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Sample records for activity cardiorespiratory fitness

  1. Sedentary time and vigorous physical activity are independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Evenson, Kelly R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a diverse sample of youth. Participants were recruited from three middle schools and completed assessments of height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness, and wore an accelerometer for a minimum of four days. Hierarchical general linear models controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and sex were used to evaluate the association of time (minutes per day) spent sedentary, and in moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity with cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., heart rate response [beats per minute], dependent variable). Results indicated age (β = -0.16, P < 0.05), BMI percentile (β = 0.33, P <0.05), being male (β = 0.17, P < 0.05), sedentary time (β = 0.11, P <0.05), moderate (β = -0.03, P > 0.05) and vigorous (β = -0.22, P < 0.05) physical activity explained 29% of the variance in cardiorespiratory fitness. Evaluation of fitness among high sedentary/high vigorous, high sedentary/low vigorous, low sedentary/low vigorous, and low sedentary/high vigorous groups (defined by the median split) showed that high levels of vigorous activity removed the detrimental effect of high levels of sedentary time on cardiorespiratory fitness. These analyses suggest that the negative impact of sedentary time can be mitigated by engaging in vigorous activity.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity as risk predictors of future atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Kurl, Sudhir; Salonen, Jukka T

    2002-11-01

    Physical fitness and activity status are well-documented risk predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. The purpose of this article is to show how cardiorespiratory fitness predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Measurement of maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), defined with or without ventilatory gas analysis during exercise testing, can provide a good estimate for cardiorespiratory fitness, which is an independent marker of the early disease. Low VO(2max) has been shown to be comparable with elevated systolic blood pressure, smoking, obesity, and diabetes in importance as a risk factor for mortality, as well as a predictor of coronary artery disease and the progression of atherosclerosis. Cardiorespiratory fitness represents one of the strongest predictors of mortality, emphasizing the importance of exercise testing in everyday clinical practice. In the future, well-defined, disease-specific training programs for exercise prescriptions in different risk groups are needed as a clinical tool.

  3. Physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

    2014-07-16

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.

  4. Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Are Beneficial for White Matter in Low-Fit Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Zofia; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Knecht, Anya; Lewis, Andrew; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Chung, Hyondo David; Awick, Elisabeth; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM) integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60–78). Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA) over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging) was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle. PMID:25229455

  5. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Maarit; Laaksonen, David E; Laukkanen, Jari; Tolmunen, Tommi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kauhanen, Jussi; Lakka, Timo; Niskanen, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67%) more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being. PMID:19555509

  6. The association between work performance and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Martinson, Brian; Kessler, Ronald C; Beck, Arne L; Simon, Gregory E; Wang, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between lifestyle-related modifiable health risks (physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity) and work performance. Data were obtained from 683 workers. Dependent variables included number of work loss days, quantity and quality of work performed, overall job performance, extra effort exerted, and interpersonal relationships. Results indicated that higher levels of physical activity related to reduced decrements in quality of work performed and overall job performance; higher cardiorespiratory fitness related to reduced decrements in quantity of work performed, and a reduction in extra effort exerted to perform the work; obesity related to more difficulty in getting along with coworkers; severe obesity related to a higher number of work loss days. It is concluded that lifestyle-related modifiable health risk factors significantly impact employee work performance.

  7. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chelsea N.; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Basak, Chandramallika; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas; Mailey, Emily L.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59–80 years). Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA), thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function. PMID:26321949

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  10. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Proximity to Commercial Physical Activity Facilities Among 12th Grade Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Lobelo, Felipe; Porter, Dwayne E.; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between proximity to commercial physical activity facilities and cardiorespiratory fitness of 12th grade girls. Methods Adolescent girls (N=786, 60% African American, mean age=17.6 ± 0.6 years) performed a submaximal fitness test (PWC170). Commercial physical activity facilities were mapped and counted within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer around girls’ homes using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Sedentary activities and vigorous physical activity (VPA, greater or equal to 6 METs) were determined by the average number of 30-minute blocks reported per day on the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Mixed model regressions were calculated using school as a random variable. Results Girls had higher weight-relative PWC170 scores if there was a commercial physical activity facility (n=186, 12.4±4.2 kg·m/min/kg) within 0.75-mile street-network buffer of home as compared to girls without a nearby facility (n=600, 11.2±3.6 kg·m/min/kg). After adjusting for demographic variables, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and VPA, having one or more commercial physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of homes was significantly related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions Both with and without adjustment for covariates, the presence of a commercial physical activity facility within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of a girl’s home was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:22525114

  11. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  12. Alzheimer Disease Alters the Relationship of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Brain Activity During the Stroop Task

    PubMed Central

    Gayed, Matthew R.; Honea, Robyn A.; Savage, Cary R.; Hobbs, Derek; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite mounting evidence that physical activity has positive benefits for brain and cognitive health, there has been little characterization of the relationship between cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness and cognition-associated brain activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The lack of evidence is particularly glaring for diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) that degrade cognitive and functional performance. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between regional brain activity during cognitive tasks and CR fitness level in people with and without AD. Design A case-control, single-observation study design was used. Methods Thirty-four individuals (18 without dementia and 16 in the earliest stages of AD) completed maximal exercise testing and performed a Stroop task during fMRI. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with anterior cingulate activity in the participants without dementia (r=−.48, P=.05) and unassociated with activation in those with AD (P>.7). Weak associations of CR fitness and middle frontal cortex were noted. Limitations The wide age range and the use of a single task in fMRI rather than multiple tasks challenging different cognitive capacities were limitations of the study. Conclusions The results offer further support of the relationship between CR fitness and regional brain activity. However, this relationship may be attenuated by disease. Future work in this area may provide clinicians and researchers with interpretable and dependable regional fMRI biomarker signatures responsive to exercise intervention. It also may shed light on mechanisms by which exercise can support cognitive function. PMID:23559521

  13. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management. PMID:26907579

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Vega, Gloria L; Haskell, William L

    2012-04-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relation between cardiovascular risk factors and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a large population. Low CRF has been associated with increased total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. The mechanisms underlying greater cardiovascular mortality have not yet been determined. A series of cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 59,820 men and 22,192 women who had undergone determinations of CRF with maximal exercise testing. The risk factor profiles were segregated into 5 quintiles of CRF. With decreasing CRF, increases occurred in obesity, triglycerides, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein ratios, blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cigarette smoking. Self-reported physical activity declined with decreasing levels of CRF. In conclusion, it appears likely that the enrichment of cardiovascular risk factors, especially metabolic risk factors, account for a portion of the increased cardiovascular mortality in low-fitness subjects. The mechanisms responsible for this enrichment in subjects with a low CRF represent a challenge for future research.

  15. Effect of Cardiorespiratory Training on Aerobic Fitness and Carryover to Activity In Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Jane M.; Scianni, Aline; Ada, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The question under consideration was does cardiorespiratory training improve aerobic fitness in children with cerebral palsy and is there any carryover into activity? The study design consisted of a systematic review of randomized trials using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. Participants were children of school age with cerebral palsy.…

  16. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  17. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Laye, M. J.; Nielsen, M. B.; Hansen, L. S.; Knudsen, T.; Pedersen, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy), improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold), and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases. PMID:25821340

  18. Correlates of Heart Rate Measures with Incidental Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Laís; Reichert, Felipe F.; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Leicht, Anthony S.; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) levels and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). However, previous studies evaluating PA levels did not discriminate between incidental PA and regular exercise. We hypothesized that incidental PA “per se” would influence cardiac autonomic indices as assessed via HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR) in non-exercisers. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective PA levels, CRF, and cardiac autonomic indices in adult, regular non-exercising female workers. After familiarization with procedures and evaluation of body composition, 21 women completed a submaximal cycling test and evaluation of HRR on four different days. Resting (2-min seated and standing) and ambulatory (4-h) HRV were also recorded. Levels of PA were assessed by accelerometry over five consecutive days (i.e., Wednesday to Sunday). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured as an index of CRF. As reliability was low to moderate for most HR measures, relationships between these and PA and CRF were examined using the 4-day average measures. Significant correlations were identified between post-exercise HRR in the first min with various PA indices (daily moderate PA, daily vigorous PA, and the sum of vigorous and very vigorous daily PA). Additionally, VO2max was significantly correlated to HRV but not to HRR. The current results indicated that CRF was influential in enhancing HRV while incidental or non-exercise based PA was associated with greater autonomic reactivation in adult overweight women. Therefore, both CRF and non-exercise based PA contribute significant but diverse effects on cardiac health. The use of 4-day averages instead of single measures for evaluation of autonomic control of HR may provide a better indication of regular cardiac autonomic function that remains to be refined. PMID:26779034

  19. Physical Activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcalá-Sánchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Conchas-Ramirez, Miguel; Brage, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua, México including 64 adult Tarahumara, mean (SD) age 40.7 (12.9) years. Using a combined accelerometer and heart rate sensor, PAEE was measured over three consecutive days and nights and a sub-maximal step test was carried out in order to (1) calibrate heart rate at the individual level and (2) to estimate CRF. Random blood glucose level and resting blood pressure (BP) were measured with standard anthropometrics. Results Mean (SD) PAEE was 71.2 (30.3) kJ kg−1 day−1 and CRF was 36.6 (6.5) mlO2 min−1 kg−1. Mean (SD) glucose was 127.9 (32.4) mg/dl, with 3.3% having diabetes. Mean (SD) systolic and diastolic BP was 122 (20.8) and 82 (14.8) mm Hg, respectively, with 28.1% having hypertension. Mean body mass index was 27.5 (4.2) kg m−2, with 71.9% being overweight. Following adjustment for age and sex, weak inverse associations were observed between PAEE and systolic BP (β = −0.20, P = 0.27) and diastolic BP (β = −0.16, P = 0.23); and between CRF and systolic BP (β = −0.51, P = 0.14) and diastolic BP (β = −0.53, P = 0.06). The inverse associations with glucose were also weak and not statistically significant for neither PAEE (β = −0.01, P = 0.63) nor CRF (β = −0.05, P = 0.27). Conclusions This study suggests high levels of overweight and hypertension in the Tarahumara, and points to fitness and physical activity as potential intervention targets although findings should be confirmed in larger samples. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22308165

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness of obese boys.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Satipati; Chatterjee, Pratima; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2005-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing worldwide and may be linked to coronary heart diseases that appear later in life but its risk related behaviour patterns are evident during childhood and adolescence. The present study aimed to evaluate the cardiorespiratory fitness in terms of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) in obese boys of West Bengal, India. Obese boys (N = 49) in the age range of 10-16 years were separated from their non-obese counterparts (N = 70) according to international age-wise cut off points of body mass index (BMI) and VO2max was evaluated by Queen's College Step Test (QCT). Lean body mass (LBM) was measured by skinfold method. Absolute VO2max was significantly higher (P<0.001) among obese boys because of higher values of body mass and LBM, which in turn exhibited significant correlation (r = 0.82 and r = 0.93, respectively; P<0.001) with VO2max. But VO2max per kg of body mass was significantly higher among non-obese boys but the VO2max per unit of body surface area was significantly higher (P<0.001) in obese group. VO2max is largely dependent on body mass and LBM whereas excessive fat mass imposes unfavourable burden on cardiac function and oxygen uptake by working muscles. This indicates that reduced oxygen utilization by adipose tissue during exercise reduces the overall VO2max.

  1. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  2. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  3. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  4. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed.

  5. The obesity paradox and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Paul A; Smith, Nancy S; Emerson, Brian T; Myers, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3 ± 7.2 years) male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS). Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third) and fit (upper two-thirds); and by body mass index (kg/m(2)): nonobese (18.5-29.9) and obese (≥30.0). Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (P = 0.01) and 1.9 (P = 0.03) times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.

  6. The influence of active and passive smoking on the cardiorespiratory fitness of adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of active and passive smoking on cardiorespiratory responses in asymptomatic adults during a sub-maximal-exertion incremental test. Methods The participants (n = 43) were divided into three different groups: active smokers (n = 14; aged 36.5 ± 8 years), passive smokers (n = 14; aged 34.6 ± 11.9 years) and non-smokers (n = 15; aged 30 ± 8.1 years). They all answered the Test for Nicotine Dependence and underwent anthropometric evaluation, spirometry and ergospirometry according to the Bruce Treadmill Protocol. Results VO2max differed statistically between active and non-smokers groups (p < 0.001) and between non-smokers and passive group (p=0.022). However, there was no difference between the passive and active smokers groups (p=0.053). Negative and significant correlations occurred between VO2max and age (r = - 0.401, p = 0.044), percentage of body fat (r = - 0.429, p = 0.011), and waist circumference (WC) (r = - 0.382, p = 0.025). Conclusion VO2max was significantly higher in non-smokers compared to active smokers and passive smokers. However, the VO2max of passive smokers did not differ from active smokers. PMID:25009739

  7. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Function in Midlife: Neuroprotection or Neuroselection?

    PubMed Central

    Belsky, Daniel W.; Caspi, Avshalom; Israel, Salomon; Blumenthal, James A.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if better cognitive functioning at midlife among more physically fit individuals reflects “neuroprotection,” in which fitness protects against age-related cognitive decline, or “neuroselection,” in which children with higher cognitive functioning select into more active lifestyles. Methods Children in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study (N=1,037) completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Trail-Making, Rey-Delayed-Recall, and Grooved-Pegboard tasks as children and again at midlife (age-38). Adult cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using a submaximal exercise test to estimate maximum-oxygen-consumption-adjusted-for-body-weight in milliliters/minute/kilogram (VO2max). We tested if more-fit individuals had better cognitive functioning than their less-fit counterparts (which could be consistent with neuroprotection), and if better childhood cognitive functioning predisposed to better adult cardiorespiratory fitness (neuroselection). Finally, we examined possible mechanisms of neuroselection. Results Participants with better cardiorespiratory fitness had higher cognitive test scores at midlife. However, fitness-associated advantages in cognitive functioning were present already in childhood. After accounting for childhood-baseline performance on the same cognitive tests, there was no association between cardiorespiratory fitness and midlife cognitive functioning. Socioeconomic and health advantages in childhood, and healthier lifestyles during young adulthood explained most of the association between childhood cognitive functioning and adult cardiorespiratory fitness. Interpretation We found no evidence for a neuroprotective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness as of midlife. Instead, children with better cognitive functioning are selecting into healthier lives. Fitness interventions may enhance cognitive functioning. But, observational and experimental studies testing neuroprotective effects of physical fitness should consider

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness, weight status and objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity in rural and urban Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Mota, Jorge; Padez, Cristina; Ronque, Enio; Cumming, Sean P; Malina, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Relationships among weight status (body mass index [BMI]), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objective measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity (PA) were considered in a cross-sectional sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample included 362 youth aged 13-16 years (165 males, 197 females) from urban and rural regions of the Portuguese midlands. CRF was assessed with the 20-m shuttle-run test. An uniaxial accelerometer was used to obtain five consecutive days of activity behaviours including time being sedentary. Pearson correlations and logistic regression analysis were used to examine relationships among variables. Rural adolescents were less active than their urban peers over the weekend. Both rural and urban youth with higher levels of CRF had a lower relative risk of being overweight/obese. The observations indicate important associations between weight status and CRF in both rural and urban Portuguese adolescents. In addition, place of residence has an important impact on weight status of this sample of adolescents.

  9. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  10. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition. PMID:27453812

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness after stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexandra C; Saunders, David H; Mead, Gillian

    2012-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness programs are increasingly used in stroke rehabilitation. Maximal oxygen uptake is the gold standard measurement of cardiorespiratory fitness; however, no recent publications have collated evidence about maximal oxygen uptake levels following stroke. We therefore performed a systematic review of maximal oxygen uptake in stroke survivors, aiming to observe changes in levels over time, and associations with severity of stroke. We searched Medline and Embase until April 2011, and included cross-sectional studies, longitudinal studies, and baseline data from intervention trials. Studies had to recruit at least 10 stroke survivors, and report direct measurement of maximal/peak oxygen uptake. We then compared maximal oxygen uptake with published data from age and gender-matched controls. The search identified 3357 articles. Seventy-two full texts were retrieved, of which 41 met the inclusion criteria. Time since stroke ranged from 10 days to over seven-years. Peak oxygen uptake ranged from 8 to 22 ml/kg/min, which was 26-87% of that of healthy age- and gender-matched individuals. Stroke severity was mild in most studies. Three studies reported longitudinal changes; there was no clear evidence of change in peak oxygen uptake over time. Most studies recruited participants with mild stroke, and it is possible that cardiorespiratory fitness is even more impaired after severe stroke. Maximal oxygen uptake might have been overestimated, as less healthy and older stroke survivors may not tolerate maximal exercise testing. More studies are needed describing mechanisms of impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and longitudinal changes over time to inform the optimal 'prescription' of cardiorespiratory fitness programs for stroke survivors. PMID:22568786

  12. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  13. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  14. Improvements in fundamental movement skill competency mediate the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified a positive association between fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency and physical activity in children; however, the causal pathways have not been established. The aim of this study is to determine if changes in FMS competency mediated the effect of the Supporting Children's Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Eight primary schools (25 classes) and 460 children (aged 8.5 ± 0.6, 54% girls) were randomised to the SCORES intervention or control group for the 12-month study. The outcomes were accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesised mediators were actual FMS competency and perceived sport competence. Mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel linear analysis in MPlus. From the original sample, 138 (30.0%) and 370 (80.4%) children provided useable physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness data at post-test assessments. There were significant treatment effects for locomotor skills and overall FMSs. Changes in MVPA were associated with changes in object-control skills, overall FMSs and perceived competence. The overall FMSs had a significant mediating effect on MVPA (AB = 2.09, CI = 0.01-4.55). Overall FMSs (AB = 1.19, CI = 0.002-2.79) and locomotor skills (AB = 0.74, CI = 0.01-1.69) had a significant mediating effect on cardiorespiratory fitness. The results of this study conclude that actual but not perceived movement skill competency mediated the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:25716899

  15. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  16. Physical Activity is Related to Fatty Liver Marker in Obese Youth, Independently of Central Obesity or Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Clarice; Aires, Luisa; Júnior, Ismael Freitas; Silva, Gustavo; Silva, Alexandre; Lemos, Luís; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity and has been identified as the leading cause of liver disease in pediatric populations worldwide. Because cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is related to physical activity (PA) levels, and increased PA plays a protective role against NAFLD risk factors, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between PA and a fatty liver marker (alanine aminotransferase - ALT) in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. 131 obese children (83 girls, 7-15 year-olds) involved in a PA promotion program comprised the sample. Measurements included anthropometric and body composition evaluations (DEXA), biological measurements (venipuncture), CRF (progressive treadmill test), PA (accelerometry), and maturational stage (Tanner criteria). The associations between ALT with PA intensities, central obesity, and CRF were calculated by three different models of linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Level of significance was set at 95%. RESULTS: ALT was negatively associated with MVPA (β = -0.305), and CRF (β = -0.426), and positively associated with central obesity (β=.468). After adjustment for central obesity the negative and statistically significant association between ALT with MVPA (β = -0.364) and CRF (β = -0.550) still persists while a positive and significantly correlation was shown between ALT and SB (β = 0.382). Additional adjustment for CRF (Model 3) showed significant associations for all the PA intensities analyzed including light activity. PA at different intensities is associated to a fatty liver marker in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. Key points In a previous study our group observed that there might be a potential protective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) against abnormal ALT values; Considering that CRF is related to physical activity (PA

  17. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).

    PubMed

    Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical activity categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical activity guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p <0.05) but additively only improved R(2) by 2%. There was a significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) subjects achieved higher CRF for a given level of physical activity compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men

  18. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin S; Kangas, Julie L; Denman, Deanna C; Smits, Jasper A J; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial of 67 previously inactive adults, we compared the effects of a PA prescription emphasizing the maintenance of positive affect to one emphasizing a target heart rate, and tested the extent to which the effect of the affect-guided prescription on PA is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We found the effect of an affect-guided prescription was significantly moderated by CRF. At one week, for participants with lower CRF (i.e. poor conditioning), the affect-guided prescription resulted in significantly greater change in PA minutes (M = 240.8) than the heart rate-guided prescription (M = 165.7), reflecting a moderate-sized effect (d = .55). For those with higher CRF (i.e. good conditioning), the means were in the opposite direction but not significantly different. At one month, the same pattern emerged but the interaction was not significant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the type of PA prescriptions offered to individuals in need.

  20. METABOLIC SYNDROME IN RELATION TO CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS, ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR IN HIV+ HISPANICS WITH AND WITHOUT LIPODYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Marrero, Farah A.; Santana-Bagur, Jorge L.; Joyner, Michael J.; Rodríguez-Zayas, Jorge; Frontera, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in Puerto Rico (PR) have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (met-syn), partially explained by low physical activity (PA) and possibly low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). Met-syn is also associated with lipodystrophy in HIV infected (HIV+) adults taking antiretroviral therapies. However, associations between met-syn, VO2peak, PA, sedentary behavior and lipodystrophy among HIV+ Hispanics have not been adequately reported. Objective We tested the following hypotheses: 1) HIV+ Hispanics with lipodystrophy (HIV-Lipo) would have a higher prevalence of met-syn, lower VO2peak and PA, and higher sedentary behavior compared with those without lipodystrophy (HIV-no-Lipo) and without HIV infection (Non-HIV); and 2) met-syn would be inversely associated with VO2peak and PA, and directly associated with sedentary behavior. METHODS Ninety Hispanic adults (32 HIV-Lipo, 28 HIV-no-Lipo, 30 Non-HIV) completed measurements of VO2peak, anthropometry, PA and sedentary behavior with accelerometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids. ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to detect differences between groups, and regression analyses to test associations between variables. RESULTS More HIV-Lipo (69%) had met-syn compared with HIV-no-Lipo (39%) and Non-HIV (37%) (P=0.002). Sedentary behavior and PA were not different, but VO2peak differed between all groups: lowest in HIV-Lipo and highest in non-HIV. PA and sedentary behavior were not associated with met-syn, but PA was directly associated with VO peak (R2=0.26, p<0.01). Also, a lower odds ratio for met-syn was observed with higher VO2peak (0.87; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95). CONCLUSION Met-syn is related to lipodystrophy in HIV+ Hispanics in PR, and high VO2peak may protect against met-syn in this population. PMID:25563033

  1. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  2. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences. PMID:26890580

  3. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic risk, and inflammation in children.

    PubMed

    Christodoulos, Antonios D; Douda, Helen T; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations among cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in children. The sample consisted of 112 children (11.4  ±  0.4 years). Data was obtained for children's anthropometry, cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS components, and CRP levels. MetS was defined using criteria analogous to the Adult Treatment Panel III definition. A MetS risk score was also computed. Prevalence of the MetS was 5.4%, without gender differences. Subjects with low fitness showed significantly higher MetS risk (P < 0.001) and CRP (P < 0.007), compared to the high-fitness pupils. However, differences in MetS risk, and CRP between fitness groups decreased when adjusted for waist circumference. These data indicate that the mechanisms linking cardiorespiratory fitness, MetS risk and inflammation in children are extensively affected by obesity. Intervention strategies aiming at reducing obesity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood might contribute to the prevention of the MetS in adulthood. PMID:22315623

  5. Participation in Vigorous Sports, Not Moderate Sports, Is Positively Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Taber, Daniel R.; Pratt, Charlotte; Charneco, Eileen Y.; Dowda, Marsha; Phillips, Jennie A.; Going, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is controversy regarding whether moderately-intense sports can improve physical fitness, which declines throughout adolescence among girls. The objective was to estimate the association between moderate and vigorous sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness in a racially diverse sample of adolescent girls. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a modified physical work capacity test in 1029 eighth-grade girls participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Girls reported sports in which they participated in the last year on an organized activity questionnaire. Using general linear mixed models, the study regressed absolute and relative fitness on the number of vigorous and moderate sports in which girls participated, race/ethnicity, age, treatment group, fat mass, fat-free mass, and an interaction between race and fat-free mass. Results The number of vigorous sports in which girls participated was positively associated with absolute fitness (β = 10.20, P = .04) and relative fitness (β = 0.17, P = .04). Associations were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for MET-weighted MVPA. Participation in moderate sports was not associated with either fitness measure. Conclusions Vigorous sports participation is positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Future longitudinal research should analyze whether promoting vigorous sports at an early age can prevent age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness among adolescent girls. PMID:23493300

  6. Cardiorespiratory Fitness. Role Modeling by P.E. Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitley, Jim D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey determining the extent to which high school physical education teachers offered cardiorespiratory instruction found that more teachers than not regularly provided such instruction, with female teachers more likely to offer instruction than males. Physical fitness levels of the teachers did not appear to affect the amount of instruction…

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength of wheelchair users.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, G. M.; Kofsky, P. R.; Kelsey, J. C.; Shephard, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The classification of lower-limb disabilities is commonly based on the site of the spinal cord lesion or the amount of functional muscle. Another important variable in assessing wheelchair users is their ability to carry out the activities of daily living. The cardiorespiratory fitness of those with lower-limb disabilities is usually assessed with arm-ergometry and wheelchair tests, each of which has some advantages. Muscle strength and endurance are also important aspects of the disabled person's ability to function. Fitness is often poor in the disabled, and normal wheelchair use does not seem to prove an adequate training stimulus. Exercise with an arm ergometer and with pulleys and participation in vigorous wheelchair sports can improve physical condition. Participation in exercise programs should be based on the results of a fitness assessment and on the level of the spinal cord lesion in those with paraplegia. Progression in such programs should be gradual to ensure that the exerciser does not become discouraged and drop out of classes before fitness is increased. Data on wheelchair athletes suggest that, with persistence, many individuals in wheelchairs can adjust relatively well to their disabilities. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:6459841

  8. Cardiorespiratory fitness predicts changes in adiposity in overweight Hispanic boys.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Williams, Courtney E; Shaibi, Gabriel Q; Sun, Ping; Lane, Christianne J; Ventura, Emily E; Davis, Jaimie N; Kelly, Louise A; Goran, Michael I

    2008-05-01

    We have previously shown that cardiorespiratory fitness predicts increasing fat mass during growth in white and African-American youth, but limited data are available examining this issue in Hispanic youth. Study participants were 160 (53% boys) overweight (BMI>or=85th percentile for age and gender) Hispanic children (mean+/-s.d. age at baseline=11.2+/-1.7 years). Cardiorespiratory fitness, assessed by VO2max, was measured through a maximal effort treadmill test at baseline. Body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Tanner stage through clinical exam were measured at baseline and annually thereafter for up to 4 years. Linear mixed models were used to examine the gender-specific relationship between VO2max and increases in adiposity (change in fat mass independent of change in lean tissue mass) over 4 years. The analysis was adjusted for changes in Tanner stage, age, and lean tissue mass. In boys, higher VO2max at baseline was inversely associated with the rate of increase in adiposity (beta=-0.001, P=0.03); this effect translates to a 15% higher VO2max at baseline resulting in a 1.38 kg lower fat mass gain over 4 years. However, VO2max was not significantly associated with changes in fat mass in girls (beta=0.0002, P=0.31). In overweight Hispanic boys, greater cardiorespiratory fitness at baseline was protective against increasing adiposity. In girls however initial cardiorespiratory fitness was not significantly associated with longitudinal changes in adiposity. These results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness may be an important determinant of changes in adiposity in overweight Hispanic boys but not in girls.

  9. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  10. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas. PMID:27413660

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Erus, Guray; Battapady, Harsha; Bryan, R. Nick

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with lower odds of having unfavorable brain MRI findings. Methods: We studied 565 healthy, middle-aged, black and white men and women in the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study. The fitness measure was symptom-limited maximal treadmill test duration (Maxdur); brain MRI was measured 5 years later. Brain MRI measures were analyzed as means and as proportions below the 15th percentile (above the 85th percentile for white matter abnormal tissue volume). Results: Per 1-minute-higher Maxdur, the odds ratio for having less whole brain volume was 0.85 (p = 0.04) and for having low white matter integrity was 0.80 (p = 0.02), adjusted for age, race, sex, clinic, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, diet, physical activity, education, blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, and lung function (plus intracranial volume for white matter integrity). No significant associations were observed between Maxdur and abnormal tissue volume or blood flow in white matter. Findings were similar for associations with continuous brain MRI measures. Conclusions: Greater physical fitness was associated with more brain volume and greater white matter integrity measured 5 years later in middle-aged adults. PMID:25957331

  12. Status of police officers with regard to selected cardio-respiratory and body compositional fitness variables.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Weltman, A; Moffatt, R J; Fulco, C

    1978-01-01

    Physical performance and body composition characteristics of members (n = 75) and recruits (n = 61) of the Louisville Police Department (total n = 136) were assessed. Members were randomly selected males and ranged in age from 20 to 55 years and were ranked from the newest inductee through and including the Chief of Police. Members between the ages of 20 and 29 years assigned to active duty possessed average cardio-respiratory fitness (Vo2max). With age, cardio-respiratory fitness decreased and body weight and body fatness progressively increased. Male and female recruits entering basic training also demonstrated average cardio-respiratory fitness. Significant (P less than .05) increases for males and females in Vo2max and decreases in body fatness (males) were found following 4 months of physically rigorous recruit training. Fifteen of the male recruits who completed training were retested following 1 year of active duty. During active duty, physical activity involvement was limited to job requirements with no additional physical training imposed. Cardio-respiratory fitness and body fatness reverted to pre-training levels. It was concluded that the physical demands associated with police work are too low to permit maintenance of physical fitness.

  13. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness, activity level, health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status in a sample of Iranian 7-11 year old boys.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, S; Kalantari, H; Nakhostin-Roohi, B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES) of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate [Formula: see text]O2 max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child's TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT) was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9% (N=68) of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6% (N=449) of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between [Formula: see text]O2 max and body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and fat mass (FM) (p<0.05). A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05). Significantly lower physical activity and [Formula: see text]O2 max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05). The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.

  15. Cardiorespiratory responses of Hi Fit and Low Fit subjects to mental challenge during exercise.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, E O; Webb, H E; Weldy, M L; Fabianke, E C; Orndorff, G R; Starks, M A

    2006-12-01

    significantly at 14 min in the MCC. NTLX scores indicated that the MCC was perceived as a greater overall workload. Furthermore, HR, VE, VE/VO2, and RR were significantly elevated during the mental challenge condition at 14 min. The Hi Fit subjects tended to respond to the dual stress of exercise and mental challenge with a relative increase in HR, while absolute HR was similar in both groups. An examination of fitness group differences revealed that SAI and NTLX were similar for Low Fit and Hi Fit subjects when exercising in the MCC, although, Hi Fit subjects demonstrated lower HR responses from 6 min to 14 min. VE, VE/VO2, and RR were similar for Low Fit and Hi Fit subjects. These results suggest that psychological stress during physical activity can exacerbate cardiorespiratory responses and suggests that factors that impact CR adjustment to mental challenge from resting baseline may differ from the factors that impact CR adjustment to mental challenge during exercise. Finally, fitness level attenuates HR and may attenuate additional cardiorespiratory responses while participating in a dual stress condition, of exercise and mental challenge. PMID:16612743

  16. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness and training in quadriplegics and paraplegics.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, M D

    1986-01-01

    With the growing interest in exercise and sport and the significance of cardiovascular disease in the spinal cord injured population, the role of endurance training in improving cardiovascular health is of particular interest. Ordinary daily activities of those with spinal cord injury are usually not adequate to maintain cardiovascular fitness, and lack of participation in a regular activity programme may result in a debilitative cycle. As this occurs, there is a reduction in functional work capacity which may limit independence, and the reduction in cardiovascular fitness may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Work capacity in those with spinal cord injury is limited by loss of functional muscle mass and sympathetic control. Sympathetic nervous system impairment limits control of regional blood flow and cardiac output, and maximum heart rate following cervical lesions may be reduced to 110 to 130 beats/min. However, endurance training in quadriplegics and paraplegics can elicit improvements in exercise performance similar to those observed in able-bodied individuals. Review of 13 cardiorespiratory training studies involving spinal cord injured subjects revealed average improvements of 20% in VO2max and 40% in physical work capacity after 4 to 20 weeks of training. Based upon the positive results of these studies, the general endurance training guidelines for the normal population appear to also be appropriate for the spinal cord injured population. These guidelines can be followed during participation in a number of different activities and sports including wheelchair pushing, arm crank ergometry, aerobic swimming, ambulation training, canoeing and wheelchair basketball. There is no evidence that intense training and competition is harmful, but special areas of risk as a result of impairments in sensation, cardiovascular function, autonomic function and temperature regulation must be considered. The long term benefits of endurance training in those with

  18. How Much Walking Is Needed to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness? An Examination of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Duncan, Glenn E.; Limacher, Marian C.; Martin, Anthony D.; Perri, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) indicated that two approaches can be used to achieve the activity threshold needed to derive health benefits. Individuals may engage in either 150 min (2 hr 30 min) of moderate intensity activity (e.g., moderate-paced walking), or 75 min (1 hr…

  19. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  20. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Knaeps, Sara; Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone's cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  1. Comparison between several muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness indices with body composition and energy expenditure in obese postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bellefeuille, P; Robillard, M-E; Ringuet, M-E; Aubertin-Leheudre, M; Karelis, A D

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship of several muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness indices with body composition and energy expenditure in obese postmenopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study involving 72 obese postmenopausal women (age: 60.0±4.8 years; body mass index: 34.1±3.5 kg/m²). Muscle strength was determined by hand dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry. Muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were expressed in absolute (kg and L/min, respectively) and in relative values (kg/body weight (BW) and kg/lean body mass (LBM) for muscle strength and ml/min/kg BW and ml/min kg LBM for cardiorespiratory fitness). Body composition was measured using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Anthropometric (waist and thigh circumference), physical activity energy expenditure and daily number of steps (SenseWear armband) as well as blood pressure were also assessed. Correlations of muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness indices with body composition and energy expenditure showed several similarities, however, several variations were also observed. Furthermore, our results showed that age and waist circumference were the primary independent predictors for the muscle strength indices, explaining 22-37% of the variance and % body fat and age were the primary predictors for the cardiorespiratory fitness indices, explaining 18-40% of the variance. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different methods of expressing muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness may display several variations and similarities with body composition and energy expenditure associations. Therefore, interpretations of relationships between muscle strength and cardiorespiratory indices with body composition and energy expenditure factors should take in account the method used to express them.

  2. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Helena; Passos, Betânia; Rocha, Josiane; Reis, Vivianne; Carneiro, André; Gabriel, Ronaldo

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to analyze the relationship between aerobic fitness and body composition in postmenopausal women. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women that had higher adiposity had lower cardiorespiratory capacity, regardless of the characteristics of menopause. The sample included 208 women (57.57 ± 6.62 years), whose body composition and the basal metabolic rate were evaluated by octopolar bioimpedance (InBody 720) and the oxygen uptake by the modified Bruce protocol. Most of the sample showed obesity and a high visceral fat area. The visceral fat area and the basal metabolic rate explained 30% of the variation of oxygen uptake, regardless of age, time, nature or hormone therapy. The values of the latter variables were reduced in the presence of high central adiposity (−6.16 ml/kg/min) and the basal metabolic rate of less than 1238 kcal/day (−0.18 ml/kg/min). The women with oxygen uptake above 30.94 ml/kg/min showed lower values of total and central adiposity when compared with other groups. With an increase of aerobic fitness, there was a growing tendency of the average values of the soft lean mass index, with differences between the groups low-high and moderate-high. These results suggest worsening of the cardiorespiratory condition with an increase of central adiposity and a decrease of the BMR, regardless of age and menopause characteristics. PMID:25713654

  3. Effects of vitamin D and quercetin, alone and in combination, on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function in physically active male adults

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Shane D; Sergeev, Igor N; Song, Qingming; Birger, Chad B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D and the antioxidant quercetin, are promising agents for improving physical performance because of their possible beneficial effects on muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased intakes of vitamin D, quercetin, and their combination on antioxidant status, the steroid hormone regulators of muscle function, and measures of physical performance in apparently healthy male adults engaged in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity exercise training. Methods A total of 40 adult male participants were randomized to either 4,000 IU vitamin D/d, 1,000 mg/d quercetin, vitamin D plus quercetin, or placebo for 8 weeks. Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, blood markers for antioxidant and vitamin D status, and hormones 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and testosterone were measured pre- and postsupplementation. Results At enrollment, 88.6% of participants were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D >50 nmol/L) and had normal serum testosterone levels. Supplementation with vitamin D significantly increased serum 25(OH)D concentration (by 87.3% in the vitamin D group, P<0.001) and was associated with an increasing trend of testosterone concentration. There were no changes in concentration of 1,25(OH)2D3 and markers of antioxidant status associated with vitamin D or quercetin supplementation. No improvements in physical performance measures associated with vitamin D and quercetin supplementation were found. Conclusion The findings obtained demonstrate that long-term vitamin D and quercetin supplementation, alone or in combination, does not improve physical performance in male adults with adequate vitamin D, testosterone, and antioxidant status. PMID:26244032

  4. Cardiorespiratory fitness associates with metabolic risk independent of central adiposity.

    PubMed

    Silva, G; Aires, L; Martins, C; Mota, J; Oliveira, J; Ribeiro, J C

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to analyze the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), waist circumference (WC) and metabolic risk in children and adolescents. Participants were 633 subjects (58.7% girls) ages 10-18 years. Metabolic risk score (MRS) was calculated from HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting glucose and mean arterial pressure. MRS was dichotomized into low and high metabolic risk (HMRS). CRF was defined as the maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) estimated from the 20 m Shuttle Run Test. The first quartile of CRF was set as the low fitness group. The fourth quartile of WC was defined as high central adiposity. With adjustments for age, sex and WC, CRF was correlated with MRS (r=-0.095; p<0.05). WC was correlated with MRS (r=0.150; p<0.001) after adjustments for age, sex and CRF. Participants who had low fitness levels, presented higher levels of MRS (p<0.001) compared to those who were fit, even after adjustment for age, sex and WC. In comparison with subjects who were fit with normal central adiposity, an increased odds ratio (OR) for being at HMRS was found for participants who were of low fitness level with high central adiposity (OR=2.934; 95%CI= 1.690-5.092) and for those who were of low fitness with normal central adiposity (OR=2.234; 95%CI=1.116-4.279). Results suggest that CRF relates to MRS independently of central adiposity.

  5. Contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness to the obesity paradox.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Paul A; Beavers, Kristen M

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has been overlooked as a potential modifier of the inverse association between obesity and mortality (the so-called obesity paradox), observed in patients with known or suspected cardiovascular (CV) disease. Evidence from five observational cohort studies of 30,104 patients (87% male) with CV disease indicates that CRF significantly alters the obesity paradox. There is general agreement across studies that the obesity paradox persists among patients with low CRF, regardless of whether adiposity is assessed by body mass index, waist circumference, or percentage body fat. However, among patients with high CRF, risk of all-cause mortality is lowest for the overweight category in some, but not all, studies, suggesting that higher levels of fitness may modify the relationship between body fatness and survival in patients manifesting an obesity paradox. Further study is needed to better characterize the joint contribution of CRF and obesity on mortality in diverse populations.

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness and white matter integrity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Perea, R D; Vidoni, E D; Morris, J K; Graves, R S; Burns, J M; Honea, R A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness and the brain's white matter tract integrity using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) population. We recruited older adults in the early stages of AD (n = 37; CDR = 0.5 and 1) and collected cross-sectional fitness and diffusion imaging data. We examined the association between CR fitness (peak oxygen consumption [VO2peak]) and fractional anisotropy (FA) in AD-related white matter tracts using two processing methodologies: a tract-of-interest approach and tract-based spatial statistic (TBSS). Subsequent diffusivity metrics (radial diffusivity [RD], mean diffusivity [MD], and axial diffusivity [A × D]) were also correlated with VO2peak. The tract-of-interest approach showed that higher VO2peak was associated with preserved white matter integrity as measured by increased FA in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p = 0.035, r = 0.36). We did not find a significant correlation using TBSS, though there was a trend for a positive association between white matter integrity and higher VO2peak measures (p < 0.01 uncorrected). Our findings indicate that higher CR fitness levels in early AD participants may be related to preserved white matter integrity. However to draw stronger conclusions, further study on the relationship between fitness and white matter deterioration in AD is necessary.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness, obesity, and functional limitation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Danielle R; McGuire, K Ashlee; Davidson, Lance; Ross, Robert

    2011-10-01

    One hundred forty-six abdominally obese adults age 60-80 yr were studied to investigate the interaction between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity on functional limitation. Obesity was determined by fat mass (FM), CRF was determined by a maximal treadmill test, and functional limitation was based on 4 different tasks that are predictive of subsequent disability. Both FM (r = -.34, p ≤ .01) and CRF (r = .54, p ≤ .01) were independently associated with functional limitation in bivariate analysis.After further control for sex, age, and the interaction term (CRF × FM), FM was no longer independently associated with functional limitation (p = .10). Analyses were also based on sex-specific tertiles of FM and CRF. The referent group demonstrated significantly lower functional limitation than the low-CRF/low-FM and the low-CRF/high-FM groups (both p ≤ .05). These results highlight the value of recommending exercise for abdominally obese adults.

  8. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men

    PubMed Central

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D’Errico, Marcello M.; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30’ post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline. PMID:26529517

  9. High Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Negatively Associated with Daily Cortisol Output in Healthy Aging Men.

    PubMed

    Lucertini, Francesco; Ponzio, Elisa; Di Palma, Michael; Galati, Claudia; Federici, Ario; Barbadoro, Pamela; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Cuppini, Riccardo; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness has salutary psychological and physical effects in older adults by promoting neuroplasticity and adaptation to stress. In aging, however, the effects of fitness on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are mixed. We investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and HPA activity in healthy elderly men (n = 22, mean age 68 y; smokers, obese subjects, those taking drugs or reporting recent stressful events were excluded), by measuring in saliva: i) daily pattern of cortisol secretion (6 samples: 30' post-awakening, and at 12.00, 15.00, 18.00, 21.00, 24.00 h); and ii) the cortisol response to a mental challenge. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the Rockport Walking Test and the participants were assigned to high-fit (HF, ≥60°, n = 10) and low-fit (LF, ≤35°, n = 12) groups according to age-specific percentiles of VO2max distribution in the general population. At all daytimes, basal cortisol levels were lower in the HF than the LF group, most notably in the evening and midnight samples, with a significant main effect of physical fitness for cortisol levels overall; the area-under-the-curve for total daily cortisol output was significantly smaller in the HF group. Among the subjects who responded to mental stress (baseline-to-peak increment >1.5 nmol/L; n = 13, 5 LF, 8 HF), the amplitude of cortisol response and the steepness of recovery decline displayed an increasing trend in the HF subjects, although between-group differences failed to reach the threshold for significance. In conclusion, cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy aging men is negatively correlated with daily cortisol output and contributes to buffering the HPA dysregulation that occurs with advancing age, thus possibly playing a beneficial role in contrasting age-related cognitive and physical decline.

  10. Associations between sports participation, cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity in young adult twins.

    PubMed

    Mustelin, L; Latvala, A; Pietiläinen, K H; Piirilä, P; Sovijärvi, A R; Kujala, U M; Rissanen, A; Kaprio, J

    2011-03-01

    Exercise behavior, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity are strongly influenced by genetic factors. By studying young adult twins, we examined to what extent these interrelated traits have shared genetic and environmental etiologies. We studied 304 twin individuals selected from the population-based FinnTwin16 study. Physical activity was assessed with the Baecke questionnaire, yielding three indexes: sport index, leisure-time index, and work index. In this study, we focused on sport index, which describes sports participation. Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and cardiorespiratory fitness using a bicycle ergometer exercise test with gas exchange analysis. The Baecke sport index was associated with high maximal oxygen uptake adjusted for lean body mass (Vo(2max)[adj]) (r = 0.40), with low body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.44) and low waist circumference (WC) (r = -0.29). Heritability estimates for the key traits were as follows: 56% for sport index, 71% for Vo(2max)[adj], 77% for body mass index, 66% for WC, and 68% for BF%. The association between sport index and Vo(2max) was mostly explained by genetic factors (70%), as were both the association between sport index and BF% (71%) and that between sport index and WC (59%). Our results suggest that genetic factors explain a considerable part of the associations between sports participation, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity.

  11. Low-intensity electrical muscle stimulation induces significant increases in muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Kamada, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Akira; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-intensity exercise training using belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation on muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy subjects. Nineteen healthy subjects were allocated into control or intervention groups; in both groups the participants kept regular physical activity while the intervention group underwent 30 min B-SES training at 3-4 METs for four weeks. Knee extensor muscle strength and cardiorespiratory endurance during incremental exercise test were measured at baseline and after four weeks for all participants. The relative change of knee extensor muscle strength in the intervention group was significantly higher than control group (p < .05). Also, oxygen uptake at ventilator threshold and peak oxygen uptake during incremental exercise test significantly increased in the intervention group when compared with control group (p < .05). This study showed that prolonged low-intensity B-SES training resulted in significant increases in muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy subjects. Our present work suggested that B-SES training could assist patients who might have difficulty performing adequate voluntary exercise because of excessive obesity, orthopaedic problems and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. An intervention study conducted for such patients is strongly recommended.

  12. Children Are Fit but Not Active!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Neil

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between exercise, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Data is presented from a study of 300 British children which indicated surprisingly low levels of physical activity, with significant differences occurring along age and gender lines. (IAH)

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with white matter integrity in aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Forman, Daniel E; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    Objective Aging is associated with reduced neural integrity, yet there are remarkable individual differences in brain health among older adults (OA). One factor that may attenuate age-related neural decline is cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The primary aim of this study was to link CRF to neural white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging in OA. Methods Young adults (YA; n = 32) and OA (n = 27) completed a graded maximal exercise test to evaluate CRF and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging to examine neural white matter integrity. Results As expected, pervasive age-related declines in white matter integrity were observed when OA were compared to YA. Further, peak VO2 was positively associated with fractional anisotropy (FA), an indicator of white matter integrity, in multiple brain regions in OA, but not YA. In multiple posterior regions such as the splenium, sagittal stratum, posterior corona radiata, and superior parietal white matter, FA values were similar in YA and OA classified as higher fit, with both groups having greater FA than lower fit OA. However, age-related differences in FA values remained in other regions, including the body and genu of the corpus callosum, precuneus, and superior frontal gyrus. Interpretation CRF is positively associated with neural white matter microstructure in aging. The relationship between peak VO2 and FA appears to be tract-specific, as equivalent FA values were observed in higher fit OA and YA in some white matter tracts, but not others. Further, the association between peak VO2 and FA appears to be age-dependent. PMID:26125043

  14. Parental exercise is associated with Australian children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Venn, Alison; Fryer, Jayne; Dwyer, Terence; Blizzard, Leigh

    2005-04-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between parental physical activity and children's physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness has not been well studied in the Australian context. Given the increasing focus on physical activity and childhood obesity, it is important to understand correlates of children's physical activity. This study aimed to investigate whether parental exercise was associated with children's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. METHODS: The data were drawn from a nationally representative sample (n = 8,484) of 7-15 year old Australian schoolchildren, surveyed as part of the Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey in 1985. A subset of 5,929 children aged 9-15 years reported their participation in extracurricular sports and their parents' exercise. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the 1.6 km (1-mile) run/walk and in addition for children aged 9, 12 or 15 years, using a physical work capacity test (PWC170). RESULTS: While the magnitude of the differences were small, parental exercise was positively associated with children's extracurricular sports participation (p < 0.001), 1.6 km run/walk time (p < 0.001) and, in girls only, PWC170 (p = 0.013). In most instances, when only one parent was active, the sex of that parent was not an independent predictor of the child's extracurricular sports participation and cardiorespiratory fitness. CONCLUSION: Parental exercise may influence their children's participation in extracurricular sports and their cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Understanding the correlates of children's extracurricular sport participation is important for the targeting of health promotion and public health interventions, and may influence children's future health status.

  15. Six-year changes in body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness of English schoolchildren from an affluent area.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, G R H; Ogunleye, A; Voss, C

    2015-10-01

    We compared values of body mass index (BMI) and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle-run test) of n=157 boys and n=150 girls aged 10-11 measured in 2014 with measures from 2008 and 1998. Boys' fitness was lower (d=0.68) in 2014 than 2008, despite a small (d=0.37) decline in BMI. Girl's BMI changed trivially (d=0.08) but cardiorespiratory fitness was lower (d=0.47) in 2014 than 2008. This study suggests fitness is declining at 0.95% per year, which exceeds the 0.8% rate of decline we reported between 1998 and 2008 and is double the global average of 0.43%. Declines in fitness were independent of changes in BMI suggesting continued reductions in English children's habitual physical activity levels.

  16. Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the influence of amyloid on cognition

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Stephanie A.; Boots, Elizabeth A.; Almeida, Rodrigo P.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Einerson, Jean; Korcarz, Claudia E.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Christian, Bradley T.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Stein, James H.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. Results There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p= .041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p= .025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p <.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden—i.e., increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42—individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. Conclusion In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD. PMID:26581795

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Attenuates the Influence of Amyloid on Cognition.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Stephanie A; Boots, Elizabeth A; Almeida, Rodrigo P; Oh, Jennifer M; Einerson, Jean; Korcarz, Claudia E; Edwards, Dorothy F; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Bendlin, Barbara B; Christian, Bradley T; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Stein, James H; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectionally whether higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) might favorably modify amyloid-β (Aβ)-related decrements in cognition in a cohort of late-middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-nine enrollees in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention participated in this study. They completed a comprehensive neuropsychological exam, underwent 11C Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB)-PET imaging, and performed a graded treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) during the exercise test was used as the index of CRF. Forty-five participants also underwent lumbar puncture for collection of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, from which Aβ42 was immunoassayed. Covariate-adjusted regression analyses were used to test whether the association between Aβ and cognition was modified by CRF. There were significant VO2peak*PiB-PET interactions for Immediate Memory (p=.041) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p=.025). There were also significant VO2peak*CSF Aβ42 interactions for Immediate Memory (p<.001) and Verbal Learning & Memory (p<.001). Specifically, in the context of high Aβ burden, that is, increased PiB-PET binding or reduced CSF Aβ42, individuals with higher CRF exhibited significantly better cognition compared with individuals with lower CRF. In a late-middle-aged, at-risk cohort, higher CRF is associated with a diminution of Aβ-related effects on cognition. These findings suggest that exercise might play an important role in the prevention of AD.

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery in obese premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S; Marshall, P; Ingle, L; Borkoles, E

    2012-12-01

    Post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) has been proposed as a measure of cardiac autonomic dysfunction in apparently healthy adults. We aimed to determine the effects of a lifestyle intervention on HRR among clinically obese premenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to investigate the effects of a 3-month non-dieting lifestyle intervention program on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and HRR among healthy clinically obese premenopausal women. Thirty-one were randomly assigned to 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention and 31 served as controls. Sixty-one participants performed a maximal treadmill walking test with metabolic gas exchange. Baseline anthropometric measures were closely related to HRR at 1 min, which may indicate reduced parasympathetic reactivation. Post-exercise HRR at 60 s (HRR60) increased from 21.3 ± 6.2 to 27.8 ± 10.2 bpm in the intervention group compared with a smaller reduction (26.8 ± 12.3 to 24.5 ± 9.9 bpm) in controls (test for interaction P = 0.0001). HRR120 showed a significant effect of time (P = 0.0002) with no significant interaction with lifestyle intervention. A significant increase in VO2 peak was evident in the lifestyle group (21.6 to 23.6 mL/kg/min) compared with a modest reduction in the controls (22.6 to 21.6 mL/kg/min; test for interaction, P = 0.001). Clinically obese healthy premenopausal women achieved significant improvements in HRR60 and VO peak following a 3-month intensive lifestyle intervention.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality in diabetic men with and without cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Paul; Myers, Jonathan; Emerson, Brian; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Blue, Carolyn L; Pittsley, Jesse; Froelicher, Victor F

    2009-09-01

    We assessed joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), or both with all-cause mortality. High-fitness eliminated mortality risk in diabetes (P<0.001) and halved risk of death in diabetes/CVD (P<0.001). Fitness was a potent effect modifier in the association of diabetes and CVD to mortality. PMID:19524317

  20. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Motor Skills in Relation to Cognition and Academic Performance in Children – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.

    2013-01-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  1. Association between bone mineralization, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young Australian men.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Selma Coelho; Maple-Brown, Louise; Bressan, Josefina

    2015-01-01

    The critical age for attainment of peak bone mineralization is however 20-30 yr, but few studies have investigated bone mineralization and its association with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness level in young men. This study aimed to investigate relationships between age, bone mineral measurements, body composition measurements, and cardiorespiratory fitness level in a group of young healthy Australian men. Thirty-five healthy men aged 18-25 yr had anthropometric measures, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness level assessed. Bone mineral content was significantly associated with height, body mass and lean mass, and bone mineral density positively correlated with lean mass and body mass. Bone mineral measurements did not correlate with fat mass, percentage of fat mass, or cardiorespiratory fitness level. Age was directly correlated with total body mass, body fat, and percentage of fat mass. Body mineral measurements correlated with lean mass but not with fat mass or with cardiorespiratory fitness in this group of young healthy men. Positive association between body fat and age in such young group suggests that more studies with young men are warranted and may help inform strategies to optimize increase in bone mineral measurements.

  2. White matter microstructure mediates the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Verstynen, Timothy D; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Voss, Michelle W; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Wong, Chelsea; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha; Phillips, Siobhan M; Mailey, Emily; Ehlers, Diane; Olson, Erin; Wojcicki, Thomas; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; Erickson, Kirk I

    2016-05-01

    White matter structure declines with advancing age and has been associated with a decline in memory and executive processes in older adulthood. Yet, recent research suggests that higher physical activity and fitness levels may be associated with less white matter degeneration in late life, although the tract-specificity of this relationship is not well understood. In addition, these prior studies infrequently associate measures of white matter microstructure to cognitive outcomes, so the behavioral importance of higher levels of white matter microstructural organization with greater fitness levels remains a matter of speculation. Here we tested whether cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) levels were associated with white matter microstructure and whether this relationship constituted an indirect pathway between cardiorespiratory fitness and spatial working memory in two large, cognitively and neurologically healthy older adult samples. Diffusion tensor imaging was used to determine white matter microstructure in two separate groups: Experiment 1, N=113 (mean age=66.61) and Experiment 2, N=154 (mean age=65.66). Using a voxel-based regression approach, we found that higher VO2max was associated with higher fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter microstructure, in a diverse network of white matter tracts, including the anterior corona radiata, anterior internal capsule, fornix, cingulum, and corpus callosum (PFDR-corrected<.05). This effect was consistent across both samples even after controlling for age, gender, and education. Further, a statistical mediation analysis revealed that white matter microstructure within these regions, among others, constituted a significant indirect path between VO2max and spatial working memory performance. These results suggest that greater aerobic fitness levels are associated with higher levels of white matter microstructural organization, which may, in turn, preserve spatial memory performance in older adulthood.

  3. The HALO submaximal treadmill protocol to measure cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children and youth: a proof of principle study.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Peter; Adamo, Kristi B; Colley, Rachel C

    2012-04-01

    Many limitations exist with completing cardiorespiratory fitness testing in obese children. The aim of this study was to determine if the new Healthy Active Living and Obesity Research Group's (HALO's) submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness testing protocol for obese children and youth provides a comparable estimate of peak oxygen uptake to that measured using validated maximal and submaximal, equation-based protocols in the obese pediatric population. A group of obese children (n = 21; all ≥95th body mass index percentile; aged 10-17 years) completed 3 exercise testing protocols. Testing was completed as part of an ongoing cohort study and 2 submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness tests were completed, in randomized order, during a second visit. Significant correlations were found between observed peak oxygen uptake (mL·min(-1)) and predicted peak oxygen uptake for both the HALO (r = 0.75, p = 0.001) and Nemeth (r = 0.66, p = 0.001) submaximal protocols. A similar correlation was found, after accounting for body mass, between measured and predicted HALO peak oxygen uptake (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) values (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). HALO predicted peak oxygen uptake values showed a significant correlation when plotted against the measured values (r = 0.99). A Bland-Altman analysis found agreement between the maximal and HALO submaximal protocols (mean bias = -201.75 mL·min(-1)). The significant relationships found between estimates of peak oxygen uptake from the HALO submaximal protocol and measures of peak oxygen uptake during maximal cardiorespiratory testing support the use of the HALO submaximal protocol as a valid measure to estimate maximal cardiorespiratory fitness within the obese pediatric population. Given the proof of principle goal of this study, future research in the obese, pediatric population is encouraged to confirm the generalizability of the protocol.

  4. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and the Flexible Modulation of Cognitive Control in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Cohen, Neal J.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on the modulation of cognitive control was assessed in preadolescent children separated into higher- and lower-fit groups. Participants completed compatible and incompatible stimulus-response conditions of a modified flanker task, consisting of congruent and incongruent arrays, while ERPs and task…

  6. The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Cancer Mortality in Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Stevens, June; Cai, Jianwen; Thomas, Ratna; Thomas, Olivia

    2003-01-01

    Investigated the independent and combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity on all-cause cancer mortality for women and men. Data from the Lipids Research Clinics Prevalence Study indicated that higher fitness level was a stronger predictor of reduced cancer mortality among men, while high body mass index was a stronger predictor of…

  7. Glucose intolerance and physical inactivity: the relative importance of low habitual energy expenditure and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Wareham, N J; Wong, M Y; Day, N E

    2000-07-15

    Glucose intolerance and diabetes mellitus are associated with physical inactivity, but it is unclear whether preventive interventions should aim at increasing overall energy expenditure or increasing participation in vigorous, fitness-enhancing activities. Studies aimed at separating and quantifying the effects of these two dimensions of physical activity should use well-validated measurement instruments and employ a study design in which the bivariate error structure of these instruments is determined. In the Isle of Ely Study (Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom), 775 individuals aged 45-70 years in 1994-1997 completed a glucose tolerance test and assessment of 4-day physical activity level (total energy expenditure/basal metabolic rate) by heart rate monitoring, a technique that has been validated against doubly labeled water and whole-body calorimetry. Cardiorespiratory fitness (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) per kg)) was measured in a submaximal test. To correct for measurement error, the authors had 190 individuals repeat both tests on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Two-hour glucose level was negatively correlated with physical activity level (men: r = -0.22, p < 0.001; women: r = -0.11, p < 0.05) and VO2max per kg (men: r = -0.18, p < 0.01; women: r = -0.19, p < 0.001) and was positively correlated with age and obesity. The model incorporating bivariate adjustment for measurement error showed that energy expenditure had a major effect on glucose tolerance, but there was less of an effect for cardiorespiratory fitness. These data provide support for public health strategies aimed at increasing overall energy expenditure.

  8. Hepatic steatosis and low cardiorespiratory fitness in youth with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wittmeier, Kristy D M; Wicklow, Brandy A; MacIntosh, Andrea C; Sellers, Elizabeth A C; Ryner, Lawrence N; Serrai, Hacene; Gardiner, Philip F; Dean, Heather J; McGavock, Jonathan M

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, ectopic triglyceride accumulation, and insulin sensitivity among youth with and without type 2 diabetes. Subjects included 137 youth ages 13-18 years including 27 with type 2 diabetes, 97 overweight normoglycemic controls, and 13 healthy weight normoglycemic controls. The primary outcome measure was cardiorespiratory fitness defined as peak oxygen uptake indexed to fat free mass. Secondary outcomes included liver and muscle triglyceride content determined by (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and insulin sensitivity determined by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Despite similar measures of adiposity, peak oxygen uptake was 11% lower (38.9 ± 7.9 vs. 43.9 ± 6.1 ml/kgFFM/min, P = 0.002) and hepatic triglyceride content was nearly threefold higher (14.4 vs. 5.7%, P = 0.001) in youth with type 2 diabetes relative to overweight controls. In all 137 youth, cardiorespiratory fitness was negatively associated with hepatic triglyceride content (r = -0.22, P = 0.02) and positively associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.29, P = 0.002) independent of total body and visceral fat mass. Hepatic triglyceride content was also negatively associated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.35, P < 0.001), independent of adiposity, sex, age, and peak oxygen uptake. This study demonstrated that low cardiorespiratory fitness and elevated hepatic triglyceride content are features of type 2 diabetes in youth. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness and hepatic triglyceride are associated with insulin sensitivity in youth. Taken together, these data suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness and hepatic steatosis are potential clinical biomarkers for type 2 diabetes among youth.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a marker of cardiovascular health in renal transplanted children.

    PubMed

    Tangeraas, Trine; Midtvedt, Karsten; Fredriksen, Per Morten; Cvancarova, Milada; Mørkrid, Lars; Bjerre, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Children with renal transplants (TX) are at increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Study objectives were to assess the level of cardiorespiratory fitness (CR fitness) and daily physical activity (PA) in renal TX children and adolescents in relation to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Laboratory testing included assessment of CR fitness by treadmill exercise testing (VO(2peak)), 24-h ambulatory blood-pressure (ABPM) measurement, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), anthropometrics and measurement of lipid levels. PA was self-reported by questionnaire. Twenty-two TX patients with a median (range) age 14.5 (9-18) years were tested. Median V0(2peak) was 66% (36-97) of the expected values compared with controls. Nineteen (86%) children reported <60 min of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Sixteen (73%) were hypertensive and 8 (34%) were overweight or obese. Four children fulfilled the criteria for a metabolic syndrome. Children with at least 2 of the 3 metabolic risk factors (hypertension, overweight, and glucose intolerance, n=7) achieved significantly lower VO(2peak) compared with those with one or none of these factors (median V0(2peak) 45% and 73% of the expected values respectively, p=0.003). Renal TX children and adolescents have severely impaired CR fitness and PA. Reduced CR fitness was associated with the clustering of CV risk factors. Routine counseling for increased PA is strongly recommended.

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness and preserved medial temporal lobe volume in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Honea, Robyn; Thomas, George P.; Harsha, Amith; Anderson, Heather S.; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Exercise and cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness may moderate age-related regional brain changes in nondemented older adults (ND). The relationship of fitness to Alzheimer's disease (AD) related brain change is understudied, particularly in the hippocampus which is disproportionately affected in early AD. The role of apolipoprotein E4 (apoE4) genotype in modulating this relationship is also unknown. Nondemented (n=56) and early-stage AD subjects (n=61) over age 65 had MRI and CR fitness assessments. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) techniques were utilized to identify AD-related atrophy. We analyzed the relationship of CR fitness with white and gray matter within groups, assessed fitness-related brain volume change in areas most affected by AD-related atrophy, and then analyzed differential fitness-brain relationships between apoE4 carriers. Atrophy was present in the medial temporal, temporal, and parietal cortices in subjects with mild AD. There was a significant positive correlation of CR fitness with parietal and medial temporal volume in AD subjects. ND subjects did not have a significant relationship between brain volume and CR fitness in the global or SVC analyses. There was not a significant interaction for fitness × apoE4 genotype in either group. In early-stage AD, cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with regional brain volumes in the medial temporal and parietal cortices suggesting that maintaining cardiorespiratory fitness may modify AD-related brain atrophy. PMID:19812458

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  12. Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Larizza, Daniela; Codrons, Erwan; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Brambilla, Paola; Abela, Sebastiano; Arpesella, Marisa; Vandoni, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity may protect from the adverse effects of obesity. In obese children, an increased adherence and a decreased drop-out rate during exercise could be achieved with adapted activities. We studied a recreational 12-week controlled training program for sedentary obese children, including interactive video games. We enrolled 22 obese subjects (13.23±1.76 years) in an exercise program, implemented twice a week for a 12-week period. The program consisted of a combination of circuit-based aerobics, strength and resistance exercises; specifically soccer, rugby, volleyball and basketball and interactive video game exercises. Outcome measurements included body composition, metabolic profile and cardiorespiratory fitness. During the 12-week training program there was a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002), SDS-BMI (p=0.003), waist circumference (p=0.004), waist circumference/height ratio (p=0.001),% fat mass (p=0.001), blood glucose (p=0.001), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.04), triglycerides (p=0.03) and systolic pressure (p=0.04) before and after exercise. Improvement in estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (p<0.001) correlated with a decrease in fat mass (p=0.01), triglycerides (p=0.04) and insulin resistance (p=0.02). Exercise improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children. Exercise training does not necessarily need to be vigorous, recreational programs are also effective and may encourage children to participate in physical activity and limit initial drop-out. PMID:23327787

  13. Improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness during a recreational training program in obese children.

    PubMed

    Calcaterra, Valeria; Larizza, Daniela; Codrons, Erwan; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Brambilla, Paola; Abela, Sebastiano; Arpesella, Marisa; Vandoni, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity may protect from the adverse effects of obesity. In obese children, an increased adherence and a decreased drop-out rate during exercise could be achieved with adapted activities. We studied a recreational 12-week controlled training program for sedentary obese children, including interactive video games. We enrolled 22 obese subjects (13.23±1.76 years) in an exercise program, implemented twice a week for a 12-week period. The program consisted of a combination of circuit-based aerobics, strength and resistance exercises; specifically soccer, rugby, volleyball and basketball and interactive video game exercises. Outcome measurements included body composition, metabolic profile and cardiorespiratory fitness. During the 12-week training program there was a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002), SDS-BMI (p=0.003), waist circumference (p=0.004), waist circumference/height ratio (p=0.001),% fat mass (p=0.001), blood glucose (p=0.001), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.04), triglycerides (p=0.03) and systolic pressure (p=0.04) before and after exercise. Improvement in estimated maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) (p<0.001) correlated with a decrease in fat mass (p=0.01), triglycerides (p=0.04) and insulin resistance (p=0.02). Exercise improved metabolic and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese children. Exercise training does not necessarily need to be vigorous, recreational programs are also effective and may encourage children to participate in physical activity and limit initial drop-out.

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De) Synchronization (ERD/ERS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chien-Heng; Yang, Kao-Teng; Song, Tai-Fen; Liu, Jen-Hao; Hung, Tsung-Min; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977) were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task. PMID:27536259

  15. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth.

    PubMed

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5-17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  16. Metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness performance in children with cerebral palsy: A comparison with healthy youth

    PubMed Central

    García, Claudia Cardona; Alcocer-Gamboa, Alberto; Ruiz, Margarita Pérez; Caballero, Ignacio Martínez; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Saiz, Beatriz Moral; Lorenzo, Teresa Martín; Lara, Sergio Lerma

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess metabolic, cardiorespiratory, and neuromuscular fitness parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and to compare these findings with typically developing children. 40 children with CP (21 males, 19 females; mean age, 11.0±3.3 yr; range, 6.5–17.1 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System levels 1 or 2) and 40 healthy, age- and sex-matched children completed a test battery that consisted of 8 tests and 28 measures that assessed cardio-respiratory fitness, energy expenditure, anaerobic endurance, muscle strength, agility, stability and flexibility. Children with CP had significantly lower performance (P<0.05) on most cardiorespiratory and metabolic tests than those of healthy children, Differences in neuromuscular measures of muscular strength, speed, agility, anaerobic endurance, and flexibility between groups were most apparent. Grouped differences in cardiorespiratory variables revealed a 25% difference in performance, whereas grouped differences in metabolic and neuromuscular measures were 43% and 60%, respectively. The physical fitness of contemporary children with CP is significantly less than healthy, age-matched children. Significant differences in neuromuscular measures between groups can aid in the identification of specific fitness abilities in need of improvement in this population. PMID:27162775

  17. The Sexual Dimorphic Association of Cardiorespiratory Fitness to Working Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Raine, Lauren B.; Davis Moore, R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the sexual dimorphic patterns of cardiorespiratory fitness to working memory in preadolescent children (age range: 7.7-10.9). Data were collected in three separate studies (Study 1: n = 97, 42 females; Study 2: n = 95, 45 females; Study 3: n = 84, 37 females). All participants completed a cardiorespiratory…

  18. Relation between leukocyte count, adiposity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in pubertal adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tenório, Thiago Ricardo dos Santos; Farah, Breno Quintella; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Botero, João Paulo; Brito, Daniel Calado; de Moura, Patrícia Muniz Mendes Freire; do Prado, Wagner Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the total and differential leukocyte count in obese and normal-weight adolescents, and to verify their possible relations with cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted with 139 adolescents (107 obese and 32 normal weight) aged between 13 and 18 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by direct gas analysis during an incremental treadmill test. Total leukocytes and subsets were estimated by flow cytometry. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The t-test for independent samples was used for comparison between groups. The relation between leukocytes, cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity indicators was verified by Pearson’s correlation and multiple linear regression (adjusted for age and body mass index) tests. Results Obese adolescents had higher leukocyte (8.12±2.36u/L x 103; p=0.001), neutrophil (4.33±1.86u/L x 103; p=0.002), and monocyte (0.70±0.22u/L x 103; p=0.002) counts compared to the levels of normal weight subjects. After the necessary adjustments, cardiorespiratory fitness had a negative association with leukocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes in boys. Conclusion Obese adolescents had higher total and differential leucocyte count when compared to normal weight individuals. We also observed a weak positive association between adiposity and total leukocyte, monocyte, and neutrophil counts, and in boys, a negative association between cardiorespiratory fitness and total count of leukocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils. PMID:25628191

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of overweight in youth: the Healthy Hearts Longitudinal Study of Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    McGavock, Jonathan M; Torrance, Brian D; McGuire, K Ashlee; Wozny, Paul D; Lewanczuk, Richard Z

    2009-09-01

    The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and the risk of overweight status in youth. To accomplish this aim we analyzed data from annual school-based surveys of cardiorespiratory fitness and anthropometry conducted between 2004 and 2006. The first analysis was performed on a cohort of 902 youth aged 6-15 years followed for 12 months to assess the association between cardiorespiratory fitness levels determined from a graded maximal field test and the risk of becoming overweight. The second analysis was conducted on a cohort of 222 youth followed for 2 years to assess the continuous association between annual changes fitness and weight gain. Children with low cardiorespiratory fitness were characterized by higher waist circumference and disproportionate weight gain over the 12-month follow-up period (P < 0.05). Within the entire cohort, the 12-month risk of overweight classification was 3.5-fold (95% confidence = 2.0-6.0, P < 0.001) higher in youth with low cardiorespiratory fitness, relative to fit peers. A time series mixed effects regression model revealed that reductions in cardiorespiratory fitness were significantly and independently associated with increasing BMI (r = -0.18, P < 0.05) in youth. Accordingly, low cardiorespiratory fitness and reductions in fitness over time are significantly associated with weight gain and the risk of overweight in children 6-15 years old. An assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness using a common field test may prove useful for the identification of youth at risk of overweight and serve as a potential target for obesity prevention.

  20. Metabolic syndrome is inversely related to cardiorespiratory fitness in male career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Baur, Dorothee M; Christophi, Costas A; Kales, Stefanos N

    2012-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for 45% of on-duty fatalities among firefighters, occurring primarily in firefighters with excess CVD risk factors in patterns resembling the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Additionally, firefighters have a high prevalence of obesity and sedentary behavior suggesting that MetSyn is also common. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of MetSyn in firefighters and its association with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in a cross-sectional study of 957 male career firefighters. The CRF was measured by maximal exercise tolerance testing (standard metabolic equivalent [METS]). The MetSyn was defined according to modified criteria from the Joint Scientific Statement. Group differences were compared using χ-test and logistic regression. The prevalence of MetSyn was 28.3%. Firefighters in the lowest fitness category (METS ≤ 10) had a nearly 10-fold higher prevalence of MetSyn (51.2%) compared with colleagues in the highest fitness category (METS > 14) (MetSyn prevalence 5.2%) (p value < 0.0001, adjusted for age). In multivariate regression models, every 1-unit increase in METS decreased the odds of having the MetSyn by 31% (odds ratio 0.69 [95% confidence interval 0.63-0.76] [age adjusted]), whereas age had no significant effect after adjusting for CRF. We found a high prevalence of the MetSyn in this group of career emergency responders expected to be more active, fit, and relatively younger than the general population. Moreover, there is a highly significant inverse, dose-response association with CRF. Firefighters should be given strong incentives to improve their fitness, which would decrease prevalent MetSyn, a likely precursor of on-duty CVD events and contributor to CVD burden in this population.

  1. Lower than predicted resting metabolic rate is associated with severely impaired cardiorespiratory fitness in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Miller, Wendy M; Spring, Thomas J; Zalesin, Kerstyn C; Kaeding, Kaylee R; Nori Janosz, Katherine E; McCullough, Peter A; Franklin, Barry A

    2012-03-01

    Obese individuals have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness as compared with leaner counterparts. Regular exercise maintains or increases fitness and lean body mass. Lean body mass, in turn, has a direct impact on resting metabolic rate (RMR). Given these relationships, we sought to evaluate the association between RMR and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese individuals. We evaluated 64 obese individuals (78% female) with direct assessment of RMR and cardiorespiratory fitness via breath-by-breath measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production at rest and during exercise. The mean age and BMI were 47.4 ± 12.2 years and 47.2 ± 9.2 kg/m(2), respectively. The majority of subjects, 69%, had a measured RMR above that predicted by the Harris-Benedict equation. Compared with the higher RMR group, those with a lower than predicted RMR had increased BMI, with values of 52.9 vs. 44.7 kg/m(2), P = 0.001, respectively. Analysis of those demonstrating significant effort during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (peak respiratory exchange ratio ≥1.10) revealed a significantly higher peak oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak) in the higher RMR group (17.3 ± 3.5 ml/min/kg) compared with the lower RMR group (13.6 ± 1.9 ml/min/kg), P = 0.003. In summary, a lower than predicted RMR was associated with a severely reduced VO(2) peak and a higher BMI in this cohort. These data suggest that morbid obesity may be a vicious cycle of increasing BMI, reduced cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle deconditioning, and lower RMR. Collectively, these responses may, over time, exacerbate the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure, resulting in progressive increases in body weight and fat stores.

  2. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness modifies the relationship between myocardial function and cerebral blood flow in older adults.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nathan F; Gold, Brian T; Bailey, Alison L; Clasey, Jody L; Hakun, Jonathan G; White, Matthew; Long, Doug E; Powell, David K

    2016-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates some age-related cerebral declines. However, little is known about the role that myocardial function plays in this relationship. Brain regions with high resting metabolic rates, such as the default mode network (DMN), may be especially vulnerable to age-related declines in myocardial functions affecting cerebral blood flow (CBF). This study explored the relationship between a measure of myocardial mechanics, global longitudinal strain (GLS), and CBF to the DMN. In addition, we explored how cardiorespiratory affects this relationship. Participants were 30 older adults between the ages of 59 and 69 (mean age=63.73years, SD=2.8). Results indicated that superior cardiorespiratory fitness and myocardial mechanics were positively associated with DMN CBF. Moreover, results of a mediation analysis revealed that the relationship between GLS and DMN CBF was accounted for by individual differences in fitness. Findings suggest that benefits of healthy heart function to brain function are modified by fitness. PMID:26032886

  4. Effects of aerobic training, resistance training, or both on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in adolescents with obesity: the HEARTY trial.

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Ma, Jinhui; Doucette, Steve; Gougeon, Rejeanne; Wells, George A; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise training on cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness in postpubertal adolescents with obesity. After a 4-week supervised moderate-intensity exercise run-in, 304 adolescents aged 14-18 years with body mass index ≥85th percentile were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks of aerobic training, resistance training, combined training, or a nonexercising control. All participants received dietary counselling with a maximum daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. Cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption) was measured by indirect calorimetry using a graded treadmill exercise test. Musculoskeletal fitness was measured using the 2003 Canadian Physical Activity Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal tests (hand grip, push-ups, partial curl-ups, sit and reach, and vertical jump). Muscular strength was assessed using an 8-repetition maximum test on the bench press, seated row, and leg press machines. A greater increase in peak oxygen consumption in the aerobic exercise group (30.6 ± 0.6 to 33.4 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) was measured relative to the control group (30.6 ± 0.5 to 30.9 ± 0.7 mLO2/kg/min) (p = 0.002). Similarly, the number of partial curl-ups increased in the aerobic group (19 ± 1 to 23 ± 1) while no differences were measured in the control group (19 ± 1 to 20 ± 1) (p = 0.015). Increases in muscular strength and number of push-ups were greatest in the resistance group versus the control and combined groups versus the aerobic group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic training had the strongest effect on cardiorespiratory fitness, while resistance and combined training improved both muscular strength and endurance more than control and aerobic training alone, respectively, in adolescents with obesity.

  5. Acute exercise stress reveals cerebrovascular benefits associated with moderate gains in cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Brugniaux, Julien V; Marley, Christopher J; Hodson, Danielle A; New, Karl J; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness improves resting cerebral perfusion, although to what extent this is further amplified during acute exposure to exercise stress and the corresponding implications for cerebral oxygenation remain unknown. To examine this, we recruited 12 moderately active and 12 sedentary healthy males. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv) and prefrontal cortical oxyhemoglobin (cO(2)Hb) concentration were monitored continuously at rest and throughout an incremental cycling test to exhaustion. Despite a subtle elevation in the maximal oxygen uptake (active: 52±9 ml/kg per minute versus sedentary: 33±5 ml/kg per minute, P<0.05), resting MCAv was not different between groups. However, more marked increases in both MCAv (+28±13% versus +18±6%, P<0.05) and cO(2)Hb (+5±4% versus -2±3%, P<0.05) were observed in the active group during the transition from low- to moderate-intensity exercise. Collectively, these findings indicate that the long-term benefits associated with moderate increase in physical activity are not observed in the resting state and only become apparent when the cerebrovasculature is challenged by acute exertional stress. This has important clinical implications when assessing the true extent of cerebrovascular adaptation. PMID:25269518

  6. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): effects on strength and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Pötzelsberger, B; Stöggl, T; Lindinger, S J; Dirnberger, J; Stadlmann, M; Buchecker, M; Hofstaedter, T; Gordon, K; Müller, E

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-week recreational skiing intervention on lower limb muscle strength and cardiorespiratory fitness in participants with unilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-seven older adults (70 ± 5 years) were assigned to the intervention (n = 13) or control group (n = 14) after surgery (2.5 ± 1 years). Leg muscle strength was measured using an IsoMed 2000 dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was determined by cycle ergometry before and after the intervention as well as after an 8-week retention period. The skiing intervention led to increased muscle strength in the operated leg during unilateral single joint isometric extension (maximal force: 11%; P < 0.05; rate of torque development: 24%; P < 0.05) and during the unilateral multi-joint isokinetic single leg strength test (8%; P < 0.05). This resulted in a decreased asymmetry index in the isokinetic test (13% to 5%; P < 0.05). These adaptations remained unchanged toward the retention test. No effect was observed for cardiorespiratory fitness. The results demonstrate that muscle contraction forces required during recreational skiing in individuals with TKA seem adequate and effective to increase quadriceps and hamstrings muscle strength in the initially weaker operated leg and to reduce an augmented post-operative asymmetry index.

  7. [Centripetal distribution of body fat, overweight and cardiorespiratory fitness: association with insulin sensitivity and metabolic alterations].

    PubMed

    da Silva, José Luciano T; Barbosa, Décio Sabbatini; de Oliveira, Jair Aparecido; Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate associations between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and serum lipid-lipoproteins, blood pressure and the index Homa-IR of insulin resistance, adjusting for indicators of overweight and cardiorespiratory fitness. Eighty-nine voluntaries were analyzed (44 men and 45 women). The centripetal distribution of the body fat was analyzed through waist circumference (CC) and the overweight by the body mass index (BMI). The cardiorespiratory fitness was followed by the estimate VO(2)max by test of walking. After adjusted for BMI values were found significant coefficient of correlation between CC and levels of blood pressure and ApoB in men, and between CC and index Homa-IR and triglycerides in women. After adjusted for VO(2)max values were verified significant correlations between CC and ApoB and index Homa-IR in men, and between CC and index Homa-IR in women. In conclusion, depending on the sex, the quantity and distribution of the body fat can present different actions in the insulin resistance and associated dysfunctions. The cardiorespiratory fitness per se seems not to contribute on the minimization of the association between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and the index Homa-IR; but presents a considerable impact on the association between the centripetal distribution of the body fat and the lipid metabolism and the levels of blood pressure, mainly in men.

  8. A 2-km walking test for assessing the cardiorespiratory fitness of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Oja, P; Laukkanen, R; Pasanen, M; Tyry, T; Vuori, I

    1991-08-01

    A simple walking test was developed with 159 (females = 80, males = 79) healthy 20-65-year-old subjects. All the subjects first walked the distances of 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 km on a flat dirt road. Half of the participants were tested in the laboratory for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and the 2-km test was repeated again twice. In a comparison of the three distances, the 2-km test was repeatable, the most preferable subjectively and the most accurate in predicting VO2max. A sex-specific prediction model including walking time, heart rate at the end of the walk, age and body mass index predicted 73-75% of the variance in VO2max (ml.kg-1.min-1) and that with body weight 66-76%, with a standard error of estimate of the order of 9-15% of the mean. The cross-validation of the models yielded reasonable accuracy in obese men and women and in moderately active men, and less accuracy in moderately active women and highly active men. These results suggest that a fast 2-km walk supplemented with simple measurements is a feasible and accurate alternative for determining the cardiorespiratory fitness of healthy adults.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness of males and females of northern Finland birth cohort of 1966 at age 31.

    PubMed

    Tammelin, T; Näyhä, S; Rintamäki, H

    2004-10-01

    This study aimed to measure cardiorespiratory fitness of about 9000 males and females at age 31, to produce the reference values and relate them to the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Study population was the Northern Finland birth cohort of 1966. At age 31, 8786 persons responded to a postal inquiry including questions about physical activity and 5497 of them also performed a step test. A sample of 123 persons performed a maximal exercise test with direct measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)). This was done to develop VO(2peak) prediction models on the basis of heart rate after a step test, BMI and frequency of brisk physical activity. These models were used to calculate VO(2peak) for the whole study population. Mean VO(2peak) +/- standard deviation was 43.0 +/- 4.6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4071 males and 34.3 +/- 4.3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) in 4367 females. A graded dose-response relationship was observed in males and females between the frequency of participation in brisk exercise and VO(2peak). Similar dose-response relationship was also observed in overweight and obese persons, although the level of VO(2peak) was lower in persons with increased BMI. At age 31, very low levels of VO(2peak) seemed to be associated with a combination of infrequent participation in brisk exercise and increased BMI. These reference values can be used in the interpretation of fitness test results and in physical activity counselling.

  10. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Individuals: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT)

    PubMed Central

    Strand, Linn B.; Laugsand, Lars E.; Wisløff, Ulrik; Nes, Bjarne M.; Vatten, Lars; Janszky, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have found an inverse association between insomnia and self–reported physical activity, but it is not clear whether insomnia is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness. Our aim was to investigate different insomnia symptoms in relation to the gold standard measure of cardiorespiratory fitness, i.e., peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). Design: Cross-sectional population study. Setting: Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Participants: The group comprised 3,489 men and women who were free from cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, cancer, and sarcoidosis and who did not use antihypertensive medication. They were included in the fully adjusted model when assessing all insomnia symptoms simultaneously. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: For insomnia, the participants reported how often they had experienced sleep problems during the past 3 months, including difficulties falling asleep at night, repeated awakenings during the night, early awakenings without being able to go back to sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Response options were “never/almost never,” “sometimes” or “several times a wk.” To measure cardiorespiratory fitness, the participants were asked to walk or run on a treadmill with increasing speed and/or incline until exhaustion, and VO2peak was recorded. We found a modest inverse and graded association of the insomnia symptoms with VO2peak. The association was independent of self-reported physical activity and was apparent for all insomnia symptoms except for early awakenings. We found a dose-response relation for a cumulative combination of insomnia symptoms and VO2peak for experiencing zero, one to two, or three to four symptoms (P for trend < 0.001). Conclusions: We found a modest inverse association of insomnia with VO2peak independent of the conventional cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported physical activity. Citation: Strand LB; Laugsand LE; Wisløff U; Nes BM; Vatten L; Janszky I. Insomnia

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Women with and without Lymphedema following Breast Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smoot, Betty; Johnson, Morgan; Duda J, John; Krasnoff, Joanne; Dodd, Marylin

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer (BC) treatment, many women develop impairments that may impact cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness. The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate CR fitness in women following BC treatment, 2) evaluate differences in CR fitness in those with and without breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) and compare these to age-matched norms, and 3) evaluate the contribution of predictor variables to CR fitness. 136 women post-BC treatment completed testing: 67 with BCRL, and 69 without. VO2 peak was lower in participants compared to published healthy age-matched norms. VO2 peak was statistically significantly lower in women with BCRL. Age, BMI, meeting recommended exercise criteria, and DASH scores explained 50% of the variance in VO2 peak (R=0.708, p<0.001). Following BC treatment CR fitness may be impaired, more-so in women with BCRL. This should be considered when providing rehabilitation for women following BC treatment as cardiorespiratory fitness has linked to improved health outcomes and survivorship. PMID:24058390

  12. Cardiorespiratory Coupling: Common Rhythms in Cardiac, Sympathetic, and Respiratory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Yee-Hsee; Dhingra, Rishi R.; Baekey, David M.; Galán, Roberto F.; Wehrwein, Erica; Morris, Kendall F.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory coupling is an encompassing term describing more than the well-recognized influences of respiration on heart rate and blood pressure. Our data indicate that cardiorespiratory coupling reflects a reciprocal interaction between autonomic and respiratory control systems, and the cardiovascular system modulates the ventilatory pattern as well. For example, cardioventilatory coupling refers to the influence of heart beats and arterial pulse pressure on respiration and is the tendency for the next inspiration to start at a preferred latency after the last heart beat in expiration. Multiple complementary, well-described mechanisms mediate respiration’s influence on cardiovascular function, whereas mechanisms mediating the cardiovascular system’s influence on respiration may only be through the baroreceptors but are just being identified. Our review will describe a differential effect of conditioning rats with either chronic intermittent or sustained hypoxia on sympathetic nerve activity but also on ventilatory pattern variability. Both intermittent and sustained hypoxia increase sympathetic nerve activity after 2 weeks but affect sympatho-respiratory coupling differentially. Intermittent hypoxia enhances sympatho-respiratory coupling, which is associated with low variability in the ventilatory pattern. In contrast, after constant hypobaric hypoxia, 1-to-1 coupling between bursts of sympathetic and phrenic nerve activity is replaced by 2-to-3 coupling. This change in coupling pattern is associated with increased variability of the ventilatory pattern. After baro-denervating hypobaric hypoxic-conditioned rats, splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity becomes tonic (distinct bursts are absent) with decreases during phrenic nerve bursts and ventilatory pattern becomes regular. Thus, conditioning rats to either intermittent or sustained hypoxia accentuates the reciprocal nature of cardiorespiratory coupling. Finally, identifying a compelling physiologic

  13. Association of Adiposity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Exercise Practice with the Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Brazilian Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Maressa P.; Hallage, Tatiane; Gama, Mirnaluci Paulino Ribeiro; Goss, Fredric L.; Robertson, Robert; da Silva, Sergio G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diabetes incidence in people with advanced age is increasing at an alarming rate, and for this reason the screening of high-risk individuals such as elderly women is critically important. Objective: To analyze the association of adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise practice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly Brazilian women. Methods: Participated of this cross sectional study 1,059 elderly women (mean 69.5 yr; SD 6.1), who self-reported family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking status, hypertension, and T2D diagnosed previously by a physician. The following independent variables were assessed: exercise practice, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between each independent variable with T2D using adjusted-models. Results: T2D prevalence was 16%. General and central adiposity were directly associated with T2D, whereas cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely related with T2D. The joint effect of exercise practice and central adiposity showed that inactive women had higher odds ratio for T2D when compared with active ones, within the same WC group. Inactive women with WC ≥ 94.0 cm had an odds ratio of 5.8 (95%IC 1.3-25.3). Conclusions: A direct positive association was found between general and central adiposity, as well as an inverse relation between CRF and exercise practice with T2D. Elderly women who practice exercise regularly had lower odds for T2D. Health professionals should encourage individuals of all ages to engage on regular exercise practice, which could reduce body fatness and may be beneficial in reducing the prevalence of T2D in older ages. PMID:18071583

  14. Insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure: contribution of abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Huot, Maxime; Arsenault, Benoit J; Gaudreault, Valérie; Poirier, Paul; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline

    2011-12-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance and low cardiorespiratory fitness are frequently found to have an increased waist circumference and high exercise blood pressure. We tested the hypothesis that the relationships among insulin resistance, low cardiorespiratory fitness, and increased exercise blood pressure may be mediated by an elevated waist circumference. This study included 317 apparently healthy men and women (mean age: 34.8±12.8 years; mean body mass index: 26.1±5.2 kg/m(2)). Exercise blood pressure values were measured using a submaximal ergometer test evaluating physical working capacity. Plasma insulin and glucose levels were measured during a 3-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Multivariate regression analyses showed that waist circumference accounted for 32.8% (P<0.0001) and 45.1% (P<0.0001) of the variance in exercise systolic blood pressure in men and women, respectively. Participants were classified into tertiles according to either insulin response, measured during the oral glucose tolerance test, or fitness levels and then further subdivided into 2 subgroups using sex-specific waist circumference thresholds. Individuals with an increased waist circumference (≥94 cm and ≥80 cm for men and women, respectively) had higher exercise systolic blood pressure compared with individuals with low waist circumference, irrespective of their level of insulin resistance (10.6 versus 6.8, 12.2 versus 7.7, and 13.2 versus 8.7 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; P<0.05) or fitness levels (13.1 versus 8.2, 12.0 versus 7.9, and 10.6 versus 7.1 mm Hg/metabolic equivalent, respectively, for the low, intermediate, and high tertiles; P<0.05). Individuals with a higher waist circumference have elevated exercise systolic blood pressure, regardless of their insulin sensitivity or level of cardiorespiratory fitness.

  15. Body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness among refugee Somali women living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Pauline B; Elmi, Fatuma Hussein; Corrigan, Callie

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness levels of a sample of refugee Somali women living in New Zealand with normative data. Refugee Somali women were invited to participate in sessions to assess physical fitness and body measurements. Height, bodyweight and waist and hip circumference were measured. The Rockport Fitness Walk Test was used to estimate the women's cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Thirty-one women between 12 and 66 years old participated in this study. There was a significantly greater proportion (71.4%) of participants with a BMI in the overweight or obese range (>or=25 kg/m2) compared to normative New Zealand women's data (49.3%; p = 0.015). The proportion of Somali women (42%) with a waist-to-hip ratio in excess of 0.8 was higher than that of New Zealand women (35.6%), but not statistically so. All women over 30 years of age (n = 12) had an estimated VO2max below the 50th percentile with eight participants below the 10th percentile. The extent of overweight and obesity and low fitness levels, particularly among the older Somali women in this study, suggests that Somali women are at increased risk of developing lifestyle related diseases.

  16. The effect of walking on cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Larose, Joanie; King, Judy; Brosseau, Lucie; Wells, George A; Reid, Robert; Maetzel, Andreas; Tugwell, Peter; Huijbregts, Maria; McCullough, Carolyn; Loew, Laurianne; Kenny, Glen P

    2013-08-01

    Walking programs alone or in combination with behavioral interventions have proven effective at improving quality of life among older adults with osteoarthritis (OA). It is unclear, however, whether the combination of both of these treatments is more effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults with knee OA than a walking program alone or than unsupervised self-directed walking. In this study, we assessed cardiorespiratory fitness with 3 programs: a structured supervised community-based aerobic walking program with a behavioral intervention (WB; n = 41); a supervised program of walking only (W; n = 42); and an unsupervised self-directed walking program (n = 32). We measured maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2peak), exercise test duration, and workload, heart rate, and ventilation at maximum aerobic capacity in older adults with knee OA after 6 months of WB, W, or self-directed walking. Overall, V̇O2peak improved by 4% in female walkers (+0.9 ± 2.5 mL O2·kg(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.001) and 5% in male walkers (+1.3 ± 2.7 mL O2·kg(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.001), and the change in fitness was similar with all 3 walking interventions. In conclusion, low- to moderate-intensity walking may improve and (or) prevent decrements in cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults with OA. This response was comparable in supervised walkers with and without a behavioral intervention and in unsupervised self-directed walkers.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness and digestive cancer mortality: findings from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    PubMed Central

    Peel, J. Brent; Sui, Xuemei; Matthews, Charles E.; Adams, Swann A.; Hébert, James R.; Hardin, James W.; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2009-01-01

    Although higher levels of physical activity are inversely associated with risk of colon cancer, few prospective studies have evaluated overall digestive system cancer mortality in relation to cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The authors examined this association among 38,801 men aged 20−88 years and who performed a maximal treadmill exercise test at baseline in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (Dallas, Texas) during 1974−2003. Mortality was assessed over 29 years of follow-up (1974−2003). 283 digestive system cancer deaths occurred during a mean 17-year of observation. Age-adjusted mortality rates per 10,000 person-yrs according to low, moderate, and high CRF groups were 6.8, 4.0, and 3.3 for digestive system cancer (trend p < 0.001). After adjustment for age, examination year, body mass index, smoking, drinking, family history of cancer, personal history of diabetes, hazard ratios for overall digestive cancer deaths (95% confidence interval) for those in the middle and upper 40% of the distribution of CRF relative to those in the lowest 20% were 0.66 (0.49, 0.88) and 0.56 (0.40, 0.80), respectively. Being fit (the upper 80% of CRF) was associated with a lower risk of mortality from colon (0.61 [0.37, 1.00]), colorectal (0.58 [0.37, 0.92]), and liver cancer (0.28 [0.11, 0.72]), compared with being unfit (the lowest 20% of CRF). These findings support a protective role of CRF against total digestive tract, colorectal, and liver cancer deaths in men. PMID:19293313

  18. Cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life in bariatric surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Kolotkin, Ronette L; LaMonte, Michael J; Litwin, Sheldon; Crosby, Ross D; Gress, Richard E; Yanowitz, Frank G; Hunt, Steven C; Adams, Ted D

    2011-04-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is impaired in severely obese individuals presenting for bariatric surgery. Little is known about the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and HRQOL in these individuals. We hypothesized that better HRQOL would be reported by those with higher CRF. In 326 gastric bypass patients (mean BMI = 46.5 ± 7.0; mean age=40.9 ± 10.1; 83.4% female), pre-surgical CRF was quantified as duration (minutes) of a submaximal treadmill test to 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (MHR). Patients completed both a general measure of HRQOL [the Medical Outcome Short Form 36 (SF-36)] and a weight-specific measure of HRQOL [Impact of Weight on Quality of Life--Lite]. Mean HRQOL scores were examined, controlling for age, gender, and BMI. Mean treadmill duration was 9.9 ± 3.1 min, and percent age-predicted MHR was 81.2 ± 3.0%. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness tended to be associated with better physical and weight-specific HRQOL. Adjustment for differences in gender, age, and BMI attenuated the significance of associations between fitness and physical measures from the SF-36, whereas adjustment eliminated significance of associations between fitness and weight-specific HRQOL in most cases. Results suggest that CRF confers some HRQOL benefits in severely obese adults, though these benefits may largely be explained by differences in age, gender, and BMI.

  19. Cardiorespiratory responses to table tennis in low-fit coronary patients and implications for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Roger; deJong, Adam; Brinks, Jenna; Spring, Tom; Sternburgh, Lucille; Franklin, Barry A

    2014-12-15

    Racquet sports may evoke excessive aerobic and/or cardiac demands for many coronary patients with impaired cardiorespiratory fitness. We evaluated the cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic responses to table tennis in clinically stable patients with coronary disease. Low-risk cardiac men (n = 10, mean ± SD, age = 67.6 ± 8.8 years) satisfying inclusion criteria (functional capacity ≤8 metabolic equivalents [METs] without evidence of impaired left ventricular function, significant dysrhythmias, signs and/or symptoms of myocardial ischemia, or orthopedic limitations), completed the study. Patients were monitored for heart rate (HR), blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (6 to 20 scale), and electrocardiographic responses during a 10-minute bout of recreational table tennis. Metabolic data were directly obtained using breath-by-breath measurements of oxygen consumption. Treadmill testing in our subjects revealed an average estimated exercise capacity of 6.8 ± 1.4 METs. Aerobic requirements of table tennis averaged 3.2 ± 0.5 METs; however, there was considerable variation in the oxygen consumption response to play (2.0 to 5.0 METs). Peak HR and systolic blood pressure responses during table tennis were 98.0 ± 8.5 beats/min and 140.4 ± 16.2 mm Hg, respectively. The average HR during table tennis represented 83% of the highest HR attained during treadmill testing. Rating of perceived exertion during table tennis averaged 10.6 ± 1.7, signifying "fairly light" exertion. In conclusion, table tennis represents a relatively safe and potentially beneficial leisure-time activity for cardiac patients with impaired levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The average aerobic requirement of table tennis approximated prescribed exercise training workloads for most of our patients. PMID:25438911

  20. Cardiorespiratory responses to table tennis in low-fit coronary patients and implications for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Roger; deJong, Adam; Brinks, Jenna; Spring, Tom; Sternburgh, Lucille; Franklin, Barry A

    2014-12-15

    Racquet sports may evoke excessive aerobic and/or cardiac demands for many coronary patients with impaired cardiorespiratory fitness. We evaluated the cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic responses to table tennis in clinically stable patients with coronary disease. Low-risk cardiac men (n = 10, mean ± SD, age = 67.6 ± 8.8 years) satisfying inclusion criteria (functional capacity ≤8 metabolic equivalents [METs] without evidence of impaired left ventricular function, significant dysrhythmias, signs and/or symptoms of myocardial ischemia, or orthopedic limitations), completed the study. Patients were monitored for heart rate (HR), blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (6 to 20 scale), and electrocardiographic responses during a 10-minute bout of recreational table tennis. Metabolic data were directly obtained using breath-by-breath measurements of oxygen consumption. Treadmill testing in our subjects revealed an average estimated exercise capacity of 6.8 ± 1.4 METs. Aerobic requirements of table tennis averaged 3.2 ± 0.5 METs; however, there was considerable variation in the oxygen consumption response to play (2.0 to 5.0 METs). Peak HR and systolic blood pressure responses during table tennis were 98.0 ± 8.5 beats/min and 140.4 ± 16.2 mm Hg, respectively. The average HR during table tennis represented 83% of the highest HR attained during treadmill testing. Rating of perceived exertion during table tennis averaged 10.6 ± 1.7, signifying "fairly light" exertion. In conclusion, table tennis represents a relatively safe and potentially beneficial leisure-time activity for cardiac patients with impaired levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. The average aerobic requirement of table tennis approximated prescribed exercise training workloads for most of our patients.

  1. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic control, and fat distribution in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    PubMed

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Tarperi, Cantor; Baraldo, Anna; Faccioli, Niccolò; Milanese, Chiara; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Lanza, Massimo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonora, Enzo; Schena, Federico; Moghetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness typical of sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal and skeletal muscle fat content in 39 untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, 27 males and 12 females (mean ± SD age 56.5 ± 7.3 year, BMI 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were assessed by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate visceral, total subcutaneous (SAT), superficial (SSAT) and deep sub-depots of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as well as femoral quadriceps skeletal muscle fat content. In univariate analysis, both VO2peak and VO2VT were inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, SAT, SSAT, and sagittal abdominal diameter. VO2peak was also inversely associated with skeletal muscle fat content. A significant direct association was observed between VO2VT and insulin sensitivity. No associations between cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and metabolic profile data were found. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for age and gender, VO2peak was independently predicted by higher HDL cholesterol, and lower SAD and skeletal muscle fat content (R (2) = 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas VO2VT was predicted only by sagittal abdominal diameter (R (2) = 0.48, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, peak oxygen uptake is associated with sagittal abdominal diameter, skeletal muscle fat content, and HDL cholesterol levels. Future research should target these features in prospective intervention studies.

  2. Longitudinal Algorithms to Estimate Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Associations with Nonfatal Cardiovascular Disease and Disease-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Artero, Enrique G.; Jackson, Andrew S.; Sui, Xuemei; Lee, Duck-chul; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Lavie, Carl J.; Church, Timothy S.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To predict risk for non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) and disease-specific mortality using CRF algorithms that do not involve exercise testing. Background Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not routinely measured, as it requires trained personnel and specialized equipment. Methods Participants were 43,356 adults (21% women) from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study followed between 1974 and 2003. Estimated CRF was based on sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, resting heart rate, physical activity level and smoking status. Actual CRF was measured by a maximal treadmill test. Results During a median follow-up of 14.5 years, 1,934 deaths occurred, 627 due to CVD. In a sub-sample of 18,095 participants, 1,049 cases of non-fatal CVD events were ascertained. After adjusting for potential confounders, both measured CRF and estimated CRF were inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality, CVD mortality and non-fatal CVD incidence in men, and with all-cause mortality and non-fatal CVD in women. The risk reduction per 1-metabolic equivalent (MET) increase ranged approximately from 10 to 20 %. Measured CRF had a slightly better discriminative ability (c-statistic) than estimated CRF, and the net reclassification improvement (NRI) of measured CRF vs. estimated CRF was 12.3% in men (p<0.05) and 19.8% in women (p<0.001). Conclusions These algorithms utilize information routinely collected to obtain an estimate of CRF that provides a valid indication of health status. In addition to identifying people at risk, this method can provide more appropriate exercise recommendations that reflect initial CRF levels. PMID:24703924

  3. Association between neighborhood walkability, cardiorespiratory fitness and body-mass index.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Handy, Susan L; Yan, Yan; Blair, Steven N; Berrigan, David

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have found cross-sectional associations between characteristics of the neighborhood built environment and physical activity (PA) behavior. However, most are based on self-reported PA, which is known to result in overestimation of PA and differential misclassification by demographic and biological characteristics. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective marker of PA because it is primarily determined by PA. Furthermore, it is causally related to long-term health outcomes. Therefore, analyses of the association between CRF and built environment could strengthen arguments for the importance of built environment influences on health. We examined the association between neighborhood walkability and CRF and body-mass index (BMI). This cross-sectional analysis included 16,543 adults (5017 women, 11,526 men) aged 18-90 years with home addresses in Texas who had a comprehensive clinical examination between 1987 and 2005. Outcomes included CRF from total duration on a maximal exercise treadmill test and measured BMI. Three neighborhood walkability factors emerged from principal components analyses of block-group measures derived from the U.S. Census. In multilevel adjusted analyses, the neighborhood walkability factors were significantly associated with CRF and BMI among men and women in the expected direction. An interaction between one of the neighborhood factors and age was also observed. The interaction suggested that living in neighborhoods with older homes and with residents traveling shorter distances to work was more strongly positively associated with CRF among younger adults and more strongly negatively associated with BMI among older adults. In conclusion, neighborhood characteristics hypothesized to support more PA and less driving were associated with higher levels of CRF and lower BMI. Demonstration of an association between built environment characteristics and CRF is a significant advance over past studies based on self-reported PA

  4. Is Quality of Life Related to Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight and Obese Breast Cancer Survivors?

    PubMed

    Travier, Noemie; Guillamo, Elisabeth; Oviedo, Guillermo R; Valls, Joan; Buckland, Genevieve; Fonseca-Nunes, Ana; Alamo, Juan M; Arribas, Lorena; Moreno, Ferran; Sanz, Tania E; Borras, Josep M; Agudo, Antonio; Javierre, Casimiro

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed changes in quality of life (QoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) during a diet and physical activity (PA) intervention in breast cancer (BC) survivors and investigated the relation between these changes. The intervention of this single-arm pre-post study involved supervised, 1-hour weekly, diet sessions and 75-minute bi-weekly PA sessions of moderate-to-high intensity. This 12-week intervention targeted overweight/obese women who had recently completed BC treatment. Pre- and post-CRF and QoL measurements were compared using paired t-tests. Linear regression models, including baseline participants' characteristics and weight change, were used to assess the association between changes in CRF and QoL. The 37 BC survivors who completed the intervention between May 7, 2012 and July 27, 2012 showed significant increases in CRF and QoL. Peak oxygen uptake (mL/kg/min) increased from 19.0 ± 2.8 to 24.0 ± 4.1 while peak workload (watts/kg) increased from 1.3 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.3. Although statistical significance was not reached, the increase in workload seemed associated with increases in physical, mental, and general health and with a decrease in fatigue. This lifestyle intervention improved BC survivors' QoL and CRF and suggested possible relationships between CRF and QoL. More research needs to confirm these associations and promote lifestyle interventions aiming at improving BC survivors' QoL.

  5. Low cardiorespiratory fitness levels and elevated blood pressure: what is the contribution of visceral adiposity?

    PubMed

    Rhéaume, Caroline; Arsenault, Benoit J; Bélanger, Stéphane; Pérusse, Louis; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Individuals with poor cardiorespiratory fitness have higher blood pressure than fit individuals. Individuals with low fitness levels also tend to be characterized by higher visceral adiposity compared with physically fit individuals. We tested the hypothesis that the relationship between low fitness and elevated blood pressure could be related, at least in part, to the higher level of visceral adipose tissue often found among unfit individuals. This study included 407 asymptomatic, nondiabetic participants. Visceral adipose tissue was assessed by computed tomography, and fitness was measured by a progressive submaximal physical working capacity test. Participants in the highest visceral adipose tissue tertile showed the highest systolic and diastolic blood pressures, whereas participants in the highest fitness tertile had the lowest blood pressure values (P<0.001). When participants were classified into fitness tertiles and then subdivided on the basis of visceral adipose tissue (high versus low), participants with a high visceral adipose tissue had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure values (P=0.01), independent of their fitness category. Linear regression analyses showed that age and visceral adipose tissue, but not fitness, predicted systolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.11 [P<0.001], 0.12 [P<0.001], and 0.01 [P value nonsignificant], for age, visceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively) and diastolic blood pressure (r(2)=0.17 [P<0.001], 0.14 [P<0.001], and 0.01 [P value nonsignificant], for age, visceral adipose tissue, and fitness, respectively). Individuals with high visceral adipose tissue levels have higher blood pressure, independent of their fitness. Visceral adipose tissue may represent an important clinical target in the management of elevated blood pressure. PMID:19470873

  6. Improved Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Aerobic Exercise Training in Individuals with Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Lisa M. K.; Chan, Leighton; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G.; Christensen, Eric J.; Shenouda, Christian N.; Keyser, Randall E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine cardiorespiratory fitness in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), prior to and following participation in a supervised 12-week aerobic exercise training program. Methods Ten subjects with non-penetrating TBI (TBI severity: Mild, 50%; Moderate, 40%; Severe, 10%; Time since injury: 6.6 ± 6.8 years, mean ± SD) performed exercise training on a treadmill 3 times a week for 30 minutes at vigorous intensity (70 – 80 % of heart rate reserve). All subjects completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test with gas exchange measured and a questionnaire related to fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale; FSS) at baseline and following exercise training. Results After training, increases (p<0.01) in peak oxygen consumption (VO2; +3.1 ± 2.4 ml/min/kg), time to volitional fatigue (+1.4 ± 0.8 min), and peak work rate (WR; +59 ± 43 watts) were observed. At the anaerobic threshold, VO2 (+3.6 ± 2.1 ml/kg/min), treadmill time (+1.8 ± 1.1 min) and WR (+37 ± 39 watts) were higher (p<0.01) following exercise training. Subjects also reported significantly lower (p<0.05) FSS composite scores (−0.9 ± 1.3) following exercise training. Conclusion These findings suggest that individuals with TBI may benefit from participation in vigorous aerobic exercise training with improved cardiorespiratory fitness and diminished fatigue. PMID:24901330

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function and C-reactive protein levels in nonsmoking individuals with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, C.O.; Catai, A.M.; Moura-Tonello, S.C.G.; Lopes, S.L.B.; Benze, B.G.; Del Vale, A.M.; Leal, A.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness and pulmonary function and the relationship with metabolic variables and C-reactive protein (CRP) plasma levels in individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). Nineteen men with diabetes and 19 age- and gender-matched control subjects were studied. All individuals were given incremental cardiopulmonary exercise and pulmonary function tests. In the exercise test, maximal workload (158.3±22.3 vs 135.1±25.2, P=0.005), peak heart rate (HRpeak: 149±12 vs 139±10, P=0.009), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak: 24.2±3.2 vs 18.9±2.8, P<0.001), and anaerobic threshold (VO2VT: 14.1±3.4 vs 12.2±2.2, P=0.04) were significantly lower in individuals with diabetes than in control subjects. Pulmonary function test parameters, blood pressure, lipid profile (triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol), and CRP plasma levels were not different in control subjects and individuals with DM. No correlations were observed between hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c), CRP and pulmonary function test and cardiopulmonary exercise test performance. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that nonsmoking individuals with DM have decreased cardiorespiratory fitness that is not correlated with resting pulmonary function parameters, HbA1c, and CRP plasma levels. PMID:24760118

  8. Influence of diet and/or exercise on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese women.

    PubMed

    Utter, A C; Nieman, D C; Shannonhouse, E M; Butterworth, D E; Nieman, C N

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the influence of diet, exercise, or both on body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese women. Ninety-one obese subjects were randomized into one of four groups: diet (D) (4.19-5.44 MJ or 1,200-1,300 kcal/day), exercise (E) (five 45-min sessions at 78.5+/-0.5% maximum heart rate), exercise and diet (ED), and controls (C). Maximal aerobic power and body composition were measured in all subjects before and after a 12-week diet intervention period. Subjects in D and ED lost 7.8+/-0.7 and 8.1+/-0.6 kg body mass, with no significant change for E relative to C. Losses of percent body fat and fat mass were significantly greater in D and ED but not in E relative to C. The change in VO2max was greater in ED and E but not D when compared to C. Results indicate that moderate aerobic exercise training during a 12-week period has no discernible effects on body composition but does improve cardiorespiratory fitness in dieting obese women.

  9. Improved cerebral oxygenation response and executive performance as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women: a fNIRS study.

    PubMed

    Albinet, Cédric T; Mandrick, Kevin; Bernard, Pierre Louis; Perrey, Stéphane; Blain, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to protect and enhance cognitive and brain functions, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in older adults. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate variations in oxyhemoglobin [HbO2] and in deoxyhemoglobin [HHb] in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the performance of an executive control task in older women with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max). Thirty-four women aged 60-77 years were classified as high-fit and low-fit based on VO2max measures. They all performed a control counting (CNT) task and the Random Number Generation (RNG) task at two different paces (1 number/1 s and 1 number/1.5 s), allowing to manipulate task difficulty, while hemodynamic responses in the bilateral DLPFCs were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS. The behavioral data revealed that the high-fit women showed significantly better performance on the RNG tasks compared with the low-fit women. The high-fit women showed significant increases in [HbO2] responses in both left and right DLPFCs during the RNG task, while the low-fit women showed significantly less activation in the right DLPFC compared with the right DLPFC of the high-fit women and compared with their own left DLPFC. At the level of the whole sample, increases in the [HbO2] responses in the right DLPFC were found to mediate in part the relationship between VO2max level and executive performance during the RNG task at 1.5 s but not at 1 s. These results provide support for the cardiorespiratory fitness hypothesis and suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness in older women are related to increased cerebral oxygen supply to the DLPFC, sustaining better cognitive performance. PMID:25339900

  10. Improved cerebral oxygenation response and executive performance as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women: a fNIRS study

    PubMed Central

    Albinet, Cédric T.; Mandrick, Kevin; Bernard, Pierre Louis; Perrey, Stéphane; Blain, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to protect and enhance cognitive and brain functions, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in older adults. In this study, functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to investigate variations in oxyhemoglobin [HbO2] and in deoxyhemoglobin [HHb] in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the performance of an executive control task in older women with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max). Thirty-four women aged 60–77 years were classified as high-fit and low-fit based on VO2max measures. They all performed a control counting (CNT) task and the Random Number Generation (RNG) task at two different paces (1 number/1 s and 1 number/1.5 s), allowing to manipulate task difficulty, while hemodynamic responses in the bilateral DLPFCs were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS. The behavioral data revealed that the high-fit women showed significantly better performance on the RNG tasks compared with the low-fit women. The high-fit women showed significant increases in [HbO2] responses in both left and right DLPFCs during the RNG task, while the low-fit women showed significantly less activation in the right DLPFC compared with the right DLPFC of the high-fit women and compared with their own left DLPFC. At the level of the whole sample, increases in the [HbO2] responses in the right DLPFC were found to mediate in part the relationship between VO2max level and executive performance during the RNG task at 1.5 s but not at 1 s. These results provide support for the cardiorespiratory fitness hypothesis and suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness in older women are related to increased cerebral oxygen supply to the DLPFC, sustaining better cognitive performance. PMID:25339900

  11. Associations between sleep quality with cardiorespiratory fitness and BMI among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Vale, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the association between sleeping quality with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and obesity status (BMI) This was a cross-sectional study of 1,726 adolescent girls, aged 10 to 18 years. CRF was predicted by maximal multistage 20 m shuttle-run test according to procedures described from FITNESSGRAM. Children's BMI was classified according to International Obesity Task Force and sleeping quality was assessed by questionnaire. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 21.2% and 5.7%, respectively. Sleeping quality was significantly associated with CRF (Rho = 0.17; P < 0.05), but not with BMI. Girls who were classified as fit were more likely (OR: 2.25; P < 0.05) to report better sleep quality compared to their unfit peers. Poor sleep quality was associated with lower CRF although no associations have been shown with BMI.

  12. The effects of a peer modeling intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and self-efficacy in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Stefanie; Prapavessis, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Inconsistencies exist in the assessment and interpretation of peak VO2 in the pediatric obese population, as cardiorespiratory fitness assessments are effort-dependent and psychological variables prevalent in this population must be addressed. This study examined the effect of a peer modeling intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness performance and task self-efficacy in obese youth completing a maximal treadmill test. Forty-nine obese (BMI ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex) youth were randomized to an experimental (received an intervention) or to a control group. The outcome variables were mean and variability cardiorespiratory fitness (peak VO2, heart rate, duration, respiratory exchange ratio), rating of perceived exertion, and task self-efficacy scores. Irrespective of whether a mean or variability score was used, receiving the intervention was associated with non-significant trends in fitness parameters and task self-efficacy over time, favoring the experimental group. Cardiorespiratory fitness and task self-efficacy were moderately correlated at both time points. To elucidate the aforementioned findings, psychosocial factors affecting obese youth and opportunities to modify the peer modeling intervention should be considered. Addressing these factors has the potential to improve standard of care in a clinical setting regarding pretest patient education.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult women: relationships with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Amy C; Alvarez, Jessica A; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that circulating 25(OH)D may favorably influence cardiorespiratory fitness and fat oxidation. However, these relationships have not been examined in older adult women of different ethnic groups. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is related to cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in sedentary women ages ≥60 years and to determine whether these associations differ between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). A secondary aim was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is correlated with respiratory quotient (RQ) during submaximal exercise. This cross-sectional analysis included 67 AA and EA women ages 60-74 years. VO2max was measured by a modified Bruce graded treadmill protocol, and measurements were adjusted for percent fat and lean body mass assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure RQ at rest and during four submaximal exercise tests. Fasting blood samples were obtained to quantify serum 25(OH)D. Serum 25(OH)D was associated with VO2max (ml/kg LBM/min) independent of percent body fat (r = 0.316, p = 0.010). However, subgroup analysis revealed that this relationship was specific to AA (r = 0.727, p = 0.005 for AA; r = 0.064, p = 0.643 for EA). In all subjects combined, 25(OH)D was inversely correlated (p < 0.01) with all measures of submaximal RQ. Higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with greater cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult AA women. Among both AA and EA, inverse associations between serum 25(OH)D and RQ suggest that women with higher levels of circulating vitamin D also demonstrated greater fat oxidation during submaximal exercise.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult women: relationships with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Jessica A.; Gower, Barbara A.; Hunter, Gary R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that circulating 25(OH)D may favorably influence cardiorespiratory fitness and fat oxidation. However, these relationships have not been examined in older adult women of different ethnic groups. The objectives of this study were to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is related to cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in sedentary women ages ≥60 years and to determine whether these associations differ between African Americans (AA) and European Americans (EA). A secondary aim was to determine whether serum 25(OH)D is correlated with respiratory quotient (RQ) during submaximal exercise. This cross-sectional analysis included 67 AA and EA women ages 60–74 years. VO2max was measured by a modified Bruce graded treadmill protocol, and measurements were adjusted for percent fat and lean body mass assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Indirect calorimetry was used to measure RQ at rest and during four submaximal exercise tests. Fasting blood samples were obtained to quantify serum 25(OH)D. Serum 25(OH)D was associated with VO2max (ml/kg LBM/min) independent of percent body fat (r = 0.316, p = 0.010). However, subgroup analysis revealed that this relationship was specific to AA (r = 0.727, p = 0.005 for AA; r = 0.064, p = 0.643 for EA). In all subjects combined, 25(OH)D was inversely correlated (p < 0.01) with all measures of submaximal RQ. Higher serum 25(OH)D was associated with greater cardiorespiratory fitness in older adult AA women. Among both AA and EA, inverse associations between serum 25(OH)D and RQ suggest that women with higher levels of circulating vitamin D also demonstrated greater fat oxidation during submaximal exercise. PMID:24563162

  15. Reliability of Two Field-Based Tests for Measuring Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Ayán, Carlos; Cancela, José M; Romero, Sonia; Alonso, Susana

    2015-10-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the reliability of 2 field-based cardiorespiratory fitness tests when applied to a sample specifically made up of preschool-aged children. A total of 97 preschoolers (mean age: 4.36 ± 0.4 years; 50.5% girls) performed Course-Navette and Mini-Cooper tests 3 times (familiarization test and retest). The scores obtained were compared with the results provided by the 3-minute shuttle run test, which is considered to be a reliable field-based test for preschoolers. The Mini-Cooper test showed a high reliability for children aged 4 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.942; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.903-0.965) and 5 years old (ICC: 0.946; 95% CI: 0.893-0.973). The reliability of Course-Navette was also high for both 4-year-old (ICC: 0.909; 95% CI: 0.849-0.945) and 5-year-old children (ICC: 0.889; 95% CI: 0.780-0.944). The mean scores of the 3-minute shuttle run test did not show a significant correlation with the mean scores obtained in the Mini-Cooper test and in the Course-Navette test in the 4-year-old children. The results of this study suggest that Course-Navette and Mini-Cooper tests are reliable measures of cardiorespiratory fitness that can be used to assess health-related fitness in preschool children. Nevertheless, some considerations must be taken into account before administering them. PMID:26402475

  16. Relationship of single measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and obesity in young schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jorge; Flores, Luana; Flores, Luís; Ribeiro, José C; Santos, Maria P

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among weight groups, and the associations of CRF with obesity (body mass index) in a sample of young children. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, and two skinfolds) were collected for 255 healthy children aged 8-10 years (127 boys and 128 girls). Children were placed in three groups (nonobese, overweight, and obese), using body mass index (BMI) sex- and age-specific cutoff points. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a 1-mile run test. Participants were separated into two groups: fit and unfit, according to age- and sex-specific scores defined by FITNESSGRAM. The prevalence of overweight (30.5% vs. 29.1%) and obesity (13.2% vs. 12.6%) was at the same magnitude for boys and girls. Overall, 109 children (42.7%) were overweight and obese. Sums of skinfolds, weight, and BMI were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in lean boys and girls compared to their overweight and obese counterparts. Regarding height, no significant differences were found in girls, while in boys, significant differences were only found between nonobese and obese. No differences were found in obesity groups according to CRF in boys, while significant differences were found for girls (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that girls who were overweight (odds ratio = 0.05, P = 0.000) or obese (odds ratio = 0.09, P = 0.001) were likely to be unfit. No significant results were found in boys. Overweight and obese children presented higher sums of skinfolds and weight compared with their lean counterparts. Increased BMI was significantly associated with lower CRF in girls. Thus, our data clearly showed potential gender differences of body composition in CRF, which would be of great clinical significance. Therefore, even at young ages, at least for girls, the beneficial impact of low BMI values on CRF is shown with important clinical and public health implications.

  17. Cardiorespiratory fitness and hip bone mineral density in women: a 6-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Larry A; Nokes, Neil R; Bailey, Bruce W; Lecheminant, James D

    2014-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies and short term interventions focusing on fitness and bone mineral density (BMD) are common. However, few investigations have studied the effect of fitness on BMD over an extended period of time. The present study was conducted to determine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness influences risk of BMD loss at the hip over 6 yr. A prospective cohort design was used with 245 healthy, middle-aged women. Hip BMD was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Calcium and vitamin D were measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Menopause status was measured by a questionnaire. Results showed that fit and unfit women experienced similar changes in hip BMD over time. Specifically, unfit women experienced a non-significant 7% increased risk of losing hip BMD compared to their counterparts (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.73). Adjusting statistically for differences in age, initial body weight, and hip BMD, weight change, menopause status, calcium and vitamin D intake, and time between assessments had little effect on the relationship. Fitness level did not influence risk of hip BMD loss over time.

  18. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are associated with greater hippocampal volume in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Mackenzie, Michael J.; Zuniga, Krystle; Cooke, Gillian E.; Awick, Elizabeth; Roberts, Sarah; Erickson, Kirk I.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    As breast cancer treatment is associated with declines in brain and cognitive health, it is important to identify strategies to enhance the cognitive vitality of cancer survivors. In particular, the hippocampus is known to play an important role in brain and memory declines following cancer treatment. The hippocampus is also known for its plasticity and positive association with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The present study explores whether CRF may hold promise for lessening declines in brain and cognitive health of a sample of breast cancer survivors within 3 years of completion of primary cancer treatment. We explored the role of cardiovascular fitness in hippocampal structure in breast cancer survivors and non-cancer female controls, as well as performed a median split to compare differences in hippocampal volume in relatively higher fit and lower fit cancer survivors and non-cancer controls. Indeed, CRF and total hippocampal volume were positively correlated in the cancer survivors. In particular, higher fit breast cancer survivors had comparable hippocampal volumes to non-cancer control participants (Cohen’s d = 0.13; p > 0.3), whereas lower fit breast cancer survivors showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes compared to both lower fit and higher fit control participants (Cohen’s d = 0.87, p < 0.05). These results are the first to identify that CRF may protect the brain health of breast cancer survivors within 3 years of treatment. The present study uniquely contributes to the field of cancer and cognition and emphasizes the importance of investigating how individual differences in CRF play a role in brain changes of breast cancer survivors. PMID:26379528

  19. Evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness and respiratory muscle function in the obese population.

    PubMed

    Arena, Ross; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is one of the most important health metrics in apparently healthy individuals, those at increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and virtually all patient populations. In addition to CRF, a host of other variables obtained from aerobic exercise testing provides clinically valuable information. Individuals classified as obese (i.e. a body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2)) have varying degrees of CV, pulmonary and skeletal muscle dysfunction that impact CRF and other key aerobic exercise testing variables. Moreover, there is now evidence indicating inspiratory and expiratory respiratory muscle function, even in the absence of interstitial lung disease, is potentially compromised as a result of obesity. When obesity-induced respiratory muscle dysfunction is present, it has the potential to contribute to the limitations in CRF. The current review will discuss aerobic exercise testing and the assessment of respiratory muscle function in the obese population.

  20. Personalized Home-based Interval Exercise Training May Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Cancer Patients Preparing to Undergo Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, William A; Phillips, Brett; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Wilson, Doug; Deal, Allison M; Bailey, Charlotte; Meeneghan, Mathew; Reeve, Bryce B; Basch, Ethan M; Bennett, Antonia V; Shea, Thomas C; Battaglini, Claudio L

    2016-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with inferior survival in patients preparing to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Exercise training based on short, higher-intensity intervals has the potential to efficiently improve cardiorespiratory fitness. We studied home-based interval exercise training (IET) in 40 patients prior to autologous (N=20) or allogeneic (N=20) HCT. Each session consisted of 5, three-minute intervals of walking, jogging, or cycling at 65-95% maximal heart rate (MHR) with 3 minutes of low intensity exercise (<65% MHR) between intervals. Participants were asked to perform sessions at least 3 times weekly. The duration of the intervention was at least 6 weeks, depending on each patient’s scheduled transplantation date. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from a peak oxygen consumption test (VO2peak) and a 6 minute walk (6MWD) before and after the intervention period. For the autologous HCT cohort, improvements in VO2peak (p=0.12) and 6MWD (p=0.19) were not statistically significant. For the allogeneic cohort, the median VO2peak improvement was 3.7ml/kg*min (p=0.005) and the median 6MWD improvement was 34 meters (p=0.006). Home-based, interval exercise training can be performed prior to HCT and has the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26999467

  1. Personalized home-based interval exercise training may improve cardiorespiratory fitness in cancer patients preparing to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wood, W A; Phillips, B; Smith-Ryan, A E; Wilson, D; Deal, A M; Bailey, C; Meeneghan, M; Reeve, B B; Basch, E M; Bennett, A V; Shea, T C; Battaglini, C L

    2016-07-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with inferior survival in patients preparing to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Exercise training based on short, higher intensity intervals has the potential to efficiently improve cardiorespiratory fitness. We studied home-based interval exercise training (IET) in 40 patients before autologous (N=20) or allogeneic (N=20) HCT. Each session consisted of five, 3 min intervals of walking, jogging or cycling at 65-95% maximal heart rate (MHR) with 3 min of low-intensity exercise (<65% MHR) between intervals. Participants were asked to perform sessions at least three times weekly. The duration of the intervention was at least 6 weeks, depending on each patient's scheduled transplantation date. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed from a peak oxygen consumption test (VO2peak) and a 6 min walk (6MWD) before and after the intervention period. For the autologous HCT cohort, improvements in VO2peak (P=0.12) and 6MWD (P=0.19) were not statistically significant. For the allogeneic cohort, the median VO2peak improvement was 3.7 ml/kg min (P=0.005) and the median 6MWD improvement was 34 m (P=0.006). Home-based IET can be performed before HCT and has the potential to improve cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26999467

  2. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on PPARG mRNA expression using monozygotic twin case control.

    PubMed

    Queiroga, Marcos Roberto; Barbieri, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Sandra Aires; Luchessi, André Ducati; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) on anthropometric variables and PPARG mRNA expression was investigated. Monozygotic twin pairs aged 11-18 years were grouped into discordant (D) and concordant (C) high and low VO2max groups. VO2max was determined by progressive maximal exercise test on treadmill with gas exchange analysis. Body mass (BM), BMI, waist circumference (WC), triceps (TR), and subscapular (SB) skinfold thicknesses were measured. Twins from the discordant group had differences in VO2max values (D-high = 45.9 ± 10.0 versus D-low = 32.4 ± 10.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.025), while no differences were found in the concordant group (C-high = 42.4 ± 9.2 versus C-low = 38.8 ± 9.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.952). In discordant group, VO2max was negatively correlated with TR + SB (r = -0.540, P = 0.021) and positively correlated with PPARG expression in leukocytes (r = 0.952, P = 0.001). Moreover, PPARG expression was directly correlated with BM (r = 0.714, P = 0.047) and height (r = 0.762, P = 0.028). In concordant twins, VO2max was inversely correlated with BM (r = -0.290, P = 0.027), BMI (r = -0.472, P = 0.001), WC (r = -0.426, P = 0.001), and TR + SB (r = -0.739, P = 0.001). Twins D-high had 1.78-fold greater PPARG expression when compared with twins D-low (P = 0.048). In conclusion, the cardiorespiratory fitness may modulate PPARG expression in childhood and adolescence, independently of the genetic background. PMID:25879043

  3. Validation of 2 Submaximal Cardiorespiratory Fitness Tests in Patients With Breast Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, Daniele; Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Rundqvist, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with breast cancer have an impaired cardiorespiratory fitness, in part, due to the toxic effects of anticancer therapy. Physical exercise as a means of rehabilitation for patients with cancer is an emerging area of research and treatment, emphasizing the need for accurate and feasible physical capacity measurements. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of peak oxygen consumption (o2peak) predicted by the Ekblom-Bak test (E-B) and the Åstrand-Rhyming prediction model (A-R). Methods: Eight patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy participated in the study. Submaximal exercise tests were performed at 2 different submaximal workloads. Estimated o2peak values were obtained by inserting the heart rate (HR) from the 2 workloads into the E-B prediction model and the HR of only the higher workload into the Åstrand nomogram. A 20-W incremental cycle test-to-peak effort was performed to obtain o2peak values. Results: Results from A-R overestimated o2peak by 6% (coefficient of variation = 7%), whereas results from E-B overestimated o2peak with 42% (coefficient of variation = 21%) compared with measured o2peak. Pearson's correlation coefficient revealed a significant strong relationship between the estimated o2peak from A-R and the measured o2peak (r = 0.86; P < .05), whereas the relationship between the estimated o2peak from E-B and the measured o2peak resulted in a nonsignificant weak correlation (r = 0.21). Conclusion: In a situation where maximal exercise testing is not practical or undesirable from a patient safety perspective, submaximal exercise testing provides an alternative way of estimating o2peak. The A-R prediction model appears to be a valid submaximal exercise test for determining cardiorespiratory fitness in this population.

  4. Influence of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on PPARG mRNA Expression Using Monozygotic Twin Case Control

    PubMed Central

    Queiroga, Marcos Roberto; Barbieri, Ricardo Augusto; Ferreira, Sandra Aires; Luchessi, André Ducati; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Kokubun, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) on anthropometric variables and PPARG mRNA expression was investigated. Monozygotic twin pairs aged 11–18 years were grouped into discordant (D) and concordant (C) high and low VO2max groups. VO2max was determined by progressive maximal exercise test on treadmill with gas exchange analysis. Body mass (BM), BMI, waist circumference (WC), triceps (TR), and subscapular (SB) skinfold thicknesses were measured. Twins from the discordant group had differences in VO2max values (D-high = 45.9 ± 10.0 versus D-low = 32.4 ± 10.6 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.025), while no differences were found in the concordant group (C-high = 42.4 ± 9.2 versus C-low = 38.8 ± 9.8 mL·kg−1·min−1, P = 0.952). In discordant group, VO2max was negatively correlated with TR + SB (r = −0.540, P = 0.021) and positively correlated with PPARG expression in leukocytes (r = 0.952, P = 0.001). Moreover, PPARG expression was directly correlated with BM (r = 0.714, P = 0.047) and height (r = 0.762, P = 0.028). In concordant twins, VO2max was inversely correlated with BM (r = −0.290, P = 0.027), BMI (r = −0.472, P = 0.001), WC (r = −0.426, P = 0.001), and TR + SB (r = −0.739, P = 0.001). Twins D-high had 1.78-fold greater PPARG expression when compared with twins D-low (P = 0.048). In conclusion, the cardiorespiratory fitness may modulate PPARG expression in childhood and adolescence, independently of the genetic background. PMID:25879043

  5. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6-months to 1-year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  6. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume.

  7. Noncontact monitoring of cardiorespiratory activity by electromagnetic coupling.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Daniel; Foussier, Jérôme; Jia, Jing; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, the method of noncontact monitoring of cardiorespiratory activity by electromagnetic coupling with human tissue is investigated. Two measurement modalities were joined: an inductive coupling sensor based on magnetic eddy current induction and a capacitive coupling sensor based on displacement current induction. The system's sensitivity to electric tissue properties and its dependence on motion are analyzed theoretically as well as experimentally for the inductive and capacitive coupling path. The potential of both coupling methods to assess respiration and pulse without contact and a minimum of thoracic wall motion was verified by laboratory experiments. The demonstrator was embedded in a chair to enable recording from the back part of the thorax.

  8. Criterion-Related Validity of the 20-M Shuttle Run Test for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Aguilar-Soto, Pablo; Viciana, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. Relevant studies were searched from twelve electronic databases up to December 2014, as well as from several alternative modes of searching. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test. From 57 studies that were included in the present meta-analysis, a total of 78 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test had a moderate-to-high criterion-related validity for estimating maximum oxygen uptake (rp = 0.66-0.84), being higher when other variables (e.g. sex, age or body mass) were used (rp = 0.78-0.95). The present meta-analysis also showed that the criterion-related validity of Léger’s protocol was statistically higher for adults (rp = 0.94, 0.87-1.00) than for children (rp = 0.78, 0.72-0.85). However, sex and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity values. When an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory-based test is not feasible, the 20-m shuttle run test seems to be a useful alternative for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. In adults the performance score only seems to be a strong estimator of cardiorespiratory fitness, in contrast among children the performance score should be combined with other variables. Nevertheless, as in the application of any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the 20-m shuttle run test is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. Key points Overall the 20-m shuttle run test has a moderate-to-high mean criterion-related validity for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. The criterion-related validity of the 20-m shuttle run test is significantly

  9. Non-esterified fatty acid levels and physical inactivity: the relative importance of low habitual energy expenditure and cardio-respiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Franks, Paul W; Wong, Man-Yu; Luan, Jian'an; Mitchell, Jo; Hennings, Susie; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2002-09-01

    The fasting concentration of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and the degree to which it declines during an oral glucose tolerance test are closely associated with insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. However, relatively few studies have described possible environmental determinants of NEFA concentrations. Physical activity is likely to be related to NEFA levels, but habitual activity level is difficult to quantify in epidemiological studies. In particular, it is unclear whether NEFA is more closely related to cardio-respiratory fitness or to habitual energy expenditure. In order to quantify these relationships, we analysed data from the Ely prospective population-based study in which 931 subjects underwent a glucose tolerance test with measurements of cardio-respiratory fitness and 4 d energy expenditure by heart-rate monitoring, a technique previously validated against whole-body calorimetry and doubly-labelled water. In order to estimate the latent variables of usual fitness and energy expenditure, a subset of 190 subjects underwent repeat testing on three further occasions over 1 year. In analyses adjusting only for age and sex, energy expenditure and cardio-respiratory fitness were both negatively correlated with the total area under the NEFA curve following the oral glucose load (standardised beta coefficients -0.030 and -0.039 respectively; both P<0.001) However, further adjustment for degree of obesity and bivariate measurement error suggested that the effect of energy expenditure was significantly greater than that for fitness (-0.047 and -0.005 respectively). These results suggest that the area under the NEFA curve in the oral glucose tolerance test, a measure of insulin sensitivity, is strongly associated with the habitual level of physical activity.

  10. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    PubMed Central

    Roxburgh, Brendon H.; Nolan, Paul B.; Weatherwax, Ryan M.; Dalleck, Lance C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs) at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery), CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R)) and a sedentary control group (n = 7). Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control) in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control) in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1), whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1). It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart. Key Points Both continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET) alone and CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (CMIET + HIIT) elicit ‘possibly beneficial’ clinically meaningful improvements in cardiorespiratory

  11. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Composition of Soccer Referees; Do These Correlate With Proper Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri, Reza; Halabchi, Farzin; Seif Barghi, Tohid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The elite-level referee is exposed to similar physical demands to those placed on a midfield soccer player. They have an important responsibility to implement the rules of the game. So, good health and performance of soccer referees have a great importance. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition of all 78 soccer referees officiating at the Iranian Premier League and determine the correlation between these parameters and performance. Patients and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, all referees selected for the competitions were enrolled. Participants underwent exercise stress test, pulmonary function test and body composition assessment. Then the weekly scores of each referee, assessed by qualified supervisors of national federation were obtained using the FIFA standard form throughout the season (34 weeks) and registered. Results: Among 78 participants (including 32 center and 46 side referees), mean and standard deviation of age, body mass index, percent of body fat, VO2max and performance scores were 37 ± 3.8, 23.6 ± 2.1, 20.7 ± 3.9, 59.9 ± 7.1 and 85.8 ± 0.25, respectively. No significant correlation between referees’ mean score and selected parameters were found. Conclusions: It seems that the acquired scores of top-class referees may be influenced by multiple factors other than the laboratory findings of cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition. PMID:27231524

  12. A comparison of field methods to assess cardiorespiratory fitness among neophyte exercisers.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Marbach, Kate; Vincent, Linda

    2006-07-01

    There is evidence to suggest that aerobic fitness levels among adults have declined markedly over the past 2 to 3 decades. Submaximal field measures of aerobic fitness, such as step tests, may now be seen as aversive by contemporary neophyte exercisers. In this study, a single-factor within-subjects (repeated measures) factorial design was used to compare three field measures of cardiorespiratory fitness among sedentary women: (a) the Queen's College step test (QCST), (b) the Rockport 1-mile walk (RW), and (c) a nonexercise estimation of VO(2) max (NE). The sample consisted of 31 racially and ethnically diverse female college students (mean age of 24.8 years). No significant within-subjects differences were found in the three measures of V0(2) max (F = 1.89, p = .17) among Black, Hispanic, White non-Hispanic, or Asian women, but relative perceived exertion scores were significantly higher for the QCST than for the RW (t = 9.79, p < .001) for all groups. The mean calculated VO(2) max for the QCST was 35.90 ml/kg/min for the subset of women ages 18 to 25 and 31.85 for those ages 26 to 46. These values represent a "poor" to "below average" score for aerobic capacity among women in both age groups. Data from this preliminary study suggest that both the RW test and the NE test are comparable to the QCST as valid and reliable field measures of aerobic fitness and appear to be good alternatives to step testing among sedentary individuals.

  13. Competing impact of excess weight versus cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Vanessa A; Player, Marty S; Mainous, Arch G; Carek, Peter J; Geesey, Mark E

    2006-12-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, whereas high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is cardioprotective. This study evaluated the competing effect of weight and fitness on biomarkers of cardiovascular risk in a nationally representative sample of 2,112 adults (20 to 49 years of age; body mass index [BMI] > or =18.5 kg/m(2)) without previously diagnosed cardiovascular disease from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2002. CRF levels were assigned using age- and gender-specific reference points of estimated maximal oxygen consumption calculated from submaximal graded exercise treadmill testing. CRF was also categorized by sample-specific tertiles of maximal oxygen consumption. Weight was categorized using BMI. Fasting insulin level >12.2 mU/L, C-reactive protein level > or =3.0 mg/L, and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio (TC/HDL) >5 characterized increased cardiovascular risk. CRF and BMI were independently associated with increased fasting insulin and C-reactive protein (p <0.05). When patients with low, moderate, and high CRF were further stratified as normal, overweight, or obese, weight remained significantly associated with increased fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, and TC/HDL (p <0.001), but CRF did not. Logistic regressions evaluating increased fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, and TC/HDL demonstrated no significant differences in overweight/obese patients by CRF level after adjustment for other factors. Significant differences were present between normal-weight and overweight or obese patients regardless of fitness level. Analyses using tertiles of CRF yielded similar results. In conclusion, patients who are "fat but fit" require weight-loss interventions to improve their cardiovascular risk profiles. Future interventions should emphasize weight control, even for those with high CRF.

  14. The influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on strategic, behavioral, and electrophysiological indices of arithmetic cognition in preadolescent children

    PubMed Central

    Moore, R. Davis; Drollette, Eric S.; Scudder, Mark R.; Bharij, Aashiv; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness on arithmetic cognition in forty 9–10 year old children. Measures included a standardized mathematics achievement test to assess conceptual and computational knowledge, self-reported strategy selection, and an experimental arithmetic verification task (including small and large addition problems), which afforded the measurement of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). No differences in math achievement were observed as a function of fitness level, but all children performed better on math concepts relative to math computation. Higher fit children reported using retrieval more often to solve large arithmetic problems, relative to lower fit children. During the arithmetic verification task, higher fit children exhibited superior performance for large problems, as evidenced by greater d' scores, while all children exhibited decreased accuracy and longer reaction time for large relative to small problems, and incorrect relative to correct solutions. On the electrophysiological level, modulations of early (P1, N170) and late ERP components (P3, N400) were observed as a function of problem size and solution correctness. Higher fit children exhibited selective modulations for N170, P3, and N400 amplitude relative to lower fit children, suggesting that fitness influences symbolic encoding, attentional resource allocation and semantic processing during arithmetic tasks. The current study contributes to the fitness-cognition literature by demonstrating that the benefits of cardiorespiratory fitness extend to arithmetic cognition, which has important implications for the educational environment and the context of learning. PMID:24829556

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness, different measures of adiposity, and total cancer mortality in women.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Stephen W; Finley, Carrie E; McAuley, Paul A; Frierson, Georita M

    2011-11-01

    The objective was to examine associations among cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), adiposity, and cancer mortality in women. Healthy women (N = 14,256) without cancer history completed a baseline health examination 1970-2005. Measures included BMI, percent body fat (%Fat), and CRF quantified as duration of a maximal treadmill test. CRF was classified as low (quintile 1), moderate (Q2-3), and high fit (Q4-5) by age. Standard BMI cutpoints were used, while participants were classified by %Fat quintiles. Cancer mortality rates were calculated following age, exam year, and smoking adjustment. During a mean follow-up period of 15.2 ± 9.4 years, 250 cancer deaths occurred. Adjusted mortality rates across BMI groups were 4.6, 5.7, and 8.8 (P trend 0.08); %Fat 3.0, 4.9, 2.9, 3.8, and 6.9 (P trend 0.17); and CRF 7.9, 5.5, and 2.9 (P trend 0.003). When grouped into categories of fit and unfit (upper 80% and lower 20% of CRF distribution), and using BMI as the adiposity exposure, cancer mortality rates of unfit-obese women were significantly higher than fit-normal weight women (9.8 vs. 4.1 deaths/10,000 woman-years; P = 0.02), while fit-overweight and fit-obese women had no greater risk of mortality than fit-normal weight women. Using %Fat as the adiposity exposure, unfit-obese women tended to have higher cancer mortality than fit-normal weight women (7.0 vs. 3.3 deaths/10,000 woman-years, P = 0.10). Higher levels of CRF are associated with lower cancer mortality risk in women and attenuate the risk of cancer mortality in overweight women. Using adiposity measures to estimate cancer mortality risk in women can be potentially misleading unless CRF is considered.

  16. Impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on the obesity paradox in patients with systolic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Clark, Adrienne L; Fonarow, Gregg C; Horwich, Tamara B

    2015-01-15

    Although high body mass index (BMI) is associated with improved outcomes in established heart failure (HF), the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness on this obesity paradox is less clear. We studied 1,675 patients with systolic HF who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing at a single university center (77.4% men, mean age 52.2 ± 11.6 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 23.2 ± 7.1% and New York Heart Association class III or IV in 79.1%). We evaluated 2-year survival in patients stratified by both BMI (normal 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)[reference], overweight 25 to 29.9 kg/m(2), obese ≥30.0 kg/m(2)) and by peak oxygen uptake (PKVO2; high >14 ml/kg/minute, low ≤14 ml/kg/minute). At 2 years, BMI category was significantly associated with outcomes for the low PKVO2 group (p <0.001) but not the high PKVO2 group (p = 0.1). In the low PKVO2 group, obese patients had decreased risk of death free from urgent status 1A heart transplant or ventricular assist device placement after multivariate adjustment compared with normal BMI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.44 to 0.91, p = 0.01); no significant difference was observed for overweight patients (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.25, p = 0.5). In the high PKVO2 group, no relation was seen (overweight BMI HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.32, p = 0.3; obese HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.75, p = 0.7). In conclusion, the obesity paradox was only observed in patients with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in this advanced systolic HF cohort, indicating that improved functional capacity may attenuate the obesity paradox.

  17. Pilot testing of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing cardiorespiratory fitness in sedentary adults: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, E.C.; Galloway-Williams, N.; Cox, M.G.; Winett, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vigorous physical activity (PA) has been promoted for improving cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, therapeutic techniques designed to engage participants in vigorous PA have fallen short; one reason for this may be the unpleasant physical sensations associated with vigorous exercise (e.g., temporary shortness of breath and mild muscle soreness). Mindfulness and acceptance-based therapies such as Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) may be helpful at improving adherence to vigorous PA levels. In this open clinical trial, we sought to demonstrate the feasibility and acceptability of a mindfulness- and acceptance-based intervention for increasing CRF in sedentary adults and to generate initial outcomes data. Design Participants (N=24) engaged in a 10-week fitness walking program while attending regular group sessions based on ACT. Main outcome measures and results The feasibility and acceptability of the intervention were demonstrated through high levels of walking adherence (89.30%) and group session attendance (85.50%). A large significant decrease in total 1-mile walk test time [t(18)=4.61, p=.0002, d=.64] and a moderate significant increase in estimated VO2max [t(18)=−4.05, p=.0007, d=−.43] were observed. Analyses indicated a large significant increase in exercise-related experiential acceptance [t(18)=−9.19, p <.0001, d=−2.09]. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of an ACT-based intervention for supporting participation in vigorous PA in sedentary individuals. PMID:27104134

  18. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Patients: A Call for Normative Values

    PubMed Central

    Peel, Amanda B.; Thomas, Samantha M.; Dittus, Kim; Jones, Lee W.; Lakoski, Susan G.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that adjuvant treatments for breast cancer negatively impact cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) or Vo2max, a key predictor of cardiovascular risk. Although a number of studies have measured CRF in breast cancer patients, there is currently limited data regarding expected CRF values in this patient population. Given that CRF is a poor prognostic sign and recently highlighted as a key measure to standardize by the American Heart Association, we sought to review the available literature on CRF among breast cancer patients. Methods and Results We identified 27 clinical trials and observational studies measuring Vo2max in the pre– and post–adjuvant treatment setting for breast cancer. We compared Vo2max before to Vo2max after adjuvant therapy and compared Vo2max in female breast cancer patients with Vo2max in healthy controls. Conclusions We found that CRF was substantially lower in women with a history of breast cancer compared with healthy women and this was most pronounced among breast cancer patients in the post‐adjuvant setting. We conclude that knowledge of normative CRF values is critical to tailor appropriately timed exercise interventions in breast cancer patients susceptible to low CRF and subsequent cardiovascular risk. PMID:24419734

  20. [Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in preschool children: adaptation of the 20 metres shuttle run test].

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Alcántara-Moral, Francisco; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Femia, Pedro; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-12-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong indicator of present and future health in children and adolescents, however it is unknown whether it is for pre-schoolers, from 3 to 5 years. In the present study, we described the adaptation of the original 20m shuttle run test, it feasibility and acceptance in children from 3 to 5 years and its maximality and reliability. A total of 130 students (4.91 ± 0.89 years; 77 boys) performed the test twice, two weeks apart. The test adaptation consisted mainly in reducing the initial speed of 8.5 km/h to 6.5 km/h. The test was feasible and was well accepted in both boys and girls and the three age groups, 3, 4 and 5 years. The maximum heart rate (MHR) achieved for the entire sample was 199.4 ± 12.5 beats/min, equivalent to 97% of the estimated theoretical MHR, and no significant differences by gender or age. Mean test-retest difference (systematic error) in the number of laps achieved was 2 laps, with no significant differences between sex or age. There was no evidence of heteroscedasticity. Our results suggest the test is maximum and reliable in this age group. Future longitudinal or intervention studies using this test should take into account that changes in the test performance of 2 laps may be due to the variability of the measure, while wider changes would be attributable to the intervention or changes associated with age.

  1. Rationale and design of the cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces study in Eastern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gen-Min; Li, Yi-Hwei; Lee, Chung-Jen; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Lin, Ko-Huan; Chen, Kai-Wen; Chen, Yu-Jung; Wu, Ching-Fen; Lin, Been-Sheng; Yu, Yun-Shun; Lin, Felicia; Su, Fung-Ying; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in a cohort of large voluntary arm forces in Taiwan. METHODS The cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces (CHIEF) is a retrospective cohort consisting of more than 4000 professional military members aged 18-50 years in Eastern Taiwan. All participants received history taking, physical examination, chest radiography, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood tests for cell counts and fasting glucose, lipid profiles, uric acid, renal function and liver function in the Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital during 2014. In addition, participants were required to undergo two indoor resistant exercise tests including 2-min push-up and 2-min sit-up, both scored by infrared sensing, and one outdoor endurance 3000-m none weight-bearing running test, the main indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in the Military Physical Training and Testing Center in Eastern Taiwan in 2014. RESULTS Hospitalization events for cardiovascular disease, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, severe infectious disease, acute psychiatric illness, diabetes, orthopedic surgery and mortality will be identified in the National Insurance Research Database for 10 years. CONCLUSION CHIEF will be among the largest Eastern Asian armed forces cohort, in which physical status was strictly evaluated to follow up the hospitalization events for severe illness. PMID:27621774

  2. Rationale and design of the cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces study in Eastern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gen-Min; Li, Yi-Hwei; Lee, Chung-Jen; Shiang, Jeng-Chuan; Lin, Ko-Huan; Chen, Kai-Wen; Chen, Yu-Jung; Wu, Ching-Fen; Lin, Been-Sheng; Yu, Yun-Shun; Lin, Felicia; Su, Fung-Ying; Wang, Chih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in a cohort of large voluntary arm forces in Taiwan. METHODS The cardiorespiratory fitness and hospitalization events in armed forces (CHIEF) is a retrospective cohort consisting of more than 4000 professional military members aged 18-50 years in Eastern Taiwan. All participants received history taking, physical examination, chest radiography, 12-lead electrocardiography, blood tests for cell counts and fasting glucose, lipid profiles, uric acid, renal function and liver function in the Hualien Armed Forces General Hospital during 2014. In addition, participants were required to undergo two indoor resistant exercise tests including 2-min push-up and 2-min sit-up, both scored by infrared sensing, and one outdoor endurance 3000-m none weight-bearing running test, the main indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in the Military Physical Training and Testing Center in Eastern Taiwan in 2014. RESULTS Hospitalization events for cardiovascular disease, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, severe infectious disease, acute psychiatric illness, diabetes, orthopedic surgery and mortality will be identified in the National Insurance Research Database for 10 years. CONCLUSION CHIEF will be among the largest Eastern Asian armed forces cohort, in which physical status was strictly evaluated to follow up the hospitalization events for severe illness.

  3. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children

    PubMed Central

    Starzak, Dorota E.; Konkol, Kristen F.; McKune, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30–8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p < 0.01). SIgA secretion rate was significantly lower in obese and overweight vs. normal weight children (p < 0.01). Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of sAA with CRF acting as a mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.05) with BMI (p < 0.001) found to be an independent predictor of SIgA secretion rate. Obesity, based on BMI, was associated with elevated SNS activity and lowered mucosal immunity. CRF-mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity. PMID:27483329

  4. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children.

    PubMed

    Starzak, Dorota E; Konkol, Kristen F; McKune, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30-8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p < 0.01). SIgA secretion rate was significantly lower in obese and overweight vs. normal weight children (p < 0.01). Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of sAA with CRF acting as a mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.05) with BMI (p < 0.001) found to be an independent predictor of SIgA secretion rate. Obesity, based on BMI, was associated with elevated SNS activity and lowered mucosal immunity. CRF-mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity. PMID:27483329

  5. High cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with incidence of overweight in adolescence: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Savva, S C; Tornaritis, M J; Kolokotroni, O; Chadjigeorgiou, C; Kourides, Y; Karpathios, T; Yiallouros, P K

    2014-12-01

    To assess the association of baseline cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with incidence of overweight over a 4.6-year period in adolescence. In a cohort of 4878 adolescents, we assessed body mass index in years 2001-2003 and 2007. CRF was assessed at baseline as maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max , mL/kg/min) using the 20-m shuttle run test and was examined against incidence of overweight at follow-up. Estimated VO2max at baseline was higher in males than in females, P < 0.001, and was lower in overweight and obese than in non-overweight subjects. The incidence of overweight at follow-up among non-overweight participants at baseline was 15.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.7% to 17.3%] in males and 5.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 7.0%) in females, P < 0.001. Adjusted odds ratio for incidence of overweight in participants in the fourth quartile of VO2max was 0.40 (95%CI 0.26 to 0.61) in males and 0.57 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.99) in females in comparison with participants in the first quartiles of VO2max . Incidence of overweight was three times more frequent in males than in females. Among non-overweight at baseline, high fitness levels were inversely associated with incidence of overweight at follow-up, suggesting that interventions aiming to increase CRF in early childhood might help reverse increasing trends in obesity.

  6. Cardiorespiratory performance and physical activity in normal weight and overweight Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Palomäki, Sanna; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; Huotari, Pertti

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in cardiorespiratory performance, BMI and leisure-time physical activity among Finnish adolescents from 2003 to 2010. In addition, we compared cardiorespiratory performance levels between normal weight and overweight adolescents, grouped according to their physical activity. Participants were a national representative samples of 15-16-year-old adolescents in their final (ninth) year of comprehensive school in 2003 (n = 2258) and in 2010 (n = 1301). They performed an endurance shuttle run test and reported their height and weight and leisure time physical activity on a questionnaire. Results showed no significant secular changes in cardiorespiratory performance from 2003 to 2010. The mean BMI increased in boys. Leisure-time physical activity increased among normal weight girls. Adolescents of normal weight had better cardiorespiratory performance than those classified as overweight at both assessment points. BMI-adjusted physical activity was a significant determinant for cardiorespiratory performance among overweight adolescents, and very active overweight adolescents had similar cardiorespiratory performance levels as moderately active adolescents of normal weight. The results of the present study support the idea that the physical activity has the great importance for the cardiorespiratory performance in adolescents. Overweight adolescents, in particular, benefit from higher levels of physical activity.

  7. [Assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness in preschool children: adaptation of the 20 metres shuttle run test].

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Alcántara-Moral, Francisco; Sánchez-Delgado, Guillermo; Mora-González, José; Martínez-Téllez, Borja; Herrador-Colmenero, Manuel; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Femia, Pedro; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness is a strong indicator of present and future health in children and adolescents, however it is unknown whether it is for pre-schoolers, from 3 to 5 years. In the present study, we described the adaptation of the original 20m shuttle run test, it feasibility and acceptance in children from 3 to 5 years and its maximality and reliability. A total of 130 students (4.91 ± 0.89 years; 77 boys) performed the test twice, two weeks apart. The test adaptation consisted mainly in reducing the initial speed of 8.5 km/h to 6.5 km/h. The test was feasible and was well accepted in both boys and girls and the three age groups, 3, 4 and 5 years. The maximum heart rate (MHR) achieved for the entire sample was 199.4 ± 12.5 beats/min, equivalent to 97% of the estimated theoretical MHR, and no significant differences by gender or age. Mean test-retest difference (systematic error) in the number of laps achieved was 2 laps, with no significant differences between sex or age. There was no evidence of heteroscedasticity. Our results suggest the test is maximum and reliable in this age group. Future longitudinal or intervention studies using this test should take into account that changes in the test performance of 2 laps may be due to the variability of the measure, while wider changes would be attributable to the intervention or changes associated with age. PMID:25433116

  8. Determinants of Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cardiorespiratory Fitness (from the Dallas Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ambarish; Park, Bryan D; Ayers, Colby; Das, Sandeep R; Lakoski, Susan; Matulevicius, Susan; de Lemos, James A; Berry, Jarett D

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated ethnic/racial differences in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the relative contributions of body mass index (BMI), lifestyle behaviors, socioeconomic status (SES), cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and cardiac function to these differences in CRF are unclear. In this study, we included 2,617 Dallas Heart Study participants (58.6% women, 48.6% black; 15.7% Hispanic) without CV disease who underwent estimation of CRF using a submaximal exercise test. We constructed multivariable-adjusted linear regression models to determine the association between race/ethnicity and CRF, which was defined as peak oxygen uptake (ml/kg/min). Black participants had the lowest CRF (blacks: 26.3 ± 10.2; whites: 29.0 ± 9.8; Hispanics: 29.1 ± 10.0 ml/kg/min). In multivariate analysis, both black and Hispanic participants had lower CRF after adjustment for age and gender (blacks: Std β = -0.15; p value ≤0.0001, Hispanics: Std β = -0.05, p value = 0.01; ref group: whites). However, this association was considerably attenuated for black (Std β = -0.04, p value = 0.03) and no longer significant for Hispanic ethnicity (p value = 0.56) after additional adjustment for BMI, lifestyle factors, SES, and CV risk factors. Additional adjustment for stroke volume did not substantially change the association between black race/ethnicity and CRF (Std β = -0.06, p value = 0.01). In conclusion, BMI, lifestyle, SES, and traditional risk factor burden are important determinants of ethnicity-based differences in CRF. PMID:27349903

  9. Combined Association of Diet and Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei; Xiao, Dian-Ming; Huang, Yao; Yu, Hong-Jie; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Tao; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Mao, Zong-Fu; He, Qi-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Objective To investigate the combined impact of diet and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese schoolchildren. Methods A cross-sectional study among 615 children (354 boys and 261 girls) aged 9.6 ± 0.6 years was conducted in Wuhan, China, from May to June 2010. Body mass index, waist circumference, CRF, blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. MetS was defined by the criteria proposed by De Ferranti. Based on data from a food frequency questionnaire, a diet score was created for each food item and then summed. Gender-specific median values were set as the cut-off points for the classification of high and low CRF. Results The highest prevalence of MetS (15.7 %) was observed among participants in the low tertile of diet scores and having a low level of CRF. Multivariate logistic regression showed that the odds ratio for MetS was 0.30 (95 % confidence interval 0.09-1.00) among children in the medium tertile of diet scores with low CRF, 0.24 (0.07-0.89) among those in the high tertile of diet scores with low CRF, 0.07 (0.02-0.33) among those in the low tertile of diet scores with high CRF, and 0.08 (0.01-0.58) among those in the high tertile of diet scores with medium CRF compared with those in the low tertile of diet score with low CRF. Conclusions Findings of the present study suggest that diet and CRF are synergistically associated with the risk of MetS in Chinese schoolchildren.

  10. [Cardiorespiratory fitness among adults in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Finger, J D; Krug, S; Gößwald, A; Härtel, S; Bös, K

    2013-05-01

    A high level of fitness is an indicator for a good health state. Therefore, cardiorespiratory fitness was examined in the cross-sectional German Health Interview Survey for Adults (DEGS1). Data from 3030 test-qualified adults between 18 and 64 years old were assessed by means of a standardized submaximal cycle ergometer test. Test-qualified participants were significantly younger, more often men, less often obese and showed a better health state than those who were not test-qualified. The calculated physical work capacity at 75 % of the age-predicted maximum heart rate (PWC75%) in watts per kg bodyweight was among men 1.52 and among women 1.15. PWC75% declines by 4.2 % per age decade for men and 4.8 % for women. A higher socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with better fitness among women. No significant association was observed between SES and fitness among men. These findings can be used to develop target-group specific health-promotion interventions in order to enhance cardiorespiratory fitness. It is planned to calculate updated PWC reference values based on the DEGS1 data. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  11. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  12. The Impact of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Age-Related Lipids and Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yong-Moon Mark; Sui, Xuemei; Liu, Junxiu; Zhou, Haiming; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Lavie, Carl J.; Hardin, James W.; Blair, Steven N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence on the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on age-related longitudinal changes of lipids and lipoproteins is scarce. Objectives This study sought to assess the longitudinal, aging trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins for the life course in adults, and to determine whether CRF modifies the age-associated trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Data came from 11,418 men, 20 to 90 years of age, without known high cholesterol, high triglycerides, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline and during follow-up from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. There were 43,821 observations spanning 2 to 25 (mean 3.5) health examinations between 1970 and 2006. CRF was quantified by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Marginal models using generalized estimating equations were applied. Results Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) presented similar inverted U-shaped quadratic trajectories with aging: gradual increases were noted until the mid-40s to early 50s, with subsequent declines (all p < 0.0001). Compared to men with higher CRF, those with lower CRF developed abnormal values earlier in life: TC (≥200 mg/dl), LDL-C (≥130 mg/dl), non-HDL-C (≥160 mg/dl), and TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.0). Notably, abnormal values for TC and LDL-C in men with low CRF were observed around 15 years earlier than in those with high CRF. After adjusting for time-varying covariates, a significant interaction was found between age and CRF in each trajectory, indicating that CRF was more strongly associated with the aging trajectories of lipids and lipoproteins in young to middle-aged men than in older men. Conclusions Our investigation reveals a differential trajectory of lipids and lipoproteins with aging according to CRF in healthy men, and suggests that promoting increased CRF levels may help delay the development of dyslipidemia. PMID:25975472

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness estimation using wearable sensors: Laboratory and free-living analysis of context-specific submaximal heart rates.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Casale, Pierluigi; Penders, Julien; Ten Velde, Gabrielle; Plasqui, Guy; Amft, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose to use pattern recognition methods to determine submaximal heart rate (HR) during specific contexts, such as walking at a certain speed, using wearable sensors in free living, and using context-specific HR to estimate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). CRF of 51 participants was assessed by a maximal exertion test (V̇o2 max). Participants wore a combined accelerometer and HR monitor during a laboratory-based simulation of activities of daily living and for 2 wk in free living. Anthropometrics, HR while lying down, and walking at predefined speeds in laboratory settings were used to estimate CRF. Explained variance (R(2)) was 0.64 for anthropometrics, and increased up to 0.74 for context-specific HR (0.73-0.78 when including fat-free mass). Next, we developed activity recognition and walking speed estimation algorithms to determine the same contexts (i.e., lying down and walking) in free living. Context-specific HR in free living was highly correlated with laboratory measurements (Pearson's r = 0.71-0.75). R(2) for CRF estimation was 0.65 when anthropometrics were used as predictors, and increased up to 0.77 when including free-living context-specific HR (i.e., HR while walking at 5.5 km/h). R(2) varied between 0.73 and 0.80 when including fat-free mass among the predictors. Root mean-square error was reduced from 354.7 to 281.0 ml/min by the inclusion of context-specific HR parameters (21% error reduction). We conclude that pattern recognition techniques can be used to contextualize HR in free living and estimated CRF with accuracy comparable to what can be obtained with laboratory measurements of HR response to walking.

  14. The Associations of Youth Physical Activity and Screen Time with Fatness and Fitness: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Chen, Senlin; Laurson, Kelly R; Kim, Youngwon; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of youth physical activity and screen time with weight status and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents, separately, utilizing a nationally representative sample. A total of 1,113 participants (692 children aged 6-11 yrs; 422 adolescents aged 12-15 yrs) from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey. Participants completed physical activity and screen time questionnaires, and their body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness (adolescents only) were assessed. Adolescents completed additional physical activity questions to estimate daily MET minutes. Children not meeting the screen time guideline had 1.69 times the odds of being overweight/obese compared to those meeting the screen time guideline, after adjusting for physical activity and other control variables. Among adolescent, screen time was significantly associated with being overweight/obese (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.15), but the association attenuated toward the borderline of being significant after controlling for physical activity. Being physically active was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, independent of screen time among adolescents. In joint association analysis, children who did not meet physical activity nor screen time guidelines had 2.52 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than children who met both guidelines. Adolescents who did not meet the screen time guideline had significantly higher odds ratio of being overweight/obese regardless of meeting the physical activity guideline. Meeting the physical activity guideline was also associated with cardiorespiratory fitness regardless of meeting the screen time guideline in adolescents. Screen time is a stronger factor than physical activity in predicting weight status in both children and adolescents, and only physical activity is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents. PMID:26820144

  15. Waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in obese women.

    PubMed

    Shalev-Goldman, Einat; McGuire, K Ashlee; Ross, Robert

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the independent associations between physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), abdominal obesity and insulin action in obese women. We studied 141 abdominally obese women (waist circumference (WC): 106.4 ± 10.2 cm). PA duration (min/day) and intensity (counts/min) were obtained by accelerometry. CRF was measured using a treadmill. WC was measured at the iliac crest; abdominal adiposity was measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Glucose and insulin measures were obtained during a 75-g, 2-h glucose tolerance test. The homeostasis model of assessment iHOMA2-IS was used to estimate insulin sensitivity. PA duration and intensity were not associated with glucose or insulin metabolism (p > 0.05). However, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) duration was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (p < 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting insulin and iHOMA2-IS (r = 0.27, p ≤ 0.01), whereas WC was associated with fasting insulin (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.52, p ≤ 0.01). Following adjustment for CRF, MVPA, and age, WC remained associated with fasting glucose, insulin, 2-h glucose and iHOMA2-IS (r = -0.44, p ≤ 0.01). CRF was associated with fasting glucose as well as 1- and 2-h glucose (r = 0.24, p < 0.01) after adjusting for WC, MVPA, and age. MVPA was not associated with glucose or insulin measures after control for CRF and WC (p > 0.05). Mediation analysis revealed that CRF and WC combined mediated the relationship between MVPA and both glucose tolerance and insulin resistance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, among abdominally obese women, WC and CRF are independently associated with measures of glucose tolerance and insulin resistance and mediate the association between MVPA and insulin resistance.

  16. Effect of a Lifestyle Intervention on Change in Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: Results from the Look AHEAD Study

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Bancroft, Barbara; Curtis, Jeffery M.; Mathews, Anne; Pereira, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Ribisl, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of an intensive lifestyle weight loss intervention (ILI) compared to diabetes support and education (DSE) on changes in fitness and physical activity in the Look AHEAD trial. Design Randomized clinical trial to compare a lifestyle intervention for weight loss with a diabetes support and education condition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Subjects Data from 4,376 overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes (age = 58.7±6.8 years, BMI = 35.8±5.8 kg/m2) who completed one-year of the Look AHEAD trial and had available fitness data were analyzed. Intervention Subjects were randomly assigned to DSE or ILI. DSE received standard-care plus 3 education sessions over the one-year period. ILI included individual and group contact throughout the year, restriction in energy intake, and 175 min/wk of prescribed physical activity. Measurements Fitness was assessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Physical activity was assessed via questionnaire in a subset of 2,221 subjects. Results Change in fitness was statistically greater in ILI vs. DSE after adjustment for baseline fitness (20.9% vs. 5.7%) (p<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that change in fitness was greater in overweight vs. obese Class II and III (p<0.05). Physical activity increased by 892±1694 kcal/wk in ILI vs. 108±1254 kcal/wk in DSE (p<0.01). Changes in fitness (r=0.41) and physical activity (r=0.42) were significantly correlated with weight loss (p<0.0001). Conclusions The ILI was effective in increasing physical activity and improving cardiorespiratory fitness in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. This effect may add to weight loss in improving metabolic control in patients in lifestyle intervention programs. PMID:19153582

  17. The Effect of Tai Chi Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Shuzhen; Huang, Maomao; Liu, Feiwen; Tao, Jing; Chen, Lidian

    2015-01-01

    Background Tai Chi may be efficient for healthy adults to improve the cardiorespiratory fitness, but there is no systematic evaluation for its effectiveness. Objective To systematically assess the effectiveness of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory fitness in healthy adults. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from their inception to October 2013. The controlled trails including randomized controlled trial (RCT), non-randomized controlled trial (NRCT), self-controlled trial (SCT), and cohort study (CS) testing Tai Chi exercise against non-intervention control conditions in healthy adults that assessed any type cardiorespiratory fitness outcome measures were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies according to predefined criteria. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. RevMan 5.2 software was applied for data analysis. Results Twenty studies (2 RCTs, 8 NRCTs, 3 SCTs, and 7 CSs) with 1868 participants were included, but most of them belonged to low methodological quality. The results of systematic review showed that Tai Chi exercise had positive effect on majority outcomes of cardio function (Blood pressure: n = 536, SPB SMD = -0.93, 95% CI -1.30 to -0.56, P < 0.00001; DBP SMD = -0.54, 95% CI -0.90 to -0.18, P < 0.00001; heart rate at quiet condition: n = 986, SMD = -0.72, 95% CI -1.27 to -0.18, P = 0.010; stroke volume: n = 583, SMD = 0.44, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.61, P < 0.00001; cardio output: n = 583, MD = 0.32 L/min, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.56, P = 0.009), lung capacity (FVC at quiet condition: n = 1272, MD = 359.16 mL, 95% CI 19.57 to 698.75, P = 0.04 for less than one year intervention, and MD = 442.46 mL, 95% CI 271.24 to 613.68, P<0.0001 for more than one year intervention; V·O2peak: n = 246, SMD = 1.33, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.70, P < 0.00001), and cardiorespiratory endurance (O2 pulse at quiet condition: n = 146, SMD = 1.04; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.39; P < 0.00001; stair test index at quiet condition: n = 679, SMD = 1

  18. Less Sitting, More Physical Activity, or Higher Fitness?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that time spent in sedentary behaviors, levels of physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness are all associated with mortality rates. They are also related to the risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, aging-associated frailty, and cancer. The evidence is such that the National Institutes of Health recently launched a new Common Fund initiative aimed at identifying the molecular transducers of adaptation to physical activity in various tissues and organs. It has been estimated that 9.4% of all 57 million deaths in the world in 2008 could be attributed to physical inactivity, which translates into more than 5 million deaths worldwide. Physical inactivity has a deleterious effect that is comparable to smoking and obesity. Importantly, this global estimate relates to levels of physical activity and does not take into account sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness. Currently, there are national and international guidelines for physical activity level that are highly concordant. The weekly recommendations include 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity, or some combination of moderate and vigorous activity with 2 days of resistance exercise. However, these guidelines offer no recommendations regarding sedentary time or goals for cardiorespiratory fitness levels. It will be increasingly important for disease prevention, successful aging, and reduction of premature mortality to broaden the focus of the public health message to include not only more physical activity but also less sitting and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. We briefly review the evidence and discuss key issues to be addressed to make this approach a reality. PMID:26422244

  19. Periodontal Infection and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Younger Adults: Results from Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Papapanou, Panos N.; Jacobs, David R.; Desvarieux, Moïse

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies report associations between periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness but no study has examined the association among younger adults. Our objective was to study the association between clinical measures of periodontal infection and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among a population-based sample of younger adults. Methods The Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 enrolled 2,863 participants (46% women) who received a partial-mouth periodontal examination and completed a submaximal treadmill test for the assessment of estimated VO2 max(eVO2 max ). Participants were mean±SD age 33±9 years (range = 20–49 years), 30% Hispanic, 48% White, 19% Black, and 3% other. Mean eVO2 max (mL/kg/minute) as well as eVO2 max≤32 mL/kg/minute (20th percentile) were regressed across quartiles of mean probing depth and mean attachment loss in multivariable linear and logistic regression models. Results After multivariable adjustment, mean eVO2 max levels±SE across quartiles of attachment loss were 39.72±0.37, 39.64±0.34, 39.59±0.36, and 39.85±0.39 (P = 0.99). Mean eVO2 max±SE across quartiles of probing depth were 39.57±0.32, 39.78±0.38, 39.19±0.25, and 40.37±0.53 (P = 0.28). Similarly, multivariable adjusted mean eVO2 max values were similar between healthy participants vs. those with moderate/severe periodontitis: 39.70±0.21 vs. 39.70±0.90 (P = 1.00). The odds ratio (OR) for low eVO2 max comparing highest vs. lowest quartile of attachment loss = 0.89[95% CI 0.64–1.24]. The OR for comparing highest vs. lowest probing depth quartile = 0.77[95% CI 0.51–1.15]. Conclusion Clinical measures of periodontal infection were not related to cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of generally healthy younger adults. PMID:24663097

  20. Exercise therapy, cardiorespiratory fitness and their effect on brain volumes: a randomised controlled trial in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Scheewe, Thomas W; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Sarkisyan, Gayane; Schnack, Hugo G; Brouwer, Rachel M; de Glint, Maria; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Backx, Frank J G; Kahn, René S; Cahn, Wiepke

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine exercise effects on global brain volume, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. Irrespective of diagnosis and intervention, associations between brain changes and cardiorespiratory fitness improvement were examined. Sixty-three schizophrenia patients and fifty-five healthy controls participated in this randomised controlled trial. Global brain volumes, hippocampal volume, and cortical thickness were estimated from 3-Tesla MRI scans. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a cardiopulmonary ergometer test. Subjects were assigned exercise therapy or occupational therapy (patients) and exercise therapy or life-as-usual (healthy controls) for six months 2h weekly. Exercise therapy effects were analysed for subjects who were compliant at least 50% of sessions offered. Significantly smaller baseline cerebral (grey) matter, and larger third ventricle volumes, and thinner cortex in most areas of the brain were found in patients versus controls. Exercise therapy did not affect global brain and hippocampal volume or cortical thickness in patients and controls. Cardiorespiratory fitness improvement was related to increased cerebral matter volume and lateral and third ventricle volume decrease in patients and to thickening in the left hemisphere in large areas of the frontal, temporal and cingulate cortex irrespective of diagnosis. One to 2h of exercise therapy did not elicit significant brain volume changes in patients or controls. However, cardiorespiratory fitness improvement attenuated brain volume changes in schizophrenia patients and increased thickness in large areas of the left cortex in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

  1. Interactions between sleeping position and feeding on cardiorespiratory activity in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fifer, William P; Myers, Michael M; Sahni, Rakesh; Ohira-Kist, Kiyoko; Kashyap, Sudha; Stark, Raymond I; Schulze, Karl F

    2005-11-01

    Infants sleeping in the prone position are at greater risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Sleep position-dependent changes in cardiorespiratory activity may contribute to this increased risk. Cardiorespiratory activity is also affected by feeding. Twenty prematurely-born infants were studied at 31-36 weeks postconceptional age while sleeping in the prone and supine positions. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and patterns of variability were recorded during interfeed intervals, and effects of position and time after feeding were analyzed by repeated measures analyses of variance. There were significant effects of both sleeping position and time after feeding. Heart rate is higher and heart period variability is lower in the prone position, and the effects of sleeping position on cardiac functioning are more pronounced during the middle of the intrafeed interval. In preterm infants, autonomic responses to nutrient processing modulate the cardiorespiratory effects of sleeping position. Prone sleeping risk may vary with time after feeding. PMID:16252285

  2. Influence of taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Seo, Byoung-Do; Choi, Pan-Am

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the influence of Taekwondo as security martial arts training on anaerobic threshold, cardiorespiratory fitness, and blood lactate recovery. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen healthy university students were recruited and divided into an exercise group and a control group (n = 7 in each group). The subjects who participated in the experiment were subjected to an exercise loading test in which anaerobic threshold, value of ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate were measured during the exercise, immediately after maximum exercise loading, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min of recovery. [Results] At the anaerobic threshold time point, the exercise group showed a significantly longer time to reach anaerobic threshold. The exercise group showed significantly higher values for the time to reach VO2max, maximal values of ventilation, maximal oxygen uptake and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate. Significant changes were observed in the value of ventilation volumes at the 1- and 5-min recovery time points within the exercise group; oxygen uptake and maximal oxygen uptake were significantly different at the 5- and 10-min time points; heart rate was significantly different at the 1- and 3-min time points; and maximal values of ventilation / heart rate was significantly different at the 5-min time point. The exercise group showed significant decreases in blood lactate levels at the 15- and 30-min recovery time points. [Conclusion] The study results revealed that Taekwondo as a security martial arts training increases the maximal oxygen uptake and anaerobic threshold and accelerates an individual's recovery to the normal state of cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lactate level. These results are expected to contribute to the execution of more effective security services in emergencies in which violence can occur.

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among US adults 20-49 years of age: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Haskell, William L; Farrell, Stephen W; Lamonte, Michael J; Blair, Steven N; Curtin, Lester R; Hughes, Jeffery P; Burt, Vicki L

    2010-02-15

    Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to describe the distribution of cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with obesity and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) for adults 20-49 years of age without physical limitations or indications of cardiovascular disease. A sample of 7,437 adults aged 20-49 years were examined at a mobile examination center. Of 4,860 eligible for a submaximal treadmill test, 3,250 completed the test and were included in the analysis. The mean maximal oxygen uptake ( max) was estimated as 44.5, 42.8, and 42.2 mL/kg/minute for men 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years of age, respectively. For women, it was 36.5, 35.4, and 34.4 mL/kg/minute for the corresponding age groups. Non-Hispanic black women had lower fitness levels than did non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American women. Regardless of gender or race/ethnicity, people who were obese had a significantly lower estimated maximal oxygen uptake than did nonobese adults. Furthermore, a positive association between fitness level and LTPA participation was observed for both men and women. These results can be used to track future population assessments and to evaluate interventions. The differences in fitness status among population subgroups and by obesity status or LTPA can also be used to develop health policies and targeted educational campaigns.

  4. Reference Standards for Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measured With Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing: Data From the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise National Database

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Arena, Ross; Myers, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop standards for cardiorespiratory fitness by establishing reference values derived from cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in the United States. Patients and Methods Eight laboratories in the US experienced in CPX administration with established quality control procedures contributed data from January 1, 2014, through February 1, 2015, from 7783 maximal (respiratory exchange ratio, ≥1.0) treadmill tests from men and women (aged 20–79 years) without cardiovascular disease (CVD) to the Fitness Registry and the Importance of Exercise: A National Data Base (FRIEND). Percentiles of maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) for men and women were determined for each decade from 20 years of age through 79 years of age. Comparisons of V̇O2maxwere made to reference data established with CPX data from Norway and to US reference data established without CPX measurements. Results There were significant differences between sex and age groups for V̇O2max. In FRIEND, the 50th percentile V̇O2max of men and women aged 20 to 29 years decreased from 48.0 and 37.6 mLO2·kg−1·min−1 to 24.4 and 18.3 mLO2·kg−1·min−1 for ages 70 to 79 years, respectively. The rate of decline in this cohort during a 5-decade period was approximately 10% per decade. Conclusion These are the first cardiorespiratory fitness reference data using measures obtained from CPX in the United States. FRIEND can be used to provide a more accurate interpretation of measured V̇O2max from maximal exercise tests for the US population compared with previous standards on the basis of workload-derived estimations. PMID:26455884

  5. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of VO2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (≤ 12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ≤ 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The VO2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance. PMID:26691405

  6. Body Composition is Strongly Associated With Cardiorespiratory Fitness in a Large Brazilian Military Firefighter Cohort: The Brazilian Firefighters Study.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Eugênio C; Porto, Luiz Guilherme G; Nogueira, Rozenkranz M; Martins, Wagner R; Fonseca, Romulo M C; Lunardi, Claudia C; de Oliveira, Ricardo J

    2016-01-01

    Firefighting is associated with high-level physical demands and requires appropriate physical fitness. Considering that obesity has been correlated with decreased cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and that the prevalence of obesity may also be elevated within firefighters (FF), we analyzed the association between CRF and body composition (BC) in Brazilian military FF. We assessed 4,237 male FF (18-49 years) who performed a physical fitness test that included BC and CRF. Body composition was assessed by body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist circumference (WC). CRF was assessed by the 12-minute Cooper test. Comparisons of VO2max between the BC categories were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, and the analysis was adjusted for age using the General Linear Model. The Spearman test was used for correlation analysis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated to assess the odds of the unfit group (≤ 12 metabolic equivalents [METs]) for poor BC. Statistically significant differences were considered when p ≤ 0.05. Considering the BMI categories, 8 volunteers (0.2%) were underweight, 1,306 (30.8%) were normal weight, 2,301 (54.3%) were overweight, and 622 (14.7%) were obese. The VO2max was negatively correlated with age (rs = -0.21), BMI (rs = -0.45), WC (rs = -0.50), and BAI (rs = -0.35) (p < 0.001). Cardiorespiratory fitness was lower in the obese compared with the nonobese for all age categories (-3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001) and for all BC indices (-4.5 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1); p < 0.001). The OR of the unfit group having poor BC in all indices varied from 2.9 to 8.1 (p < 0.001). Despite the metabolically healthy obesity phenomenon, we found a strong association between CRF and BC irrespective of age and the BC method (BMI, BAI, WC, or BF%). These findings may aid in improving FF training programs with a focus on health and performance.

  7. Variability of cardio-respiratory, electromyographic, and perceived exertion responses at the walk-run transition in a sample of young men controlled for anthropometric and fitness characteristics.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Walace D; Farinatti, Paulo T V; de Oliveira, Carlos G; Araújo, Claudio Gil S

    2011-06-01

    The cardio-respiratory (heart rate, HR; oxygen uptake, VO(2;) expired carbon dioxide, VCO(2); ventilation, VE), electromyographic (EMG; medial gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, rectus femoralis, and anterior tibialis), and perceived exertion (PE) responses during a protocol for the determination of the walk-run transition speed (WRTS) were investigated. From an initial sample of 453 volunteers, 12 subjects matched for age, anthropometric characteristics [height, weight, lower limb length (LLL)], cardio-respiratory fitness (peak oxygen consumption, VO(2peak); ventilatory threshold, VT; maximal HR), and habitual physical activity levels were selected (age = 18.6 ± 0.5 years; height = 174.5 ± 1.4 cm; weight = 66.4 ± 1.1 kg; LLL = 83.3 ± 1.2 cm, VO(2peak) = 52.2 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1); VT = 39.8 ± 2.6 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The highly reproducible WRTS determination protocol (ICC = 0.92; p < 0.0001) consisted in 2-min warm-up at 5.5 km h(-1) followed by increments of 0.1 km h(-1) every 15 s. Between-subjects variability of the measured variables during 24 walking and 12 running velocities (from 80 to 120% of WRTS) was compared to WRTS variation. The coefficient of variation for WRTS was 7.8%, which was within the range of variability for age, anthropometric variables, VO(2peak), and maximal HR (from 5 to 12%). Cardio-respiratory responses at WRTS had a greater variation (VO(2) about 50%; VE/VCO(2) about 35%; VE/VO(2) about 45%; HR about 30%). The highest variation was found for PE (from 70 to 90%) whereas EMG variables showed the lowest variation (from 25 to 30%). Linear regression between EMG series and VO(2) data showed that VO(2) reflected the increase in muscle activity only before the WRTS. These results support the hypothesis that the walk-run transition phenomenon is determined by mechanical variables such as limb length and its relationship to biomechanical model rather than by metabolic factors.

  8. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight or Obese Subjects May Be Linked Through Intrahepatic Lipid Content

    PubMed Central

    Haufe, Sven; Engeli, Stefan; Budziarek, Petra; Utz, Wolfgang; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Hermsdorf, Mario; Wiesner, Susanne; Otto, Christoph; Haas, Verena; de Greiff, Armin; Luft, Friedrich C.; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) predisposes one to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in part independently of body weight. Given the close relationship between intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) and insulin sensitivity, we hypothesized that the direct relationship between fitness and insulin sensitivity may be explained by IHL. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We included 138 overweight to obese, otherwise healthy subjects (aged 43.6 ± 8.9 years, BMI 33.8 ± 4 kg/m2). Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analyses. Abdominal fat distribution, intramyocellular, and IHL were assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and tomography. Incremental exercise testing was performed to estimate an individual's CRF. Insulin sensitivity was determined during an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS For all subjects, CRF was related to insulin sensitivity (r = 0.32, P < 0.05), IHL (r = −0.27, P < 0.05), and visceral (r = −0.25, P < 0.05) and total fat mass (r = −0.32, P < 0.05), but not to intramyocellular lipids (r = −0.08, NS). Insulin sensitivity correlated significantly with all fat depots. In multivariate regression analyses, independent predictors of insulin sensitivity were IHL, visceral fat, and fitness (r2 = −0.43, P < 0.01, r2 = −0.34, and r2 = 0.29, P < 0.05, respectively). However, the positive correlation between fitness and insulin sensitivity was abolished after adjustment for IHL (r = 0.16, NS), whereas it remained significant when adjusted for visceral or total body fat. Further, when subjects were grouped into high versus low IHL, insulin sensitivity was higher in those subjects with low IHL, irrespective of fitness levels. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that the positive effect of increased CRF on insulin sensitivity in overweight to obese subjects may be mediated indirectly through IHL reduction. PMID:20357364

  9. Independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness on all-cause mortality: the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Shuval, Kerem; Finley, Carrie E; Barlow, Carolyn E; Nguyen, Binh T; Njike, Valentine Y; Pettee Gabriel, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the independent and joint effects of sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) on all-cause mortality. Design, setting, participants A prospective study of 3141 Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants. Participants provided information on television (TV) viewing and car time in 1982 and completed a maximal exercise test during a 1-year time frame; they were then followed until mortality or through 2010. TV viewing, car time, total sedentary time and fitness were the primary exposures and all-cause mortality was the outcome. The relationship between the exposures and outcome was examined utilising Cox proportional hazard models. Results A total of 581 deaths occurred over a median follow-up period of 28.7 years (SD=4.4). At baseline, participants’ mean age was 45.0 years (SD=9.6), 86.5% were men and their mean body mass index was 24.6 (SD=3.0). Multivariable analyses revealed a significant linear relationship between increased fitness and lower mortality risk, even while adjusting for total sedentary time and covariates (p=0.02). The effects of total sedentary time on increased mortality risk did not quite reach statistical significance once fitness and covariates were adjusted for (p=0.05). When examining this relationship categorically, in comparison to the reference category (≤10 h/week), being sedentary for ≥23 h weekly increased mortality risk by 29% without controlling for fitness (HR=1.29, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.63); however, once fitness and covariates were taken into account this relationship did not reach statistical significance (HR=1.20, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.51). Moreover, spending >10 h in the car weekly significantly increased mortality risk by 27% in the fully adjusted model. The association between TV viewing and mortality was not significant. Conclusions The relationship between total sedentary time and higher mortality risk is less pronounced when fitness is taken into account. Increased car time, but

  10. The contribution of cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral fat to risk factors in Japanese patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nagano, M; Kai, Y; Zou, B; Hatayama, T; Suwa, M; Sasaki, H; Kumagai, S

    2004-05-01

    It is still unclear as to how cardiorespiratory fitness and visceral fat accumulation contribute to coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether cardiorespiratory fitness contributes to such risk factors independently of visceral fat accumulation. Two hundred Japanese patients (137 men and 63 women, aged 22 to 81 years) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) without any intervention and pharmacological therapy participated in a cross-sectional study. The levels of fasting insulin, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and resting blood pressure were assessed. Maximal oxygen uptake (V.o(2max)), an index of cardiorespiratory fitness, was predicted by a graded exercise test using a cycle ergometer. Visceral fat area (VFA) was measured by computed tomography scan. The criteria for abnormalities of the risk factors were determined according to the standard values for Japanese. All subjects were divided equally into the following 3 groups according to their fitness level: low-fit (V.o(2max) < 32 mL/kg/min in men, V.o(2max) < 26 mL/kg/min in women), mid-fit (32 < or = V.o(2max) < 36 in men, 26 < or = V.o(2max) < 30 in women), and high-fit (V.o(2max) > or = 36 in men, V.o(2max) > or = 30 in women). The association between fitness level and the prevalence of abnormal values for these parameters was analyzed by a multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age and VFA. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the prevalence of hyperinsulinemia were significantly lower in the mid-fit (OR = 0.35, 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.78) and in the high-fit groups (OR = 0.40, 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.98) compared with the low-fit group. In addition, ORs for the prevalence of low HDL-C in the mid-fit and high-fit groups were significantly lower (OR = 0.35, 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.86; and OR = 0.19; 95% CI, 0

  11. The Role of Body Habitus in Predicting Cardiorespiratory Fitness: The FRIEND Registry.

    PubMed

    Baynard, T; Arena, R A; Myers, J; Kaminsky, L A

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to validate and cross-validate a non-exercise prediction model from a large and apparently healthy US cohort of individuals who underwent an analysis of body habitus (waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI)) with measured CRF. The large cohort (5 030 individuals) was split into validation (4 030) and cross-validation (1 000) groups, whereby waist circumference and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were assessed by rigorously approved laboratories. VO2max was estimated in 2 multiple regression equations using age, sex and either WC (r=0.77; standard error of the estimate (SEE) 6.70 mLO2∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) or BMI (r=0.76; SEE 6.89 mLO2∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)).Cross-validation yielded similar results. However, as VO2max increased, there was increased bias, suggesting VO2max may be underestimated at higher values. Both WC and BMI prediction models yielded similar findings, with WC having a slightly smaller SEE. These measures of body habitus appear to be adequate in predicting CRF using non-exercise parameters, even without a measure of physical activity. Caution should be taken when using these equations in more fit individuals.

  12. Occupational demand and human rights. Public safety officers and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1991-08-01

    The issue of discrimination in physically demanding employment, such as police, firefighters, prison guards and military personnel, is contentious. In terms of oxygen transport, the 'action limit' (calling for personnel selection or task redesign) is a steady oxygen consumption of 0.7 L/min, while the maximum permissible limit is 2.1 L/min. Note is taken of the commonly expressed belief that public safety duties are physically demanding, calling for personnel with an aerobic power of at least 3 L/min, or 42 to 45 ml/kg/min. The actual demands of such work can be assessed on small samples by physiological measurements (using heart rate or oxygen consumption meters), but the periods sampled may not be typical of a normal day. A Gestalt can also be formed as to the heaviness of a given job, or a detailed task analysis can be performed; most such analyses of public safety work list distance running and other aerobic activities infrequently. An arbitrary requirement of 'above average fitness' is no longer accepted by courts, but a further approach is to examine the characteristics of those currently meeting the demands of public safety jobs satisfactorily. Young men commonly satisfy the 3 L/min standard, but this is not usually the case for women or older men; in the case of female employees, it also seems unreasonable that they should be expected to satisfy the same standards as men, since a lower body mass reduces the energy cost of most of the tasks that they must perform. A second criterion sometimes applied to physically demanding work (a low vulnerability to heart attacks) is examined critically. It is concluded that the chances that a symptom-free public safety officer will develop a heart attack during a critical solo mission are so low that cardiac risk should not be a condition of employment. Arbitrary age- and sex-related employment criteria are plainly discriminatory, since some women and 65-year-old men have higher levels of physical fitness than the

  13. Psychosocial correlates of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in overweight and obese post-menopausal women: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Fontaine, Jonathan; Messier, Virginie; Messier, Lyne; Blanchard, Chris; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Strychar, Irene

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and muscle strength in overweight and obese sedentary post-menopausal women. The study population consisted of 137 non-diabetic, sedentary overweight and obese post-menopausal women (mean age 57.7 years, s = 4.8; body mass index 32.4 kg.m(-2), s = 4.6). At baseline we measured: (1) body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; (2) visceral fat using computed tomography; (3) insulin sensitivity using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp; (4) cardiorespiratory fitness; (5) muscle strength using the leg press exercise; and (6) psychosocial profile (quality of life, perceived stress, self-esteem, body-esteem, and perceived risk for developing chronic diseases) using validated questionnaires. Both VO2peak and muscle strength were significantly correlated with quality of life (r = 0.29, P < 0.01 and r = 0.30, P < 0.01, respectively), and quality of life subscales for: physical functioning (r = 0.28, P < 0.01 and r = 0.22, P < 0.05, respectively), pain (r = 0.18, P < 0.05 and r = 0.23, P < 0.05, respectively), role functioning (r = 0.20, P < 0.05 and r = 0.24, P < 0.05, respectively), and perceived risks (r = -0.24, P < 0.01 and r = -0.30, P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, VO2peak was significantly associated with positive health perceptions, greater body esteem, and less time watching television/video. Stepwise regression analysis showed that quality of life for health perceptions and for role functioning were independent predictors of VO2peak and muscle strength, respectively. In conclusion, higher VO2peak and muscle strength are associated with a favourable psychosocial profile, and the psychosocial correlates of VO2peak were different from those of muscle strength. Furthermore, psychosocial factors could be predictors of VO2peak and muscle strength in our cohort of overweight and obese sedentary post-menopausal women.

  14. Racial Differences in the Prognostic Value of Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Results from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    PubMed

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qureshi, Waqas T; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Alam, Mohsin; Dardari, Zeina; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine whether racial differences exist in the prognostic value of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in black and white patients undergoing stress testing. We included 53,876 patients (mean age 53 ± 13, 49% women) from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing project free of established coronary disease or heart failure who completed a maximal exercise test from 1991 to 2009. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 11.5 years for all-cause mortality, ascertained by linkage with the Death Master File. Follow-up over mean 6.2 years was also available for incident myocardial infarction. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used adjusting for demographic variables, risk factors, medications, and reason for stress test referral, including formal interaction testing by race (black vs white). Black patients (n = 16,725) were younger (54 ± 13 vs 52 ± 13, p <0.001) but had higher prevalence of hypertension (73% vs 57%, p <0.001) and obesity (28% vs 21%, p <0.001). On average, black patients achieved a lower CRF compared with whites (8.4 vs 9.5 metabolic equivalents, p <0.0001). A graded increase in mortality risk was noted with decreasing CRF for both black and white patients. In multivariate Cox regression, CRF was a predictor of both myocardial infarction and mortality, with no significant interaction between race, fitness, and outcomes (all interaction terms p >0.10). CRF is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in both white and black patients, with no significant interaction observed between race, fitness, and outcomes. PMID:26976790

  15. Racial Differences in the Prognostic Value of Cardiorespiratory Fitness (Results from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    PubMed

    Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Qureshi, Waqas T; Keteyian, Steven J; Brawner, Clinton A; Alam, Mohsin; Dardari, Zeina; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this analysis was to determine whether racial differences exist in the prognostic value of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in black and white patients undergoing stress testing. We included 53,876 patients (mean age 53 ± 13, 49% women) from the Henry Ford Exercise Testing project free of established coronary disease or heart failure who completed a maximal exercise test from 1991 to 2009. Patients were followed for a mean duration of 11.5 years for all-cause mortality, ascertained by linkage with the Death Master File. Follow-up over mean 6.2 years was also available for incident myocardial infarction. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used adjusting for demographic variables, risk factors, medications, and reason for stress test referral, including formal interaction testing by race (black vs white). Black patients (n = 16,725) were younger (54 ± 13 vs 52 ± 13, p <0.001) but had higher prevalence of hypertension (73% vs 57%, p <0.001) and obesity (28% vs 21%, p <0.001). On average, black patients achieved a lower CRF compared with whites (8.4 vs 9.5 metabolic equivalents, p <0.0001). A graded increase in mortality risk was noted with decreasing CRF for both black and white patients. In multivariate Cox regression, CRF was a predictor of both myocardial infarction and mortality, with no significant interaction between race, fitness, and outcomes (all interaction terms p >0.10). CRF is a strong predictor of all-cause mortality in both white and black patients, with no significant interaction observed between race, fitness, and outcomes.

  16. Understanding the independent and joint associations of the home and workplace built environments on cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Schootman, Mario

    2013-10-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20-88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000-2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group-level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health.

  17. Sprint interval training (SIT) is an effective method to maintain cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis in Scottish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R; Baker, JS; Young, J; Sculthorpe, N; Grace, FM

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the physiological impact of a school based sprint interval training (SIT) intervention in replacement of standard physical education (SPE) class on cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) and glucose homeostasis during the semester following summer vacation. Participants (n=49) were randomly allocated to either intervention (SIT; n=26, aged 16.9 ± 0.3 yrs) or control group who underwent standard physical education (SPE; n=23, aged 16.8 ± 0.6 yrs). CRF (VO2max) and glucose homeostasis were obtained prior-to and following 7 weeks of SIT exercise. Significant group x time interaction was observed for CRF (P < 0.01) with non-significant trends for fasting insulin (P= 0.08), and HOMA-IR (P=0.06). CRF decreased (P < 0.01) in SPE such that POST intervention CRF was significantly lower (P< 0.05) in SPE. Fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.01), insulin (P< 0.01) and HOMA-IR (P< 0.01) increased significantly amongst SPE. The main finding of the present study is that 7-weeks of SIT exercise is an effective method of maintaining (but not improving) CRF and fasting insulin homeostasis amongst school-going adolescents. SIT exercise demonstrates potential as a time efficient physiological adjunct to standard PE class in order to maintain CRF during the school term. PMID:26681833

  18. Understanding the Independent and Joint Associations of the Home and Workplace Built Environments on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Allen, Peg; Barlow, Carolyn E.; Marx, Christine M.; Brownson, Ross C.; Schootman, Mario

    2013-01-01

    This observational study examined the associations of built environment features around the home and workplace with cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) based on a treadmill test and body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)2). The study included 8,857 adults aged 20–88 years who completed a preventive medical examination in 2000–2007 while living in 12 Texas counties. Analyses examining workplace neighborhood characteristics included a subset of 4,734 participants. Built environment variables were derived around addresses by using geographic information systems. Models were adjusted for individual-level and census block group–level demographics and socioeconomic status, smoking, BMI (in CRF models), and all other home or workplace built environment variables. CRF was associated with higher intersection density, higher number of private exercise facilities around the home and workplace, larger area of vegetation around the home, and shorter distance to the closest city center. Aside from vegetation, these same built environment features around the home were also associated with BMI. Participants who lived and worked in neighborhoods in the lowest tertiles for intersection density and the number of private exercise facilities had lower CRF and higher BMI values than participants who lived and worked in higher tertiles for these variables. This study contributes new evidence to suggest that built environment features around homes and workplaces may affect health. PMID:23942215

  19. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged <50 years, men, and people with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome appeared to benefit more. Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  20. Functional Connectivity: A Source of Variance in the Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Prakash, Ruchika S.; Chaddock, Laura; Malkowski, Edward; Alves, Heloisa; Kim, Jennifer S.; Morris, Katherine S.; White, Siobhan M.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Hu, Liang; Szabo, Amanda; Klamm, Emily; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Over the next 20 years the number of Americans diagnosed with dementia is expected to more than double (CDC, 2007). It is, therefore, an important public health initiative to understand what factors contribute to the longevity of a healthy mind. Both default mode network (DMN) function and increased aerobic fitness have been associated with better…

  1. Parental education level is associated with clustering of metabolic risk factors in adolescents independently of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rute; Moreira, Carla; Abreu, Sandra; Lopes, Luís; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Moreira, Pedro; Silva, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    Few studies have reported associations between clustering metabolic risk factors and socioeconomic status (SES) in youth. This study aimed to analyze the association between clustering metabolic risk factors and SES in adolescents. It was hypothesized that SES is inversely related to clustering metabolic risk factors. This 2009 cross-sectional school-based study investigated 517 Portuguese adolescents ages 15-18 years. The study considered the age- and sex-adjusted z-scores for the ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein, homeostasis model, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure, and a metabolic risk score was constructed by summing all the z-scores (≥1 standard deviation was considered high risk). Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated by the 20 m shuttle-run test and dietary intake by a food frequency questionnaire. The best of parental education was used as a proxy measure of SES. The results showed that adolescents with low SES were more likely to have a high metabolic risk score (odds ratio [OR], 1.96; p < 0.020) regardless of cardiorespiratory fitness, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, or pubertal stage. In conclusion, a lower SES was associated with increased risk for a high metabolic risk score among Azorean adolescents after adjustment for pubertal stage, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Future health-promotion strategies among Azorean adolescents should consider the impact of SES on their health.

  2. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  3. Associations between food groups, dietary patterns, and cardiorespiratory fitness in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study123

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David R; Lewis, Cora E; Steffen, Lyn M; Sternfeld, Barbara; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Richman, Joshua S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the association between overall diet and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Objective: We aimed to investigate associations of food groups, a diet-quality score, and dietary patterns with CRF in black and white adults. Design: We included 2632 participants aged 38–50 y who attended the year 20 exam of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study and Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Fitness Study (CFS) conducted in 2005–2006. Diet was assessed by using a validated diet history. A dietary score and 2 types of patterns were included as follows: the a priori diet-quality score and meat and fruit-vegetable dietary patterns derived from principal components analysis. CRF was assessed by using a graded exercise treadmill test. Linear regression models regressed the treadmill duration on food groups and dietary scores and patterns overall and in race-sex subgroups. Results: Grains (whole and refined), processed meats, and beverages (coffee, meal-replacement drinks, beer, and wine) were positively associated with the treadmill duration overall; whole fruit (not juices), organ meats, fried meats and fish, and soy and nondairy products were negatively associated. The a priori diet-quality score was positively associated with the duration overall and in all race-sex subgroups (P <0.05) except black men. The meat pattern was negatively associated with the duration in white men and white women only. The fruit-vegetable pattern was positively associated with duration in white women only. Conclusions: Overall, the a priori diet-quality score was positively associated with CRF in this cohort of black and white adults, whereas the meat dietary pattern was negatively associated only in whites. The CARDIA study and CFS were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005130 and NCT00106457, respectively. PMID:24088719

  4. Association of Mediterranean diet and cardiorespiratory fitness with the development of pre-diabetes and diabetes: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

    PubMed Central

    Bantle, Anne E; Chow, Lisa S; Steffen, Lyn M; Wang, Qi; Hughes, John; Durant, Nefertiti H; Ingram, Katherine H; Reis, Jared P; Schreiner, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To better understand the association between a modified Mediterranean diet pattern in young adulthood, cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood, and the odds of developing pre-diabetes or diabetes by middle age. Research design and methods Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who did not have pre-diabetes or diabetes at baseline (year 0 (Y0), ages 18–30) and who had data available at the Y0 and year 25 (Y25) visits were included in this analysis (n=3358). Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the association between baseline dietary intake and fitness data and odds of pre-diabetes or diabetes by middle age (Y25, ages 43–55). Results At the Y25 visit, 1319 participants (39%) had pre-diabetes and 393 (12%) had diabetes. Higher baseline fitness was associated with lower odds of pre-diabetes and of diabetes at Y25. After adjustment for covariates, each SD increment in treadmill duration (181 s) was associated with lower odds for pre-diabetes (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95, p=0.005) and for diabetes (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.85, p=0.0002) when compared to normal glycemia. A modified Mediterranean diet pattern was not associated with either pre-diabetes or diabetes. No interaction between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake was observed, but baseline fitness remained independently associated with incident pre-diabetes and diabetes following adjustment for diet. Conclusions Higher cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood, but not a modified Mediterranean diet pattern, is associated with lower odds of pre-diabetes and of diabetes in middle age. Trial registration number NCT00005130.

  5. Association of Mediterranean diet and cardiorespiratory fitness with the development of pre-diabetes and diabetes: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study

    PubMed Central

    Bantle, Anne E; Chow, Lisa S; Steffen, Lyn M; Wang, Qi; Hughes, John; Durant, Nefertiti H; Ingram, Katherine H; Reis, Jared P; Schreiner, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To better understand the association between a modified Mediterranean diet pattern in young adulthood, cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood, and the odds of developing pre-diabetes or diabetes by middle age. Research design and methods Participants from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study who did not have pre-diabetes or diabetes at baseline (year 0 (Y0), ages 18–30) and who had data available at the Y0 and year 25 (Y25) visits were included in this analysis (n=3358). Polytomous logistic regression models were used to assess the association between baseline dietary intake and fitness data and odds of pre-diabetes or diabetes by middle age (Y25, ages 43–55). Results At the Y25 visit, 1319 participants (39%) had pre-diabetes and 393 (12%) had diabetes. Higher baseline fitness was associated with lower odds of pre-diabetes and of diabetes at Y25. After adjustment for covariates, each SD increment in treadmill duration (181 s) was associated with lower odds for pre-diabetes (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95, p=0.005) and for diabetes (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.85, p=0.0002) when compared to normal glycemia. A modified Mediterranean diet pattern was not associated with either pre-diabetes or diabetes. No interaction between cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake was observed, but baseline fitness remained independently associated with incident pre-diabetes and diabetes following adjustment for diet. Conclusions Higher cardiorespiratory fitness in young adulthood, but not a modified Mediterranean diet pattern, is associated with lower odds of pre-diabetes and of diabetes in middle age. Trial registration number NCT00005130. PMID:27648287

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness and dietary intake in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-García, M; Ortega, F B; Huybrechts, I; Ruiz, J R; González-Gross, M; Ottevaere, C; Sjöström, M; Dìaz, L E; Ciarapica, D; Molnar, D; Gottrand, F; Plada, M; Manios, Y; Moreno, L A; De Henauw, S; Kersting, M; Castillo, M J

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and dietary intake in European adolescents. The study comprised 1492 adolescents (770 females) from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. CRF was assessed by the 20 m shuttle run test. Adolescents were grouped into low and high CRF levels according to the FITNESSGRAM Standards. Dietary intake was self-registered by the adolescents using a computer-based tool for 24 h dietary recalls (HELENA-Dietary Assessment Tool) on two non-consecutive days. Weight and height were measured, and BMI was calculated. Higher CRF was associated with higher total energy intake in boys (P = 0·003). No association was found between CRF and macronutrient intake (as percentage of energy), yet some positive associations were found with daily intake of bread/cereals in boys and dairy products in both boys and girls (all P < 0·003), regardless of centre, age and BMI. CRF was inversely related to sweetened beverage consumption in girls. These findings were overall consistent when CRF was analysed according to the FITNESSGRAM categories (high/low CRF). A high CRF was not related to compliance with dietary recommendations, except for sweetened beverages in girls (P = 0·002). In conclusion, a high CRF is associated with a higher intake of dairy products and bread/cereals, and a lower consumption of sweetened beverages, regardless of centre, age and BMI. The present findings contribute to the understanding of the relationships between dietary factors and physiological health indicators such as CRF.

  7. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  8. Combined effects of body mass index and cardio/respiratory fitness on serum vaspin concentrations in Korean young men.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin-Kyung; Han, Tae-Kyung; Kang, Hyun-Sik

    2010-01-01

    Little information is available regarding how body fatness and cardio/respiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with serum vaspin. The purpose of the study was to investigate the combined effect of body mass index (BMI) and CRF on serum vaspin in Korean young men. In a cross-sectional study, we examined 490 Korean young men (mean age 23.8 +/- 2.5 years) who were voluntarily recruited. Body fatness and fasting levels of serum insulin, adiponectin, and vaspin were measured. CRF was quantified as the minute volume of oxygen consumption (VO(2)) measured during a graded treadmill test. We assigned individuals to either low or middle or high third CRF tertiles based on age-adjusted VO(2max). We also assigned individuals to either a lean weight (LN) or obese (OB) group based on body fatness levels, in which a BMI value >/=25 kg/m(2) was used as an indicator of Pacific-Asian obesity. Group analyses showed significant interaction effects between fatness and CRF on fasting insulin and serum vaspin such that the OB group with low CRF levels had significantly higher insulin and vaspin concentrations than the OB counterparts with moderate to high CRF levels, and no such CRF-based sub-group differences in insulin and vaspin were found in the LN groups. Regression analyses show that BMI, waist circumference, VO(2), and fasting insulin explain approximately 18% of the individual variations in serum vaspin concentration in this study population. This is the first study to show that high body fatness along with low CRF might contribute to increased vaspin concentrations in Korean young men.

  9. Relationships of Cardiorespiratory Fitness with Metabolic Risk Factors, Inflammation, and Liver Transaminases in Overweight Youths

    PubMed Central

    Bouglé, Dominique; Zunquin, Gautier; Sesbouë, Bruno; Sabatier, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationships of fatness and fitness with metabolic risk factors, including liver transaminases and inflammation in obese youth, taking in account gender, age, and pubertal stage. 241 children were studied (135 girls), age 11.9 ± 2.2 years (x ± SD), Body Mass Index z score 5.4 ± 2.7. For girls, VO2max was significantly associated with insulin (P = .001), Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = .005), and ALT (P = .012); a relationship was displayed between fibrinogen and age and % fat mass (FM) (P = .008); for boys, relationships were found between VO2max and diastolic blood pressure and triglycerides; independent associations were also found between age and insulin, HOMA-IR and HDL cholesterol; fibrinogen and sedimentation rate were related (P ≤ .004) with %FM. Their relationships are observed from young age and increase with the continuous increase of factors. This supports the need to treat overweight as soon as it is detected; improving CRF is one of the ways which could be used to prevent the complications of obesity. PMID:20652084

  10. Influence of activity patterns in fitness during youth.

    PubMed

    Aires, L; Silva, G; Martins, C; Santos, M P; Ribeiro, J C; Mota, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze longitudinal associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and body mass index in a 4-year longitudinal study. 170 students (97 girls and 73 boys) aged at baseline from 11 to 17 years were followed. Students performed 20-m-SR; physical activity patterns and parents' education were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Body mass index was categorized according to established cut points. In a multilevel analysis using MLwIN, 2 level structures were defined: first for individuals and second for time observations. In a longitudinal 2 level analysis, cardiorespiratory fitness was -negatively associated with body mass index for girls and boys, respectively (p<0.05; R2=0.63; 0.62), especially with obesity category (p<0.01; R2=0.58; 0.60). In girls, independent associations were observed between CRF and PA categories regarding participation "almost every day" in organized (p<0.05; R2=0.50) and non-organized sports outside school (p<0.05; R2=0.52) and participation in sports competitions (p<0.05; R2=0.51). In boys, associations were found only with participation in sports competitions (p<0.05; R2=0.50). The results highlight the importance of youth participation in organized activities and competitive sports over time to achieve health-related fitness benefits.

  11. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness on Serum Ferritin Concentration and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes: Evidence from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS)

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tuan D.; Bae, Sejong; Ed Hsu, Chiehwen; Singh, Karan P.; Blair, Steven N.; Shang, Ning

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are inversely related to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Both play an important role in reducing serum ferritin (SF) concentration. Increased SF concentration is considered a contributing factor for developing T2D. METHODS: The present cohort study investigated 5,512 adult participants enrolled in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) between 1995 and 2001. The subjects completed a comprehensive medical examination and a SF evaluation, and had been followed up until either diabetes onset, death, or the cut-off date of November 2007. Three CRF levels were categorized. SF quartile levels were defined by gender and menopausal status. The incidence of T2D was calculated for 10,000 person-years, and hazard ratios (HR) were computed to predict the incidence of T2D based on SF quartiles and CRF levels. RESULTS: SF concentration was significantly higher in males than in females (148.5 ± 104.7 ng/ml vs. 52.2 ± 45.9 ng/ml) and was inversely associated with CRF levels. In the high CRF group, 32.7% of participants had a low SF concentration whereas only 16.8% of participants had a high SF concentration level. After adjusting for potential confounders, male participants in the highest SF quartile level had a 1.7 times (HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.66; p-trend = 0.027) increased risk for developing T2D compared with those in the lowest SF quartile group. CONCLUSION: Lower SF concentration was associated with lower risk of developing T2D in those regularly participating in CRF. The findings from this study suggest that SF concentration could be used as a diabetic predictor. Based on these results clinicians and public health professionals should promote regular physical activity or fitness to reduce the incidence of T2D. PMID:19290385

  12. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  13. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on a task-switching protocol and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentrations in young adults with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Pan, Chien-Yu; Chen, Fu-Chen; Wang, Chun-Hao; Chou, Feng-Ying

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Neurocognitive functions can be enhanced by acute aerobic exercise, which could be associated with changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations. We aimed to explore acute exercise-induced changes in BDNF concentrations, neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances when individuals with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness performed a cognitive task. What is the main finding and its importance? Only young adults with higher cardiorespiratory fitness could attain switching cost and neurophysiological benefits via acute aerobic exercise. The mechanisms might be fitness dependent. Although acute aerobic exercise could enhance serum BDNF concentrations, changes in peripheral BDNF concentrations could not be the potential factor involved in the beneficial effects on neurocognitive performance. This study investigated the effects of acute aerobic exercise on neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a task-switching protocol and explored the potential associations between acute aerobic exercise-induced changes in serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations and various neurocognitive outcomes. Sixty young adults were categorized into one control group (i.e. non-exercise-intervention; n = 20) and two exercise-intervention (EI) groups [i.e. higher (EIH , n = 20) and lower (EIL , n = 20) cardiorespiratory fitness] according to their maximal oxygen consumption. At baseline and after either an acute bout of 30 min of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise or a control period, the neuropsychological and neurophysiological performances and serum BDNF concentrations were measured when the participants performed a task-switching protocol involving executive control and greater demands on working memory. The results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction

  14. Criterion-Related Validity of the Distance- and Time-Based Walk/Run Field Tests for Estimating Cardiorespiratory Fitness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Bocanegra-Parrilla, Raúl; Ornelas, Martha; Viciana, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the criterion-related validity of the distance- and time-based walk/run tests for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness among apparently healthy children and adults. Materials and Methods Relevant studies were searched from seven electronic bibliographic databases up to August 2015 and through other sources. The Hunter-Schmidt’s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate the population criterion-related validity of the following walk/run tests: 5,000 m, 3 miles, 2 miles, 3,000 m, 1.5 miles, 1 mile, 1,000 m, ½ mile, 600 m, 600 yd, ¼ mile, 15 min, 12 min, 9 min, and 6 min. Results From the 123 included studies, a total of 200 correlation values were analyzed. The overall results showed that the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests for estimating maximum oxygen uptake ranged from low to moderate (rp = 0.42–0.79), with the 1.5 mile (rp = 0.79, 0.73–0.85) and 12 min walk/run tests (rp = 0.78, 0.72–0.83) having the higher criterion-related validity for distance- and time-based field tests, respectively. The present meta-analysis also showed that sex, age and maximum oxygen uptake level do not seem to affect the criterion-related validity of the walk/run tests. Conclusions When the evaluation of an individual’s maximum oxygen uptake attained during a laboratory test is not feasible, the 1.5 mile and 12 min walk/run tests represent useful alternatives for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness. As in the assessment with any physical fitness field test, evaluators must be aware that the performance score of the walk/run field tests is simply an estimation and not a direct measure of cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:26987118

  15. Sprint Interval and Sprint Continuous Training Increases Circulating CD34+ Cells and Cardio-Respiratory Fitness in Young Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Emma; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Birch, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The improvement of vascular health in the exercising limb can be attained by sprint interval training (SIT). However, the effects on systemic vascular function and on circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) which may contribute to endothelial repair have not been investigated. Additionally, a comparison between SIT and sprint continuous training (SCT) which is less time committing has not been made. Methods 12 women (22±2 yrs) completed 12 sessions of either SIT (n = 6) or work-matched SCT (n = 6) on 3 days/week. Pre and post-training assessments included brachial artery endothelial function and peripheral blood analysis for CAC number (CD34+/CD34+CD45dim). CAC function was measured by migration and adhesion assays. Cardio-respiratory fitness, carotid arterial stiffness and carotid-radial and brachial-foot pulse wave velocity (PWV) were also evaluated. Results CD34+ CACs increased following training in both groups but CD34+CD45dim did not (Pre CD34+: 40±21/105 leukocytes, Post CD34+: 56±24/105 leukocytes, main time effect p<0.05). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased following SIT but SCT had no effect (Pre SIT: 5.0±3.4%, Post SIT: 5.9±3.0%, Pre SCT: 7.2±2.7%, Post SCT: 6.5±2.9%; group x time interaction p = 0.08). increased in both training groups (Pre: 34.6±4.6 ml•kg•ml−1, Post: 36.9±5.4 ml•kg•ml−1, main time effect p<0.05). CAC function, carotid arterial stiffness and PWV did not change after training (p>0.05). Discussion SCT involving little time commitment is comparable to SIT in increasing CD34+ cell number and . An increased mobilisation of CD34+ CACs suggests that sprint training may be an effective method to enhance vascular repair. PMID:25265043

  16. The Effect of Changes in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Weight on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Overweight Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Reboussin, David M.; Foster, Gary D.; Rice, Thomas B.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Jakicic, John M.; Millman, Richard P.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Newman, Anne B.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Zammit, Gary; Kuna, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the effect of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity prior to and following adjustment for changes in weight over the course of a 4-y weight loss intervention. Methods: As secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial, 263 overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes and OSA participated in an intensive lifestyle intervention or education control condition. Measures of OSA severity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and body weight were obtained at baseline, year 1, and year 4. Change in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) served as the primary outcome. The percentage change in fitness (submaximal metabolic equivalents [METs]) and change in weight (kg) were the primary independent variables. Primary analyses collapsed intervention conditions with statistical adjustment for treatment group and baseline METs, weight, and AHI among other relevant covariates. Results: At baseline, greater METs were associated with lower AHI (B [SE] = −1.48 [0.71], P = 0.038), but this relationship no longer existed (B [SE] = −0.24 [0.73], P = 0.75) after adjustment for weight (B [SE] = 0.31 [0.07], P < 0.0001). Fitness significantly increased at year 1 (+16.53 ± 28.71% relative to baseline), but returned to near-baseline levels by year 4 (+1.81 ± 24.48%). In mixed-model analyses of AHI change over time without consideration of weight change, increased fitness at year 1 (B [SE] = −0.15 [0.04], P < 0.0001), but not at year 4 (B [SE] = 0.04 [0.05], P = 0.48), was associated with AHI reduction. However, with weight change in the model, greater weight loss was associated with AHI reduction at years 1 and 4 (B [SE] = 0.81 [0.16] and 0.60 [0.16], both P < 0.0001), rendering the association between fitness and AHI change at year 1 nonsignificant (B [SE] = −0.04 [0.04], P = 0.31). Conclusions: Among overweight/obese adults with type 2 diabetes, fitness change did not influence OSA severity change when weight change was

  17. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  18. Cardiorespiratory effects of forced activity and digestion in toads.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm; Wang, Tobias

    2003-01-01

    Digestion and physical activity are associated with large and sometimes opposite changes in several physiological parameters. Gastric acid secretion during digestion causes increased levels of plasma bicarbonate ([HCO-3](pl)), whereas activity leads to a metabolic acidosis with increased lactate and decrease in plasma bicarbonate. Here we describe the combined effects of feeding and activity in the toad Bufo marinus to investigate whether the increased bicarbonate buffering capacity during digestion (the so-called alkaline tide) protects the acid-base disturbance during activity and enhances the subsequent recovery. In addition, we describe the changes in arterial oxygen levels and plasma ion composition, as well as rates of gas exchange, heart rates, and blood pressures. Toads were equipped with catheters in the femoral artery and divided into four experimental regimes: control, digestion, forced activity, and forced activity during the postprandial period (N=6 in each). Digestion induced a significant metabolic alkalosis with increased [HCO-3](pl) that was completely balanced by a respiratory acidosis; that is, increased arterial Pco(2) (P(a)co(2)), so that arterial pH (pH(a)) did not change. Forced activity led to a substantial reduction in pH(a) by 0.43 units, an increase in plasma lactate concentration by 12.5 mmol L(-1), and a reduction in [HCO-3](pl) of similar magnitude. While digesting animals had higher P(a)co(2) and [HCO-3](pl) at rest, the magnitude and duration of the changes in arterial acid-base parameters were similar to those of fasting animals, although the reduction in pH(a) was somewhat lower (0.32 units). In conclusion, while recovery from the acidosis following exercise did not seem to be affected by digestion, the alkaline tide did slightly dampen the reduction in pH(a) during activity.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with brain structure, cognition, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Boots, Elizabeth A.; Schultz, Stephanie A.; Oh, Jennifer M.; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Dowling, Maritza N.; Gallagher, Catherine L.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Rowley, Howard A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; LaRue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective measure of habitual physical activity (PA), and has been linked to increased brain structure and cognition. The gold standard method for measuring CRF is graded exercise testing (GXT), but GXT is not feasible in many settings. The objective of this study was to examine whether a non-exercise estimate of CRF is related to gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, objective and subjective memory function, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Three hundred and fifteen cognitively healthy adults (mean age = 58.58 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention underwent structural MRI scanning, cognitive testing, anthropometric assessment, venipuncture for laboratory tests, and completed a self-reported PA questionnaire. A subset (n=85) underwent maximal GXT. CRF was estimated using a previously validated equation incorporating sex, age, body-mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported PA. Results indicated that the CRF estimate was significantly associated with GXT-derived peak oxygen consumption, validating its use as a non-exercise CRF measure in our sample. Support for this finding was seen in significant associations between the CRF estimate and several cardiovascular risk factors. Higher CRF was associated with greater GM volumes in several AD-relevant brain regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Increased CRF was also associated with lower WMH and better cognitive performance in Verbal Learning & Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visuospatial Ability. Lastly, CRF was negatively correlated with self- and informant-reported memory complaints, and depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that habitual participation in physical activity may provide protection for brain structure and cognitive function, thereby decreasing future risk for AD

  20. Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with brain structure, cognition, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Boots, Elizabeth A; Schultz, Stephanie A; Oh, Jennifer M; Larson, Jordan; Edwards, Dorothy; Cook, Dane; Koscik, Rebecca L; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; LaRue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Sager, Mark A; Johnson, Sterling C; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

    2015-09-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an objective measure of habitual physical activity (PA), and has been linked to increased brain structure and cognition. The gold standard method for measuring CRF is graded exercise testing (GXT), but GXT is not feasible in many settings. The objective of this study was to examine whether a non-exercise estimate of CRF is related to gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cognition, objective and subjective memory function, and mood in a middle-aged cohort at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred and fifteen cognitively healthy adults (mean age =58.58 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention underwent structural MRI scanning, cognitive testing, anthropometric assessment, venipuncture for laboratory tests, and completed a self-reported PA questionnaire. A subset (n = 85) underwent maximal GXT. CRF was estimated using a previously validated equation incorporating sex, age, body-mass index, resting heart rate, and self-reported PA. Results indicated that the CRF estimate was significantly associated with GXT-derived peak oxygen consumption, validating its use as a non-exercise CRF measure in our sample. Support for this finding was seen in significant associations between the CRF estimate and several cardiovascular risk factors. Higher CRF was associated with greater GM volumes in several AD-relevant brain regions including the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, supramarginal gyrus, and rostral middle frontal gyrus. Increased CRF was also associated with lower WMH and better cognitive performance in Verbal Learning & Memory, Speed & Flexibility, and Visuospatial Ability. Lastly, CRF was negatively correlated with self- and informant-reported memory complaints, and depressive symptoms. Together, these findings suggest that habitual participation in physical activity may provide protection for brain structure and cognitive function, thereby decreasing future risk for AD.

  1. Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to study the relative health risks of poor cardio-respiratory fitness (or physical inactivity) in normal-weight people vs. obesity in individuals with good cardio-respiratory fitness (or high physical activity). The core inclusion criteria were: publication year 1990 or later; adult participants; design prospective follow-up, case-control or cross-sectional; data on cardio-respiratory fitness and/or physical activity; data on BMI (body mass index), waist circumference or body composition; outcome data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Thirty-six publications filled the criteria for inclusion. The data indicate that the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was lower in individuals with high BMI and good aerobic fitness, compared with individuals with normal BMI and poor fitness. In contrast, having high BMI even with high physical activity was a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, compared with normal BMI with low physical activity. The conclusions of the present review may not be applicable to individuals with BMI > 35.

  2. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  3. Both poor cardiorespiratory and weak muscle fitness are related to a high concentration of oxidized low-density lipoprotein lipids.

    PubMed

    Kosola, J; Ahotupa, M; Kyröläinen, H; Santtila, M; Vasankari, T

    2012-12-01

    Good physical fitness is associated with favorable serum lipids. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) could be even more atherogenic than serum lipids. We studied the association of ox-LDL and serum lipids with physical fitness. Healthy young (mean age 25 years) men (n=846) underwent maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and muscle fitness index (MFI) tests and completed a leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) questionnaire. Age (ANCOVA1), age+waist circumference+systolic blood pressure+fasting blood glucose+smoking (ANCOVA3) were used as covariates. The groups with the lowest VO(2max), MFI and LTPA had 23%, 16% and 8% higher concentrations of ox-LDL than the groups with the highest VO(2max) (P<0.0001), MFI (P=0.022) and LTPA (P=0.039) groups, respectively. Subjects with poor fitness (low VO(2max) or low MFI) or low LTPA had elevated levels of ox-LDL/high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, in all, P<0.05). Furthermore, low VO(2max) is associated with a high level of ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and with a low level of HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA3, in all, P<0.05). Also, subjects with low LTPA had a high ratio of ox-LDL/HDL-cholesterol (ANCOVA1, P=0.001). In conclusion, both poor fitness (both low VO(2max) and low MFI) and low LTPA are associated with a higher concentration of ox-LDL lipids and serum lipids, which may indicate a higher risk for atherosclerosis.

  4. Using the oxygen uptake efficiency slope as an indicator of cardiorespiratory fitness in the obese pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Breithaupt, Peter G; Colley, Rachel C; Adamo, Kristi B

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between the Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) and traditional measures of cardiorespiratory function in an overweight/obese pediatric sample. Maximal treadmill exercise testing with indirect calorimetry was completed on 56 obese children aged 7-18 years. Maximal OUES, submaximal OUES, VO(2peak), VE(peak), and ventilatory threshold (VT) were determined. In line with comparable research in healthy-weight samples, maximal and submaximal OUES were both correlated with VO(2peak), VE(peak), and VT (r(2)= 0.44-0.91) in the obese pediatric sample. Correlations were also found with anthropometric variables, including height (cm), body surface area (m(2)), body mass (kg), and fat free mass (kg). In comparing our data to a published sample of healthy weight children, maximal and submaximal exercise OUES were both higher in our obese sample. However, when we adjusted for any of body mass (kg), BSA (m(2)), or FFM (kg) the obese children were found to be less efficient. The results of this study suggest the use of OUES to be an appropriate measure of efficiency of ventilation and cardiorespiratory function in obese children, while also showing that our sample of obese children were less efficient on a per kilogram basis when compared with their healthy weight peers.

  5. Physical fitness and activity as separate heart disease risk factors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Public health policies for physical activity presume that the greatest health benefits are achieved by increasing physical activity among the least active. This presumption is based largely on studies of cardiorespiratory fitness. To assess whether studies of cardiorespiratory fitness are germane to physical activity guidelines, we compared the dose-response relationships between cardiovascular disease endpoints with leisure-time physical activity and fitness from published studies. Data Sources Twenty-three sex-specific cohorts of physical activity or fitness (representing 1,325,004 person-years of follow-up), cited in Tables 4-1 and 4-2 of the Surgeon General's Report. Data Synthesis Relative risks were plotted as a function of the cumulative percentages of the samples when ranked from least fit or active, to most fit or active. To combine study results, a weighted average of the relative risks over the 16 physical activity or seven fitness cohorts was computed at every 5th percentile between the 5% and 100%. The analyses show that the risks of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease decrease linearly in association with increasing percentiles of physical activity. In contrast, there is a precipitous drop in risk occurring before the 25th percentile of the fitness distribution. As a consequence of this drop, there is a significant difference in the risk reduction associated with being more physically active or physically fit (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Being unfit warrants consideration as a risk factor, distinctly from inactivity, and worthy of screening and intervention. Formulating physical activity recommendations on the basis of fitness studies may inappropriately demote the status of physical fitness as a risk factor while exaggerating the public health benefits of moderate amounts of physical activity. PMID:11323544

  6. Cardio-respiratory effects of systemic neurotensin injection are mediated through activation of neurotensin NTS₁ receptors.

    PubMed

    Kaczyńska, Katarzyna; Szereda-Przestaszewska, Małgorzata

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of our study was to determine the cardio-respiratory pattern exerted by the systemic injection of neurotensin, contribution of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors and the neural pathways mediating the responses. The effects of an intravenous injection (i.v.) of neurotensin were investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats in following experimental schemes: (i) control animals before and after midcervical vagotomy; (ii) in three separate subgroups of rats: neurally intact, vagotomized at supranodosal level and initially midcervically vagotomized exposed to section of the carotid sinus nerves (CSNs); (iii) in the intact rats 2 minutes after blockade of neurotensin NTS(1) receptors with SR 142948. Intravenous injection of 10 μg/kg of neurotensin in the intact rats evoked prompt increase in the respiratory rate followed by a prolonged slowing down coupled with augmented tidal volume. Midcervical vagotomy precluded the effects of neurotensin on the frequency of breathing, while CSNs section reduced the increase in tidal volume. In all the neural states neurotensin caused significant fall in mean arterial blood pressure preceded by prompt hypertensive response. The cardio-respiratory effects of neurotensin were blocked by pre-treatment with NTS(1) receptor antagonist. The results of this study showed that neurotensin acting through NTS(1) receptors augments the tidal component of the breathing pattern in a large portion via carotid body afferentation whereas the respiratory timing response to neurotensin depends entirely on the intact midcervical vagi. Blood pressure effects evoked by an intravenous neurotensin occur outside vagal and CSNs pathways and might result from activation of the peripheral vascular NTS(1) receptors.

  7. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3-12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  8. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness. PMID:26062039

  9. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database. PMID:22254706

  10. Cardio-respiratory and daily activity monitor based on FMCW Doppler radar embedded in a wheelchair.

    PubMed

    Postolache, Octavian; Girão, Pedro Silva; Postolache, Gabriela; Gabriel, Joaquim

    2011-01-01

    Unobtrusive monitoring of the cardio-respiratory and daily activity for wheelchair users became nowadays an important challenge, considering population aging phenomena and the increasing of the elderly with chronic diseases that affect their motion capabilities. This work reports the utilization of FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) Doppler radar sensors embedded in a manual wheelchair to measure the cardiac and respiratory activities and the physical activity of the wheelchair user. Another radar sensor is included in the system in order to quantify the motor activity through the wheelchair traveled distance, when the user performs the manual operation of the wheelchair. A conditioning circuit including active filters and a microcontroller based primary processing module was designed and implemented to deliver the information through Bluetooth communication protocol to an Android OS tablet computer. The main capabilities of the software developed using Android SDK and Java were the signal processing of Doppler radar measurement channel signals, graphical user interface, data storage and Wi-Fi data synchronization with remote physiological and physical activity database.

  11. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ. PMID:27055817

  12. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ.

  13. Effects of high-intensity exercise training on body composition, abdominal fat loss, and cardiorespiratory fitness in middle-aged Korean females.

    PubMed

    Lee, Man-Gyoon; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kim, Do-Ung; Choi, Soon-Mi; Kim, Hyoung-Jun

    2012-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity exercise training under relatively equal energy expenditure on whole body fat and abdominal fat loss, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty-two untrained middle-aged Korean females were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 14 weeks of training at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI) with the volume of exercise equated relative to kilograms of body weight. Weekly exercise volumes were 13.5 METs⋅h/week for the first 4 weeks, 18 METs⋅h/week for next 5 weeks, and 22.5 METs⋅h/week for the final 5 weeks. Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc test, using Bonferroni's correction. HI showed significant reductions in fat mass (p < 0.05), total abdominal fat (p < 0.01), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (p < 0.01). LI reduced total abdominal fat (p < 0.05), but there were no other significant changes found in the control or LI groups. Maximal oxygen consumption was enhanced in both HI and LI with no significant group difference. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly in HI (p < 0.05). IL-6, C-reactive protein, TNF-α, and other blood lipids were unaltered following training. Results indicate that high-intensity exercise training is more beneficial in whole body and abdominal fat loss; however, cardiorespiratory enhancement shows a dose-response relationship with weekly exercise volume. It is suggested that 14 weeks of aerobic exercise training at either high- or low-intensity is not sufficient enough to induce changes in levels of inflammatory proteins.

  14. Four weeks of running sprint interval training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Taura N; Thomas, Matthew P L; Schmale, Matthew S; Copeland, Jennifer L; Hazell, Tom J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 4-week running sprint interval training protocol to improve both aerobic and anaerobic fitness in middle-aged adults (40-50 years) as well as compare the adaptations to younger adults (20-30 years). Twenty-eight inactive participants - 14 young 20-30-year-olds (n = 7 males) and 14 middle-aged 40-50-year-olds (n = 5 males) - completed 4 weeks of running sprint interval training (4 to 6, 30-s "all-out" sprints on a curved, self-propelled treadmill separated by 4 min active recovery performed 3 times per week). Before and after training, all participants were assessed for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), 2000 m time trial performance, and anaerobic performance on a single 30-s sprint. There were no interactions between group and time for any tested variable, although training improved relative VO2max (young = 3.9, middle-aged = 5.2%; P < 0.04), time trial performance (young = 5.9, middle-aged = 8.2%; P < 0.001), peak sprint speed (young = 9.3, middle-aged = 2.2%; P < 0.001), and average sprint speed (young = 6.8, middle-aged = 11.6%; P < 0.001) in both young and middle-aged groups from pre- to post-training on the 30-s sprint test. The current study demonstrates that a 4-week running sprint interval training programme is equally effective at improving aerobic and anaerobic fitness in younger and middle-aged adults.

  15. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20–45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance. PMID:26717568

  16. Prediction of Cardiorespiratory Fitness by the Six-Minute Step Test and Its Association with Muscle Strength and Power in Sedentary Obese and Lean Young Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lívia Pinheiro; Di Thommazo-Luporini, Luciana; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène; Bonjorno Junior, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo; Luporini, Rafael Luís; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Zangrando, Katiany Thais Lopes; Trimer, Renata; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a hallmark characteristic in obese and lean sedentary young women. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) prediction from the six-minute step test (6MST) has not been established for sedentary females. It is recognized that lower-limb muscle strength and power play a key role during functional activities. The aim of this study was to investigate cardiorespiratory responses during the 6MST and CPX and to develop a predictive equation to estimate VO2peak in both lean and obese subjects. Additionally we aim to investigate how muscle function impacts functional performance. Lean (LN = 13) and obese (OB = 18) women, aged 20-45, underwent a CPX, two 6MSTs, and isokinetic and isometric knee extensor strength and power evaluations. Regression analysis assessed the ability to predict VO2peak from the 6MST, age and body mass index (BMI). CPX and 6MST main outcomes were compared between LN and OB and correlated with strength and power variables. CRF, functional capacity, and muscle strength and power were lower in the OB compared to LN (<0.05). During the 6MST, LN and OB reached ~90% of predicted maximal heart rate and ~80% of the VO2peak obtained during CPX. BMI, age and number of step cycles (NSC) explained 83% of the total variance in VO2peak. Moderate to strong correlations between VO2peak at CPX and VO2peak at 6MST (r = 0.86), VO2peak at CPX and NSC (r = 0.80), as well as between VO2peak, NSC and muscle strength and power variables were found (p<0.05). These findings indicate the 6MST, BMI and age accurately predict VO2peak in both lean and obese young sedentary women. Muscle strength and power were related to measures of aerobic and functional performance.

  17. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ching; Malina, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and health-related physical fitness was evaluated in 282 Taiwanese adolescents 12-14 years of age. The subjects were randomly selected from the 7th, 8th and 9th grades in two junior high schools in Taiwan. Physical activity was estimated as total daily energy expenditure and energy expenditure in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 24-hour activity records for three days, two week days and one weekend day. Health-related fitness was assessed as the one-mile run (cardiorespiratory endurance), timed sit-ups (abdominal strength and endurance), sit-and-reach (lower back flexibility), and subcutaneous fatness (sum of the triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds). Physical activity is significantly and positively correlated with one-mile run performance and the sit-and-reach, but not with sit-ups and subcutaneous fatness. Overall, the strength of the relationships between estimated energy expenditure and specific fitness items in the total sample vary from low to moderate, with only 1% to 12% of the variance in fitness variables being explained by estimated energy expenditure. Comparisons of active versus inactive, and fit versus unfit adolescents provide additional insights. The more active (highest quartile) are also more fit in cardiorespiratory endurance and in the sit-and-reach than the less active (lowest quartile), and the more fit in the one-mile run (better time, lowest quartile) and the sit-and-reach (highest quartile) are more active than the less fit in each item, respectively. PMID:11938605

  18. Effects of cardiorespiratory fitness enhancement on deficits in visuospatial working memory in children with developmental coordination disorder: a cognitive electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Fu-Chen; Hung, Tsung-Min; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of chronic aerobic exercise intervention on the behavioral and neuroelectric performances of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) when carrying out a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task. Twenty typically developing children and 40 children with DCD, equally divided into DCD-training and DCD nontraining groups, performed the cognitive task with concomitant event-related potential recording before and after 16 weeks of endurance training. Results indicated that the children with DCD displayed VSWM deficits with regard to behavioral performance (i.e., slower reaction time and low accuracy rate) and the neuroelectric indices (i.e., smaller P3 and pSW amplitudes) during the retrieval-process phase as reported in previous studies. However, after the exercise intervention, DCD-training group showed significantly higher accuracy rates and enhanced P3 amplitudes during the encoding and retrieval-process phases, compared with their pre-training performances. These findings suggest that increased cardiorespiratory fitness could effectively improve the performance of the VSWM task in children with DCD, by enabling the allocation of greater working memory resources related to encoding and retrieval. PMID:24172937

  19. Effects of cardiorespiratory fitness enhancement on deficits in visuospatial working memory in children with developmental coordination disorder: a cognitive electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Fu-Chen; Hung, Tsung-Min; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to explore the effectiveness of chronic aerobic exercise intervention on the behavioral and neuroelectric performances of children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) when carrying out a visuospatial working memory (VSWM) task. Twenty typically developing children and 40 children with DCD, equally divided into DCD-training and DCD nontraining groups, performed the cognitive task with concomitant event-related potential recording before and after 16 weeks of endurance training. Results indicated that the children with DCD displayed VSWM deficits with regard to behavioral performance (i.e., slower reaction time and low accuracy rate) and the neuroelectric indices (i.e., smaller P3 and pSW amplitudes) during the retrieval-process phase as reported in previous studies. However, after the exercise intervention, DCD-training group showed significantly higher accuracy rates and enhanced P3 amplitudes during the encoding and retrieval-process phases, compared with their pre-training performances. These findings suggest that increased cardiorespiratory fitness could effectively improve the performance of the VSWM task in children with DCD, by enabling the allocation of greater working memory resources related to encoding and retrieval.

  20. Reliability of cardiorespiratory parameters during cycling exercise performed at the severe domain in active individuals.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Luis F; Montagnana, Lucas; Denadai, Benedito S; Greco, Camila C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of cardiorespiratory parameters during cycling exercise performed at severe domain in active individuals. Thirteen active males (24.5 ± 4.5 years) performed the following tests: (a) an incremental test to determine V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and the intensity associated with VO2max (IVO2max); and (b) 4 repetitions of square-wave transitions from rest to a power corresponding to 95% IVO2max to determine the parameters of VO2 kinetics and time to exhaustion (Tlim). Participants performed only 2 transitions on any given day. The interval between the 2 experimental sessions was 48-72 hours. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and typical error as the coefficient of variation were used to assess reliability. Although the 2 measures of Tlim were moderately related (ICC = 0.78; p < 0.01), Tlim from the second session (545.2 ± 103.1 seconds) was significantly higher than that of the first (492.5 ± 100.9 seconds; p = 0.02). Moderate to high reliability (ICC = 0.76-0.93) for the amplitudes of the VO2 kinetics responses was found. Poor reliability, however, was found for time constants and time delays of the VO2 kinetics responses. Thus, in nonfamiliarized individuals, Tlim shows a relatively low within-subject coefficient of variation. However, the second score in a series of 2 Tlim tests may be significantly greater than the first. We have also demonstrated that the amplitudes of the V[Combining Dot Above]O2 response have significantly moderate to high reliability. The time-based parameters, however, present an important day-to-day intraindividual variation. Therefore, several transitions are recommended to monitoring changes in an individual over any time frame.

  1. Active Female Maximal and Anaerobic Threshold Cardiorespiratory Responses to Six Different Water Aerobics Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Amanda H.; Alberton, Cristine L.; Finatto, Paula; Pinto, Stephanie S.; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zaffari, Paula; Kruel, Luiz F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Maximal tests conducted on land are not suitable for the prescription of aquatic exercises, which makes it difficult to optimize the intensity of water aerobics classes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the maximal and anaerobic threshold cardiorespiratory responses to 6 water aerobics exercises. Volunteers performed 3 of the…

  2. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active. PMID:26898051

  3. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  4. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  5. The Chemistry of Fitness. Active Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandine, David R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The outline for a unit on the chemistry of fitness and nutrition is presented. Topics discussed include the organic basis of life, functional groups, kitchen experiments, micronutrients, energetics, fitness vs. fatness, current topics, and evaluation. This unit reviews the basic concepts of chemical bonding, acid-base chemistry, stoichiometry, and…

  6. Influence of a medium-impact exercise program on health-related quality of life and cardiorespiratory fitness in females with subclinical hypothyroidism: an open-label pilot study.

    PubMed

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness.

  7. Influence of a Medium-Impact Exercise Program on Health-Related Quality of Life and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Females with Subclinical Hypothyroidism: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Garces-Arteaga, Andrea; Nieto-Garcia, Nataly; Suarez-Sanchez, Freddy; Triana-Reina, Héctor Reynaldo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the influence of a medium-impact exercise program (MIEP) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) in females with subclinical hypothyroidism (sHT). Materials and Methods. We selected 17 sedentary women with sHT (mean age: 43.1 (standard deviation: 9.7) years). Participants carried out an MIEP consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes during 12 weeks. Before and after the exercise program HRQoL was assessed by the SF-12v2 questionnaire, and VO2max was evaluated by Rockport walk test. Results. After the 12-week intervention, the participants that performed an MIEP showed improvements in HRQoL in most domains, particularly the vitality domain by 7 points, the social functioning domain by 10 points, the mental health domain by 7 points, and the mental component summary by 7 points. One of the four domains within the physical component summary (general health domain) showed significant effect of the exercise intervention: 6 points. Moreover, the participants that performed exercise showed a higher VO2max (28%; P < 0.01). Conclusion. After 12 weeks of medium-impact exercise program, there were remarkable improvements in HRQoL in most domains. Moreover, this exercise program proved to have a positive influence on cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:24490101

  8. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    PubMed

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  9. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  10. More Cooperative and Fitness Activities on Scooters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes both individual and team cooperative and fitness activities that can be played with scooters. The activities include but are not limited to: (1) Traffic Jam; (2) Chariot; (3) Crab Walk; (4) Pom Pom Pull Away; (5) Clothespin Hustle; (6) Four Corners; (7) Spider; (8) Carousel; (9) Amoeba; (10) Caterpillar; (11) Centipede; (12)…

  11. Physical Activity and Bone Health in Schoolchildren: The Mediating Role of Fitness and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Costoso, Ana; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone health is well known, although the role of percent body fat (%BF) and fitness as confounders or mediators in this relationship remains uncertain. Objective To examine whether the association between PA and bone mineral content (BMC) is mediated by %BF and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods In this cross sectional study, BMC, total %BF (by DXA), vigorous PA (VPA), CRF, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8–11 years). ANCOVA was used to test differences in BMC by %BF, CRF and VPA, controlling for different sets of confounders. Simple mediation analyses and serial multiple mediation analyses were fitted to examine whether the relationship between PA and BMC is mediated by %BF and fitness. Results Children with high %BF had higher total body BMC than their peers after controlling for all sets of confounders. Children with good CRF or VPA had significantly less total body BMC after controlling for age and sex but in children with good CRF this inverse relation disappeared after adjusting by %BF. %BF and CRF both act as a full mediator in the association between VPA and BMC, after inclusion of the potential confounders in the models. Conclusion Fitness and %BF seem to have a mediator role on the relationship between physical activity and bone mass. PMID:25915941

  12. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  13. Physical activity and fitness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, N P; Knip, M; Paavilainen, T

    1986-01-01

    Daily physical activity and physical fitness were studied in 31 obese and 31 normal-weight children matched for age and sex. The ages of the children ranged from 5.7 to 16.1 years. The history of their physical activity was examined using a questionnaire completed by the child and the parents. Physical fitness was measured using a two-stage exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. There were no significant differences in daily activities between the obese and the non-obese children, while the sports grades at school were lower and participation in the training teams of sports clubs was less frequent among obese than normal-weight subjects. The obese children were physically less fit than the normal-weight subjects as judged from the pedalling time in exercise test (P less than 0.05) and from the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) related to lean body mass (LBM) (P less than 0.001). Twenty-seven children participated for 1 year in a weight-reduction programme which comprised individual nutrition counselling, guidance on physical activities and supportive therapy. The reduction in weight was successful in 25 out of 27 children and VO2 max increased on average from 44.2 to 47.1 ml/min/kg of LBM (P less than 0.025). There was no change in the time used for physical activities during the weight reduction period although the children's participation in the training teams of sports clubs increased. It was concluded that obese children are less fit than their non-obese counterparts. Weight reduction results, however, in an improvement of the maximum oxygen consumption towards normal.

  14. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  15. Retrospective Study of the Hungarian National Transplant Team's Cardiorespiratory Capacity.

    PubMed

    Trájer, E; Bosnyák, E; Komka, Z S; Kováts, T; Protzner, A; Szmodis, M; Tóth, S Z; Udvardy, A; Tóth, M

    2015-01-01

    The low availability of donor organs requires long-term successful transplantation as an accepted therapy for patients with end-stage renal and liver diseases. The health benefits of regular physical activity are well known among healthy individuals as well as patients under rehabilitation programs. Our aim was to describe the cardiorespiratory capacity of the Hungarian National Transplant Team. Twenty-five kidney (n = 21) or liver (n = 4) transplant athletes participated in this study. Maximal cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max) was measured on a treadmill with the use of gas analysis. After a resting pulmonary function test, subjects completed a vita maxima test until exhaustion. Aerobic capacity of transplant athletes was higher than the age- and sex-predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max, 109.9 ± 21.7% of the predicted values; P = .0101). Resting respiratory function indicators exceeded 80% of predicted age- and sex-matched normal values. There were positive correlations between VO2max and workload (r(2) = 0.40; P = .0463), metabolic equivalent (r(2) = 0.72; P < .0001), and oxygen pulse (r(2) = 0.30; P = .0039). However, age showed negative correlation with VO2max (r(2) = 0.32; P = .0031), and there was no significant correlation between graft age and maximal oxygen consumption (r(2) = 0.15; P = .4561). Although the small amount of participants can not represent the general kidney and liver transplant population, the excellent cardiorespiratory performance suggests that a normal level of physical capacity is available after transplantation and can be even higher with regular physical activity. This favorable physiologic background leads to a state that provides proper graft oxygenization, which is an important factor in long-term graft survival. PMID:26293020

  16. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  17. Physical Activity and Fitness of First Nations Youth in a Remote and Isolated Northern Ontario Community: A Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona; Gates, Allison; Stephen, Judy; Fehst, Andrew; Tsuji, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Among a group of First Nations youth, this research aimed to obtain objective measures of anthropometry, physical activity (PA) and fitness; to identify any group-level differences by sex, body mass index, waist circumference and body fat categories; to assess the barriers and supports to PA. Youth participated in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), PA assessment (3 days of accelerometry) and fitness testing (guided by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach). Barriers and supports were assessed via environmental scan and focus groups. Descriptive statistics were compared to reference data. Group differences by sex, BMI status, waist circumference and body fat categories were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative data were assembled into one file and coded manually for categories and themes. Seventy-two youth (12.1 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% male) participated in at least one measure; 36 completed the accelerometry. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese, 51% were abdominally obese and 21% had excess body fat. Most (86.1%) met Canada's PA guidelines. Boys were more active than girls (p = 0.025) and had greater cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.003). Overweight, obese, or abdominally obese youth had lower cardiorespiratory endurance than normal weight youth (p < 0.001). Barriers and supports fell under the main themes: motivation, role models, personnel and facilities, environment and programs. Based on this assessment, youth in this community are active, but not sufficiently physically fit, especially among those affected by obesity and abdominal obesity. The findings, in addition to the numerous barriers to PA, support the community's desire for school-based PA programming.

  18. Physical activity and physical fitness in African-American girls with and without obesity.

    PubMed

    Ward, D S; Trost, S G; Felton, G; Saunders, R; Parsons, M A; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

    1997-11-01

    Lack of physical activity and low levels of physical fitness are thought to be contributing factors to the high prevalence of obesity in African-American girls. To examine this hypothesis, we compared habitual physical activity and physical fitness in 54 African-American girls with obesity and 96 African-American girls without obesity residing in rural South Carolina. Participation in vigorous (> or = 6 METs) (VPA) or moderate and vigorous physical activity (> or = 4 METs) (MVPA) was assessed on three consecutive days using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the PWC 170 cycle ergometer test. Upper body strength was determined at two sites via isometric cable tensiometer tests. Relative to their counterparts without obesity, girls with obesity reported significantly fewer 30-minute blocks of VPA (0.90 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.14) and MVPA (1.2 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.16) (p < 0.01). Within the entire sample, VPA and MVPA were inversely associated with body mass index (r = -0.17 and r = -0.19) and triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.19 and r = -0.22) (p < 0.05). In the PWC 170 test and isometric strength tests, girls with obesity demonstrated absolute scores that were similar to, or greater than, those of girls without obesity; however, when scores were expressed relative to bodyweight, girls with obesity demonstrated significantly lower values (p < 0.05). The results support the hypothesis that lack of physical activity and low physical fitness are important contributing factors in the development and/or maintenance of obesity in African-American girls.

  19. Excitatory amino acid transporters tonically restrain nTS synaptic and neuronal activity to modulate cardiorespiratory function.

    PubMed

    Matott, Michael P; Ruyle, Brian C; Hasser, Eileen M; Kline, David D

    2016-03-01

    The nucleus tractus solitarii (nTS) is the initial central termination site for visceral afferents and is important for modulation and integration of multiple reflexes including cardiorespiratory reflexes. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the nTS and is removed from the extracellular milieu by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs). The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of EAATs in the nTS on basal synaptic and neuronal function and cardiorespiratory regulation. The majority of glutamate clearance in the central nervous system is believed to be mediated by astrocytic EAAT 1 and 2. We confirmed the presence of EAAT 1 and 2 within the nTS and their colocalization with astrocytic markers. EAAT blockade withdl-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid (TBOA) produced a concentration-related depolarization, increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) frequency, and enhanced action potential discharge in nTS neurons. Solitary tract-evoked EPSCs were significantly reduced by EAAT blockade. Microinjection of TBOA into the nTS of anesthetized rats induced apneic, sympathoinhibitory, depressor, and bradycardic responses. These effects mimicked the response to microinjection of exogenous glutamate, and glutamate responses were enhanced by EAAT blockade. Together these data indicate that EAATs tonically restrain nTS excitability to modulate cardiorespiratory function.

  20. Health and Fitness Through Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    A synthesis of research findings in exercise and physical fitness is presented to provide the general public with insights into establishing an individualized exercise program. The material is divided into seven subtopics: (1) a general overview of the need for exercise and fitness and how it is an integral part of preventive medicine programs;…

  1. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  2. Media device ownership and media use: Associations with sedentary time, physical activity and fitness in English youth.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Alibrahim, Mohammed; Bellamy, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ownership and use of electronic media were associated with sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) in youth. We also aimed to determine if associations were independent of physical activity (PA). Fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle-run. PA, sedentary time, ownership of media devices and media use were self-reported. Participants (n = 678, age 10-15 years) reported daily sedentary time of 620 (± 210) min. Forty-one percent of participants had low PA and 50.4% had low fitness. Higher weekend sedentary time was associated with low fitness in girls (p = 0.005) and boys (p < 0.001) and remained significant when adjusted for PA in the latter (p = 0.006). Using social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and low fitness in girls. High sedentary time was more likely (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 2.0-14.4) in boys who owned game consoles. Low fitness was more likely in boys who owned digital/satellite TV receivers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.8-3.2). Schoolchildren spent > 10 h or ~ 85% of each waking day sedentary. Use of social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and with low fitness in girls. Reducing social media use in youth offers one potential target for intervention. Behaviours associated with sedentary time differed from predictors of low fitness. The complex and often sex-specific interactions identified between sedentary time, PA and fitness suggest the need for carefully targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time and improve fitness in English youth. PMID:27413678

  3. Media device ownership and media use: Associations with sedentary time, physical activity and fitness in English youth.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Alibrahim, Mohammed; Bellamy, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ownership and use of electronic media were associated with sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) in youth. We also aimed to determine if associations were independent of physical activity (PA). Fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle-run. PA, sedentary time, ownership of media devices and media use were self-reported. Participants (n = 678, age 10-15 years) reported daily sedentary time of 620 (± 210) min. Forty-one percent of participants had low PA and 50.4% had low fitness. Higher weekend sedentary time was associated with low fitness in girls (p = 0.005) and boys (p < 0.001) and remained significant when adjusted for PA in the latter (p = 0.006). Using social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and low fitness in girls. High sedentary time was more likely (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 2.0-14.4) in boys who owned game consoles. Low fitness was more likely in boys who owned digital/satellite TV receivers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.8-3.2). Schoolchildren spent > 10 h or ~ 85% of each waking day sedentary. Use of social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and with low fitness in girls. Reducing social media use in youth offers one potential target for intervention. Behaviours associated with sedentary time differed from predictors of low fitness. The complex and often sex-specific interactions identified between sedentary time, PA and fitness suggest the need for carefully targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time and improve fitness in English youth.

  4. Cardiorespiratory Coupling in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alfredo J.; Koschnitzky, Jenna E.; Dashevskiy, Tatiana; Ramirez, Jan-Marino

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac and respiratory activities are intricately linked both functionally as well as anatomically through highly overlapping brainstem networks controlling these autonomic physiologies that are essential for survival. Cardiorespiratory coupling (CRC) has many potential benefits creating synergies that promote healthy physiology. However, when such coupling deteriorates autonomic dysautonomia may ensue. Unfortunately there is still an incomplete mechanistic understanding of both normal and pathophysiological interactions that respectively give rise to CRC and cardiorespiratory dysautonomia. Moreover, there is also a need for better quantitative methods to assess CRC. This review addresses the current understanding of CRC by discussing: (1) the neurobiological basis of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA); (2) various disease states involving cardiorespiratory dysautonomia; and (3) methodologies measuring heart rate variability and RSA. PMID:23497744

  5. Cardiorespiratory endurance in relation to body mass in Polish rural children: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, E; Kalińska, K; Bogdański, P; Sobieska, M

    2015-06-01

    Physical fitness is generally viewed as having morphological, muscular, motor, cardiovascular and metabolic components. Cardiorespiratory fitness describes the capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to carry out prolonged strenuous exercise. It is often considered as the most important indicator of health status. The place of residence is seen as a factor that may influence the feasibility of physically active lifestyles, and thus shaping cardiorespiratory fitness. The study group consisted of 121 children aged 10-16 years, including 60 girls and 61 boys. All of the children lived in rural areas. The investigated group was divided according to age and sex; body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. All children performed the Cooper's run test and the Ruffier's test. The analysis of BMI for the nutritional status of children in relation to the entire study group demonstrated that 81 children had normal weight, 20 children were overweight and 11 were obese, while 9 children were underweight. The studied group of children showed on average very good and good performance in the Cooper's test, regardless of body weight, whereas the results of the Ruffier's test showed merely weak or medium cardiorespiratory endurance, which was even worse in overweight or obese children. PMID:25736079

  6. Cardiorespiratory endurance in relation to body mass in Polish rural children: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, E; Kalińska, K; Bogdański, P; Sobieska, M

    2015-06-01

    Physical fitness is generally viewed as having morphological, muscular, motor, cardiovascular and metabolic components. Cardiorespiratory fitness describes the capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to carry out prolonged strenuous exercise. It is often considered as the most important indicator of health status. The place of residence is seen as a factor that may influence the feasibility of physically active lifestyles, and thus shaping cardiorespiratory fitness. The study group consisted of 121 children aged 10-16 years, including 60 girls and 61 boys. All of the children lived in rural areas. The investigated group was divided according to age and sex; body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. All children performed the Cooper's run test and the Ruffier's test. The analysis of BMI for the nutritional status of children in relation to the entire study group demonstrated that 81 children had normal weight, 20 children were overweight and 11 were obese, while 9 children were underweight. The studied group of children showed on average very good and good performance in the Cooper's test, regardless of body weight, whereas the results of the Ruffier's test showed merely weak or medium cardiorespiratory endurance, which was even worse in overweight or obese children.

  7. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  8. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Chillón, Palma

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  9. Novel Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Their Associations Between Obesity, Physical Activity And Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Duncan S.; Thomas, Non E.; Baker, Julien S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD. PMID:25170447

  10. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  11. Circuit Weight Training--An Answer to Achieving Physical Fitness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobleigh, Bruce; Kaufer, Irwin J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a high school circuit weight training (CWT) program which promotes physical fitness and helps students understand relationships between health and physical activity. It consists of upper- and lower-body weight lifts and cardiorespiratory exercises. Research indicates that CWT improves even difficult to improve health-related components.…

  12. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  13. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  14. Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

  15. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  16. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  17. A preseason cardiorespiratory profile of dancers in nine professional ballet and modern companies.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Lora, Jennifer Bailey; Southwick, Heather; Kulak, Michelina Cassella; Gamboa, Jennifer; Rooney, Megan; Gilman, Greg; Gibbs, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While studies have investigated the physical demands of dance in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, there are no recent comparisons of cardiorespiratory response to exercise among professional dancers of different genres. Our purpose was to: 1. develop a cardiorespiratory profile of professional dancers; 2. investigate differences in peak and recovery heart rate (HR) between professional modern and ballet dancers using an accelerated 3-minute step test; 3. demonstrate the relationship between cardiorespiratory variables; and 4. investigate the effects of company and work variables on the dancers' cardiorespiratory profiles. We hypothesized greater cardiorespiratory fitness in modern dancers than in ballet dancers, due to the nature of their repertory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that company profiles would reflect differences in work variables. Two hundred and eleven dancers (mean age 24.6 ± 4.7) from nine companies (two modern and seven ballet) performed a 3-minute step test. Demographics, height, mass, blood pressure (BP), smoking history, and resting peak and recovery HR were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) and fitness category were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences in demographics and cardiorespiratory variables due to genre, MANOVA were conducted to compare differences due to company, and correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between cardiorespiratory variables (p < 0.05). Modern dancers demonstrated higher mass and BMI, lower BP, lower resting HR and HR recovery, and a higher percentage were categorized as "fit" compared to ballet dancers (p < 0.03). There were differences between companies in age, experience, BMI, BP, resting, peak, and recovery HR, and fitness category (p < 0.001). The differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels that may be related to rigor of repertory, rehearsal and performance seasons, or off-season exercise training are discussed. Results support the need for comprehensive

  18. A preseason cardiorespiratory profile of dancers in nine professional ballet and modern companies.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Lora, Jennifer Bailey; Southwick, Heather; Kulak, Michelina Cassella; Gamboa, Jennifer; Rooney, Megan; Gilman, Greg; Gibbs, Richard

    2014-01-01

    While studies have investigated the physical demands of dance in terms of cardiorespiratory fitness, there are no recent comparisons of cardiorespiratory response to exercise among professional dancers of different genres. Our purpose was to: 1. develop a cardiorespiratory profile of professional dancers; 2. investigate differences in peak and recovery heart rate (HR) between professional modern and ballet dancers using an accelerated 3-minute step test; 3. demonstrate the relationship between cardiorespiratory variables; and 4. investigate the effects of company and work variables on the dancers' cardiorespiratory profiles. We hypothesized greater cardiorespiratory fitness in modern dancers than in ballet dancers, due to the nature of their repertory. Furthermore, we hypothesized that company profiles would reflect differences in work variables. Two hundred and eleven dancers (mean age 24.6 ± 4.7) from nine companies (two modern and seven ballet) performed a 3-minute step test. Demographics, height, mass, blood pressure (BP), smoking history, and resting peak and recovery HR were recorded. Body mass index (BMI) and fitness category were calculated. Independent t-tests were used to compare differences in demographics and cardiorespiratory variables due to genre, MANOVA were conducted to compare differences due to company, and correlations were calculated to determine the relationships between cardiorespiratory variables (p < 0.05). Modern dancers demonstrated higher mass and BMI, lower BP, lower resting HR and HR recovery, and a higher percentage were categorized as "fit" compared to ballet dancers (p < 0.03). There were differences between companies in age, experience, BMI, BP, resting, peak, and recovery HR, and fitness category (p < 0.001). The differences in cardiorespiratory fitness levels that may be related to rigor of repertory, rehearsal and performance seasons, or off-season exercise training are discussed. Results support the need for comprehensive

  19. Physical Activity and Fitness for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Janet A.; Corbin, Chuck, Ed.; Pangrazi, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the approach to physical activity for people with disabilities has been couched in medical rationale and focused on rehabilitation. This does not account for physical activity for the joy of it as in play, exercise to improve or maintain fitness, or activity required in employment. The new paradigm of healthy, active lifestyles for…

  20. Health Activities Project (HAP): Heart Fitness and Action Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within the Heart Fitness and Action Module are teacher and student folios describing five activities which involve students in…

  1. Self-Efficacy and the Stages and Processes of Change Associated with Adopting and Maintaining Muscular Fitness-Promoting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kosma, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The majority of physical activity initiatives have been directed toward promoting cardiorespiratory fitness and general health. Far less attention has been devoted to encouraging or understanding muscular fitness-promoting behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if constructs from the Transtheoretical Model, a contemporary behavior…

  2. Mix, Match, and Motivate: 107 Activities for Skills and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jeff

    This book presents activities to help elementary school teachers show their students that physical activity can be meaningful and fun. Focused on skill development and fitness rather than competition, these activities take a progressive, developmentally centered approach that will help teachers meet a range of individual needs so that every…

  3. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  4. Fitness and Nutrition Activity Book for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This activity book is designed to supplement health lessons on nutrition and physical fitness for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Some of the activities are quite simple and require very little instruction and direction, while others are more difficult and require careful explanation prior to completion. The level of difficulty of the…

  5. Apps for IMproving FITness and Increasing Physical Activity Among Young People: The AIMFIT Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the global prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA), effective interventions that attenuate age-related decline in PA levels are needed. Mobile phone interventions that positively affect health (mHealth) show promise; however, their impact on PA levels and fitness in young people is unclear and little is known about what makes a good mHealth app. Objective The aim was to determine the effects of two commercially available smartphone apps (Zombies, Run and Get Running) on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA levels in insufficiently active healthy young people. A second aim was to identify the features of the app design that may contribute to improved fitness and PA levels. Methods Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) was a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through advertisements in electronic mailing lists, local newspapers, flyers posted in community locations, and presentations at schools. Eligible young people aged 14-17 years were allocated at random to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) use of an immersive app (Zombies, Run), (2) use of a nonimmersive app (Get Running), or (3) usual behavior (control). Both smartphone apps consisted of a fully automated 8-week training program designed to improve fitness and ability to run 5 km; however, the immersive app featured a game-themed design and narrative. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using data collected face-to-face at baseline and 8 weeks, and all regression models were adjusted for baseline outcome value and gender. The primary outcome was cardiorespiratory fitness, objectively assessed as time to complete the 1-mile run/walk test at 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes were PA levels (accelerometry and self-reported), enjoyment, psychological need satisfaction, self-efficacy, and acceptability and usability of the apps. Results A total of 51 participants were randomized to the immersive app intervention (n=17), nonimmersive

  6. Exercise Do's and Don'ts: Guidelines for Fitness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sharon

    Many common exercises are contraindicated due to their potential for injury relative to benefit produced. Specific contraindicated exercises are discussed, and safer, more effective exercises are recommended. Current stretching and toning guidelines are also given which apply to all fitness activities. (Author)

  7. Fitness cost of LINE-1 (L1) activity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Boissinot, Stephane; Davis, Jerel; Entezam, Ali; Petrov, Dimitri; Furano, Anthony V.

    2006-01-01

    The self-replicating LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposon family is the dominant retrotransposon family in mammals and has generated 30–40% of their genomes. Active L1 families are present in modern mammals but the important question of whether these currently active families affect the genetic fitness of their hosts has not been addressed. This issue is of particular relevance to humans as Homo sapiens contains the active L1 Ta1 subfamily of the human specific Ta (L1Pa1) L1 family. Although DNA insertions generated by the Ta1 subfamily can cause genetic defects in current humans, these are relatively rare, and it is not known whether Ta1-generated inserts or any other property of Ta1 elements have been sufficiently deleterious to reduce the fitness of humans. Here we show that full-length (FL) Ta1 elements, but not the truncated Ta1 elements or SINE (Alu) insertions generated by Ta1 activity, were subject to negative selection. Thus, one or more properties unique to FL L1 elements constitute a genetic burden for modern humans. We also found that the FL Ta1 elements became more deleterious as the expansion of Ta1 has proceeded. Because this expansion is ongoing, the Ta1 subfamily almost certainly continues to decrease the fitness of modern humans. PMID:16766655

  8. The effect of a physical activity education programme on physical activity, fitness, quality of life and attitudes to exercise in obese females.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Alison; Doody, Catherine; O'Shea, Donal

    2008-09-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Decline in physical activity has occurred simultaneously or before the increase in obesity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of a physical activity group-based education programme delivered by a Physiotherapist on weight, physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, quality of life and attitudes to exercise in obese females. A sample of 18 obese Irish females (mean age 37.6 years, mean weight 117.9kg), took part in this study. The participants attended four physical activity education sessions in groups of 6-8, 1 month apart. Outcome measures were Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measured by the Incremental Shuttle Walk test (ISWT) International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-Short) Impact of Weight on Quality of Life Questionnaire-Short Form (IWQOL-Lite), and a questionnaire adapted from the EU survey on Consumer Attitudes to Physical Activity. There were no significant decreases in participants' weight (p=0.444) and there were no significant improvements in IPAQ (p=0.496) and IWQOL-Lite scores (p=0.337). There were significant improvements in CRF (p<0.0002). Attitudes towards exercise improved as shown by decreased barriers to exercise, i.e. decreased shyness (17%) and increased energy (22%) and increased enjoyment (22%). A group education programme focusing on physical activity alone demonstrated a significant increase in CRF (ISWT) and had a positive influence on attitudes to exercise. Longer duration interventions may allow participants to make the necessary lifestyle changes to achieve weight loss.

  9. Cardiorespiratory response to cyanide of arterial chemoreceptors in fetal lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Itskovitz, J.; Rudolph, A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Cardiorespiratory response to the stimulation of the carotid and aortic receptors by sodium cyanide was examined in fetal lambs in utero at 0.8 (120 days) gestation. Injections of 50-400 ..mu..g cyanide into the inferior vena cava or the carotid artery of intact fetuses elicited bradycardia and respiratory responses that varied from a single gasp to rhythmic respiratory movements but no significant change in arterial blood pressure. Carotid sinus denervation eliminated the cardiorespiratory response to intracarotid injection of cyanide and sinoaortic denervation abolished the response to inferior vena caval injection. It is concluded that in fetal lamb in utero the aortic and carotid bodies are active, and hypoxic stimulation of these chemoreceptors results in cardiorespiratory response characterized by slowing of fetal heart rate, respiratory effort, and no consistent change in arterial blood pressure.

  10. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  11. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  12. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  13. Tracking of physical activity and fitness during the early years.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Hilary A T; Proudfoot, Nicole A; King-Dowling, Sara; Di Cristofaro, Natascja A; Cairney, John; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-05-01

    The early years are characterized by rapid physical growth and the development of behaviours such as physical activity. The objectives of this study were to assess the 12-month changes in and the tracking of physical activity and fitness in 400 preschoolers (201 boys, 4.5 ± 0.9 years of age). Physical activity data, expressed as minutes per day and as the percentage of time spent at various intensities while wearing an accelerometer, were collected in 3-s epochs for 7 days. Short-term muscle power, assessed with a 10-s modified Wingate Anaerobic Test, was expressed as absolute (W) and relative (W/kg) peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). Aerobic fitness, assessed with the Bruce Protocol progressive treadmill test, was expressed as maximal treadmill time and heart rate recovery (HRR). Light physical activity decreased by 3.2 min/day (p < 0.05), whereas vigorous physical activity increased by 3.7 min/day (p < 0.001), from year 1 to year 2. Physical activity exhibited moderate tracking on the basis of Spearman correlations (r = 0.45-0.59, p < 0.001) and fair tracking on the basis of κ statistics (κ = 0.26-0.38). PP and MP increased from year 1 (PP, 94.1 ± 37.3 W; MP, 84.1 ± 30.9 W) to year 2 (PP, 125.6 ± 36.2 W; MP, 112.3 ± 32.2 W) (p < 0.001) and tracked moderately to substantially (PP, r = 0.89, κ = 0.61; MP, r = 0.86, κ = 0.56). Time to exhaustion on the treadmill increased from 9.4 ± 2.3 min to 11.8 ± 2.3 min (p < 0.001) and tracked strongly (r = 0.82, κ = 0.56). HRR was unchanged at 65 ± 14 beats/min (p = 0.297) and tracked fairly (r = 0.52, κ = 0.23). The findings indicate that fitness tracks better than physical activity over a 12-month period during the early years. PMID:27045869

  14. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or

  15. Cardiorespiratory synchronization during Zen meditation.

    PubMed

    Cysarz, Dirk; Büssing, Arndt

    2005-09-01

    The impact of meditation on cardiorespiratory synchronization with respect to breathing oscillations and the modulations of heart rate induced by respiration (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) was investigated in this study. Four different exercises (spontaneous breathing, mental task, Zen meditation, and Kinhin meditation) were consecutively performed by nine subjects mainly without any experience in meditation. An electrocardiogram and a respiratory trace were recorded simultaneously. On this basis the degree of cardiorespiratory synchronization was quantified by a technique which has been adopted from the analysis of weakly coupled chaotic oscillators. Both types of meditation showed a high degree of synchronization, whereas heartbeat and respiration were hardly synchronized during spontaneous breathing. During the mental task exercise the extent of synchronization was slightly higher than during spontaneous breathing. These results were largely determined by the breathing frequency because the two types of meditation induce low breathing frequencies which led to a pronounced and in-phase RSA. During the meditation the low breathing frequencies led to a decrease in the high frequency of heart rate variability, whereas the low frequency and the extent of RSA increased. The heart rate primarily reflected the degree of physical effort. The high degree of cardiorespiratory synchronization during meditation in unexperienced meditators suggests that the physiological implications of meditation does not require prior experience in meditation.

  16. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  17. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    PubMed

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities. PMID:27357919

  18. Cardiorespiratory Considerations in Dance: From Classes to Performances.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-09-01

    When attempting to ascertain dancers' fitness levels, essential parameters, such as aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular power and strength, flexibility, and body composition, must be considered. Dance is characterized as an intermittent type of exercise, demanding energy from different metabolic pathways (aerobic and anaerobic, lactic or alactic). A dancer's maximum aerobic capacity (ranging from 37 to 57 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) is related to his or her dance style, gender, level of technical ability, and status in a dance company. However, dancers' cardiorespiratory requirements during dance classes (essentially designed for the development of technical skills) are significantly lower than during dance performances, indicating that there is a divergence between dance training and performance with regard to demands on dancers' physical fitness. It follows that supplementary fitness training is needed in order to optimize dancers' technical and artistic performance and to reduce the incidence of injury. Traditional aerobic and strength training have been proposed to cover dancers' lack of conditioning; however, it seems likely that high-intensity interval training would more properly meet the requirements of today's choreography. Therefore, with an approach that applies basic exercise physiology to dance characteristics, this review covers the following topics: 1. dance as physical exercise; 2. dancers' aerobic capacity; 3. cardiorespiratory demands of dance classes and performances; 4. supplementary fitness training for dancers; and 5. fitness testing and assessment for dancers. PMID:26349502

  19. Cardiorespiratory Considerations in Dance: From Classes to Performances.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; Krause, Mauricio; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2015-09-01

    When attempting to ascertain dancers' fitness levels, essential parameters, such as aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular power and strength, flexibility, and body composition, must be considered. Dance is characterized as an intermittent type of exercise, demanding energy from different metabolic pathways (aerobic and anaerobic, lactic or alactic). A dancer's maximum aerobic capacity (ranging from 37 to 57 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) is related to his or her dance style, gender, level of technical ability, and status in a dance company. However, dancers' cardiorespiratory requirements during dance classes (essentially designed for the development of technical skills) are significantly lower than during dance performances, indicating that there is a divergence between dance training and performance with regard to demands on dancers' physical fitness. It follows that supplementary fitness training is needed in order to optimize dancers' technical and artistic performance and to reduce the incidence of injury. Traditional aerobic and strength training have been proposed to cover dancers' lack of conditioning; however, it seems likely that high-intensity interval training would more properly meet the requirements of today's choreography. Therefore, with an approach that applies basic exercise physiology to dance characteristics, this review covers the following topics: 1. dance as physical exercise; 2. dancers' aerobic capacity; 3. cardiorespiratory demands of dance classes and performances; 4. supplementary fitness training for dancers; and 5. fitness testing and assessment for dancers.

  20. Increasing Student Physical Fitness through Increased Choice of Fitness Activities and Student Designed Fitness Activities for Ninth through Twelfth Graders in Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Margo A.

    2011-01-01

    This action research project report began when the teacher researcher determined that students exhibited physical fitness levels below that of the state and national norms, and also displayed negative attitudes about physical education. The purpose of this action research project was to increase physical fitness and fitness attitudes through…

  1. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  2. Fitness of the US workforce.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2015-03-18

    Fitness matters for the prevention of premature death, chronic diseases, productivity loss, excess medical care costs, loss of income or family earnings, and other social and economic concerns. The workforce may be viewed as a corporate strategic asset, yet its fitness level appears to be relatively low and declining. Over the past half-century, obesity rates have doubled, physical activity levels are below par, and cardiorespiratory fitness often does not meet minimum acceptable job standards. During this time, daily occupational energy expenditure has decreased by more than 100 calories. Employers should consider best practices and design workplace wellness programs accordingly. Particular attention should be paid to human-centered cultures. Research should address ongoing surveillance needs regarding fitness of the US workforce and close gaps in the evidence base for fitness and business-relevant outcomes. Policy priorities should consider the impact of both state and federal regulations, adherence to current regulations that protect and promote worker health, and the introduction of incentives that allow employers to optimize the fitness of their workforce through supportive legislation and organizational policies.

  3. Activity Book. Fitting in Fitness: An Integrated Approach to Health, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Bruce; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This integrated unit focuses on healthy hearts and how to use exercise and nutrition to be "heart smart" for life. The unit includes activities on heart function, exercise, workouts, family activities, nutrition, cholesterol, and food labels. The activities help develop research techniques, thinking skills, and cooperative learning habits. (SM)

  4. Let's Get Fit!: Fitness Activities for Children with Severe/Profound Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modell, Scott J.; Cox, Thomas Alan

    1999-01-01

    Guidelines for developing a physical activity program for students with severe/profound disabilities address medical clearance; levels of participation; staffing; equipment; and program components, including warm-up, range of motion/flexibility activities, aerobics, resistance training, and cool-down. (DB)

  5. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  6. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  7. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  8. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles. PMID:26736588

  9. Quantifiable fitness tracking using wearable devices.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anurag; Jilla, Vivek; Tiwari, Vijay N; Venkatesan, Shankar M; Narayanan, Rangavittal

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring health and fitness is emerging as an important benefit that smartphone users could expect from their mobile devices today. Rule of thumb calorie tracking and recommendation based on selective activity monitoring is widely available today, as both on-device and server based solutions. What is surprisingly not available to the users is a simple application geared towards quantitative fitness tracking. Such an application potentially can be a direct indicator of one's cardio-vascular performance and associated long term health risks. Since wearable devices with various inbuilt sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope, SPO2 and heart rate are increasingly becoming available, it is vital that the enormous data coming from these sensors be used to perform analytics to uncover hidden health and fitness associated facts. A continuous estimation of fitness level employing these wearable devices can potentially help users in setting personalized short and long-term exercise goals leading to positive impact on one's overall health. The present work describes a step in this direction. This work involves an unobtrusive method to track an individual's physical activity seamlessly, estimate calorie consumption during a day by mapping the activity to the calories spent and assess fitness level using heart rate data from wearable sensors. We employ a heart rate based parameter called Endurance to quantitatively estimate cardio-respiratory fitness of a person. This opens up avenues for personalization and adaptiveness by dynamically using individual's personal fitness data towards building robust modeling based on analytical principles.

  10. Use of SPARK to Promote After-School Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrick, Heidi; Thompson, Hannah; Kinder, Jennifer; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The after-school period is potentially an important venue for increasing physical activity for youth. We sought to assess the effectiveness of the Sports, Play, and Recreation for Youth (SPARK) program to increase physical activity and improve cardiorespiratory fitness and weight status among elementary students after school. Methods:…

  11. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, W; Nevill, A M; White, C; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factors, and attitudes to exercise are discussed. Fitness levels are compared with those reported in other studies and discussed in terms of capacity for walking and running and in relation to criteria for health benefit. In these two latter respects fitness appears to be inadequate among the great majority of those tested, although it is comparable with that reported by several other recent studies. Fitness is associated with physical activity of leisure but not that of work. Only relatively strenuous physical activity in leisure time appears to be related to fitness, and is only participated in by some 28% of the sample. Cycling has the strongest association with fitness of all the physical activity variables. Blood pressure and percentage body fat are also associated, inversely, with fitness, the latter not unexpectedly because of the weight related measure of fitness. PMID:3790455

  12. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions

    PubMed Central

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2013-01-01

    During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

  13. Acute Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses During Exoskeleton-Assisted Walking Overground Among Persons with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hartigan, Clare; Kandilakis, Casey; Pharo, Elizabeth; Clesson, Ismari

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lower extremity robotic exoskeleton technology is being developed with the promise of affording people with spinal cord injury (SCI) the opportunity to stand and walk. The mobility benefits of exoskeleton-assisted walking can be realized immediately, however the cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits of this technology have not been thoroughly investigated. Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the acute cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses associated with exoskeleton-assisted walking overground and to determine the degree to which these responses change at differing walking speeds. Methods: Five subjects (4 male, 1 female) with chronic SCI (AIS A) volunteered for the study. Expired gases were collected during maximal graded exercise testing and two, 6-minute bouts of exoskeleton-assisted walking overground. Outcome measures included peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak), average oxygen consumption (V̇O2avg), peak heart rate (HRpeak), walking economy, metabolic equivalent of tasks for SCI (METssci), walk speed, and walk distance. Results: Significant differences were observed between walk-1 and walk-2 for walk speed, total walk distance, V̇O2avg, and METssci. Exoskeleton-assisted walking resulted in %V̇O2peak range of 51.5% to 63.2%. The metabolic cost of exoskeleton-assisted walking ranged from 3.5 to 4.3 METssci. Conclusion: Persons with motor-complete SCI may be limited in their capacity to perform physical exercise to the extent needed to improve health and fitness. Based on preliminary data, cardiorespiratory and metabolic demands of exoskeleton-assisted walking are consistent with activities performed at a moderate intensity. PMID:26364281

  14. Aging, Tolerance to High Altitude, and Cardiorespiratory Response to Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Richalet, Jean-Paul; Lhuissier, François J

    2015-06-01

    Richalet, Jean-Paul, and François J. Lhuissier. Aging, tolerance to high altitude, and cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia. High Alt Med Biol. 16:117-124, 2015.--It is generally accepted that aging is rather protective, at least at moderate altitude. Some anecdotal reports even mention successful ascent of peaks over 8000 m and even Everest by elderly people. However, very few studies have explored the influence of aging on tolerance to high altitude and prevalence of acute high altitude related diseases, taking into account all confounding factors such as speed of ascent, altitude reached, sex, training status, and chemo-responsiveness. Changes in physiological responses to hypoxia with aging were assessed through a cross-sectional 20-year study including 4675 subjects (2789 men, 1886 women; 14-85 yrs old) and a longitudinal study including 30 subjects explored at a mean 10.4-year interval. In men, ventilatory response to hypoxia increased, while desaturation was less pronounced with aging. Cardiac response to hypoxia was blunted with aging in both genders. Similar results were found in the longitudinal study, with a decrease in cardiac and an increase in ventilatory response to hypoxia with aging. These adaptive responses were less pronounced or absent in post-menopausal untrained women. In conclusion, in normal healthy and active subjects, aging has no deleterious effect on cardiac and ventilatory responses to hypoxia, at least up to the eighth decade. Aging is not a contraindication for high altitude, as far as no pathological condition interferes and physical fitness is compatible with the intensity of the expected physical demand of one's individual. Physiological evaluation through hypoxic exercise testing before going to high altitude is helpful to detect risk factors of severe high altitude-related diseases.

  15. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  16. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  17. Mitochondria express enhanced quality as well as quantity in association with aerobic fitness across recreationally active individuals up to elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Robert A; Lundby, Carsten

    2013-02-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle respiratory capacity parallel that of aerobic fitness. It is unknown whether mitochondrial content, alone, can fully account for these differences in skeletal muscle respiratory capacity. The aim of the present study was to examine quantitative and qualitative mitochondrial characteristics across four different groups (n = 6 each), separated by cardiorespiratory fitness. High-resolution respirometry was performed on muscle samples to compare respiratory capacity and efficiency in active, well-trained, highly trained, and elite individuals. Maximal exercise capacity (ml O(2)·min(-1)·kg(-1)) differed across all groups, with mean ± SD values of 51 ± 4, 64 ± 5, 71 ± 2, and 77 ± 3, respectively. Mitochondrial content assessed by citrate synthase activity was higher in elite trained compared with active and well-trained (29 ± 7 vs. 16 ± 4 and 19 ± 4 nmol·min(-1)·mg wet wt(-1), respectively). When normalizing respiration to mitochondrial content, the respiratory capacities during maximal fatty acid oxidation (P = 0.003), maximal state 3 respiration (P = 0.021), and total electron transport system capacity (P = 0.008) improved with respect to maximal exercise capacity. The coupling efficiency of β-oxidation, however, expressed no difference across groups. These data demonstrate the quantitative and qualitative differences that exist in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and efficiency across individuals that differ in aerobic capacity. Mitochondrial-specific respiration capacities during β-oxidation, maximal oxidative phosphorylation, and electron transport system capacity all correspondingly improve with aerobic capacity, independent of mitochondrial content in human skeletal muscle.

  18. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  19. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels. PMID:23419502

  20. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels.

  1. Daily physical activity and physical fitness from adolescence to adulthood: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat M.; Delvaux, Katrien; Thomis, Martine; Vanreusel, Bart; Eynde, Bavo Vanden; Claessens, Albrecht L.; Lysens, Roeland; Renson, Roland; Beunen, Gaston

    2000-07-01

    The stability of physical fitness and physical activity in Flemish males from 18 to 40 years of age was investigated. In addition, effects of a consistently low-activity or high-activity level during the same age period on physical fitness were studied. The sample consisted of males who were followed longitudinally from age 13 to age 18 years, and were remeasured at the ages of 30, 35, and 40 years. Complete data about physical fitness and physical activity between 13 and 40 years were available for 130 subjects. Stability was measured using Pearson autocorrelations and simplex models. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measurements was used to look for the effects of activity level on physical fitness. Simplex models showed higher stability coefficients than Pearson correlations, and stability of physical fitness was higher than stability of physical activity. Physical fitness showed the highest stability in flexibility (r = 0.91 between 18 and 30 years, r = 0.96 for both the 30-35 and 35-40 ages intervals), while physical activity showed the highest stability during work (r between 0.70 and 0.98 for the 5-year intervals). Results from MANOVA indicated that for some fitness characteristics the high-active subjects were more fit than their low-active peers. Stability of physical activity was higher than assumed and, therefore, it is a useful and independent indicator for further research. Although possible confounding factors are present (e.g., heredity), a higher level of physical activity during work and leisure time on a regular basis benefits physical fitness considerably. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:487-497, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534040

  2. Are American Children and Youth Fit?: It's Time We Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The current state of physical fitness in American youth is unknown. While evidence exists that obesity levels are increasing in children and youth, data on declines in physical fitness measures (i.e., cardiorespiratory and musculoskeletal fitness) are lacking. Tracking of physical fitness components has been poorly done. Surveillance of behaviors…

  3. High School Girls' Perceptions of Selected Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Bretzing, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    High school students, and particularly girls, are not very active (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2006). To help girls develop the abilities to enjoy lifetime, healthy physical activity, physical educators need to provide curricula that will achieve this goal. In the process, they need to make sure they are aligned with the current…

  4. Parent influences on physical activity participation and physical fitness of deaf children.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J; Dummer, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that parents' values toward physical activity and fitness have strongly influenced the physical activity habits of hearing children (Welk, G. J., Wood, K., & Morss, G. [2003]. Parental influences on physical activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 19-33). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether similar findings are obtained for deaf (1) children. The influence of parents' hearing status and parents' involvement in Deaf sport (2) was assessed in addition to their values toward sports participation and physical fitness for their deaf children. Deaf children's physical activity habits were determined by the number of activities participated per week, and fitness levels by the number of scores within the Healthy Fitness Zone from the Fitnessgram test. Parents demonstrated positive values toward physical fitness regardless of hearing status; this finding was strongest among deaf parents of deaf children. Significant positive relationships were found among parents' values toward physical fitness and sport participation and children's physical activity and fitness levels, as well as between Deaf sport involvement by deaf parents and children's physical activity levels.

  5. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  6. Determining Intensity Levels of Selected Wii Fit Activities in College Aged Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Joshua D.; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda; Simonson, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were…

  7. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  8. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  9. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  10. The Impact of Postsecondary Fitness and Wellness Courses on Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Joshua Charles

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to decreasing health risk factors. With the intent of establishing long-term behavioral changes that attribute to overall physical wellbeing, many U.S. universities offer fitness and wellness courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a postsecondary fitness and wellness course on physical…

  11. Moderate Hyperbilirubinemia Alters Neonatal Cardiorespiratory Control and Induces Inflammation in the Nucleus Tractus Solitarius

    PubMed Central

    Specq, Marie-Laure; Bourgoin-Heck, Mélisande; Samson, Nathalie; Corbin, François; Gestreau, Christian; Richer, Maxime; Kadhim, Hazim; Praud, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) occurs in 90% of preterm newborns. Moderate HB can induce acute neurological disorders while severe HB has been linked to a higher incidence of apneas of prematurity. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that even moderate HB disrupts cardiorespiratory control in preterm lambs. Two groups of preterm lambs (born 14 days prior to term), namely control (n = 6) and HB (n = 5), were studied. At day 5 of life, moderate HB (150–250 μmol/L) was induced during 17 h in the HB group after which cardiorespiratory control as well as laryngeal and pulmonary chemoreflexes were assessed during baseline recordings and during hypoxia. Recordings were repeated 72 h after HB induction, just before euthanasia. In addition, neuropathological studies were performed to investigate for cerebral bilirubin deposition as well as for signs of glial reactivity in brainstem structures involved in cardiorespiratory control. Results revealed that sustained and moderate HB: (i) decreased baseline respiratory rate and increased the time spent in apnea; (ii) blunted the cardiorespiratory inhibition normally observed during both laryngeal and pulmonary chemoreflexes; and (iii) increased heart rate in response to acute hypoxia. These acute physiological changes were concurrent with an activation of Alzheimer type II astrocytes throughout the brain, including the brainstem. Concomitantly, bilirubin deposits were observed in the leptomeninges, but not in brain parenchyma. While most cardiorespiratory alterations returned to normal 72 h after HB normalization, the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba1) was still increased within the nucleus tractus solitarius. In conclusion, moderate and sustained HB in preterm lambs induced cardiorespiratory alterations, the latter of which were associated with neurohistopathological changes. These changes are indicative of an inflammatory response in the brainstem

  12. 5 Family Fitness Activities to Try Today | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    No time to exercise and spend quality time with your kids? Feeling like there is no way to squeeze in exercise and make room for fun time with the family? Do both—together! Being active with your family can be a fun way to get moving. You’ll be a great role model for your kids, and it’s a good way to help the important people in your life live healthy, active lives.

  13. Linear/Nonlinear Relations of Activity and Fitness with Children’s Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, David M.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Lambourne, Kate; Lee, Jaehoon; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing research base suggests the benefits of physical activity (PA) and aerobic fitness for children extend beyond overall health/well-being to include academic achievement (AA). The majority of research studies on relations of PA and fitness with AA have utilized linear-only analytic approaches, thereby precluding the possibility that PA and fitness could have a differing impact on AA for those more/less active or fit. Objective Evaluate both linear and non-linear associations of PA and aerobic fitness with children’s AA among a sample of 687 2nd and 3rd grade students from 17 Midwest schools. Study Design Using baseline data (fall 2011) from a larger 3-year intervention trial, multi-level regression analyses examined the linear and non-linear associations of AA with PA and with PACER laps (i.e., aerobic fitness), controlling for relevant covariates. Results Fitness, but not PA, had a significant quadratic association with both spelling and math achievement. Results indicate that 22–28 laps on the PACER was the point at which the associated increase in achievement per lap plateaued for spelling and math. Conclusions Increasing fitness could potentially have the greatest impact on children’s AA for those below the 50th fitness percentile on the PACER. PMID:24781896

  14. Sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity with physical fitness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, T; Tanaka, H; Naoi, K; Ueno, K; Yanaoka, T; Kashiwabara, K; Miyashita, M

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity (VPA) with physical fitness in 300 Japanese adolescents aged 12-14 years. Participants were asked to wear an accelerometer to evaluate physical activity (PA) levels of various intensities (i.e. moderate PA (MPA), 3-5.9 metabolic equivalents (METs); VPA, ≥6 METs; moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), ≥3 METs). Eight fitness items were assessed (grip strength, bent-leg sit-up, sit-and-reach, side step, 50 m sprint, standing long jump, handball throw, and distance running) as part of the Japanese standardised fitness test. A fitness composite score was calculated using Japanese fitness norms, and participants were categorised according to their score from category A (most fit) to category E (least fit), with participants in categories D and E defined as having low fitness. It was found that for boys, accumulating more than 80.7 min/day of MVPA may reduce the probability of low fitness (odds ratio (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.17 [0.06-0.47], p = .001). For girls, accumulating only 8.4 min of VPA could reduce the likelihood of exhibiting low fitness (ORs [95% CI] = 0.23 [0.05-0.89], p = .032). These results reveal that there are sex-specific differences in the relationship between PA and physical fitness in adolescents, suggesting that sex-specific PA recommendation may be needed to improve physical fitness in adolescents.

  15. Active pollinator choice by Heliconia 'fits the bill'.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Judith L; Richman, Sarah K

    2015-07-01

    A new study documents that a tropical plant only reproduces when pollen has been deposited by a visitor capable of extracting nectar from its deep flowers. Large, long-billed hummingbirds generally carry greater quantities of, and more genetically diverse, pollen. Thus, plants can exert more active partner choice than previously considered possible.

  16. Active pollinator choice by Heliconia 'fits the bill'.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Judith L; Richman, Sarah K

    2015-07-01

    A new study documents that a tropical plant only reproduces when pollen has been deposited by a visitor capable of extracting nectar from its deep flowers. Large, long-billed hummingbirds generally carry greater quantities of, and more genetically diverse, pollen. Thus, plants can exert more active partner choice than previously considered possible. PMID:25941136

  17. Be a Fit Kid: nutrition and physical activity for the fourth grade.

    PubMed

    Slawta, Jennifer N; DeNeui, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the inclusion of Be a Fit Kid in the fourth-grade curriculum. Be a Fit Kid is a fitness-emphasized physical activity and heart-healthy nutrition education program for elementary school children. Five parent-education lessons were offered and nutrition workbooks were distributed to parents. Following the 10-week intervention, significant improvements in fitness, body fat, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, and levels of lipids and lipoproteins were observed in the intervention group compared with baseline levels. Changes in fitness, body fat, and nutrition knowledge were significant compared with the control group. These findings suggest that comprehensive physical activity and nutrition programs included in the school curriculum may be effective for improving cardiovascular health and reducing future risk for lifestyle-related diseases.

  18. The active metabolic rate predicts a male spider's proximity to females and expected fitness.

    PubMed

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Seebacher, Frank

    2013-04-23

    Conspicuous traits, such as weaponry and body size, are often correlated with fitness. By contrast, we understand less about how inconspicuous physiological traits affect fitness. Not only is linking physiology directly to fitness a challenge, but in addition, behavioural studies most often focus on resting or basal metabolic rates, resulting in a poor understanding of how active metabolic rates affect fitness. Here we use the golden orb-web spider (Nephila plumipes), a species for which proximity to a female on the web predicts a male's paternity share, to examine the role of resting and active metabolic rates in fitness. Using a semi-natural experimental set-up, we show that males closer to a female have higher active metabolic rates than males further from females. This higher metabolic activity is paralleled by increased citrate synthase activity, suggesting greater mitochondrial densities. Our results link both higher active metabolic rates and increased citrate synthase activity with fitness. Coupled with the behaviour and life history of N. plumipes, these results provide insight into the evolution of physiological systems.

  19. Taekwondo training and fitness in female adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bae; Stebbins, Charles L; Chai, Joo-Hee; Song, Jong-Kook

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we determined the specificity of a low frequency taekwondo training programme on physical fitness levels in adolescent females who receive limited physical education instruction (i.e. 2 days per week). Major components of physical fitness assessed were: skeletal muscle fitness (hand grip strength, bent arm hang, standing long jump, and isokinetic strength), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), speed and agility (10 × 5-m shuttle run), and cardiovascular fitness (VO(2max) and 20-m shuttle run). Changes in body composition were also assessed (dual X-ray absorptiometry, DXA). Participants were divided into two groups, a taekwondo training group (n = 21), which trained 50 min a day, 2 days per week for 12 weeks, and a control group (n = 10). Taekwondo training improved isokinetic strength, standing long jump, and sit-and-reach performance. Body fat mass and percent body fat were reduced. No changes in grip strength, bent arm hang time, speed and agility, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed. Results indicate that low frequency taekwondo training in adolescent females produces beneficial changes in skeletal muscle fitness, flexibility, and body composition in a relatively short period of time. Consequently, this specific type of training can be useful to female adolescents in structured school environments where physical education classes are limited and there is little free time for physical activity.

  20. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jana A; James, Peter; Robinson, Jamaica R M; Eastman, Kyler M; Conley, Kevin D; Evenson, Kelly R; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales.

  1. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; James, Peter; Robinson, Jamaica R. M.; Eastman, Kyler M.; Conley, Kevin D.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales. PMID:24653982

  2. Physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Kristin

    2012-09-01

    Arthritis in childhood can be associated with low levels of physical activity and poor physical fitness. Children with arthritis may have decreased aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscle weakness, low bone mass, and low bone strength. Suboptimal physical activity and exercise capacity may contribute to further deconditioning and disability, placing children with arthritis at risk for poor health outcomes. Recent studies suggest that exercise therapy is safe and does not worsen arthritis. Exercise therapy may improve function, quality of life, and physical fitness. However, little is known about the exercise prescription that is most effective to improve clinical outcomes in children with arthritis. This article reviews the current literature on physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  3. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  4. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID. PMID:26079525

  5. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability–based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26–40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. Results PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. Conclusions PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed. PMID:24742265

  6. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  7. Contribution of Organized and Nonorganized Activity to Children's Motor Skills and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Louise L.; O'Hara, Blythe J.; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16?years (N?=?4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report,…

  8. Anthropometric and Cardio-Respiratory Indices and Aerobic Capacity of Male and Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czajkowska, Anna; Mazurek, Krzysztof; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Zmijewski, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the relations between anthropometric and cardio-respiratory indices, and aerobic capacity of students, differing in the level of physical activity, under resting and exercise conditions. Material and methods: A group of 87 male and 75 female students volunteered to participate in the study. Their physical activity was…

  9. Effects of Long-Term Dharma-Chan Meditation on Cardiorespiratory Synchronization and Heart Rate Variability Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Remarkable changes in cardiorespiratory interactions are frequently experienced by Chan meditation practitioners following years of practice. This study compares the results of our study on cardiorespiratory interactions for novice (control group) and experienced (experimental group) Chan meditation practitioners. The effectual co-action between the cardiac and respiratory systems was evaluated by the degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization (CRPS). In addition, an adaptive-frequency-range (AFR) scheme to reliably quantify heart rate variability (HRV) was developed for assessing the regulation of sympathetic–parasympathetic activity and the efficiency of pulmonary gas exchange. The enhanced HRV method, named HRVAFR, can resolve the issue of overestimating HRV under the condition of slow respiration rates, which is frequently encountered in studies on Chan meditation practitioners. In the comparison of the three data sets collected from the two groups, our findings resulted in innovative hypotheses to interpret the extraordinary process of the rejuvenation of cardiorespiratory functions through long-term Dharma-Chan meditation practice. Particularly, advanced practitioners exhibit a continuously high degree of cardiorespiratory phase synchronization, even during rapid breathing. Based on our post-experimental interview with advanced practitioners, the activation of inner Chakra energy, during the course of Chan-detachment practice, frequently induces perceptible physiological-mental reformation, including an efficient mechanism for regulating cardiorespiratory interactions. PMID:23323597

  10. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  11. Correlation between physical activity, fitness, and musculoskeletal injuries in police officers.

    PubMed

    Nabeel, Ismail; Baker, Beth A; McGrail, Michael P; Flottemesch, Thomas J

    2007-09-01

    In order to explore the correlation between physical activity, fitness, and injury among police officers, a cross section of active-duty members of the Minneapolis Police Department were surveyed about their level of fitness, physical activity, and prevalence of injury and chronic pain within the past year. In the study, officers with the highest self-reported fitness levels were less likely to experience sprains (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.88), back pain (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.09-0.88), and chronic pain (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.73) than those who considered themselves less fit. Officers who were the most physically active were about a third as likely to report back pain (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10-0.73) and less than half as likely to report chronic pain (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91) as those who engaged in less activity. And officers with a BMI greater than 35 were 3 times more likely to report back pain (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.17-9.66) than those whose BMI fell in the normal range (18-25). Thus, officers who engage in higher levels of physical activity and are more physically fit have a lower prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and chronic pain.

  12. An evaluation of the Exer-Genie exerciser and the Collins pedal mode ergometer for developing physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olree, H. D.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments that were conducted over a 52-month period showed that isometric and isotonic training on the Exer-Genie gave negligible increases in cardiorespiratory fitness whereas training on the ergometer at a programmed pulse rate increased fitness moderately.

  13. A self-assessment tool to measure older adults' perceptions regarding physical fitness and exercise activity.

    PubMed

    Devereaux Melillo, K; Williamson, E; Futrell, M; Chamberlain, C

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualitatively generate and psychometrically assess an instrument which assesses the self-perceived physical fitness and exercise activity levels of community-dwelling older adults and examines perceived factors which enhance or impede their exercise activity level. This research was carried out in two stages: qualitative and quantitative. Items for the instrument were generated through qualitative interviews with 23 community-dwelling older adults, 9 males and 14 females, with an age range of 63 to 82 years. From this qualitative study, 50 items were generated, representing nine categories of elements which enhance or impede physical activity. The 50 items were incorporated into a 4-point, forced-choice, Likert format instrument which was pilot tested for clarity and ease of administration with a convenience sample of community-dwelling older adults. Following the pilot testing, 41 items were retained. The 41-item instrument, entitled Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale, was categorized into the following subscales: Physical Fitness, Barriers, Motivators, and Exercise Frequency. Initial testing of the Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale seems to indicate adequate validity and reliability. Correlation coefficients for the total instrument, as well as the subscales, were significantly positive for both stability and internal consistency. Results with respect to predictive validity were mixed. The Physical Fitness and Motivators subscales were significant predictors of Exercise Frequency. Although the correlation between the Barriers subscale and Exercise Frequency was negative, it was non-significant.

  14. Health Awareness, Motor Performance and Physical Activity of Female University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konczos, Csaba; Bognar, Jozsef; Szakaly, Zsolt; Barthalos, Istvan; Simon, Istvan; Olah, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body composition, health awareness and cardiorespiratory fitness in female university students differing in volume of obligatory physical activity classes. Material and methods: 109 female students of the University of West Hungary volunteered to participate in the study. The subjects were divided into two groups according to…

  15. The Effects of an Afterschool Physical Activity Program on Working Memory in Preadolescent Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B.; O'Leary, Kevin C.; Scudder, Mark R.; Wu, Chien-Ting; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a 9-month randomized control physical activity intervention aimed at improving cardiorespiratory fitness on changes in working memory performance in preadolescent children relative to a waitlist control group. Participants performed a modified Sternberg task, which manipulated working memory demands based…

  16. The Relation between Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Fitness, and Obesity in Children from Three Countries at Different Stages of the Physical Activity Transition

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, M.; Onywera, V.; Tremblay, M. S.; Adamo, K. B.; Lopez Taylor, J.; Jáuregui Ulloa, E.; Janssen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The physical activity transition is contributing to an increase in childhood obesity and a decrease in fitness worldwide. This study compared body composition and fitness measures in children from three countries and examined intercountry differences in the relationship between these variables. Methods. Participants consisted of 736 Canadian, 193 Mexican, and 179 Kenyan children aged 9–13 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfolds, aerobic fitness, and muscular fitness were measured. Linear regression was used to examine associations between variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was the highest in Mexican children (9.2% boys, 8.4% girls) and the lowest in Kenyan children (0.9% boys, 2.8% girls). Aerobic fitness (VO2max in mL/kg/min) was the highest in Kenyan children (50.2 boys, 46.7 girls) and the lowest in Canadian children (41.3 boys, 38.3 girls). Aerobic fitness was negatively associated with body composition measures irrespective of country and sex. Mexican children with low aerobic fitness had higher body composition measures than Canadian and Kenyan children. Muscular fitness was not associated with the body composition measures in Kenyan children but was a weak positive correlate of BMI and waist circumference in Canadian and Mexican children. Conclusion. The current study provides some evidence to support the physical activity transition hypothesis. PMID:24533216

  17. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  18. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  19. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  20. Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E; Berry, C B; Schnyder, V N; Vickers, S R

    1992-11-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic fitness levels of 189 African-American young adult college freshmen. LTPA was measured with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise, and the College Alumnus physical activity questionnaires. The Physical Activity Index (PAI), an index of walking, stair climbing, and recreational sports participation, was obtained from the College Alumnus questionnaire. Aerobic fitness was measured indirectly with the Cooper 12-Minute Walking/Running Test. More women (82%) than men (53%) were classified as inactive (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and much less active than peers) or low active (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and as active or more active than peers) on the LRC Questionnaire. The PAI scores were moderately low in men (1,521 +/- 1,634 kcal.week-1) and very low in women (706 +/- 868 kcal.week-1). The majority of men (71%) and women (82%) were classified as 'very poor' in aerobic fitness levels. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fatness, was classified as 'overweight' or 'obese' for 39% of men and 37% of women (BMI = 25.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m2), reflecting inactive LTPA habits. These findings are consistent with studies showing low LTPA in middle-age African-American adults. School and community-level interventions are recommended to increase LTPA and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult African-Americans.

  1. Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-06-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.

  2. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E.; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key points During cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiing Approximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling. Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit. By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing. Male, fit and young

  3. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key pointsDuring cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiingApproximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling.Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit.By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing.Male, fit and young

  4. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key pointsDuring cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiingApproximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling.Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit.By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing.Male, fit and young

  5. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  6. Brain MR image segmentation using local and global intensity fitting active contours/surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Li, Chunming; Sun, Quansen; Xia, Deshen; Kao, Chiu-Yen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved region-based active contour/surface model for 2D/3D brain MR image segmentation. Our model combines the advantages of both local and global intensity information, which enable the model to cope with intensity inhomogeneity. We define an energy functional with a local intensity fitting term and an auxiliary global intensity fitting term. In the associated curve evolution, the motion of the contour is driven by a local intensity fitting force and a global intensity fitting force, induced by the local and global terms in the proposed energy functional, respectively. The influence of these two forces on the curve evolution is complementary. When the contour is close to object boundaries, the local intensity fitting force became dominant, which attracts the contour toward object boundaries and finally stops the contour there. The global intensity fitting force is dominant when the contour is far away from object boundaries, and it allows more flexible initialization of contours by using global image information. The proposed model has been applied to both 2D and 3D brain MR image segmentation with promising results.

  7. Increasing or decreasing interest in activities: the role of regulatory fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Cesario, Joseph; Hagiwara, Nao; Spiegel, Scott; Pittman, Thane

    2010-04-01

    What makes people's interest in doing an activity increase or decrease? Regulatory fit theory (E. T. Higgins, 2000) provides a new perspective on this classic issue by emphasizing the relation between people's activity orientation, such as thinking of an activity as fun, and the manner of activity engagement that the surrounding situation supports. These situational factors include whether a reward for good performance, expected (Study 1) or unexpected (Study 2), is experienced as enjoyable or as serious and whether the free-choice period that measures interest in the activity is experienced as enjoyable or as serious (Study 3). Studies 1-3 found that participants were more likely to do a fun activity again when these situational factors supported a manner of doing the activity that fit the fun orientation-a reward or free-choice period framed as enjoyable. This effect was not because interest in doing an activity again is simply greater in an enjoyable than a serious surrounding situation because it did not occur, and even reversed, when the activity orientation was important rather than fun, where now a serious manner of engagement provides the fit (Study 4a and 4b).

  8. Impact of antipsychotic medication on physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Daenen, Anne; Damme, Tine Van; De Hert, Marc; Rosenbaum, Simon; Bruyninckx, David

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotics are used increasingly in adolescents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physical activity levels and physical fitness of adolescent inpatients treated with antipsychotic medication, differs from either (i) antipsychotic naïve adolescents with mental health problems and, (ii) healthy controls. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule and performed the Eurofit test battery. Adolescents with mental health problems (irrespective of antipsychotic medication) were significantly (P<0.05) less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance, running speed and cardiovascular endurance compared to healthy controls (n=15, 8♂, 15.9±1.3 years). Adolescents treated with antipsychotic medication (n=15, 8♂, 15.5±1.3 years) were less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance compared with antipsychotic naïve adolescents (n=15, 8♂, 15.7±1.4 years). Given the overwhelming deleterious impact of physical inactivity and low physical fitness on physical and mental health outcomes, interventions specifically targeting physical activity and physical fitness among adolescents experiencing mental illness, both treated with, and not treated with antipsychotic medication are warranted as a priority. Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a risk factor for physical inactivity and poor physical fitness. PMID:27288738

  9. Indirect and direct relations between aerobic fitness, physical activity, and academic achievement in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, K.; Hansen, D.M.; Szabo, A.N.; Lee, J.; Herrmann, S.D.; Donnelly, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that increasing physical activity (PA) improves academic achievement (AA) in children and that aerobic fitness is associated with both cognitive function and AA. However, it is not known how these variables are interrelated and analyses with adequate control for socioeconomic variables are needed. It was hypothesized that PA would not directly affect AA but would have an indirect effect on AA through its effect on aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesized mediation using path analysis. METHODS Cross-sectional data including AA, aerobic fitness, and daily PA assessed through accelerometry were collected from a large sample (N = 687) of 2nd and 3rd grade students. Demographic data were assessed via parent self-report. RESULTS A total of 401 students wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours on 3 days or more and were included in the final path analysis to evaluate potential relations among PA (predictor), aerobic fitness (mediator), and WIAT-III subtest standard scores (outcomes; i.e., reading, spelling, and mathematics). Findings showed a direct effect of PA on aerobic fitness (b = 0.009, p < 0.001) and an indirect effect (mediation) of PA via fitness on math achievement (b = 0.003, p < 0.01) after controlling for student’s grade, gender, body mass index, mother’s education level, and household income, as well as intraclass correlations among classes and schools. Neither PA nor aerobic fitness were correlated with WIAT-III reading or spelling scores. CONCLUSIONS Mediation analysis indicated that PA exerted an influence on math achievement through its effects on aerobic fitness but was not associated with reading or spelling achievement scores. PMID:25984236

  10. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  11. Evolution of cardiorespiratory interactions with age

    PubMed Central

    Iatsenko, D.; Bernjak, A.; Stankovski, T.; Shiogai, Y.; Owen-Lynch, P. J.; Clarkson, P. B. M.; McClintock, P. V. E.; Stefanovska, A.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analysis of cardiac and respiratory time series recorded from 189 subjects of both genders aged 16–90. By application of the synchrosqueezed wavelet transform, we extract the respiratory and cardiac frequencies and phases with better time resolution than is possible with the marked events procedure. By treating the heart and respiration as coupled oscillators, we then apply a method based on Bayesian inference to find the underlying coupling parameters and their time dependence, deriving from them measures such as synchronization, coupling directionality and the relative contributions of different mechanisms. We report a detailed analysis of the reconstructed cardiorespiratory coupling function, its time evolution and age dependence. We show that the direct and indirect respiratory modulations of the heart rate both decrease with age, and that the cardiorespiratory coupling becomes less stable and more time-variable. PMID:23858485

  12. Evolution of cardiorespiratory interactions with age.

    PubMed

    Iatsenko, D; Bernjak, A; Stankovski, T; Shiogai, Y; Owen-Lynch, P J; Clarkson, P B M; McClintock, P V E; Stefanovska, A

    2013-08-28

    We describe an analysis of cardiac and respiratory time series recorded from 189 subjects of both genders aged 16-90. By application of the synchrosqueezed wavelet transform, we extract the respiratory and cardiac frequencies and phases with better time resolution than is possible with the marked events procedure. By treating the heart and respiration as coupled oscillators, we then apply a method based on Bayesian inference to find the underlying coupling parameters and their time dependence, deriving from them measures such as synchronization, coupling directionality and the relative contributions of different mechanisms. We report a detailed analysis of the reconstructed cardiorespiratory coupling function, its time evolution and age dependence. We show that the direct and indirect respiratory modulations of the heart rate both decrease with age, and that the cardiorespiratory coupling becomes less stable and more time-variable.

  13. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Adolescents: A Self-Organizing Maps Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The…

  14. Health-Related Fitness in Sport Education and Multi-Activity Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Mitchum B.; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    To date, studies examining the Sport Education (SE) model have largely focused on gains in sporting performance and/or psychosocial development. The purpose of this study was to compare the health-related fitness benefits for pupils participating in SE and traditional multi-activity (MA) units of instruction. Participants were two preservice…

  15. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  16. Weight Status, Physical Activity, and Fitness among Third-Grade Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie; Barrett, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in…

  17. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  18. Physical activity, physical fitness, gross motor coordination, and metabolic syndrome: focus of twin research in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, José António Ribeiro; Santos, Daniel; de Freitas, Duarte Luis; Thomis, Martine

    2013-02-01

    A very brief history of Portuguese twin research in sport and human movement sciences is presented. Recruitment procedures, zygosity determination, and phenotypes are given for twins and their parents from the mainland, and Azores and Madeira archipelagos. Preliminary findings are mostly related to physical activity, health-related physical fitness, gross motor coordination, neuromotor development, and metabolic syndrome traits.

  19. C. H. McCloy Lecture: Fifty Years of Advancements in Fitness and Activity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years progress in fitness and activity research has been influenced by social events, technical innovations, and changes in the field of physical education and kinesiology. The conventional wisdom of the 1950s yielded to a new wisdom based on research evidence. The author's research, as well as the research of others, from 1960 to…

  20. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  1. Ethnic and Socioeconomic Comparisons of Fitness, Activity Levels, and Barriers to Exercise in High School Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Lock, Robyn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if high school females differed in individual measures of health-related physical fitness, barriers to exercise, or activity level based on ethnicity or socioeconomic status. A cross-sectional sample consisting of African American (28%), Hispanic (23%), and white (49%) female high school students, 46%…

  2. "Oh, Chute??" A Fully Illustrated Booklet of Parachute Activities for Fun and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Doug

    Exercise and games performed with a parachute are outlined in this booklet. At school the parachute can be used on the playground or in the gymnasium. It may be used to teach locomotor and fundamental movements; to develop rhythm, coordination, and physical fitness; and encourage creative play. This activity is designed for groups, enhancing…

  3. Methods of the NSW Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey, 1997.

    PubMed

    Booth, M L; Macaskill, P; Phongsavan, P; McLellan, L; Okely, T

    1998-06-01

    Physical fitness, participation in physical activity, fundamental motor skills and body composition are important contributors to the health and the development of a healthy lifestyle among children and youth. The New South Wales Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey, 1997, was conducted to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge of these aspects of the lives of young people in New South Wales. The survey was conducted in February and March, 1997 and collected data on a randomly-selected sample of students (n = 5518) in Years 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Measures were taken on body composition (height and weight, waist and hip girths, skinfolds), health-related fitness (aerobic capacity, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility), fundamental motor skills (run, vertical jump, catch, overhand throw, forehand strike and kick), self-reported physical activity, time spent in sedentary recreation, and physical education (PE) classes. The methods are described to assist in the development of surveys of other populations and to provoke debate relevant to the development and dissemination of standard approaches to monitoring the fitness, physical activity habits and body composition of Australian children and youth. Finally, we offer comments on some of the strengths and limitations of the methods employed.

  4. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  5. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  6. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  7. Impact of colored light on cardiorespiratory coordination.

    PubMed

    Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Hak, Florian; Kleinrath, Ullrich; Lühr, Birgit; Matthiessen, Peter F; Weinzirl, Johannes; Cysarz, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Background. Light exposure to the eye can influence different physiological functions, for example, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By affecting the autonomic nervous system, the SCN may influence the heart rate variability (HRV). Standardized colored light exposure alters HRV but the results are inconsistent. In this study we investigated the effects of nonstandardized red light (approx. 640 nm) and blue (approx. 480 nm) light (approx. 50 lx) on cardiorespiratory coordination and HRV. Methods. 17 healthy subjects (7 males, age: 26.5 ± 6.2 years) were exposed to the following sequence (10 minutes each): daylight-red light-daylight-blue light-daylight. Red and blue lights were created by daylight passing through colored glass panes. Spectral measures of HRV (LF: low frequency, HF: high frequency oscillations, and sympathovagal balance LF/HF) and measures of cardiorespiratory coordination (HRR: heart respiration ratio, PCR: phase coordination ratio) were analyzed. Results. The LF component increased and the HF component decreased after red light. Consequently, LF/HF increased after red light. Furthermore, during red light HRR and PCR confined to 4 : 1, that is, 4 heartbeats during one respiratory cycle. Conclusion. Nonstandardized red and blue lights are able to alter the autonomic control reflected by HRV as well as cardiorespiratory coordination.

  8. Health-related fitness, physical activity, and history of back pain.

    PubMed

    Payne, N; Gledhill, N; Katzmarzyk, P T; Jamnik, V

    2000-08-01

    The relationship between history of back pain and measurements of both health-related fitness and physical activity participation was examined in 233 males and 287 females aged 15-69 years. Participants were divided by gender into those reporting no history (NH) or a history (H) of recurring back pain. Analysis of variance indicated that trunk flexion, back extensor endurance, and physical activity participation were significantly higher for NH and waist girth significantly lower for NH in both genders. In females, mean abdominal muscular endurance was significantly higher in NH. Forward stepwise discriminant function analyses indicated that the best discriminators between NH and H were back extensor endurance and physical activity participation in both genders and waist girth in females. These findings support using measurements of trunk flexion, abdominal muscular endurance, back extensor endurance, physical activity participation, and waist girth as indicators of back fitness in the evaluation of back health.

  9. Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6–11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6–12 (N = 732) that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N = 682). Cardiovascular endurance was estimated by heart rate reserve. Results. Compared to the highest percentile of heart rate reserve, those in the first percentile had 3.52 (2.36, 5.24) odds and those in the second percentile had 3.61 (1.84, 7.06) odds of being in the overweight/obese as compared to the under/normal weight category. Considering the highest percentile, boys had a heart rate reserve of 35%, whereas girls had a heart rate reserve of 13% (less than half that of boys). Conclusion. Having an overweight or obese classification for children in this study demonstrated a compromise in cardiovascular endurance. Parental awareness should be raised as to the detrimental consequence of overweight and heart health. PMID:27774315

  10. Distributional changes in the performance of Australian children on tests of cardiorespiratory endurance.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Olds, Timothy S

    2007-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence of worldwide declines in cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE) among children. To date, few studies have focused on trends in distributional characteristics of CRE performance. This study analyzed 1985 and 1997 samples of Australian children on the 1.6 km run/walk test, using a variety of descriptive and inferential statistics to compare distributions of average running speed among 10- to 11-year-olds. The analysis was conducted on 965 boys and 935 girls from 1985, and 661 boys and 553 girls from 1997. Among boys there was a significant increase in the coefficient of variation of average completion times, with a marked decrease in negative skew. This was largely attributable to the largest declines occurring in the middle percentiles, with relatively smaller declines at low (<5th) and high (>90th) percentiles. The bulk of the scores have shifted towards the left side of the distribution, reducing the skew. Among girls the distributional trends were different; there was little change in 'scatter' and skew of test scores, with declines in performance being relatively uniform across the distribution. These findings contrast with previous reports of greater declines among the lowest ranked performers on CRE tests. The observed declines in all percentiles other than the lowest and highest ranked boys suggest that mechanisms for declining fitness are widespread throughout the population and may reflect changes in environmental barriers and enablers of regular physical activity among Australian youth. PMID:17387260

  11. Brain MRI Tumor Detection using Active Contour Model and Local Image Fitting Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabizadeh, Nooshin; John, Nigel

    2014-03-01

    Automatic abnormality detection in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important issue in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Here an automatic brain tumor detection method is introduced that uses T1-weighted images and K. Zhang et. al.'s active contour model driven by local image fitting (LIF) energy. Local image fitting energy obtains the local image information, which enables the algorithm to segment images with intensity inhomogeneities. Advantage of this method is that the LIF energy functional has less computational complexity than the local binary fitting (LBF) energy functional; moreover, it maintains the sub-pixel accuracy and boundary regularization properties. In Zhang's algorithm, a new level set method based on Gaussian filtering is used to implement the variational formulation, which is not only vigorous to prevent the energy functional from being trapped into local minimum, but also effective in keeping the level set function regular. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves high accuracy brain tumor segmentation results.

  12. Active Contours Using Additive Local and Global Intensity Fitting Models for Intensity Inhomogeneous Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Soomro, Shafiullah; Kim, Jeong Heon; Soomro, Toufique Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an improved region based active contour method with a level set formulation. The proposed energy functional integrates both local and global intensity fitting terms in an additive formulation. Local intensity fitting term influences local force to pull the contour and confine it to object boundaries. In turn, the global intensity fitting term drives the movement of contour at a distance from the object boundaries. The global intensity term is based on the global division algorithm, which can better capture intensity information of an image than Chan-Vese (CV) model. Both local and global terms are mutually assimilated to construct an energy function based on a level set formulation to segment images with intensity inhomogeneity. Experimental results show that the proposed method performs better both qualitatively and quantitatively compared to other state-of-the-art-methods. PMID:27800011

  13. Social inequalities in body weight and physical activity: exploring the role of fitness centers.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions ofexclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this relation. Using publicly available data and guided by Bourdieu's theory of habitus, we classified fitness centers in Calgary, Canada, on three dimensions of exclusivity (economic, social, and appearance). We found that, although some highly exclusive centers exist, most demonstrated low exclusivity based on our dimensions. An overall contribution of centers to inequalities appears to be limited; however, caution is warranted in light of cutbacks to municipal budgets that can have an impact on publicly funded facilities.

  14. Spreading depolarization in the brainstem mediates sudden cardiorespiratory arrest in mouse SUDEP models

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Isamu; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiorespiratory collapse after a seizure is the leading cause of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in young persons, but why only certain individuals are at risk is unknown. To identify a mechanism for this lethal cardiorespiratory failure, we examined whether genes linked to increased SUDEP risk lower the threshold for spreading depolarization (SD), a self-propagating depolarizing wave that silences neuronal networks. Mice carrying mutations in Kv1.1 potassium channels (−/−) and Scn1a sodium ion channels (+/R1407X) phenocopy many aspects of human SUDEP. In mutant, but not wild-type mice, seizures initiated by topical application of 4-aminopyridine to the cortex led to a slow, negative DC potential shift recorded in the dorsal medulla, a brainstem region that controls cardiorespiratory pacemaking. This irreversible event slowly depolarized cells and inactivated synaptic activity, producing cardiorespiratory arrest. Local initiation of SD in this region by potassium chloride microinjection also elicited electroencephalographic suppression, apnea, bradycardia, and asystole, similar to the events seen in monitored human SUDEP. In vitro study of brainstem slices confirmed that mutant mice had a lower threshold for SD elicited by metabolic substrate depletion and that immature mice were at greater risk than adults. Deletion of the gene encoding tau, which prolongs life in these mutants, also restored the normal SD threshold in Kv1.1-mutant mouse brainstem. Thus, brainstem SD may be a critical threshold event linking seizures and SUDEP. PMID:25855492

  15. A Cross-sectional Study of Resting Cardio-respiratory and Metabolic Changes in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Ajjimaporn, Amornpan; Somprasit, Charintip; Chaunchaiyakul, Rungchai

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] We examined cardiorespiratory and metabolic changes across the 1st (G1), 2nd (G2) and 3rd (G3) trimesters in pregnant women. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-two healthy, active, non-smoking, pregnant women participated in this study. They were divided into G1, G2 and G3 groups depending on their mean gestational ages at the time of testing which were 10.5 ±2.9, 19.2 ±3.4, and 33.3 ±2.4 weeks of gestation, respectively. Cardio-respiratory and metabolic variables, VO2 (oxygen consumption), VCO2 (carbon dioxide production), and VE (minute ventilation), were measured using indirect calorimetry (IC, gas analyser) to estimate ventilatory equivalents of oxygen (VE/VO2) and carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2), RER (respiratory exchange ratio) and REE (resting energy expenditure). [Results] Women in the late pregnancy period had higher resting VCO2 and RER, whereas the VE/VCO2 ratio was significantly lower than in G1 and in G2. Even though the values of VO2 and REE increased throughout the course of pregnancy, no significant differences were found. [Conclusion] In pregnant women, resting cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables continuously changed throughout the 3 trimesters. Changes in VE/VCO2 and RER indicate shifting metabolic energy substrates. In addition, changes in cardiorespiratory variables, in parallel with gas exchange, indicate a better gas exchange process.

  16. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in daily functioning in older adults with intellectual disabilities: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-10-01

    A high incidence of limitations in daily functioning is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), along with poor physical fitness levels. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for daily functioning after 3 years, in 602 older adults with borderline to profound ID (≥ 50 years). At baseline, physical fitness levels and daily functioning (operationalized as basic activities of daily living [ADL] and mobility) were assessed. After 3 years, the measurements of daily functioning were repeated. At follow-up, 12.6% of the participants were completely independent in ADL and 48.5% had no mobility limitations. More than half of the participants (54.8%) declined in their ability to perform ADL and 37.5% declined in their mobility. Manual dexterity, visual reaction time, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in ADL. For a decline in mobility, manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast walking speed, grip strength, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were all significant predictors. This proves the predictive validity of these physical fitness tests for daily functioning and stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and implementing physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  17. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  18. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  19. Fitness activity classification by using multiclass support vector machines on head-worn sensors.

    PubMed

    Loh, Darrell; Lee, Tien J; Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh; Hoskinson, Reynald; Park, Edward J

    2015-08-01

    Fitness activity classification on wearable devices can provide activity-specific information and generate more accurate performance metrics. Recently, optical head-mounted displays (OHMD) like Google Glass, Sony SmartEyeglass and Recon Jet have emerged. This paper presents a novel method to classify fitness activities using head-worn accelerometer, barometric pressure sensor and GPS, with comparisons to other common mounting locations on the body. Using multiclass SVM on head-worn sensors, we obtained an average F-score of 96.66% for classifying standing, walking, running, ascending/descending stairs and cycling. The best sensor location combinations were found to be on the ankle plus another upper body location. Using three or more sensors did not show a notable improvement over the best two-sensor combinations. PMID:26736309

  20. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Dominik; Izdebski, Paweł; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał

    2015-06-27

    The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs) and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs). None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness.

  1. Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: a self-organizing maps approach.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The aim of this study was to perform a visual analysis of this relationship with self-organizing maps and to monitor the subject's evolution during the 4 years of secondary school. Four hundred and forty-four students participated in the study. The physical activity and physical fitness of the participants were measured, and the participants' grade point averages were obtained from the five participant institutions. Four main clusters representing two primary student profiles with few differences between boys and girls were observed. The clustering demonstrated that students with higher energy expenditure and better physical fitness exhibited lower body mass index (BMI) and higher academic performance, whereas those adolescents with lower energy expenditure exhibited worse physical fitness, higher BMI and lower academic performance. With respect to the evolution of the students during the 4 years, ∼25% of the students originally clustered in a negative profile moved to a positive profile, and there was no movement in the opposite direction. PMID:25953972

  2. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Bernatowicz, Dominik; Izdebski, Paweł; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs) and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs). None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness. PMID:26240664

  3. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  4. Comparison of Physical Activity Measures Using Mobile Phone-Based CalFit and Actigraph

    PubMed Central

    Donaire-Gonzalez, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Mendez, Michelle; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies on physical activity often lack inexpensive, objective, valid, and reproducible tools for measuring physical activity levels of participants. Novel sensing technologies built into smartphones offer the potential to fill this gap. Objective We sought to validate estimates of physical activity and determine the usability for large population-based studies of the smartphone-based CalFit software. Methods A sample of 36 participants from Barcelona, Spain, wore a smartphone with CalFit software and an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for 5 days. The ease of use (usability) and physical activity measures from both devices were compared, including vertical axis counts (VT) and duration and energy expenditure predictions for light, moderate, and vigorous intensity from Freedson’s algorithm. Statistical analyses included (1) Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test for usability measures, (2) Spearman correlation and linear regression for VT counts, (3) concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and (4) Bland-Altman plots for duration and energy expenditure measures. Results Approximately 64% (23/36) of participants were women. Mean age was 31 years (SD 8) and mean body mass index was 22 kg/m2 (SD 2). In total, 25/36 (69%) participants recorded at least 3 days with at least 10 recorded hours of physical activity using CalFit. The linear association and correlations for VT counts were high (adjusted R 2=0.85; correlation coefficient .932, 95% CI 0.931-0.933). CCCs showed high agreement for duration and energy expenditure measures (from 0.83 to 0.91). Conclusions The CalFit system had lower usability than the Actigraph GT3X because the application lacked a means to turn itself on each time the smartphone was powered on. The CalFit system may provide valid estimates to quantify and classify physical activity. CalFit may prove to be more cost-effective and easily deployed for large-scale population health studies than other specialized instruments because

  5. Physical fitness of primary school children in relation to overweight prevalence and physical activity habits.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; Ceciliani, Andrea; Garulli, Andrea; Masotti, Andrea; Poletti, Giuseppe; Beltrami, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyse, through a limited number of fitness tests, the main conditioning and coordinative abilities in children aged 8-9 years, and their relationship with gender, anthropometric variables and physical activity habits. The height and weight of 256 boys and 241 girls were measured and information about physical activity habits was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical performance was assessed by means of a few standardised tests: 'sit & reach', medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll test. In both boys and girls, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were positively correlated with the medicine-ball throw performances and negatively correlated for the standing long jump and speed tests, while no association was found with tests measuring back flexibility and total body coordination. Daily physical activity and participation in sport were not significantly correlated with body weight and BMI, but were positively associated with children's motor performance. The standardised fitness tests selected in the current study have been found to be suitable to identify fitness levels of primary school children. Thanks to their limited number and ease of measurement, they can be used in any school context to classify children and for monitoring the effects of targeted interventions promoting physical activity.

  6. Modulation of cardiorespiratory function mediated by the paraventricular nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kc, Prabha; Dick, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) coordinates autonomic and neuroendocrine systems to maintain homeostasis and to respond to stress. Neuroanatomic and neurophysiologic experiments have provided insight into the mechanisms by which the PVN acts. The PVN projects directly to the spinal cord and brainstem and, specifically, to sites that control cardiorespiratory function: the intermediolateral cell columns and phrenic motor nuclei in the spinal cord and rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and the rostral nuclei in the ventral respiratory column (rVRC) in the brainstem. Activation of the PVN increases ventilation (both tidal volume and frequency) and blood pressure (both heart rate and sympathetic nerve activity). Excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters including glutamate and GABA converge in the PVN to influence its neuronal activity. However, a tonic GABAergic input to the PVN directly modulates excitatory outflow from the PVN. Further, even within the PVN, microinjection of GABAA receptor blockers increases glutamate release suggesting an indirect mechanism by which GABA control contributes to PVN functions. PVN activity alters blood pressure and ventilation during various stresses, such as maternal separation, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), dehydration and hemorrhage. Among the several PVN neurotransmitters and neurohormones, vasopressin and oxytocin modulate ventilation and blood pressure. Here, we review our data indicating that increases in vasopressin and vasopressin type 1A (V1A) receptor signaling in the RVLM and rVRC are mechanisms increasing blood pressure and ventilation after exposure to CIH. That blockade of V1A receptors in the medulla normalizes baseline blood pressure as well as blunts PVN-evoked blood pressure and ventilatory responses in CIH-conditioned animals indicate the role of vasopressin in cardiorespiratory control. In summary, morphological and functional studies have found that the PVN integrates sensory input and

  7. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood pressure profile in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal C; Singh, S K

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine how physical activity level and physical fitness affects the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to help in developing preventive strategies for the local population as ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 Gujarati Indian adolescent boys and girls of age group 16-19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using Johnson Space Center/NASA Physical Activity Rating Scale and VO2 max was used to assess the physical fitness. Body composition was assessed in terms of Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Blood Pressure was measured by oscillometry. One-way ANOVA was used to study if any significant differences (P<0.05) existed in the blood pressure profile between the high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to assess the relationship between VO2 max and blood pressure profile. In girls, physical activity level was not found to have a significant effect on the blood pressure profile. In boys, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity Group as compared to Low Physical Activity Group. PVO2 max was found to have a significant negative correlationship with SBP, DBP and MAP in girls and a significant negative correlationship with SBP, PP and MAP in boys. It could thus be concluded that a better physical fitness rather than a higher physical activity level could keep the blood pressure in check in the Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  8. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  9. Role Modeling Attitudes, Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors of Prospective Physical Education Specialists and Non-Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the role modeling attitudes and physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of undergraduate students majoring in physical education and in elementary education. Student teacher surveys indicated that physical education majors had more positive attitudes toward role modeling physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors and…

  10. Long-Term Effects of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Physical Fitness and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third…

  11. Cardiorespiratory effects of water ingestion during and after exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In prolonged exercise, the state of hypohydration due to sweating raises physiological stress and induces a drop in sports performance. However, the impact of water intake in cardiorespiratory parameters when administered during and after physical activity has not been well studied. This study aimed to analyze the effects of water intake in heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), partial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and respiratory rate during and after prolonged exercise. Methods Thirty-one young males (21.55 ± 1.89 yr) performed three different protocols (48 h interval between each stage): I) maximal exercise test to determine the load for the protocols; II) Control protocol (CP) and; III) Experimental protocol (EP). The protocols consisted of 10 min at rest with the subject in the supine position, 90 min of treadmill exercise (60% of VO2 peak) and 60 min of rest placed in the dorsal decubitus position. No rehydration beverage consumption was allowed during CP. During EP, however, the subjects were given water (Vittalev, Spaipa, Brazil). The parameters HR, SBP, DBP, SpO2 and respiratory rate were measured at the end of the rest, in 30, 60 and 90 minutes of the activity, except the respiratory rate parameter, and at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minute post- exercise. Results The hydration protocol provided minimal changes in SBP and DBP and a smaller increase in HR and did not significantly affect SpO2 during exercise and better HR recovery, faster return of SBP and DBP and a better performance for SpO2 and respiratory rate post-exercise. Conclusion Hydration with water influenced the behavior of cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young subjects. PMID:24059759

  12. Self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness in middle school children: examination of a pedometer intervention program.

    PubMed

    Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI.

  13. A methodological approach to short-term tracking of youth physical fitness: the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study.

    PubMed

    Souza, Michele; Eisenmann, Joey; Chaves, Raquel; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Forjaz, Cláudia; Maia, José

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, three different statistical approaches were used to investigate short-term tracking of cardiorespiratory and performance-related physical fitness among adolescents. Data were obtained from the Oporto Growth, Health and Performance Study and comprised 1203 adolescents (549 girls) divided into two age cohorts (10-12 and 12-14 years) followed for three consecutive years, with annual assessment. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with 1-mile run/walk test; 50-yard dash, standing long jump, handgrip, and shuttle run test were used to rate performance-related physical fitness. Tracking was expressed in three different ways: auto-correlations, multilevel modelling with crude and adjusted model (for biological maturation, body mass index, and physical activity), and Cohen's Kappa (κ) computed in IBM SPSS 20.0, HLM 7.01 and Longitudinal Data Analysis software, respectively. Tracking of physical fitness components was (1) moderate-to-high when described by auto-correlations; (2) low-to-moderate when crude and adjusted models were used; and (3) low according to Cohen's Kappa (κ). These results demonstrate that when describing tracking, different methods should be considered since they provide distinct and more comprehensive views about physical fitness stability patterns.

  14. Status of the year 2000 health goals for physical activity and fitness.

    PubMed

    Francis, K T

    1999-04-01

    In Healthy People 2000, the national strategy for improving the health of the American people by the year 2000, lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity are major determinants of chronic disease and disability. Despite the documented benefits of exercise in enhancing health and reducing the risk of premature death, only 1 of the 13 physical activity and fitness objectives of Healthy People 2000 has been met or exceeded. Although progress toward 5 objectives for the year 2000 has been made, 3 objectives are actually farther from attainment. Coronary heart disease death rates (Objective 1.1) have declined, and the prevalence of overweight people (Objective 1.2) has increased. Overall physical activity in adults (Objectives 1.3 and 1.4) and strengthening and stretching activities in children (Objective 1.6) have increased, but reduction in the percentage of sedentary persons (Objective 1.5) has showed no change. The proportion of the population adopting sound dietary practices combined with regular physical activity to attain appropriate body weight (Objective 1.7) has declined. Even though participation in daily school physical education (Objective 1.8) has shown a decline during the past several years, students who are enrolled in physical education classes are spending more time performing physical activities (Objective 1.9). The proportion of work sites offering employer-sponsored physical activity and fitness programs (Objective 1.10) has increased substantially, surpassing the year 2000 goal. Data to update progress for increasing physical activity levels of children (Objectives 1.3-1.5), community exercise facilities (Objective 1.11), clinician counseling about physical activity (Objective 1.12), and improvement in personal self-care activities (Objective 1.13) are not yet available.

  15. Cardiorespiratory interactions to external stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Spicuzza, L; Sleight, P

    2005-09-01

    Respiration is a powerful modulator of heart rate variability, and of baro- or chemo-reflex sensitivity. This occurs via a mechanical effect of breathing that synchronizes all cardiovascular variables at the respiratory rhythm, particularly when this occurs at a particular slow rate coincident with the Mayer waves in arterial pressure (approximately 6 cycles/min). Recitation of the rosary prayer (or of most mantras), induces a marked enhancement of these slow rhythms, whereas random verbalization or random breathing does not. This phenomenon in turn increases baroreflex sensitivity and reduces chemoreflex sensitivity, leading to increases in parasympathetic and reductions in sympathetic activity. The opposite can be seen during either verbalization or mental stress tests. Qualitatively similar effects can be obtained even by passive listening to more or less rhythmic auditory stimuli, such as music, and the speed of the rhythm (rather than the style) appears to be one of the main determinants of the cardiovascular and respiratory responses. These findings have clinical relevance. Appropriate modulation of breathing, can improve/restore autonomic control of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in relevant diseases such as hypertension and heart failure, and might therefore help improving exercise tolerance, quality of life, and ultimately, survival.

  16. Efficient Parallel Implementation of Active Appearance Model Fitting Algorithm on GPU

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinwei; Ma, Xirong; Zhu, Yuanping; Sun, Jizhou

    2014-01-01

    The active appearance model (AAM) is one of the most powerful model-based object detecting and tracking methods which has been widely used in various situations. However, the high-dimensional texture representation causes very time-consuming computations, which makes the AAM difficult to apply to real-time systems. The emergence of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) that feature a many-core, fine-grained parallel architecture provides new and promising solutions to overcome the computational challenge. In this paper, we propose an efficient parallel implementation of the AAM fitting algorithm on GPUs. Our design idea is fine grain parallelism in which we distribute the texture data of the AAM, in pixels, to thousands of parallel GPU threads for processing, which makes the algorithm fit better into the GPU architecture. We implement our algorithm using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) on the Nvidia's GTX 650 GPU, which has the latest Kepler architecture. To compare the performance of our algorithm with different data sizes, we built sixteen face AAM models of different dimensional textures. The experiment results show that our parallel AAM fitting algorithm can achieve real-time performance for videos even on very high-dimensional textures. PMID:24723812

  17. Physical activity profiles and selected muscular fitness variables in English schoolchildren: A north-south divide?

    PubMed

    Ingle, Lee; Stephenson, Ashlie; Sandercock, Gavin R

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare and contrast habitual physical activity (PA) profiles and muscular fitness in schoolchildren from northern and southern regions of England. Data were collected from two secondary schools in the north east (NE) of England. The study procedures followed methods employed by the East of England Healthy Hearts Study in 10-16-year-old boys and girls based in the south east (SE) region of England and data were compared. Habitual physical activity (PAQ-A), vertical jump test, and hand-grip (HG) strength were assessed. We converted raw scores from all assessments to age- and sex-normalised z-scores. We recruited 597 children (58% boys) in the NE and compared findings to 597 age- and sex-matched boys and girls from the SE. Boys in the SE had significantly stronger HG scores, jumped higher, were more powerful (mean peak power: 2131 W vs. 1782 W; P < 0.0001), and reported being more physically active (mean PAQ-A: 2.9 vs. 2.5; P < 0.0001) than their male counterparts in the NE. In girls, the opposite trend was evident. Girls from the NE of England had a higher HG score, jumped higher, and were more powerful (mean peak power: 2114 W vs. 1839 W; P < .0001) than their peers from the SE. Regional variations in the habitual PA profiles and muscular fitness of schoolchildren from the SE and NE of England do exist. The systematic surveillance of children's PA and fitness profiles throughout England would help identify regional inequalities on a larger scale.

  18. Field assessments for obesity prevention in children and adults: physical activity, fitness, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Spears, Karen; Idris, Rafida; Dyrek, Anthony; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and health educators work in community settings implementing lifestyle programs focused on obesity prevention and chronic disease risk reduction. These programs typically focus on improving diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Many nutrition educators may not be confident in their ability to select, administer, and interpret PA assessments to effectively evaluate their PA or lifestyle programs. This report will assist educators in identifying and selecting appropriate field-based assessments for measurement of PA, physical fitness, and body composition for children and adults. Specific guidelines, references, and resources are given for selecting assessment methods and test within these 3 areas.

  19. Leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness of male adolescents in Oman.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Al-Shamli, Ali Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a hand grip test; and a 1-minute sit-up test. Students spent an average of 19.20 ± 6.77 hours on sedentary activities, 3.46 ± 2.11 hours on sports activities, and 11.22 ± 9.24 hours working per week. The students had an average body fat percentage of 6.38% ± 4.67%, muscle strength 38.04 ± 7.55 kg, flexibility 38.01 ± 7.41 cm, abdominal muscle endurance 38.85 ± 8.15 times/min, and cardiovascular endurance 8.10 ± 1.65 minutes.

  20. Perceptions of older Latino adults regarding physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Melillo, K D; Williamson, E; Houde, S C; Futrell, M; Read, C Y; Campasano, M

    2001-09-01

    Healthy People 2000 has identified the importance of physical activity for healthy aging, but little is known about what motivates older individuals, older Latino adults, in particular, to be physically active. The purpose of this research was to examine the perceptions of older Latino adults toward physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise. This study used a qualitative focus group design. The sample of Latino adults age 60 and older resided in Northeast Massachusetts and was recruited from community settings which serve older Latino adults. Three focus groups, consisting of four to eight individuals in each group, were conducted and audiotaped. Data analysis used a combination of open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Focus group participants viewed physical fitness as being able to do anything; the mind and body working together; and feeling "light," being healthy. Support was viewed as a motivator of physical activity and exercise and included community resources, group support, cultural unity, and health provider assistance Barriers of fear and a feeling of inappropriateness were identified by focus group participants. Although the study was exploratory and the sample size small, it provides useful cultural knowledge and information for community health and gerontological nurses. Knowledge about older Latino adults' perceptions of motivators and barriers to physical activity and exercise is a necessary first step for nurses to prescribe activities that will help improve functional independence and quality of life. Nurses can serve as links for older Latino adults in accessing community resources. Sociocultural factors that influence Latino adult perceptions must be assessed if health promotion program planning is to be tailored to meet individual and group needs.

  1. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  2. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  3. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein ion channel activity promotes virus fitness and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Torres, Jose L; DeDiego, Marta L; Verdiá-Báguena, Carmina; Jimenez-Guardeño, Jose M; Regla-Nava, Jose A; Fernandez-Delgado, Raul; Castaño-Rodriguez, Carlos; Alcaraz, Antonio; Torres, Jaume; Aguilella, Vicente M; Enjuanes, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Deletion of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) envelope (E) gene attenuates the virus. E gene encodes a small multifunctional protein that possesses ion channel (IC) activity, an important function in virus-host interaction. To test the contribution of E protein IC activity in virus pathogenesis, two recombinant mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs, each containing one single amino acid mutation that suppressed ion conductivity, were engineered. After serial infections, mutant viruses, in general, incorporated compensatory mutations within E gene that rendered active ion channels. Furthermore, IC activity conferred better fitness in competition assays, suggesting that ion conductivity represents an advantage for the virus. Interestingly, mice infected with viruses displaying E protein IC activity, either with the wild-type E protein sequence or with the revertants that restored ion transport, rapidly lost weight and died. In contrast, mice infected with mutants lacking IC activity, which did not incorporate mutations within E gene during the experiment, recovered from disease and most survived. Knocking down E protein IC activity did not significantly affect virus growth in infected mice but decreased edema accumulation, the major determinant of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leading to death. Reduced edema correlated with lung epithelia integrity and proper localization of Na+/K+ ATPase, which participates in edema resolution. Levels of inflammasome-activated IL-1β were reduced in the lung airways of the animals infected with viruses lacking E protein IC activity, indicating that E protein IC function is required for inflammasome activation. Reduction of IL-1β was accompanied by diminished amounts of TNF and IL-6 in the absence of E protein ion conductivity. All these key cytokines promote the progression of lung damage and ARDS pathology. In conclusion, E protein IC activity represents a new determinant for SARS-CoV virulence. PMID:24788150

  4. Cardiorespiratory effects of nicotine exposure during development.

    PubMed

    Hafström, Ola; Milerad, Joseph; Sandberg, Kenneth L; Sundell, Håkan W

    2005-11-15

    Exposure to tobacco smoke is a major risk factor for the sudden infant death syndrome. Nicotine is thought to be the ingredient in tobacco smoke that is responsible for a multitude of cardiorespiratory effects during development, and pre- rather than postnatal exposure is considered to be most detrimental. Nicotine interacts with endogenous acetylcholine receptors in the brain and lung, and developmental exposure produces structural changes as well as alterations in neuroregulation. Abnormalities have been described in sympathicovagal balance, arousal threshold and latency, breathing pattern at rest and apnea frequency, ventilatory response to hyperoxia or hypoxia, heart rate regulation and ability to autoresuscitate during severe hypoxia. This review discusses studies performed on infants of smoking mothers and nicotine-exposed animals yielding varying and sometimes inconsistent results that may be due to differences in experimental design, species and the dose of exposure. Taken together however, developmental nicotine exposure appears to induce vulnerability during hypoxia and a potential inability to survive severe asphyxia.

  5. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, Marko T; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-29

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people's cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents' academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = -0.023, 95% confidence interval = -0.031, -0.015) and obesity (B = -0.025, 95% confidence interval = -0.039, -0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

  6. Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement

    PubMed Central

    Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

    2013-01-01

    The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (β) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

  7. The Effects of Eight-Month Physical Activity Intervention on Vigilance Performance in Adult Obese Population.

    PubMed

    Monleón, Cristina; Ballester, Rafael; Sanchis, Carlos; Llorens, Francesc; Martín, Marta; Pablos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    We aim to analyze the effects of an 8-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI), and vigilance performance in an adult obese population. We conducted an 8-month physical activity intervention based on dance and rhythmic activities. The weekly frequency was 2 sessions of 1 hr per day. Training sessions were divided into 3 phases: a 10-min warm-up, 40 min of dance and rhythmic activities, and 10 min to cool-down. To assess cardiorespiratory fitness, participants performed a modified version of the 6-min walk test from the Senior Fitness Test battery (Larsson & Mattsson, 2001; Rikli & Jones, 1999). Vigilance performance was measured by means of the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). Two measurements were performed immediately before and after the intervention. The results revealed that participants improved their cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and vigilance performance after the intervention. All in all, findings contribute new empirical evidence to the field that investigates the benefits of physical activity intervention on cognitive processes in obese population.

  8. Surrogate measures of physical activity and physical fitness. Evidence for sedentary traits of resting tachycardia, obesity, and low vital capacity.

    PubMed

    Blair, S N; Kannel, W B; Kohl, H W; Goodyear, N; Wilson, P W

    1989-06-01

    Studies on physical activity, physical fitness, and health have been hampered because of invalid, unreliable, or impractical measures of physical activity. This report examines the validity of sedentary traits (resting tachycardia, obesity, and low vital capacity) as predictors of physical fitness as assessed by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Study participants were women (n = 3,943) and men (n = 15,627) with at least one visit to the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas. Association of the sedentary traits with physical fitness was examined by multiple regression analyses. Sedentary traits were associated with physical fitness in all age and sex groups, accounting for 12-40% of the variance in treadmill time. When smoking, a simple physical activity index, and sedentary traits were included in a model to predict physical fitness, R2 values ranged from 0.20 to 0.53 in women and 0.45 to 0.61 in men and were significant at p less than 0.0001. These models account for approximately twice as much variance in physical fitness as has been reported previously. The addition of sedentary traits measurements to a simple physical activity index provides a valid estimate of physical fitness in epidemiologic studies.

  9. Proteasome-mediated turnover of the transcriptional activator FIT is required for plant iron-deficiency responses.

    PubMed

    Sivitz, Alicia; Grinvalds, Claudia; Barberon, Marie; Curie, Catherine; Vert, Grégory

    2011-06-01

    Plants display a number of responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. To maintain iron homeostasis, the expression of FRO2 and IRT1 is tightly controlled by iron deficiency at the transcriptional level. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor FIT represents the most upstream actor known in the iron-deficiency signaling pathway, and directly regulates the expression of the root iron uptake machinery genes FRO2 and IRT1. However, how FIT is controlled by iron and acts to activate transcription of its targets remains obscure. Here we show that FIT mRNA and endogenous FIT protein accumulate in Arabidopsis roots upon iron deficiency. However, using plants constitutively expressing FIT, we observed that FIT protein accumulation is reduced in iron-limited conditions. This post-transcriptional regulation of FIT is perfectly synchronized with the accumulation of endogenous FIT and IRT1 proteins, and therefore is part of the early responses to low iron. We demonstrated that such regulation affects FIT protein stability under iron deficiency as a result of 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. In addition, we showed that FIT post-translational regulation by iron is required for FRO2 and IRT1 gene expression. Taken together our results indicate that FIT transcriptional and post-translational regulations are integrated in plant roots to ensure that the positive regulator FIT accumulates as a short-lived protein following iron shortage, and to allow proper iron-deficiency responses.

  10. Arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity during acute hypotension: effect of fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fadel, P. J.; Stromstad, M.; Hansen, J.; Sander, M.; Horn, K.; Ogoh, S.; Smith, M. L.; Secher, N. H.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    We examined arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during abrupt decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and evaluated whether endurance training alters baroreflex function. Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically in 14 healthy subjects, of which 7 were of high fitness (HF) and 7 were of average fitness (AF), by releasing a unilateral arterial thigh cuff after 9 min of resting ischemia under two conditions: control, which used aortic and carotid baroreflex (ABR and CBR, respectively) deactivation; and suction, which used ABR deactivation alone. The application of neck suction to counteract changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure during cuff release significantly attenuated the MSNA response (which increased 134 +/- 32 U/14 s) compared with control (which increased 195 +/- 43 U/14 s) and caused a greater decrease in MAP (19 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Furthermore, during both trials, the HF subjects exhibited a greater decrease in MAP compared with AF subjects despite an augmented baroreflex control of MSNA. These data indicate that the CBR contributes importantly to the MSNA response during acute systemic hypotension. Additionally, we suggest that an impaired control of vascular reactivity hinders blood pressure regulation in HF subjects.

  11. Arterial baroreflex control of sympathetic nerve activity during acute hypotension: effect of fitness.

    PubMed

    Fadel, P J; Stromstad, M; Hansen, J; Sander, M; Horn, K; Ogoh, S; Smith, M L; Secher, N H; Raven, P B

    2001-06-01

    We examined arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during abrupt decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and evaluated whether endurance training alters baroreflex function. Acute hypotension was induced nonpharmacologically in 14 healthy subjects, of which 7 were of high fitness (HF) and 7 were of average fitness (AF), by releasing a unilateral arterial thigh cuff after 9 min of resting ischemia under two conditions: control, which used aortic and carotid baroreflex (ABR and CBR, respectively) deactivation; and suction, which used ABR deactivation alone. The application of neck suction to counteract changes in carotid sinus transmural pressure during cuff release significantly attenuated the MSNA response (which increased 134 +/- 32 U/14 s) compared with control (which increased 195 +/- 43 U/14 s) and caused a greater decrease in MAP (19 +/- 2 vs. 15 +/- 2 mmHg; P < 0.05). Furthermore, during both trials, the HF subjects exhibited a greater decrease in MAP compared with AF subjects despite an augmented baroreflex control of MSNA. These data indicate that the CBR contributes importantly to the MSNA response during acute systemic hypotension. Additionally, we suggest that an impaired control of vascular reactivity hinders blood pressure regulation in HF subjects. PMID:11356607

  12. Hormonal and cardiorespiratory changes following simulated saturation dives to 4 and 11 ATA.

    PubMed

    Mateev, G; Djarova, T; Ilkov, A; Sachanska, T; Klissurov, L

    1990-01-01

    Professional divers were compressed with trimix to 4 ATA (2 persons, aged 35 and 26) and to 11 ATA (3 persons, aged 34, 26, and 23) for saturation dives with durations of 48 and 50 h, followed by 33 and 109 h of decompression, respectively. Pre- and postdive cardiorespiratory reactions to a step test--heart rate (HR) and ventilation (VE)--and concentrations of growth hormone, corticotropin, cortisol, insulin, lutotropin, folitropin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropin, and testosterone in serum were studied. All divers developed postdecompression tachycardia (90-108 beats/min), which persisted 24 h after surfacing. Physical fitness assessed by steady state HR and VE during a step test was lowered 24 h after decompression compared with the predive values in 4 divers and enhanced in 1. These data provide evidence for hindered and delayed readaptation of the cardiorespiratory system to a normobaric environment. T3, T4, and testosterone were significantly decreased postdive. Hormonal responses were found to exhibit a very individual pattern from which it was possible to estimate the adaptive reactions after hyperbaric exposure. Professional divers with a lower level of physical fitness showed more pronounced hormonal responses to hyperbaric environments. PMID:2316058

  13. Cardiorespiratory Improvements Achieved by American College of Sports Medicine’s Exercise Prescription Implemented on a Mobile App

    PubMed Central

    Rospo, Gianluca; Valsecchi, Viola; Bonomi, Alberto G; Thomassen, Inge WJ; van Dantzig, Saskia; La Torre, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Strong evidence shows that an increase in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) reduces cardiovascular disease risk. Objective To test whether a scientifically endorsed program to increase CRF and PA, implemented on an easy-to-use, always-accessible mobile app would be effective in improving CRF. Methods Of 63 healthy volunteers participating, 18 tested the user interface of the Cardio-Fitness App (CF-App); and 45 underwent a 2-week intervention period, of whom 33 eventually concluded it. These were assigned into three groups. The Step-based App (Step-App) group (n=8), followed 10,000 steps/day prescription, the CF-App group (n=13), and the Supervised Cardio-Fitness (Super-CF) group (n=12), both followed a heart rate (HR)-based program according to American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, but either implemented on the app, or at the gym, respectively. Participants were tested for CRF, PA, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP), resting, exercise, and recovery HR. Results CRF increased in all groups (+4.9%; P<.001). SBP decreased in all groups (-2.6 mm Hg; P=.03). DBP decrease was higher in the Super-CF group (-3.5 mm Hg) than in the Step-App group (-2.1 mm Hg; P<.001). Posttest exercise HR decreased in all groups (-3.4 bpm; P=.02). Posttest recovery HR was lower in the Super-CF group (-10.1 bpm) than in the other two groups (CF-App: -4.9 bpm, Step-App: -3.3 bpm; P<.001). The CF-App group, however, achieved these improvements with more training heart beats (P<.01). Conclusions A 10,000 steps/day target-based app improved CRF similar to an ACSM guideline-based program whether it was implemented on a mobile app or in supervised gym sessions. PMID:27339153

  14. Differences in Preseason Aerobic Fitness Screening in Professional and Pre-professional Modern Dancers.

    PubMed

    Bronner, Shaw; Codman, Emma; Hash-Campbell, Dana; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi

    2016-03-01

    The aerobic demands of today's dance repertoire warrant understanding of the current cardiorespiratory fitness of dancers. The purpose of this study was to compare aerobic fitness levels of professional and pre-professional modern dancers and determine change over time. A retrospective analysis of four groups, two professional, and two pre-professional, was conducted in preseason annual screens, occurring before the professional dancers' rehearsal period and the students' academic training. Resting (HRrest), peak (HRpeak), and recovery (HRrecov) heart rate, and blood pressure (BP) were compared in 577 dancers, using an accelerated 3-minute step test. Smoking, asthma, and aerobic and cross training rates between groups were also compared. A 4 (group) X 2 (gender) MANOVA design determined differences between groups and genders in all dependent variables (p < 0.05). Using a repeated measures ANOVA design, we compared a subgroup over 3 years and one pre-professional group over 4 years. There were differences between groups in systolic BP and all HR variables (p < 0.001). Professional dancers reflected better cardiorespiratory fitness than pre-professional dancers. There were differences between groups in aerobic and cross training activities but no differences in smoking incidence or asthma rates. Pre-professional dancers demonstrated improvement in aerobic fitness over time (p = 0.006) while professionals did not change. Professional dancers display better aerobic fitness, which may reflect their performance demands. Wellness programs appear to enhance fitness in pre-professional dance students over time. Additional aerobic training is recommended for pre-professional modern dance students to prepare them for the performance demands of a professional career. PMID:27025448

  15. Toxic Chemical from Plastics Attenuates Phenylbiguanide-induced Cardio-respiratory Reflexes in Anaesthetized Rats.

    PubMed

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya P; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) attenuated phenylbiguanide (PBG)-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes involving decreased vagal afferent activity. BPA leaches out from plastics thus it is expected that chronic exposure to plastic boiled (PBW) water will also produce similar changes. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of chronic ingestion of PBW on PBG evoked reflexes and were compared with BPA. Adult female rats were ingested BPA containing pellets (2 µg/kg body weight)/PBW/tap water (ad libitum) for 30 days. On day 30, the animals were anaesthetized and BP, ECG and respiratory excursions were recorded. Further, PBG was injected intravenously to evoke cardio-respiratory reflexes and at the end lungs were excised for histopathological examination. BPA concentration in PBW was 6.6 µg/ml estimated by HPLC. In rats receiving tap water, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea. In PBW/BPA treated groups, PBG-induced reflexes were attenuated significantly along with emphysematous and consolidative changes in lungs. The present results indicate that PBW attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes and also produces histopathological changes in lungs. PMID:26685510

  16. Fitness vs. fatness on all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barry, Vaughn W; Baruth, Meghan; Beets, Michael W; Durstine, J Larry; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the joint association of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and weight status on mortality from all causes using meta-analytical methodology. Studies were included if they were (1) prospective, (2) objectively measured CRF and body mass index (BMI), and (3) jointly assessed CRF and BMI with all-cause mortality. Ten articles were included in the final analysis. Pooled hazard ratios were assessed for each comparison group (i.e. normal weight-unfit, overweight-unfit and -fit, and obese-unfit and -fit) using a random-effects model. Compared to normal weight-fit individuals, unfit individuals had twice the risk of mortality regardless of BMI. Overweight and obese-fit individuals had similar mortality risks as normal weight-fit individuals. Furthermore, the obesity paradox may not influence fit individuals. Researchers, clinicians, and public health officials should focus on physical activity and fitness-based interventions rather than weight-loss driven approaches to reduce mortality risk.

  17. Associations of physical activity with fatness and fitness in adolescents with Down syndrome: The UP&DOWN study.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocío; Martínez-Gómez, David; Villagra, Ariel; Fernhall, Bo; Veiga, Oscar L

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with several markers of fatness and fitness in a relatively large sample of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). This study comprised a total of 100 adolescents with DS (37 females) aged 11-20 years-old, and a sex-matched sample of 100 adolescents without disabilities, participating in the UP&DOWN study. The ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for adolescents was used to assess fatness and fitness. PA was measured by accelerometry. Adolescents with DS had higher fatness and significantly lower fitness levels in all variables measured than adolescents without DS (all p<0.05). Moderate-to-large effects were observed in fatness variables (d=0.65-1.42), but particularly large values were found in fitness variables (d=2.05-2.43). In addition, PA levels was not associated with fatness variables, whereas total PA and vigorous PA were associated with all fitness variables (p<0.05), and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with muscular fitness (p<0.05), after adjusting for potential confounders. Further analysis revealed that there were differences in fitness by tertiles of vigorous PA between the lowest and the highest groups in all fitness variables (all p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found in fitness by tertiles of MVPA according with PA guidelines (≥60min in MVPA). Our findings indicate that PA levels are not associated with fatness variables, whereas high PA levels, in particular vigorous PA, are positively associated with high fitness in adolescents with DS.

  18. Evidence-Based Referral: Effects of the Revised "Youth Fit 4 Life" Protocol on Physical Activity Outputs.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    The authors contrasted 2 physical activity/nutrition treatments on the basis of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory, and a comparison condition, on time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the 45-min/day physical activity segment of elementary after-school care. The Revised Youth Fit 4 Life protocol that sought to maximize participants' cardiovascular physical activity appeared to improve upon the Original Youth Fit For Life treatment on time in MVPA. Thus, pediatricians might have confidence in referring their patients to such evidence-based approaches. PMID:26057685

  19. Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, L; Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Korhonen, O; Oja, P

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in the physical activity, fitness and body composition of 103 police officers during a 15-year follow-up. The absolute aerobic capacity was similar in 1981 and 1996, muscular performance had declined, and body weight had increased approximately 0.5 kg/year. More than half the subjects (53%) had increased their leisure-time physical activity in 1996. The correlation was significant between physical activity in 1981 and physical fitness in 1996, but weak between physical activity in 1996 and fitness in 1996. It was also significant between waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in 1996 and physical activity during the previous 5 and 15 years. No significant correlations were found between physical activity and work ability or perceived physical or mental job stress. The physical fitness of middle-aged police officers seems to be predicted strongly by physical activity in early adulthood. Therefore health and fitness promotion measures should start at that time. This, together with regular systematic training, should help to sustain work ability of middle-aged police officers.

  20. Physical activity, fitness and the energy cost of activities: implications for obesity in children and adolescents in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Xiao Chuan; Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    The tropics cover a large section of the world in which both developed and developing countries are situated. Rapid socioeconomic development, modernization, urbanization, and globalization have affected both the food market and physical activity (PA), which in turn have propelled the obesity epidemic in the tropics. There is growing concern that overweight and obesity are emerging as major health problems among children and adolescents in the tropics, despite the fact that undernutrition still exists in many of these countries. Physical inactivity, a low metabolic rate, and lack of physical fitness (PF) have been linked to overweight and obesity. Moreover, PF in several tropical countries is declining, and these changes may be a threat to future health, as low PA and PF levels are important risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Previous studies have reported that the relationships among PA, PF, overweight, and obesity are inconsistent and inconclusive. There is no indication that variances in the energy cost of physical activities lead to obesity. Despite a lack of definite evidence to prove a causal relationship, there is enough certainty that physical inactivity and low fitness levels are linked to overweight and obesity. Hence, people living in tropical countries need to be encouraged to lead a healthier lifestyle by increasing their PA levels and reducing sedentary behaviors to prevent overweight or obesity. PMID:23722094

  1. Physical activity, fitness and the energy cost of activities: implications for obesity in children and adolescents in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Xiao Chuan; Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    The tropics cover a large section of the world in which both developed and developing countries are situated. Rapid socioeconomic development, modernization, urbanization, and globalization have affected both the food market and physical activity (PA), which in turn have propelled the obesity epidemic in the tropics. There is growing concern that overweight and obesity are emerging as major health problems among children and adolescents in the tropics, despite the fact that undernutrition still exists in many of these countries. Physical inactivity, a low metabolic rate, and lack of physical fitness (PF) have been linked to overweight and obesity. Moreover, PF in several tropical countries is declining, and these changes may be a threat to future health, as low PA and PF levels are important risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Previous studies have reported that the relationships among PA, PF, overweight, and obesity are inconsistent and inconclusive. There is no indication that variances in the energy cost of physical activities lead to obesity. Despite a lack of definite evidence to prove a causal relationship, there is enough certainty that physical inactivity and low fitness levels are linked to overweight and obesity. Hence, people living in tropical countries need to be encouraged to lead a healthier lifestyle by increasing their PA levels and reducing sedentary behaviors to prevent overweight or obesity.

  2. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity. PMID:25644386

  3. Effect of an accelerometer on body weight and fitness in overweight and obese active duty soldiers.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Merica; Combest, Travis; Fonda, Stephanie J; Alfonso, Abel; Guerrero, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether using a web-linked accelerometer, plus mandatory physical training, is associated with various weight- and fitness-related outcomes in overweight/obese active duty soldiers. Soldiers who failed the height/weight standards of the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) were randomized to use a Polar FA20 accelerometer device (polar accelerometer group [PA], n = 15) or usual care (UC, n = 13) for 6 months. Both groups received 1.5 hours of lifestyle instruction. We collected data at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months, and evaluated group differences in temporal changes in study outcomes. At 6 months, 1/28 subjects (UC) passed the APFT height/weight standards. There were no group differences in changes in weight (PA: -0.1 kg vs. UC: +0.3 kg; p = 0.9), body fat (PA: -0.9% vs. UC: -1.1%; p = 0.9), systolic blood pressure (PA: +1.3 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.1 mm Hg; p = 0.2), diastolic blood pressure (PA: +3.8 mm Hg vs. UC: -2.4 mm Hg; p = 0.3), or resting heart rate in beats per minute (bpm) (PA: +7.8 bpm vs. UC: +0.1 bpm; p = 0.2). These results suggest that using an accelerometer with web-based feedback capabilities plus mandatory physical training does not assist in significant weight loss or ability to pass the APFT height/weight standards among overweight/obese soldiers.

  4. Influence of physical fitness and activity behavior on retinal vessel diameters in primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Imhof, K; Zahner, L; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Faude, O; Hanssen, H

    2016-07-01

    Retinal vessel alterations have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors and physical inactivity as early as childhood. In this context, the analysis of physical activity in children has solely been based on questionnaire assessments. The study aimed to examine the association of physical fitness performance and self-reported physical activity with retinal vessel diameters in young children. Three hundred ninety-one primary schoolchildren [7.3 years (SD 0.4)] were examined in this cross-sectional study. The primary outcome was endurance performance measured with the 20-m shuttle run. The additional tests consisted of a 20-m sprint, jumping sidewards and balancing backwards. Retinal microcirculation was assessed using a static retinal vessel analyzer. Parents completed questionnaires about physical and sedentary activities. Endurance performance was associated with narrower retinal venular diameters [-0.9 (95%CI: -1.8; -0.1) measuring units (mu)/ unit shuttle run, P = 0.04] and a higher arteriolar to venular ratio [0.003 (-0.001; 0.006)/unit shuttle run, P = 0.06]. The sprint performance was associated with narrower retinal arterioles [4.7 (0.8; 8.6) mu/unit sprint, P = 0.02]. Indoor playing activity correlated with narrower retinal venules [-0.04 (-0.07; -0.01) mu/per unit, P = 0.02]. Our data suggest that objectively measured endurance performance relates with better retinal vessel health in early childhood.

  5. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  6. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  7. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  8. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson’s disease: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlène D; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L; Borm, George F; Backx, Frank J G; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Participants 586 sedentary patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease aged between 40 and 75 years with mild to moderate disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage ≤3). Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to the ParkFit programme or a matched general physiotherapy intervention. ParkFit is a multifaceted behavioural change programme, designed specifically to achieve an enduring increase in the level of physical activity (coaches using motivational strategies; ambulatory feedback). Main outcome measures The primary endpoint was the level of physical activity, measured every six months with a standardised seven day recall (LASA physical activity questionnaire—LAPAQ). Secondary endpoints included two other measures of physical activity (activity diary and ambulatory activity monitor), quality of life (Parkinson’s disease questionnaire—PDQ-39), and fitness (six minute walk test). Results 540 (92.2%) patients completed the primary outcome. During follow-up, overall time spent on physical activities (LAPAQ) was comparable between the groups (adjusted group difference 7%, 95% confidence interval −3 to 17%; P=0.19). Analyses of three secondary outcomes indicated increased physical activity in ParkFit patients, as suggested by the activity diary (difference 30%; P<0.001), the activity monitor (difference 12%; P<0.001), and the six minute walk test (difference 4.8 m; P=0.05). PDQ-39 did not differ between ParkFit patients and controls (difference −0.9 points; P=0.14). The number of fallers was comparable between ParkFit patients (184/299; 62%) and controls (191/287; 67%). Conclusions The ParkFit behavioural change programme did not increase overall physical

  9. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Sports Medicine Basics Fact Sheets Sports Medicine & Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Fit ...

  10. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

    2014-12-01

    This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram(®) ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n = 19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n = 14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.1 ± 1.7 to 8.5 ± 1.9 h; p = 0.002) and weekend (6.3 ± 2.6 to 8.4 ± 2.5 h; p = 0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.3 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.05. Weekend activity: 7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.3 ± 2.3 h; p = 0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes. PMID:25307141

  11. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

    2014-12-01

    This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram(®) ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n = 19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n = 14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.1 ± 1.7 to 8.5 ± 1.9 h; p = 0.002) and weekend (6.3 ± 2.6 to 8.4 ± 2.5 h; p = 0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.3 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.05. Weekend activity: 7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.3 ± 2.3 h; p = 0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes.

  12. Low Physical Fitness Levels in Older Adults with ID: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is as important to aging adults with ID as in the general population, but to date, the physical fitness levels of this group are unknown. Comfortable walking speed, muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (30 s Chair stand) and cardiorespiratory endurance (10 m incremental shuttle walking test) were tested in a sample of…

  13. The Physical Fitness of Sensory and Orthopedically Impaired Youth: Project UNIQUE. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winnick, Joseph P.; Short, Francis X.

    The report summarizes findings from an examination of the physical fitness of orthopedically and sensory impaired students (10-17 years old). Physical fitness was hypothesized to include six areas: body composition, muscular strength/endurance, speed, agility, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory endurance. A chapter on methods details subject…

  14. The effect of active core exercise on fitness and foot pressure in Taekwondo club students.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Deok; Sung, Dong-Hun; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The effects of core training using slings and Togus on the improvement of posture control in Taekwondo club students, that is, balance ability, were investigated. To that end, changes in the Taekwondo players' balance ability resulting from active core training for eight weeks were examined through fitness and foot pressure. [Subjects] The present study was conducted with 13 male Taekwondo players of K University in Deagu, South Korea. Once the experiment process was explained, consent was obtained from those who participated voluntarily. [Methods] Air cushions (Germany), Jumpers (Germany), and Aero-Steps (Germany) were used as lumbar stabilization exercise tools. As a method of training proprioceptive senses by stimulating somatesthesia in standing postures, the subjects performed balance squats, supine pelvic lifts, and push-up plus exercise using slings while standing on an Aero-Step and performed hip extension parallel squats (Wall Gym Ball), and standing press-ups on a Togu using their own weight. The subjects performed four sets of these isometric exercises while maintaining an exercise time per set at 30 seconds in each session and repeated this session three times per week. [Result] Left grip strength significantly increased and number of sit-ups, which indicates muscle endurance, also significantly increased after the eight weeks exercise compared with before the exercise. The values measured during the sit and reach test, which indicate flexibility, also significantly increase after the eight weeks of exercise compared with before the exercise but only in the left foot. [Conclusion] The result of present study suggest that active core exercise using Slings and Togus can be applied as a very effective exercise program for enhancing balance, which is an important physical factor for Taekwondo club students.

  15. [Comprehensive testing system for cardiorespiratory interaction research].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengbo; Wang, Buqing; Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Jiewen; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Sun, Congcong; Wang, Guojing

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the modulation effects of breathing movement on cardiovascular system and to study the physiological coupling relationship between respiration and cardiovascular system, we designed a comprehensive testing system for cardiorespiratory interaction research. This system, comprising three parts, i. e. physiological signal conditioning unit, data acquisition and USB medical isolation unit, and a PC based program, can acquire multiple physiological data such as respiratory flow, rib cage and abdomen movement, electrocardiograph, artery pulse wave, cardiac sounds, skin temperature, and electromyography simultaneously under certain experimental protocols. Furthermore this system can be used in research on short-term cardiovascular variability by paced breathing. Preliminary experiments showed that this system could accurately record rib cage and abdomen movement under very low breathing rate, using respiratory inductive plethysmography to acquire respiration signal in direct-current coupling mode. After calibration, this system can be used to estimate ventilation non-intrusively and correctly. The PC based program can generate audio and visual biofeedback signal, and guide the volunteers to perform a slow and regular breathing. An experiment on healthy volunteers showed that this system was able to guide the volunteers to do slow breathing effectively and simultaneously record multiple physiological data during the experiments. Signal processing techniques were used for off-line data analysis, such as non-invasive ventilation calibration, QRS complex wave detection, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pulse wave transit time calculation. The experiment result showed that the modulation effect on RR interval, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), pulse wave transit time (PWTT) by respiration would get stronger with the going of the slow and regular breathing.

  16. [Relationship between overweight, physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged boys in Bogotá Colombia].

    PubMed

    Tovar, Gustavo; Poveda, Javier Gutiérrez; Pinilla, Milciades Ibáñez; Lobelo, Felipe

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and its association with physical activity and fitness among boys attending a private school in Bogotá, Colombia. 655 boys between 7 and 18 years self-reported their physical activity habits and underwent anthropometric (weight, height, fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance), and physical fitness measurements (PACER, sit and reach, curl-ups, push-ups and hand dynamometry). The association between weight status and physical activity and fitness were assessed by logistic regression models. The outcome was that 38% of the boys were overweight according to the BMI of the Colombian population (WHO criteria), 17,7% according to international BMI cut-offs and 16.9% showed values of % fat over 25 (Fitnessgram criteria). A relation was found between being overweight and having poor performance in the aerobic fitness test (adjusted OR: 3.7, IC 95%: 1.6-8.3) and reported not walking or riding a bicycle for at least 30 minutes, 5 times a week (OR adjusted 3.6, IC 95%: 1-13.0). These results did not change when different criteria to define overweight was applied. The best level of agreement for overweight classification was found between fat per centage and the international BMI cut-offs (kappa=0.616, p<0.001). Overweight was not associated to TV watching time, video games or use of Internet. The final conclusion was that the prevalence of overweight was high in this population of school-aged boys. There was a significant relationship between poor physical fitness, low levels of physical activity, and overweight. It is important to encourage and monitor children's levels of physical activity as well as the results of fitness test for the prevention of overweight and related cardio-metabolic complications.

  17. Just Be It! Healthy and Fit Increases Fifth Graders' Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Physical Activity, and Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…

  18. Physical Training of School Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Daily Activity, Fat Mass and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg-Emons, R. J.; Van Baak, M. A.; Speth, L.; Saris, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of two 9-month sports programs (four or two sessions per week) on daily physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), and physical fitness were assessed in 20 Dutch children (ages 7-13) with spastic cerebral palsy. Four sessions per week tended to increase PA ratio and held FM constant. (Author/CR)

  19. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Self-Perception Changes Related to a University "Lifetime Fitness for Health" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woekel, Erica; Ebbeck, Vicki; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Readdy, Tucker; Li, Kin-Kit; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate college students are at a crucial point in the development of significant health behaviors, most notably related to physical activity and dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively determine whether participation in a Lifetime Fitness for Health (LFH) curriculum in college had short-term and long-term benefits…

  20. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  1. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  2. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended. PMID:26123622

  3. Fitness and nutritional status of female medical university students.

    PubMed

    Kiss, K; Mészáros, Zs; Mavroudes, M; Szmodis, M B; Zsidegh, M; Ng, N; Mészáros, J

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this comparison was to evaluate the nutritional status and cardio-respiratory fitness of future health professionals, namely university students engaged in medical studies. It was assumed that the lifestyle of such students would be reflected by healthy body composition and fitness performance indicators. Altogether 1,560 volunteer, female, university students of three institutions were investigated in 2008. Height, body weight, BMI, body fat content and 800 m run test means were compared.The height, weight and BMI means did not differ significantly but PE students recorded the lowest mean body fat (18.34% vs. 24.37 and 25.12%) and shortest mean running time (203 s vs. 239 and 243 s). Among the medical (11.23%) and technical university students (19.95%) statistically the same prevalence of obesity was observed.High body fat content and low running performance of medical students were in contrast with our hypothesis. Their prevalence of overweight/obesity and low fitness did not differ from that of relatively sedentary technical university students and the average Hungarian young adult population. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the necessity and positive effects of regular physical activity if they do not apply them to their own lifestyle.

  4. Top 10 research questions related to growth and maturation of relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can influence activity, performance, and fitness. Allowing for these potential interactions, 10 questions on growth and maturation that have relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness are presented. The questions are not mutually exclusive and address several broadly defined topical areas: exercise and growth, body weight status (body mass index, adiposity rebound, "unhealthy weight gain"), movement proficiency (hypothesized barrier, role in obesity), individual differences, tracking, maturity-associated variation in performance, and corresponding variation in physical activity. Central to the discussion of each is the need for a biocultural approach recognizing the interactions of biology and behavior as potential influences on the variables of interest.

  5. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  6. New diagnostic potentialities of cardiorespiratory synchronization in children.

    PubMed

    Potyagailo, E G; Pokrovskii, V M

    2003-11-01

    The study demonstrated that the method of cardiorespiratory synchronization provides valuable information on the nature of arrhythmia and helps to evaluate the regulatory adaptive potentialities of a child. The width of synchronization range and the latency of synchronization at the lower boundary are the indicators of regulatory adaptive potentialities. PMID:14968176

  7. Modelling and regulating of cardio-respiratory response for the enhancement of interval training

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The interval training method has been a well known exercise protocol which helps strengthen and improve one’s cardiovascular fitness. Purpose To develop an effective training protocol to improve cardiovascular fitness based on modelling and analysis of Heart Rate (HR) and Oxygen Uptake (VO2) dynamics. Methods In order to model the cardiorespiratory response to the onset and offset exercises, the (K4b2, Cosmed) gas analyzer was used to monitor and record the heart rate and oxygen uptake for ten healthy male subjects. An interval training protocol was developed for young health users and was simulated using a proposed RC switching model which was presented to accommodate the variations of the cardiorespiratory dynamics to running exercises. A hybrid system model was presented to describe the adaptation process and a multi-loop PI control scheme was designed for the tuning of interval training regime. Results By observing the original data for each subject, we can clearly identify that all subjects have similar HR and VO2 profiles. The proposed model is capable to simulate the exercise responses during onset and offset exercises; it ensures the continuity of the outputs within the interval training protocol. Under some mild assumptions, a hybrid system model can describe the adaption process and accordingly a multi-loop PI controller can be designed for the tuning of interval training protocol. The self-adaption feature of the proposed controller gives the exerciser the opportunity to reach his desired setpoints after a certain number of training sessions. Conclusions The established interval training protocol targets a range of 70-80% of HRmax which is mainly a training zone for the purpose of cardiovascular system development and improvement. Furthermore, the proposed multi-loop feedback controller has the potential to tune the interval training protocol according to the feedback from an individual exerciser. PMID:24499131

  8. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  9. Effects of a recreational physical activity summer camp on body composition, metabolic syndrome and physical fitness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Roriz DE Oliveira, Mafalda S; Teixeira Seabra, André F; Ribeiro Maia, José A

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine the effects of a recreational physical activity summer camp on body composition, metabolic syndrome, and physical fitness in obese children. Forty-eight children (8-10 years; Body Mass Index ≥85th percentile) completed 4-weeks of a structured recreational physical activity program summer camp (5 hours/day, 5 days/week). Over the 4-weeks, significant reductions (P<0.05) in weight, waist circumference, Body Mass Index, percentage of body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. Additionally, a significant increase was observed in HDL-cholesterol, handgrip, trunk lift, and shuttle run (P<0.05). These findings suggest that a 4-week recreational physical activity summer camp yields several body-composition, metabolic-syndrome, and physical fitness benefits in obese children and should represent an effective support for their health development.