accumulation is reduced in iron-limited conditions. This post-transcriptional regulation of FIT is perfectly synchronized with the accumulation of endogenous FIT and IRT1 proteins, and therefore is part of the early responses to low iron. We demonstrated that such regulation affects FIT protein stability under iron deficiency as a result of 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. In addition, we showed that FIT post-translational regulation by iron is required for FRO2 and IRT1 gene expression. Taken together our results indicate that FIT transcriptional and post-translational regulations are integrated in plant roots to ensure that the positive regulator FIT accumulates as a short-lived protein following iron shortage, and to allow proper iron-deficiency responses.

  10. Differences in Preseason Aerobic Fitness Screening in Professional and Pre-professional Modern Dancers.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Codman, Emma; Hash-Campbell, Dana; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2016-03-01

    The aerobic demands of today's dance repertoire warrant understanding of the current cardiorespiratory fitness of dancers. The purpose of this study was to compare aerobic fitness levels of professional and pre-professional modern dancers and determine change over time. A retrospective analysis of four groups, two professional, and two pre-professional, was conducted in preseason annual screens, occurring before the professional dancers' rehearsal period and the students' academic training. Resting (HRrest), peak (HRpeak), and recovery (HRrecov) heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) were compared in 577 dancers, using an accelerated 3-minute step test. Smoking, asthma, and aerobic and cross training rates between groups were also compared. A 4 (group) X 2 (gender) MANOVA design determined differences between groups and genders in all dependent variables (p < 0.05). Using a repeated measures ANOVA design, we compared a subgroup over 3 years and one pre-professional group over 4 years. There were differences between groups in systolic BP and all HR variables (p < 0.001). Professional dancers reflected better cardiorespiratory fitness than pre-professional dancers. There were differences between groups in aerobic and cross training activities but no differences in smoking incidence or asthma rates. Pre-professional dancers demonstrated improvement in aerobic fitness over time (p = 0.006) while professionals did not change. Professional dancers display better aerobic fitness, which may reflect their performance demands. Wellness programs appear to enhance fitness in pre-professional dance students over time. Additional aerobic training is recommended for pre-professional modern dance students to prepare them for the performance demands of a professional career.

  11. Arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity during acute hypotension: effect of fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Hansen, J.; Sander, M.; Horn, K.; Ogoh, S.; Smith, M. L.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during abrupt decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and evaluated whether endurance training alters baroreflex function. Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically in 14 healthy subjects, of which 7 were of high fitness (HF) and 7 were of average fitness (AF), by releasing a unilateral arterial thigh cuff after 9 min of resting ischemia under two conditions: control, which used aortic and carotid baroreflex (ABR and CBR, respectively) deactivation; and suction, which used ABR deactivation alone. The application of neck suction to counteract changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure during cuff release significantly attenuated the MSNA response (which increased 134 +/- 32 U/14 s) compared with control (which increased 195 +/- 43 U/14 s) and caused a greater decrease in MAP (19 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Furthermore, during both trials, the HF subjects exhibited a greater decrease in MAP compared with AF subjects despite an augmented baroreflex control of MSNA. These data indicate that the CBR contributes importantly to the MSNA response during acute systemic hypotension. Additionally, we suggest that an impaired control of vascular reactivity hinders blood pressure regulation in HF subjects.

  12. Fitness vs. fatness on all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barry, Vaughn W; Baruth, Meghan; Beets, Michael W; Durstine, J Larry; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the joint association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and weight status on mortality from all causes using meta-analytical methodology. Studies were included if they were (1) prospective, (2) objectively measured CRF and body mass index (BMI), and (3) jointly assessed CRF and BMI with all-cause mortality. Ten articles were included in the final analysis. Pooled hazard ratios were assessed for each comparison group (i.e. normal weight-unfit, overweight-unfit and -fit, and obese-unfit and -fit) using a random-effects model. Compared to normal weight-fit individuals, unfit individuals had twice the risk of mortality regardless of BMI. Overweight and obese-fit individuals had similar mortality risks as normal weight-fit individuals. Furthermore, the obesity paradox may not influence fit individuals. Researchers, clinicians, and public health officials should focus on physical activity and fitness-based interventions rather than weight-loss driven approaches to reduce mortality risk.

  13. Hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory predictors of sport rock climbing performance.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Simon; Giles, David; Palomino, Inmaculada Garrido; Puerta, Alejandro de la O; Romero, Vanesa España

    2017-03-13

    Rock climbing performance has been suggested to involve a notable contribution from the aerobic metabolism. Previously it has been shown that forearm oxygenation kinetics can be used to distinguish ability groups and predict red-point sport climbing performance. Currently it is not known if forearm oxygenation kinetics, or a sport specific assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness best predicts sport rock climbing performance. The aim of the study was to determine whether forearm oxidative capacity index, maximal de-oxygenation (Δ score) during a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak test, treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak, or running V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]max best predicts self-reported sport climbing performance. Twenty-one male sport rock climbers completed a treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak, running V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]max and an assessment of near infrared spectroscopy derived oxidative capacity index. Linear regression, adjusted for age and experience (years), revealed that forearm oxidative capacity index, treadwall maximal de-oxygenation (Δ) and treadwall V[Combining Dot Above]O[SUBSCRIPT TWO]peak all significantly predicted self-reported red-point sport climbing ability (Adj R[SUBSCRIPT TWO] =-0.398; -0.255; 0.374 respectively), whereas treadmill running V[Combining Dot Above]O2max did not (Adj R[SUBSCRIPT TWO] =0.-0.052). Additionally, multiple regression suggested that the combined significant aerobic predictors accounted for 67% of the variance in red-point climbing ability. Findings suggest that training for sport rock climbing performance should look to incorporate modalities which focus on 1) improving local forearm aerobic capacity, and 2) improving whole body aerobic capacity using sport-specific apparatus such as treadwalls.

  14. Voice activity detection in noisy environments based on double-combined fourier transform and line fitting.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinsoo; Kim, Wooil; Han, David K; Ko, Hanseok

    2014-01-01

    A new voice activity detector for noisy environments is proposed. In conventional algorithms, the endpoint of speech is found by applying an edge detection filter that finds the abrupt changing point in a feature domain. However, since the frame energy feature is unstable in noisy environments, it is difficult to accurately find the endpoint of speech. Therefore, a novel feature extraction algorithm based on the double-combined Fourier transform and envelope line fitting is proposed. It is combined with an edge detection filter for effective detection of endpoints. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared to other VAD algorithms using two different databases, which are AURORA 2.0 database and SITEC database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well under a variety of noisy conditions.

  15. Relationships Among Two Repeated Activity Tests and Aerobic Fitness of Volleyball Players.

    PubMed

    Meckel, Yoav; May-Rom, Moran; Ekshtien, Aya; Eisenstein, Tamir; Nemet, Dan; Eliakim, Alon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine performance indices of a repeated sprint test (RST) and to examine their relationships with performance indices of a repeated jump test (RJT) and with aerobic fitness among trained volleyball players. Sixteen male volleyball players performed RST (6 × 30 m sprints), RJT (6 sets of 6 consecutive jumps), and an aerobic power test (20-m Shuttle Run Test). Performance indices for the RST and the RJT were (a) the ideal 30-m run time (IS), the total run time (TS) of the 6 sprints, and the performance decrement (PD) during the test and (b) the ideal jump height (IJ), the total jump height (TJ) of all the jumps, and the PD during the test, respectively. No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RST and RJT. Significant correlations were found between PD, IS, and TS in the RST protocol and predicted peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (r = -0.60, -0.75, -0.77, respectively). No significant correlations were found between performance indices of the RJT (IJ, TJ, and PD) and peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2. The findings suggest that a selection of repeated activity test protocols should acknowledge the specific technique used in the sport, and that a distinct RJT, rather than the classic RST, is more appropriate for assessing the anaerobic capabilities of volleyball players. The findings also suggest that aerobic fitness plays only a minor role in performance maintenance throughout characteristic repeated jumping activity of a volleyball game.

  16. Something New for the Pool: Individualized Instruction in Aquatic Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sue W.

    1984-01-01

    An aquatics fitness class given at Drake University (Iowa) is described. Students set up their own programs in consultation with the instructor choosing three components from the following list: cardiorespiratory, strength, flexibility, nutrition and weight management, and posture and body measurement. (JMK)

  17. A Physical Education Dilemma: Team Sports or Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, G. McKenzie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A study of 56 fifth graders found the traditional physical education approach (game techniques and fundamentals) was ineffective in improving scores on a health-related physical fitness test. Modification of the same sport (basketball) with conditioning exercises to improve cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal function, produced improvement in…

  18. Systematic exploration of ubiquitin sequence, E1 activation efficiency, and experimental fitness in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Roscoe, Benjamin P.; Bolon, Daniel N. A.

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of biological interaction networks poses a challenge to understanding the function of individual connections in the overall network. To address this challenge, we developed a high throughput reverse engineering strategy to analyze how thousands of specific perturbations (encompassing all point mutations in a central gene) impact both a specific edge (interaction to a directly connected node) as well as overall network function. We analyzed the effects of ubiquitin mutations on activation by the E1 enzyme and compared these to effects on yeast growth rate. Using this approach, we delineated ubiquitin mutations that selectively impacted the ubiquitin-E1 edge. We find that the elasticity function relating the efficiency of ubiquitin-E1 interaction to growth rate is non-linear and that a greater than 50-fold decrease in E1 activation efficiency is required to reduce growth rate by two fold. Despite the robustness of fitness to decreases in E1 activation efficiency, the effects of most ubiquitin mutations on E1 activation paralleled the effects on growth rate. Our observations indicate that most ubiquitin mutations that disrupt E1 activation also disrupt other functions. The structurally characterized ubiquitin-E1 interface encompasses the interfaces of ubiquitin with most other known binding partners, and we propose that this enables E1 in wild-type cells to selectively activate ubiquitin protein molecules capable of binding to other partners from the cytoplasmic pool of ubiquitin protein that will include molecules with chemical damage and/or errors from transcription and translation. PMID:24862281

  19. Physical activity, fitness and the energy cost of activities: implications for obesity in children and adolescents in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Xiao Chuan; Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    The tropics cover a large section of the world in which both developed and developing countries are situated. Rapid socioeconomic development, modernization, urbanization, and globalization have affected both the food market and physical activity (PA), which in turn have propelled the obesity epidemic in the tropics. There is growing concern that overweight and obesity are emerging as major health problems among children and adolescents in the tropics, despite the fact that undernutrition still exists in many of these countries. Physical inactivity, a low metabolic rate, and lack of physical fitness (PF) have been linked to overweight and obesity. Moreover, PF in several tropical countries is declining, and these changes may be a threat to future health, as low PA and PF levels are important risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Previous studies have reported that the relationships among PA, PF, overweight, and obesity are inconsistent and inconclusive. There is no indication that variances in the energy cost of physical activities lead to obesity. Despite a lack of definite evidence to prove a causal relationship, there is enough certainty that physical inactivity and low fitness levels are linked to overweight and obesity. Hence, people living in tropical countries need to be encouraged to lead a healthier lifestyle by increasing their PA levels and reducing sedentary behaviors to prevent overweight or obesity.

  20. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity.

  1. Physical fitness and exercise training on individuals with spina bifida: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Jácome, Cristina; Marques, Alda

    2014-05-01

    Spina Bifida (SB) is characterized by several physical impairments; however, data on physical fitness and on the benefits of exercise training in individuals with SB are dispersed in the literature. Thus, this systematic review aimed to describe (i) physical fitness components (cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, body composition, flexibility and neuromotor) and (ii) exercise training effects on the physical fitness of individuals with SB. CINAHL, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January to March 2013 and updated in December 2013. Twenty-three studies were included. A summary of the results was performed using a best-evidence synthesis. Participants with SB had lower cardiorespiratory endurance (-32 to 54% in VO2 peak) and muscle strength (-58 to 90%) and higher body fat (159%) than their healthy peers. Mobility restrictions were present in 26.3-61% of participants. No data on neuromotor fitness were found. Aerobic and strength training improved participants' cardiorespiratory endurance (effect sizes 0.78-1.4) and muscle strength (effect sizes 0-0.59). Individuals with SB have impaired cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, body composition and flexibility when compared to healthy peers. Exercise training seems to improve two of these fitness components (cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle strength). Nevertheless, the heterogeneity of the studies' designs, methods and instruments used limits the establishment of firm conclusions and highlights the need for further research.

  2. Differences in Brain Activity during a Verbal Associative Memory Encoding Task in High- and Low-fit Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic fitness is associated with better memory performance as well as larger volumes in memory-related brain regions in children, adolescents, and elderly. It is unclear if aerobic exercise also influences learning and memory functional neural circuitry. Here, we examine brain activity in 17 high-fit (HF) and 17 low-fit (LF) adolescents during a subsequent memory encoding paradigm using fMRI. Despite similar memory performance, HF and LF youth displayed a number of differences in memory-related and default mode (DMN) brain regions during encoding later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Specifically, HF youth displayed robust deactivation in DMN areas, including the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas LF youth did not show this pattern. Furthermore, LF youth showed greater bilateral hippocampal and right superior frontal gyrus activation during encoding of later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Follow-up task-dependent functional correlational analyses showed differences in hippocampus and DMN activity coupling during successful encoding between the groups, suggesting aerobic fitness during adolescents may impact functional connectivity of the hippocampus and DMN during memory encoding. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal function and memory-related neural circuitry using fMRI. Taken together with previous research, these findings suggest aerobic fitness can influence not only memory-related brain structure, but also brain function. PMID:23249350

  3. Differences in brain activity during a verbal associative memory encoding task in high- and low-fit adolescents.

    PubMed

    Herting, Megan M; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2013-04-01

    Aerobic fitness is associated with better memory performance as well as larger volumes in memory-related brain regions in children, adolescents, and elderly. It is unclear if aerobic exercise also influences learning and memory functional neural circuitry. Here, we examine brain activity in 17 high-fit (HF) and 17 low-fit (LF) adolescents during a subsequent memory encoding paradigm using fMRI. Despite similar memory performance, HF and LF youth displayed a number of differences in memory-related and default mode (DMN) brain regions during encoding later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Specifically, HF youth displayed robust deactivation in DMN areas, including the ventral medial PFC and posterior cingulate cortex, whereas LF youth did not show this pattern. Furthermore, LF youth showed greater bilateral hippocampal and right superior frontal gyrus activation during encoding of later remembered versus forgotten word pairs. Follow-up task-dependent functional correlational analyses showed differences in hippocampus and DMN activity coupling during successful encoding between the groups, suggesting aerobic fitness during adolescents may impact functional connectivity of the hippocampus and DMN during memory encoding. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine the influence of aerobic fitness on hippocampal function and memory-related neural circuitry using fMRI. Taken together with previous research, these findings suggest aerobic fitness can influence not only memory-related brain structure, but also brain function.

  4. [Comprehensive testing system for cardiorespiratory interaction research].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Wang, Buqing; Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Jiewen; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Sun, Congcong; Wang, Guojing

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the modulation effects of breathing movement on cardiovascular system and to study the physiological coupling relationship between respiration and cardiovascular system, we designed a comprehensive testing system for cardiorespiratory interaction research. This system, comprising three parts, i. e. physiological signal conditioning unit, data acquisition and USB medical isolation unit, and a PC based program, can acquire multiple physiological data such as respiratory flow, rib cage and abdomen movement, electrocardiograph, artery pulse wave, cardiac sounds, skin temperature, and electromyography simultaneously under certain experimental protocols. Furthermore this system can be used in research on short-term cardiovascular variability by paced breathing. Preliminary experiments showed that this system could accurately record rib cage and abdomen movement under very low breathing rate, using respiratory inductive plethysmography to acquire respiration signal in direct-current coupling mode. After calibration, this system can be used to estimate ventilation non-intrusively and correctly. The PC based program can generate audio and visual biofeedback signal, and guide the volunteers to perform a slow and regular breathing. An experiment on healthy volunteers showed that this system was able to guide the volunteers to do slow breathing effectively and simultaneously record multiple physiological data during the experiments. Signal processing techniques were used for off-line data analysis, such as non-invasive ventilation calibration, QRS complex wave detection, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pulse wave transit time calculation. The experiment result showed that the modulation effect on RR interval, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), pulse wave transit time (PWTT) by respiration would get stronger with the going of the slow and regular breathing.

  5. Comparison of cardiorespiratory responses between Surya Namaskar and bicycle exercise at similar energy expenditure level.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Biswajit; Sinha, Tulika Dasgupta; Pathak, Anjana; Tomer, O S

    2013-01-01

    Surya Namaskar (SN), a popular traditional Indian yogic practice called "Sun Salutations", includes practice of twelve physical postures involving alternate backward bending and forward bending postures. The practice of twelve postures in succession makes one round of its practice. Many people practise it as part of their daily physical fitness regimen. No study is available to compare cardiorespiratory responses of SN with bicycle exercise (BE). 20 healthy Yoga instructors practicing various Yogic practices including SN since last 7-8 years participated in the study. They performed SN in the laboratory according to their customary daily practice routine. The subject also performed incremental load bicycle exercise test till exhaustion on their second visit for measuring their VO2 max. SN and BE were compared at three similar exercise intensity levels in terms of % of VO2 max. The exercise intensities were light (10-20% VO2 max), moderate (21-40% VO2 max) and high intensities (41-50% VO2 max). Heart rate at high work intensity was significantly higher in BE than SN (P < .001). Ventilation and carbon dioxide output were significantly higher in BE than SN at high exercise intensity (P < 0.001). Overall, cardiorespiratory stress is less in SN than BE at similar work intensities.

  6. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  7. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  8. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  9. Physical activity in adulthood: genes and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira; Waller, Katja; Silvennoinen, Mika; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kainulainen, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M.

    2015-01-01

    Observational studies report a strong inverse relationship between leisure-time physical activity and all-cause mortality. Despite suggestive evidence from population-based associations, scientists have not been able to show a beneficial effect of physical activity on the risk of death in controlled intervention studies among individuals who have been healthy at baseline. On the other hand, high cardiorespiratory fitness is known to be a strong predictor of reduced mortality, even more robust than physical activity level itself. Here, in both animals and/or human twins, we show that the same genetic factors influence physical activity levels, cardiorespiratory fitness, and risk of death. Previous observational follow-up studies in humans suggest that increasing fitness through physical activity levels could prolong life; however, our controlled interventional study with laboratory rats bred for low and high intrinsic fitness contrast with these findings. Also, we find no evidence for the suggested association using pairwise analysis among monozygotic twin pairs who are discordant in their physical activity levels. Based on both our animal and human findings, we propose that genetic pleiotropy might partly explain the frequently observed associations between high baseline physical activity and later reduced mortality in humans. PMID:26666586

  10. Combined influence of healthy diet and active lifestyle on cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Labayen, I; Jago, R; Martínez-Gómez, D; Dallongeville, J; Bel-Serrat, S; Marcos, A; Manios, Y; Breidenassel, C; Widhalm, K; Gottrand, F; Ferrari, M; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Castillo, M J; Sjöström, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the combined influence of diet quality and physical activity on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adolescents, adolescents (n = 1513; 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study were studied. Dietary intake was registered using a 24-h recall and a diet quality index was calculated. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Lifestyle groups were computed as: healthy diet and active, unhealthy diet but active, healthy diet but inactive, and unhealthy diet and inactive. CVD risk factor measurements included cardiorespiratory fitness, adiposity indicators, blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and insulin resistance. A CVD risk score was computed. The healthy diet and active group had a healthier cardiorespiratory profile, fat mass index (FMI), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and total cholesterol (TC)/HDL-C ratio (all P ≤ 0.05). Overall, active adolescents showed higher cardiorespiratory fitness, lower FMI, TC/HDL-C ratio, and homeostasis model assessment index and healthier blood pressure than their inactive peers with either healthy or unhealthy diet (all P ≤ 0.05). Healthy diet and active group had healthier CVD risk score compared with the inactive groups (all P ≤ 0.02). Thus, a combination of healthy diet and active lifestyle is associated with decreased CVD risk in adolescents. Moreover, an active lifestyle may reduce the adverse consequences of an unhealthy diet.

  11. American College of Sports Medicine. Position Stand. Physical activity, physical fitness, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    1993-10-01

    Hypertension is present in epidemic proportions in adults of industrialized societies and is associated with a markedly increased risk of developing numerous cardiovascular pathologies. There is a continuing debate as to the efficacy of aggressive pharmacological therapy in individuals with mild to moderate elevations in blood pressure. This has led to a search for nonpharmacological therapies, such as exercise training, for these individuals. The available evidence indicates that endurance exercise training by individuals at high risk for developing hypertension will reduce the rise in blood pressure that occurs with time. Thus, it is the position of the American College of Sports Medicine that endurance exercise training is recommended as a nonpharmacological strategy to reduce the incidence of hypertension in susceptible individuals. A large number of studies indicate that endurance exercise training will elicit a 10 mm Hg average reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures in individuals with mild essential hypertension (blood pressures 140-180/90-105 mm Hg). Endurance exercise training also has the capacity to improve other risk factors for cardiovascular disease in hypertensive individuals. Endurance exercise training appears to elicit even greater reductions in blood pressure in patients with secondary hypertension due to renal dysfunction. The mode (large muscle activities), frequency (3-5 d.wk-1), duration (20-60 min), and intensity (50-85% of maximal oxygen uptake) of the exercise recommended to achieve this effect are generally the same as those prescribed for developing and maintaining cardiovascular fitness in healthy adults. Exercise training at somewhat lower intensities (40-70% VO2max) appears to lower blood pressure as much, or more, than exercise at higher intensities, which may be important in specific hypertensive populations. Physically active and fit individuals with hypertension have markedly lower rates of mortality than

  12. Associations between physical activity, screen time, and fitness among 6- to 10-year-old children living in Edmonton, Canada.

    PubMed

    Potter, Morgan; Spence, John C; Boulé, Normand G; Stearns, Jodie A; Carson, Valerie

    2017-01-03

    The objectives of this study were to describe fitness levels; examine associations between physical activity (PA), screen time (ST), and fitness; and examine sex-moderating effects in a sample of children. Participants were 649 children (age, 7.8 ± 0.6 years; 52.4% female) from Edmonton, Canada. Hours/week of PA and ST were parent-reported. PA was also objectively measured with pedometers and expressed in increments of 1000 steps/day. Fitness components (i.e., vertical jump, sit-and-reach, waist circumference, grip strength, predicted maximal oxygen consumption, push-ups, partial curl-ups, overall fitness) were measured according to the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness, and Lifestyle Approach protocols and expressed as z scores or low/high fitness. Positive associations were observed between PA and overall fitness for both the complete (subjective: β = 0.009, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.001-0.017) and partial (≥3 available fitness measures; subjective: β = 0.006, 95% CI: 0.000-0.011; objective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.007-0.042) fitness scores. Subjective (β = 0.011, 95% CI: 0.000-0.022) and objective (β = 0.043, 95% CI: 0.008-0.078) PAs were positively associated with vertical jump. Children with higher objective PA were more likely to be in the high push-ups group (odds ratio = 1.156, 95% CI: 1.054-1.267). PA was positively associated with predicted maximal oxygen uptake (subjective: β = 0.040, 95% CI: 0.018-0.063; objective: β = 0.084, 95% CI: 0.012-0.157) and grip strength (subjective: β = 0.025, 95% CI: 0.011-0.040) in boys only. ST was negatively associated with grip strength (β = -0.016, 95% CI: -0.028 to -0.004) in boys. PA was associated with several components of fitness, especially in boys. However, few associations were observed between ST and fitness. Promoting regular PA in young children may address declining fitness levels.

  13. Correspondence Between Physical Self-Concept and Participation in, and Fitness Change After, Biweekly Body Conditioning Classes in Sedentary Women.

    PubMed

    Aasa, Ulrika; Paulin, Johan; Madison, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Aasa, U, Paulin, J, and Madison, G. Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, biweekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 451-461, 2017-The aims of the study were (a) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (b) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11 weeks of biweekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance, and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility, and balance tests were performed before and after the exercise period and the short-form of the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs = 0.24, p = 0.040). At posttests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  14. Influence of Hatha yoga on physical activity constraints, physical fitness, and body image of breast cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Puymbroeck, Marieke; Schmid, Arlene; Shinew, Kimberly J; Hsieh, Pei-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors often experience changes in their perception of their bodies following surgical treatment. These changes in body image may increase self-consciousness and perceptions of physical activity constraints and reduce participation in physical activity. While the number of studies examining different types of yoga targeting women with breast cancer has increased, studies thus far have not studied the influence that Hatha yoga has on body image and physical activity constraints. The objective of this study was to explore the changes that occur in breast cancer survivors in terms of body image, perceived constraints, and physical fitness following an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention. This study used a nonrandomized two-group pilot study, comparing an 8-week Hatha yoga intervention with a light exercise group, both designed for women who were at least nine months post-treatment for breast cancer. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected in the areas of body image, physical activity constraints, and physical fitness. Findings indicated that quantitatively, yoga participants experienced reductions in physical activity constraints and improvements in lower- and upper-body strength and flexibility, while control participants experienced improvements in abdominal strength and lower-body strength. Qualitative findings support changes in body image, physical activity constraints, and physical fitness for the participants in the yoga group. In conclusion, Hatha yoga may reduce constraints to physical activity and improve fitness in breast cancer survivors. More research is needed to explore the relationship between Hatha yoga and improvements in body image.

  15. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  16. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

    2014-12-01

    This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram(®) ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n = 19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n = 14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.1 ± 1.7 to 8.5 ± 1.9 h; p = 0.002) and weekend (6.3 ± 2.6 to 8.4 ± 2.5 h; p = 0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.3 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.05. Weekend activity: 7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.3 ± 2.3 h; p = 0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes.

  17. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players’ balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students. PMID:25729204

  18. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  19. The effects of exercise modality and intensity on energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory response in adults with obesity and treated obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Evans, Rachael A; Dolmage, Thomas E; Robles, Priscila G; Brooks, Dina; Goldstein, Roger S

    2016-04-13

    To inform recommendations for the exercise component of a healthy lifestyle intervention for adults with obesity and treated obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), we investigated the total energy expenditure (EE) and cardiorespiratory response to weight-supported (cycling) and unsupported (walking) exercise. Individuals with treated OSA and a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2)performed an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill to determine the peak oxygen uptake[Formula: see text] Participants subsequently completed two endurance tests on each modality, matched at 80% and 60% of the highest[Formula: see text]determined by the incremental tests, to intolerance. The cardiorespiratory response was measured and total EE was estimated from the[Formula: see text] Sixteen participants completed all six tests: mean [SD] age 57 [13] years and median [IQ range] BMI 33.3 [30.8-35.3] kg/m(2) Total EE during treadmill walking was greater than cycling at both high (158 [101] vs. 29 [15] kcal;p< 0.001) and moderate (178 [100] vs. 85 [59] kcal;p= 0.002) intensities, respectively, with similar cardiorespiratory responses and pattern of EE during rest, exercise and recovery. Contrary to current guidelines, walking might be the preferred training modality to achieve the combination of weight loss and increased cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with obesity and treated OSA.

  20. Cardiorespiratory Physiotherapy around the Clock: Experience at a University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Devroey, Marianne; Buyse, Catherine; Norrenberg, Michelle; Ros, Anne-Marie; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To document and describe the use of a hospital-wide, 24-hour cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service run by an intensive care unit (ICU) team of physiotherapists. Methods: We prospectively collected data on all non-ICU hospital patients who used the 24-hours-per-day cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service over a 1-year period between July 2013 and June 2014. The ICU physiotherapists documented the reason, origin of referral, time of call, and type and frequency of treatment of each patient. Results: Over the 1-year period, the ICU physiotherapists administered 2,192 out-of-hours cardiorespiratory physiotherapy treatments (n=685 patients) outside the ICU. Most referrals originated from the emergency department (25%), the cardiopulmonary transplant unit (20%), and the pulmonology department (16%). Referrals were from a physiotherapist in 49% of cases, from a nurse in 32%, and from a physician in 19%. Of these, 89% were made between 4:00 p.m. and 8:00 a.m., and sputum retention was the most frequent reason (86%). Conclusion: Although proving its cost effectiveness is difficult, organizing a 24-hours-per-day, 7-days-per-week cardiorespiratory physiotherapy service in a large hospital is feasible.

  1. [Adaptation potential of cardio-respiratory system in dust diseases].

    PubMed

    Serebryakov, P V; Nenenko, O I; Fedina, I N; Rakhimzyanov, A R

    2016-01-01

    The article covers results of cardio-respiratory system evaluation in workers exposed to dust, on basis of adaptation potential evaluation via calculation of functional changes index and 6 minutes' walk test with continuous assessment of blood oxygenation and heart rate. Adaptation disorders are supported by results of external respiration assessment and echo-cardiography.

  2. Locomotive and non-locomotive activity as determined by triaxial accelerometry and physical fitness in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Hikihara, Yuki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the potential relationship between participation in physical activity (PA) assessed by triaxial accelerometry and physical fitness testing, including health-related and skill-related parameters of fitness, in 136 Japanese preschoolers (65 girls and 71 boys, 5.5 ± 0.6 years). In partial correlation analyses, grip strength and 20m shuttle run test were positively correlated with time spent in physical activity ratio (PAR) ≥ 4. Better scores on standing long jump distance and jump over and crawl under tests were associated with lower sedentary time and greater moderate-to-vigorous PA time and PAR ≥ 4 time, and increased physical activity level. Moreover, 25m run speed was positively correlated with time spent in PAR ≥ 4 and locomotive activity. These findings suggest that development of both health-related (muscle strength and aerobic fitness) and skill-related fitness (power, agility and speed) may make engagement in PA easier for preschool children, although further research on the cause-effect relationship is needed.

  3. Effects of a Regular Motor Activity on Somatic and Fitness Variables in Boys Aged 17-18 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowska, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness changes in semisedentary boys persuaded to undertake Nordic Walking activities throughout a school year. Material and methods: Two groups of schoolboys aged 17-18 years were studied: regularly attending physical education (PE) classes (Group A; n = 46) and those who avoided PE classes by submitting sick…

  4. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Self-Perception Changes Related to a University "Lifetime Fitness for Health" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woekel, Erica; Ebbeck, Vicki; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Readdy, Tucker; Li, Kin-Kit; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate college students are at a crucial point in the development of significant health behaviors, most notably related to physical activity and dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively determine whether participation in a Lifetime Fitness for Health (LFH) curriculum in college had short-term and long-term benefits…

  5. Behavior Change with Fitness Technology in Sedentary Adults: A Review of the Evidence for Increasing Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Alycia N.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is closely linked with health and well-being; however, many Americans do not engage in regular exercise. Older adults and those with low socioeconomic status are especially at risk for poor health, largely due to their sedentary lifestyles. Fitness technology, including trackers and smartphone applications (apps), has become increasingly popular for measuring and encouraging physical activity in recent years. However, many questions remain regarding the effectiveness of this technology for promoting behavior change. Behavior change techniques such as goal setting, feedback, rewards, and social factors are often included in fitness technology. However, it is not clear which components are most effective and which are actually being used by consumers. We discuss additional strategies not typically included in fitness technology devices or apps that are promising for engaging inactive, vulnerable populations. These include action planning, restructuring negative attitudes, enhancing environmental conditions, and identifying other barriers to regular physical activity. We consider which strategies are most conducive to motivating behavior change among sedentary adults. Overall, fitness technology has the potential to significantly impact public health, research, and policies. We suggest ways in which app developers and behavior change experts can collaborate to develop successful apps. Advances are still needed to help inactive individuals determine how, when, where, and with whom they can increase their physical activity. PMID:28123997

  6. Physical Training of School Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Daily Activity, Fat Mass and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg-Emons, R. J.; Van Baak, M. A.; Speth, L.; Saris, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of two 9-month sports programs (four or two sessions per week) on daily physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), and physical fitness were assessed in 20 Dutch children (ages 7-13) with spastic cerebral palsy. Four sessions per week tended to increase PA ratio and held FM constant. (Author/CR)

  7. Just Be It! Healthy and Fit Increases Fifth Graders' Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Physical Activity, and Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…

  8. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  9. Neck muscle afferents influence oromotor and cardiorespiratory brainstem neural circuits.

    PubMed

    Edwards, I J; Lall, V K; Paton, J F; Yanagawa, Y; Szabo, G; Deuchars, S A; Deuchars, J

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information arising from the upper neck is important in the reflex control of posture and eye position. It has also been linked to the autonomic control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and cervical dystonia, which involve disturbance to the neck region, can often present with abnormalities to the oromotor, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. We investigated the potential neural pathways underlying such symptoms. Simulating neck afferent activity by electrical stimulation of the second cervical nerve in a working heart brainstem preparation (WHBP) altered the pattern of central respiratory drive and increased perfusion pressure. Tracing central targets of these sensory afferents revealed projections to the intermedius nucleus of the medulla (InM). These anterogradely labelled afferents co-localised with parvalbumin and vesicular glutamate transporter 1 indicating that they are proprioceptive. Anterograde tracing from the InM identified projections to brain regions involved in respiratory, cardiovascular, postural and oro-facial behaviours--the neighbouring hypoglossal nucleus, facial and motor trigeminal nuclei, parabrachial nuclei, rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla and nucleus ambiguus. In brain slices, electrical stimulation of afferent fibre tracts lateral to the cuneate nucleus monosynaptically excited InM neurones. Direct stimulation of the InM in the WHBP mimicked the response of second cervical nerve stimulation. These results provide evidence of pathways linking upper cervical sensory afferents with CNS areas involved in autonomic and oromotor control, via the InM. Disruption of these neuronal pathways could, therefore, explain the dysphagic and cardiorespiratory abnormalities which may accompany cervical dystonia and WAD.

  10. Cardiorespiratory Responses to Stationary Running in Water and on Land

    PubMed Central

    Kruel, Luiz Fernando M.; Beilke, Débora D.; Kanitz, Ana C.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Antunes, Amanda H.; Pantoja, Patrícia D.; da Silva, Eduardo M.; Pinto, Stephanie S.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare maximal and submaximal cardiorespiratory responses between progressive tests on a treadmill on land (TRE), and stationary running on land (SRL) and in water (SRW), while also comparing two methods of determining the second turn point (ST) (ventilatory curve and heart rate deflection point). The study sample consisted of nine active women (23 ± 1.94 years) that performed three maximal protocols in separate days. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were measured in all sessions. The data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and two-way repeated measures ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni test. Greater values of maximal HR (HRmax) and HR at ST (HRST) were observed during exercise performed on TRE and during the SRL, compared to the SRW (p < 0.05). The results for maximal VO2 (VO2max) and VO2 at ST (VO2ST) showed greater and significant values on TRE compared to STL and STW (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HR and VO2 corresponding to the ST showed similar values between the two methods. Thus, the main conclusion of the present study was that the HR deflection point seems to be a simple and practical alternative method for determining the ST in all protocols analyzed. Key Points The maximal and submaximal (second turn point) oxygen uptake were influenced by the type of exercise, as these responses were similar in both water-based and land-based stationary running protocols and different from those obtained during the treadmill running, that presented greater values compared with both stationary running protocols. The heart rate deflection point can be used for determining the second turn point during stationary running test in aquatic environment. Caution is necessary in the interpretation of the application of the heart rate deflection point in water aerobics exercises because we analyzed only young women performing one water-based exercise. PMID:24149170

  11. Bisphenol A attenuates phenylbiguanide-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2012-11-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a toxic chemical released from plastics, produces respiratory arrest and hypotension after a latency. The latency was similar to the reflex apnoea induced by the vagal C fibre stimulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic and acute exposure to BPA on cardio-respiratory reflexes elicited by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Acute and chronic experiments were performed on adult female rats. In chronic experiments, the animals were ingested with pellets containing BPA (2 μg/kg body weight) or without BPA (time-matched control) for 30 days. Subsequently, the animals were anaesthetized and prepared for recording blood pressure, ECG and respiratory excursions. PBG was injected through jugular vein to evoke reflexes in these animals. In acute experiments, the PBG reflexes were obtained before and after injecting BPA/ethanol. Also vagal afferent activity was recorded in some rats. In time-matched control rats, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea over a period of time. The maximal changes were around 50-65%. In BPA treated group, the PBG-induced heart rate and respiratory frequency changes were attenuated significantly. Acute exposure of animals to BPA (35 mg/kg body weight) for 30 min also attenuated the PBG-induced responses significantly. The attenuation of the PBG reflex responses by BPA in acute experiments was associated with decreased vagal afferent activity. The present results indicate that BPA attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes due to decreased vagal afferent activity.

  12. Do as I tweet, not as I do: comparing physical activity data between fitness tweets and Healthy People 2020

    PubMed Central

    Breslin, John G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The goal of this research was to compare the self-reported estimates of daily physical-activity data provided to the Healthy People 2020 research team via a telephone survey to the mobile fitness app real-time reporting of physical activity using Twitter. Methods The fitness tweet classification data set was collected from mobile fitness app users who shared their physical activity over Twitter. Over 184 days, 2,856,534 tweets were collected in 23 different languages. However, for the purposes of this study, only the English-language tweets were analysed, resulting in a total of 1,982,653 tweets by 165,768 unique users. The information and data gleaned from this data set, which reflected 184 days of continuous data collection, were compared to the results from the Healthy People survey, which were compiled using telephone interviews of self-reported physical activity from the previous week. Results The data collected from fitness tweets using the five mobile fitness apps suggest lower percentages of people achieving both the 150 to 300 and 300+ min levels than is reflected in the Healthy People survey results. While employing Twitter and other social media as data-collection tools could help researchers obtain information that users might not remember or be willing to disclose face-to-face or over the telephone, further research is needed to determine the cause of the lower percentages found in this study. Conclusions Though some challenges remain in using social media like Twitter to glean physical-activity data from the public, this approach holds promise for yielding valuable information and improving outcomes. PMID:28293577

  13. Differences in the timing of cardio-respiratory development determine whether marine gastropod embryos survive or die in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Bitterli, Tabitha S; Spicer, John I; Rundle, Simon D

    2016-04-01

    Physiological plasticity of early developmental stages is a key way by which organisms can survive and adapt to environmental change. We investigated developmental plasticity of aspects of the cardio-respiratory physiology of encapsulated embryos of a marine gastropod, Littorina obtusata, surviving exposure to moderate hypoxia (PO2 =8 kPa) and compared the development of these survivors with that of individuals that died before hatching. Individuals surviving hypoxia exhibited a slower rate of development and altered ontogeny of cardio-respiratory structure and function compared with normoxic controls (PO2 >20 kPa). The onset and development of the larval and adult hearts were delayed in chronological time in hypoxia, but both organs appeared earlier in developmental time and cardiac activity rates were greater. The velum, a transient, 'larval' organ thought to play a role in gas exchange, was larger in hypoxia but developed more slowly (in chronological time), and velar cilia-driven, rotational activity was lower. Despite these effects of hypoxia, 38% of individuals survived to hatching. Compared with those embryos that died during development, these surviving embryos had advanced expression of adult structures, i.e. a significantly earlier occurrence and greater activity of their adult heart and larger shells. In contrast, embryos that died retained larval cardio-respiratory features (the velum and larval heart) for longer in chronological time. Surviving embryos came from eggs with significantly higher albumen provisioning than those that died, suggesting an energetic component for advanced development of adult traits.

  14. Physical fitness and changes in mortality: the survival of the fittest.

    PubMed

    Erikssen, G

    2001-01-01

    Physical fitness is a term describing maximal aerobic capacity adjusted for body size and composition, and is an integrated measure of cardiorespiratory and neuromusculo-skeletal function, oxygen transport and delivery, and psychological drive. Accordingly, high physical fitness requires that all these important body functions function normally, while low physical fitness suggests malfunction of one or more of them. High levels of physical fitness--maintained through heavy daily exercise--has probably been a necessary requirement for survival in the earlier history of humans. In modern, industrialised countries the demand for physical activity to sustain life is declining, and a decline in physical fitness is observed in many populations. Epidemiological studies over the past 50 years have unanimously shown that low physical activity and physical fitness is associated with high cardiovascular and total mortality. Recent data also suggest that low physical activity and physical fitness is followed by an increased incidence of diabetes mellitus and nonfatal cardiovascular diseases. A number of unfavourable biochemical and physiological aberrations following physical inactivity probably explain these observations. However, recent studies also indicate that changes in physical activity, and especially changes that bring increases in physical fitness, can reverse this rather pessimistic scenario. The Global Burden of Disease Study initiated by the World Health Organization included physical inactivity among the most important risk factors threatening global health. A sedentary life style may be as detrimental to health as smoking. Encouragement of physical activity is an important and difficult task, as society is becoming increasingly successful in reducing our need to move.

  15. Long-term effects of physically active academic lessons on physical fitness and executive functions in primary school children.

    PubMed

    de Greeff, J W; Hartman, E; Mullender-Wijnsma, M J; Bosker, R J; Doolaard, S; Visscher, C

    2016-04-01

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third graders within 12 primary schools (mean age = 8.1 ± 0.7) were randomized to the intervention (n = 249) or control condition (n = 250). The physically active academic lessons were given for 2 consecutive school years, 22 weeks per year, three times a week, with a duration of 20-30 min per lesson. Multiple tests were administered before, between and after the intervention period, measuring cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. Multilevel analysis accounted for the nested structure of the children within classes and schools. Results showed a larger improvement in speed-coordination (B = -0.70,P = 0.002) and a lower improvement in static strength (B = -0.92,P < : 0.001) for the intervention group compared with the control group. The current lessons did not result in a significant change in executive functions.

  16. Independent and joint associations of physical activity and fitness with fibromyalgia symptoms and severity: The al-Ándalus project.

    PubMed

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-09-12

    We examined independent and joint associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in 386 fibromyalgia women aged 51.2 ± 7.6 years. Levels of PA (light, moderate and vigorous) and PF were measured with triaxial accelerometry and the Senior Fitness Test, respectively. We used the Short-Form health survey-36 pain sub-scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory to assess pain and multiple dimensions of fatigue, respectively. The impact of fibromyalgia was studied with the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR). Both, total PA and global PF were independently associated with pain pressure threshold, SF-36 pain, reduced activity, reduced motivation and FIQR total score (all, P ≤ 0.027). The associations between total PA and symptoms were weaker than those observed between global PF and symptoms. Overall, unfit patients with low PA showed a worse profile that fit patients with high PA (all, P ≤ 0.001). In summary, PA and PF are independently associated with pain, fatigue and the overall impact of fibromyalgia in women. Although PF presented greater associations with symptoms, the results suggest that both being physically active and keep adequate fitness levels might be convenient for fibromyalgia women.

  17. Physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake in at risk of overweight and normal weight children.

    PubMed

    Ball, Geoff D C; Marshall, J Dru; McCargar, Linda J

    2005-01-01

    Differences in physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake were examined in a sample of six- to ten-year-olds at risk of overweight, and in normal weight boys and girls. Participants (n=20 at risk of overweight [BMI > or =85th percentile]; n=115 normal weight [BMI <85th percentile]; n=68 boys; n=67 girls) had anthropometric, physical activity, aerobic fitness, self-perception, and dietary intake measurements at zero, three, six, and 12 months. Over the 12-month period, normal weight children were more physically active (F=4.1, p<0.05) and aerobically fit (F=14.3, p<0.001), and possessed higher self-perceptions of social acceptance (F=7.3, p<0.01) than their at risk of overweight peers. Fitness differences between the sexes were not apparent at baseline, but emerged over the long term (F=7.9, p<0.01). Overall, boys consumed more total energy, fat, carbohydrate, and protein than did girls, while the entire sample consumed diets low in vegetables and fruits and meat and alternatives, and high in "other" foods. These observations highlight key disparities in lifestyle-related behaviours and perceptions between groups of children according to overweight status and sex. The findings underscore the importance of longitudinal studies in youth because cross-sectional studies may reflect transient differences.

  18. Revised clearance for participation in physical activity: greater screening responsibility for qualified university-educated fitness professionals.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Gledhill, Norman; Shephard, Roy J

    2007-12-01

    For many individuals, pre-participation clearance using the PAR-Q and the PARmed-X has become a barrier to adopting a physically active lifestyle. An extensive project is therefore planned to reduce the number of medical referrals from the PAR-Q and to revise the PARmed-X so that it becomes more effective, user friendly, and evidence based. The entire process will likely require 3 years to complete; therefore, as an interim solution, we propose giving greater pre-participation screening responsibility to qualified university-educated fitness professionals. The highest level of professional fitness qualification in Canada is the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology Certified Exercise Physiologist; the requirements for this certification are such that it could serve as a model allowing other countries that use the PAR-Q to develop similarly qualified university-educated fitness professionals who could also be entrusted with greater pre-participation screening responsibility.

  19. The association of pre-operative physical fitness and physical activity with outcome after scheduled major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Dronkers, J J; Chorus, A M J; van Meeteren, N L U; Hopman-Rock, M

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether reported physical activity and measurements of fitness (hand, leg and inspiration) were associated with postoperative in-hospital mortality, length of stay and discharge destination in 169 patients after major oncological abdominal surgery. In multivariate analysis, adequate activity level (OR 5.5, 95% CI 1.4-21.9) and inspiratory muscle endurance (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.4-19.1) were independently associated with short-term mortality, whereas conventional factors, such as age and heart disease, were not. Adequate activity level (OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.4-3.0) was also independently associated with discharge destination. The factors that were independently associated with a shorter length of hospital stay were as follows: absence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.3-1.1); adequate activity level (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8); and inspiratory muscle strength (HR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.9). For all postoperative outcomes physical activity and fitness significantly improved the predictive value compared with known risk factors, such as age and comorbidities. We conclude that pre-operative questionnaires of physical activity and measurements of fitness contribute to the prediction of postoperative outcomes.

  20. Effectiveness of a cross-circuit exercise training program in improving the fitness of overweight or obese adolescents with intellectual disability enrolled in special education schools.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Yang, Yu-Fen; Chu, I-Hua; Hsu, Hsiu-Tao; Tsai, Feng-Hua; Liang, Jing-Min

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a cross-circuit training intervention program on the body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, and muscular strength endurance of overweight or obese students with intellectual disability. A total of 43 students with intellectual disability (aged 13-19 years) were enrolled in this program; 28 overweight/obese students were assigned to either an obesity-control group (n=14) or obesity-exercise group (n=14), and those with normal weight were assigned to a normal weight group (n=15). The experiment was divided into three periods: pretest (involving the three groups), exercise intervention (involving only the obesity-exercise group), and post-test (involving the obesity-exercise and obesity-control groups). The test involved measuring the body composition, 1-min sit-ups, dynamic and static balance, vertical jumps, and modified Bruce treadmill protocols for measuring cardiorespiratory fitness. The exercise program involving the cross-circuit training concept was conducted nonstop with different types of exercise activities. The training program lasted 12 weeks, and it was executed 5days a week, with each daily session lasting 50min. The results revealed that the obesity-exercise group demonstrated reduced weight, BMI, and fat mass after the intervention program. Moreover, the exercise tolerance test (including total exercise time and maximal heart rate), dynamic balance, sit-up, and vertical jump performance of the participants improved significantly. In conclusion, the cross-circuit training program effectively improved cardiorespiratory fitness, dynamic balance, muscular strength and endurance, and weight control in overweight or obese students with intellectual disability enrolled in a special education school.

  1. Fitness and Activity Assessments among U.S. Army Populations: Implications for NCHS General Population Surveys,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    MR J A VOGEL JAN 86 7 CLAIFUAIEDUSARi EM-Mii’ F/G 6/14 N llQI *s. L. - III IIIII llL. " MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS...WORDS (Continue on reverse aide If necory and identify by block number) Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), Aerobic power, Muscular strength 20. Ain6...the specific test events, standards, applicable population and frequency have varied over the years. Prior to 1980 a five event fitness test was

  2. New insights into the cardiorespiratory physiology of weaned southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina)

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Cloe R.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Morrice, Margaret G.; Wotherspoon, Simon; Hindell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) pups must strike a balance between conserving energy during their post-weaning fast and simultaneously developing diving abilities to attain nutritional independence. Little is known about environmental influences on cardiorespiratory patterns, hence energy use, throughout the 6 week fast. Continuous heart rates were recorded for free-ranging, newly weaned southern elephant seals using heart rate time–depth recorders for 5–9 days at Sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island, during October 1994 (n = 1), 1995 (n = 4) and 1996 (n = 1). Daytime observations of respiration and behaviour were made throughout. We present the first instance of synchronous heart rate traces recorded simultaneously for individual weaners. Generalized additive models revealed that a sinusoidal pattern of diurnal heart rate elevation and nocturnal depression was evident in all seals and, on at least one occasion, a conspicuous break in this pattern coincided with an extreme cold weather event. Seals in this study were capable of considerable cardiorespiratory control and regularly demonstrated bradycardia during periods of resting apnoea. Apnoeic duration ranged from 33 to 291 s (mean 134 s). Apnoeic heart rates (mean 67 ± 15 beats min−1, range 40–114 beats min−1) were on average 19.7% lower than those exhibited during periods of eupnoea (mean 83 ± 15 beats min−1, range 44–124 beats min−1). The early development of the cardiorespiratory response is characterized by arrhythmic heart and respiration rates. The strong temporal patterns observed are being driven by the opposing requirements of maximizing time spent fasting in order to develop diving capabilities and of maximizing departure mass. This pilot study has highlighted a potentially large effect of ambient weather conditions on newly weaned southern elephant seal cardiorespiratory activity. Given the increasing westerlies and more erratic and

  3. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  4. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  5. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  6. New region-scalable discriminant and fitting energy functional for driving geometric active contours in medical image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuchu; Niu, Yanmin; Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Shao-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel region-based geometric active contour model that uses region-scalable discriminant and fitting energy functional for handling the intensity inhomogeneity and weak boundary problems in medical image segmentation. The region-scalable discriminant and fitting energy functional is defined to capture the image intensity characteristics in local and global regions for driving the evolution of active contour. The discriminant term in the model aims at separating background and foreground in scalable regions while the fitting term tends to fit the intensity in these regions. This model is then transformed into a variational level set formulation with a level set regularization term for accurate computation. The new model utilizes intensity information in the local and global regions as much as possible; so it not only handles better intensity inhomogeneity, but also allows more robustness to noise and more flexible initialization in comparison to the original global region and regional-scalable based models. Experimental results for synthetic and real medical image segmentation show the advantages of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and robustness.

  7. Effects of therapeutic Tai chi on functional fitness and activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Jung

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of therapeutic Tai chi (TTC) on the functional fitness status and activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The participants were clinically stable PDs in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1-2. These patients were randomly assigned to either the TTC group (n=11) or the control (CON) group (n=9). The TTC exercised at the clinic 2 times a week and performed home-based activity 1 time per week for 12 weeks. All the PDs were evaluated for functional fitness test and ADL screen before and after the 12-week trial. There was a significant Time × group interaction effect on the arm curl (P<0.01), functional reach (P<0.05), and stand on foot with eyes opened (P<0.05) of the functional fitness as compared to the CON. The results of the functional reach test in the CON worsened significantly during the 12-week intervention in comparison with those of the TTC (P<0.01). Also ADL showed significant changed in TCC (P<0.05). Tai chi training showed good effects on the functional fitness in PDs. This study suggests that further research into the based such as Tai chi intervention must be developed PD's quality of life in the future.

  8. Effects of therapeutic Tai chi on functional fitness and activities of daily living in patients with Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of therapeutic Tai chi (TTC) on the functional fitness status and activities of daily living (ADL) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The participants were clinically stable PDs in Hoehn and Yahr stage 1–2. These patients were randomly assigned to either the TTC group (n=11) or the control (CON) group (n=9). The TTC exercised at the clinic 2 times a week and performed home-based activity 1 time per week for 12 weeks. All the PDs were evaluated for functional fitness test and ADL screen before and after the 12-week trial. There was a significant Time × group interaction effect on the arm curl (P<0.01), functional reach (P<0.05), and stand on foot with eyes opened (P<0.05) of the functional fitness as compared to the CON. The results of the functional reach test in the CON worsened significantly during the 12-week intervention in comparison with those of the TTC (P<0.01). Also ADL showed significant changed in TCC (P<0.05). Tai chi training showed good effects on the functional fitness in PDs. This study suggests that further research into the based such as Tai chi intervention must be developed PD’s quality of life in the future. PMID:27807532

  9. Systematic, Evidence-Based Review of Exercise, Physical Activity, and Physical Fitness Effects on Cognition in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandroff, Brian M; Motl, Robert W; Scudder, Mark R; DeLuca, John

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research. We performed an open-dated search of Medline, PsychInfo, and CINAHL in December 2015. The search strategy involved using the terms 'exercise' OR 'physical activity' OR 'physical fitness' OR 'aerobic' OR 'resistance' OR 'balance' OR 'walking' OR 'yoga' OR 'training' OR 'rehabilitation' AND 'multiple sclerosis'. Articles were eliminated from the systematic review if it was a review article, theoretical paper, or textbook chapter; did not involve persons with MS; involved only persons with pediatric-onset MS; did not involve neuropsychological outcomes; did not include empirical data to evaluate outcomes; involved pharmacological interventions; or was not available in English. The selected articles were first classified as examining exercise, physical activity, or physical fitness, and were then randomly assigned to 2 independent reviewers who rated each article for level of evidence based on American Academy of Neurology criteria. Reviewers further completed a table to characterize important elements of each study (i.e., intervention characteristics), the cognitive domain(s) that were targeted, participant-specific characteristics, outcome measures, and study results. The present review resulted in 26 studies on the effects of exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness on cognition in persons with MS. This included 1 Class I study, 3 Class II studies, 8 Class III studies, and

  10. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Bartsch, Ronny P; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave).

  11. Modulations of Heart Rate, ECG, and Cardio-Respiratory Coupling Observed in Polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Penzel, Thomas; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Riedl, Maik; Kraemer, Jan F.; Wessel, Niels; Garcia, Carmen; Glos, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Schöbel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The cardiac component of cardio-respiratory polysomnography is covered by ECG and heart rate recordings. However, their evaluation is often underrepresented in summarizing reports. As complements to EEG, EOG, and EMG, these signals provide diagnostic information for autonomic nervous activity during sleep. This review presents major methodological developments in sleep research regarding heart rate, ECG, and cardio-respiratory couplings in a chronological (historical) sequence. It presents physiological and pathophysiological insights related to sleep medicine obtained by new technical developments. Recorded nocturnal ECG facilitates conventional heart rate variability (HRV) analysis, studies of cyclical variations of heart rate, and analysis of ECG waveform. In healthy adults, the autonomous nervous system is regulated in totally different ways during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and REM sleep. Analysis of beat-to-beat heart-rate variations with statistical methods enables us to estimate sleep stages based on the differences in autonomic nervous system regulation. Furthermore, up to some degree, it is possible to track transitions from wakefulness to sleep by analysis of heart-rate variations. ECG and heart rate analysis allow assessment of selected sleep disorders as well. Sleep disordered breathing can be detected reliably by studying cyclical variation of heart rate combined with respiration-modulated changes in ECG morphology (amplitude of R wave and T wave). PMID:27826247

  12. Association Between Leisure Time Physical Activity, Cardiopulmonary Fitness, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Cardiovascular Workload at Work in Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Clare C.W.; Au, Chun T.; Lee, Frank Y.F.; So, Raymond C.H.; Wong, John P.S.; Mak, Gary Y.K.; Chien, Eric P.; McManus, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors are prevalent among firefighters in some developed countries. It is unclear whether physical activity and cardiopulmonary fitness reduce cardiovascular disease risk and the cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters. The present study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity, cardiopulmonary fitness, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiovascular workload at work in firefighters in Hong Kong. Methods Male firefighters (n = 387) were randomly selected from serving firefighters in Hong Kong (n = 5,370) for the assessment of cardiovascular disease risk factors (obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, known cardiovascular diseases). One-third (Target Group) were randomly selected for the assessment of off-duty leisure-time physical activity using the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed, as well as cardiovascular workload using heart rate monitoring for each firefighter for four “normal” 24-hour working shifts and during real-situation simulated scenarios. Results Overall, 33.9% of the firefighters had at least two cardiovascular disease risk factors. In the Target Group, firefighters who had higher leisure-time physical activity had a lower resting heart rate and a lower average working heart rate, and spent a smaller proportion of time working at a moderate-intensity cardiovascular workload. Firefighters who had moderate aerobic fitness and high leisure-time physical activity had a lower peak working heart rate during the mountain rescue scenario compared with firefighters who had low leisure-time physical activities. Conclusion Leisure-time physical activity conferred significant benefits during job tasks of moderate cardiovascular workload in firefighters in Hong Kong. PMID:26929827

  13. Rapid bedside computation of cardiorespiratory variables with a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Shabot, M M; Shoemaker, W C; State, D

    1977-01-01

    The value prompt assessment of hemodynamic cardiorespiratory function in critically ill medical and surgical patients is widely appreciated. We have presented a system for rapidly computing these variables on real time in the ICU, for a capital outlay of less than $250. In so doing, we hope to extend the benefits of this type of assessment to the smaller community hospital ICU and individual clinicians.

  14. [Guidelines for good practice of sports activities].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J; Crielaard, J M

    2001-05-01

    The present closing article summarizes some guidelines for the good practice of physical activities in order to develop and maintain cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility. Advice is given regarding the recommended quantity and quality of exercise in term of intensity, duration and frequency of training with the aim to optimize the risk/benefit ratio for health, in both aerobic endurance and resistance exercises. The crucial role of an appropriate warm-up and cool-down period, which would include flexibility exercises, is also emphasized. Finally, some practical examples illustrate this vademecum of physical activities.

  15. Climate change and the new normal for cardiorespiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    Takaro, Tim K; Henderson, Sarah B

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is already affecting the cardiorespiratory health of populations around the world, and these impacts are expected to increase. The present overview serves as a primer for respirologists who are concerned about how these profound environmental changes may affect their patients. The authors consider recent peer-reviewed literature with a focus on climate interactions with air pollution. They do not discuss in detail cardiorespiratory health effects for which the potential link to climate change is poorly understood. For example, pneumonia and influenza, which affect >500 million people per year, are not addressed, although clear seasonal variation suggests climate-related effects. Additionally, large global health impacts in low-resource countries, including migration precipitated by environmental change, are omitted. The major cardiorespiratory health impacts addressed are due to heat, air pollution and wildfires, shifts in allergens and infectious diseases along with respiratory impacts from flooding. Personal and societal choices about carbon use and fossil energy infrastructure should be informed by their impacts on health, and respirologists can play an important role in this discussion. PMID:25664458

  16. VO2 prediction and cardiorespiratory responses during underwater treadmill exercise.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas P; Greene, Elizabeth S; Carbuhn, Aaron F; Green, John S; Crouse, Stephen F

    2011-06-01

    We compared cardiorespiratory responses to exercise on an underwater treadmill (UTM) and land treadmill (LTM) and derived an equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO2) during UTM exercise. Fifty-five men and women completed one LTM and five UTM exercise sessions on separate days. The UTM sessions consisted of chest-deep immersion, with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% water-jet resistance. All session treadmill velocities increased every 3 min from 53.6 to 187.8 m x min(-1). Cardiorespiratory responses were similar between LTM and UTM when jet resistance for UTM was 50%. Using multiple regression analysis, weight-relative VO2 could be estimated as: VO2 (mLO2 c kg(-1) x min(-1)) = 0.19248 x height (cm) + 0.17422 x jet resistance (% m