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Sample records for activity catalase activity

  1. The three catalases in Deinococcus radiodurans: Only two show catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun-Wook; Jung, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Min-Kyu; Seo, Ho Seong; Lim, Heon-Man; Lim, Sangyong

    2016-01-15

    Deinococcus radiodurans, which is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation and oxidative stress, is known to have three catalases (DR1998, DRA0146, and DRA0259). In this study, to investigate the role of each catalase, we constructed catalase mutants (Δdr1998, ΔdrA0146, and ΔdrA0259) of D. radiodurans. Of the three mutants, Δdr1998 exhibited the greatest decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) resistance and the highest increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels following H2O2 treatments, whereas ΔdrA0146 showed no change in its H2O2 resistance or ROS level. Catalase activity was not attenuated in ΔdrA0146, and none of the three bands detected in an in-gel catalase activity assay disappeared in ΔdrA0146. The purified His-tagged recombinant DRA0146 did not show catalase activity. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis of the deinococcal catalases revealed that the DR1998-type catalase is common in the genus Deinococcus, but the DRA0146-type catalase was found in only 4 of 23 Deinococcus species. Taken together, these results indicate that DR1998 plays a critical role in the anti-oxidative system of D. radiodurans by detoxifying H2O2, but DRA0146 does not have catalase activity and is not involved in the resistance to H2O2 stress.

  2. Catalase and NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 promote autophagy-dependent cell death in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Thomas; Juul, Trine; Auzina, Aija; Gwizdz, Sonia; Malolepszy, Anna; Van Der Kelen, Katrien; Dam, Svend; Bressendorff, Simon; Lorentzen, Andrea; Roepstorff, Peter; Lehmann Nielsen, Kåre; Jørgensen, Jan-Elo; Hofius, Daniel; Van Breusegem, Frank; Petersen, Morten; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2013-11-01

    Programmed cell death often depends on generation of reactive oxygen species, which can be detoxified by antioxidative enzymes, including catalases. We previously isolated catalase-deficient mutants (cat2) in a screen for resistance to hydroxyurea-induced cell death. Here, we identify an Arabidopsis thaliana hydroxyurea-resistant autophagy mutant, atg2, which also shows reduced sensitivity to cell death triggered by the bacterial effector avrRpm1. To test if catalase deficiency likewise affected both hydroxyurea and avrRpm1 sensitivity, we selected mutants with extremely low catalase activities and showed that they carried mutations in a gene that we named NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 (NCA1). nca1 mutants showed severely reduced activities of all three catalase isoforms in Arabidopsis, and loss of NCA1 function led to strong suppression of RPM1-triggered cell death. Basal and starvation-induced autophagy appeared normal in the nca1 and cat2 mutants. By contrast, autophagic degradation induced by avrRpm1 challenge was compromised, indicating that catalase acted upstream of immunity-triggered autophagy. The direct interaction of catalase with reactive oxygen species could allow catalase to act as a molecular link between reactive oxygen species and the promotion of autophagy-dependent cell death.

  3. Development of a new biosensor for determination of catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Teke, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is one of the major antioxidant enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of H2O2. The aim of this study was to suggest a new method for the assay of catalase activity. For this purpose, an amperometric biosensor based on glucose oxidase for determination of catalase activity was developed. Immobilization of glucose oxidase was made by a cross-linking method with glutaraldehyde on a Clark-type electrode (dissolved oxygen probe). Optimization and characterization properties of the biosensor were studied and determination of catalase activity in defined conditions was investigated in artificial serum solution. The results were compared with a reference method.

  4. The catalase activity of diiron adenine deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Kamat S. S.; Swaminathan S.; Holmes-Hampton, G. P.; Bagaria, A.; Kumaran, D.; Tichy, S. E.; Gheyi, T.; Zheng, X.; Bain, K.; Groshong, C.; Emtage, S.; Sauder, J. M.; Burley, S. K.; Lindahl, P. A.; Raushel, F. M.

    2011-12-01

    Adenine deaminase (ADE) from the amidohydrolase superfamily (AHS) of enzymes catalyzes the conversion of adenine to hypoxanthine and ammonia. Enzyme isolated from Escherichia coli was largely inactive toward the deamination of adenine. Molecular weight determinations by mass spectrometry provided evidence that multiple histidine and methionine residues were oxygenated. When iron was sequestered with a metal chelator and the growth medium supplemented with Mn{sup 2+} before induction, the post-translational modifications disappeared. Enzyme expressed and purified under these conditions was substantially more active for adenine deamination. Apo-enzyme was prepared and reconstituted with two equivalents of FeSO{sub 4}. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and Moessbauer spectroscopy demonstrated that this protein contained two high-spin ferrous ions per monomer of ADE. In addition to the adenine deaminase activity, [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE catalyzed the conversion of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The values of k{sub cat} and k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for the catalase activity are 200 s{sup -1} and 2.4 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}, respectively. [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE underwent more than 100 turnovers with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} before the enzyme was inactivated due to oxygenation of histidine residues critical for metal binding. The iron in the inactive enzyme was high-spin ferric with g{sub ave} = 4.3 EPR signal and no evidence of anti-ferromagnetic spin-coupling. A model is proposed for the disproportionation of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} by [Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup II}]-ADE that involves the cycling of the binuclear metal center between the di-ferric and di-ferrous oxidation states. Oxygenation of active site residues occurs via release of hydroxyl radicals. These findings represent the first report of redox reaction catalysis by any member of the AHS.

  5. Inhibition of catalase activity in vitro by diesel exhaust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yoki; Murakami, Sumika; Sagae, Toshiyuki

    1996-02-09

    The effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the activity of catalase, an intracellular anti-oxidant, was investigated because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a cytotoxic oxidant, and catalase released from alveolar cells is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung. DEP inhibited the activity of bovine liver catalase dose-dependently, to 25-30% of its original value. The inhibition of catalase by DEP was observed only in the presence of anions such as Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or thiocyanate. Other anions, such as CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}} or SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and cations such as K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, or Fe{sup 2+}, did not affect the activity of catalase, even in the presence of DEP extract. Catalase from guinea pig alveolar cells and catalase from red blood cells were also inhibited by DEP extracts, as was catalase from bovine liver. These results suggest that DEP taken up in the lung and located on alveolar spaces might cause cell injury by inhibiting the activity of catalase in epithelial lining fluid, enhancing the toxicity of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated from cells in addition to that of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generated by the chemical reaction of DEP with oxygen. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Inhibition of catalase activity in vitro by diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Mori, Y; Murakami, S; Sagae, T; Hayashi, H; Sakata, M; Sagai, M; Kumagai, Y

    1996-02-09

    The effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the activity of catalase, an intracellular antioxidant, was investigated because H2O2 is a cytotoxic oxidant, and catalase released from alveolar cells is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung. DEP inhibited the activity of bovine liver catalase dose-dependently, to 25-30% of its original value. The inhibition of catalase by DEP was observed only in the presence of anions such as Cl-,Br-, or thiocyanate. Other anions, such as CH3COO- or SO4-, and cations such as K+, Na+, Mg2+, or Fe2+, did not affect the activity of catalase, even in the presence of DEP extract. Catalase from guinea pig alveolar cells and catalase from red blood cells were also inhibited by DEP extracts, as was catalase from bovine liver. These results suggest that DEP taken up in the lung and located on alveolar spaces might cause cell injury by inhibiting the activity of catalase in epithelial lining fluid, enhancing the toxicity of H2O2 generated from cells in addition to that of O2- generated by the chemical reaction of DEP with oxygen.

  7. Investigating the active centre of the Scytalidium thermophilum catalase.

    PubMed

    Yuzugullu, Yonca; Trinh, Chi H; Fairhurst, Lucy; Ogel, Zumrut B; McPherson, Michael J; Pearson, Arwen R

    2013-04-01

    Almost all monofunctional haem catalases contain a highly conserved core containing the active site, which is connected to the exterior of the enzyme by three channels. These channels have been identified as potential routes for substrate flow and product release. To further investigate the role of these molecular channels, a series of mutants of Scytalidium thermophilum catalase were generated. The three-dimensional structures of four catalase variants, N155A, V123A, V123C and V123T, have been determined at resolutions of 2.25, 1.93, 1.9 and 1.7 Å, respectively. The V123C variant contains a new covalent bond between the S atom of Cys123 and the imidazole ring of the essential His82. This variant enzyme has only residual catalase activity and contains haem b instead of the normal haem d. The H82A variant demonstrates low catalase and phenol oxidase activities (0.2 and 20% of those of recombinant wild-type catalase-phenol oxidase, respectively). The N155A and N155H variants exhibit 4.5 and 3% of the wild-type catalase activity and contain haem d, showing that Asn155 is essential for catalysis but is not required for the conversion of haem b to haem d. Structural analysis suggests that the cause of the effect of these mutations on catalysis is the disruption of the ability of dioxygen substrates to efficiently access the active site. Additional mutants have been characterized biochemically to further probe the roles of the different channels. Introducing smaller or polar side chains in place of Val123 reduces the catalase activity. The F160V, F161V and F168V mutants show a marked decrease in catalase activity but have a much lower effect on the phenol oxidase activity, despite containing substoichiometric amounts of haem.

  8. A simple assay for measuring catalase activity: a visual approach.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Tajima, Akiko; Sugimoto, Shinya; Okuda, Ken-ichi; Hironaka, Ippei; Kamata, Yuko; Takada, Koji; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-10-30

    In this study, an assay that combines the ease and simplicity of the qualitative approach for measuring catalase activity was developed. The assay reagents comprised only hydrogen peroxide and Triton X-100. The enzyme-generated oxygen bubbles trapped by Triton X-100 were visualized as foam, whose height was estimated. A calibration plot using the defined unit of catalase activity yielded the best linear fit over a range of 20-300 units (U) (y = 0.3794x - 2.0909, r(2) = 0.993). The assay precision and reproducibility at 100 U were 4.6% and 4.8%, respectively. The applicability of the assay for measuring the catalase activity of various samples was assessed using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, catalase-deficient isogenic mutants, clinically isolated Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and human cells. The assay generated reproducible results. In conclusion, this new assay can be used to measure the catalase activity of bacterial isolates and human cells.

  9. Increased microglial catalase activity in multiple sclerosis grey matter.

    PubMed

    Gray, Elizabeth; Kemp, Kevin; Hares, Kelly; Redondo, Julianna; Rice, Claire; Scolding, Neil; Wilkins, Alastair

    2014-04-22

    Chronic demyelination, on-going inflammation, axonal loss and grey matter neuronal injury are likely pathological processes that contribute to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Although the precise contribution of each process and their aetiological substrates is not fully known, recent evidence has implicated oxidative damage as a major cause of tissue injury in MS. The degree of tissue injury caused by oxidative molecules, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), is balanced by endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes which detoxify ROS. Understanding endogenous mechanisms which protect the brain against oxidative injury in MS is important, since enhancing anti-oxidant responses is a major therapeutic strategy for preventing irreversible tissue injury in the disease. Our aims were to determine expression and activity levels of the hydrogen peroxide-reducing enzyme catalase in MS grey matter (GM). In MS GM, a catalase enzyme activity was elevated compared to control GM. We measured catalase protein expression by immune dot-blotting and catalase mRNA by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Protein analysis studies showed a strong positive correlation between catalase and microglial marker IBA-1 in MS GM. In addition, calibration of catalase mRNA level with reference to the microglial-specific transcript AIF-1 revealed an increase in this transcript in MS. This was reflected by the extent of HLA-DR immunolabeling in MS GM which was significantly elevated compared to control GM. Collectively, these observations provide evidence that microglial catalase activity is elevated in MS grey matter and may be an important endogenous anti-oxidant defence mechanism in MS.

  10. Growth-dependent catalase localization in Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2T reflected by catalase activity of cells.

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Yoshiko; Takebe, Fumihiko; Nodasaka, Yoshinobu; Hara, Isao; Matsuyama, Hidetoshi; Yumoto, Isao

    2013-01-01

    A psychrotolerant and H2O2-resistant bacterium, Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans T-2-2(T), exhibits extraordinary H2O2 resistance and produces catalase not only intracellularly but also extracellularly. The intracellular and extracellular catalases exhibited the same enzymatic characteristics, that is, they exhibited the temperature-dependent activity characteristic of a cold-adapted enzyme, their heat stabilities were similar to those of mesophilic enzymes and very high catalytic intensity. In addition, catalase gene analysis indicated that the bacterium possessed the sole clade 1 catalase gene corresponding to intracellular catalase. Hence, intracellular catalase is secreted into the extracellular space. In addition to intracellular and extracellular catalases, the inner circumference of the cells showed the localization of catalase in the mid-stationary growth phase, which was observed by immunoelectron microscopy using an antibody against the intracellular catalase of the strain. The cells demonstrated higher catalase activity in the mid-stationary growth phase than in the exponential growth phase. The catalase localized in the inner circumference can be dissociated by treatment with Tween 60. Thus, the localized catalase is not tightly bound to the inner circumference of the cells and may play a role in the oxidative defense of the cells under low metabolic state.

  11. Combining cisplatin with cationized catalase decreases nephrotoxicity while improving antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, S-F; Nishikawa, M; Hyoudou, K; Takahashi, R; Ikemura, M; Kobayashi, Y; Yamashita, F; Hashida, M

    2007-12-01

    Cisplatin is frequently used to treat solid tumors; however, nephrotoxicity due to its reactive oxygen species-mediated effect limits its use. We tested the ability of cationized catalase, a catalase derivative, to inhibit nephrotoxicity in cisplatin-treated mice. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the catalase derivative concentrated in the kidney more efficiently than native catalase. Repeated intravenous doses of cationized catalase significantly decreased cisplatin-induced changes in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, nitrite/nitrate levels, lactic dehydrogenase activity, and renal total glutathione and malondialdehyde contents. In addition, cationized catalase effectively blunted cisplatin-induced proximal tubule necrosis but had no significant effect on the cisplatin-induced inhibition of subcutaneous tumor growth. Repeated doses of catalase, especially cationized catalase, significantly increased the survival of cisplatin-treated tumor-bearing mice preventing cisplatin-induced acute death. Our studies suggest that catalase and its derivatives inhibit cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, thus improving the efficiency of cisplatin to treat solid tumors.

  12. Effect of TiO₂ nanoparticles on the structure and activity of catalase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian; Tang, Bo-Ping; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2014-08-05

    TiO₂ nanoparticles are the most widely used metal oxide nanoparticles and have oxidative toxicity. Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme. Here the understanding of an effect of TiO₂ nanoparticles on the activity and structure of catalase is crucial to characterize the toxicity of TiO₂ nanoparticles. These experimental data revealed that TiO₂ nanoparticles could bind to catalase by the electrostatic and hydrogen bonding forces. On binding TiO₂ nanoparticles, catalase got destabilized with the decrease of α-helices content, the solvent polarity of environment around the fluorescence chromophores on catalase were also affected. In addition, TiO₂ nanoparticles also affected the activity of catalase. TiO₂ nanoparticles acted as an activator of catalase activity at a low molar concentration and as an inhibitor at a higher molar concentration. With regard to human health, the present study could provide a better understanding of the potential nanotoxicity of TiO₂ nanoparticles.

  13. A chaperone function of NO CATALASE ACTIVITY1 is required to maintain catalase activity and for multiple stress responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Guoqiang; Cha, Joon-Yung; Li, Guannan; Chen, She; Li, Zhen; Guo, Jinghua; Zhang, Caiguo; Yang, Yongqing; Kim, Woe-Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Schumaker, Karen S; Chen, Zhongzhou; Guo, Yan

    2015-03-01

    Catalases are key regulators of reactive oxygen species homeostasis in plant cells. However, the regulation of catalase activity is not well understood. In this study, we isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, no catalase activity1-3 (nca1-3) that is hypersensitive to many abiotic stress treatments. The mutated gene was identified by map-based cloning as NCA1, which encodes a protein containing an N-terminal RING-finger domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat-like helical domain. NCA1 interacts with and increases catalase activity maximally in a 240-kD complex in planta. In vitro, NCA1 interacts with CATALASE2 (CAT2) in a 1:1 molar ratio, and the NCA1 C terminus is essential for this interaction. CAT2 activity increased 10-fold in the presence of NCA1, and zinc ion binding of the NCA1 N terminus is required for this increase. NCA1 has chaperone protein activity that may maintain the folding of catalase in a functional state. NCA1 is a cytosol-located protein. Expression of NCA1 in the mitochondrion of the nca1-3 mutant does not rescue the abiotic stress phenotypes of the mutant, while expression in the cytosol or peroxisome does. Our results suggest that NCA1 is essential for catalase activity.

  14. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by shear alone: Characteristics, activity and stability evaluation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Nan; Du, Xin-Ying; Xing, Jin-Feng; Ge, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-09-01

    Catalase is a promising therapeutic enzyme; however, it carries risks of inactivation and rapid degradation when it is used in practical bioprocess, such as delivery in vivo. To overcome the issue, we made catalase-only nanoparticles using shear stress alone at a moderate shear rate of 217s(-1) in a coaxial cylinder flow cell. Properties of nanoparticles, including particle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential, were characterized. The conformational changes of pre- and post-sheared catalase were determined using spectroscopy techniques. The results indicated that the conformational changes of catalase and reduction in α-helical content caused by shear alone were less significant than that by desolvation method. Catalase-only nanoparticles prepared by single shear retained over 90% of its initial activity when compared with the native catalase. Catalase nanoparticles lost only 20% of the activity when stored in phosphate buffer solution for 72h at 4°C, whereas native catalase lost 53% under the same condition. Especially, the activity of nanogranulated catalase was decreased only slightly in the simulated intestinal fluid containing α-chymotrypsin during 4h incubation at 37°C, implying that the catalase nanoparticle was more resistant to the degradation of proteases than native catalase molecules. Overall, catalase-only nanoparticles offered a great potential to stabilize enzymes for various pharmaceutical applications.

  15. Stimulation of KatG catalase activity by peroxidatic electron donors.

    PubMed

    Ndontsa, Elizabeth N; Moore, Robert L; Goodwin, Douglas C

    2012-09-15

    Catalase-peroxidases (KatGs) use a peroxidase scaffold to support robust catalase activity, an ability no other member of its superfamily possesses. Because catalase turnover requires H(2)O(2) oxidation, whereas peroxidase turnover requires oxidation of an exogenous electron donor, it has been anticipated that the latter should inhibit catalase activity. To the contrary, we report peroxidatic electron donors stimulated catalase activity up to 14-fold, particularly under conditions favorable to peroxidase activity (i.e., acidic pH and low H(2)O(2) concentrations). We observed a "low-" and "high-K(M)" component for catalase activity at pH 5.0. Electron donors increased the apparent k(cat) for the "low-K(M)" component. During stimulated catalase activity, less than 0.008 equivalents of oxidized donor accumulated for every H(2)O(2) consumed. Several classical peroxidatic electron donors were effective stimulators of catalase activity, but pyrogallol and ascorbate showed little effect. Stopped-flow evaluation showed that a Fe(III)-O(2)(·-)-like intermediate dominated during donor-stimulated catalatic turnover, and this intermediate converted directly to the ferric state upon depletion of H(2)O(2). In this respect, the Fe(III)-O(2)(·-) -like species was more prominent and persistent than in the absence of the donor. These results point toward a much more central role for peroxidase substrates in the unusual catalase mechanism of KatG.

  16. [Effect of protonofore 2,4-dinitrophenol on catalase activity of intact Escherichia coli bacteria].

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, H M; Lushchak, V I

    2004-01-01

    Catalase activity of intact E. coli bacteria had a broad pH-optimum (4.0-7.5). Addition of protonofore 2,4-dinitrophenol (200 microM) caused pH-dependency modification (6.5-7.0). Both the catalase activity and curves mode of native cells in the presence of dinitrophenol and cell-free extracts are almost identical. The loss of catalase activity at acid pH was caused by cells destruction and dinitrophenol addition, that makes it possible to suppose that this activity is connected with some membrane component functioning. The induction of "acid" catalase by oxidative stress was blocked with addition of chloramphenicol--protein synthesis inhibitor in prokaryotes. Probably this membrane complex is a part of OxyR regulon, because it is activated by hydrogen peroxide. The activation was not detected in the strain E. coli UM202, which is lacked of catalase HPI (H2O2 response). The catalase activity at acid pH was not observed in the strain E. coli AB1157, that produces both catalase forms and probably has the membrane defect. However, known genetic characteristics of AB1157 stain not let to identify a gene responsible for the "acid" catalase activity.

  17. Endothelin-1 stimulates catalase activity through the PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of serine 167.

    PubMed

    Rafikov, Ruslan; Kumar, Sanjiv; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Hou, Yali; Kangath, Archana; Pardo, Daniel; Fineman, Jeffrey R; Black, Stephen M

    2014-02-01

    Our previous studies have shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1) stimulates catalase activity in endothelial cells and in lambs with acute increases in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), without altering gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which this occurs. Exposing pulmonary arterial endothelial cells to ET-1 increased catalase activity and decreased cellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These changes correlated with an increase in serine-phosphorylated catalase. Using the inhibitory peptide δV1.1, this phosphorylation was shown to be protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) dependent. Mass spectrometry identified serine 167 as the phosphorylation site. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate a phospho-mimic (S167D) catalase. Activity assays using recombinant protein purified from Escherichia coli or transiently transfected COS-7 cells demonstrated that S167D catalase had an increased ability to degrade H2O2 compared to the wild-type enzyme. Using a phospho-specific antibody, we were able to verify that pS167 catalase levels are modulated in lambs with acute increases in PBF in the presence and absence of the ET receptor antagonist tezosentan. S167 is located on the dimeric interface, suggesting it could be involved in regulating the formation of catalase tetramers. To evaluate this possibility we utilized analytical gel filtration to examine the multimeric structure of recombinant wild-type and S167D catalase. We found that recombinant wild-type catalase was present as a mixture of monomers and dimers, whereas S167D catalase was primarily tetrameric. Further, the incubation of wild-type catalase with PKCδ was sufficient to convert wild-type catalase into a tetrameric structure. In conclusion, this is the first report indicating that the phosphorylation of catalase regulates its multimeric structure and activity.

  18. Regulation of catalase activity in leaves of Nicotiana sylvestris by high CO sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Havir, E.A.; McHale, N.A. )

    1989-03-01

    The effect of high CO{sub 2} (1% CO{sub 2}/21% O{sub 2}) on the activity of specific forms of catalase (CAT-1, -2, and -3) in seedling leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris, Nicotiana tabacum) was examined. In high CO{sub 2} total catalase activity decreased by 50% in the first 2 days, followed by a more gradual decline in the next 4 days. The loss of total activity resulted primarily from a decrease in CAT-1 catalase. In contrast, the activity of CAT-3 catalase, a form with enhanced peroxidatic activity, increased 3-fold in high CO{sub 2} relative to air controls after 4 days. Short-term exposure to high CO{sub 2} indicated that the 50% loss of total activity occurs in the firs 12 hours. Catalase levels increased to normal within 12 hours after seedlings were returned to air. When seedlings were transferred to air after prolonged exposure to high CO{sub 2} (13 days), the levels of CAT-1 catalase were partially restored while CAT-3 remained at its elevated level. Levels of superoxide dismutase activity and those of several peroxisomal enzymes were not affected by high CO{sub 2}. Total catalase levels did not decline when seedlings were exposed to atmospheres of 0.04% CO{sub 2}/5% O{sub 2} or 0.04% CO{sub 2}/1% O{sub 2}, indicating that regulation of catalase in high CO{sub 2} is not related directly to suppression of photorespiration. Antibodies prepared against CAT-1 catalase from N. tabacum reacted strongly against CAT-1 catalase from both N. sylvestris and N. tabacum but not against CAT-3 catalase from either species.

  19. Catalase activity is modulated by calcium and calmodulin in detached mature leaves of sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Afiyanti, Mufidah; Chen, Hsien-Jung

    2014-01-15

    Catalase (CAT) functions as one of the key enzymes in the scavenging of reactive oxygen species and affects the H2O2 homeostasis in plants. In sweet potato, a major catalase isoform was detected, and total catalase activity showed the highest level in mature leaves (L3) compared to immature (L1) and completely yellow, senescent leaves (L5). The major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity were strongly suppressed by ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA). This inhibition could be specifically and significantly mitigated in mature L3 leaves by exogenous CaCl2, but not MgCl2 or CoCl2. EGTA also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Furthermore, chlorpromazine (CPZ), a calmodulin (CAM) inhibitor, drastically suppressed the major catalase isoform as well as total enzymatic activity, and this suppression was alleviated by exogenous sweet potato calmodulin (SPCAM) fusion protein in L3 leaves. CPZ also inhibited the activity of the catalase isoform in vitro. Protein blot hybridization showed that both anti-catalase SPCAT1 and anti-calmodulin SPCAM antibodies detect a band at the same position, which corresponds to the activity of the major catalase isoform from unboiled, but not boiled crude protein extract of L3 leaves. An inverse correlation between the major catalase isoform/total enzymatic activity and the H2O2 level was also observed. These data suggest that sweet potato CAT activity is modulated by CaCl2 and SPCAM, and plays an important role in H2O2 homeostasis in mature leaves. Association of SPCAM with the major CAT isoform is required and regulates the in-gel CAT activity band.

  20. Ethanol intake and motor sensitization: the role of brain catalase activity in mice with different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Correa, M; Sanchis-Segura, C; Pastor, R; Aragon, C M G

    2004-09-15

    The C57BL/6J strain of inbred mice shows a characteristic pattern of ethanol-induced behaviors: very weak acute locomotor stimulation, a lack of locomotor-sensitizing effect of ethanol, and a high level of ethanol intake. This strain has relatively low levels of activity of the ethanol metabolizing enzyme catalase, and it has been proposed that brain catalase plays a role in the modulation of some behavioral effects of ethanol. In the first study of the present paper, we investigated the effects of pharmacological manipulations of brain catalase activity on C57BL/6J mice in acute ethanol-induced locomotion and ethanol intake. Results indicated that the reduction in motor activity produced by ethanol was reversed by pretreatment with catalase potentiators and it was enhanced by catalase inhibitors. In addition, ethanol intake was highly correlated with brain catalase activity in mice treated with a catalase potentiator. In the second study, F1 hybrid mice (SWXB6) from the outbred Swiss-Webster mice and the inbred C57BL/6J mice were used. Basal brain catalase activity levels of F1 mice were intermediate between to those of the two progenitor genotypes. That profile of catalase activity was parallel to the acute-ethanol-induced locomotion and to repeated-ethanol-induced motor sensitization effects observed across the three types of mice. These data suggest that brain catalase activity modifications in the C57BL/6J strain change the pattern of several ethanol-related behaviors in this inbred mouse.

  1. Enzyme activity of catalase immobilized in Langmuir-Blodgett films of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Goto, Thiago E; Lopez, Ricardo F; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Caseli, Luciano

    2010-07-06

    A major challenge for producing low cost biosensors based on nanostructured films with control of molecular architectures is to preserve the catalytic activity of the immobilized biomolecules. In this study, we show that catalase (HRP) keeps its activity if immobilized in Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG). The incorporation of catalase into a DPPG monolayer at the air-water interface was demonstrated with surface pressure and surface potential isotherms, in addition to polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). According to the PM-IRRAS data, catalase was not denatured upon adsorption on a preformed DPPG monolayer and could be transferred onto a solid substrate. The catalytic activity of catalase in a mixed LB film with DPPG was ca. 13% higher than in solution. The control of molecular architecture and choice of a suitable phospholipid matrix allows catalase-containing LB films to be used in sensing hydrogen peroxide.

  2. A comprehensive evaluation of catalase-like activity of different classes of redox-active therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Tovmasyan, Artak; Maia, Clarissa G C; Weitner, Tin; Carballal, Sebastián; Sampaio, Romulo S; Lieb, Dominik; Ghazaryan, Robert; Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Radi, Rafael; Reboucas, Julio S; Spasojevic, Ivan; Benov, Ludmil; Batinic-Haberle, Ines

    2015-09-01

    Because of the increased insight into the biological role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) under physiological and pathological conditions and the role it presumably plays in the action of natural and synthetic redox-active drugs, there is a need to accurately define the type and magnitude of reactions that may occur with this intriguing and key species of redoxome. Historically, and frequently incorrectly, the impact of catalase-like activity has been assigned to play a major role in the action of many redox-active drugs, mostly SOD mimics and peroxynitrite scavengers, and in particular MnTBAP(3-) and Mn salen derivatives. The advantage of one redox-active compound over another has often been assigned to the differences in catalase-like activity. Our studies provide substantial evidence that Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins couple with H2O2 in actions other than catalase-related. Herein we have assessed the catalase-like activities of different classes of compounds: Mn porphyrins (MnPs), Fe porphyrins (FePs), Mn(III) salen (EUK-8), and Mn(II) cyclic polyamines (SOD-active M40403 and SOD-inactive M40404). Nitroxide (tempol), nitrone (NXY-059), ebselen, and MnCl2, which have not been reported as catalase mimics, were used as negative controls, while catalase enzyme was a positive control. The dismutation of H2O2 to O2 and H2O was followed via measuring oxygen evolved with a Clark oxygen electrode at 25°C. The catalase enzyme was found to have kcat(H2O2)=1.5×10(6)M(-1) s(-1). The yield of dismutation, i.e., the maximal amount of O2 evolved, was assessed also. The magnitude of the yield reflects an interplay between the kcat(H2O2) and the stability of compounds toward H2O2-driven oxidative degradation, and is thus an accurate measure of the efficacy of a catalyst. The kcat(H2O2) values for 12 cationic Mn(III) N-substituted (alkyl and alkoxyalkyl) pyridylporphyrin-based SOD mimics and Mn(III) N,N'-dialkylimidazolium porphyrin, MnTDE-2-ImP(5+), ranged from 23 to 88M(-1) s

  3. Microbial resistance in relation to catalase activity to oxidative stress induced by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Mokudai, Takayuki; Iwasawa, Atsuo; Niwano, Yoshimi; Kohno, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the mechanism of microbial resistance to oxidative stress induced by photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in relation to microbial catalase activity. In microbicidal tests, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans were killed and this was accompanied by production of hydroxyl radicals. C. albicans was more resistant to hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2) than was S. aureus. A catalase activity assay demonstrated that C. albicans had stronger catalase activity; accordingly, catalase activity could be one of the reasons for the resistance of the fungus to photolysis of H(2)O(2). Indeed, it was demonstrated that C. albicans with strong catalase activity was more resistant to photolysis of H(2)O(2) than that with weak catalase activity. Kinetic analysis using a modified Lineweaver-Burk plot also demonstrated that the microorganisms reacted directly with hydroxyl radicals and that this was accompanied by decomposition of H(2)O(2). The results of the present study suggest that the microbicidal effects of hydroxyl radicals generated by photolysis of H(2)O(2) can be alleviated by decomposition of H(2)O(2) by catalase in microorganisms.

  4. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Improves Aged and UV-Irradiated Skin by Catalase Induction

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Hee; Lee, Se-Rah; Kim, Min-Kyoung; Shin, Chang-Yup

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation stimulates antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, whose expression is decreased in aged human skin. Here we investigated the expression of PPARα in aged and ultraviolet (UV)-irradiated skin, and whether PPARα activation can modulate expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and procollagen through catalase regulation. We found that PPARα mRNA level was significantly decreased in intrinsically aged and photoaged human skin as well as in UV-irradiated skin. A PPARα activator, Wy14643, inhibited UV-induced increase of MMP-1 and decrease of procollagen expression and caused marked increase in catalase expression. Furthermore, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was suppressed by Wy14643 in UV-irradiated and aged dermal fibroblasts, suggesting that the PPARα activation-induced upregulation of catalase leads to scavenging of ROS produced due to UV irradiation or aging. PPARα knockdown decreased catalase expression and abolished the beneficial effects of Wy14643. Topical application of Wy14643 on hairless mice restored catalase activity and prevented MMP-13 and inflammatory responses in skin. Our findings indicate that PPARα activation triggers catalase expression and ROS scavenging, thereby protecting skin from UV-induced damage and intrinsic aging. PMID:27611371

  5. Inhibition of the catalase activity from Phaseolus vulgaris and Medicago sativa by sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Tejera García, Noel A; Iribarne, Carmen; Palma, Francisco; Lluch, Carmen

    2007-08-01

    Changes in catalase activity during the development of the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis as well as its response in salinized plants of Phaseolus vulgaris and Medicago sativa, was studied. Besides, it was examined the behavior of the enzyme, isolated from leaves and root nodules, during in vitro incubation with NaCl doses. Nodule catalase activities of both legumes were assayed with several enzyme inhibitors and also purified. Leaf catalase activity of Phaseolus vulgaris and Medicago sativa decreased and increased respectively throughout the ontogeny, but root nodule catalase kept a high and stable value. This last result suggests that both legumes require the maintenance of high nodule catalase in nitrogen-fixing nodules. Under salt stress conditions leaf and nodule catalase activity decreased in both, grain and pasture legumes. Because catalase from leaf of Medicago sativa and nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris were relatively sensitive to NaCl during in vitro experiments, the detoxifying role of this enzyme for H(2)O(2) should be limited in such conditions. Both catalases, from determinate and indeterminate nodules, were affected neither by oxygen nor superoxide radicals but showed a strong (Phaseolus vulgaris) or partial (Medicago sativa) inhibition with dithiothreitol, dithionite and beta-mercaptoethanol. Besides, cyanide was the most potent inhibitor of nodule catalases. Finally, catalases partially purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography migrated at 42 (Phaseolus vulgaris) and 46kDa (Medicago sativa) on SDS-PAGE, whereas native forms on sephacryl S-300 columns exhibited a molecular mass of 59 and 48kDa (Phaseolus vulgaris) and 88 and 53kDa (Medicago sativa).

  6. [Relationship between the aggressiveness and catalase activity of Septoria nodorum berk. in wheat].

    PubMed

    Maksimov, I V; Iarullina, L G; Burkhanova, G F; Zaĭkina, E A

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of hydrogen peroxide (H202) generation, the character of a fungal catalase gene expression, and the catalase activity in wheat plants, infected with Septoria nodorum Berk. strains differing in their aggressiveness, has been carried out. The decreased intensity of H202 accumulation in infected tissues, influenced by an aggressive S. nodorum strain and caused by the enhanced transcriptional activity of the fungal catalase gene and the heightened synthesis of its product, has been revealed to be more expressed compared to a similar decrease influenced by a less aggressive strain. An assumption was made that the expression activity of the catalase gene and, therefore, the activity ofcatalase involved in the regulation of the H202 content in the infected zone represent important factors providing high.aggressiveness and pathogenicity of S. nodorum.

  7. CATALASE ACTIVITY OF TWO STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS STRAINS AND ITS ENHANCEMENT BY AEROBIOSIS AND ADDED CATIONS1

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dorothy; Deibel, R. H.; Niven, C. F.

    1964-01-01

    Jones, Dorothy (American Meat Institute Foundation, Chicago, Ill.), R. H. Deibel, and C. F. Niven, Jr. Catalase activity of two Streptococcus faecalis strains and its enhancement by aerobiosis and added cations. J. Bacteriol. 88:602–610. 1964.—The nature of catalase activity noted in two unusual Streptococcus faecalis strains was determined. Enzyme activity was lost slowly when cultures were maintained by daily transfer in test tubes of broth media. Loss of activity could be prevented by aerobic culture. Supplementation of the growth medium with ferric, manganese, and zinc ions, as well as aerobiosis, enhanced catalase activity. However, addition of these cations to cell suspensions or to cell-free extracts did not increase catalase activity. Although oxygen was observed to be one of the reaction end products, the catalase activity was not inhibited by cyanide or azide, and the iron-porphyrin coenzyme of classical catalase was not detected. The enzyme was purified 185-fold by precipitation with ammonium sulfate, followed by chromotography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose column. PMID:14208495

  8. Catalase ameliorates hepatic fibrosis by inhibition of hepatic stellate cells activation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuwei; Qu, Ying; Xu, Mingyi; Wang, Xingpeng; Lu, Lungen

    2014-01-01

    Catalase, an endogenous antioxidant enzyme, is thought to have rescue effects on hepatic fibrosis. In this study, the regulation of catalase in CCl₄-induced hepatic fibrogenesis was investigated. Our results indicated that catalase expression was decreased upon CCl₄ treatment in a time-dependent manner, while the expression of several profibrosis and proangiogenic factors, including transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and angiopoietin 1 were significantly increased. To assess the role of catalase in hepatic fibrosis, catalase was overexpressed in HSC-T6 cells. This overexpression resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, migratory activity, and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expression, key features that characterize activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Overexpression of catalase led to a decrease in the secretion of collagen type 1 and angiopoietin 1. These results indicate that loss of catalase activity is involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis caused by the activation of HSCs.

  9. Influence of Catalase Activity on Resistance of Coagulase-positive Staphylococci to Hydrogen Peroxide1

    PubMed Central

    Amin, V. M.; Olson, N. F.

    1968-01-01

    Catalase activities of intact cells and cell-free extracts of coagulase-positive staphylococcal cultures 105B and 558D isolated from milk, culture 25042 from a clinical source, and Staphylococcus aureus 196E were determined at 32.2 C. Cultures were treated with 0.025 and 0.05% hydrogen peroxide at 37.8 and 54.4 C and without hydrogen peroxide at 54.4 C to determine the relationship between catalase activity and resistance to these treatments. The relationship held true for cultures 105B and 196E; culture 105B had the lowest catalase activity and lowest resistance to H2O2 at 37.8 C, whereas S. aureus 196E possessed a high catalase activity and was most resistant at 37.8 C. Catalase activities of cell-free extracts of cultures 25042, 558, and 196E were similar, but resistance to H2O2 at 37.8 C was greater for culture 196E. The lower resistance of culture 25042 was related to low catalase activities of whole cells of this culture, which were only one-third that of whole cells of culture 196E. Culture 558 was least resistant to heat treatment at 54.4 C and showed the greatest sensitivity to added H2O2 at this temperature. PMID:5645413

  10. On the enzymatic activity of catalase: an iron L-edge X-ray absorption study of the active centre.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Nora; Bonhommeau, Sébastien; Lange, Kathrin M; Greil, Stefanie M; Eisebitt, Stefan; de Groot, Frank; Chergui, Majed; Aziz, Emad F

    2010-05-14

    Catalase and methaemoglobin have very similar haem groups, which are both ferric, yet catalase decomposes hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen very efficiently, while methaemoglobin does not. Structural studies have attributed this behaviour to their different distal environments. Here we present Fe L(2,3)-edge X-ray absorption spectra of these proteins in physiological solutions, which reveal clear differences in their electronic structures, in that pi back-donation of the Fe atom occurs in catalase, which confers on it a partial ferryl (Fe(4+)) character, while this is not the case in methaemoglobin. The origin of the Fe(4+) character stems from the proximal tyrosine residue. We also find that both systems are in a high spin state. Temperature effects influence the spectra of catalase only weakly, in agreement with previous studies of its chemical activity. We conclude that the high activity of catalase is not only determined by its distal environment but also by its partial ferryl character.

  11. The Molecular Mechanism of the Catalase-like Activity in Horseradish Peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Campomanes, Pablo; Rothlisberger, Ursula; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Rovira, Carme

    2015-09-02

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is one of the most relevant peroxidase enzymes, used extensively in immunochemistry and biocatalysis applications. Unlike the closely related catalase enzymes, it exhibits a low activity to disproportionate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The origin of this disparity remains unknown due to the lack of atomistic information on the catalase-like reaction in HRP. Using QM(DFT)/MM metadynamics simulations, we uncover the mechanism for reduction of the HRP Compound I intermediate by H2O2 at atomic detail. The reaction begins with a hydrogen atom transfer, forming a peroxyl radical and a Compound II-like species. Reorientation of the peroxyl radical in the active site, concomitant with the transfer of the second hydrogen atom, is the rate-limiting step, with a computed free energy barrier (18.7 kcal/mol, ∼ 6 kcal/mol higher than the one obtained for catalase) in good agreement with experiments. Our simulations reveal the crucial role played by the distal pocket residues in accommodating H2O2, enabling formation of a Compound II-like intermediate, similar to catalases. However, out of the two pathways for Compound II reduction found in catalases, only one is operative in HRP. Moreover, the hydrogen bond network in the distal side of HRP compensates less efficiently than in catalases for the energetic cost required to reorient the peroxyl radical at the rate-determining step. The distal Arg and a water molecule in the "wet" active site of HRP have a substantial impact on the reaction barrier, compared to the "dry" active site in catalase. Therefore, the lower catalase-like efficiency of heme peroxidases compared to catalases can be directly attributed to the different distal pocket architecture, providing hints to engineer peroxidases with a higher rate of H2O2 disproportionation.

  12. Effect of iron concentration on the expression and activity of catalase-peroxidases in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Sundaram, C A S Sivagami; Sritharan, Manjula

    2005-02-01

    Mycobacterial catalases are known to exist in different isoforms. We studied the influence of iron concentration on the expression and activity of the different isoforms in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii and M. vaccae by growing them under iron-sufficient (4 microg Fe/mL) and iron-deficient (0.02 microg Fe/ml) conditions. Upon iron deprivation, significant differences were observed in the catalase/peroxidase activities in both quantitative spectrophotometric assays and in the activity staining in native gels. Notable feature was that the peroxidase activity showed a significant decrease upon iron deprivation in all the mycobacteria, except M. vaccae. Peroxidase activity in all the mycobacteria, irrespective of the iron status was susceptible to heat inactivation. However, the isoforms of catalase showed differences in their heat stability, indicating possible structural differences in these proteins. For example, M. bovis BCG expressed a heat labile catalase under iron-sufficient conditions, while a heat stable catalase band of similar mobility was expressed under iron-deprivation conditions. The study clearly indicates that iron plays an important role in the regulation of expression of the different isoforms of the catalase-peroxidases.

  13. Not so monofunctional--a case of thermostable Thermobifida fusca catalase with peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Lončar, Nikola; Fraaije, Marco W

    2015-03-01

    Thermobifida fusca is a mesothermophilic organism known for its ability to degrade plant biomass and other organics, and it was demonstrated that it represents a rich resource of genes encoding for potent enzymes for biocatalysis. The thermostable catalase from T. fusca has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli with a yield of 400 mg/L. Heat treatment of disrupted cells at 60 °C for 1 h resulted in enzyme preparation of high purity; hence, no chromatography steps are needed for large-scale production. Except for catalyzing the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide, TfuCat was also found to catalyze oxidations of phenolic compounds. The catalase activity was comparable to other described catalases while peroxidase activity was quite remarkable with a k obs of nearly 1000 s(-1) for catechol. Site directed mutagenesis was used to alter the ratio of peroxidase/catalase activity. Resistance to inhibition by classic catalase inhibitors and an apparent melting temperature of 74 °C classifies this enzyme as a robust biocatalyst. As such, it could compete with other commercially available catalases while the relatively high peroxidase activity also offers new biocatalytic possibilities.

  14. Effects of autogamy in Paramecium tetraurelia on catalase activity and on radiosensitivity to natural ionizing radiations

    SciTech Connect

    Croute, F.; Dupouy, D.; Charley, J.P.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Planel, H.

    1980-02-01

    Catalase activity of Paramecium tetraurelia decreased during autogamy and recovered to normal 5 days later. Autogamy also caused changes in the ciliate's sensitivity sensitivity to natural ionizing radiations - the decrease in cell growth rate previously described in shielded cultures did not occur when autogamous cells were used. Maximum effect of shielding was observed in 11-day-old postautogamous cells. The role of the catalase in the mechanism of natural irradiation effect is discussed.

  15. Protective Effect of an Isoflavone, Tectorigenin, Against Oxidative Stress-induced Cell Death via Catalase Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Piao, Mei Jing; Oh, Min Chang; Park, Jeong Eon; Shilnikova, Kristina; Moon, Yu Jin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jung, Uhee; Kim, In Gyu; Hyun, Jin Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Isoflavones are biologically active compounds that occur naturally in a variety of plants, with relatively high levels in soybean. Tectorigenin, an isoflavone, protects against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell damage. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Methods The MTT assay was performed to determine cell viability. Catalase activity was assessed by determining the amount of enzyme required to degrade 1 μM H2O2. Protein expression of catalase, phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), IκB-α, and NF-κB were evaluated by Western blot analysis. A mobility shift assay was performed to assess the DNA-binding ability of NF-κB. Transient transfection and a NF-κB luciferase assay were performed to assess transcriptional activity. Results Tectorigenin reduced H2O2-induced death of Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79-4). In addition, tectorigenin increased the activity and protein expression of catalase. Blockade of catalase activity attenuated the protective effect of tectorigenin against oxidative stress. Furthermore, tectorigenin enhanced phosphorylation of ERK and nuclear expression of NF-κB, while inhibition of ERK and NF-κB attenuated the protective effect of tectorigenin against oxidative stress. Conclusions Tectorigenin protects cells against oxidative damage by activating catalase and modulating the ERK and NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:28053960

  16. Diminution of mouse epidermal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities by tumor promotors

    SciTech Connect

    Solanki, V.; Rana, R.S.; Slaga, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of phorbol ester tumor promoters and related compounds on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase were examined. The treatment of adult mouse skin with 2 ..mu..g 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) resulted in a sustained decrease in the basal levels of both SOD and catalase activities in the epidermis. A decline in SOD activity occurred within 2 h after application and the maximum effect was seen at 16-17 h. The decrease in SOD activity was always accompanied by a similar decline in the epidermal catalase activity. The alterations in both enzymes occurred against a high background of enhanced protein synthesis which indicates that the effect of TPA is selective for SOD and catalase. Other tumor promoters such as phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate and the non-phorbol tumor promoter anthraline also lowered the activities of both the enzymes. Mezerein, a resiniferonol derivative with weak promoting activity but a potent stage-II promoter, appeared to be more potent than TPA in lowering the basal levels. These results indicate that damage which favors neoplastic progression would occur in TPA-treated mouse skin due to the accumulation of free radicals resulting from low levels of SOD and catalase activity. In addition, the TPA-caused decrease in the levels of SOD and catalase was not prevented by either retinoic acid, fluocinolone acetonide, tosyl amino-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone, or butylated hydroxytoluene, suggesting that inhibition of tumor promotion by these agents is not mediated through alterations in the levels of enzymatic activities which decrease free radical concentrations.

  17. Generation 9 polyamidoamine dendrimer encapsulated platinum nanoparticle mimics catalase size, shape, and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyu; Zhang, Yincong; Li, Tianfu; Tian, Wende; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2013-04-30

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) encapsulated platinum nanoparticles were synthesized and used as catalase mimics. Acetylated generation 9 (Ac-G9) PAMAM dendrimer with a molecular size around 10 nm was used as a template to synthesize platinum nanoparticles. The feeding molar ratio of Pt(4+) and Ac-G9 is 2048, and the synthesized platinum nanoparticle (Ac-G9/Pt NP) has an average size of 3.3 nm. Ac-G9/Pt NP has a similar molecular size and globular shape with catalase (~11 nm). The catalytic activity of Ac-G9/Pt NP on the decomposition of H2O2 is approaching that of catalase at 37 °C. Ac-G9/Pt NP shows differential response to the changes of pH and temperature compared with catalase, which can be explained by different catalytic mechanisms of Ac-G9/Pt NP and catalase. Ac-G9/Pt NP also shows horseradish peroxidase activity and is able to scavenge free radicals such as di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH). Furthermore, Ac-G9/Pt NP shows excellent biocompatibility on different cell lines and can down-regulate H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in these cells. These results suggest that dendrimers are promising mimics of proteins with different sizes and Ac-G9/Pt NP can be used as an alternative candidate of catalase to decrease oxidation stress in cells.

  18. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  19. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings.

  20. Enhanced antioxidant defense due to extracellular catalase activity in Syrian hamster during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hitomi; Okamoto, Iwao; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Tsunetaka; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2006-08-01

    Mammalian hibernators are considered a natural model for resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injuries, and protective mechanisms against oxidative stress evoked by repeated hibernation-arousal cycles in these animals are increasingly the focus of experimental investigation. Here we show that extracellular catalase activity provides protection against oxidative stress during arousal from hibernation in Syrian hamster. To examine the serum antioxidant defense system, we first assessed the hibernation-arousal state-dependent change in serum attenuation of cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. Serum obtained from hamsters during arousal from hibernation at a rectal temperature of 32 degrees C, concomitant with the period of increased oxidative stress, attenuated the cytotoxicity four-fold more effectively than serum from cenothermic control hamsters. Serum catalase activity significantly increased during arousal, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 50%, compared with cenothermic controls. The cytoprotective effect of purified catalase at the concentration found in serum was also confirmed in a hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity model. Moreover, inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole led to an 80% loss of serum hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. These results suggest that extracellular catalase is effective for protecting hibernators from oxidative stress evoked by arousal from hibernation.

  1. Direct Measurement of Catalase Activity in Living Cells and Tissue Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharamacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. PMID:26772884

  2. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities as biomarkers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Perrin-Nadif, R.; Dusch, M.; Mur, J.M.; Koch, C.; Schmitt, P.

    1996-06-07

    We investigated the role of three blood antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant status (TAS) as biological markers of oxidative stress in workers exposed to mercury (Hg{degrees}) vapors. Twenty-two female workers took part in the study. Blood and urine sampling for biological analyses was performed. The workers were classified into three subgroups according to their creatinine-corrected Hg concentration in urine. Blood antioxidant enzyme activities and TAS were compared between groups with nonparametric distribution-free methods. A significant difference existed in catalase activity and a slight, but not significant, difference existed in Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} superoxide dismutase (Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD) activity between the three groups. No differences were observed in either the glutathione peroxidase activity or the TAS between these groups. Catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities were increased in the groups of workers with higher creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations when compared with the group of lower creatinine-corrected urinary Hg concentrations. Catalase activity was positively correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine, and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activity was slightly correlated with the creatinine-corrected concentration of Hg in urine. The role of erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities we have measured is in agreement with the hypothesis of the involvement of reactive oxygen species production as an important event in chronic exposure to Hg{degrees} vapors in humans. In spite of the small sample size, results indicate that erythrocyte catalase and Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} SOD activities could be considered as markers of biological effect in workers exposed to Hg{degrees} vapors. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Isolation of catalase-deficient Escherichia coli mutants and genetic mapping of katE, a locus that affects catalase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, P C

    1984-01-01

    A number of catalase-deficient mutants of Escherichia coli which exhibit no assayable catalase activity were isolated. The only physiological difference between the catalase mutants and their parents was a 50- to 60-fold greater sensitivity to killing by hydrogen peroxide. For comparison, mutations in the xthA and recA genes of the same strains increased the sensitivity of the mutants to hydrogen peroxide by seven- and fivefold, respectively, showing that catalase was the primary defense against hydrogen peroxide. One class of mutants named katE was localized between pfkB and xthA at 37.8 min on the E. coli genome. A second class of catalase mutants was found which did not map in this region. PMID:6319370

  4. The euryhaline yeast Debaryomyces hansenii has two catalase genes encoding enzymes with differential activity profile.

    PubMed

    Segal-Kischinevzky, Claudia; Rodarte-Murguía, Beatriz; Valdés-López, Victor; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; González, Alicia; Alba-Lois, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is a spoilage yeast able to grow in a variety of ecological niches, from seawater to dairy products. Results presented in this article show that (i) D. hansenii has an inherent resistance to H2O2 which could be attributed to the fact that this yeast has a basal catalase activity which is several-fold higher than that observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the same culture conditions, (ii) D. hansenii has two genes (DhCTA1 and DhCTT1) encoding two catalase isozymes with a differential enzymatic activity profile which is not strictly correlated with a differential expression profile of the encoding genes.

  5. Catalase activity as a potential indicator of the reducer component of small closed ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarangova, A. B.; Somova, L. A.; Pisman, T. I.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of catalase activity has been shown to reflect the growth curve of microorganisms in batch cultivation (celluloselythic bacteria Bacillus acidocaldarius and bacteria of the associated microflora Chlorella vulgaris). Gas and substrate closure of the three component ecosystems with spatially separated components ``producer-consumer-reducer'' (Chl. vulgaris-Paramecium caudatum-B. acidocaldarius, two bacterial strains isolated from the associated microflora Chl. vulgaris) demonstrated that the functioning of the reducer component can be estimated by the catalase activity of microorganisms of this component.

  6. Arrhenius activation energy of damage to catalase during spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-07-15

    The inactivation of catalase during spray-drying over a range of outlet gas temperatures could be closely represented by the Arrhenius equation. From this an activation energy for damage to the catalase could be calculated. The close fit to Arrhenius suggests that the thermally-induced part of inactivation of the catalase during the complex drying and particle-formation processes takes place at constant temperature. These processes are rapid compared with the residence time of the powder in the collecting vessel of the cyclone where dried catalase is exposed to a constant temperature equal to approximately the drying gas outlet temperature. A lower activation energy after spray drying with the ultrasonic nozzle was found than with the 2-fluid nozzle under otherwise identical spray drying conditions. It is feasible that the ultrasonic nozzle when mounted in the lid of the spray dryer heats up toward the drying gas inlet temperature much more that the air-cooled 2-fluid nozzle. Calculation of the Arrhenius activation energy also showed how the stabilizing efficacy of trehalose and mannitol on the catalase varies in strength across the range of drying gas inlet and outlet temperatures examined.

  7. Effect of cimetidine on catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a suggested mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Masoud, Masoudeh; Ebrahimi, Farnoosh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an important enzyme for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide in cells. Bacteria have potent catalase to deal with H2O2 in their medium culture. Any chemicals that inhibit catalase activity can be harmful for cells. Histamine H2 antagonist drugs such as cimetidine and ranitidine are used for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders. The present results showed that cimetidine could inhibit the catalase activity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a competitive inhibition. The determination of IC50 value and Ki (6.5 μM) of cimetidine demonstrated that the enzyme binds to the drug with high affinity. Binding of the drug to the enzyme was pH-dependent and no binding was observed at basic pH (>9) and acidic pH (<6). Moreover, the imidazole ring and cyanoguanidine group of cimetidine may play an important role in inhibition by binding to Fe in heme group and glutamic acid 51 residue on the enzyme, respectively. Ranitidine had no effect on the catalase activity.

  8. A manganese catalase from Thermomicrobium roseum with peroxidase and catecholase activity.

    PubMed

    Baginski, Robin; Sommerhalter, Monika

    2017-01-01

    An enzyme with catechol oxidase activity was identified in Thermomicrobium roseum extracts via solution assays and activity-stained SDS-PAGE. Yet, the genome of T. roseum does not harbor a catecholase gene. The enzyme was purified with two anion exchange chromatography steps and ultimately identified to be a manganese catalase with additional peroxidase and catecholase activity. Catalase activity (6280 ± 430 IU/mg) clearly dominated over pyrogallol peroxidase (231 ± 53 IU/mg) and catecholase (3.07 ± 0.56 IU/mg) activity as determined at 70 °C. Most enzyme kinetic properties were comparable to previously characterized manganese catalase enzymes. Catalase activity was highest at alkaline pH values and showed inhibition by excess substrate and chloride. The apparent K m and k cat values were 20 mM and 2.02 × 10(4) s(-1) subunit(-1) at 25 °C and pH 7.0.

  9. Direct evidence for catalase and peroxidase activities of ferritin-platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jia; Yin, Jun-Jie; Ning, Bo; Wu, Xiaochun; Hu, Ye; Ferrari, Mauro; Anderson, Gregory J; Wei, Jingyan; Zhao, Yuliang; Nie, Guangjun

    2011-02-01

    Using apoferritin (apoFt) as a nucleation substrate, we have successfully synthesized 1-2 nm platinum nanoparticles (Pt-Ft) which are highly stable. By directly measuring the products of Pt-Ft-catalyzed reactions, we showed, with no doubt, Pt-Ft possesses both catalase and peroxidase activities. With hydrogen peroxide as substrate, we observed oxygen gas bubbles were generated from hydrogen peroxide decomposed by Pt-Ft; the generation of oxygen gas strongly supports Pt-Ft reacts as catalase, other than peroxidase. While with organic dyes and hydrogen peroxide as substrates, distinctive color products were formed catalyzed by Pt-Ft, which indicates a peroxidase-like activity. Interestingly, these biomimetic properties showed differential response to pH and temperature for different reaction substrates. Pt-Ft showed a significant increase in catalase activity with increasing pH and temperature. The HRP-like activity of Pt-Ft was optimal at physiological temperature and slightly acidic conditions. Our current study demonstrates that Pt-Ft possesses both catalase and peroxidase activities for different substrates under different conditions.

  10. Computational study concerning the effect of some pesticides on the Proteus Mirabilis catalase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isvoran, Adriana

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of the effects of the herbicides nicosulfuron and chlorsulfuron and the fungicides difenoconazole and drazoxlone upon catalase produced by soil microorganism Proteus mirabilis is performed using the molecular docking technique. The interactions of pesticides with the enzymes are predicted using SwissDock and PatchDock docking tools. There are correlations for predicted binding energy values for enzyme-pesticide complexes obtained using the two docking tools, all the considered pesticides revealing favorable binding to the enzyme, but only the herbicides bind to the catalytic site. These results suggest the inhibitory potential of chlorsulfuron and nicosulfuron on the catalase activity in soil.

  11. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    PubMed

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND CATALASE ACTIVITY AND EXPRESSION IN HONEY BEE.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Tatjana V; Purać, Jelena; Orčić, Snežana; Kojić, Danijela; Vujanović, Dragana; Stanimirović, Zoran; Gržetić, Ivan; Ilijević, Konstantin; Šikoparija, Branko; Blagojević, Duško P

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the cellular stress response in honey bees will significantly contribute to their conservation. The aim of this study was to analyze the response of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in honey bees related to the presence of toxic metals in different habitats. Three locations were selected: (i) Tunovo on the mountain Golija, as control area, without industry and large human impact, (ii) Belgrade as urban area, and (iii) Zajača, as mining and industrial zone. Our results showed that the concentrations of lead (Pb) in whole body of bees vary according to habitat, but there was very significant increase of Pb in bees from investigated industrial area. Bees from urban and industrial area had increased expression of both Sod1 and Cat genes, suggesting adaptation to increased oxidative stress. However, in spite increased gene expression, the enzyme activity of catalase was lower in bees from industrial area suggesting inhibitory effect of Pb on catalase.

  13. Structure, recombinant expression and mutagenesis studies of the catalase with oxidase activity from Scytalidium thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Yuzugullu, Yonca; Trinh, Chi H; Smith, Mark A; Pearson, Arwen R; Phillips, Simon E V; Sutay Kocabas, Didem; Bakir, Ufuk; Ogel, Zumrut B; McPherson, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum produces a catalase with phenol oxidase activity (CATPO) that catalyses the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into oxygen and water and also oxidizes various phenolic compounds. A codon-optimized catpo gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The crystal structures of native and recombinant S. thermophilum CATPO and two variants, H82N and V123F, were determined at resolutions of 2.7, 1.4, 1.5 and 1.9 Å, respectively. The structure of CATPO reveals a homotetramer with 698 residues per subunit and with strong structural similarity to Penicillium vitale catalase. The haem component is cis-hydroxychlorin γ-spirolactone, which is rotated 180° with respect to small-subunit catalases. The haem-binding pocket contains two highly conserved water molecules on the distal side. The H82N mutation resulted in conversion of the native d-type haem to a b-type haem. Kinetic studies of the H82N and V123F mutants indicate that both activities are likely to be associated with the haem centre and suggest that the secondary oxidase activity may be a general feature of catalases in the absence of hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Low dose X -ray effects on catalase activity in animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focea, R.; Nadejde, C.; Creanga, D.; Luchian, T.

    2012-12-01

    This study was intended to investigate the effect of low-dose X ray-irradiation upon the activity of catalase (CAT) in freshly excised chicken tissues (liver, kidney, brain, muscle). The tissue samples were irradiated with 0.5Gy and 2Gy respectively, in a 6 MV photon beam produced by a clinical linear accelerator (VARIAN CLINAC 2100SC). The dose rate was of 260.88cGy/min. at 100 cm source to sample distance. The catalase level was assayed spectrophotometrically, based on reaction kinetics, using a catalase UV assay kit (SIGMA). Catalase increased activity in various tissue samples exposed to the studied X ray doses (for example with 24 % in the liver cells, p<0.05) suggested the stimulation of the antioxidant enzyme biosynthesis within several hours after exposure at doses of 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy; the putative enzyme inactivation could also occur (due to the injuries on the hydrogen bonds that ensure the specificity of CAT active site) but the resulted balance of the two concurrent processes indicates the cell ability of decomposing the hydrogen peroxide-with benefits for the cell physiology restoration for the chosen low dose radiation.

  15. Development of a new catalase activity assay for biological samples using optical CUPRAC sensor.

    PubMed

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Alkan, Fulya Üstün; Apak, Reşat

    2014-11-11

    A novel catalase activity assay was developed for biological samples (liver and kidney tissue homogenates) using a rapid and low-cost optical sensor-based 'cupric reducing antioxidant capacity' (CUPRAC) method. The reagent, copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, was immobilized onto a cation-exchanger film of Nafion, and the absorbance changes associated with the formation of the highly-colored Cu(I)-Nc chelate as a result of reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured at 450 nm. When catalase was absent, H2O2 produced the CUPRAC chromophore, whereas catalase, being an effective H2O2 scavenger, completely annihilated the CUPRAC signal due to H2O2. Thus, the CUPRAC absorbance due to H2O2 oxidation concomitant with Cu(I)-Nc formation decreased proportionally with catalase. The developed sensor gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of H2O2 (0.68-78.6 μM). This optical sensor-based method applicable to tissue homogenates proved to be efficient for low hydrogen peroxide concentrations (physiological and nontoxic levels) to which the widely used UV method is not accurately responsive. Thus, conventional problems of the UV method arising from relatively low sensitivity and selectivity, and absorbance disturbance due to gaseous oxygen evolution were overcome. The catalase findings of the proposed method for tissue homogenates were statistically alike with those of HPLC.

  16. Development of a new catalase activity assay for biological samples using optical CUPRAC sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekdeşer, Burcu; Özyürek, Mustafa; Güçlü, Kubilay; Alkan, Fulya Üstün; Apak, Reşat

    2014-11-01

    A novel catalase activity assay was developed for biological samples (liver and kidney tissue homogenates) using a rapid and low-cost optical sensor-based ‘cupric reducing antioxidant capacity' (CUPRAC) method. The reagent, copper(II)-neocuproine (Cu(II)-Nc) complex, was immobilized onto a cation-exchanger film of Nafion, and the absorbance changes associated with the formation of the highly-colored Cu(I)-Nc chelate as a result of reaction with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was measured at 450 nm. When catalase was absent, H2O2 produced the CUPRAC chromophore, whereas catalase, being an effective H2O2 scavenger, completely annihilated the CUPRAC signal due to H2O2. Thus, the CUPRAC absorbance due to H2O2 oxidation concomitant with Cu(I)-Nc formation decreased proportionally with catalase. The developed sensor gave a linear response over a wide concentration range of H2O2 (0.68-78.6 μM). This optical sensor-based method applicable to tissue homogenates proved to be efficient for low hydrogen peroxide concentrations (physiological and nontoxic levels) to which the widely used UV method is not accurately responsive. Thus, conventional problems of the UV method arising from relatively low sensitivity and selectivity, and absorbance disturbance due to gaseous oxygen evolution were overcome. The catalase findings of the proposed method for tissue homogenates were statistically alike with those of HPLC.

  17. Relationship between uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms and its catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Kenmotsu, K.; Hirota, N.; Naito, M.

    1981-12-01

    The uptake of mercury vapor by mushrooms (Shiitake) artifically grown on an oak tree and the uptake in vitro by catalase extracts prepared from mushroom Hay Bacillus and spinach are reported. Mushrooms were exposed to 1.4 mg/Hg/cu m for 11 days. Measurement of total mercury was as previously described (Ogata et al. 1978, 1979). Levels in mushrooms ranged from 0.4 +/- 0.1 ..mu..g/g at 0.5 days to 4.6 +/- 0.2 ..mu..g/g at 10.5 days and steady-state thereafter. In in vitro studies Hy uptake by mushroom catalase extract was estimated by the perborate method. Uptake was found to parallel catalase activity and was inhibited by potassium cyanide, sodium azide, and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. Similar results were obtained with Hay Bacillus and spinach catalase extracts. Results suggest that the level of mercury in the mushroom can be used as an indicator of mercury pollution in the environment. It is also suggested that catalase has an important role in uptake of mercury vapor in the plant. 2 tables (JMT)

  18. Hydrogen peroxide homeostasis: activation of plant catalase by calcium/calmodulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental stimuli such as UV, pathogen attack, and gravity can induce rapid changes in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) levels, leading to a variety of physiological responses in plants. Catalase, which is involved in the degradation of H(2)O(2) into water and oxygen, is the major H(2)O(2)-scavenging enzyme in all aerobic organisms. A close interaction exists between intracellular H(2)O(2) and cytosolic calcium in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Studies indicate that an increase in cytosolic calcium boosts the generation of H(2)O(2). Here we report that calmodulin (CaM), a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, binds to and activates some plant catalases in the presence of calcium, but calcium/CaM does not have any effect on bacterial, fungal, bovine, or human catalase. These results document that calcium/CaM can down-regulate H(2)O(2) levels in plants by stimulating the catalytic activity of plant catalase. Furthermore, these results provide evidence indicating that calcium has dual functions in regulating H(2)O(2) homeostasis, which in turn influences redox signaling in response to environmental signals in plants.

  19. Lead-induced catalase activity differentially modulates behaviors induced by short-chain alcohols.

    PubMed

    Correa, M; Pascual, M; Sanchis-Segura, C; Guerri, C; Aragon, C M G

    2005-11-01

    Acute lead administration produces a transient increase in brain catalase activity. This effect of lead has been used to assess the involvement of brain ethanol metabolism, and therefore centrally formed acetaldehyde, in the behavioral actions of ethanol. In mice, catalase is involved in ethanol and methanol metabolism, but not in the metabolism of other alcohols such as 1-propanol or tert-butanol. In the present study, we assessed the specificity of the effects of lead acetate on catalase-mediated metabolism of alcohols, and the ability of lead to modulate the locomotion and loss of the righting reflex (LRR) induced by 4 different short-chain alcohols. Animals were pretreated i.p. with lead acetate (100 mg/kg) or saline, and 7 days later were injected i.p. with ethanol (2.5 or 4.5 g/kg), methanol (2.5 or 6.0 g/kg), 1-propanol (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg) or tert-butanol (0.5 or 2.0 g/kg) for locomotion and LRR, respectively. Locomotion induced by ethanol was significantly potentiated in lead-treated mice, while methanol-induced locomotion was reduced by lead treatment. The loss of righting reflex induced by ethanol was shorter in lead-treated mice, and lead produced the opposite effect in methanol-treated mice. There was no effect of lead on 1-propanol or tert-butanol-induced behaviors. Lead treatment was effective in inducing catalase activity and protein both in liver and brain. These results support the hypothesis that the effects of lead treatment on ethanol-induced behaviors are related to changes in catalase activity, rather than some nonspecific effect that generalizes to all alcohols.

  20. Role of phosphate on stability and catalase mimetic activity of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ragini; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-08-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) have been recently shown to scavenge reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) in different experimental model systems. CeNPs (3+) and CeNPs (4+) have been shown to exhibit superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase mimetic activity, respectively. Due to their nanoscale dimension, CeNPs are expected to interact with the components of biologically relevant buffers and medium, which could alter their catalytic properties. We have demonstrated earlier that CeNPs (3+) interact with phosphate and lose the SOD activity. However, very little is known about the interaction of CeNPs (4+) with the phosphate and other anions, predominantly present in biological buffers and their effects on the catalase mimetic-activity of these nanoparticles. In this study, we report that catalase mimetic-activity of CeNPs (4+) is resistant to the phosphate anions, pH changes and composition of cell culture media. Given the abundance of phosphate anions in the biological system, it is likely that internalized CeNPs would be influenced by cytoplasmic and nucleoplasmic concentration of phosphate.

  1. Catalase evolved to concentrate H2O2 at its active site.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Laura; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro; Hansberg, Wilhelm

    2010-08-01

    Catalase is a homo-tetrameric enzyme that has its heme active site deeply buried inside the protein. Its only substrate, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), reaches the heme through a 45 A-long channel. Large-subunit catalases, but not small-subunit catalases, have a loop (gate loop) that interrupts the major channel. Two accesses lead to a gate that opens the final section of the channel to the heme; gates from the R-related subunits are interconnected. Using molecular dynamic simulations of the Neurospora crassa catalase-1 tetramer in a box of water (48,600 molecules) or 6M H2O2, it is shown that the number of H2O2 molecules augments at the surface of the protein and in the accesses to the gate and the final section of the channel. Increase in H2O2 is due to the prevalence and distribution of amino acids that have an increased residency for H2O2 (mainly histidine, proline and charged residues), which are localized at the protein surface and the accesses to the gate. In the section of the channel from the heme to the gate, turnover rate of water molecules was faster than for H2O2 and increased residence sites for water and H2O2 were determined. In the presence of H2O2, the exclusion of water molecules from a specific site suggests a mechanism that could contend with the competing activity of water, allowing for catalase high kinetic efficiency.

  2. Changes in gene expression and catalase activity in Oryza sativa L. under abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Vighi, I L; Benitez, L C; do Amaral, M N; Auler, P A; Moraes, G P; Rodrigues, G S; da Maia, L C; Pinto, L S; Braga, E J B

    2016-11-03

    Different rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes were subjected to high salinity and low temperature (150 mM NaCl and 13°C, respectively) for 0, 6, 24, 48, or 72 h. We evaluated the simultaneous expression of the genes OsCATA, OsCATB, and OsCATC, correlated gene expression with enzyme activity, and verified the regulation of these genes through identification of cis-elements in the promoter region. The hydrogen peroxide content increased in a tolerant genotype and decreased in a sensitive genotype under both stress conditions. Lipid peroxidation increased in the tolerant genotype when exposed to cold, and in the sensitive genotype when exposed to high salinity. Catalase activity significantly increased in both genotypes when subjected to 13°C. In the tolerant genotype, OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to high salinity and cold, while in the sensitive genotype, OsCATA and OsCATC responded positively to saline stress, as did OsCATA and OsCATB to low temperature. Cis-element analysis identified different regulatory sequences in the catalase promoter region of each genotype. The sensitive genotype maintained a better balance between hydrogen oxyacid levels, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation under low temperature than the resistant genotype. OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive in the salt-tolerant genotype to cold, OsCATA and OsCATC were the most responsive to saline stress, and OsCATA and OsCATB were the most responsive to chilling stress in the sensitive genotype. There were positive correlations between catalase activity and OsCATB expression in the tolerant genotype under saline stress and in the sensitive genotype under cold stress.

  3. Optimization of permeabilization process of yeast cells for catalase activity using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Trawczyńska, Ilona; Wójcik, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Biotransformation processes accompanied by whole yeast cells as biocatalyst are a promising area of food industry. Among the chemical sanitizers currently used in food technology, hydrogen peroxide is a very effective microbicidal and bleaching agent. In this paper, permeabilization has been applied to Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells aiming at increased intracellular catalase activity for decomposed H2O2. Ethanol, which is non-toxic, biodegradable and easily available, has been used as permeabilization factor. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied in determining the influence of different parameters on permeabilization process. The aim of the study was to find such values of the process parameters that would yield maximum activity of catalase during decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process obtained by RSM were as follows: 53% (v/v) of ethanol concentration, temperature of 14.8 °C and treatment time of 40 min. After permeabilization, the activity of catalase increased ca. 40 times and its maximum value equalled to 4711 U/g. PMID:26019618

  4. Superoxide dismutase and catalase conjugated to polyethylene glycol increases endothelial enzyme activity and oxidant resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, J.S.; Minor, R.L. Jr.; White, C.W.; Repine, J.E.; Rosen, G.M.; Freeman, B.A.

    1988-05-15

    Covalent conjugation of superoxide dismutase and catalase with polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the circulatory half-lives of these enzymes from <10 min to 40 h, reduced immunogenicity, and decreases sensitivity to proteolysis. Because PEG has surface active properties and can induce cell fusion, the authors hypothesized that PEG conjugation could enhance cell binding and association of normally membrane-impermeable enzymes. Incubation of cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells with /sup 125/I-PEG-catalase or /sup 125/I-PEG-superoxide dismutase produced a linear, concentration-dependent increase in cellular enzyme activity and radioactivity. Fluorescently labeled PEG-superoxide dismutase incubated with endothelial cells showed a vesicular localization. Mechanical injury to cell monolayers, which is known to stimulate endocytosis, further increased the uptake of fluorescent PEG-superoxide dismutase. Addition of PEG and PEG-conjugated enzymes perturbed the spin-label binding environment, indicative of producing an increase in plasma membrane fluidity. Thus, PEG conjugation to superoxide dismutase and catalase enhances cell association of these enzymes in a manner which increases cellular enzyme activities and provides prolonged protection from partially reduced oxygen species.

  5. KatB, a cyanobacterial Mn-catalase with unique active site configuration: Implications for enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Bihani, Subhash C; Chakravarty, Dhiman; Ballal, Anand

    2016-04-01

    Manganese catalases (Mn-catalases), a class of H2O2 detoxifying proteins, are structurally and mechanistically distinct from the commonly occurring catalases, which contain heme. Active site of Mn-catalases can serve as template for the synthesis of catalase mimetics for therapeutic intervention in oxidative stress related disorders. However, unlike the heme catalases, structural aspects of Mn-catalases remain inadequately explored. The genome of the ancient cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120, shows the presence of two Mn-catalases, KatA and KatB. Here, we report the biochemical and structural characterization of KatB. The KatB protein (with a C-terminal his-tag) was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. On the addition of Mn(2+) to the E. coli growth medium, a substantial increase in production of the soluble KatB protein was observed. The purified KatB protein was an efficient catalase, which was relatively insensitive to inhibition by azide. Crystal structure of KatB showed a hexameric assembly with four-helix bundle fold, characteristic of the Ferritin-like superfamily. With canonical Glu4His2 coordination geometry and two terminal water ligands, the KatB active site was distinctly different from that of other Mn-catalases. Interestingly, the KatB active site closely resembled the active sites of ruberythrin/bacterioferritin, bi-iron members of the Ferritin-like superfamily. The KatB crystal structure provided fundamental insights into the evolutionary relationship within the Ferritin-like superfamily and further showed that Mn-catalases can be sub-divided into two groups, each with a distinct active site configuration.

  6. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  7. Murine and human b locus pigmentation genes encode a glycoprotein (gp75) with catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Halaban, R.; Moellmann, G. )

    1990-06-01

    Melanogenesis is regulated in large part by tyrosinase, and defective tyrosinase leads to albinism. The mechanisms for other pigmentation determinants (e.g., those operative in tyrosinase-positive albinism and in murine coat-color mutants) are not yet known. One murine pigmentation gene, the brown (b) locus, when mutated leads to a brown (b/b) or hypopigmentated (B{sup lt}/B{sup lt}) coat versus the wild-type black (B/B). The authors show that the b locus codes for a glycoprotein with the activity of a catalase (catalase B). Only the c locus protein is a tyrosinase. Because peroxides may be by-products of melanogenic activity and hydrogen peroxide in particular is known to destroy melanin precursors and melanin, they conclude that pigmentation is controlled not only by tyrosinase but also by a hydroperoxidase. The studies indicate that catalase B is identical with gp75, a known human melanosomal glycoprotein; that the b mutation is in a heme-associated domain; and that the B{sup lt} mutation renders the protein susceptible to rapid proteolytic degradation.

  8. Cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and resistance to radiation lethality in murine tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Davy, C.A.; Tesfay, Z.; Jones, J.; Rosenberg, R.C.; McCarthy, C.; Rosenberg, S.O.

    1986-05-01

    Reduced species of molecular oxygen are produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with aqueous solutions containing molecular oxygen. The enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are thought to function in vivo as scavengers of metabolically produced peroxide and superoxide respectively. SOD has been shown to protect against the lethal effects of ionizing radiation in vitro and in vivo. The authors have investigated the relationship between the cytosolic SOD catalase content and the sensitivity to radiation lethality of a number of murine cell lines (402AX, EL-4, MB-2T3, MB-4, MEL, P-815, SAI, SP-2, and SV-3T3). K/sub i/(CN/sup -/) for murine Cu-Zn-SOD was determined to be 6.8 x 10/sup -6/ M. No cytosolic Mn-SOD activity was found in any of the cell lines studied. No correlation was found between the cytosolic Cu-Zn-SOD or cytosolic catalase activity and the resistance to radiation lethality or the murine cell lines studied.

  9. A Laboratory Experiment Investigating Different Aspects of Catalase Activity in an Inquiry - Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbrough, Doris R.; Magoun, Mary Ann; Langfur, Meg

    1997-02-01

    The action of the enzyme catalase on aqueous hydrogen peroxide to generate oxygen gas is a well-established demonstration (1-3). Catalase is typically obtained by aqueous extraction of a potato, and the potato extract is mixed together with 3% hydrogen peroxide. The oxygen that is produced can be collected over water. Variations on the procedure can demonstrate the dependence of catalytic activity on temperature or the presence of inhibitors (1, 2). The University of Colorado at Denver has used a version of this procedure as a laboratory in its second-semester course for nonmajors. Recently, students have been allowed to expand upon the procedures prescribed in the laboratory handout in an open-ended project format. We explored some of these variations in detail, and the results provided here offer ideas, centered around this laboratory, for open-ended projects that can be used in an inquiry-based approach.

  10. Molecular mechanism on cadmium-induced activity changes of catalase and superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via alterations in activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), but their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the molecular mechanism of CAT and SOD response under Cd-induced oxidative stress in the liver of zebrafish. The enzyme activity changes observed in vitro were consistent with those seen in vivo, indicating the direct interaction of CAT and SOD with Cd contributes to their activity change in vivo. Further experiments utilizing multiple spectroscopic methods, isothermal titration calorimetry and a molecular docking study were performed to explore the mechanism of molecular interaction of CAT and SOD with Cd. Different interaction patterns were found that resulted in misfolding and changed the enzyme activities. Taken together, we suggest the misfolding of CAT and SOD contributes to their activity change under Cd-induced oxidative stress in vivo.

  11. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities after heat injury of listeria monocytogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Dallmier, A.W.; Martin, S.E.

    1988-02-01

    Four strains of Listeria monocytogenes were examined for catalase (CA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The two strains having the highest CA activities (LCDC and Scott A) also possessed the highest SOD activities. The CA activity of heated cell extracts of all four strains examined decreased sharply between 55 and 60/sup 0/C. SOD was more heat labile than CA. Two L. monocytogenes strains demonstrated a decline in SOD activity after heat treatment at 45/sup 0/C, whereas the other two strains demonstrated a decline at 50/sup 0/C. Sublethal heating of the cells at 55/sup 0/C resulted in increased sensitivity to 5.5% NaCl. Exogenous hydrogen peroxide was added to suspensions of L. monocytogenes; strains producing the highest CA levels showed the greatest H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ resistance.

  12. Catalase-like activity studies of the manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ćiçek, Ekrem; Dede, Bülent

    2013-12-01

    Preparation of manganese(II) adsorbed on zeolite 3A, 4A, 5A. AW-300, ammonium Y zeolite, organophilic, molecular sieve and catalase-like enzyme activity of manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites are reported herein. Firstly zeolites are activated at 873 K for two hours before contact manganese(II) ions. In order to observe amount of adsorption, filtration process applied for the solution. The pure zeolites and manganese(II) adsorbed zeolites were analysed by FT-IR. As a result according to the FT-IR spectra, the incorporation of manganese(II) cation into the zeolite structure causes changes in the spectra. These changes are expected particularly in the pseudolattice bands connected with the presence of alumino and silicooxygen tetrahedral rings in the zeolite structure. Furthermore, the catalytic activities of the Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide were investigated in the presence of imidazole. The Mn(II) adsorbed zeolites display efficiency in the disproportion reactions of hydrogen peroxide, producing water and dioxygen in catalase-like activity.

  13. Highly Active and Stable Large Catalase Isolated from a Hydrocarbon Degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324

    PubMed Central

    Vatsyayan, Preety; Goswami, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    A hydrocarbon degrading Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324 produces a high level of extremely active and stable cellular large catalase (CAT) during growth on n-hexadecane to combat the oxidative stress caused by the hydrocarbon degrading metabolic machinery inside the cell. A 160-fold purification with specific activity of around 66 × 105 U mg−1 protein was achieved. The native protein molecular mass was 368 ± 5 kDa with subunit molecular mass of nearly 90 kDa, which indicates that the native CAT protein is a homotetramer. The isoelectric pH (pI) of the purified CAT was 4.2. BLAST aligned peptide mass fragments of CAT protein showed its highest similarity with the catalase B protein from other fungal sources. CAT was active in a broad range of pH 4 to 12 and temperature 25°C to 90°C. The catalytic efficiency (Kcat/Km) of 4.7 × 108 M−1 s−1 within the studied substrate range and alkaline pH stability (half-life, t1/2 at pH 12~15 months) of CAT are considerably higher than most of the extensively studied catalases from different sources. The storage stability (t1/2) of CAT at physiological pH 7.5 and 4°C was nearly 30 months. The haem was identified as haem b by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS). PMID:27057351

  14. Catalase activity of cytochrome C oxidase assayed with hydrogen peroxide-sensitive electrode microsensor.

    PubMed

    Bolshakov, I A; Vygodina, T V; Gennis, R; Karyakin, A A; Konstantinov, A A

    2010-11-01

    An iron-hexacyanide-covered microelectrode sensor has been used to continuously monitor the kinetics of hydrogen peroxide decomposition catalyzed by oxidized cytochrome oxidase. At cytochrome oxidase concentration ~1 µM, the catalase activity behaves as a first order process with respect to peroxide at concentrations up to ~300-400 µM and is fully blocked by heat inactivation of the enzyme. The catalase (or, rather, pseudocatalase) activity of bovine cytochrome oxidase is characterized by a second order rate constant of ~2·10(2) M(-1)·sec(-1) at pH 7.0 and room temperature, which, when divided by the number of H2O2 molecules disappearing in one catalytic turnover (between 2 and 3), agrees reasonably well with the second order rate constant for H2O2-dependent conversion of the oxidase intermediate F(I)-607 to F(II)-580. Accordingly, the catalase activity of bovine oxidase may be explained by H2O2 procession in the oxygen-reducing center of the enzyme yielding superoxide radicals. Much higher specific rates of H2O2 decomposition are observed with preparations of the bacterial cytochrome c oxidase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The observed second order rate constants (up to ~3000 M(-1)·sec(-1)) exceed the rate constant of peroxide binding with the oxygen-reducing center of the oxidized enzyme (~500 M(-1)·sec(-1)) several-fold and therefore cannot be explained by catalytic reaction in the a(3)/Cu(B) site of the enzyme. It is proposed that in the bacterial oxidase, H2O2 can be decomposed by reacting with the adventitious transition metal ions bound by the polyhistidine-tag present in the enzyme, or by virtue of reaction with the tightly-bound Mn2+, which in the bacterial enzyme substitutes for Mg2+ present in the mitochondrial oxidase.

  15. Investigating catalase activity through hydrogen peroxide decomposition by bacteria biofilms in real time using scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Abucayon, Erwin; Ke, Neng; Cornut, Renaud; Patelunas, Anthony; Miller, Douglas; Nishiguchi, Michele K; Zoski, Cynthia G

    2014-01-07

    Catalase activity through hydrogen peroxide decomposition in a 1 mM bulk solution above Vibrio fischeri (γ-Protebacteria-Vibrionaceae) bacterial biofilms of either symbiotic or free-living strains was studied in real time by scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The catalase activity, in units of micromoles hydrogen peroxide decomposed per minute over a period of 348 s, was found to vary with incubation time of each biofilm in correlation with the corresponding growth curve of bacteria in liquid culture. Average catalase activity for the same incubation times ranging from 1 to 12 h was found to be 0.28 ± 0.07 μmol H2O2/min for the symbiotic biofilms and 0.31 ± 0.07 μmol H2O2/min for the free-living biofilms, suggesting similar catalase activity. Calculations based on Comsol Multiphysics simulations in fitting experimental biofilm data indicated that approximately (3 ± 1) × 10(6) molecules of hydrogen peroxide were decomposed by a single bacterium per second, signifying the presence of a highly active catalase. A 2-fold enhancement in catalase activity was found for both free-living and symbiotic biofilms in response to external hydrogen peroxide concentrations as low as 1 nM in the growth media, implying a similar mechanism in responding to oxidative stress.

  16. Temperature dependence of oxygen evolution through catalase-like activity of horseradish peroxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović-Bijelić, A.; Bijelić, G.; Kolar-Anić, Lj.; Vukojević, V.

    2007-09-01

    By experimental investigations of the temperature dependence of catalase-like activity of horseradish peroxidase in the temperature range 278 328 K, different kinetic profiles for oxygen evolution were found below and above 298 K. Extension of the model is proposed to account for these observations. By numeric simulations of the reaction kinetics at different temperatures, it was found that enhanced evaporation of molecular oxygen from the reaction solution is the main root through which oxygen is lost at elevated temperatures in laboratory conditions.

  17. Catalase activity as a biomarker for mild-stress-induced robustness in Bacillus weihenstephanensis.

    PubMed

    den Besten, Heidy M W; Effraimidou, Styliani; Abee, Tjakko

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to survive and grow in changing environments by activating stress adaptation mechanisms which may enhance bacterial robustness. Stress-induced enhanced robustness complicates the predictability of microbial inactivation. Using psychrotolerant Bacillus weihenstephanensis strain KBAB4 as a model, we investigated the impact of the culturing temperature on mild-oxidative-stress-induced (cross-)protection toward multiple stresses, including severe oxidative, heat, and acid stresses. Culturing at a refrigeration temperature (7°C) compared to the optimal growth temperature (30°C) affected both the robustness level of B. weihenstephanensis and the oxidative stress adaptive response. Scavengers of reactive oxygen species have a crucial role in adaptation to oxidative stresses, and this points to a possible predictive role in mild-oxidative-stress-induced robustness. Therefore, the catalase activity was determined upon mild oxidative stress treatment and was demonstrated to be significantly correlated with the robustness level of mild-stress-treated cells toward severe oxidative and heat stresses but not toward severe acid stress for cells grown at both refrigeration and optimal temperatures. The quantified correlations supported the predictive quality of catalase activity as a biomarker and also underlined that the predictive quality is stress specific. Biomarkers that are able to predict stress-induced enhanced robustness can be used to better understand stress adaptation mechanisms and might allow the design of effective combinations of hurdles to control microbial behavior.

  18. Catalytic activity of catalase under strong magnetic fields of up to 8 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, S.; Iwasaka, M.

    1996-04-01

    The question of whether or not magnetic fields affect enzymatic activity is of considerable interest in biomagnetics and biochemistry. This study focuses on whether magnetically related enzymatic activities can be affected by magnetic fields. We examined the effect of magnetic fields of up to 8 T on catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We observed changes in absorbance of reaction mixture of hydrogen peroxide and catalase at 240 nm, during and after magnetic field exposures. When the reaction mixture was not treated with nitrogen-gas bubbling, it was observed that the initial reaction rate of the reaction which was exposed to magnetic fields of up to 8 T was 50%-85% lower than the control data. This magnetic field effect was not observed, however, when the reaction mixture was bubbled with nitrogen gas to remove the dissolved oxygen molecules which were produced in the solution. We also measured concentration of dissolved oxygen which was produced by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Dissolved oxygen concentration in the reaction mixture which was exposed to magnetic fields increased 20%-25% compared to the control solution. The results of the present study indicate that magnetic fields affect dynamic movement of oxygen bubbles which are produced in the reaction mixture by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, but not the catalytic activity of catalase itself.

  19. Copper suppresses abscisic acid catabolism and catalase activity, and inhibits seed germination of rice.

    PubMed

    Ye, Nenghui; Li, Haoxuan; Zhu, Guohui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xu, Weifeng; Jing, Yu; Peng, Xinxiang; Zhang, Jianhua

    2014-11-01

    Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for plants, a slight excess of Cu in soil can be harmful to plants. Unfortunately, Cu contamination is a growing problem all over the world due to human activities, and poses a soil stress to plant development. As one of the most important biological processes, seed germination is sensitive to Cu stress. However, little is known about the mechanism of Cu-induced inhibition of seed germination. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between Cu and ABA which is the predominant regulator of seed germination. Cu at a concentration of 30 µM effectively inhibited germination of rice caryopsis. ABA content in germinating seeds under copper stress was also higher than that under control conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that Cu treatment reduced the expression of OsABA8ox2, a key gene of ABA catabolism in rice seeds. In addition, both malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 contents were increased by Cu stress in the germinating seeds. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed that only catalase activity was reduced by excess Cu, which was consistent with the mRNA profile of OsCATa during seed germination under Cu stress. Together, our results demonstrate that suppression of ABA catabolism and catalase (CAT) activity by excess Cu leads to the inhibition of seed germination of rice.

  20. Catalase-like and peroxidase-like catalytic activities of silicon nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongwei; Jiang, Wenwen; Wang, Yanwei; Liu, Xiaoli; Yao, Jianlin; Yuan, Lin; Wu, Zhaoqiang; Li, Dan; Song, Bo; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-08

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWAs) were found to have catalytic activities similar to those of biological enzymes catalase and peroxidase. Thus not only can these materials catalyze the decomposition reaction of H(2)O(2) into water and oxygen, but they can also catalyze the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine (OPD), a common substrate for peroxidases, by H(2)O(2). The presence of Si-H bonds and the morphology of the SiNWAs are found to be crucial to the occurrence of such catalytic activity. When the SiNWAs are reacted with H(2)O(2), the data from Raman spectroscopy suggests the formation of (Si-H)(2)···(O species) ((Si-H)(2)···Os), which is presumably responsible for the catalytic activity. These findings suggest the potential use of SiNWAs as enzyme mimics in medicine, biotechnology, and environmental chemistry.

  1. A bifunctional enzyme from Rhodococcus erythropolis exhibiting secondary alcohol dehydrogenase-catalase activities.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rojas, Enriqueta; Kurt, Tutku; Schmidt, Udo; Meyer, Vera; Garbe, Leif-Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases have long been recognized as potential biocatalyst for production of chiral fine and bulk chemicals. They are relevant for industry in enantiospecific production of chiral compounds. In this study, we identified and purified a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (SdcA) from Rhodococcus erythropolis oxidizing γ-lactols into γ-lactones. SdcA showed broad substrate specificity on γ-lactols; secondary aliphatic alcohols with 8 and 10 carbon atoms were also substrates and oxidized with (2S)-stereospecificity. The enzyme exhibited moderate stability with a half-life of 5 h at 40 °C and 20 days at 4 °C. Mass spectrometric identification revealed high sequence coverage of SdcA amino acid sequence to a highly conserved catalase from R. erythropolis. The corresponding encoding gene was isolated from genomic DNA and subsequently overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 cells. In addition, the recombinant SdcA was purified and characterized in order to confirm that the secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase activity correspond to the same enzyme.

  2. Activity of catalase adsorbed to carbon nanotubes: effects of carbon nanotube surface properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengdong; Luo, Shuiming; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-15

    Nanomaterials have been studied widely as the supporting materials for enzyme immobilization. However, the interactions between enzymes and carbon nanotubes (CNT) with different morphologies and surface functionalities may vary, hence influencing activities of the immobilized enzyme. To date how the adsorption mechanisms affect the activities of immobilized enzyme is not well understood. In this study the adsorption of catalase (CAT) on pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (O-SWNT), and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) was investigated. The adsorbed enzyme activities decreased in the order of O-SWNT>SWNT>MWNT. Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichrois (CD) analyses reveal more significant loss of α-helix and β-sheet of MWNT-adsorbed than SWNT-adsorbed CAT. The difference in enzyme activities between MWNT-adsorbed and SWNT-adsorbed CAT indicates that the curvature of surface plays an important role in the activity of immobilized enzyme. Interestingly, an increase of β-sheet content was observed for CAT adsorbed to O-SWNT. This is likely because as opposed to SWNT and MWNT, O-SWNT binds CAT largely via hydrogen bonding and such interaction allows the CAT molecule to maintain the rigidity of enzyme structure and thus the biological function.

  3. Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalytic activity of catalase immobilized onto electrodeposited nano-scale islands of nickel oxide.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Abdollah; Sharifi, Ensiyeh; Noorbakhsh, Abdollah; Soltanian, Saied

    2007-02-01

    Cyclic voltammetry was used for simultaneous formation and immobilization of nickel oxide nano-scale islands and catalase on glassy carbon electrode. Electrodeposited nickel oxide may be a promising material for enzyme immobilization owing to its high biocompatibility and large surface. The catalase films assembled on nickel oxide exhibited a pair of well defined, stable and nearly reversible CV peaks at about -0.05 V vs. SCE at pH 7, characteristic of the heme Fe (III)/Fe (II) redox couple. The formal potential of catalase in nickel oxide film were linearly varied in the range 1-12 with slope of 58.426 mV/pH, indicating that the electron transfer is accompanied by single proton transportation. The electron transfer between catalase and electrode surface, (k(s)) of 3.7(+/-0.1) s(-1) was greatly facilitated in the microenvironment of nickel oxide film. The electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide at glassy carbon electrode modified with nickel oxide nano-scale islands and catalase enzyme has been studied. The embedded catalase in NiO nanoparticles showed excellent electrocatalytic activity toward hydrogen peroxide reduction. Also the modified rotating disk electrode shows good analytical performance for amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide. The resultant catalase/nickel oxide modified glassy carbon electrodes exhibited fast amperometric response (within 2 s) to hydrogen peroxide reduction (with a linear range from 1 microM to 1 mM), excellent stability, long term life and good reproducibility. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant is calculated to be 0.96(+/-0.05)mM, which shows a large catalytic activity of catalase in the nickel oxide film toward hydrogen peroxide. The excellent electrochemical reversibility of redox couple, high stability, technical simplicity, lake of need for mediators and short preparations times are advantages of this electrode. Finally the activity of biosensor for nitrite reduction was also investigated.

  4. Resonance scattering spectral detection of catalase activity using Au@Ag nanoparticle as probe and coupling catalase catalytic reaction with Fenton reaction.

    PubMed

    Liang, Aihui; Liang, Yueyuan; Jiang, Zhiliang; Jiang, Hesheng

    2009-11-01

    The Au(core)Ag(shell) (Au@Ag) nanoparticles in size of 30 nm were prepared using 10 nm gold nanoparticles as seeds at 90 degrees C, and were purified by high-speed centrifugation to remove the excess trisodium citrate to obtain Au@Ag nanoprobe. In the medium of pH 4.0 acetate buffer solution--7.2 micromol/L H2O2--67 micromol/L Fe(II), Au@Ag nanoparticles exhibited a resonance scattering (RS) peak at 538 nm. Upon addition of Catalase (Ct), the system produced hydroxyl radical that oxidized the Au@Ag nanoprobe to form the AuAg nanoparticles with partly bare nanogold. Those AuAg nanoparticles aggregated to large nanoclusters that led to the RS peak wavelength red-shift and its RS peak intensity enhanced. The catalase activity (C) is linear to the enhanced RS intensity (DeltaI) in the range of 6 to 2,800 U/L, with regression equation of DeltaI = 0.168 C-0.2, the correlation coefficient of 0.9952, and detection limit of 2.8 U/L. This method was applied to the detection of serum samples, and the results were agreement with that of the spectrophotometry. A new catalytic mechanism of catalase was proposed with oxywater principle that was agreement with the results of resonance scattering spectroscopy, absorption spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy and laser scattering.

  5. Expression and purification of soluble bio-active rice plant catalase-A from recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ray, Mamata; Mishra, Panchanand; Das, Priyanka; Sabat, Surendra Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Catalase in plants is a heme-coordinated tetrameric protein that primarily disproportionates hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. It plays an important role in maintaining cellular concentration of hydrogen peroxide to a level, necessary for all aspects of normal plant growth and development. Except for its recombinant expression in transgenic plants and insect cell line, the protein is yet to be synthesized in its bio-active form in prokaryotic expression system. Attempts made in past for recombinant expression of plant catalase in Escherichia coli consistently resulted in formation of insoluble and inactive aggregates of inclusion body. Here we have shown the specific requirement of a thioredoxin fusion partner, the involvement of trigger factor protein and the low temperature treatment during induction period for synthesis of completely solubilized rice plant catalase-A in recombinant E. coli. Furthermore, the bacteria required the supplementation of δ-aminolevulinic acid to produce bio-active recombinant rice catalase-A. The molecular and biochemical properties of the purified recombinant protein showed the characteristic features of a typical mono-functional plant catalase. These results attest to the usefulness of the present protocol for production of plant catalase using E. coli as heterologous expression system.

  6. Activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in people protractedly exposed to lead compounds.

    PubMed

    Kasperczyk, Slawomir; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Aleksandra; Zalejska-Fiolka, Jolanta

    2004-01-01

    Lead can modify pro/antioxidant status by influencing antioxidant enzymes. As the results of experimental researches are divergent, the purpose of this research was to evaluate the activity of enzymes that play a vital role in the defence against ROS in blood of people protractedly exposed to lead compounds. The study population included 172 healthy employees of zinc and lead steelworks. Workers exposed to lead (L) were divided into 2 groups: the first included workers with mean lead concentration (PbB) from 25-35 microl/dl (LL group), and the second group of high exposure (HL group)--with PbB over 35 microl/dl. The administration workers were the control group. There were no significant changes in activity of catalase and mitochondrial SOD in the study population. The activity of ZnCu-SOD significantly increased, both in plasma and erythrocytes, but first in plasma in the LL subgroup by about 42% (p=0.044), and then in erythrocytes in the HL subgroup by about 23% (p=0.012) when compared to the control group. Concentration of TBARS-MDA increased both in serum and erythrocytes. In people protractedly exposed to lead (mean 15 +/- 10 years), there is observed an increased activity of SOD in blood, which seems to be an adoptive mechanism against the raised amount of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by lead.

  7. Down-regulation of catalase activity allows transient accumulation of a hydrogen peroxide signal in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Michelet, Laure; Roach, Thomas; Fischer, Beat B; Bedhomme, Mariette; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2013-06-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, excess light is a stress that induces production of reactive oxygen species inside the chloroplasts. As a response, the capacity of antioxidative defence mechanisms increases. However, when cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were shifted from dark to high light, a reversible partial inactivation of catalase activity was observed, which correlated with a transient increase in the level of H2 O2 in the 10 μm range. This concentration range seems to be necessary to activate H2 O2 -dependent signalling pathways stimulating the expression of H2 O2 responsive genes, such as the heat shock protein HSP22C. Catalase knock-down mutants had lost the transient accumulation of H2 O2 , suggesting that a decrease in catalase activity was the key element for establishing a transient H2 O2 burst. Catalase was inactivated by a one-electron event consistent with the reduction of a single cysteine. We propose that under high light intensity, the redox state of the photosynthetic electron transport chain is sensed and transmitted to the cytosol to regulate the catalase activity. This allows a transient accumulation of H2 O2 , inducing a signalling event that is transmitted to the nucleus to modulate the expression of chloroplast-directed protection enzymes.

  8. Ultraviolet Light B-Mediated Inhibition of Skin Catalase Activity Promotes Gr-1+CD11b+ Myeloid Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicholas J.; Tober, Kathleen L.; Burns, Erin M.; Schick, Jonathan S.; Riggenbach, Judith A.; Mace, Thomas A.; Bill, Matthew A.; Young, Gregory S.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Lesinski, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence and mortality are higher in men compared to women, but the causes of this sex discrepancy remain largely unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure induces cutaneous inflammation and neutralizes cutaneous antioxidants. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are heterogeneous bone marrow-derived cells that promote inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Reduced activity of catalase, an antioxidant present within skin, has been associated with skin carcinogenesis. We utilized the outbred, immune competent Skh-1 hairless mouse model of ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced inflammation and non-melanoma skin cancer to further define sex discrepancies in UVB-induced inflammation. Our results demonstrated that male skin had relatively lower baseline catalase activity, which was inhibited following acute UVB exposure in both sexes. Further analysis revealed that skin catalase activity inversely correlated with splenic Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cell percentage. Acute UVB exposure induced Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cell skin infiltration, which was inhibited to a greater extent in males by topical catalase treatment. In chronic UVB studies, we demonstrated that the percentage of splenic Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells was 55% higher in male tumor-bearing mice compared to their female counterparts. Together, our findings indicate that lower skin catalase activity in male mice may at least in part contribute to increased UVB-induced Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells and subsequent skin carcinogenesis. PMID:22030957

  9. Effects of molecular oxygen on detection of superoxide radical with nitroblue tetrazolium and on activity stains for catalase

    SciTech Connect

    Clare, D.A.; Duong, M.N.; Darr, D.; Archibald, F.; Fridovich, I.

    1984-08-01

    The usual method of staining polyacrylamide gel electropherograms for superoxide dismutase activity utilizes a photochemical flux of O/sub 2//sup -/ to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium. Superoxide dismutases intercept O/sub 2//sup -/, preventing formazan production and thus causing achromatic bands. In the presence of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, catalase also yield achromatic bands during this staining procedure. This is due to local elevation of pO/sub 2/ by the catalytic decomposition of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. O/sub 2/, in turn, inhibits the reduction of the tetrazolium by O/sub 2//sup -/. This phenomenon provides a new activity stain for catalase. A previously described activity stain for catalase has also been reexamined and significantly improved.

  10. Effects of sodium nitroprusside on mouse erythrocyte catalase activity and malondialdehyde status.

    PubMed

    Sani, Mamane; Sebai, Hichem; Refinetti, Roberto; Mondal, Mohan; Ghanem-Boughanmi, Néziha; Boughattas, Naceur A; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2016-01-01

    There is controversy about the anti- or pro-oxidative effects of the nitric oxide (NO)-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Hence, the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT) and the status of malondialdehyde (MDA) were investigated after a 2.5 mg/kg dose of SNP had been i.p. administered to different and comparable groups of mice (n = 48). The drug was administered at two different circadian times (1 and 13 h after light onset [HALO]). There were, irrespectively of sampling time, no significant differences in the means of CAT activity and MDA status between control and SNP-treated groups, no matter the treatment time. However, CAT activity was significantly (Student's t-test, p < 0.001) increased 1 h following SNP administration at 1 HALO, whereas the significant (p < 0.001) increase in the enzyme activity was found only 3 h after injection at 13 HALO. The drug dosing either at 1 or 13 HALO resulted in no significant differences of MDA status between control and treated groups regardless to the sampling time. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) detected a significant (F0.05(7,88)= 5.3; p < 0.0006) interaction between sampling time and treatment in mice injected at 1 HALO, suggesting the influence of treatment on sampling-time-related changes in CAT activity. However, ANOVA validated no interaction between the two factors in mice treated at 13 HALO, illustrating that the sampling-time differences in enzyme activity were greater. Furthermore, two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction in the variation of MDA status in animals treated either at 1 or 13 HALO. This study indicates that SNP significantly affected the anti-oxidant system.

  11. A Catalase-related Hemoprotein in Coral Is Specialized for Synthesis of Short-chain Aldehydes: DISCOVERY OF P450-TYPE HYDROPEROXIDE LYASE ACTIVITY IN A CATALASE.

    PubMed

    Teder, Tarvi; Lõhelaid, Helike; Boeglin, William E; Calcutt, Wade M; Brash, Alan R; Samel, Nigulas

    2015-08-07

    In corals a catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein transforms arachidonic acid to the allene oxide 8R,9-epoxy-5,9,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid from which arise cyclopentenones such as the prostanoid-related clavulones. Recently we cloned two catalase-lipoxygenase fusion protein genes (a and b) from the coral Capnella imbricata, form a being an allene oxide synthase and form b giving uncharacterized polar products (Lõhelaid, H., Teder, T., Tõldsepp, K., Ekins, M., and Samel, N. (2014) PloS ONE 9, e89215). Here, using HPLC-UV, LC-MS, and NMR methods, we identify a novel activity of fusion protein b, establishing its role in cleaving the lipoxygenase product 8R-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid into the short-chain aldehydes (5Z)-8-oxo-octenoic acid and (3Z,6Z)-dodecadienal; these primary products readily isomerize in an aqueous medium to the corresponding 6E- and 2E,6Z derivatives. This type of enzymatic cleavage, splitting the carbon chain within the conjugated diene of the hydroperoxide substrate, is known only in plant cytochrome P450 hydroperoxide lyases. In mechanistic studies using (18)O-labeled substrate and incubations in H2(18)O, we established synthesis of the C8-oxo acid and C12 aldehyde with the retention of the hydroperoxy oxygens, consistent with synthesis of a short-lived hemiacetal intermediate that breaks down spontaneously into the two aldehydes. Taken together with our initial studies indicating differing gene regulation of the allene oxide synthase and the newly identified catalase-related hydroperoxide lyase and given the role of aldehydes in plant defense, this work uncovers a potential pathway in coral stress signaling and a novel enzymatic activity in the animal kingdom.

  12. Effects of humic acid-metal complexes on hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase, carnitine acetyltransferase and catalase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Fungjou Lu; Youngshin Chen . Dept. of Biochemistry); Tienshang Huang . Dept. of Medicine)

    1994-03-01

    A significant increase in activities of hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase and carnitine acetyltransferase was observed in male Balb/c mice intraperitoneally injected for 40 d with 0.125 mg/0.1 ml/d humic acid-metal complexes. Among these complexes, the humic acid-As complex was relatively effective, whereas humic acid-25 metal complex was more effective, and humic acid-26 metal complex was most effective. However, humic acid or metal mixtures, or metal such as As alone, was not effective. Humic acid-metal complexes also significantly decreased hepatic catalase activity. A marked decrease of 60-kDa polypeptide in liver cytoplasm was also observed on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after the mice had been injected with the complexes. Morphological analysis of a histopathological biopsy of such treated mice revealed several changes in hepatocytes, including focal necrosis and cell infiltration, mild fatty changes, reactive nuclei, and hypertrophy. Humic acid-metal complexes affect activities of metabolic enzymes of fatty acids, and this results in accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and increase of the lipid peroxidation. The products of lipid peroxidation may be responsible for liver damage and possible carcinogenesis. Previous studies in this laboratory had shown that humic acid-metal complex altered the coagulation system and that humic acid, per se, caused vasculopathy. Therefore, humic acid-metal complexes may be main causal factors of not only so-called blackfoot disease, but also the liver cancer prevailing on the southwestern coast of Taiwan.

  13. Effects of Greek legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities.

    PubMed

    Spanou, Chrysoula I; Veskoukis, Aristidis S; Stagos, Dimitrios; Liadaki, Kalliopi; Aligiannis, Nectarios; Angelis, Apostolos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Anastasiadi, Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Kouretas, Dimitrios

    2012-03-01

    Legumes are considered to have beneficial health implications, which have been attributed to their phytochemical content. Polyphenols are considered the most important phytochemical compounds extensively studied for their antioxidant properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of potent antioxidant legume plant extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. XO exerts a dual role, as it is the major contributor of free radicals during exercise while it generates uric acid, the most potent antioxidant molecule in plasma. CAT and SOD are two of the main enzymes of the antioxidant defence of tissues. We demonstrate that the majority of the extracts inhibited XO activity, but they had no effect on CAT inhibition and SOD induction when used at low concentrations. These results imply that the tested extracts may be considered as possible source of novel XO inhibitors. However, we have shown that allopurinol administration, a known XO inhibitor, before exercise reduces performance and induces oxidative stress in rats. Considering the fact that the extracts examined had an inhibitory effect on XO activity, possibly posing a restriction in their characterization as antioxidants, phytochemical antioxidant administration before exercise should probably be reconsidered.

  14. Effects of the seminal plasma zinc content and catalase activity on the semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezai, S Asri; Ansari, M H Kh; Khaki, A

    2009-01-15

    In order to determine zinc and catalase content of seminal plasma in the buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen volume and sperm concentration, gross and progressive motility and viability were evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its zinc content was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometer and its catalase activity determined by using a commercial kit. The zinc content of the seminal plasma (Mean +/- SEM) was recorded as 154.40 +/- 1.74 mg L(-1), while, the mean catalase value was 32.00 +/- 0.42 U mL(-1). The mean zinc values was highly correlated with sperm progressive motility and viability and with catalase values (p = 0.000 for all) and also was associated with gross motility (p = 0.020) and negatively with abnormal morphology (p = 0.049). The catalase values were highly associated with sperm progressive motility, viability and zinc content (p = 0.000 for all) and was associated with sperm gross motility (p = 0.024). For further clarification of these correlations, the samples were categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33), good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15) and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6) according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.54 +/- 0.51%, in Go group was 81.66 +/- 0.62% and in Mo group was 71.66 +/- 1.05%. The mean zinc and catalase values were recorded as 161.07 +/- 1.63 mg L(-1) and 33.41 +/- 0.34 U mL(-1) in Ex, 146.70 +/- 1.91 mg L(-1) and 31.01 +/- 0.67 in Go and 136.42 +/- 4.97 mg L(-1) and 26.51 +/- 0.87 U mL(-1) in Mo groups. The mean zinc value in Ex group was highly associated with sperm motility, viability and catalase values, in Go group was associated with catalase values and highly associated with sperm abnormal morphology and in Mo group it was highly associations with catalase values only. The mean catalase value in Ex group

  15. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.01), the quadratic effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.05), the linear effects of copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P<0.05). Additionally, the synergistic effects of temperature and copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  16. A novel pyrogallol red-based assay to assess catalase activity: Optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Abderrahim, Mohamed; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2017-05-01

    Pyrogallol red (PGR) was identified as a novel optical probe for the detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-catalyzed oxidation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as a tool to optimize the concentrations of PGR (100µmolL(-1)), HRP (1UmL(-1)) and H2O2 (250µmolL(-1)) and used to develop a sensitive PGR-based catalase (CAT) activity assay (PGR-CAT assay). N-ethylmaleimide -NEM- (102mmolL(-1)) was used to avoid interference produced by thiol groups while protecting CAT activity. Incubation time (30min) for samples or CAT used as standard and H2O2 as well as signal stability (stable between 5 and 60min) were also evaluated. PGR-CAT assay was linear within the range of 0-4UmL(-1) (R(2)=0.993) and very sensitive with limits of detection (LOD) of 0.005UmL(-1) and quantitation (LOQ) of 0.01UmL(-1). PGR-CAT assay showed an adequate intra-day RSD=0.6-9.5% and inter-day RSD=2.4-8.9%. Bland-Altman analysis and Passing-Bablok and Pearson correlation analysis showed good agreement between CAT activity as measured by the PRG-CAT assay and the Amplex Red assay. The PGR-CAT assay is more sensitive than all the other colorimetric assays reported, particularly the Amplex Red assay, and the cost of PGR is a small fraction (about 1/1000) of that of an Amplex Red probe, so it can be expected to find wide use among scientists studying CAT activity in biological samples.

  17. [Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in carotenoid-synthesizing fungi Blakeslea trispora and Neurospora crassa under the oxidative stress].

    PubMed

    Gessler, N N; Sokolov, A V; Bykhovskiĭ, V Ia; Belozerskaia, T A

    2002-01-01

    The addition of menadione into the medium during cultivation of Neurospora crassa in the dark activated its constitutive superoxide dismutase. Exposure to light not only activated superoxide dismutase and catalase, but also increased the content of neurosporaxanthin. Superoxide dismutase activity in the mixed (+/-) mycelium of Blakeslea trispora synthesizing beta-carotene in the dark was much lower than that in Neurospora crassa. The superoxide dismutase activity further decreased in oxidative stress. The catalase activity decreased with an increase in the content of beta-carotene. Our results indicate that neurosporaxanthin possesses photoprotective properties in Neurospora crassa. In Blakeslea trispora (+/-) fungi, this compound acts as a major antioxidant during inactivation of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species.

  18. Catalasic activity in fish liver: improvement of the UV to visible analytic method.

    PubMed

    Paris-Palacios, Séverine; Delahaut, Laurence; Carreras, Alexis; Thomas, Marielle; Biagianti-Risbourg, Sylvie

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidative defenses and more especially catalasic activity (CAT) are studied in a large range of scientific research thematics. In environmental sciences, the problematic of oxidative stress is of great interest as pollutants can induce perturbations of redox homeostasis. Consequently, changes in antioxidative defenses levels in fish tissues and particularly in liver are used as potential biomarkers of pollution. In most studies, the CAT was assayed by following during 5 min the consumption of H2O2 in cytosolic buffered extracts at 240 nm (UV-method). This study proposed a development of this method in the visible, using permanganate and a 525-nm detection, which was more accurate, sensitive, and rapid. Moreover, the hepatic CAT of six different fish species [a cyclidae (Nimbochromis linni), 3 cyprinidae (Brachydanio rerio, Rutilus rutilus, Cyprinus carpio), an anguillidae (Anguilla anguilla), and a percidae (Perca fluviatilus)] was evaluated with the two protocols (UV- and KMnO4-method). The results but also the thermal optimum of the reaction and the interest of CAT as biomarker in ecotoxicology were discussed.

  19. Unprecedented access of phenolic substrates to the heme active site of a catalase: substrate binding and peroxidase-like reactivity of Bacillus pumilus catalase monitored by X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Loewen, Peter C; Villanueva, Jacylyn; Switala, Jacek; Donald, Lynda J; Ivancich, Anabella

    2015-05-01

    Heme-containing catalases and catalase-peroxidases catalyze the dismutation of hydrogen peroxide as their predominant catalytic activity, but in addition, individual enzymes support low levels of peroxidase and oxidase activities, produce superoxide, and activate isoniazid as an antitubercular drug. The recent report of a heme enzyme with catalase, peroxidase and penicillin oxidase activities in Bacillus pumilus and its categorization as an unusual catalase-peroxidase led us to investigate the enzyme for comparison with other catalase-peroxidases, catalases, and peroxidases. Characterization revealed a typical homotetrameric catalase with one pentacoordinated heme b per subunit (Tyr340 being the axial ligand), albeit in two orientations, and a very fast catalatic turnover rate (kcat  = 339,000 s(-1) ). In addition, the enzyme supported a much slower (kcat  = 20 s(-1) ) peroxidatic activity utilizing substrates as diverse as ABTS and polyphenols, but no oxidase activity. Two binding sites, one in the main access channel and the other on the protein surface, accommodating pyrogallol, catechol, resorcinol, guaiacol, hydroquinone, and 2-chlorophenol were identified in crystal structures at 1.65-1.95 Å. A third site, in the heme distal side, accommodating only pyrogallol and catechol, interacting with the heme iron and the catalytic His and Arg residues, was also identified. This site was confirmed in solution by EPR spectroscopy characterization, which also showed that the phenolic oxygen was not directly coordinated to the heme iron (no low-spin conversion of the Fe(III) high-spin EPR signal upon substrate binding). This is the first demonstration of phenolic substrates directly accessing the heme distal side of a catalase.

  20. Erythrocyte Catalase Activity in More Frequent Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia: Beta-Thalassemia Trait and Iron Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Lazarte, Sandra Stella; Mónaco, María Eugenia; Jimenez, Cecilia Laura; Ledesma Achem, Miryam Emilse; Terán, Magdalena María; Issé, Blanca Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Most common microcytic hypochromic anemias are iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and β-thalassemia trait (BTT), in which oxidative stress (OxS) has an essential role. Catalase causes detoxification of H2O2 in cells, and it is an indispensable antioxidant enzyme. The study was designed to measure erythrocyte catalase activity (ECAT) in patients with IDA (10) or BTT (21), to relate it with thalassemia mutation type (β0 or β+) and to compare it with normal subjects (67). Ninety-eight individuals were analyzed since September 2013 to June 2014 in Tucumán, Argentina. Total blood count, hemoglobin electrophoresis at alkaline pH, HbA2, catalase, and iron status were performed. β-thalassemic mutations were determined by real-time PCR. Normal range for ECAT was 70,0–130,0 MU/L. ECAT was increased in 14% (3/21) of BTT subjects and decreased in 40% (4/10) of those with IDA. No significant difference (p = 0,245) was shown between normal and BTT groups, while between IDA and normal groups the difference was proved to be significant (p = 0,000). In β0 and β+ groups, no significant difference (p = 0,359) was observed. An altered ECAT was detected in IDA and BTT. These results will help to clarify how the catalase activity works in these anemia types. PMID:26527217

  1. Further studies on O sub 2 -resistant photosynthesis and photorespiration in a tobacco mutant with enhanced catalase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zelitch, I. )

    1990-02-01

    The increase in net photosynthesis in M{sub 4} progeny of an O{sub 2}-resistant tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) mutant relative to wild-type plants at 21 and 42% O{sub 2} has been confirmed and further investigated. Self-pollination of an M{sub 3} mutant produced M{sub 4} progeny segregating high catalase phenotypes (average 40% greater than wild type) at a frequency of about 60%. The high catalase phenotype cosegregated precisely with O{sub 2}-resistant photosynthesis. About 25% of the F{sub 1} progeny of reciprocal crosses between the same M{sub 3} mutant and wild type had high catalase activity, whether the mutant was used as the maternal or paternal parent, indicating nuclear inheritance. In high-catalase mutants the activity of NADH-hydroxypyruvate reductase, another peroxisomal enzyme, was the same as wild type. The mutants released 15% less photorespiratory CO{sub 2} as a percent of net photosynthesis in CO{sub 2}-free 21% O{sub 2} and 36% less in CO{sub 2}-free 42% O{sub 2} compared with wild type. The mutant leaf tissue also released less {sup 14}CO{sub 2} per (1-{sup 14}C)glycolate metabolized than wild type in normal air, consistent with less photorespiration in the mutant. The O{sub 2}-resistant photosynthesis appears to be caused by a decrease in photorespiration especially under conditions of high O{sub 2} where the stoichiometry of CO{sub 2} release per glycolate metabolized is expected to be enhanced. The higher catalase activity in the mutant may decrease the nonenzymatic peroxidation of keto-acids such as hydroxypyruvate and glyoxylate by photorespiratory H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  2. [Effects of catalase activators and inhibitors on ethanol pharmacokinetic characteristics and ethanol and aldehyde-metabolizing enzyme activities in the rat liver and brain].

    PubMed

    Bardina, L R; Pron'ko, P S; Satanovskaia, V I; Alieva, E V

    2010-01-01

    The effects of catalase regulators (aminotriazole, lead acetate, taurine, di-2-ethylhexylphthalate) on the preference for ethanol, its pharmacokinetics, and activities of rat liver and brain ethanol and acetaldehyde-metabolizing enzymes were studied. Lead acetate (100 mg/kg, i.p., 7 days), aminotriazole (1 g/kg, i.p., 7 days), and taurine (650 mg/kg, i.g., 14 days) decreased ethanol consumption under conditions of free choice (10% ethanol water), whereas di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (300 mg/kg, i.g., 7 days) did not exert any effect on this parameter. Taurine, lead acetate and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate significantly activated liver ADH, MEOS and catalase peroxidase activity. Aminotriazole also activated ADH and MEOS, but inhibited liver catalase. The activities of liver and brain A1DH as well as catalase were insignificantly changed by this treatment. The 7-day administration of lead acetate, di-2-ethylhexylphthalate and aminotriazole administrations significantly influenced the ethanol (2 g/kg., i.p.) pharmacokinetic parameters: the area under the pharmacokinetic curve and the elimination half-life time were significantly reduced, whereas the elimination constant and clearance were increased. This unequivocally indicates accelerated ethanol elimination. The 14-day ingestion of taurine insignificantly changed the parameters of ethanol pharmacokinetics in rats.

  3. Hydrogen peroxide cytotoxicity under conditions of normal or reduced catalase activity in H2O2-sensitive and -resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell variants.

    PubMed

    Cantoni, O; Guidarelli, A; Sestili, P; Mannello, F; Gazzanelli, G; Cattabeni, F

    1994-09-01

    H2O2-sensitive and -resistant sublines of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were tested for their sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effect elicited by increasing concentrations of the oxidant under conditions of normal or reduced catalase activity. Experimental results have demonstrated that, under conditions of reduced catalase activity, the cytotoxic action of H2O2 was differentially regulated in resistant and sensitive cells. Indeed, the parental cell line and cells resistant to low concentrations of H2O2 (V 250 cells) depended on catalase to a lower extent than did highly resistant cells (V 850 cells). It is interesting to note that V 250 cells had more catalase, on a per million cell basis, than V 850 cells. We conclude that acquired resistance to oxidative stress is not entirely dependent on catalase and that the contribution of catalase depends on the degree of resistance to the oxidant.

  4. Mechanism of pH-switchable peroxidase and catalase-like activities of gold, silver, platinum and palladium.

    PubMed

    Li, Junnan; Liu, Wenqi; Wu, Xiaochun; Gao, Xingfa

    2015-04-01

    Despite being increasingly used as artificial enzymes, little has been known for the origin of the pH-switchable peroxidase-like and catalase-like activities of metals. Using calculations and experiments, we report the mechanisms for both activities and their pH-switchability for metals Au, Ag, Pd and Pt. The calculations suggest that both activities are intrinsic properties of metals, regardless of the surfaces and intersections of facets exposed to environments. The pre-adsorbed OH groups on the surfaces, which are only favorably formed in basic conditions, trigger the switch between both activities and render the pH-switchability. The adsorption energies between H2O2 and metals can be used as convenient descriptors to predict the relative enzyme-like activities of the metals with similar surface morphologies. The results agree with the enzyme-mimic activities that have been experimentally reported for Au, Ag, Pt and predict that Pd should have the similar properties. The prediction, as well as the predicted activity order for the four metals, has been verified by the experimental tests. The results thus provide an in-depth insight into the peroxidase-like and catalase-like activities of the metals and will guide the de novo design, synthesis and application of artificial enzymes based on inorganic materials.

  5. Growth, toxin production, active oxygen species and catalase activity of Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyceae) exposed to temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Giannuzzi, Leda; Krock, Bernd; Minaglia, Melina Celeste Crettaz; Rosso, Lorena; Houghton, Christian; Sedan, Daniela; Malanga, Gabriela; Espinosa, Mariela; Andrinolo, Darío; Hernando, Marcelo

    2016-11-01

    Microcystis are known for their potential ability to synthesize toxins, mainly microcystins (MCs). In order to evaluate the effects of temperature on chlorophyll a (Chl a), growth, physiological responses and toxin production of a native Microcystis aeruginosa, we exposed the cells to low (23°C) and high (29°C) temperature in addition to a 26°C control treatment. Exponential growth rate was significantly higher at 29°C compared to 23°C and control, reaching 0.43, 0.32 and 0.33day(-)(1) respectively. In addition, there was a delay of the start of exponential growth at 23°C. However, the intracellular concentration of Chl a decreased significantly due to temperature change. A significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed in coincidence with the activation of enzymatic antioxidant catalase (CAT) during the first two days of exposure to 23° and 29°C in comparison to the control experiment, decreasing thereafter to nearly initial values. Five MCs were determined by LC-MS/MS analysis. In the experiments, the highest MC concentration, 205fg [Leu(1)] MC-LR.cell(-1) expressed as MC-LR equivalent was measured in the beginning of the experiment and subsequently declined to 160fg.cell(-1) on day 2 and 70fg.cell(-1) on day 4 in cells exposed to 29°C. The same trend was observed for all other MCs except for the least abundant MC-LR which showed a continuous increase during exposure time. Our results suggest a high ability of M. aeruginosa to perceive ROS and to rapidly initiate antioxidant defenses with a differential response on MC production.

  6. Characterizing dose-responses of catalase to nitrofurazone exposure in model ciliated protozoan Euplotes vannus for ecotoxicity assessment: enzyme activity and mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiqiu; Zhou, Liang; Lin, Xiaofeng; Yi, Zhenzhen; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S

    2014-02-01

    In environmental studies, some biological responses, known as biomarkers, have been used as a powerful bioassay tool for more than four decades. Disparity between enzyme activity and mRNA abundance leads to correlation equivocality, which makes the application of biomarkers for environmental risk assessment more complicated. This study investigates this disparity in the case of catalase when used as a biomarker for detecting ecotoxicity induced by antibiotics in aquatic ecosystems. In particular, dose-responses for catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance were investigated in Euplotes vannus which were exposed to graded doses of nitrofurazone for several discrete durations, and dose-response models were developed to characterize the dose-response dynamics. Significant differences were found in both catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance among the E. vannus treated with nitrofurazone. Catalase activity showed a hormetic-like effect in terms of dose-response, characterized by a biphasic relationship which was more clearly evident after a longer exposure period, while mRNA expression abundance increased linearly with the exposure duration. Additionally, the correlation between catalase activity and mRNA expression abundance reversed along with the duration of exposure to nitrofurazone. Taken together, our results demonstrate that catalase mRNA expression offers a more straightforward dose-response model than enzyme activity. Our findings suggest that both catalase enzyme activity and mRNA expression abundance can be used jointly as bioassay tools for detecting ecotoxicity induced by nitrofurazone in aquatic ecosystems.

  7. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment.

  8. Peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) is a dual function enzyme by possessing Cys-independent catalase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cen-Cen; Dong, Wei-Ren; Shao, Tong; Li, Jiang-Yuan; Zhao, Jing; Nie, Li; Xiang, Li-Xin; Zhu, Guan; Shao, Jian-Zhong

    2017-02-20

    Peroxiredoxin (Prx) was previously known as a Cys-dependent thioredoxin. However, we unexpected observed that Prx1 from the green spotted puffer fish Tetraodon nigroviridis (TnPrx1) was able to reduce H2O2 in a manner independent on the Cys peroxidation and reductants. This study aimed to validate the novel function for Prx1, delineate the biochemical features and explore its antioxidant role in cells. We have confirmed that Prx1 from the puffer fish and humans truly possesses a catalase-like activity that is independent of Cys residues and reductants, but dependent on iron. We have identified that the GVL motif was essential to the catalase-like (CAT) activity of Prx1, but not to the Cys-dependent thioredoxin peroxidase (POX) activity, and generated mutants lacking POX and/or CAT activities for individual functional validation. We discovered that the TnPrx1 POX and CAT activities possessed different kinetic features in reducing H2O2 The overexpression of wild-type TnPrx1 and mutants differentially regulated the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of p38 in HEK-293T cells treated with H2O2 Prx1 is a dual function enzyme by acting as POX and CAT with varied affinities towards ROS. This study extends our knowledge on Prx1 and provides new opportunities to further study the biological roles of this family of antioxidants.

  9. The effect of catalase on migration and invasion of lung cancer cells by regulating the activities of cathepsin S, L, and K.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ju-Ying; Lee, Mon-Juan; Dah-Tsyr Chang, Margaret; Huang, Haimei

    2014-04-15

    Abundant clinical evidences indicate that up-regulation of several cathepsins in many human cancers is correlated with malignant progression and poor patient prognosis. In addition, a decrease in catalase activity or accumulation of hydrogen peroxide correlates with cancer metastasis. Recent studies indicate that cathepsin activation and expression can be modulated via H2O2 treatment. However, the actual relationship between catalase and cathepsins is not yet fully understood. In the present study, we found that catalase expression (or activity) was higher, while intracellular and extracellular Cat S, Cat L, and Cat K activities were lower in the non-invasive CL1-0 cells compared to the highly invasive CL1-5 cells. After CL1-0 cells were transfected with catalase-shRNA, the corresponding ROS (H2O2) level and Cat S, Cat L, or Cat K expression (or activity) was up-regulated, accompanied by an increase in cell migration and invasion. On the other hand, ROS (H2O2) level, cathepsin S, L, and K activities, cell migration and invasion were decreased in catalase-overexpressed CL1-5 cells. It is suggested that catalase may regulate cathepsin activity by controlling the production of ROS (H2O2), leading to variation in migration and invasion ability of lung cancer cells.

  10. Effect of compatible and noncompatible osmolytes on the enzymatic activity and thermal stability of bovine liver catalase.

    PubMed

    Sepasi Tehrani, H; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A; Ghourchian, H; Ahmad, F; Kiany, A; Atri, M S; Ariaeenejad, Sh; Kavousi, K; Saboury, A A

    2013-12-01

    Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the disproportionation of H2O2 into harmless water and molecular oxygen. Due to various applications of the enzyme in different sectors of industry as well as medicine, the enhancement of stability of the enzyme is important. Effect of various classes of compatible as well as noncompatible osmolytes on the enzymatic activity, disaggregation, and thermal stability of bovine liver catalase have been investigated. Compatible osmolytes, proline, xylitol, and valine destabilize the denatured form of the enzyme and, therefore, increase its disaggregation and thermal stability. The increase in the thermal stability is accompanied with a slight increase of activity in comparison to the native enzyme at 25 °C. On the other hand, histidine, a noncompatible osmolyte stabilizes the denatured form of the protein and hence causes an overall decrease in the thermal stability and enzymatic activity of the enzyme. Chemometric results have confirmed the experimental results and have provided insight into the distribution and number of mole fraction components for the intermediates. The increase in melting temperature (Tm) and enzymatic rate could be further amplified by the intrinsic effect of temperature enhancement on the enzymatic activity for the industrial purposes.

  11. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase are equally active in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide in human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Gaetani, G.F.; Galiano, S.; Canepa, L.; Ferraris, A.M.; Kirkman, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Genetic deficiencies of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and NADPH predispose affected erythrocytes to destruction from peroxides. Conversely, genetic deficiencies of catalase do not predispose affected erythrocytes to peroxide-induced destruction. These observations have served to strengthen the assumption that the NADPH/glutathione/glutathione peroxidase pathway is the principal means for disposal of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in human erythrocytes. Recently, however, mammalian catalase was found to have tightly bound NADPH and to require NADPH for the prevention and reversal of inactivation by its toxic substrate (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/). Since both catalase and the glutathione pathway are dependent on NADPH for function, this finding raises the possibility that both mechanisms destroy H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ in human erythrocytes. A comparison of normal and acatalasemic erythrocytes in the present study indicated that catalase accounts for more than half of the destruction of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ when H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is generated at a rate comparable to that which leads to hemolysis in G6PD- deficient erythrocytes.

  12. Do Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) protect Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Active Arsenicals?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which can be converted to water and oxygen through the action of catalase. Heterozygous mice of strain B6: 129S7-SodltmlLeb/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspr...

  13. Molecular mechanism of catalase activity change under sodium dodecyl sulfate-induced oxidative stress in the mouse primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jiaxi; Xu, Chi; Liu, Rutao; Chen, Yadong

    2016-04-15

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) contributes to adverse effects of organisms probably because of its ability to induce oxidative stress via changing the activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). But the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. This study characterized the harmful effects of SDS-induced oxidative stress on the mouse primary hepatocytes as well as the structure and function of CAT molecule and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism. After 12h SDS (0.1μM to 0.2mM) exposure, no significant change was observed in CAT activity of the hepatocytes. After 0.5 and 0.8mM SDS exposure, the state of oxidative stress stimulated CAT production in the hepatocytes. The inhibition of CAT activity induced by directly interacting with SDS was unable to catch the synthesis of CAT and therefore resulted in the increased activity and elevated ROS level. Further molecular experiments showed that SDS prefers to bind to the interface with no direct effect on the active site and the structure of heme groups of CAT molecule. When the sites in the interface is saturated, SDS interacts with VAL 73, HIS 74, ASN 147 and PHE 152, the key residues of the enzyme activity, and leads to the decrease of CAT activity.

  14. Accumulation of selenium and changes in the activity of inulinase and catalase in the cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus on pulsed electric field treatment.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz, Urszula; Jamroz, Jerzy

    2010-07-01

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) of 1Hz, 1.5 kV, and 1 ms increased the activities of catalase and inulinase over the whole range of applied Se concentrations compared with the non-treated cultures. A significant effect of selenium concentration (in the range of 5-14 microg/ml) on both intra- and extracellular enzyme activities was noted. At a Se concentration of 10 microg/ml, the activities of intra- and extracellular inulinases and extracellular catalase in the PEF-treated cultures reached the maximum of 71 U/g d.m., 46 U/g d.m., and approx. 8 U/ml, respectively. The maximum activity of intracellular catalase of approx. 6 U/ ml (with and without PEF) was recorded at 5 microg Se/ml. Further increasing of selenium concentration caused a decrease in the activity of the enzymes.

  15. Catalase activity is stimulated by H(2)O(2) in rich culture medium and is required for H(2)O(2) resistance and adaptation in yeast.

    PubMed

    Martins, Dorival; English, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    Catalases are efficient scavengers of H2O2 and protect cells against H2O2 stress. Examination of the H2O2 stimulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed that the cytosolic catalase T (Ctt1) protein level increases 15-fold on H2O2 challenge in synthetic complete media although previous work revealed that deletion of the CCT1 or CTA1 genes (encoding peroxisomal/mitochondrial catalase A) does not increase the H2O2 sensitivity of yeast challenged in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). This we attributed to our observation that catalase activity is depressed when yeast are challenged with H2O2 in nutrient-poor media. Hence, we performed a systematic comparison of catalase activity and cell viability of wild-type yeast and of the single catalase knockouts, ctt1∆ and cta1∆, following H2O2 challenge in nutrient-rich medium (YPD) and in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4). Ctt1 but not Cta1 activity is strongly induced by H2O2 when cells are challenged in YPD but suppressed when cells are challenged in buffer. Consistent with the activity results, exponentially growing ctt1∆ cells in YPD are more sensitive to H2O2 than wild-type or cta1∆ cells, whereas in buffer all three strains exhibit comparable H2O2 hypersensitivity. Furthermore, catalase activity is increased during adaptation to sublethal H2O2 concentrations in YPD but not in buffer. We conclude that induction of cytosolic Ctt1 activity is vital in protecting yeast against exogenous H2O2 but this activity is inhibited by H2O2 when cells are challenged in nutrient-free media.

  16. Changes in the Activity of Some Hydrolases, Peroxidase, and Catalase in the Rice Seed during Germination 1

    PubMed Central

    Palmiano, Evelyn P.; Juliano, Bienvenido O.

    1973-01-01

    A study was made of the changes in activity of enzymes involved in the breakdown of stored phytin, lipid, and hemicellulose in the aleurone layer of rice seed (Oryza sativa L., variety IR8) during the 1st week of germination in the light. Enzyme assays were made on crude extracts from degermed seed, and activities were expressed on a per seed basis. Phytase activity increased within the 1st day of germination. The increase in activity of most other enzymes—phosphomonoesterase, phosphodiesterase, esterase, lipase, peroxidase, catalase, β-glucosidase, and α- and β-galactosidase—closely followed the increase in protein content. Their peak activities occurred by the 5th to the 7th day. Some enzymes, such as β-1, 3-glucanase and α-amylase, continued to increase in activity after the 7th day. Phytase, β-1, 3-glucanase, and α-amylase followed a similar sequence of production in embryoless seed halves incubated in 0.12 μM gibberellin A3, but the production of lipase was delayed. PMID:16658546

  17. Mechanism of catalase activity in aqueous solutions of dimanganese(III,IV) ethylenediamine-N,N prime -diacetate

    SciTech Connect

    Rush, J.D.; Maskos, Z. )

    1990-03-07

    Manganous ions, ligated by ethylenediamine-N,N{prime}-diacetate (edda = L) decompose hydrogen peroxide with a rate law {minus}d(H{sub 2}O{sub 2})/dt = k{sub 17}(Mn(edda))(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) where k{sub 17} = 5.4 M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1} at pH 7. The reduction of peroxide to water is initiated by the reaction of Mn{sup II}L with a dinuclear Mn{sup III,IV}L{sub 2}. A subsequent fast reaction between the transient product of this reaction and hydrogen peroxide or tert-butyl hydroperoxide effectively oxidizes Mn(II) to Mn(IV) in a concerted step without formation of the hydroxyl radical. The green mixed-valence complex, which is probably a bis({mu}-oxo)-bridged structure, is stable in neutral aqueous solution and exhibits a 16-line ESR signal in frozen solution. The basis of catalase activity is the autocatalytic formation of this complex when hydrogen peroxide is reduced by manganese(II). The catalase cycle is independent of the formation of oxy radicals. Mononuclear Mn{sup III}edda and Mn{sup II}edda react with superoxide radicals, but the decomposition of peroxide is virtually independent of these reactions. In unbuffered solutions, with a moderate excess of hydrogen peroxide, an oscillation in the concentration of the dinuclear complex is detected. 28 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. [Total Peroxidase and Catalase Activity of Luminous Basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in Comparison with the Level of Light Emission].

    PubMed

    Mogil'naya, O A; Ronzhin, N O; Medvedeva, S E; Bondar, V S

    2015-01-01

    The peroxidase and catalase activities in the mycelium of luminous basidiomycetes Armillaria borealis and Neonothopanus nambi in normal conditions and under stress were compared. An increase in the luminescence level was observed under stress, as well as an increase in peroxidase and catalase activities. Moreover, the peroxidase activity in extracts of A. borealis mycelium was found to be almost one and a half orders of magnitude higher, and the catalase activity more than two orders of magnitude higher in comparison with the N. nambi mycelium. It can be suggested that the difference between the brightly luminescent and dimly luminescent mycelium of N. nambi is due to the content of H2O2 or other peroxide compounds.

  19. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase prevents diabetes-induced pathological changes by inhibiting NF-κB signaling activation in the heart.

    PubMed

    Cong, Weitao; Ruan, Dandan; Xuan, Yuanhu; Niu, Chao; Tao, Youli; Wang, Yang; Zhan, Kungao; Cai, Lu; Jin, Litai; Tan, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that specifically catabolizes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Overexpression of catalase via a heart-specific promoter (CAT-TG) was reported to reduce diabetes-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and further prevent diabetes-induced pathological abnormalities, including cardiac structural derangement and left ventricular abnormity in mice. However, the mechanism by which catalase overexpression protects heart function remains unclear. This study found that activation of a ROS-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway was downregulated in hearts of diabetic mice overexpressing catalase. In addition, catalase overexpression inhibited the significant increase in nitration levels of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism, including α-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 component (α-KGD) and ATP synthase α and β subunits (ATP-α and ATP-β). To assess the effects of the NF-κB pathway activation on heart function, Bay11-7082, an inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling pathway, was injected into diabetic mice, protecting mice against the development of cardiac damage and increased nitrative modifications of key enzymes involved in energy metabolism. In conclusion, these findings demonstrated that catalase protects mouse hearts against diabetic cardiomyopathy, partially by suppressing NF-κB-dependent inflammatory responses and associated protein nitration.

  20. Evaluation of Malondialdehyde, Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activity in Fetal Cord Blood of Depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Ebru; Bakacak, Murat; Tolun, Fatma İnanç; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Objective The umbilical cord consists of two arteries and one vein and it functions in the transport between the maternal and fetal circulation. Biochemical analysis of fetal cord blood (FCB) during delivery could be beneficial in terms of understanding the fetal environment. In this study, we aimed to investigate oxidative parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels in FCB during delivery. Methods We collected FCB samples during caesarean section. Our study included 33 depressed mothers and 37 healthy controls. We investigated MDA, SOD, and CAT levels in FCB samples. Results We found no significant difference between groups in terms of MDA (p=0.625), SOD (p=0.940), and CAT (p=0.413) levels. Conclusion Our study reveals probable protective effects of the placenta from oxidative stress. Future studies should include larger samples. PMID:28138108

  1. Francisella tularensis Catalase Restricts Immune Function by Impairing TRPM2 Channel Activity.

    PubMed

    Shakerley, Nicole L; Chandrasekaran, Akshaya; Trebak, Mohamed; Miller, Barbara A; Melendez, J Andrés

    2016-02-19

    As an innate defense mechanism, macrophages produce reactive oxygen species that weaken pathogens and serve as secondary messengers involved in immune function. The Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis utilizes its antioxidant armature to limit the host immune response, but the mechanism behind this suppression is not defined. Here we establish that F. tularensis limits Ca(2+) entry in macrophages, thereby limiting actin reorganization and IL-6 production in a redox-dependent fashion. Wild type (live vaccine strain) or catalase-deficient F. tularensis (ΔkatG) show distinct profiles in their H2O2 scavenging rates, 1 and 0.015 pm/s, respectively. Murine alveolar macrophages infected with ΔkatG display abnormally high basal intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that did not increase further in response to H2O2. Additionally, ΔkatG-infected macrophages displayed limited Ca(2+) influx in response to ionomycin, as a result of ionophore H2O2 sensitivity. Exogenously added H2O2 or H2O2 generated by ΔkatG likely oxidizes ionomycin and alters its ability to transport Ca(2+). Basal increases in cytosolic Ca(2+) and insensitivity to H2O2-mediated Ca(2+) entry in ΔkatG-infected cells are reversed by the Ca(2+) channel inhibitors 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate and SKF-96365. 2-Aminoethyl diphenylborinate but not SKF-96365 abrogated ΔkatG-dependent increases in macrophage actin remodeling and IL-6 secretion, suggesting a role for H2O2-mediated Ca(2+) entry through the transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channel in macrophages. Indeed, increases in basal Ca(2+), actin polymerization, and IL-6 production are reversed in TRPM2-null macrophages infected with ΔkatG. Together, our findings provide compelling evidence that F. tularensis catalase restricts reactive oxygen species to temper macrophage TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and limit host immune function.

  2. Cu(II)-disulfide complexes display simultaneous superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Margarita E; Andrade-Acuña, Daniela; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristián; Speisky, Hernán

    2013-12-01

    Superoxide is a potentially toxic by-product of cellular metabolism. We have addressed here the in vitro ability of complexes formed between copper(II) ions and various biologically-occurring disulfides (RSSR: oxidized glutathione, cystine, homocystine and α-lipoic acid) to react with superoxide. The studied complexes were found to react with superoxide (generated by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system) at rate constants (kCu(II)-RSSR) close to 10(6)M(-1)s(-1), which are three orders of magnitude lower than that reported for superoxide dismutase (SOD) but comparable to that of several other copper-containing complexes reported as SOD mimetics. The interaction between the tested Cu(II)-RSSR and superoxide, led to the generation and recovery of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and oxygen that were, respectively, below and above those theoretically-expected from a sole SOD mimetic action. Interestingly, oxygen was generated when the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes were directly incubated with hydrogen peroxide. Taken together, these results reveal that the Cu(II)-RSSR complexes not only have the capacity to dismutate superoxide but also to simultaneously act like catalase mimetic molecules. When added to superoxide-overproducing mitochondria (condition attained by its exposure to diclofenac), three of the tested complexes were able (2-4μM), not only to totally restore, but also to lower below the basal level the mitochondrial production of superoxide. The present study is first in reporting on the potential of Cu(II)-disulfide complexes to act as SOD and catalase like molecules, suggesting a potential for these types of molecules to act as such under physiological and/or oxidative-stress conditions.

  3. The induction of two biosynthetic enzymes helps Escherichia coli sustain heme synthesis and activate catalase during hydrogen peroxide stress.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Stefano; Imlay, James A

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen peroxide pervades many natural environments, including the phagosomes that mediate cell-based immunity. Transcriptomic analysis showed that during protracted low-grade H(2)O(2) stress, Escherichia coli responds by activating both the OxyR defensive regulon and the Fur iron-starvation response. OxyR induced synthesis of two members of the nine-step heme biosynthetic pathway: ferrochelatase (HemH) and an isozyme of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (HemF). Mutations that blocked either adaptation caused the accumulation of porphyrin intermediates, inadequate activation of heme enzymes, low catalase activity, defective clearance of H(2)O(2) and a failure to grow. Genetic analysis indicated that HemH induction is needed to compensate for iron sequestration by the mini-ferritin Dps. Dps activity protects DNA and proteins by limiting Fenton chemistry, but it interferes with the ability of HemH to acquire the iron that it needs to complete heme synthesis. HemF is a manganoprotein that displaces HemN, an iron-sulfur enzyme whose synthesis and/or stability is apparently problematic during H(2)O(2) stress. Thus, the primary responses to H(2)O(2), including the sequestration of iron, require compensatory adjustments in the mechanisms of iron-cofactor synthesis. The results support the growing evidence that oxidative stress is primarily an iron pathology.

  4. Evaluation of the serum catalase and myeloperoxidase activities in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals and concomitant cytogenetic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Mayukh; Banerjee, Nilanjana; Ghosh, Pritha; Das, Jayanta K.; Basu, Santanu; Sarkar, Ajoy K.; States, J. Christopher; Giri, Ashok K.

    2010-11-15

    Chronic arsenic exposure through contaminated drinking water is a major environmental health issue. Chronic arsenic exposure is known to exert its toxic effects by a variety of mechanisms, of which generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the most important. A high level of ROS, in turn, leads to DNA damage that might ultimately culminate in cancer. In order to keep the level of ROS in balance, an array of enzymes is present, of which catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are important members. Hence, in this study, we determined the activities of these two enzymes in the sera and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in peripheral blood lymphocytes in individuals exposed and unexposed to arsenic in drinking water. Arsenic in drinking water and in urine was used as a measure of exposure. Our results show that individuals chronically exposed to arsenic have significantly higher CAT and MPO activities and higher incidence of CA. We found moderate positive correlations between CAT and MPO activities, induction of CA and arsenic in urine and water. These results indicate that chronic arsenic exposure causes higher CAT and MPO activities in serum that correlates with induction of genetic damage. We conclude that the serum levels of these enzymes might be used as biomarkers of early arsenic exposure induced disease much before the classical dermatological symptoms of arsenicosis begin to appear.

  5. Humic acid effect on catalase activity and the generation of reactive oxygen species in corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Flávio Couto; Santa-Catarina, Claudete; Silveira, Vanildo; de Souza, Sonia Regina

    2011-01-01

    Humic acids (HAs) have positive effects on plant physiology, but the molecular mechanisms underlying these events are only partially understood. The induction of root growth and emission of lateral roots (LRs) promoted by exogenous auxin is a natural phenomenon. Exogenous auxins are also associated with HA. Gas nitric oxide (NO) is a secondary messenger produced endogenously in plants. It is associated with metabolic events dependent on auxin. With the application of auxin, NO production is significantly increased, resulting in positive effects on plant physiology. Thus it is possible to evaluate the beneficial effects of the application of HA as an effect of auxin. To investigate the effects of HA the parameters of root growth, Zea mays was studied by evaluating the application of 3 mM C L⁻¹ of HA extracted from Oxisol and 100 µM SNP (sodium nitroprusside) and the NO donor, subject to two N-NO₃⁻, high dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻) and low dose (5.0 mM N-NO₃⁻). Treatments with HA and NO were positively increased, regardless of the N-NO₃⁻ taken, as assessed by fresh weight and dry root, issue of LRs. The effects were more pronounced in the treatment with a lower dose of N-NO₃⁻. Detection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo and catalase activity were evaluated; these tests were associated with root growth. Under application of the bioactive substances tested, detection of ROS and catalase activity increased, especially in treatments with lower doses of N-NO₃⁻. The results of this experiment indicate that the effects of HA are dependent on ROS generation, which act as a messenger that induces root growth and the emission of LRs.

  6. A natural xanthone increases catalase activity but decreases NF-kappa B and lipid peroxidation in U-937 and HepG2 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Binay K; Zaidi, Adeel H; Gupta, Pankaj; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Raviprakash, Nune; Mahali, Sidhartha K; Manna, Sunil K

    2015-10-05

    Mangiferin, a C-glycosyl xanthone, has shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for the antioxidant property of mangiferin. Considering the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) in inflammation and tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that modulating its activity will be a viable therapeutic target in regulating the redox-sensitive ailments. Our results show that mangiferin blocks several inducers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lypopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mediated NF-κB activation via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. In silico docking studies predicted strong binding energy of mangiferin to the active site of catalase (-9.13 kcal/mol), but not with other oxidases such as myeloperoxidase, glutathione peroxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase. Mangiferin increased activity of catalase by 44%, but had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in vitro. Fluorescence spectroscopy further revealed the binding of mangiferin to catalase at the single site with binding constant and binding affinity of 3.1×10(-7) M(-1) and 1.046 respectively. Mangiferin also inhibits TNF-induced lipid peroxidation and thereby protects apoptosis. Hence, mangiferin with its ability to inhibit NF-κB and increase the catalase activity may prove to be a potent therapeutic.

  7. Engineering of a novel tri-functional enzyme with MnSOD, catalase and cell-permeable activities.

    PubMed

    Luangwattananun, Piriya; Yainoy, Sakda; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Songtawee, Napat; Bülow, Leif; Ayudhya, Chartchalerm Isarankura Na; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-04-01

    Cooperative function of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in protection against oxidative stress, is known to be more effective than the action of either single enzyme. Chemical conjugation of the two enzymes resulted in molecules with higher antioxidant activity and therapeutic efficacy. However, chemical methods holds several drawbacks; e.g., loss of enzymatic activity, low homogeneity, time-consuming, and the need of chemical residues removal. Yet, the conjugated enzymes have never been proven to internalize into target cells. In this study, by employing genetic and protein engineering technologies, we reported designing and production of a bi-functional protein with SOD and CAT activities for the first time. To enable cellular internalization, cell penetrating peptide from HIV-1 Tat (TAT) was incorporated. Co-expression of CAT-MnSOD and MnSOD-TAT fusion genes allowed simultaneous self-assembly of the protein sequences into a large protein complex, which is expected to contained one tetrameric structure of CAT, four tetrameric structures of MnSOD and twelve units of TAT. The protein showed cellular internalization and superior protection against paraquat-induced cell death as compared to either complex bi-functional protein without TAT or to native enzymes fused with TAT. This study not only provided an alternative strategy to produce multifunctional protein complex, but also gained an insight into the development of therapeutic agent against oxidative stress-related conditions.

  8. Metabolic Interference of sod gene mutations on catalase activity in Escherichia coli exposed to Gramoxone® (paraquat) herbicide.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Fernanda; Dobrzanski, Tatiane; Olchanheski, Luiz R; Galvão, Carolina W; Reche, Péricles M; Pileggi, Sonia A; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Sadowsky, Michael J; Pileggi, Marcos

    2017-05-01

    Herbicides are continuously used to minimize the loss of crop productivity in agricultural environments. They can, however, cause damage by inhibiting the growth of microbiota via oxidative stress, due to the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular responses to ROS involve the action of enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The objective of this study was to evaluate adaptive responses in Escherichia coli K-12 to paraquat, the active ingredient in the herbicide Gramoxone®. Mutant bacterial strains carrying deletions in genes encoding Mn-SOD (sodA) and Fe-SOD (sodB) were used and resulted in distinct levels of hydrogen peroxide production, interference in malondialdehyde, and viability. Mutations also resulted in different levels of interference with the activity of CAT isoenzymes and in the inactivation of Cu/Zn-SOD activity. These mutations may be responsible for metabolic differences among the evaluated strains, resulting in different patterns of antioxidative responses, depending on mutation background. While damage to the ΔsodB strain was minor at late log phase, the reverse was true at mid log phase for the ΔsodA strain. These results demonstrate the important role of these genes in defense against oxidative stress in different periods of growth. Furthermore, the lack of Cu/Zn-SOD activity in both mutant strains indicated that common metal cofactors likely interfere in SOD activity regulation. These results also indicate that E. coli K-12, a classical non-environmental strain, constitutes a model of phenotypic plasticity for adaptation to a redox-cycling herbicide through redundancy of different isoforms of SOD and CAT enzymes.

  9. Changes in ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) nodules under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jebara, Salwa; Jebara, Moez; Limam, Férid; Aouani, Mohamed Elarbi

    2005-08-01

    To analyse nodular antioxidant enzyme expression in response to salt stress, Phaseolus vulgaris genotype BAT477 was inoculated with reference strain CIAT899, and treated with 50 mM NaCl. Plant growth, nodulation and nitrogen fixing activity were analysed. Results showed that: (1) all parameters, particularly in nodules, were affected by salt treatments, and (2) confirmed preferential growth allocation to roots. The ARA was significantly decreased by salt treatments. Protein dosage confirmed that nodules were more affected by salt treatment than were roots. We analysed superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and peroxidase in nodules, roots and a free rhizobial strain. Our results indicated that SOD and CAT nodular isozymes had bacterial and root origins. The SOD expressed the same CuZn, Fe and Mn SOD isoforms in nodules and roots, whereas in free rhizobia we found only one Fe and Mn SOD. APX and POX nodule and root profiles had only root origins, as no rhizobial band was detected. Under salt stress, plant growth, nitrogen fixation and activities of antioxidant defense enzymes in nodules were affected. Thus, these enzymes appear to preserve symbiosis from stress turned out that NaCl salinity lead to a differential regulation of distinct SOD and POX isoenzyme. So their levels in nodules appeared to be consistent with a symbiotic nitrogen fixing efficiency hypothesis, and they seem to function as the molecular mechanisms underlying the nodule response to salinity.

  10. Fluctuations in total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and hydrogen peroxide levels of follicular fluid during bovine folliculogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sajal; Choi, Audrey; Yu, Hope Y.; Czerniak, Suzanne M.; Holick, Emily A.; Paolella, Louis J.; Agarwal, Ashok; Combelles, Catherine M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Follicular fluid is an important environment for oocyte development, yet current knowledge regarding its in vivo oxidant and antioxidant levels remains limited. Examining follicular fluid oxidants and antioxidants will improve understanding of their changes in vivo and contribute to optimization of in vitro maturation conditions. The aim of our study was to consider select markers, namely catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in follicular fluid samples (n=503) originating from bovine antral follicles. We measured the dynamic changes in two relevant antioxidant measures and one reactive oxygen species (ROS) through stages of bovine follicular development and the estrous cycle. CAT activity and H2O2 levels decreased significantly as follicle size increased, while TAC increased significantly as follicle size increased. Lower TAC and higher H2O2 in small follicles suggest increased ROS in the initial stages of folliculogenesis. Because CAT levels are highest in follicular fluid of small follicles in the setting of an overall low TAC, CAT may represent a dominant antioxidant defense in the initial stages of folliculogenesis. Future studies must focus on other reactive oxygen species and their various scavenger types during antral folliculogenesis. PMID:21635816

  11. Increased activities of both superoxide dismutase and catalase were indicators of acute depressive episodes in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2016-01-30

    Oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study was to investigate the serum levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and S100B in patients with MDD in an acute phase, and evaluate the changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD), protein carbonyl content (PCC), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), 8-hydroxy 2'-deoxyguanosine after treatment (8-OHdG), catalase (CAT), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and S100B. We consecutively enrolled 21 MDD inpatients in an acute phase and 40 healthy subjects. Serum oxidative stress markers were measured with assay kits. Serum SOD and CAT activities in MDD patients in an acute phase were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects, and serum PCC levels were significantly lower. The HAM-D scores had a significantly positive association with S100B levels. Eighteen depressed patients were followed up, and there was no significant difference among all of the markers after treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that increased activities of both SOD and CAT might be indicators of acute depressive episodes in MDD patients.

  12. Oxidative status, in vitro iron-induced lipid oxidation and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in rhea meat.

    PubMed

    Terevinto, A; Ramos, A; Castroman, G; Cabrera, M C; Saadoun, A

    2010-04-01

    Rhea (Rhea americana) muscles Obturatorius medialis (OM) Iliotibialis lateralis (IL) and Iliofibularis (I), obtained from farmed animals, were evaluated regarding their oxidative/antioxidant status. The mean level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) expressed as malonaldehyde (MDA) content was of 0.84 mg MDA/kg wet tissue for the three muscles. TBARS level was significantly higher in IL than OM and I, with the two latter showing similar levels. The mean level of carbonyl proteins expressed as dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) was 1.59 nmol DNPH mg(-1). Carbonyl protein levels were significantly different (P<0.05) between the three muscles (IL>OM>I). Iron-induced TBARS generation was not significantly different between the three muscles at any time, nor for each muscle during the 5 h of the experiment. Superoxide dismutase activity in IL muscle was significantly higher (P<0.05) than in I muscle. However, the difference between IL and OM muscles was not significant. The differences between the three muscles became not significant when the results were expressed by mg of protein contained in the extract, instead by g of wet tissue. No differences were found for catalase (micromol of discomposed H(2)O(2) min(-1) g(-1) wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) and glutathione peroxidase (micromol ol of oxidized NADPH min(-1) g(-1) of wet tissue or by mg of protein contained in the extract) activities between the three muscles.

  13. Coexpressed Catalase Protects Chimeric Antigen Receptor–Redirected T Cells as well as Bystander Cells from Oxidative Stress–Induced Loss of Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ligtenberg, Maarten A.; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Mukhopadhyay, Madhura; Witt, Kristina; Lladser, Alvaro; Chmielewski, Markus; Riet, Tobias; Abken, Hinrich

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of cancer patients by adoptive T cell therapy has yielded promising results. In solid tumors, however, T cells encounter a hostile environment, in particular with increased inflammatory activity as a hallmark of the tumor milieu that goes along with abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS) that substantially impair antitumor activity. We present a strategy to render antitumor T cells more resilient toward ROS by coexpressing catalase along with a tumor specific chimeric Ag receptor (CAR) to increase their antioxidative capacity by metabolizing H2O2. In fact, T cells engineered with a bicistronic vector that concurrently expresses catalase, along with the CAR coexpressing catalase (CAR-CAT), performed superior over CAR T cells as they showed increased levels of intracellular catalase and had a reduced oxidative state with less ROS accumulation in both the basal state and upon activation while maintaining their antitumor activity despite high H2O2 levels. Moreover, CAR-CAT T cells exerted a substantial bystander protection of nontransfected immune effector cells as measured by CD3ζ chain expression in bystander T cells even in the presence of high H2O2 concentrations. Bystander NK cells, otherwise ROS sensitive, efficiently eliminate their K562 target cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress when admixed with CAR-CAT T cells. This approach represents a novel means for protecting tumor-infiltrating cells from tumor-associated oxidative stress–mediated repression. PMID:26673145

  14. Coexpressed Catalase Protects Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Redirected T Cells as well as Bystander Cells from Oxidative Stress-Induced Loss of Antitumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Ligtenberg, Maarten A; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Mukhopadhyay, Madhura; Witt, Kristina; Lladser, Alvaro; Chmielewski, Markus; Riet, Tobias; Abken, Hinrich; Kiessling, Rolf

    2016-01-15

    Treatment of cancer patients by adoptive T cell therapy has yielded promising results. In solid tumors, however, T cells encounter a hostile environment, in particular with increased inflammatory activity as a hallmark of the tumor milieu that goes along with abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS) that substantially impair antitumor activity. We present a strategy to render antitumor T cells more resilient toward ROS by coexpressing catalase along with a tumor specific chimeric Ag receptor (CAR) to increase their antioxidative capacity by metabolizing H2O2. In fact, T cells engineered with a bicistronic vector that concurrently expresses catalase, along with the CAR coexpressing catalase (CAR-CAT), performed superior over CAR T cells as they showed increased levels of intracellular catalase and had a reduced oxidative state with less ROS accumulation in both the basal state and upon activation while maintaining their antitumor activity despite high H2O2 levels. Moreover, CAR-CAT T cells exerted a substantial bystander protection of nontransfected immune effector cells as measured by CD3ζ chain expression in bystander T cells even in the presence of high H2O2 concentrations. Bystander NK cells, otherwise ROS sensitive, efficiently eliminate their K562 target cells under H2O2-induced oxidative stress when admixed with CAR-CAT T cells. This approach represents a novel means for protecting tumor-infiltrating cells from tumor-associated oxidative stress-mediated repression.

  15. Dysregulation of catalase activity in newborn myocytes during hypoxia is mediated by c-Abl tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Cabigas, E Bernadette; Liu, Jie; Boopathy, Archana V; Che, Pao Lin; Crawford, Brian H; Baroi, Gitangali; Bhutani, Srishti; Shen, Ming; Wagner, Mary B; Davis, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    In the adult heart, catalase (CAT) activity increases appropriately with increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide, conferring cardioprotection. This mechanism is absent in the newborn for unknown reasons. In the present study, we examined how the posttranslational modification of CAT contributes to its activation during hypoxia/ischemia and the role of c-Abl tyrosine kinase in this process. Hypoxia studies were carried out using primary cardiomyocytes from adult (>8 weeks) and newborn rats. Following hypoxia, the ratio of phosphorylated to total CAT and c-Abl in isolated newborn rat myocytes did not increase and were significantly lower (1.3- and 4.2-fold, respectively; P < .05) than their adult counterparts. Similarly, there was a significant association (P < .0005) between c-Abl and CAT in adult cells following hypoxia (30.9 ± 8.2 to 70.7 ± 13.1 au) that was absent in newborn myocytes. Although ubiquitination of CAT was higher in newborns compared to adults following hypoxia, inhibition of this did not improve CAT activity. When a c-Abl activator (5-(1,3-diaryl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydantoin [DPH], 200 µmol/L) was administered prior to hypoxia, not only CAT activity was significantly increased (P < .05) but also phosphorylation levels were also significantly improved (P < .01) in these newborn myocytes. Additionally, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) studies were performed using newborn (4-5 days) rabbit hearts perfused in a Langendorff method. The DPH given as an intracardiac injection into the right ventricle of newborn rabbit resulted in a significant improvement (P < .002) in the recovery of developed pressure after IR, a key indicator of cardiac function (from 74.6% ± 6.6% to 118.7% ± 10.9%). In addition, CAT activity was increased 3.92-fold (P < .02) in the same DPH-treated hearts. Addition of DPH to adult rabbits in contrast had no significant effect (from 71.3% ± 10.7% to 59.4% ± 12.1%). Therefore, in the newborn, decreased phosphorylation of CAT by c

  16. Thermus thermophilus as a Cell Factory for the Production of a Thermophilic Mn-Dependent Catalase Which Fails To Be Synthesized in an Active Form in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Aurelio; Betancor, Lorena; Moreno, Renata; Zafra, Olga; Cava, Felipe; Fernández-Lafuente, Roberto; Guisán, José M.; Berenguer, José

    2004-01-01

    Thermostable Mn-dependent catalases are promising enzymes in biotechnological applications as H2O2-detoxifying systems. We cloned the genes encoding Mn-dependent catalases from Thermus thermophilus HB27 and HB8 and a less thermostable mutant carrying two amino acid replacements (M129V and E293G). When the wild-type and mutant genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, unmodified or six-His-tagged proteins of the expected size were overproduced as inactive proteins. Several attempts to obtain active forms or to activate the overproduced proteins were unsuccessful, even when soluble and thermostable proteins were used. Therefore, a requirement for a Thermus-specific activation factor was suggested. To overcome this problem, the Mn-dependent catalase genes were overexpressed directly in T. thermophilus under the control of the Pnar promoter. This promoter belongs to a respiratory nitrate reductase from of T. thermophilus HB8, whose transcription is activated by the combined action of nitrate and anoxia. Upon induction in T. thermophilus HB8, a 20- to 30-fold increase in catalase specific activity was observed, whereas a 90- to 110-fold increase was detected when the laboratory strain T. thermophilus HB27::nar was used as the host. The thermostability of the overproduced wild-type catalase was identical to that previously reported for the native enzyme, whereas decreased stability was detected for the mutant derivative. Therefore, our results validate the use of T. thermophilus as an alternative cell factory for the overproduction of thermophilic proteins that fail to be expressed in well-known mesophilic hosts. PMID:15240253

  17. The effect of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and nitrite/nitrate levels, and on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in kainic acid-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Akcay, Yasemin Delen; Yalcin, Ayfer; Sozmen, Eser Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) initiates neuronal injury and death by inducing oxidative stress and nitric oxide release from various regions of the brain. It was recently shown that melatonin has free radical-scavenging action and may protect against kainate-induced toxicity. In order to assess the possible supportive effect of melatonin treatment in KA-induced injury in the rat brain cortex, we determined malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as an index of lipid peroxidation, and assessed the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the levels of nitrite/nitrate 35 male rats were divided into five groups, each receiving a different intraperitoneal treatment: saline solution (0.2 ml), kainic acid (15 mg/kg), melatonin (20 mg/kg), KA then melatonin (each as above, 15 min apart), or melatonin then KA (each as above, 30 min apart). Administration of KA caused an about five-fold increase in the catalase activity and an increase in the SOD activity in the cortex relative to the activities for the controls. Treatment with melatonin 15 min after KA injection kept malondialdehyde levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities at the normal levels, and led to an increase in the levels of nitrite/nitrate. Our data suggests that melatonin treatment following KA administration has a protective effect on antioxidant enzyme activities and thus supports the role of melatonin and oxidative stress in the regulation of antioxidative enzyme activity.

  18. Kinetin increases chromium absorption, modulates its distribution, and changes the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase in Mexican Palo Verde

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Lopez-Moreno, Martha L.; Ren, Minghua; Saupe, Geoffrey; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    This report shows, for the first time, the effectiveness of the phytohormone kinetin (KN) in increasing Cr translocation from roots to stems in Mexican Palo Verde. Fifteen-day-old seedlings, germinated in soil spiked with Cr(III) and (VI) at 60 and 10 mg kg−1, respectively, were watered every other day for 30 days with a KN solution at 250 μM. Samples were analyzed for catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APOX) activities, Cr concentration, and Cr distribution in tissues. Results showed that KN reduced CAT but increased APOX in the roots of Cr(VI)-treated plants. In the leaves, KN reduced both CAT and APOX in Cr(III) but not in Cr(VI)-treated plants. However, KN increased total Cr concentration in roots, stems, and leaves by 45%, 103%, and 72%, respectively, compared to Cr(III) alone. For Cr(VI), KN increased Cr concentrations in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively, by 53%, 129%, and 168%, compared to Cr(VI) alone. The electron probe microanalyzer results showed that Cr was mainly located at the cortex section in the root, and Cr distribution was essentially homogenous in stems. However, proven through X-ray images, Cr(VI)-treated roots and stems had more Cr accumulation than Cr(III) counterparts. KN increased the Cr translocation from roots to stems. PMID:21174467

  19. Contribution of the activated catalase to oxidative stress resistance and γ-aminobutyric acid production in Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Changjiang; Hu, Sheng; Huang, Jun; Luo, Maiqi; Lu, Tao; Mei, Lehe; Yao, Shanjing

    2016-12-05

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H2O2, a compound which can paradoxically produce themselves and lead to the growth arrest and cell death. To counteract the potentially toxic effects of this compound, the gene katE encoding a heme-dependent catalase (CAT) belonging to the family of monofunctional CATs was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC1306. The enhanced homologous CAT expression was achieved using the NICE system. L. brevis cells with overexpressed CAT showed 685-fold and 823-fold higher survival when exposed to 30mmol/L of H2O2 and long-term aerated stress (after 72h), respectively, than that of the wild type cells. Furtherly, the effects of activated CAT on GABA production in L. brevis were investigated. A GABA production level of 66.4g/L was achieved using two-step biotransformation that successively employed the growing and resting cells derived from engineering L. brevis CAT. These results demonstrated clearly that overexpression of the KatE gene in L. brevis led to a marked increased survival in oxidizing environment, and shed light on a novel feasible approach to enhance the GABA production level by improving the antioxidative properties.

  20. Manganese(II) induces cell division and increases in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in an aging deinococcal culture

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, F.I.; Tan, S.T. )

    1990-04-01

    Addition of Mn(II) at 2.5 microM or higher to stationary-phase cultures of Deinococcus radiodurans IR was found to trigger at least three rounds of cell division. This Mn(II)-induced cell division (Mn-CD) did not occur when the culture was in the exponential or death phase. The Mn-CD effect produced daughter cells proportionally reduced in size, pigmentation, and radioresistance but proportionally increased in activity and amount of the oxygen toxicity defense enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase. In addition, the concentration of an Mn-CD-induced protein was found to remain high throughout the entire Mn-CD phase. It was also found that an untreated culture exhibited a growth curve characterized by a very rapid exponential-stationary transition and that cells which had just reached the early stationary phase were synchronous. Our results suggest the presence of an Mn(II)-sensitive mechanism for controlling cell division. The Mn-CD effect appears to be specific to the cation Mn(II) and the radioresistant bacteria, deinococci.

  1. Ascorbate Peroxidase and Catalase Activities and Their Genetic Regulation in Plants Subjected to Drought and Salinity Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Nuzzaci, Maria; Vitti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important relatively stable non-radical reactive oxygen species (ROS) is produced by normal aerobic metabolism in plants. At low concentrations, H2O2 acts as a signal molecule involved in the regulation of specific biological/physiological processes (photosynthetic functions, cell cycle, growth and development, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses). Oxidative stress and eventual cell death in plants can be caused by excess H2O2 accumulation. Since stress factors provoke enhanced production of H2O2 in plants, severe damage to biomolecules can be possible due to elevated and non-metabolized cellular H2O2. Plants are endowed with H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidases (APX), some peroxiredoxins, glutathione/thioredoxin peroxidases, and glutathione sulfo-transferases. However, the most notably distinguished enzymes are CAT and APX since the former mainly occurs in peroxisomes and does not require a reductant for catalyzing a dismutation reaction. In particular, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and reduces it to H2O in chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as in the apoplastic space, utilizing ascorbate as specific electron donor. Based on recent reports, this review highlights the role of H2O2 in plants experiencing water deficit and salinity and synthesizes major outcomes of studies on CAT and APX activity and genetic regulation in drought- and salt-stressed plants. PMID:26075872

  2. Ascorbate Peroxidase and Catalase Activities and Their Genetic Regulation in Plants Subjected to Drought and Salinity Stresses.

    PubMed

    Sofo, Adriano; Scopa, Antonio; Nuzzaci, Maria; Vitti, Antonella

    2015-06-12

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an important relatively stable non-radical reactive oxygen species (ROS) is produced by normal aerobic metabolism in plants. At low concentrations, H2O2 acts as a signal molecule involved in the regulation of specific biological/physiological processes (photosynthetic functions, cell cycle, growth and development, plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses). Oxidative stress and eventual cell death in plants can be caused by excess H2O2 accumulation. Since stress factors provoke enhanced production of H2O2 in plants, severe damage to biomolecules can be possible due to elevated and non-metabolized cellular H2O2. Plants are endowed with H2O2-metabolizing enzymes such as catalases (CAT), ascorbate peroxidases (APX), some peroxiredoxins, glutathione/thioredoxin peroxidases, and glutathione sulfo-transferases. However, the most notably distinguished enzymes are CAT and APX since the former mainly occurs in peroxisomes and does not require a reductant for catalyzing a dismutation reaction. In particular, APX has a higher affinity for H2O2 and reduces it to H2O in chloroplasts, cytosol, mitochondria and peroxisomes, as well as in the apoplastic space, utilizing ascorbate as specific electron donor. Based on recent reports, this review highlights the role of H2O2 in plants experiencing water deficit and salinity and synthesizes major outcomes of studies on CAT and APX activity and genetic regulation in drought- and salt-stressed plants.

  3. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogues increase catalase at the mRNA, protein and activity level in a canine transitional carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Middleton, R P; Nelson, R; Li, Q; Blanton, A; Labuda, J A; Vitt, J; Inpanbutr, N

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase, superoxide dismutases (SOD), MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD, protect cells by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Numerous studies have reported the anti-cancer effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and its related analogues, seocalcitol and analogue V. In this study, canine bladder transitional cell carcinoma (cbTCC) cells were used to determine effects of calcitriol and its related analogues on antioxidant enzyme gene expression, protein expression and activity. Catalase mRNA was increased in response to calcitriol (10(-7) M), and seocalcitol (10(-7) and 10(-9) M). MnSOD mRNA was decreased in response to calcitriol at 10(-7) M. Catalase was significantly increased in response to calcitriol (10(-7) and 10(-9) M), and seocalcitol (10(-9) M). Catalase enzymatic activity increased in response to calcitriol, seocalcitol and analogue V (10(-9) M). In addition, global gene expression analysis identified the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in cbTCC's response to calcitriol and seocalcitol treatment.

  4. CatB is Critical for Total Catalase Activity and Reduces Bactericidal Effects of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid on Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiayan; Wu, Jian; Xu, Shu; Duan, Yabing; Zhou, Mingguo

    2017-02-01

    Rice bacterial leaf blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, and rice bacterial leaf streak, caused by X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, are major diseases of rice. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) is a natural product that is isolated from Pseudomonas spp. and is used to control many important rice diseases in China. We previously reported that PCA disturbs the redox balance, which results in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in X. oryzae pv. oryzae. In this study, we found that PCA significantly upregulated the transcript levels of catB and katE, which encode catalases, and that PCA sensitivity was reduced when X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola were cultured with exogenous catalase. Furthermore, catB deletion mutants of X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola showed dramatically decreased total catalase activity, increased sensitivity to PCA, and reduced virulence in rice. In contrast, deletion mutants of srpA and katG, which also encode catalases, exhibited little change in PCA sensitivity. The results indicate that catB in both X. oryzae pvs. oryzae and oryzicola encodes a catalase that helps protect the bacteria against PCA-induced stress.

  5. The role played by acid and basic centers in the activity of biomimetic catalysts of the catalase, peroxidase, and monooxidase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magerramov, A. M.; Nagieva, I. T.

    2010-11-01

    The acid-basic centers of heterogeneous carriers of catalase, peroxidase, and monooxigenase biomimetics, in particular, iron protoporphyrin deposited on active or neutral aluminum magnesium silicate, were studied. The catalytic activity of biomimetics was stabilized, which allowed us not only to synthesize fairly effective biomimetics but also to clarify certain details of the mechanism of their action and perform a comparative analysis of the functioning of biomimetics and the corresponding enzymes.

  6. Adenosine deaminase, 5'-nucleotidase, xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities in gastric juices from patients with gastric cancer, ulcer, and atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Durak, I; Ormeci, N; Akyol, O; Canbolat, O; Kavutçu, M; Bülbül, M

    1994-04-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA), 5'-Nucleotidase (5NT), Xanthine oxidase (XO), Cu-Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities were determined in gastric juices from patients with gastric cancer, ulcer, gastritis and from healthy subjects. Enzyme activities were given as units per ml gastric juice and units per mg protein in gastric juice. ADA, 5NT and XO activities were found lower and protein concentrations were found higher in the cancer group than controls. There was however no significant difference between Cu-Zn SOD activities of the cancer and control groups. In all groups including control one, we could not find catalase activities in most of the samples. On the other hand, ADA, 5NT activities and protein concentrations in the gastric juice were lower in the gastritis group than control group. In the ulcer group, we found higher Cu-Zn SOD and XO activities and lower 5NT activity and protein concentrations compared with control values. In an attempt to establish statistical correlations between mean enzyme activities, pH and protein concentrations in the gastric juices of the groups, we found noticeable intra and inter-correlations, which indicated possible relations between DNA and free radical metabolizing enzymes.

  7. The respiratory burst activity and expression of catalase in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, during long-term exposure to pH stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Na; Li, Bao-Sheng; Liu, Jin-Jian; Shi, Lei; Alam, M J; Su, Shi-Juan; Wu, Juan; Wang, Lei; Wang, An-Li

    2012-08-01

    In this study, changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mRNA expression of catalase of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, exposed to pH (5.4, 6.7, 8.0, and 9.3) stress was investigated at different stress time (24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h). Level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in shrimp also were assessed. The results revealed that acidic (pH 5.4 and 6.7) or alkaline exposure (pH 9.3) induced production of ROS hemocytes and increase of MDA level in shrimp. Moreover, the catalase mRNA expression in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was up-regulated in 24 h at pH 5.4, in 72 h at pH 6.7 and in 48 h at pH 9.3, whereas was down-regulated significantly after 72 h acidic (pH 5.4 and 6.7) or alkaline (pH 9.4) exposure. In the present study, there was the relationship between ROS and catalase mRNA expression under normal acidic and alkaline conditions. At pH 8, the increase of catalase transcripts due to up-regulation by ROS, whereas MDA level did not significantly change, suggesting activation of corresponding protective mechanisms of detoxifying ROS is essential for the proper functioning of cells and the survival of shrimps.

  8. Reactions of the class II peroxidases, lignin peroxidase and Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase, with hydrogen peroxide. Catalase-like activity, compound III formation, and enzyme inactivation.

    PubMed

    Hiner, Alexander N P; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno; García-Cánovas, Francisco; Brisset, Nigel C; Smith, Andrew T; Arnao, Marino B; Acosta, Manuel

    2002-07-26

    The reactions of the fungal enzymes Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP) and Phanerochaete chrysosporium lignin peroxidase (LiP) with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) have been studied. Both enzymes exhibited catalase activity with hyperbolic H(2)O(2) concentration dependence (K(m) approximately 8-10 mm, k(cat) approximately 1-3 s(-1)). The catalase and peroxidase activities of LiP were inhibited within 10 min and those of ARP in 1 h. The inactivation constants were calculated using two independent methods; LiP, k(i) approximately 19 x 10(-3) s(-1); ARP, k(i) approximately 1.6 x 10(-3) s(-1). Compound III (oxyperoxidase) was detected as the majority species after the addition of H(2)O(2) to LiP or ARP, and its formation was accompanied by loss of enzyme activity. A reaction scheme is presented which rationalizes the turnover and inactivation of LiP and ARP with H(2)O(2). A similar model is applicable to horseradish peroxidase. The scheme links catalase and compound III forming catalytic pathways and inactivation at the level of the [compound I.H(2)O(2)] complex. Inactivation does not occur from compound III. All peroxidases studied to date are sensitive to inactivation by H(2)O(2), and it is suggested that the model will be generally applicable to peroxidases of the plant, fungal, and prokaryotic superfamily.

  9. Defects in a quinol oxidase lead to loss of KatC catalase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: KatC activity is temperature dependent and it requires an intact disulphide bond formation system.

    PubMed

    Mossialos, Dimitris; Tavankar, Gholam Reza; Zlosnik, James E A; Williams, Huw D

    2006-03-17

    Mutation or overexpression of the cyanide-insensitive terminal oxidase (CIO) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa leads to temperature-sensitivity, multiple antibiotic sensitivity, and abnormal cell division and failure to produce a temperature-inducible catalase [G.R. Tavankar, D. Mossialos, H.D. Williams, Mutation or overexpression of a terminal oxidase leads to a cell division defect and multiple antibiotic sensitivity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4524-4530]. We identify this enzyme as KatC, a newly described catalase from P. aeruginosa. Loss of KatC activity leads to temperature-dependent hydrogen peroxide sensitivity, which correlates with its temperature-inducible expression pattern. This is the first description, to our knowledge, of a temperature-inducible bacterial catalase. The transcription of katC is not affected in strains lacking or overexpressing the CIO, indicating that a post-transcriptional effect leads to loss of KatC activity. Disulphide bond formation is affected in strains lacking or overexpressing the CIO. This is shown by reduced activity of the extracellular enzymes lipase and elastase, and an altered pattern of redox states of DsbA, a key protein in disulphide bond formation in P. aeruginosa, in these strains. Moreover, a dsbA mutant had no detectable KatC activity, demonstrating that an intact disulphide bond formation system is required for KatC activity and thus explaining the loss of this catalase in the cio mutant and overexpressing strains.

  10. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in Pinus mugo needles growing at elevated stands in the mountains, and their photochemical efficiency of PSII.

    PubMed

    Miszalski, Zbigniew; Libik, Marta; Surówka, Ewa; Niewiadomska, Ewa

    2005-08-01

    Pinus mugo needles were sampled at different altitudes (1420, 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l.) to analyse levels of oxidative stress and changes in maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that almost all superoxide dismutase activity represented Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, and only 4-6% represents Mn superoxide dismutase. In extracts from plants sampled at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., lower activity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase was found. Comparing these data with immunoblots, it can be concluded that the differences in superoxide dismutase activity was related to protein amount. In needles from higher altitudes, a decrease in catalase activity was detected, as opposed to the protein amount, which was higher in needles from the higher stands. Considering the decrease in catalase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase activities in needles collected at 1590 and 1920 m a.s.l., we suggest that higher levels of oxidative stress may induce changes in photochemical efficiency of PSII.

  11. Expression of a highly active catalase VktA in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 alleviates the photoinhibition of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Haruhiko; Noda, Akiko; Hayashi, Hidenori; Nagano, Takanori; Yumoto, Isao; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Okuyama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka

    2013-11-01

    The repair of photosystem II (PSII) after photodamage is particularly sensitive to reactive oxygen species-such as H2O2, which is abundantly produced during the photoinhibition of PSII. In the present study, we generated a transformant of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 that expressed a highly active catalase, VktA, which is derived from a facultatively psychrophilic bacterium Vibrio rumoiensis, and examined the effect of expression of VktA on the photoinhibition of PSII. The activity of PSII in transformed cells declined much more slowly than in wild-type cells when cells were exposed to strong light in the presence of H2O2. However, the rate of photodamage to PSII, as monitored in the presence of chloramphenicol, was the same in the two lines of cells, suggesting that the repair of PSII was protected by the expression of VktA. The de novo synthesis of the D1 protein, which is required for the repair of PSII, was activated in transformed cells under the same stress conditions. Similar protection of the repair of PSII in transformed cells was also observed under strong light at a relatively low temperature. Thus, the expression of the highly active catalase mitigates photoinhibition of PSII by protecting protein synthesis against damage by H2O2 with subsequent enhancement of the repair of PSII.

  12. Iron, copper, and manganese complexes with in vitro superoxide dismutase and/or catalase activities that keep Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells alive under severe oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Thales P; Fernandes, Christiane; Melo, Karen V; Ferreira, Sarah S; Lessa, Josane A; Franco, Roberto W A; Schenk, Gerhard; Pereira, Marcos D; Horn, Adolfo

    2015-03-01

    Due to their aerobic lifestyle, eukaryotic organisms have evolved different strategies to overcome oxidative stress. The recruitment of some specific metalloenzymes such as superoxide dismutases (SODs) and catalases (CATs) is of great importance for eliminating harmful reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion). Using the ligand HPClNOL {1-[bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino]-3-chloropropan-2-ol}, we have synthesized three coordination compounds containing iron(III), copper(II), and manganese(II) ions, which are also present in the active site of the above-noted metalloenzymes. These compounds were evaluated as SOD and CAT mimetics. The manganese and iron compounds showed both SOD and CAT activities, while copper showed only SOD activity. The copper and manganese in vitro SOD activities are very similar (IC50~0.4 μmol dm(-3)) and about 70-fold higher than those of iron. The manganese compound showed CAT activity higher than that of the iron species. Analyzing their capacity to protect Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells against oxidative stress (H2O2 and the O2(•-) radical), we observed that all compounds act as antioxidants, increasing the resistance of yeast cells mainly due to a reduction of lipid oxidation. Especially for the iron compound, the data indicate complete protection when wild-type cells were exposed to H2O2 or O2(•-) species. Interestingly, these compounds also compensate for both superoxide dismutase and catalase deficiencies; their antioxidant activity is metal ion dependent, in the order iron(III)>copper(II)>manganese(II). The protection mechanism employed by the complexes proved to be independent of the activation of transcription factors (such as Yap1, Hsf1, Msn2/Msn4) and protein synthesis. There is no direct relation between the in vitro and the in vivo antioxidant activities.

  13. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher H; Catallo, W James; Wilson, Vincent L; Mitchell, James B

    2009-10-01

    1,3-Butadiene, an important petrochemical, is commonly burned off when excess amounts need to be destroyed. This combustion process produces butadiene soot (BDS), which is composed of a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulates ranging in size from <1 microm to 1 mm. An organic extract of BDS is both cytotoxic and genotoxic to normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Based on the oxidizing potential of BDS, we hypothesized that an organic extract of this particulate matter would (1) cause enzyme inactivation due to protein amino acid oxidation and (2) induce oxidative DNA damage in NHBE cells. Thus, our aims were to determine the effect of butadiene soot ethanol extract (BSEE) on both enzyme activity and the expression of proteins involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Catalase was found to be sensitive to BDS as catalase activity was potently diminished in the presence of BSEE. Using Western analysis, both the alpha isoform of human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (alpha-hOGG1) and human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease (APE-1) were shown to be significantly overexpressed as compared to untreated controls after exposure of NHBE cells to BSEE. Our results indicate that BSEE is capable of effectively inactivating the antioxidant enzyme catalase, presumably via oxidation of protein amino acids. The presence of oxidized biomolecules may partially explain the extranuclear fluorescence that is detected when NHBE cells are treated with an organic extract of BDS. Overexpression of both alpha-hOGG1 and APE-1 proteins following treatment of NHBE cells with BSEE suggests that this mixture causes oxidative DNA damage.

  14. A monoclonal IgM directed against immunodominant catalase B of cell wall of Aspergillus fumigatus exerts anti-A. fumigatus activities.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Ashok K; Kumar, Rohitashw; Kumar, Awanit; Shukla, Praveen K

    2009-11-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous fungus, has been reported to cause human diseases like allergic pulmonary aspergillosis, aspergilloma and invasive infection. Limited spectrum and emergence of resistance has become a serious problem with available antifungals. Therefore, an alternative approach is required for successful treatment of mycoses. In the present study, immunogenic protein profile of A. fumigatus cell wall was generated using two-dimensional-gel electrophoresis and three hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs; IgM) were selected after fusion experiments. Of these three MAbs, MAb-7 exhibited potent in vitro inhibitory activity, which was confirmed by MTT assay, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis and immuno-fluorescence studies, and the protein was identified as catalase B using MALDI-TOF-MS.

  15. A fungal catalase reacts selectively with the 13S fatty acid hydroperoxide products of the adjacent lipoxygenase gene and exhibits 13S-hydroperoxide-dependent peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Teder, Tarvi; Boeglin, William E; Schneider, Claus; Brash, Alan R

    2017-03-28

    The genome of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum harbors six catalases, one of which has the sequence characteristics of a fatty acid peroxide-metabolizing catalase. We cloned and expressed this hemoprotein (designated as Fg-cat) along with its immediate neighbor, a 13S-lipoxygenase (cf. Brodhun et al., PloS One, e64919, 2013) that we considered might supply a fatty acid hydroperoxide substrate. Indeed, Fg-cat reacts abruptly with the 13S-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid (13S-HPODE) with an initial rate of 700-1300s(-1). By comparison there was no reaction with 9R- or 9S-HPODEs and extremely weak reaction with 13R-HPODE (~0.5% of the rate with 13S-HPODE). Although we considered Fg-cat as a candidate for the allene oxide synthase of the jasmonate pathway in fungi, the main product formed from 13S-HPODE was identified by UV, MS, and NMR as 9-oxo-10E-12,13-cis-epoxy-octadecenoic acid (with no traces of AOS activity). The corresponding analog is formed from the 13S-hydroperoxide of α-linolenic acid along with novel diepoxy-ketones and two C13 aldehyde derivatives, the reaction mechanisms of which are proposed. In a peroxidase assay monitoring the oxidation of ABTS, Fg-cat exhibited robust activity (kcat 550s(-1)) using the 13S-hydroperoxy-C18 fatty acids as the oxidizing co-substrate. There was no detectable peroxidase activity using the corresponding 9S-hydroperoxides, nor with t-butyl hydroperoxide, and very weak activity with H2O2 or cumene hydroperoxide at micromolar concentrations of Fg-cat. Fg-cat and the associated lipoxygenase gene are present together in fungal genera Fusarium, Metarhizium and Fonsecaea and appear to constitute a partnership for oxidations in fungal metabolism or defense.

  16. Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Arun J; Bhagwat, Vinod R; Patil, Jyotsna A; Dongre, Nilima N; Ambekar, Jeevan G; Jailkhani, Rama; Das, Kusal K

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in erythrocytes and malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma of battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of Western Maharashtra (India) who were occupationally exposed to lead (Pb) over a long period of time (about 15 years). This study was also aimed to determine the Pb intoxication resulted in a disturbance of heme biosynthesis in BMW group. The blood Pb level of BMW group (n = 28) was found to be in the range of 25.8 - 78.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 53.63 + 16.98) whereas in Pb unexposed control group (n = 35) the range was 2.8 - 22.0 microg/dL (mean + SD, 12.52 + 4.08). The blood level (Pb-B) and urinary lead level (Pb-U) were significantly increased in BMW group as compared to unexposed control. Though activated d- aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities in BMW group did not show any significant change when compared to control group but activated / non activated erythrocyte - ALAD activities in BMW group showed a significant increase. Erythrocyte- zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), urinary daminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) and porphobilinogen (PBG-U) of BMW groups elevated significantly as compared to control. A positive correlation (r = 0.66, p < 0.001) between Pb-B and ALA-U were found in BMW group but no such significant correlation (r = 0.02, p> 1.0) were observed in control group. Hematological study revealed a significant decrease of hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (%) and other blood indices and a significant increase of total leucocytes count in BMW group in comparison to control group. The serum MDA content was significantly increased (p < 0.001) and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as erythrocyte- SOD (p < 0.001) and erythrocytecatalase (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in BMW group as compared to control group. A positive correlation (r = 0.45, p < 0.02) between Pb-B and serum MDA level was observed in BMW group (Pb-B range 25.8 - 78.0 microg / d

  17. Differential response of maize catalases to abscisic acid: Vp1 transcriptional activator is not required for abscisic acid-regulated Cat1 expression.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, J D; Scandalios, J G

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we describe the distinctive responses of the maize catalases to the plant growth regulator abscisic acid (ABA). We analyzed RNA and enzyme accumulation in excised maize embryos and found that each catalase responded differently to exogenously applied ABA. Levels of Cat1 transcript and enzyme activity rapidly increased. In contrast, levels of Cat2 transcript and protein decreased, while Cat3 transcript levels were not affected. In developing kernels of the ABA-deficient/biosynthetic viviparous mutant vp5, lower levels of Cat1 RNA correlated with lower endogenous ABA levels when compared to measured levels in comparably aged wild-type siblings from the same ear. The maize vp1 mutant line is morphologically insensitive to normal endogenous levels of ABA. Analysis of the response of Cat1 to exogenously applied ABA in mutant and wild-type vp1 sibling embryos suggests that, unlike other ABA-responsive genes analyzed to date, the Vp1 gene product is not essential for the ABA-mediated regulation of Cat1. The significance of these responses to ABA in defining the roles of the various CATs in maize is discussed. Images PMID:1388272

  18. Exposure to low UVA doses increases KatA and KatB catalase activities, and confers cross-protection against subsequent oxidative injuries in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Tribelli, Paula M; Pizarro, Ramón A; López, Nancy I; Costa, Cristina S

    2016-05-01

    Solar UVA radiation is one of the main environmental stress factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Exposure to high UVA doses produces lethal effects by the action of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) it generates. P. aeruginosa has several enzymes, including KatA and KatB catalases, which provide detoxification of ROS. We have previously demonstrated that KatA is essential in defending P. aeruginosa against high UVA doses. In order to analyse the mechanisms involved in the adaptation of this micro-organism to UVA, we investigated the effect of exposure to low UVA doses on KatA and KatB activities, and the physiological consequences. Exposure to UVA induced total catalase activity; assays with non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels showed that both KatA and KatB activities were increased by radiation. This regulation occurred at the transcriptional level and depended, at least partly, on the increase in H2O2 levels. We demonstrated that exposure to low UVA produced a protective effect against subsequent lethal doses of UVA, sodium hypochlorite and H2O2. Protection against lethal UVA depends on katA, whilst protection against sodium hypochlorite depends on katB, demonstrating that different mechanisms are involved in the defence against these oxidative agents, although both genes can be involved in the global cellular response. Conversely, protection against lethal doses of H2O2 could depend on induction of both genes and/or (an)other defensive factor(s). A better understanding of the adaptive response of P. aeruginosa to UVA is relevant from an ecological standpoint and for improving disinfection strategies that employ UVA or solar irradiation.

  19. Catalase-like activity of bovine met-hemoglobin: interaction with the pseudo-catalytic peroxidation of anthracene traces in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Paco, Laveille; Galarneau, Anne; Drone, Jullien; Fajula, François; Bailly, Carole; Pulvin, Sylviane; Thomas, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Hemoglobin is a member of the hemoprotein superfamily whose main role is to transport O(2) in vertebrate organisms. It has two known promiscuous enzymatic activities, peroxidase and oxygenase. Here we show for the first time that bovine hemoglobin also presents a catalase-like activity characterized by a V(max )of 344 microM/min, a K(M )of 24 mM and a k(cat) equal to 115/min. For high anthracene and hemoglobin concentrations and low hydrogen peroxide concentrations, this activity inhibits the expected oxidation of anthracene, which occurs through a peroxidase-like mechanism. Anthracene belongs to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) family whose members are carcinogenic and persistent pollutants found in industrial waste waters. Our results show that anthracene oxidation by hemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide follows a typical bi-bi ping-pong mechanism with a V(max) equal to 0.250 microM/min, K(M(H2O2) )of 80 microM, K(M(ANT)) of 1.1 microM and k(cat) of 0.17/min. The oxidation of anthracene is shown to be pseudo-catalytic because an excess of hemoglobin and hydrogen peroxide is required to make PAH completely disappear. Thus, bovine hemoglobin presents, in different degrees, all the catalytic activities of the hemoprotein group, which makes it a very interesting protein for biotechnological processes and one with which structure-activity relationships can be studied.

  20. Radiation resistance and the CuZn superoxide dismutase, Mn superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities of seven human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Marklund, S L; Westman, N G; Roos, G; Carlsson, J

    1984-10-01

    CuZn superoxide dismutase, Mn superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase form the primary enzymic defense against toxic oxygen reduction metabolites in cells. To test the importance of these protective enzymes in the cellular radiation response, the enzymic activities of seven different human cell lines were determined in parallel with their clonogenic survival characteristics. A positive correlation between the content of glutathione peroxidase in cell lines and their extrapolation numbers (n) and quasithreshold doses (Dq) was detected. Between the cellular contents of the other enzymes and D0, n, and Dq no positive correlations could be established. An interesting finding was a very high Mn superoxide dismutase content in a malignant mesothelioma cell line P7, which had an extremely high D0, 5.0 Gy.

  1. Formation of chloroplast protrusions and catalase activity in alpine Ranunculus glacialis under elevated temperature and different CO2/O2 ratios.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Moser, Tim; Karadar, Matthias; Roach, Thomas; Kranner, Ilse; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Chloroplast protrusions (CPs) have frequently been observed in plants, but their significance to plant metabolism remains largely unknown. We investigated in the alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis L. treated under various CO2 concentrations if CP formation is related to photorespiration, specifically focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism. Immediately after exposure to different CO2 concentrations, the formation of CPs in leaf mesophyll cells was assessed and correlated to catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Under natural irradiation, the relative proportion of chloroplasts with protrusions (rCP) was highest (58.7 %) after exposure to low CO2 (38 ppm) and was lowest (3.0 %) at high CO2 (10,000 ppm). The same relationship was found for CAT activity, which decreased from 34.7 nkat mg(-1) DW under low CO2 to 18.4 nkat mg(-1) DW under high CO2, while APX activity did not change significantly. When exposed to natural CO2 concentration (380 ppm) in darkness, CP formation was significantly lower (18.2 %) compared to natural solar irradiation (41.3 %). In summary, CP formation and CAT activity are significantly increased under conditions that favour photorespiration, while in darkness or at high CO2 concentration under light, CP formation is significantly lower, providing evidence for an association between CPs and photorespiration.

  2. Disruption of AtWNK8 enhances tolerance of Arabidopsis to salt and osmotic stresses via modulating proline content and activities of catalase and peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Baige; Liu, Kaidong; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Yingxiang; Wang, Jinxiang; Liao, Hong

    2013-03-27

    With no lysine kinases (WNKs) play important roles in plant growth and development. However, its role in salt and osmotic stress tolerance is unclear. Here, we report that AtWNK8 is mainly expressed in primary root, hypocotyl, stamen and pistil and is induced by NaCl and sorbitol treatment. Compared to the wild-type, the T-DNA knock-out wnk8 mutant was more tolerant to severe salinity and osmotic stresses, as indicated by 27% and 198% more fresh weight in the NaCl and sorbitol treatment, respectively. The wnk8 mutant also accumulated 1.43-fold more proline than the wild-type in the sorbitol treatment. Under NaCl and sorbitol stresses, catalase (CAT) activity in wnk8 mutant was 1.92- and 3.7-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Similarly, under salt and osmotic stress conditions, peroxidase (POD) activities in wnk8 mutant were 1.81- and 1.58-times of that in Col-0, respectively. Taken together, we revealed that maintaining higher CAT and POD activities might be one of the reasons that the disruption of AtWNK8 enhances the tolerance to salt stress, and accumulating more proline and higher activities of CAT and POD might result in the higher tolerance of WNK8 to osmotic stress.

  3. CXCL12 protects pancreatic β-cells from oxidative stress by a Nrf2-induced increase in catalase expression and activity

    PubMed Central

    DINIĆ, Svetlana; GRDOVIĆ, Nevena; USKOKOVIĆ, Aleksandra; ĐORĐEVIĆ, Miloš; MIHAILOVIĆ, Mirjana; JOVANOVIĆ, Jelena Arambašić; POZNANOVIĆ, Goran; VIDAKOVIĆ, Melita

    2016-01-01

    Due to intrinsically low levels of antioxidant enzyme expression and activity, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells are particularly susceptible to free radical attack. In diabetes mellitus, which is accompanied by high levels of oxidative stress, this feature of β-cells significantly contributes to their damage and dysfunction. In light of the documented pro-survival effect of chemokine C-X-C Ligand 12 (CXCL12) on pancreatic β-cells, we examined its potential role in antioxidant protection. We report that CXCL12 overexpression enhanced the resistance of rat insulinoma (Rin-5F) and primary pancreatic islet cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). CXCL12 lowered the levels of DNA damage and lipid peroxidation and preserved insulin expression. This effect was mediated through an increase in catalase (CAT) activity. By activating downstream p38, Akt and ERK kinases, CXCL12 facilitated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and enhanced its binding to the CAT gene promoter, inducing constitutive CAT expression and activity that was essential for protecting β-cells from H2O2. PMID:27840391

  4. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities and risk of coronary heart disease in generally healthy women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuman; Jensen, Majken K; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter; Wu, Tianying

    2014-11-01

    Erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes are major circulating antioxidant enzymes in the oxidative stress defense system. Few prospective studies have assessed the association between these enzymes and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in generally healthy adults. We conducted a prospective nested case-control study of CHD among 32,826 women at baseline with 15 years of follow-up from 1989 to 2004 in the Nurses' Health Study. We investigated the association of baseline erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) activities with the risk of CHD. A total of 365 cases and 728 controls were included in the analysis. Overall, the relative risks of CHD associated with 1-standard deviation higher SOD, GPx, and CAT activities were 1.07 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 1.22), 1.04 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.18), and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.17), respectively. Multivariable adjustments did not change the associations appreciably. Fasting status did not modify the associations, with the exception that SOD activity was positively associated with the risk of CHD among participants who provided blood samples within 12 hours of fasting. Overall, activities of SOD, GPx, and CAT were not associated with CHD among women who were generally healthy at the time of blood collection.

  5. Caribbean yellow band disease compromises the activity of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in the reef-building coral Orbicella faveolata exposed to anthracene.

    PubMed

    Montilla, Luis Miguel; Ramos, Ruth; García, Elia; Cróquer, Aldo

    2016-05-03

    Healthy and diseased corals are threatened by different anthropogenic sources, such as pollution, a problem expected to become more severe in the near future. Despite the fact that coastal pollution and coral diseases might represent a serious threat to coral reef health, there is a paucity of controlled experiments showing whether the response of diseased and healthy corals to xenobiotics differs. In this study, we exposed healthy and Caribbean yellow band disease (CYBD)-affected Orbicella faveolata colonies to 3 sublethal concentrations of anthracene to test if enzymatic responses to this hydrocarbon were compromised in CYBD-affected tissues. For this, a 2-factorial fully orthogonal design was used in a controlled laboratory bioassay, using tissue condition (2 levels: apparently healthy and diseased) and pollutant concentration (4 levels: experimental control, 10, 30 and 100 ppb concentration) as fixed factors. A permutation-based ANOVA (PERMANOVA) was used to test the effects of condition and concentration on the specific activity of 3 enzymatic biomarkers: catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione peroxidase. We found a significant interaction between the concentration of anthracene and the colony condition for catalase (Pseudo-F = 3.84, df = 3, p < 0.05) and glutathione S-transferase (Pseudo-F = 3.29, df = 3, p < 0.05). Moreover, our results indicated that the enzymatic response to anthracene in CYBD-affected tissues was compromised, as the activity of these enzymes decreased 3- to 4-fold compared to healthy tissues. These results suggest that under a potential scenario of increasing hydrocarbon coastal pollution, colonies of O. faveolata affected with CYBD might become more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of chemical pollution.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity in Suzuki coupling and catalase-like reactions of new chitosan supported Pd catalyst.

    PubMed

    Baran, Talat; Inanan, Tülden; Menteş, Ayfer

    2016-07-10

    The aim of this study is to analyze the synthesis of a new chitosan supported Pd catalyst and examination of its catalytic activity in: Pd catalyst was synthesized using chitosan as a biomaterial and characterized with FTIR, TG/DTG, XRD, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, SEM-EDAX, ICP-OES, Uv-vis spectroscopies, and magnetic moment, along with molar conductivity analysis. Biomaterial supported Pd catalyst indicated high activity and long life time as well as excellent turnover number (TON) and turnover frequency (TOF) values in Suzuki reaction. Biomaterial supported Pd catalyst catalyzed H2O2 decomposition reaction with considerable high activity using comparatively small loading catalyst (10mg). Redox potential of biomaterial supported Pd catalyst was still high without negligible loss (13% decrease) after 10 cycles in reusability tests. As a consequence, eco-friendly biomaterial supported Pd catalyst has superior properties such as high thermal stability, long life time, easy removal from reaction mixture and durability to air, moisture and high temperature.

  7. Could dietary trans fatty acids induce movement disorders? Effects of exercise and its influence on Na⁺K⁺-ATPase and catalase activity in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A M; Dias, V T; Pase, C S; Roversi, K; Boufleur, N; Barcelos, R C S; Benvegnú, D M; Trevizol, F; Dolci, G S; Carvalho, N R; Quatrin, A; Soares, F A A; Reckziegel, P; Segat, H J; Rocha, J B T; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E

    2012-01-15

    The influence of trans fatty acids (FA) on development of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) and locomotor activity was evaluated. Rats were fed with diets enriched with 20% soybean oil (SO; n-6 FA), lard (L; saturated FA) or hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF; trans FA) for 60 weeks. In the last 12 weeks each group was subdivided into sedentary and exercised (swimming). Brains of HVF and L-fed rats incorporated 0.33% and 0.20% of trans FA, respectively, while SO-fed group showed no incorporation of trans FA. HVF increased OD, while exercise exacerbated this in L and HVF-fed rats. HVF and L reduced locomotor activity, and exercise did not modify. Striatal catalase activity was reduced by L and HVF, but exercise increased its activity in the HVF-fed group. Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity was not modified by dietary FA, however it was increased by exercise in striatum of SO and L-fed rats. We hypothesized that movement disorders elicited by HVF and less by L could be related to increased dopamine levels in striatum, which have been related to chronic trans FA intake. Exercise increased OD possibly by increase of brain dopamine levels, which generates pro-oxidant metabolites. Thus, a long-term intake of trans FA caused a small but significant brain incorporation of trans FA, which favored development of movement disorders. Exercise worsened behavioral outcomes of HVF and L-fed rats and increased Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity of L and SO-fed rats, indicating its benefits. HVF blunted beneficial effects of exercise, indicating a critical role of trans FA in brain neurochemistry.

  8. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  9. Redox regulation of antioxidant enzymes: post-translational modulation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity by resveratrol in diabetic rat liver.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Gökhan; Bozan, Davut; Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir

    2014-08-01

    Resveratrol is a strong antioxidant that exhibits blood glucose-lowering effects, which might contribute to its usefulness in preventing complications associated with diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate resveratrol effects on catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) gene and protein expression, their phosphorylation states and activities in rat liver of STZ-induced diabetes. Diabetes increased the levels of total protein phosphorylation and p-CAT, while mRNA expression, protein levels, and activity were reduced. Although diabetes induced transcriptional repression over GPx, it did not affect the protein levels and activity. When resveratrol was administered to diabetic rats, an increase in activity was associated with an increase in p-GPx levels. Decrease in Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and increase in nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) gene expression in diabetes were associated with a decrease in CAT and GPx mRNA expression. A possible compensatory mechanism for reduced gene expression of antioxidant enzymes is proved to be nuclear translocation of redox-sensitive Nrf2 and NFκB in diabetes which is confirmed by the increase in nuclear and decrease in cytoplasmic protein levels of Nrf2 and NFκB. Taken together, these findings revealed that an increase in the oxidized state in diabetes intricately modified the cellular phosphorylation status and regulation of antioxidant enzymes. Gene regulation of antioxidant enzymes was accompanied by nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and NFκB. Resveratrol administration also activated a coordinated cytoprotective response against diabetes-induced changes in liver tissues.

  10. Orally supplemented catechin increases heme amounts and catalase activities in rat heart blood mitochondria: a comparison between middle-aged and young rats.

    PubMed

    Cueno, Marni E; Tamura, Muneaki; Imai, Kenichi; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2013-11-01

    Orally-administered catechin has long been known to have several beneficial effects on the mammalian host, however, the effects of orally supplemented catechin on the host through gingival tissues have not yet been established. Here, we elucidated the effects of orally supplemented catechin in the rat heart blood mitochondria. We used middle-aged (40 week-old) and young (4 week-old) rats throughout the study. We indirectly verified blood serum catechin levels by measuring O-methyl catechin derivatives using HPLC. Interestingly, we observed higher blood serum O-methyl levels in middle-aged rats as compared to young rats. Subsequently, we isolated blood mitochondria, verified its purity, and measured heme, hydrogen peroxide, and catalase (CAT) levels. We found that catechin induces an increase in blood mitochondrial heme amounts and is associated with an increase in blood mitochondrial CAT activity which is surprisingly higher in middle-aged rats as compared to young rats. This would imply that orally supplemented catechin induces heme increase that preferentially favours CAT activity and is more beneficial to the middle-aged rats.

  11. Dichloroacetate- and Trichloroacetate-Induced Modulation of Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, and Glutathione Peroxidase Activities and Glutathione Level in the livers of Mice after Subacute and Subchronic exposure

    PubMed Central

    Hassoun, Ezdihar A.; Cearfoss, Jacquelyn

    2010-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) and trichloroacetate (TCA) were previously found to induce various levels of oxidative stress in the hepatic tissues of mice after subacute and subchronic exposure. The cells are known to have several protective mechansims against production of oxidative stress by different xenobiotics. To assess the roles of the antioxidant enzymes and glutathione (GSH) in DCA- and TCA-induced oxidative stress, groups of B6C3F1 mice were administered either DCA or TCA at doses of 7.7, 77, 154 and 410 mg/kg/day, by gavage for 4 weeks (4-W) and 13 weeks (13-W), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, as well as GSH were determined in the hepatic tissues. DCA at doses ranging between 7.7-410, and 7.7-77 mg/kg/day, given for 4-W and 13-W, respectively, resulted in either suppression or no change in SOD, CAT and GSH-Px activities, but doses of 154-410 mg DCA/kg/day administered for 13-W were found to result in significant induction of the three enzyme activities. TCA administration on the other hand, resulted in increases in SOD and CAT activities, and suppression of GSH-Px activity in both periods. Except for the DCA doses of 77-154 mg/kg/day administered for 13-W that resulted in significant reduction in GSH levels, all other DCA, as well as TCA treatments produced no changes in GSH. Since these enzymes are involved in the detoxification of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide anion (SA) and H2O2, it is concluded that SA is the main contributor to DCA-induced oxidative stress while both ROS contribute to that of TCA. The increases in the enzyme activities associated with 154-410 mg DCA/kg/day in the 13-W period suggest their role as protective mechanisms contributing to the survival of cells modified in response to those treatments. PMID:21170174

  12. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and the total protein content of protocorm-like bodies of Dendrobium sonia-28 subjected to vitrification.

    PubMed

    Poobathy, Ranjetta; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Xavier, Rathinam; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2013-07-01

    Dendrobium sonia-28 is an important ornamental orchid in the Malaysian flower industry. However, the genus faces both low germination rates and the risk of producing heterozygous progenies. Cryopreservation is currently the favoured long-term storage method for orchids with propagation problems. Vitrification, a frequently used cryopreservation technique, involves the application of pretreatments and cryoprotectants to protect and recover explants during and after storage in liquid nitrogen. However, cryopreservation may cause osmotic injuries and toxicity to cryopreserved explants from the use of highly concentrated additives, and cellular injuries from thawing, devitrification and ice formation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), occurring during dehydration and cryopreservation, may also cause membrane damage. Plants possess efficient antioxidant systems such as the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes to scavenge ROS during low temperature stress. In this study, protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Dendrobium sonia-28 were assayed for the total protein content, and both SOD and CAT activities, at each stage of a vitrification exercise to observe for deleterious stages in the protocol. The results indicated that cryopreserved PLBs of Dendrobium sonia-28 underwent excessive post-thawing oxidative stress due to decreased levels of the CAT enzyme at the post-thawing recovery stage, which contributed to the poor survival rates of the cryopreserved PLBs.

  13. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bippert, Judy

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities designed to give students an opportunity to solve concrete problems involving spatial relationships and logical thinking utilizing hands-on manipulatives. Provides teacher instructions and four reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  14. Hinokitiol Exerts Anticancer Activity through Downregulation of MMPs 9/2 and Enhancement of Catalase and SOD Enzymes: In Vivo Augmentation of Lung Histoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Chang, Chao-Chien; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-09-25

    Melanoma is extremely resistant to chemotherapy and the death rate is increasing hastily worldwide. Extracellular matrix promotes the migration and invasion of tumor cells through the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Evidence has shown that natural dietary antioxidants are capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. Our recent studies showed that hinokitiol, a natural bioactive compound, inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and platelets aggregation. The present study is to investigate the anticancer efficacy of hinokitiol against B16-F10 melanoma cells via modulating tumor invasion factors MMPs, antioxidant enzymes in vitro. An in vivo mice model of histological investigation was performed to study the patterns of elastic and collagen fibers. Hinokitiol inhibited the expression and activity of MMPs-2 and -9 in B16-F10 melanoma cells, as measured by western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. An observed increase in protein expression of MMPs 2/9 in melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Notably, hinokitiol (1-5 μM) increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in melanoma cells. Also, hinokitiol (2-10 µM) concentration dependently reduced in vitro Fenton reaction induced hydroxyl radical (OH·) formation. An in vivo study showed that hinokitiol treatment increased elastic fibers (EF), collagens dispersion, and improved alveolar alterations in the lungs of B16/F10 injected mice. Overall, our findings propose that hinokitiol may be a potent anticancer candidate through down regulation of MMPs 9/2, reduction of OH· production and enhancement of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT.

  15. Fusing catalase to an alkane-producing enzyme maintains enzymatic activity by converting the inhibitory byproduct H2O2 to the cosubstrate O2.

    PubMed

    Andre, Carl; Kim, Sung Won; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Shanklin, John

    2013-02-19

    Biologically produced alkanes represent potential renewable alternatives to petroleum-derived chemicals. A cyanobacterial pathway consisting of acyl-Acyl Carrier Protein reductase and an aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) converts acyl-Acyl Carrier Proteins into corresponding n-1 alkanes via aldehyde intermediates in an oxygen-dependent manner (K(m) for O(2), 84 ± 9 µM). In vitro, ADO turned over only three times, but addition of more ADO to exhausted assays resulted in additional product formation. While evaluating the peroxide shunt to drive ADO catalysis, we discovered that ADO is inhibited by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) with an apparent K(i) of 16 ± 6 µM and that H(2)O(2) inhibition is of mixed-type with respect to O(2). Supplementing exhausted assays with catalase (CAT) restored ADO activity, demonstrating that inhibition was reversible and dependent on H(2)O(2), which originated from poor coupling of reductant consumption with alkane formation. Kinetic analysis showed that long-chain (C14-C18) substrates follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics, whereas short and medium chains (C8-C12) exhibit substrate inhibition. A bifunctional protein comprising an N-terminal CAT coupled to a C-terminal ADO (CAT-ADO) prevents H(2)O(2) inhibition by converting it to the cosubstrate O(2). Indeed, alkane production by the fusion protein is observed upon addition of H(2)O(2) to an anaerobic reaction mix. In assays, CAT-ADO turns over 225 times versus three times for the native ADO, and its expression in Escherichia coli increases catalytic turnovers per active site by fivefold relative to the expression of native ADO. We propose the term "protection via inhibitor metabolism" for fusion proteins designed to metabolize inhibitors into noninhibitory compounds.

  16. CoCl2-induced biochemical hypoxia down regulates activities and expression of super oxide dismutase and catalase in cerebral cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Rani, Anupama; Prasad, S

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia-induced oxidative stress is one of the major hallmark reasons underlying brain dysfunction. In the present manuscript, we have used CoCl2-induced hypoxic mice to investigate alterations in the activities of chief antioxidative stress enzymes- superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and expression of their genes Sod1 and Cat in the cerebral cortex as this model has not been routinely used for carrying out such study. Hypoxia mimetic mice model was accordingly developed by oral CoCl2 administration to mice and validated by analyzing alterations in the expression of the hypoxia inducible factor gene Hif-1α and its immediate responsive genes. Our Western blot data demonstrated that a dose of 40 mg/kg BW of CoCl2 was able to generate hypoxia like condition in mice in which Hif-1α and its immediate responsive genes-glutamate transporter-1 (Slc2a1) and erythropoietin (Epo) expression were up regulated. Our in-gel assay data indicated that SOD and CAT activities significantly declined and it was associated with significant down regulation of Sod1 and Epo expression as evident from our semi quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot data, which might be correlated with up regulation of Hif-1α expression in the cerebral cortex of the CoCl2-treated hypoxic mice. Our findings suggest that CoCl2-induced hypoxic mouse model is useful for studying alterations in the anti oxidative enzymes and biochemical/molecular/neurobiological analysis of hypoxia-induced alterations in brain function.

  17. Influence of the geometry around the manganese ion on the peroxidase and catalase activities of Mn(III)-Schiff base complexes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Fernández, M Ángeles; Bermejo, Manuel R; Fernández-García, M Isabel; González-Riopedre, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Doutón, M Jesús; Maneiro, Marcelino

    2011-12-01

    The peroxidase and catalase activities of eighteen manganese-Schiff base complexes have been studied. A correlation between the structure of the complexes and their catalytic activity is discussed on the basis of the variety of systems studied. Complexes 1-18 have the general formulae [MnL(n)(D)(2)](X)(H(2)O/CH(3)OH)(m), where L(n)=L(1)-L(13); D=H(2)O, CH(3)OH or Cl; m=0-2.5 and X=NO(3)(-), Cl(-), ClO(4)(-), CH(3)COO(-), C(2)H(5)COO(-) or C(5)H(11)COO(-). The dianionic tetradentate Schiff base ligands H(2)L(n) are the result of the condensation of different substituted (OMe-, OEt-, Br-, Cl-) hydroxybenzaldehyde with diverse diamines (1,2-diaminoethane for H(2)L(1)-H(2)L(2); 1,2-diamino-2-methylethane for H(2)L(3)-H(2)L(4); 1,2-diamino-2,2-dimethylethane for H(2)L(5); 1,2-diphenylenediamine for H(2)L(6)-H(2)L(7); 1,3-diaminopropane for H(2)L(8)-H(2)L(11); 1,3-diamino-2,2-dimethylpropane for H(2)L(12)-H(2)L(13)). The new Mn(III) complexes [MnL(1)(H(2)O)Cl](H(2)O)(2.5) (2), [MnL(2)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(H(2)O) (4), [MnL(6)(H(2)O)(2)][MnL(6)(CH(3)OH)(H(2)O)](NO(3))(2)(CH(3)OH) (8), [MnL(6)(H(2)O)(OAc)](H(2)O) (9) and [MnL(7)(H(2)O)(2)](NO(3))(CH(3)OH)(2) (12) were isolated and characterised by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility and conductivity measurements, redox studies, ESI spectrometry and UV, IR, paramagnetic (1)H NMR, and EPR spectroscopies. X-ray crystallographic studies of these complexes and of the ligand H(2)L(6) are also reported. The crystal structures of the rest of the complexes have been previously published and herein we have only revised their study by those techniques still not reported (EPR and (1)H NMR for some of these compounds) and which help to establish their structures in solution. Complexes 1-12 behave as more efficient mimics of peroxidase or catalase in contrast with 13-18. The analysis between the catalytic activity and the structure of the compounds emphasises the significance of the existence of a vacant or a labile position in the

  18. Tumour suppressor PTEN enhanced enzyme activity of GPx, SOD and catalase by suppression of PI3K/AKT pathway in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Akca, Hakan; Demiray, Aydin; Aslan, Mutay; Acikbas, Ibrahim; Tokgun, Onur

    2013-06-01

    Phosphates and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumour suppressor gene which dephosphorilates phosphoinositol 3,4,5 triphosphates. Therefore PTEN can regulate PI3K/AKT pathway in cells. Because of promoter methylation or gene deletion, PTEN expression is commonly decreased or lost in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. Therefore, we hypothesized that PTEN could regulate the activity of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase. We first recreated PTENwt, G129R and G129E expressions in lung cell lines, in which endogenous PTEN expression was not detected. Then, we showed that PTEN could suppress AKT activity by its lipid phosphatase domain. We then examined the effect of recreated PTEN expressions in NSCLC cells. While PTENwt expression caused enhanced activity of SOD, GPx and catalase in transfected cells lines, neither G129R nor G129E expression effected enzyme activities. These results suggest that PTEN can up-regulate SOD, GPx and catalase activity by inhibition of PI3K/AKT pathway in NSCLC cell lines.

  19. The Green Tea Component (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Sensitizes Primary Endothelial Cells to Arsenite-Induced Apoptosis by Decreasing c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Catalase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Choi, Ji-Young; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Byun, Catherine Jeonghae; Park, Jung-Hyun; Park, Jae Hoon; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The green tea component (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to sensitize many different types of cancer cells to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis, although it protects against non-cancerous primary cells against toxicity from certain conditions such as exposure to arsenic (As) or ultraviolet irradiation. Here, we found that EGCG promotes As-induced toxicity of primary-cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at doses in which treatment with each chemical alone had no such effect. Increased cell toxicity was accompanied by an increased condensed chromatin pattern and fragmented nuclei, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activity of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspases 3, 8 and 9, and Bax translocation into mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of an apoptotic signaling pathway. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed that compared with EGCG or As alone, combined EGCG and As (EGCG/As) treatment significantly induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was accompanied by decreased catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or catalase reversed EGCG/As-induced caspase activation and EC toxicity. EGCG/As also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was not reversed by catalase. However, pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed all of the observed effects of EGCG/As, suggesting that JNK may be the most upstream protein examined in this study. Finally, we also found that all the observed effects by EGCG/As are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, this is firstly to show that EGCG sensitizes non-cancerous EC to As-induced toxicity through ROS-mediated apoptosis, which was attributed at least in part to a JNK-activated decrease in catalase activity.

  20. The Green Tea Component (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Sensitizes Primary Endothelial Cells to Arsenite-Induced Apoptosis by Decreasing c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Catalase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Byun, Catherine Jeonghae; Park, Jung-Hyun; Park, Jae Hoon; Cho, Ho-Seong; Cho, Sung-Jin; Jo, Sangmee Ahn; Jo, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The green tea component (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) has been shown to sensitize many different types of cancer cells to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis, although it protects against non-cancerous primary cells against toxicity from certain conditions such as exposure to arsenic (As) or ultraviolet irradiation. Here, we found that EGCG promotes As-induced toxicity of primary-cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) at doses in which treatment with each chemical alone had no such effect. Increased cell toxicity was accompanied by an increased condensed chromatin pattern and fragmented nuclei, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), activity of the pro-apoptotic enzymes caspases 3, 8 and 9, and Bax translocation into mitochondria, suggesting the involvement of an apoptotic signaling pathway. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed that compared with EGCG or As alone, combined EGCG and As (EGCG/As) treatment significantly induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was accompanied by decreased catalase activity and increased lipid peroxidation. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine or catalase reversed EGCG/As-induced caspase activation and EC toxicity. EGCG/As also increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), which was not reversed by catalase. However, pretreatment with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed all of the observed effects of EGCG/As, suggesting that JNK may be the most upstream protein examined in this study. Finally, we also found that all the observed effects by EGCG/As are true for other types of EC tested. In conclusion, this is firstly to show that EGCG sensitizes non-cancerous EC to As-induced toxicity through ROS-mediated apoptosis, which was attributed at least in part to a JNK-activated decrease in catalase activity. PMID:26375285

  1. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  2. AnkB, a Periplasmic Ankyrin-Like Protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Is Required for Optimal Catalase B (KatB) Activity and Resistance to Hydrogen Peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Michael L.; Alsabbagh, Eyad; Ma, Ju-Fang; Ochsner, Urs A.; Klotz, Martin G.; Beveridge, Terry J.; Blumenthal, Kenneth M.; Niederhoffer, Eric C.; Morris, Randall E.; Needham, David; Dean, Gary E.; Wani, Maqsood A.; Hassett, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    In this study, we have cloned the ankB gene, encoding an ankyrin-like protein in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ankB gene is composed of 549 bp encoding a protein of 183 amino acids that possesses four 33-amino-acid ankyrin repeats that are a hallmark of erythrocyte and brain ankyrins. The location of ankB is 57 bp downstream of katB, encoding a hydrogen peroxide-inducible catalase, KatB. Monomeric AnkB is a 19.4-kDa protein with a pI of 5.5 that possesses 22 primarily hydrophobic amino acids at residues 3 to 25, predicting an inner-membrane-spanning motif with the N terminus in the cytoplasm and the C terminus in the periplasm. Such an orientation in the cytoplasmic membrane and, ultimately, periplasmic space was confirmed using AnkB-BlaM and AnkB-PhoA protein fusions. Circular dichroism analysis of recombinant AnkB minus its signal peptide revealed a secondary structure that is ∼65% α-helical. RNase protection and KatB- and AnkB-LacZ translational fusion analyses indicated that katB and ankB are part of a small operon whose transcription is induced dramatically by H2O2, and controlled by the global transactivator OxyR. Interestingly, unlike the spherical nature of ankyrin-deficient erythrocytes, the cellular morphology of an ankB mutant was identical to that of wild-type bacteria, yet the mutant produced more membrane vesicles. The mutant also exhibited a fourfold reduction in KatB activity and increased sensitivity to H2O2, phenotypes that could be complemented in trans by a plasmid constitutively expressing ankB. Our results suggest that AnkB may form an antioxidant scaffolding with KatB in the periplasm at the cytoplasmic membrane, thus providing a protective lattice work for optimal H2O2 detoxification. PMID:10913088

  3. An ancient relative of cyclooxygenase in cyanobacteria is a linoleate 10S-dioxygenase that works in tandem with a catalase-related protein with specific 10S-hydroperoxide lyase activity.

    PubMed

    Brash, Alan R; Niraula, Narayan P; Boeglin, William E; Mashhadi, Zahra

    2014-05-09

    In the course of exploring the scope of catalase-related hemoprotein reactivity toward fatty acid hydroperoxides, we detected a novel candidate in the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102. The immediate neighboring upstream gene, annotated as "cyclooxygenase-2," appeared to be a potential fatty acid heme dioxygenase. We cloned both genes and expressed the cDNAs in Escherichia coli, confirming their hemoprotein character. Oxygen electrode recordings demonstrated a rapid (>100 turnovers/s) reaction of the heme dioxygenase with oleic and linoleic acids. HPLC, including chiral column analysis, UV, and GC-MS of the oxygenated products, identified a novel 10S-dioxygenase activity. The catalase-related hemoprotein reacted rapidly and specifically with linoleate 10S-hydroperoxide (>2,500 turnovers/s) with a hydroperoxide lyase activity specific for the 10S-hydroperoxy enantiomer. The products were identified by NMR as (8E)10-oxo-decenoic acid and the C8 fragments, 1-octen-3-ol and 2Z-octen-1-ol, in ∼3:1 ratio. Chiral HPLC analysis established strict enzymatic control in formation of the 3R alcohol configuration (99% enantiomeric excess) and contrasted with racemic 1-octen-3-ol formed in reaction of linoleate 10S-hydroperoxide with hematin or ferrous ions. The Nostoc linoleate 10S-dioxygenase, the sequence of which contains the signature catalytic sequence of cyclooxygenases and fungal linoleate dioxygenases (YRWH), appears to be a heme dioxygenase ancestor. The novel activity of the lyase expands the known reactions of catalase-related proteins and functions in Nostoc in specific transformation of the 10S-hydroperoxylinoleate.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt(III), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) Mononuclear Complexes with the Ligand 1,3-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-2-propanol and Their Catalase-Like Activity.

    PubMed

    Pires, Bianca M; Silva, Daniel M; Visentin, Lorenzo C; Rodrigues, Bernardo L; Carvalho, Nakédia M F; Faria, Roberto B

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of two new mononuclear complexes with the ligand 1,3-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-2-propanol (HL), [Co(L)(H2O)](ClO4)2 (1), [Ni(HL)](ClO4)2 (2), as well as the known complex [Cu(HL)](ClO4)2 (3) for comparison. Their abilities to catalyze the dismutation of H2O2 and the oxidation of cyclohexane were investigated. The complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, electronic and infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and conductivity measurements. The X-ray structures showed that the nickel (2) and copper (3) complexes are tetracoordinated, with the metal ion bound to the nitrogen atoms of the ligand. On the other hand, the cobalt complex (1) is hexacoordinated, possessing additional bonds to the alkoxo group of the ligand and to a water molecule. Neither of the complexes was able to catalyze the oxidation of cyclohexane, but all of them exhibited catalase-like activity, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, which suggest resemblance with the catalase natural enzymes. The catalytic activity followed the order: [Ni(HL)](ClO4)2 (2) > [Cu(HL)](ClO4)2 (3) > [Co(L)(H2O)](ClO4)2 (1). As far as we know, this is the first description of a nickel complex presenting a significant catalase-like activity.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of Cobalt(III), Nickel(II) and Copper(II) Mononuclear Complexes with the Ligand 1,3-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-2-propanol and Their Catalase-Like Activity

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel M.; Visentin, Lorenzo C.; Rodrigues, Bernardo L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present the synthesis and characterization of two new mononuclear complexes with the ligand 1,3-bis[(2-aminoethyl)amino]-2-propanol (HL), [Co(L)(H2O)](ClO4)2 (1), [Ni(HL)](ClO4)2 (2), as well as the known complex [Cu(HL)](ClO4)2 (3) for comparison. Their abilities to catalyze the dismutation of H2O2 and the oxidation of cyclohexane were investigated. The complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, electronic and infrared spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and conductivity measurements. The X-ray structures showed that the nickel (2) and copper (3) complexes are tetracoordinated, with the metal ion bound to the nitrogen atoms of the ligand. On the other hand, the cobalt complex (1) is hexacoordinated, possessing additional bonds to the alkoxo group of the ligand and to a water molecule. Neither of the complexes was able to catalyze the oxidation of cyclohexane, but all of them exhibited catalase-like activity, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, which suggest resemblance with the catalase natural enzymes. The catalytic activity followed the order: [Ni(HL)](ClO4)2 (2) > [Cu(HL)](ClO4)2 (3) > [Co(L)(H2O)](ClO4)2 (1). As far as we know, this is the first description of a nickel complex presenting a significant catalase-like activity. PMID:26379038

  6. Biochemical effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content on teleostean fishes.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Palas; Pal, Sandipan; Mukherjee, Aloke Kumar; Ghosh, Apurba Ratan

    2014-09-01

    Effects of glyphosate based herbicide, Excel Mera 71 at a dose of 17.20mg/l on enzyme activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and protein content were measured in different tissues of two Indian air-breathing teleosts, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) during an exposure period of 30 days under laboratory condition. AChE activity was significantly increased in all the investigated tissues of both fish species and maximum elevation was observed in brain of H. fossilis, while spinal cord of A. testudineus showed minimum increment. Fishes showed significant increase LPO levels in all the tissues; highest was observed in gill of A. testudineus but lowest LPO level was observed in muscle of H. fossilis. CAT was also enhanced in both the fishes, while GST activity in liver diminished substantially and minimum was observed in liver of A. testudineus. Total protein content showed decreased value in all the tissues, maximum reduction was observed in liver and minimum in brain of A. testudineus and H. fossilis respectively. The results indicated that Excel Mera 71 caused serious alterations in the enzyme activities resulting into severe deterioration of fish health; so, AChE, LPO, CAT and GST can be used as suitable indicators of herbicidal toxicity.

  7. Exogenous Melatonin Suppresses Dark-Induced Leaf Senescence by Activating the Superoxide Dismutase-Catalase Antioxidant Pathway and Down-Regulating Chlorophyll Degradation in Excised Leaves of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Huibin; Xu, Bin; Li, Jing; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a typical symptom in plants exposed to dark and may be regulated by plant growth regulators. The objective of this study was to determine whether exogenous application of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) suppresses dark-induced leaf senescence and the effects of melatonin on reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system and chlorophyll degradation pathway in perennial grass species. Mature perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cv. ‘Pinnacle’) leaves were excised and incubated in 3 mM 2-(N-morpholino) ethanesulfonic buffer (pH 5.8) supplemented with melatonin or water (control) and exposed to dark treatment for 8 days. Leaves treated with melatonin maintained significantly higher endogenous melatonin level, chlorophyll content, photochemical efficiency, and cell membrane stability expressed by lower electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content compared to the control. Exogenous melatonin treatment also reduced the transcript level of chlorophyll degradation-associated genes and senescence marker genes (LpSAG12.1, Lph36, and Lpl69) during the dark treatment. The endogenous O2- production rate and H2O2 content were significantly lower in these excised leaves treated with melatonin compared to the water control. Exogenous melatonin treatment caused increases in enzymatic activity and transcript levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase but had no significant effects on ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase. The content of non-enzymatic antioxidants, such as ascorbate and dehydroascorbate, were decreased by melatonin treatment, while the content of glutathione and oxidized glutathione was not affected by melatonin. These results suggest that the suppression of dark-induced leaf senescence by exogenous melatonin may be associated with its roles in regulating ROS scavenging through activating the superoxide dismutase-catalase enzymatic antioxidant pathway and

  8. Effects of Dietary Pb and Cd and Their Combination on Glutathion-S-Transferase and Catalase Enzyme Activities in Digestive Gland and Foot of the Green Garden Snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778).

    PubMed

    Mleiki, Anwar; Marigómez, Ionan; El Menif, Najoua Trigui

    2015-06-01

    The present study was focused on the assessment of glutathion-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities in the digestive gland and foot of the land snail, Cantareus apertus (Born, 1778), exposed to different nominal dietary concentrations of Pb (25 and 2500 mg Pb/Kg), Cd (5 and 100 mg Cd/Kg) and their combination (25 mg Pb + 5 mg Cd/Kg and 2500 mg Pb + 100 mg Cd/Kg) for 7 and 60 days. GST activity was significantly increased after 7 and 60 days exposure to the highest concentration of Pb, Cd and their combination. The levels of CAT activity were different in the two studied organs but in both cases it resulted increased after 7 and 60 days of exposure, which varied significantly between metals and dietary concentrations. Therefore, it can be concluded that GST and CAT enzymes in digestive gland and foot of C. apertus are responsive to Cd, Pb and their combination, whereby they are suitable to be included in a battery of biomarkers for ecosystem health assessment in metal polluted soils using this species as sentinel.

  9. Radiation immobilization of catalase and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guanghui, Wang; Hongfei, Ha; Xia, Wang; Jilan, Wu

    Catalase was immobilized by chemical method on porous polyacrylamide particles which produced through radiation polymerization of acrylamide monomer at low temperature (-78°C). Activity of immobilized catalase was enhanced distinctly by joining a chemical "arm" to the support. The method of recovery of catalase activity on immobilized polymer was found by soaking it in certain buffer. The treatment of H 2O 2 both in aqueous solution and alcoholic solution by using the immobilized catalase was performed.

  10. Modification of catalase by chondroitin sulfate.

    PubMed

    Maksimenko, A V; Tischenko, E G

    1997-10-01

    Catalase was chemically modified by sodium chondroitin sulfate using the benzoquinone binding method. Thus, 40-42% of the catalase preparation was modified. Treatment of catalase and superoxide dismutase with benzoquinone-activated chondroitin sulfate results in a bienzymic conjugate with electrophoretically heterogenous composition. The yield of the products and their residual catalytic activity indicate that the method can be used for the preparation of modified catalase and the bienzymic conjugate to study their efficiency in vivo.

  11. Polymer-anchored peroxo compounds of vanadium(V) and molybdenum(VI): synthesis, stability, and their activities with alkaline phosphatase and catalase.

    PubMed

    Boruah, Jeena Jyoti; Kalita, Diganta; Das, Siva Prasad; Paul, Saurav; Islam, Nashreen S

    2011-09-05

    We generated a series of new polymer-bound peroxo complexes of vanadium(V) and molybdenum(VI) of the type [VO(O(2))(2)(sulfonate)]-PSS [PSS = poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate)] (PV(3)), [V(2)O(2)(O(2))(4)(carboxylate)VO(O(2))(2)(sulfonate)]-PSSM [PSSM = poly(sodium styrene sulfonate-co-maleate)] (PV(4)), [Mo(2)O(2)(O(2))(4)(carboxylate)]-PA [PA = poly(sodium acrylate)] (PMo(1)), [MoO(O(2))(2)(carboxylate)]-PMA [PMA = poly(sodium methacrylate)] (PMo(2)), and [MoO(O(2))(2)(amide)]-PAm [PAm = poly(acrylamide)] (PMo(3)) by reacting V(2)O(5) (for PV(3) and PV(4)) or H(2)MoO(4) (for PMo(1), PMo(2), and PMo(3)) with H(2)O(2) and the respective water-soluble macromolecular ligand at pH 5-6. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis (CHN and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy), spectral studies (UV-vis, IR, (13)C NMR, (51)V NMR, and (95) Mo NMR), thermal (TGA) as well as scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and EDX analysis. It has been demonstrated that compounds retain their structural integrity in solutions of a wide range of pH values and are approximately 100 times weaker as substrate to the enzyme catalase relative to H(2)O(2), its natural substrate. The effect of the title compounds, along with previously reported compounds [V(2)O(2)(O(2))(4)(carboxylate)]-PA (PV(1)) and [VO(O(2))(2)(carboxylate)]-PMA (PV(2)) on rabbit intestine alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been investigated and compared with the effect induced by the free diperoxometallates viz. Na[VO(O(2))(2)(H(2)O)] (DPV), [MoO(O(2))(2)(glycine)(H(2)O)] (DMo(1)), and [MoO(O(2))(2)(asparagine)(H(2)O)] (DMo(2)). It has been observed that although all the compounds tested are potent inhibitors of the enzyme, the polymer-bound and neat complexes act via distinct mechanisms. Each of the macromolecular compounds is a classical noncompetitive inhibitor of ALP. In contrast, the action of neat pV and heteroligand pMo compounds on the enzyme function is consistent with a mixed type of inhibition.

  12. Similarities between catalase and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Guenthner, T M; Qato, M; Whalen, R; Glomb, S

    1989-01-01

    Cytosolic epoxide hydrolase, measured as trans-stilbene oxide hydrolase activity, was isolated and purified from human and guinea pig liver cytosol. Antiserum to the guinea pig liver preparation reacted strongly with bovine liver catalase. We determined that this lack of selectivity of the antiserum was due to catalase contamination of the epoxide hydrolase preparation. We also determined that several commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with cytosolic epoxide hydrolase. Our human epoxide hydrolase preparation contained no detectable catalase contamination, yet antiserum to this protein also cross-reacted slightly with catalase, indicating some intrinsic similarity between the two enzymes. We conclude that catalase and cytosolic epoxide hydrolase contain some similar immunogenic epitopes, and we surmise that similarities between the subunits of these two enzymes may lead to their partial copurification. Functional similarities between the two enzymes are also demonstrated, as several compounds that inhibit catalase are also shown to inhibit cytosolic epoxide hydrolase activity in the same concentration range and rank order.

  13. Discovery of Catalases in Members of the Chlamydiales Order

    PubMed Central

    Rusconi, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Catalase is an important virulence factor for survival in macrophages and other phagocytic cells. In Chlamydiaceae, no catalase had been described so far. With the sequencing and annotation of the full genomes of Chlamydia-related bacteria, the presence of different catalase-encoding genes has been documented. However, their distribution in the Chlamydiales order and the functionality of these catalases remain unknown. Phylogeny of chlamydial catalases was inferred using MrBayes, maximum likelihood, and maximum parsimony algorithms, allowing the description of three clade 3 and two clade 2 catalases. Only monofunctional catalases were found (no catalase-peroxidase or Mn-catalase). All presented a conserved catalytic domain and tertiary structure. Enzymatic activity of cloned chlamydial catalases was assessed by measuring hydrogen peroxide degradation. The catalases are enzymatically active with different efficiencies. The catalase of Parachlamydia acanthamoebae is the least efficient of all (its catalytic activity was 2 logs lower than that of Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we hypothesize that an ancestral class 2 catalase probably was present in the common ancestor of all current Chlamydiales but was retained only in Criblamydia sequanensis and Neochlamydia hartmannellae. The catalases of class 3, present in Estrella lausannensis and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, probably were acquired by lateral gene transfer from Rhizobiales, whereas for Waddlia chondrophila they likely originated from Legionellales or Actinomycetales. The acquisition of catalases on several occasions in the Chlamydiales suggests the importance of this enzyme for the bacteria in their host environment. PMID:23729651

  14. A dinuclear manganese(II) complex with the [Mn(2)(mu-O(2)CCH(3))(3)](+) core: synthesis, structure, characterization, electroinduced transformation, and catalase-like activity.

    PubMed

    Romero, Isabel; Dubois, Lionel; Collomb, Marie-Noëlle; Deronzier, Alain; Latour, Jean-Marc; Pécaut, Jacques

    2002-04-08

    catalase-like activity has shown that the same species are present in the reaction mixture albeit in slightly different proportions. 2 operates probably along a mechanism different from that of 3 and 5, and the formation of 3 competes with the disproportionation reaction catalyzed by 2. Indeed a solution of 2 exhibits the same activity as 3 for the disproportionation reaction of a second batch of H(2)O(2) indicating that 3 is formed in the course of the reaction.

  15. Fungal catalases: function, phylogenetic origin and structure.

    PubMed

    Hansberg, Wilhelm; Salas-Lizana, Rodolfo; Domínguez, Laura

    2012-09-15

    Most fungi have several monofunctional heme-catalases. Filamentous ascomycetes (Pezizomycotina) have two types of large-size subunit catalases (L1 and L2). L2-type are usually induced by different stressors and are extracellular enzymes; those from the L1-type are not inducible and accumulate in asexual spores. L2 catalases are important for growth and the start of cell differentiation, while L1 are required for spore germination. In addition, pezizomycetes have one to four small-size subunit catalases. Yeasts (Saccharomycotina) do not have large-subunit catalases and generally have one peroxisomal and one cytosolic small-subunit catalase. Small-subunit catalases are inhibited by substrate while large-subunit catalases are activated by H(2)O(2). Some small-subunit catalases bind NADPH preventing inhibition by substrate. We present a phylogenetic analysis revealing one or two events of horizontal gene transfers from Actinobacteria to a fungal ancestor before fungal diversification, as the origin of large-size subunit catalases. Other possible horizontal transfers of small- and large-subunit catalases genes were detected and one from bacteria to the fungus Malassezia globosa was analyzed in detail. All L2-type catalases analyzed presented a secretion signal peptide. Mucorales preserved only L2-type catalases, with one containing a secretion signal if two or more are present. Basidiomycetes have only L1-type catalases, all lacking signal peptide. Fungal small-size catalases are related to animal catalases and probably evolved from a common ancestor. However, there are several groups of small-size catalases. In particular, a conserved group of fungal sequences resemble plant catalases, whose phylogenetic origin was traced to a group of bacteria. This group probably has the heme orientation of plant catalases and could in principle bind NADPH. From almost a hundred small-subunit catalases only one fourth has a peroxisomal localization signal and in fact many fungi lack

  16. In vitro assembly of catalase.

    PubMed

    Baureder, Michael; Barane, Elisabeth; Hederstedt, Lars

    2014-10-10

    Most aerobic organisms contain catalase, which functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide. Typical catalases are structurally complex homo-tetrameric enzymes with one heme prosthetic group buried in each subunit. It is not known how catalase in the cell is assembled from its constituents. The bacterium Enterococcus faecalis cannot synthesize heme but can acquire it from the environment to form a cytoplasmic catalase. We have in E. faecalis monitored production of the enzyme polypeptide (KatA) depending on the availability of heme and used our findings to devise a procedure for the purification of preparative amounts of in vivo-synthesized apocatalase. We show that fully active catalase can be obtained in vitro by incubating isolated apoprotein with hemin. We have characterized features of the assembly process and describe a temperature-trapped hemylated intermediate of the enzyme maturation process. Hemylation of apocatalase does not require auxiliary cell components, but rapid assembly of active enzyme seemingly is assisted in the cell. Our findings provide insight about catalase assembly and offer new experimental possibilities for detailed studies of this process.

  17. Role of oxyradicals in the inactivation of catalase by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, C.; Hassan, H.M. )

    1988-01-01

    The antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, are inactivated upon exposure to ozone. In this study, the mechanism of this inactivation was examined using catalase as a model system. The data show that the inactivation of catalase is dependent on ozone concentration, time of exposure, and pH. Loss of catalase activity is accompanied with loss of the heme spectra. Tiron, desferal-Mn, trolox-c, and pyruvate protect the enzyme against ozone inactivation. SOD is less effective due to its inactivation by ozone. On the other hand, alcohols do not provide significant protection. The data suggest the possible involvement of superoxide radicals in the inactivation of catalase by ozone.

  18. Role of oxyradicals in the inactivation of catalase by ozone.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, C; Hassan, H M

    1988-01-01

    The antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, are inactivated upon exposure to ozone. In this study, the mechanism of this inactivation was examined using catalase as a model system. The data show that the inactivation of catalase is dependent on ozone concentration, time of exposure, and pH. Loss of catalase activity is accompanied with loss of the heme spectra. Tiron, desferal-Mn, trolox-c, and pyruvate protect the enzyme against ozone inactivation. SOD is less effective due to its inactivation by ozone. On the other hand, alcohols do not provide significant protection. The data suggest the possible involvement of superoxide radicals in the inactivation of catalase by ozone.

  19. Loading PEG-Catalase into Filamentous and Spherical Polymer Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Eric A.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Arguiri, Evguenia; Vardon, Vanessa; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Muzykantov, Vladimir R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Based on a unique phase alignment that occurs during formulation, we postulated that PEG-ylation of the cargo enzyme would enhance its encapsulation within diblock copolymer nanocarriers and thus resistance to proteases. Methods A freeze–thaw modified double emulsion technique was utilized to encapsulate either the catalytically active enzyme catalase (MW ~250 kDa) or PEG-catalase in PEG–PLA polymer nanocarriers (PNC). Spectrophotometer measurement of substrate depletion was utilized to monitor enzyme activity. Isotope labeling of the enzyme was used in conjunction with activity measurements to determine PNC loading efficiency and PNC-enzyme resistance to proteases. This labeling also enabled blood clearance measurements of PNC-loaded and non-loaded enzymes in mice. Results Non-loaded PEG-catalase exhibited longer circulation times than catalase, but was equally susceptible to proteolysis. Modulation of the ratio of relatively hydrophilic to hydrophobic domains in the diblock PEG–PLA copolymer provided either filamentous or spherical PNC loaded with PEG-catalase. For both PNC geometries, encapsulation and resistance to proteases of the resultant PNC-loaded enzyme were more effective for PEG-catalase than catalase. Isotope tracing showed similar blood levels of PNC-loaded and free PEG-catalase in mice. Conclusions PEGylation enhances active catalase loading within PNC and resistance to protease degradation, relative to unloaded PEG-catalase. PMID:18956141

  20. Studies on the catalase of Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed Central

    Howard, D H

    1983-01-01

    Factors which control the levels of catalase within yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum were studied. Only a small fraction of the total catalase activity could be detected in whole cells. The bulk of the activity was revealed in cell-free extracts or in cells permeabilized with acetone. The formation of the enzyme was regulated by glucose and by oxygen. There were large, consistent differences in the levels of catalase among strains of H. capsulatum. The sensitivity of the strains to H2O2 toxicity also varied remarkably. Peroxidase activity could not be detected in cell-free extracts of the strains. Resistance to H2O2 did not correspond to levels of catalase. There was no obvious correlation of H2O2 sensitivity and virulence among the strains. PMID:6301990

  1. Catalase-positive microbial detection by using different ultrasonic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S. K.; Durán, C.; Elvira, L.

    2012-12-01

    A method for rapid detection of catalase enzyme activity using ultrasonic parameters is presented in this work. It is based on the detection of the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide molecule into water and oxygen induced by the enzyme catalase. A special medium was made to amplify changes produced by catalase enzyme during the hydrolysis process. Enzymatic process can be monitored by means of ultrasonic parameters such as wave amplitude, time of flight (TOF), and backscattering measurements which are sensitive to oxygen bubble production. It is shown that catalase activity of the order of 10-3unit/ml can be detected using different ultrasonic parameters. The sensitivity provided by them is discussed.

  2. Antioxidant activity of banana flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S; Presannakumar, G; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidant activity of flavonoids from banana (Musa paradisiaca) was studied in rats fed normal as well as high fat diets. Concentrations of peroxidation products namely malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides and conjugated diens were significantly decreased whereas the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced significantly. Concentrations of glutathione were also elevated in the treated animals.

  3. [Immobilization of catalase on Fe (III) modified collagen fiber].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuang; Song, Na; Liao, Xuepin; Shi, Bi

    2011-07-01

    Fe (III) modified collagen fibers were used to immobilize catalase through the cross-linking of glutaraldehyde. The loading amount of catalase on the supporting matrix was 16.7 mg/g, and 35% enzymatic activity was remained. A series of experiments were conducted on free and immobilized catalase in order to investigate their optimal pH and temperature, and the thermal, storage and operation stability. Results suggest that the free and immobilized catalase prefer similar pH and temperature condition, which were pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C. It should be noted that the thermal stability of catalase was considerably improved after immobilization owing to the fact that the enzyme kept 30% of relative activity after incubation at 75 degrees C for 5 h. On the contrary, the free catalase was completely inactive. As for the storage stability, the immobilized catalase kept 88% of relative activity after stored at room temperature for 12 days while the free one was completely inactive under the same conditions. Moreover, the immobilized catalase preserved 57% of relative activity after being reused 26 times, exhibiting excellent operation stability. Consequently, this investigation suggests that collagen fiber can be used as excellent supporting matrix for the immobilization of catalase, and it is potential to be used for the immobilization of similar enzymes.

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and catalase activity of a water-soluble diMn(III) complex of a sulphonato-substituted Schiff base ligand: an efficient catalyst for H2O2 disproportionation.

    PubMed

    Palopoli, Claudia; Bruzzo, Natalia; Hureau, Christelle; Ladeira, Sonia; Murgida, Daniel; Signorella, Sandra

    2011-09-19

    A new diMn(III) complex, Na[Mn(2)(3-Me-5-SO(3)-salpentO)(μ-MeO)(μ-AcO)(H(2)O)]·4H(2)O (1), where salpentOH = 1,5-bis(salicylidenamino) pentan-3-ol, was synthesized and structurally characterized. The complex possesses a bis(μ-alkoxo)(μ-acetato) triply bridged diMn(III) core, the structure of which is retained upon dissolution. Complex 1 is highly efficient to disproportionate H(2)O(2) in an aqueous solution of pH ≥ 8.5 or in DMF, with only a slight decrease of activity. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, EPR, and UV-vis spectroscopy used to monitor the H(2)O(2) disproportionation in buffered basic medium, suggest that the major active form of the catalyst during cycling occurs in the Mn(III)(2) oxidation state and that the starting complex retains the dinuclearity and composition during catalysis, with the acetate that moves from bridging to terminal ligand. UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy of H(2)O(2) + 1 + Bu(4)NOH mixtures in DMF suggest that the catalytic cycle involves Mn(III)(2)/Mn(IV)(2) oxidation levels. At pH 10.6 in an Et(3)N/Et(3)NH(+) buffer, complex 1 catalyzes dismutation of H(2)O(2) with saturation kinetics on the substrate, first order dependence on the catalyst, and k(cat)/K(M) = 16(1) × 10(2) s(-1) M(-1). During catalysis, the exogenous base contributes to retain the integrity of the bis(μ-alkoxo) doubly bridged diMn core and favors the formation of the catalyst-peroxide adduct (low value of K(M)), rendering 1 a highly efficient catalyst for H(2)O(2) disproportionation.

  5. Trinuclear manganese complexes of unsymmetrical polypodal diamino N3O3 ligands with an unusual [Mn3(μ-OR)4]5+ triangular core: synthesis, characterization, and catalase activity.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Gabriela N; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Rivière, Eric; Mallet-Ladeira, Sonia; Hureau, Christelle; Signorella, Sandra R

    2014-03-03

    Two new tri-Mn(III) complexes of general formula [Mn3L2(μ-OH)(OAc)]ClO4 (H3L = 1-[N-(2-pyridylmethyl),N-(2-hydroxybenzyl)amino]-3-[N'-(2-hydroxybenzyl),N'-(4-X-benzyl)amino]propan-2-ol; 1ClO4, X = Me; 2ClO4, X = H) have been prepared and characterized. X-ray diffraction analysis of 1ClO4 reveals that the complex cation possesses a Mn3(μ-alkoxo)2(μ-hydroxo)(μ-phenoxo)(4+) core, with the three Mn atoms bound to two fully deprotonated N3O3 chelating L(3-), one exogenous acetato ligand, and one hydroxo bridge, the structure of which is retained upon dissolution in acetonitrile or methanol. The three Mn atoms occupy the vertices of a nearly isosceles triangle (Mn1···Mn3 = 3.6374(12) Å, Mn2···Mn3 3.5583(13) Å, and Mn1···Mn2 3.2400(12) Å), with one substitution-labile site on the apical Mn ion occupied by terminally bound monodentate acetate. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility studies indicate the presence of predominant antiferromagnetic intramolecular interactions between Mn(III) ions in 1ClO4. Complexes 1ClO4 and 2ClO4 decompose H2O2 at comparable rates upon initial binding of peroxide through acetate substitution, with retention of core structure during catalysis. Kinetic and spectroscopic studies suggest that these complexes employ the [Mn-(μ-oxo/aquo)-Mn](4+) moiety to activate peroxide, with the additional (μ-alkoxo)(μ-phenoxo)Mn(μ-alkoxo) metallobridge carrying out a structural function.

  6. Inhibition of host cell catalase by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: a possible mechanism for cell injury.

    PubMed Central

    Almagor, M; Yatziv, S; Kahane, I

    1983-01-01

    This study demonstrates that viable Mycoplasma pneumoniae cells inhibit catalase activity in several types of intact human cells as well as in solution. Human erythrocyte catalase was inhibited up to 72%, and the inhibition of catalase in human cultured skin fibroblasts, lung carcinoma epithelial cells, and ciliated epithelial cells from human nasal polyps ranged between 75 and 80%. UV light-killed mycoplasmas failed to inhibit catalase activity both in intact cells and in vitro. After M. pneumoniae infection of human cultured skin fibroblasts, the level of malonyldialdehyde, an indicator for membrane lipid peroxidation, was 3.5 times higher than in control fibroblasts. Virulent M. pneumoniae completely inhibited catalase activity in solution, whereas the nonvirulent strains had a lesser ability to inhibit catalase activity. These findings suggest that as a result of host cell catalase inhibition by M. pneumoniae, the toxicity of the hydrogen peroxide generated by the microorganism and the affected cell is enhanced, thereby inducing host cell damage. PMID:6407999

  7. Immobilization of bovine catalase onto magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Doğaç, Yasemin İspirli; Teke, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this study is to achieve carrier-bound immobilization of catalase onto magnetic particles (Fe₃O₄ and Fe₂O₃NiO₂ · H₂O) to specify the optimum conditions of immobilization. Removal of H2O2 and the properties of immobilized sets were also investigated. To that end, adsorption and then cross-linking methods onto magnetic particles were performed. The optimum immobilization conditions were found for catalase: immobilization time (15 min for Fe₃O₄; 10 min for Fe2O₃NiO₂ · H₂O), the initial enzyme concentration (1 mg/mL), amount of magnetic particles (25 mg), and glutaraldehyde concentration (3%). The activity reaction conditions (optimum temperature, optimum pH, pH stability, thermal stability, operational stability, and reusability) were characterized. Also kinetic parameters were calculated by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The optimum pH values were found to be 7.0, 7.0, and 8.0 for free enzyme, Fe₃O₄-immobilized catalases, and Fe₂O₃NiO₂ · H₂O-immobilized catalases, respectively. All immobilized catalase systems displayed the optimum temperature between 25 and 35°C. Reusability studies showed that Fe₃O₄-immobilized catalase can be used 11 times with 50% loss in original activity, while Fe2O₃NiO₂ · H₂O-immobilized catalase lost 67% of activity after the same number of uses. Furthermore, immobilized catalase systems exhibited improved thermal and pH stability. The results transparently indicate that it is possible to have binding between enzyme and magnetic nanoparticles.

  8. Active-R filter

    DOEpatents

    Soderstrand, Michael A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational amplifier-type active filter in which the only capacitor in the circuit is the compensating capacitance of the operational amplifiers, the various feedback and coupling elements being essentially solely resistive.

  9. Molecular characterization of a catalase from Hydra vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Dash, Bhagirathi; Phillips, Timothy D

    2012-06-15

    Catalase, an antioxidant and hydroperoxidase enzyme protects the cellular environment from harmful effects of hydrogen peroxide by facilitating its degradation to oxygen and water. Molecular information on a cnidarian catalase and/or peroxidase is, however, limited. In this work an apparent full length cDNA sequence coding for a catalase (HvCatalase) was isolated from Hydra vulgaris using 3'- and 5'- (RLM) RACE approaches. The 1859 bp HvCatalase cDNA included an open reading frame of 1518 bp encoding a putative protein of 505 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 57.44 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of HvCatalase contained several highly conserved motifs including the heme-ligand signature sequence RLFSYGDTH and the active site signature FXRERIPERVVHAKGXGA. A comparative analysis showed the presence of conserved catalytic amino acids [His(71), Asn(145), and Tyr(354)] in HvCatalase as well. Homology modeling indicated the presence of the conserved features of mammalian catalase fold. Hydrae exposed to thermal, starvation, metal and oxidative stress responded by regulating its catalase mRNA transcription. These results indicated that the HvCatalase gene is involved in the cellular stress response and (anti)oxidative processes triggered by stressor and contaminant exposure.

  10. High catalase production by Rhizobium radiobacter strain 2-1.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Mami; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Katayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Kazuhiko; Kawasaki, Yoshio; Fuji, Ryujiro

    2008-12-01

    To promote the application of catalase for treating wastewater containing hydrogen peroxide, bacteria exhibiting high catalase activity were screened. A bacterium, designated strain 2-1, with high catalase activity was isolated from the wastewater of a beverage factory that uses hydrogen peroxide. Strain 2-1 was identified as Rhizobium radiobacter (formerly known as Agrobacterium tumefaciens) on the basis of both phenotypic and genotypic characterizations. Although some strains of R. radiobacter are known plant pathogens, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that strain 2-1 has no phytopathogenic factor. Compared with a type strain of R. radiobacter, the specific catalase activity of strain 2-1 was approximately 1000-fold. Moreover, Strain 2-1 grew faster and exhibited considerably higher catalase activity than other microorganisms that have been used for industrial catalase production. Strain 2-1 is harmless to humans and the environment and produces catalase efficiently, suggesting that strain 2-1 is a good resource for the mass production of catalase for the treatment of hydrogen peroxide-containing wastewater.

  11. Novel insights in mammalian catalase heme maturation: effect of NO and thioredoxin-1.

    PubMed

    Chakravarti, Ritu; Gupta, Karishma; Majors, Alana; Ruple, Lisa; Aronica, Mark; Stuehr, Dennis J

    2015-05-01

    Catalase is a tetrameric heme-containing enzyme with essential antioxidant functions in biology. Multiple factors including nitric oxide (NO) have been shown to attenuate its activity. However, the possible impact of NO in relation to the maturation of active catalase, including its heme acquisition and tetramer formation, has not been investigated. We found that NO attenuates heme insertion into catalase in both short-term and long-term incubations. The NO inhibition in catalase heme incorporation was associated with defective oligomerization of catalase, such that inactive catalase monomers and dimers accumulated in place of the mature tetrameric enzyme. We also found that GAPDH plays a key role in mediating these NO effects on the structure and activity of catalase. Moreover, the NO sensitivity of catalase maturation could be altered up or down by manipulating the cellular expression level or activity of thioredoxin-1, a known protein-SNO denitrosylase enzyme. In a mouse model of allergic inflammatory asthma, we found that lungs from allergen-challenged mice contained a greater percentage of dimeric catalase relative to tetrameric catalase in the unchallenged control, suggesting that the mechanisms described here are in play in the allergic asthma model. Together, our study shows how maturation of active catalase can be influenced by NO, S-nitrosylated GAPDH, and thioredoxin-1, and how maturation may become compromised in inflammatory conditions such as asthma.

  12. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  13. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Monofunctional Catalase from Geobacillus sp. CHB1

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Catalases are widely used in many scientific areas. A catalase gene (Kat) from Geobacillus sp. CHB1 encoding a monofunctional catalase was cloned and recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which was the first time to clone and express this type of catalase of genus Geobacillus strains as far as we know. This Kat gene was 1,467 bp in length and encoded a catalase with 488 amino acid residuals, which is only 81% similar to the previously studied Bacillus sp. catalase in terms of amino acid sequence. Recombinant catalase was highly soluble in E. coli and made up 30% of the total E. coli protein. Fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli showed a high catalase activity level up to 35,831 U/mL which was only lower than recombinant Bacillus sp. WSHDZ-01 among the reported catalase production strains. The purified recombinant catalase had a specific activity of 40,526 U/mg and Km of 51.1 mM. The optimal reaction temperature of this recombinant enzyme was 60°C to 70°C, and it exhibited high activity over a wide range of reaction temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 90°C. The enzyme retained 94.7% of its residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 hour. High yield and excellent thermophilic properties are valuable features for this catalase in industrial applications. PMID:27579320

  14. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Novel Thermophilic Monofunctional Catalase from Geobacillus sp. CHB1.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xianbo; Chen, Jichen; Lin, Chenqiang; Lin, Xinjian

    2016-01-01

    Catalases are widely used in many scientific areas. A catalase gene (Kat) from Geobacillus sp. CHB1 encoding a monofunctional catalase was cloned and recombinant expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli), which was the first time to clone and express this type of catalase of genus Geobacillus strains as far as we know. This Kat gene was 1,467 bp in length and encoded a catalase with 488 amino acid residuals, which is only 81% similar to the previously studied Bacillus sp. catalase in terms of amino acid sequence. Recombinant catalase was highly soluble in E. coli and made up 30% of the total E. coli protein. Fermentation broth of the recombinant E. coli showed a high catalase activity level up to 35,831 U/mL which was only lower than recombinant Bacillus sp. WSHDZ-01 among the reported catalase production strains. The purified recombinant catalase had a specific activity of 40,526 U/mg and K m of 51.1 mM. The optimal reaction temperature of this recombinant enzyme was 60°C to 70°C, and it exhibited high activity over a wide range of reaction temperatures, ranging from 10°C to 90°C. The enzyme retained 94.7% of its residual activity after incubation at 60°C for 1 hour. High yield and excellent thermophilic properties are valuable features for this catalase in industrial applications.

  15. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus)

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis. PMID:26779247

  16. Identification of a Catalase-Phenol Oxidase in Betalain Biosynthesis in Red Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus).

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiao-Lu; Chen, Ning; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Betalains are a group of nitrogen-containing pigments that color plants in most families of Caryophyllales. Their biosynthesis has long been proposed to begin with hydroxylation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA through monophenolase activity of tyrosinase, but biochemical evidence in vivo remains lacking. Here we report that a Group 4 catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase (named as AcCATPO), was identified, purified and characterized from leaves of Amaranthus cruentus, a betalain plant. The purified enzyme appeared to be a homotrimeric protein composed of subunits of about 58 kDa, and demonstrated not only the catalase activity toward H2O2, but also the monophenolase activity toward L-tyrosine and diphenolase activity toward L-DOPA. Its catalase and phenol oxidase activities were inhibited by common classic catalase and tyrosinase inhibitors, respectively. All its peptide fragments identified by nano-LC-MS/MS were targeted to catalases, and matched with a cDNA-encoded polypeptide which contains both classic catalase and phenol oxidase active sites. These sites were also present in catalases of non-betalain plants analyzed. AcCATPO transcript abundance was positively correlated with the ratio of betaxanthin to betacyanin in both green and red leaf sectors of A. tricolor. These data shows that the fourth group catalase, catalase-phenol oxidase, is present in plant, and might be involved in betaxanthin biosynthesis.

  17. Catalase overexpression does not impair extensor digitorum longus muscle function in normal mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingju; Yue, Yongping; Li, Dejia; Duan, Dongsheng

    2007-12-01

    Catalase is a major antioxidant enzyme. Increasing catalase expression represents a promising avenue to improve muscle function in certain physiological conditions and in some muscle diseases. We hypothesized that catalase overexpression should not impair normal muscle contraction. We delivered a hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged human catalase gene to normal mouse muscle by an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV). Western blot and immunostaining revealed efficient expression of HA-tagged catalase. Enzymatic assay demonstrated an approximately threefold increase in catalase activity in AAV-infected muscles. Catalase overexpression impaired neither twitch nor tetanic tension in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Furthermore, EDL fatigue response was not altered. Taken together, we have developed a novel AAV vector to enhance catalase expression. Lack of apparent toxicity in normal muscle strongly supports further exploration of this vector to reduce oxidative stress-induced muscle damage.

  18. Get Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics: Health Benefits What are the benefits of physical activity? Physical activity increases your chances of living longer. ... pain Help you feel better about yourself Is physical activity for everyone? Yes! Physical activity is good for ...

  19. [Pharmacological activity echinochrome A singly and consisting of BAA "Timarin"].

    PubMed

    Artiukov, A A; Popov, A M; Tsybul'skiĭ, A V; Krivoshapko, O N; Poliakova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological activity of echinochrome A (EchA) alone and in the biologically active additives (BAA) "Timarin", administered per os has been investigated on volunteers. EchA decreased serum glutatione (GSH) and increased catalase activity 1 h after treatment; catalase activity normalized, while GSH exceeded the initial level 3 h after the treatment. Changes in serum lipid spectrum, demonstrating reduction of the risk atherogenesis were determined.

  20. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    PubMed

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

  1. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    PubMed Central

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present. PMID:22752169

  2. Efficient protection by cationized catalase against H2O2 injury in primary cultured alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Takayuki; Kawakami, Shigeru; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2007-08-16

    Increasing evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide plays an important role in alveolar epithelial injury produced during many inflammatory lung diseases. In this study, the successful prevention of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced injury in primary cultured rabbit alveolar epithelial cells by cationized catalase is described. Cationized catalase was synthesized by direct chemical modification to enhance its association with alveolar epithelial cells. Cationized catalase exhibited a 22.3-fold higher cellular association at 2 h than native catalase, and incubation of cationized catalase with the cells produced a 2.19-fold intracellular catalase activity, which suggested that cationized catalase distributed both to the cell membrane and into the cell interior. Cationized catalase markedly suppressed H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury. In addition, electron spin resonance spectrometry analysis revealed that cationized catalase effectively eliminated H(2)O(2) produced in the medium by glucose plus glucose oxidase. On the other hand, polyethylene glycol-modified catalase (PEG-catalase) did not have any protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced cell injury although PEG-catalase exhibited a 2.49-fold higher cellular association at 2 h than native catalase. These results suggest that cationization of catalase is a promising strategy for the treatment of many of inflammatory lung diseases.

  3. [On the effect of immune and normal sera on catalase].

    PubMed

    Shataeva, L K; Zaikina, N A

    1975-01-01

    Effect of specific immune and normal sera on catalase was studied. The sera activated the enzyme, partially protected catalase against UV-irradiation and heating and also against the effect of inhibitors. Antibodies against catalase were observed in the fraction of 7 S gamma-globulins of immune serum. In studies of heat denaturation of catalase the stabilizing effect of immune serum was more distinct than the influence of normal serum and its protein fractions. In presence of serum protein fractions there was a correlation between the enthalpy of heat denaturation of catalase and decrease in specificity of the protein, in respect to the enxyme, associated with it in a complex. Alterations in enthropy compensated completely the decrease in enthalpy.

  4. EFFECT OF CATALASE AND CULTURAL CONDITIONS ON GROWTH OF BEGGIATOA.

    PubMed

    BURTON, S D; MORITA, R Y

    1964-12-01

    Burton, Sheril D. (Oregon State University, Corvallis), and Richard Y. Morita. Effect of catalase and cultural conditions on growth of Beggiatoa. J. Bacteriol. 88:1755-1761. 1964.-The addition of catalase to culture medium increased the period of viability of Beggiatoa from 1 week to 2 months. Addition of catalase also produced a marked increase in cell yield and enzyme activity. Cultures grown without catalase exhibited an absorption peak characteristic of peroxides. This absorption peak was removed by addition of catalase during or after growth. Oxygen was required for growth, but carbon dioxide was not produced. Malate and acetate stimulated growth at low concentrations. Glucose and thiosulfate were not oxidized, and cytochromes were not detectable by spectrophotometric analysis.

  5. Cloning and characterization of monofunctional catalase from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Heon; Oh, Duck-Chul; Oh, You-Sung; Malinverni, Juliana C; Kukor, Jerome J; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2007-09-01

    In this study, an approx. 2.5-kb gene fragment including the catalase gene from Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 was cloned and characterized. The determination of the complete nucleotide sequence revealed that the cloned DNA fragment was organized into three open reading frames, designated as ORF1, catalase, and ORF3 in that order. The catalase gene consisted of 1,455 nucleotides and 484 amino acids, including the initiation and stop codons, and was located 326 bp upstream in the opposite direction of ORF1. The catalase was overproduced in Escherichia coli UM255, a catalase-deficient mutant, and then purified for the biochemical characterization of the enzyme. The purified catalase had an estimated molecular mass of 189 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 61 kDa. The enzyme exhibited activity over a broad pH range from pH 5.0 to pH 11.0 and temperature range from 20 degrees C to 60 degrees C. The catalase activity was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, cyanide, azide, and hydroxylamine. The enzyme's K(m) value and V(max) of the catalase for H2O2 were 21.8 mM and 39,960 U/mg, respectively. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the ratio of A406 to A280 for the catalase was 0.97, indicating the presence of a ferric component. The absorption spectrum of catalase-4 exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm, which is typical of a heme-containing catalase. Treatment of the enzyme with dithionite did not alter the spectral shape and revealed no peroxidase activity. The combined results of the gene sequence and biochemical characterization proved that the catalase cloned from strain S1in this study was a typical monofunctional catalase, which differed from the other types of catalases found in strain S1.

  6. Activation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-12-08

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material lacking a photoluminescent material and generating a by-product of a radioactive decay due to the activator impinging the reeptor material. The method further including, generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect and identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the light.

  7. Cloning, characterization, and expression in Escherichia coli of a gene encoding Listeria seeligeri catalase, a bacterial enzyme highly homologous to mammalian catalases.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, A; Brehm, K; Kreft, J; Goebel, W

    1991-01-01

    A gene coding for catalase (hydrogen-peroxide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase; EC 1.11.1.6) of the gram-positive bacterium Listeria seeligeri was cloned from a plasmid library of EcoRI-digested chromosomal DNA, with Escherichia coli DH5 alpha as a host. The recombinant catalase was expressed in E. coli to an enzymatic activity approximately 50 times that of the combined E. coli catalases. The nucleotide sequence was determined, and the deduced amino acid sequence revealed 43.2% amino acid sequence identity between bovine liver catalase and L. seeligeri catalase. Most of the amino acid residues which are involved in catalytic activity, the formation of the active center accession channel, and heme binding in bovine liver catalase were also present in L. seeligeri catalase at the corresponding positions. The recombinant protein contained 488 amino acid residues and had a calculated molecular weight of 55,869. The predicted isoelectric point was 5.0. Enzymatic and genetic analyses showed that there is most probably a single catalase of this type in L. seeligeri. A perfect 21-bp inverted repeat, which was highly homologous to previously reported binding sequences of the Fur (ferric uptake regulon) protein of E. coli, was detected next to the putative promoter region of the L. seeligeri catalase gene. Images PMID:1860824

  8. Cloning, characterization, and expression in Escherichia coli of a gene encoding Listeria seeligeri catalase, a bacterial enzyme highly homologous to mammalian catalases.

    PubMed

    Haas, A; Brehm, K; Kreft, J; Goebel, W

    1991-08-01

    A gene coding for catalase (hydrogen-peroxide:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase; EC 1.11.1.6) of the gram-positive bacterium Listeria seeligeri was cloned from a plasmid library of EcoRI-digested chromosomal DNA, with Escherichia coli DH5 alpha as a host. The recombinant catalase was expressed in E. coli to an enzymatic activity approximately 50 times that of the combined E. coli catalases. The nucleotide sequence was determined, and the deduced amino acid sequence revealed 43.2% amino acid sequence identity between bovine liver catalase and L. seeligeri catalase. Most of the amino acid residues which are involved in catalytic activity, the formation of the active center accession channel, and heme binding in bovine liver catalase were also present in L. seeligeri catalase at the corresponding positions. The recombinant protein contained 488 amino acid residues and had a calculated molecular weight of 55,869. The predicted isoelectric point was 5.0. Enzymatic and genetic analyses showed that there is most probably a single catalase of this type in L. seeligeri. A perfect 21-bp inverted repeat, which was highly homologous to previously reported binding sequences of the Fur (ferric uptake regulon) protein of E. coli, was detected next to the putative promoter region of the L. seeligeri catalase gene.

  9. Extracellular localization of catalase is associated with the transformed state of malignant cells.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Britta; Heinzelmann, Sonja; Motz, Manfred; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Oncogenic transformation is dependent on activated membrane-associated NADPH oxidase (NOX). However, the resultant extracellular superoxide anions are also driving the NO/peroxynitrite and the HOCl pathway, which eliminates NOX-expressing transformed cells through selective apoptosis induction. Tumor progression is dependent on dominant interference with intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through membrane-associated catalase, which decomposes H2O2 and peroxynitrite and oxidizes NO. Particularly, the decomposition of extracellular peroxynitrite strictly requires membrane-associated catalase. We utilized small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of catalase and neutralizing antibodies directed against the enzyme in combination with challenging H2O2 or peroxynitrite to determine activity and localization of catalase in cells from three distinct steps of multistage oncogenesis. Nontransformed cells did not generate extracellular superoxide anions and only showed intracellular catalase activity. Transformed cells showed superoxide anion-dependent intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling in the presence of suboptimal catalase activity in their membrane. Tumor cells exhibited tight control of intercellular apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling through a high local concentration of membrane-associated catalase. These data demonstrate that translocation of catalase to the outside of the cell membrane is already associated with the transformation step. A strong local increase in the concentration of membrane-associated catalase is achieved during tumor progression and is controlled by tumor cell-derived H2O2 and by transglutaminase.

  10. Detection of a novel catalase in extracts of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare.

    PubMed Central

    Wayne, L G; Diaz, G A

    1988-01-01

    A novel class of catalase, which differs from the previously described M- and T-catalases of mycobacteria, was detected in strains of Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare. Designated A-catalase, this enzyme resisted inactivation at 68 degrees C, was inactivated by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (aminotriazole), and exhibited no peroxidase activity. All of these properties distinguished the enzyme from T-catalase. The A-catalase exhibited a Km of 70 mM H2O2, which is between the upper and lower extremes of the ranges reported for T- and M-catalases, respectively. The A-catalase appeared to be more hydrophobic than M-catalase and did not react with antiserum to a representative sample of this class. The banding patterns of T- and M-catalases seen by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were essentially unaffected by the incorporation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) into the PAGE system, whereas the single band of A-catalase seen by PAGE without SDS resolved into as many as five bands in the presence of SDS; these bands were all of slower mobility than the original band. The banding pattern seen with SDS appeared to be related more to counterion charge effects than to molecular size increases that could be attributed to SDS complexed to the protein. It remains to be determined whether the multiple A-catalase bands reflect different proteins or different SDS micellar complexes of a single protein. Images PMID:3346077

  11. Roles of Catalase and Trehalose in the Protection from Hydrogen Peroxide Toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takuto; Watanabe, Takeru; Furuta, Masakazu; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kishida, Masao

    2016-01-01

    The roles of catalase and trehalose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae subject to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) treatment were examined by measuring the catalase activity and intracellular trehalose levels in mutants lacking catalase or trehalose synthetase. Intracellular trehalose was elevated but the survival rate after H2O2 treatment remained low in mutants with deletion of the Catalase T gene. On the other hand, deletion of the trehalose synthetase gene increased the catalase activity in mutated yeast to levels higher than those in the wild-type strain, and these mutants exhibited some degree of tolerance to H2O2 treatment. These results suggest that Catalase T is critical in the yeast response to oxidative damage caused by H2O2 treatment, but trehalose also plays a role in protection against H2O2 treatment.

  12. An Inhibitor of Catalase Induced by Cold in Chilling-Sensitive Plants

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Brian D.; Payne, Linda A.; Chen, Yi-Zhu; Graham, Douglas

    1984-01-01

    An inhibitor of catalase accumulated when leaves of chilling-sensitive species were stored in the dark at 0°C. The inhibitor could be removed from crude extracts by passing them through a column of Sephadex G-25. After this treatment, the catalase activity of extracts of chilled tissues was found to be equal to that of extracts from unchilled leaves. When chilled tissues were incubated at 20°C, the inhibitor of catalase was lost, unless the tissues had been irreversibly damaged. It specifically inhibited plant catalase, and had no effect on mammalian catalase, plant malic dehydrogenase, or plant superoxide dismutase. Despite the presence of catalase inhibitor in extracts of chilled plants, no increase in the level of H2O2 in chilled tissues was found, suggesting either that the inhibitor is compartmentalized and not in contact with catalase in vivo, or that the level of H2O2 is controlled by means other than through catalase activity. Plant tissues normally contain H2O2 which is destroyed by catalase when they are damaged. After chilling, H2O2 leaking from already injured cells would not be so readily removed by the inhibited catalase, and could contribute to further injury by acting as a source of free radical oxidants. PMID:16663941

  13. Purification and characterization of catalase from chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla).

    PubMed

    Dinçer, A; Aydemir, T

    2001-01-01

    Catalase is a major primary antioxidant defence component that primarily catalyses the decomposition of H(2) O(2) to H(2) O. Here we report the purification and characterization of catalase from chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla). Following a procedure that involved chloroform treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation and three chromatographic steps (CM-cellulose, Sephadex G-25, and Sephadex G-200), catalase was purified about 250-fold to a final specific activity of 56947 U/mg of protein. The molecular weight of the purified catalase and its subunit were determined to be 235 000 and 58 500 daltons, indicating that the chard catalase is a tetramer. The absorption spectra showed a soret peak at 406 nm, and there was slightly reduction by dithionite. The ratio of absorption at 406 and 275 nanometers was 1.5, the value being similar to that obtained for catalase from other plant sources. In the catalytic reaction, the apparent Km value for chard catalase was 50 mM. The purified protein has a broad pH optimum for catalase activity between 6.0 and 8.0. The enzyme had an optimum reaction temperature at 30 degrees C. Heme catalase inhibitors, such as azide and cyanide, inhibited the enzyme activity markedly and the enzyme was also inactivated by ?-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol and iodoacetamide.

  14. Regulation of catalase expression in healthy and cancerous cells.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Christophe; Zamocky, Marcel; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2015-10-01

    Catalase is an important antioxidant enzyme that dismutates hydrogen peroxide into water and molecular oxygen. The catalase gene has all the characteristics of a housekeeping gene (no TATA box, no initiator element sequence, high GC content in promoter) and a core promoter that is highly conserved among species. We demonstrate in this review that within this core promoter, the presence of DNA binding sites for transcription factors, such as NF-Y and Sp1, plays an essential role in the positive regulation of catalase expression. Additional transcription factors, such as FoxO3a, are also involved in this regulatory process. There is strong evidence that the protein Akt/PKB in the PI3K signaling pathway plays a major role in the expression of catalase by modulating the activity of FoxO3a. Over the past decade, other transcription factors (PPARγ, Oct-1, etc.), as well as genetic, epigenetic, and posttranscriptional processes, have emerged as crucial contributors to the regulation of catalase expression. Altered expression levels of catalase have been reported in cancer tissues compared to their normal counterparts. Deciphering the molecular mechanisms that regulate catalase expression could, therefore, be of crucial importance for the future development of pro-oxidant cancer chemotherapy.

  15. Catalase in testes and epididymidis of wistar rats fed zinc deficient diet.

    PubMed

    Bedwal, S; Prasad, S; Nair, N; Saini, M R; Bedwal, R S

    2009-01-01

    Catalase activities have been evaluated in testes and caput and cauda epididymis of Wistar rats fed on zinc deficient diet for 2 and 4 weeks. The enzyme activity has been measured as chromic acetate formed by heating of dichromate (in acetic acid) in presence of H(2) O(2) with perchromic acid as an unstable intermediate. Observed non-significant increase in catalase activity in testes as well as in caput and cauda epididymis of 2 weeks experiments has been related to low levels of H(2) O(2) produced in two organs whereas significant (P<0.01/0.001) increase in catalase activity in 4-weeks experiments indicate for increased oxidative stress due to phagocytotic activity of Sertoli cells in testes and damaged spermatozoa in epididymis. Thus, zinc deficiency increases catalase activity in testes and epididymis.

  16. Comperative study of catalase immobilization on chitosan, magnetic chitosan and chitosan-clay composite beads.

    PubMed

    Başak, Esra; Aydemir, Tülin; Dinçer, Ayşe; Becerik, Seda Çınar

    2013-12-01

    Catalase was immobilized on chitosan and modified chitosan. Studies were carried out on free-immobilized catalase concerning the determination of optimum temperature, pH, thermal, storage stability, reusability, and kinetic parameters. Optimum temperature and pH for free catalase and catalase immobilized were found as 35°C and 7.0, respectively. After 100 times of repeated tests, the immobilized catalases on chitosan-clay and magnetic chitosan maintain over 50% and 60% of the original activity, respectively. The ease of catalase immobilization on low-cost matrices and good stability upon immobilization in the present study make it a suitable product for further use in the food industry.

  17. Catalyst activator

    DOEpatents

    McAdon, Mark H.; Nickias, Peter N.; Marks, Tobin J.; Schwartz, David J.

    2001-01-01

    A catalyst activator particularly adapted for use in the activation of metal complexes of metals of Group 3-10 for polymerization of ethylenically unsaturated polymerizable monomers, especially olefins, comprising two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms and a ligand structure including at least one bridging group connecting ligands on the two Group 13 metal or metalloid atoms.

  18. Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minneapolis Independent School District 275, Minn.

    Twenty-four activities suitable for outdoor use by elementary school children are outlined. Activities designed to make children aware of their environment include soil painting, burr collecting, insect and pond water collecting, studies of insect galls and field mice, succession studies, and a model of natural selection using dyed toothpicks. A…

  19. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- plus eating well, is the best way to stay healthy. ... goal. Your goal might be to: Manage a health condition Reduce stress ... other benefits, such as: Better control of your weight and ...

  20. Astronomy Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstone, Sid

    This document consists of activities and references for teaching astronomy. The activities (which include objectives, list of materials needed, and procedures) focus on: observing the Big Dipper and locating the North Star; examining the Big Dipper's stars; making and using an astrolabe; examining retograde motion of Mars; measuring the Sun's…

  1. Prevention of pulmonary metastasis from subcutaneous tumors by binary system-based sustained delivery of catalase.

    PubMed

    Hyoudou, Kenji; Nishikawa, Makiya; Ikemura, Mai; Kobayashi, Yuki; Mendelsohn, Adam; Miyazaki, Nobuhiko; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2009-07-20

    Catalase delivery can be effective in inhibiting reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated acceleration of tumor metastasis. Our previous studies have demonstrated that increasing the plasma half-life of catalase by pegylation (PEG-catalase) significantly increases its potency of inhibiting experimental pulmonary metastasis in mice. In the present study, a biodegradable gelatin hydrogel formulation was used to further increase the circulation time of PEG-catalase. Implantation of (111)In-PEG-catalase/hydrogel into subcutaneous tissues maintained the radioactivity in plasma for more than 14 days. Then, the effect of the PEG-catalase/hydrogel on spontaneous pulmonary metastasis of tumor cells was evaluated in mice with subcutaneous tumor of B16-BL6/Luc cells, a murine melanoma cell line stably expressing luciferase. Measuring luciferase activity in the lung revealed that the PEG-catalase/hydrogel significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the pulmonary metastasis compared with PEG-catalase solution. These findings indicate that sustaining catalase activity in the blood circulation achieved by the use of pegylation and gelatin hydrogel can reduce the incidence of tumor cell metastasis.

  2. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol-initiated DNA oxidation and teratogenesis in acatalasemic and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lutfiya; Shapiro, Aaron M; Wells, Peter G

    2013-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) caused by alcohol (ethanol, EtOH). Although catalase detoxifies hydrogen peroxide, embryonic catalase activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. To determine the roles of ROS and embryonic catalase in FASD, pregnant mice with enhanced (expressing human catalase, hCat) or deficient (acatalasemic, aCat) catalase activity, or their respective wild-type (WT) controls, were treated ip on gestational day 9 with 4 or 6g/kg EtOH or its saline vehicle, and embryos and fetuses were, respectively, evaluated for oxidatively damaged DNA and structural anomalies. Untreated hCat and aCat dams had, respectively, more and less offspring than their WT controls. hCat progenies were protected from all EtOH fetal anomalies at the low dose (p < .01) and from reduced head diameter and resorptions at the high dose (p < .001). Conversely, aCat progenies were more sensitive to dose-dependent EtOH fetal anomalies (p < .001) and exhibited a 50% increase in maternal lethality (p < .05) at the high dose. Maternal pretreatment of aCat mice with polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase (PEG-Cat) reduced EtOH fetal anomalies (p < .001). EtOH-initiated embryonic DNA oxidation was reduced in hCat and WT mice pretreated with PEG-Cat and enhanced in aCat mice. Plasma concentrations of EtOH in catalase-altered mice were similar to controls, precluding a pharmacokinetic basis for altered EtOH teratogenesis. Endogenous embryonic catalase, despite its low level, is an important embryoprotective enzyme for EtOH teratogenesis and a likely determinant of individual risk.

  3. Activated Charcoal

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat poisonings, reduce intestinal gas (flatulence), lower cholesterol levels, prevent hangover, and treat bile ... lower cholesterol levels in the blood. Decreasing gas (flatulence). Some studies show that activated charcoal is effective ...

  4. Activity Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koschmann, Timothy; Roschelle, Jeremy; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1998-01-01

    Includes three articles that discuss activity theory, based on "Context and Consciousness." Topics include human-computer interaction; computer interfaces; hierarchical structuring; mediation; contradictions and development; failure analysis; and designing educational technology. (LRW)

  5. The kinetic properties producing the perfunctory pH profiles of catalase-peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert L; Powell, Luke J; Goodwin, Douglas C

    2008-06-01

    Many structure-function relationship studies performed on the catalase-peroxidase enzymes are based on limited kinetic data. To provide a more substantive understanding of catalase-peroxidase function, we undertook a more exhaustive evaluation of catalase-peroxidase catalysis as a function of pH. Kinetic parameters across a broad pH range for the catalase and peroxidase activities of E. coli catalase peroxidase (KatG) were obtained, including the separate analysis of the oxidizing and reducing substrates of the peroxidase catalytic cycle. This investigation identified ABTS-dependent inhibition of peroxidase activity, particularly at low pH, unveiling that previously reported pH optima are clearly skewed. We show that turnover and efficiency of peroxidase activity increases with decreasing pH until the protein unfolds. The data also suggest that the catalase pH optimum is more complex than it is often assumed to be. The apparent optimum is in fact the intersection of the optimum for binding (7.00) and the optimum for activity (5.75). We also report the apparent pK(a)s for binding and catalysis of catalase activity as well as approximate values for certain peroxidatic and catalatic steps.

  6. Ionic adsorption of catalase on bioskin: kinetic and ultrastructural studies.

    PubMed

    Solas, M T; Vicente, C; Xavier, L; Legaz, M E

    1994-03-15

    Bioskin is a natural polymer produced by Acetobacter xylinum and several yeasts in culture. It contains glucosamine and N-acetyl galactosamine which promote ionic adsorption of catalase at the adequate pH value. High values of ionic strength are required to enzyme desorption. Adsorption of catalase on bioskin fibers has been visualized by scanning electron microscopy associated to a dispersion X-ray analyzer. At low enzyme density, the affinity of the immobilized catalase for hydrogen peroxide was 30% lower than that of the free enzyme. This affinity decreased dramatically at higher density of immobilized enzyme and could not be increased by agitation of the enzyme reaction mixture. Immobilized catalase retains about 70% of its initial activity after 16 d storage, whereas soluble enzyme is completely inactivated after 3 d at room temperature. The haeme group of catalase is not protected after immobilization since it is accessible to both EDTA and phloroglucinol, chelating agents which inactivate catalase by removing the iron atom from the haeme group.

  7. Plant metacaspase activation and activity.

    PubMed

    Minina, Elena A; Stael, Simon; Van Breusegem, Frank; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2014-01-01

    Metacaspases are essential for cell death regulation in plants. Further understanding of biochemistry of metacaspases and their molecular function in plant biology requires a set of robust methods for detection of metacaspase activation and quantitative analysis of corresponding proteolytic activity. Here we describe methods for purification of recombinant metacaspases, measurement of enzymatic activity of recombinant and endogenous metacaspases in vitro and in cell lysates, respectively, and finally detection of metacaspase activation in vivo. Additionally, an in vitro metacaspase protein substrate cleavage assay based on the cell-free production of substrate protein followed by proteolysis with recombinant metacaspase is presented. These methods have been originally developed for type II metacaspases from Arabidopsis and Norway spruce (Picea abies), but they can be used as templates for type I metacaspases, as well as for type II metacaspases from other species.

  8. Active colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranson, Igor S.

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior.

  9. Catalase inhibits ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xia; Luo, Hongmei; Vanek, Kenneth N; LaRue, Amanda C; Schulte, Bradley A; Wang, Gavin Y

    2015-06-01

    Hematologic toxicity is a major cause of mortality in radiation emergency scenarios and a primary side effect concern in patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of novel and more effective approaches to manage this side effect. Catalase is a potent antioxidant enzyme that coverts hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of catalase as a protectant against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The results revealed that catalase treatment markedly inhibits IR-induced apoptosis in murine hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Subsequent colony-forming cell and cobble-stone area-forming cell assays showed that catalase-treated HSPCs can not only survive irradiation-induced apoptosis but also have higher clonogenic capacity, compared with vehicle-treated cells. Moreover, transplantation of catalase-treated irradiated HSPCs results in high levels of multi-lineage and long-term engraftments, whereas vehicle-treated irradiated HSPCs exhibit very limited hematopoiesis reconstituting capacity. Mechanistically, catalase treatment attenuates IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks and inhibits reactive oxygen species. Unexpectedly, we found that the radioprotective effect of catalase is associated with activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abolishes the protective activity of catalase, suggesting that catalase may protect HSPCs against IR-induced toxicity via promoting STAT3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which catalase inhibits IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HSPCs.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of the Drosophila catalase gene by the DRE/DREF system.

    PubMed

    Park, So Young; Kim, Young-Shin; Yang, Dong-Jin; Yoo, Mi-Ae

    2004-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause oxidative stress and aging. The catalase gene is a key component of the cellular antioxidant defense network. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate catalase gene expression are poorly understood. In this study, we have identified a DNA replication-related element (DRE; 5'-TATCGATA) in the 5'-flanking region of the Drosophila catalase gene. Gel mobility shift assays revealed that a previously identified factor called DREF (DRE- binding factor) binds to the DRE sequence in the Drosophila catalase gene. We used site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro transient transfection assays to establish that expression of the catalase gene is regulated by DREF through the DRE site. To explore the role of DRE/DREF in vivo, we established transgenic flies carrying a catalase-lacZ fusion gene with or without mutation in the DRE. The beta-galactosidase expression patterns of these reporter transgenic lines demonstrated that the catalase gene is upregulated by DREF through the DRE sequence. In addition, we observed suppression of the ectopic DREF-induced rough eye phenotype by a catalase amorphic Cat(n1) allele, indicating that DREF activity is modulated by the intracellular redox state. These results indicate that the DRE/DREF system is a key regulator of catalase gene expression and provide evidence of cross-talk between the DRE/DREF system and the antioxidant defense system.

  11. Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) and Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigation of the Interactions of Ionic Liquids and Catalase.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xing; Fan, Yunchang; Yang, Peng; Kong, Jichuan; Li, Dandan; Miao, Juan; Hua, Shaofeng; Hu, Chaobing

    2016-11-01

    The inhibitory effects of nine ionic liquids (ILs) on the catalase activity were investigated using fluorescence, absorption ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The interactions of ILs and catalase on the molecular level were studied. The experimental results indicated that ILs could inhibit the catalase activity and their inhibitory abilities depended on their chemical structures. Fluorescence experiments showed that hydrogen bonding played an important role in the interaction process. The inhibitory abilities of ILs on catalase activity could be simply described by their hydrophobicity and hydrogen bonding abilities. Unexpected less inhibitory effects of trifluoromethanesulfonate (TfO(-)) might be ascribed to its larger size, which makes it difficult to go through the substrate channel of catalase to the active site.

  12. Expression of a bacterial catalase in a strictly anaerobic methanogen significantly increases tolerance to hydrogen peroxide but not oxygen.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Matthew E; Schaff, Cody W; Horne, Alexandra J; Lessner, Faith H; Lessner, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    Haem-dependent catalase is an antioxidant enzyme that degrades H2O2, producing H2O and O2, and is common in aerobes. Catalase is present in some strictly anaerobic methane-producing archaea (methanogens), but the importance of catalase to the antioxidant system of methanogens is poorly understood. We report here that a survey of the sequenced genomes of methanogens revealed that the majority of species lack genes encoding catalase. Moreover, Methanosarcina acetivorans is a methanogen capable of synthesizing haem and encodes haem-dependent catalase in its genome; yet, Methanosarcina acetivorans cells lack detectable catalase activity. However, inducible expression of the haem-dependent catalase from Escherichia coli (EcKatG) in the chromosome of Methanosarcina acetivorans resulted in a 100-fold increase in the endogenous catalase activity compared with uninduced cells. The increased catalase activity conferred a 10-fold increase in the resistance of EcKatG-induced cells to H2O2 compared with uninduced cells. The EcKatG-induced cells were also able to grow when exposed to levels of H2O2 that inhibited or killed uninduced cells. However, despite the significant increase in catalase activity, growth studies revealed that EcKatG-induced cells did not exhibit increased tolerance to O2 compared with uninduced cells. These results support the lack of catalase in the majority of methanogens, since methanogens are more likely to encounter O2 rather than high concentrations of H2O2 in the natural environment. Catalase appears to be a minor component of the antioxidant system in methanogens, even those that are aerotolerant, including Methanosarcina acetivorans. Importantly, the experimental approach used here demonstrated the feasibility of engineering beneficial traits, such as H2O2 tolerance, in methanogens.

  13. Occurrence of High Catalase-containing Acinetobacter in Spacecraft Assembly Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, K. B.; Derecho, I.; La Duc, M. T.; Vaishampayan, P.; Venkateswaran, K. J.; Mogul, R.

    2010-04-01

    In summary, the measurement of high catalase specific activity values for spacecraft-associated Acinetobacter strains is potentially the result of adaptation towards the harsh conditions of the clean rooms and assembly process.

  14. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  15. Inhibition of catalase by tea catechins in free and cellular state: a biophysical approach.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sandip; Dey, Subrata Kumar; Saha, Chabita

    2014-01-01

    Tea flavonoids bind to variety of enzymes and inhibit their activities. In the present study, binding and inhibition of catalase activity by catechins with respect to their structure-affinity relationship has been elucidated. Fluorimetrically determined binding constants for (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with catalase were observed to be 2.27×106 M(-1) and 1.66×106 M(-1), respectively. Thermodynamic parameters evidence exothermic and spontaneous interaction between catechins and catalase. Major forces of interaction are suggested to be through hydrogen bonding along with electrostatic contributions and conformational changes. Distinct loss of α-helical structure of catalase by interaction with EGCG was captured in circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Gallated catechins demonstrated higher binding constants and inhibition efficacy than non-gallated catechins. EGCG exhibited maximum inhibition of pure catalase. It also inhibited cellular catalase in K562 cancer cells with significant increase in cellular ROS and suppression of cell viability (IC50 54.5 µM). These results decipher the molecular mechanism by which tea catechins interact with catalase and highlight the potential of gallated catechin like EGCG as an anticancer drug. EGCG may have other non-specific targets in the cell, but its anticancer property is mainly defined by ROS accumulation due to catalase inhibition.

  16. The Cryptococcus neoformans catalase gene family and its role in antioxidant defense.

    PubMed

    Giles, Steven S; Stajich, Jason E; Nichols, Connie; Gerrald, Quincy D; Alspaugh, J Andrew; Dietrich, Fred; Perfect, John R

    2006-09-01

    In the present study, we sought to elucidate the contribution of the Cryptococcus neoformans catalase gene family to antioxidant defense. We employed bioinformatics techniques to identify four members of the C. neoformans catalase gene family and created mutants lacking single or multiple catalase genes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, CAT1 and CAT3 encode putative spore-specific catalases, CAT2 encodes a putative peroxisomal catalase, and CAT4 encodes a putative cytosolic catalase. Only Cat1 exhibited detectable biochemical activity in vitro, and Cat1 activity was constitutive in the yeast form of this organism. Although they were predicted to be important in spores, neither CAT1 nor CAT3 was essential for mating or spore viability. Consistent with previous studies of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the single (cat1, cat2, cat3, and cat4) and quadruple (cat1 cat2 cat3 cat4) catalase mutant strains exhibited no oxidative-stress phenotypes under conditions in which either exogenous or endogenous levels of reactive oxygen species were elevated. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean times to mortality between groups of mice infected with C. neoformans catalase mutant strains (the cat1 and cat1 cat2 cat3 cat4 mutants) and those infected with wild-type strain H99. We conclude from the results of this study that C. neoformans possesses a robust antioxidant system, composed of functionally overlapping and compensatory components that provide protection against endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses.

  17. Covalent Immobilization of Catalase onto Regenerated Silk Fibroins via Tyrosinase-Catalyzed Cross-Linking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Qi, Chenglong; Yu, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Jiugang; Cui, Li; Tang, Gengtie; Wang, Qiang; Fan, Xuerong

    2015-09-01

    Regenerated silk fibroins could be used as medical scaffolds and carrier materials for enzyme immobilization. In the present work, tyrosinase enzyme was used for enzymatic oxidation of silk fibroins, followed by immobilization of catalase onto the fibroin surfaces through physical adsorption and covalent cross-linking as well. Spectrophotometry, SDS-PAGE, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to examine the efficiency of enzymatic oxidation and catalase immobilization, respectively. The results indicate that tyrosine residues in silk fibroins could be oxidized and converted to the active o-quinones. Incubating silk fibroins with catalase and tyrosinase led to a noticeable change of molecular weight distribution, indicating the occurrence of the cross-links between silk fibroins and catalase molecules. Two different pathways were proposed for the catalase immobilizations, and the method based on grafting of catalase onto the freeze-dried fibroin membrane is more acceptable. The residual enzyme activity for the immobilized catalase exhibited higher than that of the control after repeated washing cycles. Meanwhile, the thermal stability and alkali resistance were also slightly improved as compared to free catalase. The mechanisms of enzymatic immobilization are also concerned.

  18. Activated Sludge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Activities: Spirolaterals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Richard; McFadden, Scott

    1981-01-01

    A set of activities designed to help students discover properties about order-3 spirolaterals on square grid paper is presented. The materials are prepared on worksheets designed for easy duplication. The lessons can lead to investigations involving spirolaterals of many other orders and shapes. (MP)

  20. Leaf Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    Leaf activities can provide a means of using basic concepts of outdoor education to learn in elementary level subject areas. Equipment needed includes leaves, a clipboard with paper, and a pencil. A bag of leaves may be brought into the classroom if weather conditions or time do not permit going outdoors. Each student should pick a leaf, examine…

  1. Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Tom, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a flow chart for naming inorganic compounds. Although it is not necessary for students to memorize rules, preliminary skills needed before using the chart are outlined. Also presents an activity in which the mass of an imaginary atom is determined using lead shot, Petri dishes, and a platform balance. (JN)

  2. Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S W

    2008-08-11

    This report is aimed to show the author's activities to support the LDRD. The title is 'Investigation of the Double-C Behavior in the Pu-Ga Time-Temperature-Transformation Diagram' The sections are: (1) Sample Holder Test; (2) Calculation of x-ray diffraction patterns; (3) Literature search and preparing publications; (4) Tasks Required for APS Experiments; and (5) Communications.

  3. A Eukaryote without Catalase-Containing Microbodies: Neurospora crassa Exhibits a Unique Cellular Distribution of Its Four Catalases†

    PubMed Central

    Schliebs, Wolfgang; Würtz, Christian; Kunau, Wolf-Hubert; Veenhuis, Marten; Rottensteiner, Hanspeter

    2006-01-01

    Microbodies usually house catalase to decompose hydrogen peroxide generated within the organelle by the action of various oxidases. Here we have analyzed whether peroxisomes (i.e., catalase-containing microbodies) exist in Neurospora crassa. Three distinct catalase isoforms were identified by native catalase activity gels under various peroxisome-inducing conditions. Subcellular fractionation by density gradient centrifugation revealed that most of the spectrophotometrically measured activity was present in the light upper fractions, with an additional small peak coinciding with the peak fractions of HEX-1, the marker protein for Woronin bodies, a compartment related to the microbody family. However, neither in-gel assays nor monospecific antibodies generated against the three purified catalases detected the enzymes in any dense organellar fraction. Furthermore, staining of an N. crassa wild-type strain with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and H2O2 did not lead to catalase-dependent reaction products within microbodies. Nonetheless, N. crassa does possess a gene (cat-4) whose product is most similar to the peroxisomal type of monofunctional catalases. This novel protein indeed exhibited catalase activity, but was not localized to microbodies either. We conclude that N. crassa lacks catalase-containing peroxisomes, a characteristic that is probably restricted to a few filamentous fungi that produce little hydrogen peroxide within microbodies. PMID:16963632

  4. Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Natural products of higher plants may possess a new source of antimicrobial agents with possibly novel mechanisms of action. They are effective in the treatment of infectious diseases while simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects that are often associated with conventional antimicrobials. A method using scanning electron microscope (SEM) to study the morphology of the bacterial and fungal microbes and thus determining antimicrobial activity is presented in the chapter.

  5. Soluble epoxide hydrolase contamination of specific catalase preparations inhibits epoxyeicosatrienoic acid vasodilation of rat renal arterioles

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Lauren; Harder, Adam; Isbell, Marilyn; Imig, John D.; Gutterman, David D.; Falck, J. R.; Campbell, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid, the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are important signaling molecules in the kidney. In renal arteries, EETs cause vasodilation whereas H2O2 causes vasoconstriction. To determine the physiological contribution of H2O2, catalase is used to inactivate H2O2. However, the consequence of catalase action on EET vascular activity has not been determined. In rat renal afferent arterioles, 14,15-EET caused concentration-related dilations that were inhibited by Sigma bovine liver (SBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml) but not Calbiochem bovine liver (CBL) catalase (1,000 U/ml). SBL catalase inhibition was reversed by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor tAUCB (1 μM). In 14,15-EET incubations, SBL catalase caused a concentration-related increase in a polar metabolite. Using mass spectrometry, the metabolite was identified as 14,15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14,15-DHET), the inactive sEH metabolite. 14,15-EET hydrolysis was not altered by the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (3-ATZ; 10–50 mM), but was abolished by the sEH inhibitor BIRD-0826 (1–10 μM). SBL catalase EET hydrolysis showed a regioisomer preference with greatest hydrolysis of 14,15-EET followed by 11,12-, 8,9- and 5,6-EET (Vmax = 0.54 ± 0.07, 0.23 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 ng DHET·U catalase−1·min−1, respectively). Of five different catalase preparations assayed, EET hydrolysis was observed with two Sigma liver catalases. These preparations had low specific catalase activity and positive sEH expression. Mass spectrometric analysis of the SBL catalase identified peptide fragments matching bovine sEH. Collectively, these data indicate that catalase does not affect EET-mediated dilation of renal arterioles. However, some commercial catalase preparations are contaminated with sEH, and these contaminated preparations diminish the biological activity of H2O2 and EETs. PMID:21753077

  6. Immobilization of catalase on chitosan and amino acid- modified chitosan beads.

    PubMed

    Başak, Esra; Aydemir, Tülin

    2013-08-01

    Bovine liver catalase was covalently immobilized onto amino acid-modified chitosan beads. The beads were characterized with SEM, FTIR, TGA and the effects of immobilization on optimum pH and temperature, thermostability, reusability were evaluated. Immobilized catalase showed the maximal enzyme activity at pH 7.0 at 30°C. The kinetic parameters, Km and Vmax, for immobilized catalase on alanine-chitosan beads and lysine-chitosan beads were estimated to be 25.67 mM, 27 mM and 201.39 μmol H2O2/min, 197.50 μmol H2O2/min, respectively. The activity of the immobilized catalase on Ala-CB and Lys-CB retained 40% of its high initial activity after 100 times of reuse.

  7. Forchlorfenuron detection based on its inhibitory effect towards catalase immobilized on boron nitride substrate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Cai, Lijuan; Zhao, Huijie; Tang, Jiaqian; Shen, Yuanyuan; Hu, Xiaoya; Zeng, Haibo

    2015-01-15

    An enzymatic procedure based on a catalase biosensor for the detection of forchlorfenuron (CPPU) has been reported in this work. Catalase was immobilized on boron nitride (BN) sheets dispersed in chitosan by adsorption. The immobilized catalase exhibited direct electron transfer character and excellent electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction. After introducing CPPU into the H2O2 containing phosphate buffer solution, the catalase-catalyzed H2O2 reduction current decreased. By measuring the current decrease, CPPU can be determined in the range of 0.5-10.0 µM with the detection limit of 0.07 μM. The non-competitive inhibition behavior of CPPU towards catalase was verified by the Lineweaver-Burk plots. Long stability character has been ascribed to this biosensor. Possible use of this biosensor in flow systems is illustrated. The proposed biosensor has been successfully applied to CPPU determination in fruits samples with satisfactory results.

  8. Isolation and expression of the catA gene encoding the major vegetative catalase in Streptomyces coelicolor Müller.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Y H; Roe, J H

    1997-01-01

    We isolated the catA gene for the major vegetative catalase from Streptomyces coelicolor Müller. It encodes a polypeptide of 488 residues (55,440 Da) that is highly homologous to typical monofunctional catalases. We investigated catA expression by analyzing both catA mRNA and catalase activity. catA expression was increased by H2O2 treatment but did not increase during stationary phase. A putative catalase (CatB) cross-reactive with anti-CatA antibody appeared during stationary phase and in the aerial mycelium. PMID:9190825

  9. Study of catalase adsorption on two mixed-mode ligands and the mechanism involved therein.

    PubMed

    Shiva Ranjini, S; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-11-01

    Mixed-mode chromatography sorbents n-hexylamine HyperCel™ (HEA) and phenylpropylamine HyperCel™ (PPA) were evaluated for the study of adsorption of catalase from two different sources. Various parameters such as buffer composition, ionic strength and pH were investigated to study the mechanism of interaction of commercially available pre-purified catalase from Bovine liver, purified catalase from black gram (Vigna mungo) and crude extract of black gram containing catalase with these mixed-mode ligands. A simple and economical screening protocol for identifying optimal buffer conditions for adsorption and desorption of catalase was established with micro volumes of the sorbent in batch mode. With HEA HyperCel, it was observed that pre-purified catalase from both bovine liver and black gram was completely retained at pH 7.0, irrespective of the presence or absence of NaCl in the adsorption buffer, whereas the catalase from crude extract of black gram was completely retained only in the presence of 0.2 M salt in the adsorption buffer. The elution of catalase from both the sources was accomplished by lowering the pH to 4.5 in absence of salt. In case of PPA HyperCel, catalase from both the sources was very strongly adsorbed under different buffer conditions studied, and elution did not yield a significant catalase activity. From the screening experiments, it could be concluded that the interaction of catalase with HEA HyperCel could be dominated by hydrophobic forces with minor contributions from ionic interaction and with PPA HyperCel, it could be a combination of different non-covalent interactions acting on different loci on the surface of the protein.

  10. Analgesic Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Analgesics are agents which selectively relieve pain by acting in the CNS and peripheral pain mediators without changing consciousness. Analgesics may be narcotic or non-narcotic. The study of pain in animals raises ethical, philosophical, and technical problems. Both peripheral and central pain models are included to make the test more evident for the analgesic property of the plant. This chapter highlights methods such as hot plate and formalin and acetic acid-induced pain models to check the analgesic activity of medicinal plants.

  11. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-02

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  12. Inhibitory effects of a novel Val to Thr mutation on the distal heme of human catalase.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Zahra; Boeglin, William E; Brash, Alan R

    2014-11-01

    True catalases efficiently breakdown hydrogen peroxide, whereas the catalase-related enzyme allene oxide synthase (cAOS) is completely unreactive and instead metabolizes a fatty acid hydroperoxide. In cAOS a Thr residue adjacent to the distal His restrains reaction with H2O2 (Tosha et al. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281:12610; De Luna et al. (2013) J. Phys. Chem. B 117: 14635) and its mutation to the consensus Val of true catalases permits the interaction. Here we investigated the effects of the reciprocal experiment in which the Val74 of human catalase is mutated to Thr, Ser, Met, Pro, or Ala. The Val74Thr substitution decreased catalatic activity by 3.5-fold and peroxidatic activity by 3-fold. Substitution with Ser had similar negative effects (5- and 3-fold decreases). Met decreased catalatic activity 2-fold and eliminated peroxidatic activity altogether, whereas the Val74Ala substitution was well tolerated. (The Val74Pro protein lacked heme). We conclude that the conserved Val74 of true catalases helps optimize catalysis. There are rare substitutions of Val74 with Ala, Met, or Pro, but not with Ser of Thr, possibly due their hydrogen bonding affecting the conformation of His75, the essential distal heme residue for activity in catalases.

  13. Cloning and sequencing of a Candida albicans catalase gene and effects of disruption of this gene.

    PubMed

    Wysong, D R; Christin, L; Sugar, A M; Robbins, P W; Diamond, R D

    1998-05-01

    Catalase plays a key role as an antioxidant, protecting aerobic organisms from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide, and in some cases has been postulated to be a virulence factor. To help elucidate the function of catalase in Candida albicans, a single C. albicans-derived catalase gene, designated CAT1, was isolated and cloned. Degenerate PCR primers based on highly conserved areas of other fungal catalase genes were used to amplify a 411-bp product from genomic DNA of C. albicans ATCC 10261. By using this product as a probe, catalase clones were isolated from genomic libraries of C. albicans. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 487 amino acid residues. Construction of a CAT1-deficient mutant was achieved by using the Ura-blaster technique for sequential disruption of multiple alleles by integrative transformation using URA3 as a selectable marker. Resulting mutants exhibited normal morphology and comparable growth rates of both yeast and mycelial forms. Enzymatic analysis revealed an abundance of catalase in the wild-type strain but decreasing catalase activity in heterozygous mutants and no detectable catalase in a homozygous null mutant. In vitro assays showed the mutant strains to be more sensitive to damage by both neutrophils and concentrations of exogenous peroxide that were sublethal for the parental strain. Compared to the parental strain, the homozygous null mutant strain was far less virulent for mice in an intravenous infection model of disseminated candidiasis. Definitive linkage of CAT1 with virulence would require restoration of activity by reintroduction of the gene into mutants. However, initial results in mice, taken together with the enhanced susceptibility of catalase-deficient hyphae to damage by human neutrophils, suggest that catalase may enhance the pathogenicity of C. albicans.

  14. Active tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This study is part of a series of Studies in Geophysics that have been undertaken for the Geophysics Research Forum by the Geophysics Study Committee. One purpose of each study is to provide assessments from the scientific community to aid policymakers in decisions on societal problems that involve geophysics. An important part of such assessments is an evaluation of the adequacy of current geophysical knowledge and the appropriateness of current research programs as a source of information required for those decisions. The study addresses our current scientific understanding of active tectonics --- particularly the patterns and rates of ongoing tectonic processes. Many of these processes cannot be described reasonably using the limited instrumental or historical records; however, most can be described adequately for practical purposes using the geologic record of the past 500,000 years. A program of fundamental research focusing especially on Quaternary tectonic geology and geomorphology, paleoseismology, neotectonics, and geodesy is recommended to better understand ongoing, active tectonic processes. This volume contains 16 papers. Individual papers are indexed separately on the Energy Database.

  15. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat{sup b}/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 2 or 4 mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p < 0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50 kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8 h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p < 0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown–rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p < 0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies. - Highlights: • Ethanol (EtOH) exposure causes structural embryopathies in embryo culture. • Genetically enhanced catalase (hCat) protects against EtOH embryopathies. • Genetically deficient catalase (aCat) exacerbates EtOH embryopathies. • Embryonic catalase is developmentally important. • Et

  16. Synthesis of catalase in Staphylococcus aureus MF-31.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S E; Chaven, S

    1987-01-01

    During the growth of Staphylococcus aureus MF-31, initial catalase activity dropped to a reduced level at the onset of exponential phase before increasing. When S. aureus was grown at 25, 32, or 37 degrees C, catalase activity was found to decrease by 80 to 90% within 1 h of inoculation. Two catalase-negative mutants and wild-type S. aureus MF-31 cells were exposed to exogenous 20 mM H2O2 for 15 min. For wild-type S. aureus, there was no effect from H2O2 until min 15, at which time a 10% decrease in CFU was observed. Both mutants showed increased sensitivity to the H2O2, with 56 and 71% reductions in the CFU for mutants C3 and C4, respectively, after a 15-min exposure. Cells of mutant and wild-type S. aureus were subjected to sublethal heating at 52 degrees C for 20 min. The lack of catalase activity in the mutants resulted in large decreases in enumeration. PMID:3606102

  17. Production, characterization, cloning and sequence analysis of a monofunctional catalase from Serratia marcescens SYBC08.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hua-Wei; Cai, Yu-Jie; Liao, Xiang-Ru; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Da-Bing

    2011-04-01

    A monofunctional catalase from Serratia marcescens SYBC08 produced by liquid state fermentation in 7 liter fermenter was isolated and purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP), ion exchange chromatography (IEC), and gel filtration (GF) and characterized. Its sequence was analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique and gene cloning. The highest catalase production (20,289 U · ml(-1)) was achieved after incubation for 40 h. The purified catalase had an estimated molecular mass of 230 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 58 kDa. High specific activity of the catalase (199,584 U · mg(-1) protein) was 3.44 times higher than that of Halomonas sp. Sk1 catalase (57,900 U · mg(-1) protein). The enzyme without peroxidase activity was found to be an atypical electronic spectrum of monofunctional catalase. The apparent K(m) and V(max) were 78 mM and 188, 212 per µM H(2) O(2) µM heme(-1) s(-1), respectivly. The enzyme displayed a broad pH activity range (pH 5.0-11.0), with optimal pH range of 7.0-9.0: It was most active at 20 °C and had 78% activity at 0 °C. Its thermo stability was slightly higher compared to that of commercial catalase from bovine liver. LC-MS/MS analysis confirmed that the deduced amino acid sequence of cloning gene was the catalase sequence from Serratia marcescens SYBC08. The sequence was compared with that of 23 related catalases. Although most of active site residues, NADPH-binding residues, proximal residues of the heme, distal residues of the heme and residues interacting with a water molecule in the enzyme were well conserved in 23 related catalases, weakly conserved residues were found. Its sequence was closely related with that of catalases from pathogenic bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. This result imply that the enzyme with high specific activity plays a significant role in preventing those microorganisms of the family Enterobacteriaceae against hydrogen peroxide resulted in cellular damage. Calalase yield by Serratia

  18. The Genetics of Catalase in Drosophila Melanogaster: Isolation and Characterization of Acatalasemic Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, W. J.; Bewley, G. C.

    1989-01-01

    Activated oxygen species have been demonstrated to be the important agents in oxygen toxicity by disrupting the structural and functional integrity of cells through lipid peroxidation events, DNA damage and protein inactivation. The biological consequences of free radical damage have long been hypothesized to be a causal agent in many aging-related diseases. Catalase (H(2)O(2):H(2)O(2) oxidoreductase; EC 1.15.1.1) is one of several enzymes involved in the scavenging of oxygen free radicals and free radical derivatives. The structural gene for catalase in Drosophila melanogaster has been localized to region 75D1-76A on chromosome 3L by dosage responses to segmental aneuploidy. This study reports the isolation of a stable deficiency, Df(3L)Cat(DH104)(75C1-2;75F1), that uncovers the catalase locus and the subsequent isolation of six acatalasemic mutants. All catalase mutants are viable under standard culture conditions and recessive lethal mutations within the 75C1-F1 interval have been shown not to affect catalase activity. Two catalase mutations are amorphic while four are hypomorphic alleles of the Cat(+) locus. The lack of intergenic complementation between the six catalase mutations strongly suggests that there is only one functional gene in Drosophila. One acatalesemic mutation was mapped to position 3-47.0 which resides within the catalase dosage sensitive region. While complete loss of catalase activity confers a severe viability effect, residual levels are sufficient to restore viability to wild type levels. These results suggest a threshold effect for viability and offer an explanation for the general lack of phenotypic effects associated with the known mammalian acatalasemics. PMID:2503418

  19. Catalase characterization and implication in bleaching of a symbiotic sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Sabourault, Cécile; Richier, Sophie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola

    2007-01-15

    Symbiotic cnidarians are marine invertebrates harboring photosynthesizing microalgae (named zooxanthellae), which produce great amounts of oxygen and free radicals upon illumination. Studying antioxidative balance is then crucial to understanding how symbiotic cnidarians cope with ROS production. In particular, it is suspected that oxidative stress triggers cnidarian bleaching, i.e., the expulsion of zooxanthellae from the animal host, responsible for symbiotic cnidarian mass mortality worldwide. This study therefore investigates catalase antioxidant enzymes and their role in bleaching of the temperate symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Using specific separation of animal tissues (ectoderm and endoderm) from the symbionts (zooxanthellae), spectrophotometric assays and native PAGE revealed both tissue-specific and activity pattern distribution of two catalase electrophoretypes, E1 and E2. E1, expressed in all three tissues, presents high sensitivity to the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole (ATZ) and elevated temperatures. The ectodermal E1 form is responsible for 67% of total catalase activity. The E2 form, expressed only within zooxanthellae and their host endodermal cells, displays low sensitivity to ATZ and relative thermostability. We further cloned an ectodermal catalase, which shares 68% identity with mammalian monofunctional catalases. Last, 6 days of exposure of whole sea anemones to ATZ (0.5 mM) led to effective catalase inhibition and initiated symbiont expulsion. This demonstrates the crucial role of this enzyme in cnidarian bleaching, a phenomenon responsible for worldwide climate-change-induced mass mortalities, with catastrophic consequences for marine biodiversity.

  20. Catalase function in plants: a focus on Arabidopsis mutants as stress-mimic models.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Amna; Queval, Guillaume; Chaouch, Sejir; Vanderauwera, Sandy; Van Breusegem, Frank; Noctor, Graham

    2010-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is an important signal molecule involved in plant development and environmental responses. Changes in H(2)O(2) availability can result from increased production or decreased metabolism. While plants contain several types of H(2)O(2)-metabolizing proteins, catalases are highly active enzymes that do not require cellular reductants as they primarily catalyse a dismutase reaction. This review provides an update on plant catalase genes, function, and subcellular localization, with a focus on recent information generated from studies on Arabidopsis. Original data are presented on Arabidopsis catalase single and double mutants, and the use of some of these lines as model systems to investigate the outcome of increases in intracellular H(2)O(2) are discussed. Particular attention is paid to interactions with cell thiol-disulphide status; the use of catalase-deficient plants to probe the apparent redundancy of reductive H(2)O(2)-metabolizing pathways; the importance of irradiance and growth daylength in determining the outcomes of catalase deficiency; and the induction of pathogenesis-related responses in catalase-deficient lines. Within the context of strategies aimed at understanding and engineering plant stress responses, the review also considers whether changes in catalase activities in wild-type plants are likely to be a significant part of plant responses to changes in environmental conditions or biotic challenge.

  1. Embryonic catalase protects against ethanol embryopathies in acatalasemic mice and transgenic human catalase-expressing mice in embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Miller-Pinsler, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G

    2015-09-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the mechanism of ethanol (EtOH) teratogenicity, but the protective role of the embryonic antioxidative enzyme catalase is unclear, as embryonic activity is only about 5% of maternal levels. We addressed this question in a whole embryo culture model. C57BL/6 mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57BL/6 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Cat(b)/J catalase-deficient, acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug=GD 1), exposed for 24h to 2 or 4mg/mL EtOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57BL/6 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally, while EtOH was embryopathic in C57BL/6 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed, turning and head length, whereas hCat embryos were protected (p<0.001). Maternal pretreatment of C57BL/6 WT dams with 50kU/kg PEG-catalase (PEG-cat) 8h prior to embryo culture, which increases embryonic catalase activity, blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p<0.001). Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. EtOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, evidenced by reduced head length and somite development (p<0.01), and trends for reduced anterior neuropore closure, turning and crown-rump length. Maternal pretreatment of aCat dams with PEG-Cat blocked all EtOH embryopathies (p<0.05). These data suggest that embryonic catalase is a determinant of risk for EtOH embryopathies.

  2. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF CELL SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using respiratory epithelial cells transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase, the authors tested the hypothesis that the activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signal pathway after asbestos exposure involves an oxidative stress. Western blot...

  3. Preparation of highly efficient manganese catalase mimics.

    PubMed

    Triller, Michael U; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Pecoraro, Vincent L; Rompel, Annette; Krebs, Bernt

    2002-10-21

    The series of compounds [Mn(bpia)(mu-OAc)](2)(ClO(4))(2) (1), [Mn(2)(bpia)(2)(muO)(mu-OAc)](ClO(4))(3).CH(3)CN (2), [Mn(bpia)(mu-O)](2)(ClO(4))(2)(PF(6)).2CH(3)CN (3), [Mn(bpia)(Cl)(2)](ClO)(4) (4), and [(Mn(bpia)(Cl))(2)(mu-O)](ClO(4))(2).2CH(3)CN (5) (bpia = bis(picolyl)(N-methylimidazol-2-yl)amine) represents a structural, spectroscopic, and functional model system for manganese catalases. Compounds 3 and 5 have been synthesized from 2 via bulk electrolysis and ligand exchange, respectively. All complexes have been structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies. The different bridging ligands including the rare mono-mu-oxo and mono-mu-oxo-mono-mu-carboxylato motifs lead to a variation of the Mn-Mn separation across the four binuclear compounds of 1.50 A (Mn(2)(II,II) = 4.128 A, Mn(2)(III,III) = 3.5326 and 3.2533 A, Mn(2)(III,IV) = 2.624 A). Complexes 1, 2, and 3 are mimics for the Mn(2)(II,II), the Mn(2)(III,III), and the Mn(2)(III,IV) oxidation states of the native enzyme. UV-vis spectra of these compounds show similarities to those of the corresponding oxidation states of manganese catalase from Thermus thermophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum. Compound 2 exhibits a rare example of a Jahn-Teller compression. While complexes 1 and 3 are efficient catalysts for the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide and contain an N(4)O(2) donor set, 4 and 5 show no catalase activity. These complexes have an N(4)Cl(2) and N(4)OCl donor set, respectively, and serve as mimics for halide inhibited manganese catalases. Cyclovoltammetric data show that the substitution of oxygen donor atoms with chloride causes a shift of redox potentials to more positive values. To our knowledge, complex 1 is the most efficient binuclear functional manganese catalase mimic exhibiting saturation kinetics to date.

  4. IASS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  5. In vivo antioxidant activity of deacetylasperulosidic Acid in noni.

    PubMed

    Ma, De-Lu; Chen, Mai; Su, Chen X; West, Brett J

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylasperulosidic acid (DAA) is a major phytochemical constituent of Morinda citrifolia (noni) fruit. Noni juice has demonstrated antioxidant activity in vivo and in human trials. To evaluate the role of DAA in this antioxidant activity, Wistar rats were fed 0 (control group), 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg body weight per day for 7 days. Afterwards, serum malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured and compared among groups. A dose-dependent reduction in malondialdehyde was evident as well as a dose-dependent increase in superoxide dismutase activity. DAA ingestion did not influence serum glutathione peroxidase activity. These results suggest that DAA contributes to the antioxidant activity of noni juice by increasing superoxide dismutase activity. The fact that malondialdehyde concentrations declined with increased DAA dose, despite the lack of glutathione peroxidase-inducing activity, suggests that DAA may also increase catalase activity. It has been previously reported that noni juice increases catalase activity in vivo but additional research is required to confirm the effect of DAA on catalase. Even so, the current findings do explain a possible mechanism of action for the antioxidant properties of noni juice that have been observed in human clinical trials.

  6. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet ePublications Physical activity (exercise) fact sheet How can physical activity improve my ... recent hip surgery More information on physical activity (exercise) For more information about physical activity (exercise), call ...

  7. Effects of pergolide mesylate on transduction efficiency of PEP-1-catalase protein

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Eun Jeong; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Young Nam; Kim, So Mi; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Kim, Duk-Soo; Cho, Sung-Woo; Han, Kyu Hyung; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Hwang, Hyun Sook; Choi, Soo Young

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} We studied effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on in vitro and in vivo transduction of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PEP-1-catatase inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation. {yields} PM enhanced the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells and skin tissue. {yields} PM increased anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catalase. {yields} PM stimulated therapeutic action of anti-oxidant enzyme catalase in oxidative-related diseases. -- Abstract: The low transduction efficiency of various proteins is an obstacle to their therapeutic application. However, protein transduction domains (PTDs) are well-known for a highly effective tool for exogenous protein delivery to cells. We examined the effects of pergolide mesylate (PM) on the transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT human keratinocytes and mice skin and on the anti-inflammatory activity of PEP-1-catatase against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation using Western blot and histological analysis. PM enhanced the time- and dose-dependent transduction of PEP-1-catalase into HaCaT cells without affecting the cellular toxicity. In a mouse edema model, PEP-1-catalase inhibited the increased expressions of inflammatory mediators and cytokines such as cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6 and -1{beta}, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} induced by TPA. On the other hand, PM alone failed to exert any significant anti-inflammatory effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of co-treatment with PEP-1-catalase and PM was more potent than that of PEP-1-catalase alone. Our results indicate that PM may enhance the delivery of PTDs fusion therapeutic proteins to target cells and tissues and has potential to increase their therapeutic effects of such drugs against various diseases.

  8. [Thermo-alkali-stable catalase from Thermoascus aurantiacus and its potential use in textile bleaching process].

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Li, Yin; Du, Guo-Cheng; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Jian

    2004-05-01

    The effect of growth and fermentation conditions on the production of catalase by T. aurantiacus WSH 03-01 was investigated in shaking flasks. Catalase activity reached 1594 u/mL when the culture was grown on a complex carbon source containing 20 g/L dextrin and 1% (V/V) ethanol, which was 23% higher than the sum produced on 20 g/L dextrin and 1% (V/V) ethanol, respectively. It was concluded that dextrin might act as a major carbon source in the complex, while ethanol was rather a stimulator than a carbon source. The stimulation effect of ethanol on catalase production was postulated to be two aspects; catalase-dependent alcohol metabolism is activated by acute alcohol, thus more catalase need to be synthesized for that use, named direct induction. As for indirect induction, which may result from little amount of H2O2 generation in process of NADH regeneration in respiratory chain. Peptone was shown to be a favorable nitrogen source for catalase production and its optimum concentration was found to be 10 g/L. Catalase production by T. aurantiacus WSH 03-01 was further improved by optimizing the initial pH, volume of medium in flasks as well as the concentration of external H2O2. Under the optimum culture conditions, the activity of catalase reached 2762 u/mL, which was nearly 6.8 times higher than that of the initiate conditions. Furthermore, the potential application of this novel catalase in the treatment of textile bleaching effluents was evaluated. Thermo-and alkaline stability of this catalase was compared with the commercial available catalases produced from bovine and Aspergillus niger. The crude enzyme from T. aurantiacus WSH 03-01 showed stronger stabilities at (70 degrees C, 80 degrees C, 90 degrees C) and (pH 9.0, pH 10.0, pH 11.0) than the other two types of catalases, indicating a great application potential in the clean production process of textile industry.

  9. Activation Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  10. Catalase overexpression reduces the germination time and increases the pathogenicity of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Morales Hernandez, Claudia Erika; Padilla Guerrero, Israel Enrique; Gonzalez Hernandez, Gloria Angelica; Salazar Solis, Eduardo; Torres Guzman, Juan Carlos

    2010-07-01

    Catalases and peroxidases are the most important enzymes that degrade hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. These enzymes and superoxide dismutase are the first lines of cell defense against reactive oxygen species. Metarhizium anisopliae displays an increase in catalase-peroxidase activity during germination and growth. To determine the importance of catalase during the invasion process of M. anisopliae, we isolated the cat1 gene. cat1 cDNA expression in Escherichia coli and the subsequent purification of the protein confirmed that the cat1 gene codes for a monofunctional catalase. Expression analysis of this gene by RT-PCR from RNA isolated from fungus grown in liquid cultures showed a decrease in the expression level of the cat1 gene during germination and an increase during mycelium growth. The expression of this gene in the fungus during the infection process of the larvae of Plutella xylostella also showed a significant increase during invasive growth. Transgenic strains overexpressing the cat1 gene had twice the catalase activity of the wild-type strain. This increase in catalase activity was accompanied by a higher level of resistance to exogenous hydrogen peroxide and a reduction in the germination time. This improvement was also observed during the infection of P. xylostella larvae. M. anisopliae transgenic strains overexpressing the cat1 gene grew and spread faster in the soft tissue of the insect, reducing the time to death of the insect by 25% and the dose required to kill 50% of the population 14-fold.

  11. Binding of Cimetidine to Balb/C Mouse Liver Catalase; Kinetics and Conformational Studies.

    PubMed

    Jahangirvand, Mahboubeh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Yazdi, Fatemeh; Minai-Tehrani, Arash; Razmi, Nematollah

    2016-01-01

    Catalase is responsible for converting hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water and oxygen in cells. This enzyme has high affinity for hydrogen peroxide and can protect the cells from oxidative stress damage. Catalase is a tetramer protein and each monomer contains a heme group. Cimetidine is a histamine H2 receptor blocker which inhibits acid release from stomach and is used for gasterointestinal diseases. In this research, effect of cimetidine on the activity of liver catalase was studied and the kinetic parameters of this enzyme and its conformational changes were investigated. Cell free extract of mouse liver was used for the catalase assay. The activity of the catalase was detected in the absence and presence of cimetidine by monitoring hydrogen peroxide reduction absorbance at 240 nm. The purified enzyme was used for conformational studies by Fluorescence spectrophotometry. The data showed that cimetidine could inhibit the enzyme in a non-competitive manner. Ki and IC50 values of the drug were determined to be about 0.75 and 0.85 uM, respectively. The Arrhenius plot showed that activation energy was 6.68 and 4.77 kJ/mol in the presence and absence of the drug, respectively. Fluorescence spectrophotometry revealed that the binding of cimetidine to the purified enzyme induced hyperchromicity and red shift which determined the conformational change on the enzyme. Cimetidine could non-competitively inhibit the liver catalase with high affinity. Binding of cimetidine to the enzyme induced conformational alteration in the enzyme.

  12. Inhibitor and temperature effect on catalase in the liver of adult diploid and haploid Rana rugosa.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, A; Kashiwagi, K; Takase, M; Hanada, H; Yamashita, M; Naitoh, T; Nakamura, M

    1998-01-01

    The authors succeeded in raising a single mature haploid Rana rugosa female to the age of 2 years from an egg artificially fertilized with ultraviolet-irradiated sperm. In order to discover why this particular haploid individual should survive so long, hydrogen peroxide detoxifying catalase in the liver of this individual and age-matched diploids was examined and compared for total activity, temperature stability, and chemical inhibition. Total activity was found to be significantly higher in the haploid frog than in the diploids, suggesting that this particular haploid had a unique system for hydrogen peroxide detoxification which protected the liver against cell death, preventing hepatic failure, and leading to a prolonged survival. Liver catalase from the haploid proved to be more labile to aminotriazole and urea, losing 60-70% of its original activity after 30 min treatment, whereas diploid catalase lost only 40% under the same conditions. Haploid and diploid catalase responded similarly to heat, however. It seems likely that inhibitor-binding sites differ considerably between the catalase of normal diploids and the catalase of this particular haploid, while overall structure is generally similar.

  13. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... How much physical activity should I do each week? The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend ... 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a week, along with muscle-strengthening activities on 2 days ...

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and gene expression of an antioxidant enzyme catalase (MrCat) from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we reported a full length of catalase gene (designated as MrCat), identified from the transcriptome database of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The complete gene sequence of the MrCat is 2504 base pairs in length, and encodes 516 amino acids. The MrCat protein contains three domains such as catalase 1 (catalase proximal heme-ligand signature) at 350-358, catalase 2 (catalase proximal active site signature) at 60-76 and catalase 3 (catalase family profile) at 20-499. The mRNA expressions of MrCat in healthy and the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) challenged M. rosenbergii were examined using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MrCat is highly expressed in digestive tract and all the other tissues (walking leg, gills, muscle, hemocyte, hepatopancreas, pleopods, brain and eye stalk) of M. rosenbergii taken for analysis. The expression is strongly up-regulated in digestive tract after IHHNV challenge. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrCat gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant MrCat existed in high thermal stability and broad spectrum of pH, which showed over 95% enzyme activity between pH 5 and 10.5, and was stable from 40 °C to 70 °C, and exhibited 85-100% enzyme activity from 30 °C to 40 °C.

  15. Antioxidant and scavenger activities of Allium ursinum.

    PubMed

    Stajner, D; Popović, B M; Canadanović-Brunet, J; Stajner, M

    2008-06-01

    The antioxidative properties of bulb, leaf and stalk of Allium ursinum were investigated. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase), quantities of malonyldialdehyde, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and reduced glutathione and also the contents of total flavonoids, chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids were determined. The extracts from all plant organs exhibited antioxidant activity, the highest having been observed in the leaves. Furthermore, ESR signal of PBN-OH radical adducts in the presence of leaves phosphate buffer (pH 7) extract was reduced for 87.61%.

  16. Do pH and flavonoids influence hypochlorous acid-induced catalase inhibition and heme modification?

    PubMed

    Krych-Madej, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2015-09-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), highly reactive oxidizing and chlorinating species, is formed in the immune response to invading pathogens by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with chloride catalyzed by the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Catalase, an important antioxidant enzyme, catalyzing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, hampers in vitro HOCl formation, but is also one of the main targets for HOCl. In this work we have investigated HOCl-induced catalase inhibition at different pH, and the influence of flavonoids (catechin, epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin) on this process. It has been shown that HOCl-induced catalase inhibition is independent on pH in the range 6.0-7.4. Preincubation of catalase with epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin before HOCl treatment enhances the degree of catalase inhibition, whereas catechin does not affect this process. Our rapid kinetic measurements of absorption changes around the heme group have revealed that heme modification by HOCl is mainly due to secondary, intramolecular processes. The presence of flavonoids, which reduce active catalase intermediate, Compound I to inactive Compound II have not influenced the kinetics of HOCl-induced heme modification. Possible mechanisms of the reaction of hypochlorous acid with catalase are proposed and the biological consequences are discussed.

  17. Catalase is a key enzyme in seed recovery from ageing during priming.

    PubMed

    Kibinza, Serge; Bazin, Jérémie; Bailly, Christophe; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Françoise; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat

    2011-09-01

    Ageing induces seed deterioration expressed as the loss of seed vigour and/or viability. Priming treatment, which consists in soaking of seeds in a solution of low water potential, has been shown to reinvigorate aged seeds. We investigate the importance of catalase in oxidation protection during accelerated ageing and repair during subsequent priming treatment of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds. Seeds equilibrated to 0.29g H2Og(-1) dry matter (DM) were aged at 35°C for different durations and then primed by incubation for 7 days at 15°C in a solution of polyethylene glycol 8000 at -2MPa. Accelerated ageing affected seed germination and priming treatment reversed partially the ageing effect. The inhibition of catalase by the addition of aminotriazol during priming treatment reduced seed repair indicating that catalase plays a key role in protection and repair systems during ageing. Ageing was associated with H2O2 accumulation as showed by biochemical quantification and CeCl3 staining. Catalase was reduced at the level of gene expression, protein content and affinity. Interestingly, priming induced catalase synthesis by activating expression and translation of the enzyme. Immunocytolocalization of catalase showed that the enzyme co-localized with H2O2 in the cytosol. These results clearly indicate that priming induce the synthesis of catalase which is involved in seed recovery during priming.

  18. Catalases play differentiated roles in the adaptation of a fungal entomopathogen to environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Zhang, Long-Bin; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2013-02-01

    The catalase family of Beauveria bassiana (fungal entomopathogen) consists of catA (spore-specific), catB (secreted), catP (peroxisomal), catC (cytoplasmic) and catD (secreted peroxidase/catalase), which were distinguished in phylogeny and structure and functionally characterized by constructing single-gene disrupted and rescued mutants for enzymatic and multi-phenotypic analyses. Total catalase activity decreased 89% and 56% in ΔcatB and ΔcatP, corresponding to the losses of upper and lower active bands gel-profiled for all catalases respectively, but only 9-12% in other knockout mutants. Compared with wild type and complement mutants sharing similar enzymatic and phenotypic parameters, all knockout mutants showed significant (9-56%) decreases in the antioxidant capability of their conidia (active ingredients of mycoinsecticides), followed by remarkable phenotypic defects associated with the fungal biocontrol potential. These defects included mainly the losses of 40% thermotolerance (45°C) in ΔcatA, 46-48% UV-B resistance in ΔcatA and ΔcatD, and 33-47% virulence to Spodoptera litura larvae in ΔcatA, ΔcatP and ΔcatD respectively. Moreover, the drastic transcript upregulation of some other catalase genes observed in the normal culture of each knockout mutant revealed functionally complimentary effects among some of the catalase genes, particularly between catB and catC whose knockout mutants displayed little or minor phenotypic changes. However, the five catalase genes functioned redundantly in mediating the fungal tolerance to either hyperosmotic or fungicidal stress. The differentiated roles of five catalases in regulating the B. bassiana virulence and tolerances to oxidative stress, high temperature and UV-B irradiation provide new insights into fungal adaptation to stressful environment and host invasion.

  19. ICAM-1 targeted catalase encapsulated PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles against vascular oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sari, Ece; Tunc-Sarisozen, Yeliz; Mutlu, Hulya; Shahbazi, Reza; Ucar, Gulberk; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2015-01-01

    Targeted delivery of therapeutics is the favourable idea, whereas it is possible to distribute the therapeutically active drug molecule only to the site of action. For this purpose, in this study, catalase encapsulated poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-b-PEG) nanoparticles were developed and an endothelial target molecule (anti-ICAM-1) was conjugated to this carrier system in order to decrease the oxidative stress level in the target site. According to the enzymatic activity results, initial catalase activity of nanoparticles was increased from 27.39 U/mg to up to 45.66 U/mg by adding 5 mg/mL bovine serum albumin (BSA). After 4 h, initial catalase activity was preserved up to 46.98% while free catalase retained less than 4% of its activity in proteolytic environment. Furthermore, FITC labelled anti-ICAM-1 targeted catalase encapsulated nanoparticles (anti-ICAM-1/CatNPs) were rapidly taken up by cultured endothelial cells and concomitantly endothelial cells were resistant to H2O2 induced oxidative impairment.

  20. Purification and characterization of catalase from sprouted black gram (Vigna mungo) seeds.

    PubMed

    Kandukuri, Sai Srikar; Noor, Ayesha; Ranjini, S Shiva; Vijayalakshmi, M A

    2012-03-15

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is a legume which belongs to Fabaceae family. It is a rich source of protein. It has been known to have interesting small molecule antioxidant activity. However, its enzymatic antioxidant properties have not been explored much. In the present work we studied catalase, a principal antioxidant enzyme from black gram seeds. Day four sprouted black gram seeds were found to have a significant catalase content approximately of 15,240 U/g seeds. IMAC (Seph 4B-IDA-Zn(II)) was used for purifying this catalase, a purification fold of 106 and a high specific activity of 25,704 U/mg was obtained. The K(m) and V(max) of the purified catalase were found to be 16.2 mM and 2.5 μmol/min. The effect of inhibitors like Sodium azide (NaN(3)) and EDTA and different metal ions on catalase activity were studied. NaN(3), Fe(3+)and Cu(2+) were found to have profound inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity. Other metal ions like Ni(2+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) had both enhancing and inhibitory effects. The enzyme showed optimal activity at a temperature of 40°C and pH 7.0. It was stable over a broad range of pH 6.0-10.0 and had a half life of 7h 30 min at 50°C.

  1. Fingerprinting antioxidative activities in plants

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Livia; Plieth, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Background A plethora of concurrent cellular activities is mobilised in the adaptation of plants to adverse environmental conditions. This response can be quantified by physiological experiments or metabolic profiling. The intention of this work is to reduce the number of metabolic processes studied to a minimum of relevant parameters with a maximum yield of information. Therefore, we inspected 'summary parameters' characteristic for whole classes of antioxidative metabolites and key enzymes. Results Three bioluminescence assays are presented. A horseradish peroxidase-based total antioxidative capacity (TAC) assay is used to probe low molecular weight antioxidants. Peroxidases are quantified by their luminol converting activity (LUPO). Finally, we quantify high molecular weight superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOSA) using coelenterazine. Experiments with Lepidium sativum L. show how salt, drought, cold, and heat influence the antioxidative system represented here by TAC, LUPO, SOSA, catalase, and glutathione reductase (GR). LUPO and SOSA run anti-parallel under all investigated stress conditions suggesting shifts in antioxidative functions rather than formation of antioxidative power. TAC runs in parallel with GR. This indicates that a majority of low molecular weight antioxidants in plants is represented by glutathione. Conclusion The set of assays presented here is capable of characterising antioxidative activities in plants. It is inexpensive, quick and reproducible and delivers quantitative data. 'Summary parameters' like TAC, LUPO, and SOSA are quantitative traits which may be promising for implementation in high-throughput screening for robustness of novel mutants, transgenics, or breeds. PMID:19171044

  2. Apparent Catalase Synthesis in Sunflower Cotyledons during the Change in Microbody Function: A Mathematical Approach for the Quantitative Evaluation of Density-labeling Data.

    PubMed

    Betsche, T; Gerhardt, B

    1978-10-01

    Density-labeling with 10 mm K(15)NO(3)/70% (2)H(2)O has been used to investigate catalase synthesis in different developmental stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cotyledons. A mathematical approach is introduced for the quantitative evaluation of the density-labeling data. The method allows, in the presence of preexisting enzyme activity, calculation of this synthesized activity (apparent enzyme synthesis) which results from the balance between actual enzyme synthesis and the degradation of newly synthesized enzyme at a given time. During greening of the cotyledons, when the catalase activity declines and the population of leaf peroxisomes is formed, the apparent catalase synthesis is lower than, or at best equal to, that occurring during a developmental stage when the leaf peroxisome population is established and catalase synthesis and degradation of total catalase are in equilibrium. This result suggests a formation, in fatty cotyledons, of the leaf peroxisomes by transformation of the glyoxysomes rather than by de novo synthesis.

  3. Novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene of a catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus strain.

    PubMed

    Lagos, Jaime; Alarcón, Pedro; Benadof, Dona; Ulloa, Soledad; Fasce, Rodrigo; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Araya, Pamela; Parra, Bárbara; Olivares, Berta; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We report the first description of a rare catalase-negative strain of Staphylococcus aureus in Chile. This new variant was isolated from blood and synovial tissue samples of a pediatric patient. Sequencing analysis revealed that this catalase-negative strain is related to ST10 strain, which has earlier been described in relation to S. aureus carriers. Interestingly, sequence analysis of the catalase gene katA revealed presence of a novel nonsense mutation that causes premature translational truncation of the C-terminus of the enzyme leading to a loss of 222 amino acids. Our study suggests that loss of catalase activity in this rare catalase-negative Chilean strain is due to this novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene, which truncates the enzyme to just 283 amino acids.

  4. Novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene of a catalase-negative Staphylococcus aureus strain☆

    PubMed Central

    Lagos, Jaime; Alarcón, Pedro; Benadof, Dona; Ulloa, Soledad; Fasce, Rodrigo; Tognarelli, Javier; Aguayo, Carolina; Araya, Pamela; Parra, Bárbara; Olivares, Berta; Hormazábal, Juan Carlos; Fernández, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    We report the first description of a rare catalase-negative strain of Staphylococcus aureus in Chile. This new variant was isolated from blood and synovial tissue samples of a pediatric patient. Sequencing analysis revealed that this catalase-negative strain is related to ST10 strain, which has earlier been described in relation to S. aureus carriers. Interestingly, sequence analysis of the catalase gene katA revealed presence of a novel nonsense mutation that causes premature translational truncation of the C-terminus of the enzyme leading to a loss of 222 amino acids. Our study suggests that loss of catalase activity in this rare catalase-negative Chilean strain is due to this novel nonsense mutation in the katA gene, which truncates the enzyme to just 283 amino acids. PMID:26887242

  5. Two distinct groups of fungal catalase/peroxidases.

    PubMed

    Zámocký, Marcel; Furtmüller, Paul G; Obinger, Christian

    2009-08-01

    Catalase/peroxidases (KatGs) are bifunctional haem b-containing (Class I) peroxidases with overwhelming catalase activity and substantial peroxidase activity with various one-electron donors. These unique oxidoreductases evolved in ancestral bacteria revealing a complex gene-duplicated structure. Besides being found in numerous bacteria of all phyla, katG genes were also detected in genomes of lower eukaryotes, most prominently of sac and club fungi. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates the occurrence of two distinct groups of fungal KatGs that differ in localization, structural and functional properties. Analysis of lateral gene transfer of bacterial katGs into fungal genomes reveals that the most probable progenitor was a katG from a bacteroidetes predecessor. The putative physiological role(s) of both fungal KatG groups is discussed with respect to known structure-function relationships in bacterial KatGs and is related with the acquisition of (phyto)pathogenicity in fungi.

  6. Immunolocalization of hypochlorite-induced, catalase-bound free radical formation in mouse hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Marcelo G.; Siraki, Arno G.; Atanassov, Boyko S.; Mason., Ronald P.

    2007-01-01

    The establishment of oxidants as mediators of signal transduction has renewed the interest of investigators in oxidant production and metabolism. In particular, H2O2 has been demonstrated to play pivotal roles in mediating cell differentiation, proliferation and death. Intracellular concentrations of H2O2 are modulated by its rate of production and its rate of decomposition by catalase and peroxidases. In inflammation and infection some of the H2O2 is converted to hypochlorous acid, a key mediator of the host immune response against pathogens. In vivo HOCl production is mediated by myeloperoxidase, which uses excess H2O2 to oxidize Cl−. Mashino and Fridovich (1988) observed that a high excess of HOCl over catalase inactivated the enzyme by mechanisms that remain unclear. The potential relevance of this as an alternative mechanism for catalase activity control and its potential impact on H2O2-mediated signaling and HOCl-production compelled us to explore in depth the HOCl-mediated catalase inactivation pathways. Here, we demonstrate that HOCl induces formation of catalase protein radicals and carbonyls, which are temporally correlated with catalase aggregation. Hypochlorite-induced catalase aggregation and free radical formation that paralleled the enzyme loss of function in vitro were also detected in mouse hepatocytes treated with the oxidant. Interestingly, the novel immunospin-trapping technique was applied to image radical production in the cells. Indeed, in HOCl-treated hepatocytes, catalase and protein-DMPO nitrone adducts were colocalized in the cells’ peroxisomes. In contrast, when hepatocytes from catalase-knockout mice were treated with hypochlorous acid, there was extensive production of free radicals in the plasma membrane. Because free radicals are short-lived species with fundamental roles in biology, the possibility of their detection and localization to cell compartments is expected to open new and stimulating research venues in the interface of

  7. Reversible adsorption of catalase onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels.

    PubMed

    Aktaş Uygun, Deniz; Uygun, Murat; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2015-05-01

    In this presented study, poly(acrylamide-glycidyl methacrylate) [poly(AAm-GMA)] cryogels were synthesized by cryopolymerization technique at sub-zero temperature. Prepared cryogels were then functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) and chelated with Fe(3+) ions in order produce the metal chelate affinity matrix. Synthesized cryogels were characterized with FTIR, ESEM and EDX analysis, and it was found that the cryogel had sponge like structure with interconnected pores and their pore diameter was about 200 μm. Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogels were used for the adsorption of catalase and optimum adsorption conditions were determined by varying the medium pH, initial catalase concentration, temperature and ionic strength. Maximum catalase adsorption onto Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was found to be 12.99 mg/g cryogel at 25 °C, by using pH 5.0 acetate buffer. Adsorbed catalase was removed from the cryogel by using 1.0M of NaCl solution and desorption yield was found to be 96%. Additionally, reusability profile of the Fe(3+) chelated poly(AAm-GMA)-IDA cryogel was also investigated and it was found that, adsorption capacity of the cryogels didn't decrease significantly at the end of the 40 reuses. Catalase activity studies were also tested and it was demonstrated that desorbed catalase retained 70% of its initial activity.

  8. The critical role of catalase in prooxidant and antioxidant function of p53.

    PubMed

    Kang, M Y; Kim, H-B; Piao, C; Lee, K H; Hyun, J W; Chang, I-Y; You, H J

    2013-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is an important regulator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, although downstream mediators of p53 remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that p53 and its downstream targets, p53-inducible ribonucleotide reductase (p53R2) and p53-inducible gene 3 (PIG3), physically and functionally interact with catalase for efficient regulation of intracellular ROS, depending on stress intensity. Under physiological conditions, the antioxidant functions of p53 are mediated by p53R2, which maintains increased catalase activity and thereby protects against endogenous ROS. After genotoxic stress, high levels of p53 and PIG3 cooperate to inhibit catalase activity, leading to a shift in the oxidant/antioxidant balance toward an oxidative status, which could augment apoptotic cell death. These results highlight the essential role of catalase in p53-mediated ROS regulation and suggest that the p53/p53R2-catalase and p53/PIG3-catalase pathways are critically involved in intracellular ROS regulation under physiological conditions and during the response to DNA damage, respectively.

  9. A Simple Method for Demonstrating Enzyme Kinetics Using Catalase from Beef Liver Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Kristin A.

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes a simple visual method of demonstrating enzyme kinetics using beef liver catalase. A catalase solution is obtained by homogenizing beef liver in a phosphate buffer. In the demonstration, filter paper is saturated with beef liver extract and placed into a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The catalase in the extract decomposes the hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Oxygen forms on the filter paper, and the filter paper rises to the top of the beaker. Catalase activity is measured by timing the rise of the enzyme-soaked filter paper to the top of beakers containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. The data are plotted as a Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plot, and the Km and Vmax for the reaction are calculated.

  10. Altered methanol embryopathies in embryo culture with mutant catalase-deficient mice and transgenic mice expressing human catalase

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Lutfiya; Wells, Peter G.

    2011-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying the teratogenicity of methanol (MeOH) in rodents, unlike its acute toxicity in humans, are unclear, but may involve reactive oxygen species (ROS). Embryonic catalase, although expressed at about 5% of maternal activity, may protect the embryo by detoxifying ROS. This hypothesis was investigated in whole embryo culture to remove confounding maternal factors, including metabolism of MeOH by maternal catalase. C57BL/6 (C57) mouse embryos expressing human catalase (hCat) or their wild-type (C57 WT) controls, and C3Ga.Cg-Catb/J acatalasemic (aCat) mouse embryos or their wild-type C3HeB/FeJ (C3H WT) controls, were explanted on gestational day (GD) 9 (plug = GD 1), exposed for 24 h to 4 mg/ml MeOH or vehicle, and evaluated for functional and morphological changes. hCat and C57 WT vehicle-exposed embryos developed normally. MeOH was embryopathic in C57 WT embryos, evidenced by decreases in anterior neuropore closure, somites developed and turning, whereas hCat embryos were protected. Vehicle-exposed aCat mouse embryos had lower yolk sac diameters compared to C3H WT controls, suggesting that endogenous ROS are embryopathic. MeOH was more embryopathic in aCat embryos than WT controls, with reduced anterior neuropore closure and head length only in catalase-deficient embryos. These data suggest that ROS may be involved in the embryopathic mechanism of methanol, and that embryonic catalase activity may be a determinant of teratological risk.

  11. Novel Role of Endogenous Catalase in Macrophage Polarization in Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are important components of adipose tissue inflammation, which results in metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance. Notably, obesity induces a proinflammatory phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophages, and oxidative stress facilitates this switch. Thus, we examined the role of endogenous catalase, a key regulator of oxidative stress, in the activity of adipose tissue macrophages in obese mice. Catalase knockout (CKO) exacerbated insulin resistance, amplified oxidative stress, and accelerated macrophage infiltration into epididymal white adipose tissue in mice on normal or high-fat diet. Interestingly, catalase deficiency also enhanced classical macrophage activation (M1) and inflammation but suppressed alternative activation (M2) regardless of diet. Similarly, pharmacological inhibition of catalase activity using 3-aminotriazole induced the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory response in RAW264.7 macrophages. Finally, the same phenotypic switch and inflammatory responses were observed in primary bone marrow-derived macrophages from CKO mice. Taken together, the data indicate that endogenous catalase regulates the polarization of adipose tissue macrophages and thereby inhibits inflammation and insulin resistance. PMID:27597806

  12. Effect of catalase inactivation on levels of inorganic peroxides, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, oxygen consumption and life span in adult houseflies (Musca domestica).

    PubMed Central

    Allen, R G; Farmer, K J; Sohal, R S

    1983-01-01

    The effects of total inhibition of catalase, induced by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, on the adult housefly (Musca domestica) were examined. The lack of catalase activity had no effect on the longevity of the houseflies. Inorganic-peroxide concentration was elevated at younger ages, but declined in older flies. The rate of oxygen consumption by the flies was greatly decreased and the levels of oxidized as well as reduced glutathione were augmented. Superoxide dismutase activity showed a slight increase. This study suggests that loss of catalase activity does not affect survival of houseflies due to adaptive responses. PMID:6661212

  13. Enzymatic exploration of catalase from a nanoparticle producing and biodecolorizing algae Shewanella xiamenensis BC01.

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Xu, Fangxin; Zhang, Xia; Ye, Chiming

    2015-05-01

    Shewanella xiamenensis (SXM) was found to produce nanoparticles (NPs) under aerobic condition. The oxidoreductase enzymatic activities including of catalase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, NADH dehydrogenase, flavin reductase, azoreductase and Fe reductase are first investigated. Catalase showed the greatest enzymatic activity among all oxidoreductases in SXM, which with strong activities in multiple substrates of ABTS, guaiacol and 2,6-DMP. The optimum temperature, pH, concentrations of H2O2 and 2,6-DMP for this enzyme were found to be 65 °C, pH 4.0, 128.7 mM and 10 mM, respectively. Finally, from the kinetic parameters and structure simulation of catalase, implied that SXM would potentially apply in bioremediation, microbe fuel cells (MFCs) and nano-biotechnology based on its distinguished enzymatic system.

  14. Purification and Characterization of a Novel Thermo-Alkali-Stable Catalase from Thermus brockianus

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Vicki Sue; Schaller, Kastli Dianne; Apel, William Arnold

    2003-10-01

    A novel thermo-alkali-stable catalase from Thermus brockianus was purified and characterized. The protein was purified from a T. brockianus cell extract in a three-step procedure that resulted in 65-fold purification to a specific activity of 5300 U/mg. The enzyme consisted of four identical subunits of 42.5 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and a total molecular mass measured by gel filtration of 178 kDa. The catalase was active over a temperature range from 30 to 94 C and a pH range from 6 to 10, with optimum activity occurring at 90 C and pH 8. At pH 8, the enzyme was extremely stable at elevated temperatures with half-lives of 330 h at 80 C and 3 h at 90 C. The enzyme also demonstrated excellent stability at 70 C and alkaline pH with measured half-lives of 510 h and 360 h at pHs of 9 and 10, respectively. The enzyme had an unusual pyridine hemochrome spectrum and appears to utilize eight molecules of heme c per tetramer rather than protoheme IX present in the majority of catalases studied to date. The absorption spectrum suggested that the heme iron of the catalase was in a 6-coordinate low spin state rather than the typical 5-coordinate high spin state. A Km of 35.5 mM and a Vmax of 20.3 mM/min·mg protein for hydrogen peroxide was measured, and the enzyme was not inhibited by hydrogen peroxide at concentrations up to 450 mM. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by cyanide and the traditional catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. The enzyme also showed no peroxidase activity to peroxidase substrates o-dianisidine and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), a trait of typical monofunctional catalases. However, unlike traditional monofunctional catalases, the T. brockianus catalase was easily reduced by dithionite, a characteristic of catalase-peroxidases. The above properties indicate that this catalase has potential for applications in industrial bleaching processes to remove residual hydrogen peroxide from process streams.

  15. Microsomal ethanol oxidation: activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Roach, M K

    1975-01-01

    Studies by several investigators have confirmed that the microsomal fraction of mammalian liver oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde in a reaction that requires NADPH and oxygen. Efforts to identify the enzymes involved have produced conflicting opinions of the reaction mechanism, however. Initially, the microsomal mixed function oxidase system was assumed to be capable of oxidizing ethanol in a mechanism that did not involve either alcohol dehydrogenase or catalase. Later evidence suggested that the oxidative enzyme was, in fact, catalase, a contaminant of microsomal preparations and that the mixed function oxidase system merely furnished hydrogen peroxide to the reaction. Much current research supports the latter interpretation. Other workers provide evidence that favors a system in which catalase does not participate. Attempts to define the reaction process have involved studies with catalase inhibitors, kinetic studies of the different reaction systems, and physical separation of catalase from the microsomal components. Questions of the mechanism of microsomal ethanol oxidation may prove to be purely academic, however. Efforts to prove that the system has significant in vivo activity generally have not been successful.

  16. Catalase is inhibited by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Krych, Justyna; Gebicka, Lidia

    2013-07-01

    Catalases, heme enzymes, which catalyze decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen, belong to the antioxidant defense system of the cell. In this work we have shown that catalase from bovine liver is inhibited by flavonoids. The inhibition is, at least partially, due to the formation of hydrogen bonds between catalase and flavonoids. In the presence of some flavonoids the formation of unreactive catalase compound II has been detected. The most potent catalase inhibitors among the tested flavonoids have appeared myricetin, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate. The relationship between the degree of enzyme inhibition and molecular structure of flavonoids has been analyzed.

  17. Mn-catalase (Alr0998) protects the photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC7120 from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Manisha; Ballal, Anand; Apte, Shree Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Role of the non-haem, manganese catalase (Mn-catalase) in oxidative stress tolerance is unknown in cyanobacteria. The ORF alr0998 from the Anabaena PCC7120, which encodes a putative Mn-catalase, was constitutively overexpressed in Anabaena PCC7120 to generate a recombinant strain, AnKat(+). The Alr0998 protein could be immunodetected in AnKat(+) cells and zymographic analysis showed a distinct thermostable catalase activity in the cytosol of AnKat(+) cells but not in the wild-type Anabaena PCC7120. The observed catalase activity was insensitive to inhibition by azide indicating that Alr0998 protein is indeed a Mn-catalase. In response to oxidative stress, the AnKat(+) showed reduced levels of intracellular ROS which was also corroborated by decreased production of an oxidative stress-inducible 2-Cys-Prx protein. Treatment of wild-type Anabaena PCC7120 with H(2)O(2) caused (i) RNA degradation in vivo, (ii) severe reduction of photosynthetic pigments and CO(2) fixation, (iii) fragmentation and lysis of filaments and (iv) loss of viability. In contrast, the AnKat(+) strain was protected from all the aforesaid deleterious effect under oxidative stress. This is the first report on protection of an organism from oxidative stress by overexpression of a Mn-catalase.

  18. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide accumulation and toxicity by a catalase from Mycoplasma iowae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Rachel E; Prassinos, Alexandre J; Osborne, John D; Raviv, Ziv; Balish, Mitchell F

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma iowae is a well-established avian pathogen that can infect and damage many sites throughout the body. One potential mediator of cellular damage by mycoplasmas is the production of H2O2 via a glycerol catabolic pathway whose genes are widespread amongst many mycoplasma species. Previous sequencing of M. iowae serovar I strain 695 revealed the presence of not only genes for H2O2 production through glycerol catabolism but also the first documented mycoplasma gene for catalase, which degrades H2O2. To test the activity of M. iowae catalase in degrading H2O2, we studied catalase activity and H2O2 accumulation by both M. iowae serovar K strain DK-CPA, whose genome we sequenced, and strains of the H2O2-producing species Mycoplasma gallisepticum engineered to produce M. iowae catalase by transformation with the M. iowae putative catalase gene, katE. H2O2-mediated virulence by M. iowae serovar K and catalase-producing M. gallisepticum transformants were also analyzed using a Caenorhabditis elegans toxicity assay, which has never previously been used in conjunction with mycoplasmas. We found that M. iowae katE encodes an active catalase that, when expressed in M. gallisepticum, reduces both the amount of H2O2 produced and the amount of damage to C. elegans in the presence of glycerol. Therefore, the correlation between the presence of glycerol catabolism genes and the use of H2O2 as a virulence factor by mycoplasmas might not be absolute.

  19. Evaluation on the Toxic Effects of NanoAg to Catalase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Zhai, Wenxin; Liu, Rutao; Yu, Zehua; Shen, Hengmei; Hu, Xinxin

    2015-02-01

    Protein is the functional actor of life. Research on protein damage induced by nanomaterials may give insight into the toxicity mechanisms of nanoparticles. Studying nano silver over the impact of the structure and function of catalase (CAT) at the molecular level, is of great significance for a comprehensive evaluation of their toxic effects. The toxic effects of nanoAg on catalase were thoroughly investigated using steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching measurements, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering spectroscopy (RLS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). NanoAg could decrease the amount of alpha-helix and increase the beta sheet structure, leading to loose the skeleton structure of catalase. The characteristic fluorescence of catalase was obviously quenched, which showed the exposal of internal hydrophobic amino acids enhanced, and its quenching type is dynamic quenching. The result of RLS and TEM showed that the distribution and size of nanoAg become more uniform and smaller after their interaction, resulting in a decrease of RLS intensity. NanoAg could make the activity of catalase rise. By changing the structure of catalase, nanoAg increases its enzymatic activity to a certain extent, breaking down its balance in vivo, thereby affecting the normal physiological activities. NanoAg has obvious toxic effects on catalase. This paper provided a new perspective and method for the toxic effects of nanoAg to biological macromolecules; provided basic data and reference gist for the hygienics and toxicology studies of nanoAg. It is conducive to the toxicity prevention and control work of nanoAg, promoting nano-technology applied to human production and living better.

  20. Immobilization and kinetics of catalase on calcium carbonate nanoparticles attached epoxy support.

    PubMed

    Preety; Hooda, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid epoxy/nano CaCO3 composite matrix for catalase immobilization was prepared by polymerizing epoxy resin in the presence of CaCO3 nanoparticles. The hybrid support was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Catalase was successfully immobilized onto epoxy/nano CaCO3 support with a conjugation yield of 0.67 ± 0.01 mg/cm(2) and 92.63 ± 0.80 % retention of activity. Optimum pH and optimum temperature of free and immobilized catalases were found to be 7.0 and 35 °C. The value of Km for H2O2 was higher for immobilized enzyme (31.42 mM) than native enzyme (27.73 mM). A decrease in Vmax value from 1,500 to 421.10 μmol (min mg protein)(-1) was observed after immobilization. Thermal and storage stabilities of catalase improved immensely after immobilization. Immobilized enzyme retained three times than the activity of free enzyme when kept at 75 °C for 1 h and the half-life of enzyme increased five times when stored in phosphate buffer (0.01 M, pH 7.0) at 5 °C. The enzyme could be reused 30 times without any significant loss of its initial activity. Desorption of catalase from the hybrid support was minimum at pH 7.0.

  1. Apparent Catalase Synthesis in Sunflower Cotyledons during the Change in Microbody Function

    PubMed Central

    Betsche, Thomas; Gerhardt, Bernt

    1978-01-01

    Density-labeling with 10 mm K15NO3/70% 2H2O has been used to investigate catalase synthesis in different developmental stages of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cotyledons. A mathematical approach is introduced for the quantitative evaluation of the density-labeling data. The method allows, in the presence of preexisting enzyme activity, calculation of this synthesized activity (apparent enzyme synthesis) which results from the balance between actual enzyme synthesis and the degradation of newly synthesized enzyme at a given time. During greening of the cotyledons, when the catalase activity declines and the population of leaf peroxisomes is formed, the apparent catalase synthesis is lower than, or at best equal to, that occurring during a developmental stage when the leaf peroxisome population is established and catalase synthesis and degradation of total catalase are in equilibrium. This result suggests a formation, in fatty cotyledons, of the leaf peroxisomes by transformation of the glyoxysomes rather than by de novo synthesis. PMID:16660565

  2. Adolescent sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Braverman, P K; Strasburger, V C

    1993-11-01

    Adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages. One half of the adolescents in the United States are sexually active. This article reviews adolescent sexual activity, including rates of sexual activity, sexual practices, gay and lesbian youth, and factors affecting the initiation of sexual activity. In addition, adolescent pregnancy, with possible outcomes and effects on teen parents and their offspring, is discussed.

  3. Catalase in fluvial biofilms: a comparison between different extraction methods and example of application in a metal-polluted river.

    PubMed

    Bonnineau, Chloé; Bonet, Berta; Corcoll, Natàlia; Guasch, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are involved in important processes of cell detoxification during oxidative stress and have, therefore, been used as biomarkers in algae. Nevertheless, their limited use in fluvial biofilms may be due to the complexity of such communities. Here, a comparison between different extraction methods was performed to obtain a reliable method for catalase extraction from fluvial biofilms. Homogenization followed by glass bead disruption appeared to be the best compromise for catalase extraction. This method was then applied to a field study in a metal-polluted stream (Riou Mort, France). The most polluted sites were characterized by a catalase activity 4-6 times lower than in the low-polluted site. Results of the comparison process and its application are promising for the use of catalase activity as an early warning biomarker of toxicity using biofilms in the laboratory and in the field.

  4. [Role of catalase and superoxide dismutase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to hydrogen peroxide in exponential phase of growth].

    PubMed

    Baĭliak, M M; Semchyshyn, H M; Lushchak, V I

    2006-01-01

    The role of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in response of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in the middle-exponential phase has been investigated. It was shown that cell survival is significantly decreased after yeast exposure to hydrogen peroxide in the strains defective in cytosolic or peroxisomal catalases. Treatment of the wild-type cells with 0.5 mM H2O2 for 30 min causes an increase in the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, but the effect was not observed in all strains investigated. It was also shown that hydrogen peroxide leads to an increase in the activities of both catalases and Cu,Zn-containing SOD. The effect was cancelled by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis.

  5. Specific function of the Met-Tyr-Trp adduct radical and residues Arg-418 and Asp-137 in the atypical catalase reaction of catalase-peroxidase KatG.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangbo; Khajo, Abdelahad; Jarrett, Sanchez; Suarez, Javier; Levitsky, Yan; Burger, Richard M; Jarzecki, Andrzej A; Magliozzo, Richard S

    2012-10-26

    Catalase activity of the dual-function heme enzyme catalase-peroxidase (KatG) depends on several structural elements, including a unique adduct formed from covalently linked side chains of three conserved amino acids (Met-255, Tyr-229, and Trp-107, Mycobacterium tuberculosis KatG numbering) (MYW). Mutagenesis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and optical stopped-flow experiments, along with calculations using density functional theory (DFT) methods revealed the basis of the requirement for a radical on the MYW-adduct, for oxyferrous heme, and for conserved residues Arg-418 and Asp-137 in the rapid catalase reaction. The participation of an oxyferrous heme intermediate (dioxyheme) throughout the pH range of catalase activity is suggested from our finding that carbon monoxide inhibits the activity at both acidic and alkaline pH. In the presence of H(2)O(2), the MYW-adduct radical is formed normally in KatG[D137S] but this mutant is defective in forming dioxyheme and lacks catalase activity. KatG[R418L] is also catalase deficient but exhibits normal formation of the adduct radical and dioxyheme. Both mutants exhibit a coincidence between MYW-adduct radical persistence and H(2)O(2) consumption as a function of time, and enhanced subunit oligomerization during turnover, suggesting that the two mutations disrupting catalase turnover allow increased migration of the MYW-adduct radical to protein surface residues. DFT calculations showed that an interaction between the side chain of residue Arg-418 and Tyr-229 in the MYW-adduct radical favors reaction of the radical with the adjacent dioxyheme intermediate present throughout turnover in WT KatG. Release of molecular oxygen and regeneration of resting enzyme are thereby catalyzed in the last step of a proposed catalase reaction.

  6. Leptospira interrogans catalase is required for resistance to H2O2 and for virulence.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Azad; Lourdault, Kristel; Murray, Gerald L; Bartpho, Thanatchaporn; Sermswan, Rasana W; Picardeau, Mathieu; Adler, Ben; Snarr, Brendan; Zuerner, Richard L; Cameron, Caroline E

    2012-11-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira spp. are likely to encounter higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species induced by the host innate immune response. In this study, we characterized Leptospira interrogans catalase (KatE), the only annotated catalase found within pathogenic Leptospira species, by assessing its role in resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress and during infection in hamsters. Pathogenic L. interrogans bacteria had a 50-fold-higher survival rate under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress than did saprophytic L. biflexa bacteria, and this was predominantly catalase dependent. We also characterized KatE, the only annotated catalase found within pathogenic Leptospira species. Catalase assays performed with recombinant KatE confirmed specific catalase activity, while protein fractionation experiments localized KatE to the bacterial periplasmic space. The insertional inactivation of katE in pathogenic Leptospira bacteria drastically diminished leptospiral viability in the presence of extracellular H(2)O(2) and reduced virulence in an acute-infection model. Combined, these results suggest that L. interrogans KatE confers in vivo resistance to reactive oxygen species induced by the host innate immune response.

  7. Fluorescence Spectrometry of the Interaction of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Catalase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Li, Y.; Cai, H.; Li, J.; Miao, J.; Fu, D.; Yang, Q.

    2014-11-01

    The interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) with catalase is investigated using fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results of the fluorescence experiments suggest that MWCNTs quench the intrinsic fluorescence of catalase via a static quenching mechanism. The circular dichroism spectral results reveal the unfolding of catalase with a significant decrease in the α-helix content in the presence of MWCNTs, which indicates that the conformation of catalase is changed in the binding process, thereby remarkably decreasing its activity. The binding constants and the number of binding sites of the MWCNT to the catalase are calculated at different temperatures. The thermodynamic parameters, such as the changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS), are calculated using thermodynamic equations. The fact that all negative values of ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS are obtained suggests that the interaction of the MWCNTs with catalase is spontaneous, and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions play an important role in the binding process.

  8. A novel impedimetric nanobiosensor for low level determination of hydrogen peroxide based on biocatalysis of catalase.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Asgari, Mehdi; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2012-02-01

    A robust and effective nanocomposite film-glassy carbon modified electrode based on multi-walled carbon nanotubes and a room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate was prepared by a layer-by-layer self-assembly method. The fabricated modified electrode was used as a novel impedimetric catalase nanobiosensor for the determination of H(2)O(2). Direct electron transfer and electrocatalysis of catalase were fully investigated. The results suggested that catalase could be firmly adsorbed at the modified electrode. A pair of quasi-reversible redox peaks of catalase was observed in a 0.20 M degassed phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.0. The nanocomposite film showed a pronounced increase in direct electron transfer between catalase and the electrode. The immobilized catalase exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H(2)O(2). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements revealed that the charge transfer resistance decreases significantly after enzymatic reaction with hydrogen peroxide, so that the prepared modified electrode can be used for the detection of ultra traces of H(2)O(2) (5-1700 nM).

  9. Chromatin remodeling regulates catalase expression during cancer cells adaptation to chronic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Glorieux, Christophe; Sandoval, Juan Marcelo; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Dejeans, Nicolas; Garbe, James C; Dieu, Marc; Verrax, Julien; Renard, Patricia; Huang, Peng; Calderon, Pedro Buc

    2016-10-01

    Regulation of ROS metabolism plays a major role in cellular adaptation to oxidative stress in cancer cells, but the molecular mechanism that regulates catalase, a key antioxidant enzyme responsible for conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen, remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the transcriptional regulatory mechanism controlling catalase expression in three human mammary cell lines: the normal mammary epithelial 250MK primary cells, the breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and an experimental model of MCF-7 cells resistant against oxidative stress resulting from chronic exposure to H2O2 (Resox), in which catalase was overexpressed. Here we identify a novel promoter region responsible for the regulation of catalase expression at -1518/-1226 locus and the key molecules that interact with this promoter and affect catalase transcription. We show that the AP-1 family member JunB and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARα) mediate catalase transcriptional activation and repression, respectively, by controlling chromatin remodeling through a histone deacetylases-dependent mechanism. This regulatory mechanism plays an important role in redox adaptation to chronic exposure to H2O2 in breast cancer cells. Our study suggests that cancer adaptation to oxidative stress may be regulated by transcriptional factors through chromatin remodeling, and reveals a potential new mechanism to target cancer cells.

  10. Nitrite-catalase interaction as an important element of nitrite toxicity.

    PubMed

    Titov, V Yu; Petrenko, Yu M

    2003-06-01

    It was established that nitrite in the presence of chloride, bromide, and thiocyanate decreases the rate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition by catalase. The decrease was recorded by the permanganatometric method and by a method of dynamic calorimetry. Nitrite was not destroyed in the course of the reaction and the total value of heat produced in the process was not changed by its presence. These facts suggest that nitrite induces inhibition of catalase with no change in the essence of the enzymatic process. Even micromolar nitrite concentrations induced a considerable decrease in catalase activity. However, in the absence of chloride, bromide, and thiocyanate inhibition was not observed. In contrast, fluoride protected catalase from nitrite inhibition in the presence of the above-mentioned halides and pseudohalide. As hydrogen peroxide is a necessary factor for triggering a number of important toxic effects of nitrite, the latter increases its toxicity by inhibiting catalase. This was shown by the example of nitrite-induced hemoglobin oxidation. The naturally existing gradient of chloride and other anion concentrations between intra- and extracellular media appears to be the most important mechanism of cell protection from inhibition of intracellular catalase by nitrite. Possible mechanisms of this inhibition are discussed.

  11. Progeric effects of catalase inactivation in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Koepke, Jay I.; Wood, Christopher S.; Terlecky, Laura J.; Walton, Paul A.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

    2008-10-01

    Peroxisomes generate hydrogen peroxide, a reactive oxygen species, as part of their normal metabolism. A number of pathological situations exist in which the organelle's capacity to degrade the potentially toxic oxidant is compromised. It is the peroxidase, catalase, which largely determines the functional antioxidant capacity of the organelle, and it is this enzyme that is affected in aging, in certain diseases, and in response to exposure to specific chemical agents. To more tightly control the enzymatic activity of peroxisomal catalase and carefully document the effects of its impaired action on human cells, we employed the inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole. We show that by chronically reducing catalase activity to approximately 38% of normal, cells respond in a dramatic manner, displaying a cascade of accelerated aging reactions. Hydrogen peroxide and related reactive oxygen species are produced, protein and DNA are oxidatively damaged, import into peroxisomes and organelle biogenesis is corrupted, and matrix metalloproteinases are hyper-secreted from cells. In addition, mitochondria are functionally impaired, losing their ability to maintain a membrane potential and synthesize reactive oxygen species themselves. These latter results suggest an important redox-regulated connection between the two organelle systems, a topic of considerable interest for future study.

  12. Guide to Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  13. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  14. Adventitial gene transfer of catalase attenuates angiotensin II-induced vascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Fei; Zhang, Jia; Shen, Kai; Gao, Ping-Jin; Wang, Hai-Ya; Jin, Xin; Meng, Chao; Fang, Ning-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    Vascular adventitia and adventitia‑derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to vascular remodeling following vascular injury. A previous ex vivo study in adventitial fibroblasts showed that catalase, one of most important anti‑oxide enzymes, was downregulated by angiotensin II (AngII). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether adventitial gene transfer of catalase affects AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in vivo. Adenoviruses co‑expressing catalase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or expressing eGFP only were applied to the adventitial surface of common carotid arteries of Sprague‑Dawley rats. Alzet minipumps administering AngII (0.75 mg/kg/day) were then implanted subcutaneously for 14 days. Systolic blood pressure and biological parameters of vascular remodeling were measured in each group. Adventitial fibroblasts were cultured and p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was measured using western blot analysis. The results showed that adventitial gene transfer of catalase had no effect on AngII‑induced systolic blood pressure elevation. However, catalase adenovirus transfection significantly inhibited AngII‑induced media hypertrophy compared with that of the control virus (P<0.05). In addition, catalase transfection significantly attenuated AngII‑induced ROS generation, macrophage infiltration, collagen deposition and adventitial α‑smooth muscle actin expression. Furthermore, catalase transfection significantly inhibited the AngII‑induced increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that adventitial gene transfer of catalase significantly attenuated AngII‑induced vascular remodeling in rats via inhibition of adventitial p38MAPK phosphorylation.

  15. Purification, cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a monofunctional catalase, KatP, from Pigmentiphaga sp. DL-8.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weiliang; Hou, Ying; Li, Shuhuan; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jie; Li, Zhoukun; Wang, Yicheng; Huang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Huang, Yan; Cui, Zhongli

    2015-04-01

    Catalases are essential components of the cellular equipment used to cope with oxidative stress. The monofunctional catalase KatP was purified from Pigmentiphaga sp. using ammonium sulfate precipitation (ASP), diethylaminoethyl ion exchange chromatography (IEC), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC). The purified catalase formed polymer with an estimated monomer molecular mass of 54kDa, which were resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and zymogram analysis. KatP exhibited a specific catalytic activity of 73,000U/mg, which was higher than that of catalase-1 of Comamonas terrigena N3H (55,900U/mg). Seven short tryptic fragments of this catalase were obtained by electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS), and the gene, katP, was cloned by PCR amplification and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Based on the complete amino acid sequence, KatP was identified as a clade 3 monofunctional catalase. The specific activities of recombinant KatP for hydrogen peroxide (690,000U/mg) increased 9-fold over that of the parent strain. The Km and Vmax of recombinant KatP were 9.48mM and 81.2mol/minmg, respectively. The optimal pH and temperature for KatP were 7.0 and 37°C, respectively, and the enzyme displayed abroad pH-stable range of 4.0-11.0. The enzyme was inhibited by Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(2+), and Mn(2+), whereas Fe(3+) and Mg(2+) stimulated KatP enzymatic activity. Interestingly, the catalase activity of recombinant KatP displayed high stability under different temperature and pH conditions, suggesting that KatP is a potential candidate for the production of catalase.

  16. Catalase -262C>T polymorphisms in Hungarian vitiligo patients and in controls: further acatalasemia mutations in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Kósa, Zsuzsanna; Fejes, Zsolt; Nagy, Teréz; Csordás, Melinda; Simics, Enikő; Remenyik, Eva; Góth, László

    2012-04-01

    Catalase is the main regulator of hydrogen peroxide metabolism. In vitiligo patients there are conflicting data on its activity and no data on the effect of -262C>T polymorphism in the catalase gene. Blood catalase activity, -262C>T polymorphism and acatalasemia mutations were examined in 75 vitiligo patients and in 162 controls, in Hungary. We measured blood catalase activity and conducted analyses with PCR-SSCP, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining in combination with RFLP and nucleotide sequencing. Comparison of the wild (CC) genotype and the mutant (TT) genotype in the vitiligo patients revealed a non significant (P > 0.19) increase in blood catalase. Male controls with the CT genotype had significantly (P < 0.04) lower blood catalase activity than CC genotype controls. Female vitiligo patients with CC genotype had lower (P < 0.04) blood catalase than female controls. The frequency of wild genotype (CC) and C alleles is significantly (P < 0.04) decreased in Hungarian controls when compared to controls in Slovenia, Morocco, UK, Greece, Turkey, USA, China. The detection of a novel acatalasemia mutation (37C>T in exon 9) and the 113G>A (exon 9) mutation in Hungary are further proofs of genetic heterogeneity origin of acatalasemia mutations. In conclusion, the -262 C>T polymorphism has a reverse effect on blood catalase in vitiligo patients and in controls. In controls the mutant genotypes and alleles are more frequent in Hungary than in several other populations. The new acatalasemia mutations are further examples of heterogeneity of acatalasemia.

  17. Neuropathic pain modifies antioxidant activity in rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Renata P; Bosco, Lidiane Dal; Teixeira, Camila M; Araújo, Alex S R; Llesuy, Susana; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia M; Partata, Wania A

    2006-05-01

    Oxidative stress is an important pathophysiological mechanism of many neurological diseases. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been cited as molecules involved in the nociceptive process. In this study, rats were submitted to sciatic nerve transection (SNT) for induction of neuropathic pain, and enzyme activities of SOD and catalase as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) were measured in the lumbosacral spinal cord. The results show that LPO was not changed after SNT. SOD activity was reduced 7 days after SNT, while the change in catalase activity occurred on the third and seventh days in both sham and SNT animals. Hyperalgesia in SNT group was detected at the same points in time. These results suggest that SNT was not a strong enough stimulus to deplete all antioxidant content in the spinal cord, since increase in LPO was not detected. However, the role of oxidative stress in nociception can not be excluded.

  18. Evidence for separate substrate binding sites for hydrogen peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) in the oxidation of ethanol by catalase

    SciTech Connect

    DeMaster, E.G.; Nagasawa,ss H.T.

    1986-03-01

    The oxidation of ethanol by purified bovine liver catalase (Sigma, C-40) can be supported by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ or by CHP. The time course of the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ supported reaction (using glucose/glucose oxidase as the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ source) was linear for at least one hr, whereas the rate of acetaldehyde formation in the CHP (4.2 mM) supported reaction decreased with time. When catalase was exposed o CHP for 5 min before the addition of ethanol, the rate of CHP supported ethanol oxidation was reduced by more than 90% compared to incubations where the addition of ethanol preceded that of CHP. In the CHP inhibited state, the peroxidative activity of catalase was not restored by further addition of CHP or ethanol; however, addition of fresh catalase yielded its expected activity. Significantly, the CHP inhibited enzyme was equally effective as the untreated enzyme in catalyzing (a) the oxidation of ethanol in the presence H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ supported peroxidative activity as well as catalytic activity by CHP inhibited catalase points to separate binding sites for H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and CHP in this reaction. Alternatively, CHP may bind adjacent to a common peroxide active site, thereby sterically impeding the binding of CHP - but not of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ - to this active site.

  19. Improving of catalase stability properties by encapsulation in alginate/Fe3O4 magnetic composite beads for enzymatic removal of H2O2.

    PubMed

    Doğaç, Yasemin Ispirli; Çinar, Mürvet; Teke, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was enhancing of stability properties of catalase enzyme by encapsulation in alginate/nanomagnetic beads. Amounts of carrier (10-100 mg) and enzyme concentrations (0.25-1.5 mg/mL) were analyzed to optimize immobilization conditions. Also, the optimum temperature (25-50°C), optimum pH (3.0-8.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (20-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0) operational stability (0-390 min), and reusability were investigated for characterization of the immobilized catalase system. The optimum pH levels of both free and immobilized catalase were 7.0. At the thermal stability studies, the magnetic catalase beads protected 90% activity, while free catalase maintained only 10% activity at 70°C. The thermal profile of magnetic catalase beads was spread over a large area. Similarly, this system indicated the improving of the pH stability. The reusability, which is especially important for industrial applications, was also determined. Thus, the activity analysis was done 50 times in succession. Catalase encapsulated magnetic alginate beads protected 83% activity after 50 cycles.

  20. The role and regulation of catalase in respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Eason, Mia M; Fan, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory tract bacterial pathogens are the etiologic agents of a variety of illnesses. The ability of these bacteria to cause disease is imparted through survival within the host and avoidance of pathogen clearance by the immune system. Respiratory tract pathogens are continually bombarded by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be produced by competing bacteria, normal metabolic function, or host immunological responses. In order to survive and proliferate, bacteria have adapted defense mechanisms to circumvent the effects of ROS. Bacteria employ the use of anti-oxidant enzymes, catalases and catalase-peroxidases, to relieve the effects of the oxidative stressors to which they are continually exposed. The decomposition of ROS has been shown to provide favorable conditions in which respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Legionella pneumophila, and Neisseria meningitidis are able to withstand exposure to highly reactive molecules and yet survive. Bacteria possessing mutations in the catalase gene have a decreased survival rate, yet may be able to compensate for the lack of catalatic activity if peroxidatic activity is present. An incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms by which catalase and catalase-peroxidases are regulated still persists, however, in some bacterial species, a regulatory factor known as OxyR has been shown to either up-regulate or down-regulate catalase gene expression. Yet, more research is still needed to increase the knowledge base in relation to this enzyme class. As with this review, we focus on major respiratory tract opportunistic bacterial pathogens in order to elucidate the function and regulation of catalases. The importance of the research could lead to the development of novel treatments against respiratory bacterial infections.

  1. Catalase, a target of glycation damage in rat liver mitochondria with aging.

    PubMed

    Bakala, Hilaire; Hamelin, Maud; Mary, Jean; Borot-Laloi, Caroline; Friguet, Bertrand

    2012-10-01

    Aging is characterized by progressive decline of major cell functions, associated with accumulation of altered macromolecules, particularly proteins. This deterioration parallels age-related dysfunction of mitochondria, thought to be a major determinant of this decline in cell function, since these organelles are both the main sources of reactive oxygen species and targets for their damaging effects. To investigate the link between glycation damages that accumulate with aging and the status of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, we identified, by mass spectrometry after two dimensional-gel electrophoresis and western blotting, advanced glycation end product-modified matrix proteins in rat liver mitochondria. Catalase appeared to be the only antioxidant enzyme markedly glycated in old rats. Immunogold labeling performed on isolated mitochondria confirmed the mitochondrial matrix location of this enzyme. The content of catalase protein in mitochondrial extract increased with aging whereas the catalase activity was not significantly modified, in spite of a significant increase rate of glycation. Treatment of catalase with the glycating agent fructose led to significant time-dependent inactivation of the enzyme, while methylglyoxal had no noticeable effect. Catalase was co-identified with unglycated glutathione peroxidase-1 in the mitochondrial extracts. Taken together, these results indicate that both anti-oxidant enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase-1 housed in liver mitochondria, exhibited a differential sensitivity to glycation; moreover, they lend support to the hypothesis that glycation damages targeting catalase with aging may severely affect its activity, suggesting a link between glycation stress and the age-related decline in antioxidant defense in the mitochondria.

  2. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction: role of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F; Roe, Nathan D; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-09-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complications in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis, and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity, and carbonyl formation. A Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival after LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice after LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O(2)(-), and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury after LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy.

  3. Activation of mammalian tyrosinase by ferrous ions.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, A; d'Ischia, M; Misuraca, G; Carratú, L; Prota, G

    1990-03-26

    Kinetic experiments are reported showing that mammalian tyrosinase from B16 mouse melanoma is significantly activated by catalytic amounts of ferrous ions. Monitoring of tyrosine oxidation by both dopachrome formation and oxygen consumption showed that ferrous ions at micromolar concentrations induce a marked enzymatic activity with 0.01 U/ml of highly purified tyrosinase, whereas no detectable reaction occurs in the absence of metal over a sufficiently prolonged period of time. The extent of the activating effect, which is specific for the reduced form of iron, is proportional to the concentration of the added metal with a typical saturation profile, no further effect being observed beyond a threshold value. Changing the buffer system from phosphate to hepes or tris results in a marked decrease of the Fe2(+)-induced activation. Scavengers of active oxygen species, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, formate and mannitol have no detectable effect on the tyrosinase activity. These results are accounted for in terms of an activation mechanism involving reduction of the cupric ions at the active site of the resting enzyme.

  4. Understanding the Adsorption Interface of Polyelectrolyte Coating on Redox Active Nanoparticles Using Soft Particle Electrokinetics and Its Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The application of cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs) for therapeutic purposes requires a stable dispersion of nanoparticles in a biological environment. The objective of this study is to tailor the properties of polyelectrolyte coated CNPs as a function of molecular weight to achieve a stable and catalytic active dispersion. The coating of CNPs with polyacrylic acid (PAA) has increased the dispersion stability of CNPs and enhanced the catalytic ability. The stability of PAA coating was analyzed using the change in the Gibbs free energy computed by the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption isotherms were determined using soft particle electrokinetics which overcomes the challenges presented by other techniques. The change in Gibbs free energy was highest for CNPs coated with PAA of 250 kg/mol indicating the most stable coating. The change in free energy for PAA of 100 kg/mol coated CNPs was 85% lower than the PAA of 250 kg/mol coated CNPs. This significant difference is caused by the strong adsorption of PAA of 100 kg/mol on CNPs. Catalytic activity of PAA-CNPs is assessed by the catalase enzymatic mimetic activity of nanoparticles. The catalase activity was higher for PAA coated CNPs as compared to bare CNPs which indicated preferential adsorption of hydrogen peroxide induced by coating. This indicates that the catalase activity is also affected by the structure of the coating layer. PMID:24673655

  5. Political activity for physical activity: health advocacy for active transport

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Effective health advocacy is a priority for efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Local councils are an important audience for this advocacy. The aim of the current study was to describe features of advocacy for active transport via submissions to city council annual plans in New Zealand, and the impact of an information sheet to encourage the health sector to be involved in this process. Written submissions to city council's annual consultation process were requested for 16 city councils over the period of three years (2007/08, 2008/09, and 2009/10). Submissions were reviewed and categories of responses were created. An advocacy information sheet encouraging health sector participation and summarising some of the evidence-base related to physical activity, active transport and health was released just prior to the 2009/10 submission time. Over the period of the study, city councils received 47,392 submissions, 17% of which were related to active transport. Most submissions came from city residents, with a small proportion (2%) from the health sector. The largest category of submissions was in support of pedestrian and cycling infrastructure, design and maintenance of facilities and additional features to support use of these transport modes. Health arguments featured prominently in justifications for active transport initiatives, including concerns about injury risk, obesity, physical inactivity, personal safety and facilities for people with disabilities. There was evidence that the information sheet was utilised by some health sector submitters (12.5%), providing tentative support for initiatives of this nature. In conclusion, the study provides novel information about the current nature of health advocacy for active transport and informs future advocacy efforts about areas for emphasis, such as health benefits of active transport, and potential alliances with other sectors such as environmental sustainability, transport and urban

  6. Purification and characterization of oxygen-inducible haem catalase from oxygen-tolerant Bifidobacterium asteroides.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyohei; Maekawa, Itaru; Tanaka, Kunifusa; Ijyuin, Susumu; Shiwa, Yu; Suzuki, Ippei; Niimura, Youichi; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacterium asteroides, originally isolated from honeybee intestine, was found to grow under 20% O(2) conditions in liquid shaking culture using MRS broth. Catalase activity was detected only in cells that were exposed to O(2) and grown in medium containing a haem source, and these cells showed higher viability on exposure to H(2)O(2). Passage through multiple column chromatography steps enabled purification of the active protein, which was identified as a homologue of haem catalase on the basis of its N-terminal sequence. The enzyme is a homodimer composed of a subunit with a molecular mass of 55 kDa, and the absorption spectrum shows the typical profile of bacterial haem catalase. A gene encoding haem catalase, which has an amino acid sequence coinciding with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein, was found in the draft genome sequence data of B. asteroides. Expression of the katA gene was induced in response to O(2) exposure. The haem catalase from B. asteroides shows about 70-80% identity with those from lactobacilli and other lactic acid bacteria, and no homologues were found in other bifidobacterial genomes.

  7. Functional and structural changes of human erythrocyte catalase induced by cimetidine: proposed model of binding.

    PubMed

    Yazdi, Fatemeh; Minai-Tehrani, Dariush; Jahngirvand, Mahboubeh; Almasirad, Ali; Mousavi, Zahra; Masoud, Masoudeh; Mollasalehi, Hamidreza

    2015-06-01

    In erythrocyte, catalase plays an important role to protect cells from hydrogen peroxide toxicity. Hydrogen peroxide is a byproduct compound which is produced during metabolic pathway of cells. Cimetidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, is used for gastrointestinal tract diseases and prevents the extra release of gastric acid. In this study, the effect of cimetidine on the activity of human erythrocyte catalase was investigated. Erythrocytes were broken by hypotonic solution. The supernatant was used for catalase assay and kinetics study. Lineweaver-Burk plot was performed to determine the type of inhibition. The kinetics data revealed that cimetidine inhibited the catalase activity by mixed inhibition. The IC50 (1.54 μM) and Ki (0.45 μM) values of cimetidine determined that the drug was bound to the enzyme with high affinity. Circular dichroism and fluorescence measurement showed that the binding of cimetidine to the enzyme affected the content of secondary structure of the enzyme as well as its conformational changes. Docking studies were carried out to detect the site in which the drug was bound to the enzyme. Molecular modeling and energy calculation of the binding showed that the cyanoguanidine group of the drug connected to Asp59 via two hydrogen bonds, while the imidazole group of the drug interacted with Phe64 in the enzyme by a hydrophobic interaction. In conclusion, cimetidine could bind to human erythrocyte catalase, and its interaction caused functional and conformational changes in the enzyme.

  8. Protective effects of catalase overexpression on UVB-induced apoptosis in normal human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Hamid Reza; Mazurier, Frédéric; Cario-André, Muriel; Pain, Catherine; Ged, Cécile; Taïeb, Alain; de Verneuil, Hubert

    2006-06-30

    UV-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes is a highly complex process in which various molecular pathways are involved. These include the extrinsic pathway via triggering of death receptors and the intrinsic pathway via DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In this study we investigated the effect of catalase and CuZn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) overexpression on apoptosis induced by UVB exposure at room temperature or 4 degrees C on normal human keratinocytes. Irradiation at low temperature reduced UV-induced apoptosis by 40% in normal keratinocytes independently of any change in p53 and with a decrease in caspase-8 activation. Catalase overexpression decreased apoptosis by 40% with a reduction of caspase-9 activation accompanied by a decrease in p53. Keeping cells at low temperature and catalase overexpression had additive effects. CuZn-SOD overexpression had no significant effect on UVB-induced apoptosis. UVB induced an increase in ROS levels at two distinct stages: immediately following irradiation and around 3 h after irradiation. Catalase overexpression inhibited only the late increase in ROS levels. We conclude that catalase overexpression has a protective role against UVB irradiation by preventing DNA damage mediated by the late ROS increase.

  9. Home Activities for Fours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    These home learning activity guides have been developed for parents to use with their 4-year-old children. Most of the activities require only household items that are often thrown away and can be recycled for learning activities. Some require no materials at all. The guides frequently begin with a discussion of home activities; progress through…

  10. Active commuting to school

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Declines in physical activity levels have coincided with increasing rates of obesity in children. This is problematic because physical activity has been shown to attenuate weight gain in children. Active commuting to school is one way of increasing children's physical activity. However, given the hi...

  11. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  12. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  13. Structure–Function Relationships in Fungal Large-Subunit Catalases

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, A.; Valdez, V; Rudino-Pinera, E; Horjales, E; Hansberg, W

    2009-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has two large-subunit catalases, CAT-1 and CAT-3. CAT-1 is associated with non-growing cells and accumulates particularly in asexual spores; CAT-3 is associated with growing cells and is induced under different stress conditions. It is our interest to elucidate the structure-function relationships in large-subunit catalases. Here we have determined the CAT-3 crystal structure and compared it with the previously determined CAT-1 structure. Similar to CAT-1, CAT-3 hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) saturation kinetics exhibited two components, consistent with the existence of two active sites: one saturated in the millimolar range and the other in the molar range. In the CAT-1 structure, we found three interesting features related to its unusual kinetics: (a) a constriction in the channel that conveys H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to the active site; (b) a covalent bond between the tyrosine, which forms the fifth coordination bound to the iron of the heme, and a vicinal cysteine; (c) oxidation of the pyrrole ring III to form a cis-hydroxyl group in C5 and a cis-{gamma}-spirolactone in C6. The site of heme oxidation marks the starts of the central channel that communicates to the central cavity and the shortest way products can exit the active site. CAT-3 has a similar constriction in its major channel, which could function as a gating system regulated by the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration before the gate. CAT-3 functional tyrosine is not covalently bonded, but has instead the electron relay mechanism described for the human catalase to divert electrons from it. Pyrrole ring III in CAT-3 is not oxidized as it is in other large-subunit catalases whose structure has been determined. Different in CAT-3 from these enzymes is an occupied central cavity. Results presented here indicate that CAT-3 and CAT-1 enzymes represent a functional group of catalases with distinctive structural characteristics that determine similar kinetics.

  14. Palladium and Platinum Nanoparticles Attenuate Aging-Like Skin Atrophy via Antioxidant Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1−/− mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1−/− mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage. PMID:25333617

  15. Palladium and platinum nanoparticles attenuate aging-like skin atrophy via antioxidant activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Shuichi; Ozawa, Yusuke; Watanabe, Kenji; Izuo, Naotaka; Toda, Toshihiko; Yokote, Koutaro; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Sod1) loss causes a redox imbalance as it leads to excess superoxide generation, which results in the appearance of various aging-related phenotypes, including skin atrophy. Noble metal nanoparticles, such as palladium (Pd) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles, are considered to function as antioxidants due to their strong catalytic activity. In Japan, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles called PAPLAL has been used to treat chronic diseases over the past 60 years. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PAPLAL against aging-related skin pathologies in mice. Transdermal PAPLAL treatment reversed skin thinning associated with increased lipid peroxidation in Sod1-/- mice. Furthermore, PAPLAL normalized the gene expression levels of Col1a1, Mmp2, Has2, Tnf-α, Il-6, and p53 in the skin of the Sod1-/- mice. Pt nanoparticles exhibited marked SOD and catalase activity, while Pd nanoparticles only displayed weak SOD and catalase activity in vitro. Although the SOD and catalase activity of the Pt nanoparticles significantly declined after they had been oxidized in air, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation. Importantly, a mixture of Pd and Pt nanoparticles with a molar ratio of 3 or 4 to 1 continued to exhibit SOD and catalase activity after oxidation, indicating that Pd nanoparticles prevent the oxidative deterioration of Pt nanoparticles. These findings indicate that PAPLAL stably suppresses intrinsic superoxide generation both in vivo and in vitro via SOD and catalase activity. PAPLAL is a potentially powerful tool for the treatment of aging-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damage.

  16. Catalase and superoxide dismutase in alfalfa root nodules. [Medicago sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Aparicio-Tejo, P.M.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.

    1986-04-01

    Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in scavenging H/sub 2/ O/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/, respectively, have been recently proposed to play a role in leghemoglobin protection. The occurrence of catalase and SOD activities in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) nodule cytosol is reported here. Enzymes were extracted at 0-4/sup 0/C from 0.5 g fresh nodules with 12 ml of a medium containing K-phosphate buffer 50 mM, pH 7.8 and Na/sub 2/EDTA 0.1 mM. The homogenate was filtered and centrifuged at 18,000 xg for 10 min, and the resulting supernatant was used for catalase assay. A further precipitation of leghemoglobin was required to avoid interferences with SOD determination. Catalase was determined by back-titration with KMnO/sub 4/. SOD was assayed by measuring the inhibition of nitro blue tetrazolium reduction. The sensitivity of SOD activity to CN/sup -/ was tested by including 1 mM KCN in the reaction mixture. Catalase activity of alfalfa nodule cytosol was 237 +/- 1 units/mg protein, decreasing very significantly (P < 0.01, Duncan's multiple range test) at 20 mM NO/sub 3//sup -/. Typical specific SOD activities were 94 +/- 5 and 65 +/- 4 units/mg protein, without CN/sup -/ and with CN/sup -/, respectively. Both activities increased very significantly at 20 mM NO/sub 3//sup -/. SOD activities with CN/sup -/ were 70-80% those without CN/sup -/ within the range of NO/sub 3//sup -/ investigated (0-20 mM).

  17. Structural and functional alterations of catalase induced by acriflavine, a compound causing apoptosis and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Attar, Farnoosh; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Keyhani, Ezzatollah

    2009-08-01

    Acriflavine is an antiseptic agent causing both apoptosis and necrosis in yeast. In this work, its effect on the structure and function of catalase, a vital enzyme actively involved in protection against oxidative stress, was investigated. In vitro kinetic studies showed that acriflavine inhibited the enzymatic activity in a competitive manner. The residual activity detectable after preincubation of catalase (1.5 nmol/L) with various concentrations of acriflavine went from 50% to 20% of the control value as the acriflavine concentration increased from 30 to 90 micromol/L. Correlatively with the decrease in activity, alterations in the enzyme's conformation were observed as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence obtained upon excitation at either 297 nm (tryptophan residues) or 280 nm (tyrosine and tryptophan residues) decreased as a function of acriflavine concentration. Circular dichroism studies showed alterations of the protein structure by acriflavine with up to 13% decrease in alpha helix, 16% increase in beta-sheet content, 17% increase in random coil, and 4% increase in beta turns. Spectrophotometric studies showed a blueshift and modifications in the chromicity of catalase at 405 nm, corresponding to an absorbance band due to the enzyme's prosthetic group. Thus, acriflavine induced in vitro a profound change in the structure of catalase so that the enzyme could no longer function. Our results showed that acriflavine, a compound producing apoptosis and necrosis, can have a direct effect on vital functions in cells by disabling key enzymes.

  18. [The role of thyroid hormones in prevention of disorders of myocardial contractile function and antioxidant activity during heat stress].

    PubMed

    Bozhko, A P; Gorodetskaia, I V

    1998-03-01

    The stress of heat under conditions of immobilisation induced an obvious depression of the cardiodynamic parameters. This correlated well with intensification of lipoperoxydation and a drop in the myocardial antioxydant activity. Small doses of thyroid hormones prevented the decline of the parameters, normalisied myocardial free-radical homeostasis in result of activation of superoxyddysmutase, catalase, and general antioxydant activity.

  19. Cultural Activation of Consumers.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Carole E; Reid-Rose, Lenora; Joseph, Adriana M; Hernandez, Jennifer C; Haugland, Gary

    2016-02-01

    This column discusses "cultural activation," defined as a consumer's recognition of the importance of providing cultural information to providers about cultural affiliations, challenges, views about, and attitudes toward behavioral health and general medical health care, as well as the consumer's confidence in his or her ability to provide this information. An aid to activation, "Cultural Activation Prompts," and a scale that measures a consumer's level of activation, the Cultural Activation Measurement Scale, are described. Suggestions are made about ways to introduce cultural activation as a component of usual care.

  20. Smoking, physical activity, and active life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Ferrucci, L; Izmirlian, G; Leveille, S; Phillips, C L; Corti, M C; Brock, D B; Guralnik, J M

    1999-04-01

    The effect of smoking and physical activity on active and disabled life expectancy was estimated using data from the Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly (EPESE). Population-based samples of persons aged > or = 65 years from the East Boston, Massachusetts, New Haven, Connecticut, and Iowa sites of the EPESE were assessed at baseline between 1981 and 1983 and followed for mortality and disability over six annual follow-ups. A total of 8,604 persons without disability at baseline were classified as "ever" or "never" smokers and doing "low," "moderate," or "high" level physical activity. Active and disabled life expectancies were estimated using a Markov chain model. Compared with smokers, men and women nonsmokers survived 1.6-3.9 and 1.6-3.6 years longer, respectively, depending on level of physical activity. When smokers were disabled and close to death, most nonsmokers were still nondisabled. Physical activity, from low to moderate to high, was significantly associated with more years of life expectancy in both smokers (9.5, 10.5, 12.9 years in men and 11.1, 12.6, 15.3 years in women at age 65) and nonsmokers (11.0, 14.4, 16.2 years in men and 12.7, 16.2, 18.4 years in women at age 65). Higher physical activity was associated with fewer years of disability prior to death. These findings provide strong and explicit evidence that refraining from smoking and doing regular physical activity predict a long and healthy life.

  1. Direct electrochemistry of Penicillium chrysogenum catalase adsorbed on spectroscopic graphite.

    PubMed

    Dimcheva, Nina; Horozova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    The voltammetric studies of Penicillium chrysogenum catalase (PcCAT) adsorbed on spectroscopic graphite, showed direct electron transfer (DET) between its active site and the electrode surface. Analogous tests performed with the commercially available bovine catalase revealed that mammalian enzyme is much less efficient in the DET process. Both catalases were found capable to catalyse the electrooxidation of phenol, but differed in the specifics of catalytic action. At an applied potential of 0.45V the non-linear regression showed the kinetics of the bioelectrochemical oxidation catalysed by the PcCAT obeyed the Hill equation with a binding constant K=0.034±0.002 M(2) (Hill's coefficient n=2.097±0.083, R(2)=0.997), whilst the catalytic action of the bovine catalase was described by the Michaelis-Menten kinetic model with the following parameters: V(max,app)=7.780±0.509 μA, and K(M,app)=0.068±0.070 mol L(-1). The performance of the electrode reaction was affected by the electrode potential, the pH, and temperature. Based on the effect of pH and temperature on the electrode response in presence of phenol a tentative reaction pathway of its bioelectrocatalytic oxidation has been hypothesised. The possible application of these findings in biosensing phenol up to concentration 30 mM at pHs below 7 and in absence of oxidising agents (oxygen or H(2)O(2)) was considered.

  2. Prooxidant activity of transferrin and lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    Klebanoff, S J; Waltersdorph, A M

    1990-11-01

    Acceleration of the autoxidation of Fe2+ by apotransferrin or apolactoferrin at acid pH is indicated by the disappearance of Fe2+, the uptake of oxygen, and the binding of iron to transferrin or lactoferrin. The product(s) formed oxidize iodide to an iodinating species and are bactericidal to Escherichia coli. Toxicity to E. coli by FeSO4 (10(-5) M) and human apotransferrin (100 micrograms/ml) or human apolactoferrin (25 micrograms/ml) was optimal at acid pH (4.5-5.0) and with logarithmic phase organisms. Both the iodinating and bactericidal activities were inhibited by catalase and the hydroxyl radical (OH.) scavenger mannitol, whereas superoxide dismutase was ineffective. NaCl at 0.1 M inhibited bactericidal activity, but had little or no effect on iodination. Iodide increased the bactericidal activity of Fe2+ and apotransferrin or apolactoferrin. The formation of OH.was suggested by the formation of the OH.spin-trap adduct (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyroline N-oxide [DMPO]/OH)., with the spin trap DMPO and the formation of the methyl radical adduct on the further addition of dimethyl sulfoxide. (DMPO/OH).formation was inhibited by catalase, whereas superoxide dismutase had little or no effect. These findings suggest that Fe2+ and apotransferrin or apolactoferrin can generate OH.via an H2O2 intermediate with toxicity to microorganisms, and raise the possibility that such a mechanism may contribute to the microbicidal activity of phagocytes.

  3. Adeno-Associated Viral-Mediated Catalase Expression Suppresses Optic Neuritis in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, John; Qi, Xiaoping; Hauswirth, William W.

    1998-11-01

    Suppression of oxidative injury by viral-mediated transfer of the human catalase gene was tested in the optic nerves of animals with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an inflammatory autoimmune disorder of primary central nervous system demyelination that has been frequently used as an animal model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS). The optic nerve is a frequent site of involvement common to both EAE and MS. Recombinant adeno-associated virus containing the human gene for catalase was injected over the right optic nerve heads of SJL/J mice that were simultaneously sensitized for EAE. After 1 month, cell-specific catalase activity, evaluated by quantitation of catalase immunogold, was increased approximately 2-fold each in endothelia, oligodendroglia, astrocytes, and axons of the optic nerve. Effects of catalase on the histologic lesions of EAE were measured by computerized analysis of the myelin sheath area (for demyelination), optic disc area (for optic nerve head swelling), extent of the cellular infiltrate, extravasated serum albumin labeled by immunogold (for blood-brain barrier disruption), and in vivo H2O2 reaction product. Relative to control, contralateral optic nerves injected with the recombinant virus without a therapeutic gene, catalase gene inoculation reduced demyelination by 38%, optic nerve head swelling by 29%, cellular infiltration by 34%, disruption of the blood-brain barrier by 64%, and in vivo levels of H2O2 by 61%. Because the efficacy of potential treatments for MS are usually initially tested in the EAE animal model, this study suggests that catalase gene delivery by using viral vectors may be a therapeutic strategy for suppression of MS.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide scavenger, catalase, alleviates ion transport dysfunction in murine colitis.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Kim E; McCole, Declan F

    2016-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) contribute to epithelial damage and ion transport dysfunction (key events in inflammatory diarrhoea) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to identify if H2 O2 mediates suppression of colonic ion transport function in the murine dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis model by using the H2 O2 degrading enzyme, catalase. Colitis was induced by administering DSS (4%) in drinking water for 5 days followed by 3 days on normal H2 O. Mice were administered either pegylated catalase or saline at day -1, 0 and +1 of DSS treatment. Ion transport responses to the Ca(2+) -dependent agonist, carbachol (CCh), or the cAMP-dependent agonist, forskolin, were measured across distal colonic mucosa mounted in Ussing chambers. Parameters of DSS-induced inflammation (loss in body weight, decreased colon length, altered stool consistency), were only partially alleviated by catalase while histology was only minimally improved. However, catalase significantly reversed the DSS-induced reduction in baseline ion transport as well as colonic Isc responses to CCh. However, ion transport responses to forskolin were not significantly restored. Catalase also reduced activation of ERK MAP kinase in the setting of colitis, and increased expression of the Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1, consistent with restoration of ion transport function. Ex vivo treatment of inflamed colonic mucosae with catalase also partially restored ion transport function. Therefore, catalase partially prevents, and rescues, the loss of ion transport properties in DSS colitis even in the setting of unresolved tissue inflammation. These findings indicate a prominent role for ROS in ion transport dysfunction in colitis and may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of inflammatory diarrhoea.

  5. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  6. Major operations and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  7. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  8. Active magnetic regenerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.; Steyert, William A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to an active magnetic regenerator apparatus and method. Brayton, Stirling, Ericsson, and Carnot cycles and the like may be utilized in an active magnetic regenerator to provide efficient refrigeration over relatively large temperature ranges.

  9. ACS Community Activities Contests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgener, Marisa

    2007-08-01

    The Committee on Community Activities and the Office of Community Activities announce the winners of the Illustrated Haiku Contest, Earth Day 2007 and the Poster Contest, National Chemistry Week 2006.

  10. [Responses of soil enzyme activities to re-vegetation in gully Loess Plateau of Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Hai; Qiu, Li-Ping; Meng, Meng

    2012-12-01

    In combining field investigation with laboratory analysis, this paper studied the distribution characteristics of soil enzyme activities along the soil profiles and natural slopes with different re-vegetation treatments in gully Loess Plateau, aimed to assess the responses of the soil enzyme activities to re-vegetation. In the study area, the activities of soil urease, invertase and alkaline phosphatase along natural slopes were highly varied, but the activity of soil catalase was in adverse. The profile distribution of the soil enzyme activities varied significantly with vegetation type, and with increasing soil depth, the activities of soil urease, invertase and alkaline phosphatase decreased while the catalase activity increased. There existed significant positive correlation among the three hydrolases activities. The activities of the three hydrolases were all significantly negatively correlated with soil physical properties and positively correlated with soil chemical properties, while the soil catalase activity was positively correlated with soil moisture content and pH and negatively correlated with other soil physiochemical properties. It was suggested that the activities of soil urease, invertase and alkaline phosphatase in gully Loess Plateau could be used as the sensitive indicators for the soil responses to the re-vegetation in the Plateau, and re-vegetation could improve the biological properties in both surface and deeper soil layers.

  11. Controlling enzymatic activity by immobilization on graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Bolibok, Paulina; Wiśniewski, Marek; Roszek, Katarzyna; Terzyk, Artur P

    2017-04-01

    In this study, graphene oxide (GO) has been applied as a matrix for enzyme immobilization. The protein adsorption capacity of GO is much higher than of other large surface area carbonaceous materials. Its structure and physicochemical properties are reported beneficial also for enzymatic activity modifications. The experimental proof was done here that GO-based biocatalytic systems with immobilized catalase are modifiable in terms of catalyzed reaction kinetic constants. It was found that activity and stability of catalase, considered here as model enzyme, closely depend on enzyme/GO ratio. The changes in kinetic parameters can be related to secondary structure alterations. The correlation between enzyme/GO ratio and kinetic and structure parameters is reported for the first time and enables the conscious control of biocatalytic processes and their extended applications. The biological activity of obtained biocatalytic systems was confirmed in vitro by the use of functional test. The addition of immobilized catalase improved the cells' viability after they were exposed to hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl-hydroperoxide used as source of reactive oxygen species.

  12. Activity Theory and Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to re-examine Yrio Engestrom's activity theory as a technology of knowledge designed to enable positive transformations of specific practices. The paper focuses on a key paper where Engestrom defines the nature and present state of activity theory. Beginning with a brief account of the relations between activity theory and…

  13. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  14. Horticultural Practices. Activity Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bania, Kent; Cummings, John, Ed.

    The 88 activity guides in this document are intended to supplement the initial or organized instruction of the agricultural teacher at the secondary educational level. Some of the activities require one student to complete, others may need two or more students working in a team. Some activities also require followup checking within a few days to…

  15. Highlights of 1981 activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The highlights of NASA's 1981 activities are presented, including the results of the two flights of the space shuttle Columbia and the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn. Accomplishments in the areas of space transportation operations; space science; aeronautical, energy, and space research and development; as well as space tracking, international activities, and 1981 launch activities are discussed.

  16. Bonus Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Provides on-task activities to fill in unexpected extra moments in elementary classes. The activities require little preparation and take 5-15 minutes to complete. There are activities for math, language arts, social science, science, critical thinking, and computer. An outer space board game is also included. (SM)

  17. Activity Sheets. Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Power Company, Educational Services Dept., Charlotte, NC.

    This document consists of energy vocabulary activities, three games, worksheets, laboratory activities/exercises, and an introductory classroom exercise designed to introduce energy concepts to students. Vocabulary activities focus on coal and energy consumption. The three games (with instructions) focus on various aspects of energy and energy…

  18. Technology Learning Activities I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Technology Education Association, Reston, VA.

    This guide contains 30 technology learning activities. Activities may contain all or some of the following: an introduction, objectives, materials and equipment, challenges, limitations, notes and investigations, resources and references used, and evaluation ideas. Activity titles are: (1) Occupations in Construction Technology; (2) Designing a…

  19. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  20. Computers + Student Activities Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masie, Elliott; Stein, Michele

    Designed to provide schools with the tools to start utilizing computers for student activity programs without additional expenditures, this handbook provides beginning computer users with suggestions and ideas for using computers in such activities as drama clubs, yearbooks, newspapers, activity calendars, accounting programs, room utilization,…

  1. Climate Change: An Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Garry

    1995-01-01

    Presents a segment of the Geoscience Education booklet, Climate Change, that contains information and activities that enable students to gain a better appreciation of the possible effects human activity has on the Earth's climate. Describes the Terrace Temperatures activity that leads students through an investigation using foraminifera data to…

  2. Layer-by-layer assembled multilayers using catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sungwoo; Park, Jeongju; Cho, Jinhan

    2010-09-01

    We introduce a novel and versatile approach for the preparation of multilayers, based on catalase-encapsulated gold nanoparticles (CAT-AuNP), allowing electrostatic charge reversal and structural transformation through pH adjustment. CAT-AuNP, which are synthesized directly from CAT stabilizer, can be electrostatically assembled with anionic and cationic PEs as a result of the charge reversal of the catalase stabilizers through pH control. In particular, at pH 5.2, near the pI of catalase, dispersed CAT-AuNP are structurally transformed into colloidal or network CAT-AuNP nanocomposites. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the layer-by-layer assembled multilayers composed of PEs and CAT-AuNP induce an effective electron transfer between CAT and the electrode as well as a high loading of CAT and AuNP, and resultantly exhibit a highly catalytic activity toward H2O2.

  3. [Effects of simulated warming on soil enzyme activities in two subalpine coniferous forests in west Sichuan].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen-feng; Tang, Zheng; Wan, Chuan; Xiong, Pei; Cao, Gang; Liu, Qing

    2010-11-01

    With open top chamber (OTC), this paper studied the effects of simulated warming on the activities of soil invertase, urease, catalase, polyphenol oxidase in two contrasting subalpine coniferous forests (a dragon spruce plantation and a natural conifer forest) in west Sichuan. The dynamic changes of soil temperature and soil moisture were monitored synchronously. In the whole growth season, simulated warming enhanced the daily mean temperature at soil depth 5 cm by 0.61 degrees C in the plantation, and by 0.55 degrees C in the natural forest. Conversely, the volumetric moisture at soil depth 10 cm was declined by 4.10% and 2.55%, respectively. Simulated warming also increased soil invertase, urease, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase activities. The interactive effect of warming and forest type was significant on soil urease and catalase, but not significant on soil invertase and polyphenol oxidase. The warming effect on soil catalase depended, to some extent, on season change. In all treatments, the soil enzyme activities in the natural forest were significantly higher than those in the plantation. The seasonal changes of test soil enzyme activities were highly correlated with soil temperature, but less correlated with soil moisture. This study indicated that warming could enhance soil enzyme activities, and the effect had definite correlations with forest type, enzyme category, and season change. The soil enzyme activities in the subalpine coniferous forests were mainly controlled by soil temperature rather than soil moisture.

  4. Production of catalases by Aspergillus niger isolates as a response to pollutant stress by heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Buckova, M.; Godocikova, J.; Simonovicova, A.; Polek, B.

    2005-04-15

    Isolates of Aspergillus niger, selected from the coal dust of a mine containing arsenic (As; 400 mg/kg) and from the river sediment of mine surroundings (As, 1651 mg/kg, Sb, 362 mg/kg), growing in minimal nitrate medium in the phase of hyphal development and spore formation, exhibited much higher levels of total catalase activity than the same species from the culture collection or a culture adapted to soil contaminated with As (5 mg/L). Electrophoretic resolution of catalases in cell-free extracts revealed three isozymes of catalases and production of individual isozymes was not significantly affected by stress environments. Exogenously added stressors (As{sup 5+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}) at final concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/L and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (20 or 40 m(M)) mostly stimulated production of catalases only in isolates from mines surroundings, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and Hg{sup 2+} caused the disappearance of the smallest catalase I. Isolates exhibited a higher tolerance of the toxic effects of heavy metals and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, as monitored by growth, than did the strain from the culture collection.

  5. Vestibular activation of sympathetic nerve activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.; Carter, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The vestibulosympathetic reflex refers to sympathetic nerve activation by the vestibular system. Animal studies indicate that the vestibular system assists in blood pressure regulation during orthostasis. Although human studies clearly demonstrate activation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during engagement of the otolith organs, the role of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in maintaining blood pressure during orthostasis is not well-established. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes indicates that it is a powerful and independent reflex. Ageing, which is associated with an increased risk for orthostatic hypotension, attenuates the vestibulosympathetic reflex. The attenuated reflex is associated with a reduction in arterial pressure. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that the vestibulosympathetic reflex assists in blood pressure regulation in humans, but future studies examining this reflex in other orthostatically intolerant populations are necessary to address this hypothesis.

  6. Effects of electrokinetic treatment of a heavy metal contaminated soil on soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Cang, Long; Zhou, Dong-Mei; Wang, Quan-Ying; Wu, Dan-Ya

    2009-12-30

    There is a growing concern on the potential application of a direct current (DC) electric field to soil for removing contaminants, but little is known about its impact on soil enzyme activities. This study investigated the change of enzyme activities of a heavy metal contaminated soil before and after electrokinetic (EK) treatments at lab-scale and the mechanisms of EK treatment to affect soil enzyme activities were explored. After treatments with 1-3 V cm(-1) of voltage gradient for 420 h, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), soil organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), soil heavy metal concentration and enzyme activities were analyzed. The results showed that the average removal efficiencies of soil copper were about 65% and 83% without and with pH control of catholyte, respectively, and all the removal efficiencies of cadmium were above 90%. The soil invertase and catalase activities increased and the highest invertase activity was as 170 times as the initial one. The activities of soil urease and acidic phosphatase were lower than the initial ones. Bivariate correlation analyses indicated that the soil invertase and acidic phosphatase activities were significantly correlated with soil pH, EC, and DOC at P<0.05, but the soil urease activities had no correlation with the soil properties. On the other hand, the effects of DC electric current on solution invertase and catalase enzyme protein activities indicated that it had negative effect on solution catalase activity and little effect on solution invertase activity. From the change of invertase and catalase activities in soil and solution, the conclusion can be drawn that the dominant effect mechanism is the change of soil properties by EK treatments.

  7. Metabolism Supports Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Langston, P. Kent; Shibata, Munehiko; Horng, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to various stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts. Metabolic shifts fuel multiple aspects of macrophage activation, and preventing these shifts impairs appropriate activation. These findings raise the exciting possibility that macrophage functions in various contexts could be regulated by manipulating their metabolism. Here, we review the rapidly evolving field of macrophage metabolism, discussing how polarizing signals trigger metabolic shifts and how these shifts enable appropriate activation and sustain effector activities. We also discuss recent studies indicating that the mitochondria are central hubs in inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:28197151

  8. [Influence of ionizing radiation on activity of enzymes of antioxidant defense of Paecilomyces lilaclvus (Thom) Samson].

    PubMed

    Tuhaĭ, T I

    2011-01-01

    The level of activity of antioxidant protection enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase) under exposure to ionizing radiation and without it in strain Paecilomyces lilacinus, showing radioadaptive properties, and in control one has been investigated. It has been established that the researched strains are characterized by the high level activity of superoxide dismutase (200-800 AU/mg protein), extracellular and intracellular catalase (0.02-40 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein) and peroxidase (0.2-4 mmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein). Ionizing radiation was the inducer of significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activity of the control strain (from the lack of influence to the change of activity by an order) and showed considerably less influence on their activity in the strain, showing radioadaptive properties (the activity changes by 40-50%). The complex response of antioxidant enzymes in investigated strains under the exposure to ionizing radiation has been revealed.

  9. DNA helicase activity in purified human RECQL4 protein.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Ishimi, Yukio

    2009-09-01

    Human RECQL4 protein was expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus protein expression system and it was purified to near homogeneity. The protein sedimented at a position between catalase (230 kDa) and ferritin (440 kDa) in glycerol gradient centrifugation, suggesting that it forms homo-multimers. Activity to displace annealed 17-mer oligonucleotide in the presence of ATP was co-sedimented with hRECQL4 protein. In ion-exchange chromatography, both DNA helicase activity and single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity were co-eluted with hRECQL4 protein. The requirements of ATP and Mg for the helicase activity were different from those for the ATPase activity. The data suggest that the helicase migrates on single-stranded DNA in a 3'-5' direction. These results suggest that the hRECQL4 protein exhibits DNA helicase activity.

  10. Imparting functionality to biocatalysts via embedding enzymes into nanoporous materials by a de novo approach: size-selective sheltering of catalase in metal-organic framework microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Fa-Kuen; Wang, Shao-Chun; Yen, Chia-I; Wu, Chang-Cheng; Dutta, Saikat; Chou, Lien-Yang; Morabito, Joseph V; Hu, Pan; Hsu, Ming-Hua; Wu, Kevin C-W; Tsung, Chia-Kuang

    2015-04-08

    We develop a new concept to impart new functions to biocatalysts by combining enzymes and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). The proof-of-concept design is demonstrated by embedding catalase molecules into uniformly sized ZIF-90 crystals via a de novo approach. We have carried out electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, electrophoresis, thermogravimetric analysis, and confocal microscopy to confirm that the ~10 nm catalase molecules are embedded in 2 μm single-crystalline ZIF-90 crystals with ~5 wt % loading. Because catalase is immobilized and sheltered by the ZIF-90 crystals, the composites show activity in hydrogen peroxide degradation even in the presence of protease proteinase K.

  11. Activated carbon from biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manocha, S.; Manocha, L. M.; Joshi, Parth; Patel, Bhavesh; Dangi, Gaurav; Verma, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    Activated carbon are unique and versatile adsorbents having extended surface area, micro porous structure, universal adsorption effect, high adsorption capacity and high degree of surface reactivity. Activated carbons are synthesized from variety of materials. Most commonly used on a commercial scale are cellulosic based precursors such as peat, coal, lignite wood and coconut shell. Variation occurs in precursors in terms of structure and carbon content. Coir having very low bulk density and porous structure is found to be one of the valuable raw materials for the production of highly porous activated carbon and other important factor is its high carbon content. Exploration of good low cost and non conventional adsorbent may contribute to the sustainability of the environment and offer promising benefits for the commercial purpose in future. Carbonization of biomass was carried out in a horizontal muffle furnace. Both carbonization and activation were performed in inert nitrogen atmosphere in one step to enhance the surface area and to develop interconnecting porosity. The types of biomass as well as the activation conditions determine the properties and the yield of activated carbon. Activated carbon produced from biomass is cost effective as it is easily available as a waste biomass. Activated carbon produced by combination of chemical and physical activation has higher surface area of 2442 m2/gm compared to that produced by physical activation (1365 m2/gm).

  12. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    PubMed

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-03-27

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states.

  13. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  14. Production and secretion of Aspergillus nidulans catalase B in filamentous fungi driven by the promoter and signal peptide of the Cladosporium fulvum hydrophobin gene hcf-1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Hannah; Whiteford, James R; Eckert, Sabine E; Spanu, Pietro D

    2003-11-01

    We describe here the use of sequences from the hydrophobin gene hcf-1 of Cladosporium fulvum to construct pCatBex, a vector for high-level expression and secretion of CatB, a catalase from Aspergillus nidulans. Transformation of C. fulvum with pCatBex results in a 60-fold increase in the mycelial activity in the fungus and the appearance of up to 5.4 mkat/l of catalase in the growth medium. The levels of catalase in the supernatant increased dramatically following removal of nitrogen from the medium. Conversely, the overall specific activity of catalase in the cytoplasm did not change appreciably. This indicates that nitrogen depletion induces greater secretion of protein. The vector pCatBex also directs the expression and secretion of CatB in Magnaporthe grisea and may be a useful vector for the expression of genes in other filamentous fungi.

  15. [Effects of catalase on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells].

    PubMed

    Hu, Lin-Ping; Gao, Ying-Dai; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Shi, Ying-Xu; Xie, Yin-Liang; Liu, Yong-Jun; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Cheng, Tao

    2010-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the growth and multiple differentiation potential of human umbilical cord tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) transfected by a retroviral vector with catalase (CAT) gene. The UC-MSCs cultured in vitro were transfected by using pMSCV carrying GFP (pMSCV-GFP) and pMSCV carrying CAT (pMSCV-GFP-CAT) respectively, then the MSC-GFP cell line and MSC-GFP-CAT cell line were obtained by sorting of flow cytometry. The GFP expression was observed by a fluorescent microscopy at 48 hours after CAT gene transfection. The GFP+ cells were sorted by flow cytometry. The activity of CAT in GFP+ cells was detected by catalase assay kit. The proliferative capacity of transfected UC-MSCs was determined by cell counting kit-8. The differentiation ability of gene-transfected GFP+ cells into osteogenesis and adipogenesis was observed by von Kossa and oil red O staining. The results indicated that green fluorescence in UC-MSCs was observed at 48 hours after transfection, and the fluorescence gradually enhanced to a steady level on day 3. The percentage of MSCs-GFP was (25.54+/-8.65)%, while the percentage of MSCs-GFP-CAT was (35.4+/-18.57)%. The activity of catalase in UC-MSCs, MSCs-GFP, MSCs-GFP-CAT cells were 19.5, 20.3, 67.2 U, respectively. The transfected MSCs-GFP-CAT could be induced into osteoblasts and adipocytes. After 21 days, von Kossa staining showed induced osteoblasts. Many lipid droplets with high refractivity occurred in cytoplasm of the transfected UC-MSCs, and showed red fat granules in oil red O staining cells. There were no significant differences between transfected and non-transfected UC-MSCs cells (p>0.05). It is concluded that UC-MSCs are successfully transfected by retrovirus carrying GFP or CAT gene, the activity of catalase increased by 3.4-fold. The transfected UC-MSCs maintain proliferation potential and ability of differentiation into osteoblasts and adipocytes.

  16. Effect of hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzyme activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is strain-specific.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, M; Semchyshyn, H; Lushchak, V

    2006-09-01

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide on the survival and activity of antioxidant and associated enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been studied. A difference found in the response of wild-type yeast strains treated with hydrogen peroxide was probably related to the different protective effects of antioxidant enzymes in these strains. Exposure of wild-type YPH250 cells to 0.25 mM H(2)O(2) for 30 min increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 3.4- and 2-fold, respectively. However, no activation of catalase in the EG103 strain, as well as of SOD in the YPH98 and EG103 wild strains was detected, which was in parallel to lower survival of these strains under oxidative stress. There is a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.95) between activities of catalase and SOD in YPH250 cells treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. It is conceivable that catalase would protect SOD against inactivation caused by oxidative stress and vice versa. Finally, yeast cell treatment with hydrogen peroxide can lead to either a H(2)O(2)-induced increase in activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes or their decrease depending on the H(2)O(20 concentration used or the yeast strain specificity.

  17. The role of catalase in gonococcal resistance to peroxynitrite.

    PubMed

    Spence, Stephen A; Clark, Virginia L; Isabella, Vincent M

    2012-02-01

    We have reported that Neisseria gonorrhoeae is extremely resistant to reactive nitrogen species (RNS) including peroxynitrite (PN). Recent literature suggests that catalase can provide protection against commercial preparations of PN. Though wild-type gonococci were shown to be highly resistant to 2 mM PN, Neisseria meningitidis and a gonococcal katA mutant were both shown to be extremely sensitive to 2 mM PN. Analysis of translational fusions to lacZ of the catalase promoters from N. gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis demonstrated that basal katA expression from gonococci is 80-fold higher than in meningococci, though meningococcal katA retains a greater capacity to be activated by OxyR. This activation capacity was shown to be due to a single base pair difference in the -10 transcription element between the two kat promoters. PN resistance was initially shown to be associated with increasing catalase expression; however, commercial preparations of PN were later revealed to contain higher levels of contaminating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than expected. Removal of H2O2 from PN preparations with manganese dioxide markedly reduced PN toxicity in a gonococcal katA mutant. Simultaneous treatment with non-lethal concentrations of PN and H2O2 was highly lethal, indicating that these agents act synergistically. When treatment was separated by 5 min, high levels of bacterial killing occurred only when PN was added first. Our results suggest that killing of N. gonorrhoeae ΔkatA by commercial PN preparations is likely due to H2O2, that H2O2 is more toxic in the presence of PN, and that PN, on its own, may not be as toxic as previously believed.

  18. Sirt1 protects against oxidative stress-induced renal tubular cell apoptosis by the bidirectional regulation of catalase expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Wakino, Shu Yoshioka, Kyoko; Tatematsu, Satoru; Hara, Yoshikazu; Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Washida, Naoki; Tokuyama, Hirobumi; Hayashi, Koichi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2008-07-18

    NAD{sup +}-dependent protein deacetylase Sirt1 regulates cellular apoptosis. We examined the role of Sirt1 in renal tubular cell apoptosis by using HK-2 cells, proximal tubular cell lines with or without reactive oxygen species (ROS), H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Without any ROS, Sirt1 inhibitors enhanced apoptosis and the expression of ROS scavenger, catalase, and Sirt1 overexpression downregulated catalase. When apoptosis was induced with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Sirt1 was upregulated with the concomitant increase in catalase expression. Sirt1 overexpression rescued H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis through the upregulation of catalase. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced the nuclear accumulation of forkhead transcription factor, FoxO3a and the gene silencing of FoxO3a enhanced H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, endogenous Sirt1 maintains cell survival by regulating catalase expression and by preventing the depletion of ROS required for cell survival. In contrast, excess ROS upregulates Sirt1, which activates FoxO3a and catalase leading to rescuing apoptosis. Thus, Sirt1 constitutes a determinant of renal tubular cell apoptosis by regulating cellular ROS levels.

  19. Patterns in Active Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like, chaotic patterns. We describe how active systems can be stabilised by tuning a physical feature of the system, friction. We demonstrate how the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter and demonstrate vortex ordering at the wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organisation of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects may be a useful step towards the design and control of active materials.

  20. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P < 0.05). In the hypertensive chickens, superoxide dismutase activity was decreased (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), while catalase activity was increased (forebrain and midbrain) ( P < 0.05). Glutathione peroxidase activity did not change. Relative gene expression of catalase and superoxide dismutases (1 and 2) was downregulated, while glutathione peroxidase was upregulated in the brain of the cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens. Probably, these situations in the oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain especially hindbrain may change its function at cardiovascular center and sympathetic nervous system to exacerbate pulmonary hypertension.

  1. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  2. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  3. Activity in distant comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luu, Jane X.

    1992-01-01

    Activity in distant comets remains a mystery in the sense that we still have no complete theory to explain the various types of activity exhibited by different comets at large distances. This paper explores the factors that should play a role in determining activity in a distant comet, especially in the cases of comet P/Tempel 2, comet Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, and 2060 Chiron.

  4. Thermally Activated Driver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Murray, Robert C.; Walsh, Robert F.

    1987-01-01

    Space-qualified, precise, large-force, thermally activated driver (TAD) developed for use in space on astro-physics experiment to measure abundance of rare actinide-group elements in cosmic rays. Actinide cosmic rays detected using thermally activated driver as heart of event-thermometer (ET) system. Thermal expansion and contraction of silicone oil activates driver. Potential applications in fluid-control systems where precise valve controls are needed.

  5. [Biomedical activity of biosurfactants].

    PubMed

    Krasowska, Anna

    2010-07-23

    Biosurfactants, amphiphilic compounds, synthesized by microorganisms have surface, antimicrobial and antitumor properties. Biosurfactants prevent adhesion and biofilms formation by bacteria and fungi on various surfaces. For many years microbial surfactants are used as antibiotics with board spectrum of activity against microorganisms. Biosurfactants act as antiviral compounds and their antitumor activities are mediated through induction of apoptosis. This work presents the current state of knowledge related to biomedical activity of biosurfactants.

  6. Protein profiling of mouse livers with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ruiyin; Lim, Hanjo; Brumfield, Laura; Liu, Hong; Herring, Chris; Ulintz, Peter; Reddy, Janardan K; Davison, Matthew

    2004-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is important in the induction of cell-specific pleiotropic responses, including the development of liver tumors, when it is chronically activated by structurally diverse synthetic ligands such as Wy-14,643 or by unmetabolized endogenous ligands resulting from the disruption of the gene encoding acyl coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (AOX). Alterations in gene expression patterns in livers with PPARalpha activation were delineated by using a proteomic approach to analyze liver proteins of Wy-14,643-treated and AOX(-/-) mice. We identified 46 differentially expressed proteins in mouse livers with PPARalpha activation. Up-regulated proteins, including acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, and carnitine O-octanoyltransferase, are involved in fatty acid metabolism, whereas down-regulated proteins, including ketohexokinase, formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase, fructose-bisphosphatase aldolase B, sarcosine dehydrogenase, and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among stress response and xenobiotic metabolism proteins, selenium-binding protein 2 and catalase showed a dramatic approximately 18-fold decrease in expression and a modest approximately 6-fold increase in expression, respectively. In addition, glycine N-methyltransferase, pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, and protein phosphatase 1D were down-regulated with PPARalpha activation. These observations establish proteomic profiles reflecting a common and predictable pattern of differential protein expression in livers with PPARalpha activation. We conclude that livers with PPARalpha activation are transcriptionally geared towards fatty acid combustion.

  7. 7 CFR 58.432 - Catalase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Catalase. 58.432 Section 58.432 Agriculture... Material § 58.432 Catalase. The catalase preparation shall be a stable, buffered solution, neutral in pH, having a potency of not less than 100 Keil units per milliliter. The source of the catalase,...

  8. 7 CFR 58.432 - Catalase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Catalase. 58.432 Section 58.432 Agriculture... Material § 58.432 Catalase. The catalase preparation shall be a stable, buffered solution, neutral in pH, having a potency of not less than 100 Keil units per milliliter. The source of the catalase,...

  9. 7 CFR 58.432 - Catalase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Catalase. 58.432 Section 58.432 Agriculture... Material § 58.432 Catalase. The catalase preparation shall be a stable, buffered solution, neutral in pH, having a potency of not less than 100 Keil units per milliliter. The source of the catalase,...

  10. 7 CFR 58.432 - Catalase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Catalase. 58.432 Section 58.432 Agriculture... Material § 58.432 Catalase. The catalase preparation shall be a stable, buffered solution, neutral in pH, having a potency of not less than 100 Keil units per milliliter. The source of the catalase,...

  11. 7 CFR 58.432 - Catalase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Catalase. 58.432 Section 58.432 Agriculture... Material § 58.432 Catalase. The catalase preparation shall be a stable, buffered solution, neutral in pH, having a potency of not less than 100 Keil units per milliliter. The source of the catalase,...

  12. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and acetylcholinesterase: biomarkers for the joint effects of cadmium, zinc and methyl parathion contamination in water.

    PubMed

    Ling, XuePing; Zhang, YiHeng; Lu, YingHua; Huang, HeQing

    2011-10-01

    Heavy metals are known to reduce the activities of antioxidant enzymes (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase), while organophosphorous insecticides are known to inhibit the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. In this study, the activities of these three enzymes in zebrafish (Danio rerio) tissues were assessed to evaluate the consequences heavy metal and organophosphate contamination in aquatic systems. When the fish were contacted with water containing a single pollutant, superoxide dismutase activity was affected by the presence of Cd but not by methyl parathion or Zn. However, catalase and acetylcholinesterase activities were sensitive to all three pollutants. The combined treatment showed that the three enzymes could be chosen as biomarkers of joint pollution by both metals and organophosphate. Toxicity tests showed an antagonism interaction between methyl parathion and Cd or Zn, and the change of enzyme activities at 96 hours was in accordance with that.

  13. NASA metrication activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlannes, P. N.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's organization and policy for metrification, history from 1964, NASA participation in Federal agency activities, interaction with nongovernmental metrication organizations, and the proposed metrication assessment study are reviewed.

  14. Contribution of Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Catalase in Defense Against Toxic Oxygen Radicals and Neutrophils, and Its Role During Experimental Genital Tract Infection of Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Experiment III)….………….193 xvii Table 12. Distribution of FA1090 and NGAAS-501 among isolates recovered from estradiol-treated mice inoculated with wild ...radicals, than the wild type (WT) parental strain. The kat mutant was also more sensitive to H2O2-producing commensal lactobacilli in vitro...Complementation of the catalase mutation in trans restored wild type levels of catalase activity, and resistance to paraquat and H2O2-producing lactobacilli

  15. Ascorbic acid, catalase and chlorpromazine reduce cryopreservation-induced damages to crossbred bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Paudel, K P; Kumar, S; Meur, S K; Kumaresan, A

    2010-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of ascorbic acid, catalase, chlorpromazine and their combinations in reducing the cryodamages to crossbred bull (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) spermatozoa. A total of 32 ejaculates (eight each from four bulls) were diluted in Tris-citric acid-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol extender. Each ejaculate was split into six parts (five treatment and one control). Treatment groups included 10 mm ascorbic acid, 0.1 mm chlorpromazine, 200 IU/ml catalase, 10 mm ascorbic acid + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine or 200 IU/ml catalase + 0.1 mm chlorpromazine in the extender. Fluorescent probes (Fluorescein isothiocyanate--Pisum sativum agglutinin + Propidium iodide) were used for the assessment of spermatozoa viability and acrosomal status. The proportion of acrosome intact live (AIL), acrosome intact dead, acrosome reacted live and acrosome reacted dead sperm was assessed in fresh, equilibrated and frozen-thawed semen. The functional status of the sperm was assessed using hypo-osmotic sperm swelling test (HOSST). Activities of acrosin and hyaluronidase enzyme were also determined. Lipid peroxidation level was assayed based on the melonaldehyde (MDA) production. In cryopreserved semen, the values of AIL spermatozoa, HOSST response, hyaluronidase and acrosin activity were reduced by 53%, 47%, 34% and 54%, respectively from their initial values in fresh semen. However, MDA level was threefold higher in the frozen-thawed sperm compared with fresh sperm. Significant (p < 0.05) improvement in motility, viability, HOSST response, retention of hyaluonidase and acrosin and reduction in MDA was recorded in ascorbic acid, catalase, ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine and catalase + chlorpromazine incorporated groups. The percentage of AIL sperm was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in ascorbic acid, catalase and ascorbic acid + chlorpromazine incorporated groups compared with the control. Chlorpromazine alone did not improve the post-thaw semen quality but when combined

  16. A facile method for improving the covalent crosslinking adsorption process of catalase immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jingyu; Jia, Shaoyi; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Songhai; Pan, Xiaolei

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we introduced a polydiol (mixture of 1,2-propanediol, 1,3-propanediol, and 2,3-butanediol) to improve the covalent crosslinking adsorption process of immobilized catalase onto chitosan beads. The adsorption behavior was investigated by means of adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm. The protein content in crosslinking agent required for approximately 45 min to reach the relative equilibrium, and the protein content in solution of the control group and the pretreated group were 6.63 microg/mL and 6.20 microg/mL, respectively. The maximum catalase adsorption capacity of the control group and the pretreated group were observed as 23.118 microg/g and 25.688 microg/g at pH 7.0, respectively. Temperature profiles showed that 40 degrees C was the ideal temperature for active domain of catalase, and the relative activity of pretreated group was 1.12 times higher than that of the control group. The K(m) value of the control group (67 mM) was higher than that of the pretreated group (54 mM). Thermal stability, operational stability, and the effect of surfactant on catalase adsorption were also explored in this study.

  17. Protective role of extracellular catalase (KatA) against UVA radiation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    PubMed

    Pezzoni, Magdalena; Pizarro, Ramón A; Costa, Cristina S

    2014-02-05

    One of the more stressful factors that Pseudomonas aeruginosa must face in nature is solar UVA radiation. In this study, the protective role of KatA catalase in both planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa against UVA radiation was determined by using the wild-type (PAO1) and an isogenic catalase deficient strain (katA). The katA strain was more sensitive than the wild-type, especially in the case of biofilms. Moreover, the wild-type biofilm was more resistant than its planktonic counterpart, but this was not observed in the katA strain. Striking KatA activity was detected in the matrix of katA(+) strains, and to our knowledge, this is the first report of this activity in the matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Provision of bovine catalase or KatA to the matrix of a katA biofilm significantly increased its UVA tolerance, demonstrating that extracellular KatA is essential to optimal defense against UVA in P. aeruginosa biofilms. Efficiency of photocatalytic treatments using TiO2 and UVA was lower in biofilms than in planktonic cells, but KatA and KatB catalases seem not to be responsible for the higher resistance of the sessile cells to this treatment.

  18. Induction and inactivation of catalase and superoxide dismutase of Escherichia coli by ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, C.; Hassan, H.M.

    1987-09-01

    Oxyradicals have been implicated in ozone (O/sub 3/) toxicity and in other oxidant stress. In this study, we investigated the effects of O/sub 3/ on the biosynthesis of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in Escherichia coli to determine their role in the defense against ozone toxicity. Inhibition of growth and loss of viability were observed in cultures exposed to ozone. Results also showed an increase in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase in cultures exposed to ozone, which was shown to be due to true induction rather than activation of preexisting apoproteins. Cessation of O/sub 3/ exposure resulted in 30 min of continual high rate of catalase biosynthesis followed by a gradual decrease in the level of the enzyme approaching that of control cultures. This decrease was attributed to a concomitant cessation of de novo enzyme synthesis and dilution of preexisting enzyme by cellular growth. Ozonation of cell-free extracts showed that superoxide dismutase and catalase are subject to oxidative inactivation by ozone. In vivo induction of these enzymes may represent an adaptive response evolved to protect cells against ozone toxicity.

  19. Intracerebroventricular Catalase Reduces Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Responses to Hypoglycemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    Pauliina Markkula, S; Lyons, David; Yueh, Chen-Yu; Riches, Christine; Hurst, Paul; Fielding, Barbara; Heisler, Lora K; Evans, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Specialized metabolic sensors in the hypothalamus regulate blood glucose levels by influencing hepatic glucose output and hypoglycemic counterregulatory responses. Hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as a metabolic signal-mediating responses to changes in glucose, other substrates and hormones. The role of ROS in the brain's control of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. We hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a relatively stable form of ROS, acts as a sensor of neuronal glucose consumption and availability and that lowering brain H2O2 with the enzyme catalase would lead to systemic responses increasing blood glucose. During hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps in rats, intracerebroventricular catalase infusion resulted in increased hepatic glucose output, which was associated with reduced neuronal activity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Electrophysiological recordings revealed a subset of arcuate nucleus neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin that were inhibited by catalase and excited by H2O2. During hypoglycemic clamps, intracerebroventricular catalase increased glucagon and epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia, consistent with perceived lower glucose levels. Our data suggest that H2O2 represents an important metabolic cue, which, through tuning the electrical activity of key neuronal populations such as proopiomelanocortin neurons, may have a role in the brain's influence of glucose homeostasis and energy balance.

  20. Intracerebroventricular Catalase Reduces Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Responses to Hypoglycemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pauliina Markkula, S.; Lyons, David; Yueh, Chen-Yu; Riches, Christine; Hurst, Paul; Fielding, Barbara; Heisler, Lora K.

    2016-01-01

    Specialized metabolic sensors in the hypothalamus regulate blood glucose levels by influencing hepatic glucose output and hypoglycemic counterregulatory responses. Hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as a metabolic signal-mediating responses to changes in glucose, other substrates and hormones. The role of ROS in the brain's control of glucose homeostasis remains unclear. We hypothesized that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a relatively stable form of ROS, acts as a sensor of neuronal glucose consumption and availability and that lowering brain H2O2 with the enzyme catalase would lead to systemic responses increasing blood glucose. During hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps in rats, intracerebroventricular catalase infusion resulted in increased hepatic glucose output, which was associated with reduced neuronal activity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Electrophysiological recordings revealed a subset of arcuate nucleus neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin that were inhibited by catalase and excited by H2O2. During hypoglycemic clamps, intracerebroventricular catalase increased glucagon and epinephrine responses to hypoglycemia, consistent with perceived lower glucose levels. Our data suggest that H2O2 represents an important metabolic cue, which, through tuning the electrical activity of key neuronal populations such as proopiomelanocortin neurons, may have a role in the brain's influence of glucose homeostasis and energy balance. PMID:27740870

  1. Attenuation of cyclosporine A toxicity by sublethal heat shock. Role of catalase.

    PubMed

    Andrés, David; Bautista, Mirandeli; Cascales, María

    2005-02-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the immunosuppressor most frequently used in transplant surgery and in the treatment of autoimmune diseases because of its specific inhibiting effect on signal transduction pathways of cell T receptor. It has been shown that CsA is able to generate reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation, which are directly involved in the CsA hepatotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of a sublethal heat pre-treatment (43 degrees C for 30 min) on the hepatoma cell line HepG2 exposed to cytotoxic concentrations of CsA (10 and 25 microM) for 3 and 24 h. Parameters of cytotoxicity were assayed by measuring LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) leakage into the medium. Peroxide concentration was tested by flow cytometry by measuring the fluorescence intensity of DCF (dichlorofluorescein). Gene expression of catalase was detected by measuring the respective mRNA and proteins, as well as protein level of HSP70. The enzymatic activity of catalase was also determined. Heat pre-treatment significantly reduced CsA cytotoxicity as well as the level of peroxide generation. The protective effect of the previous heat treatment (corroborated by the irreversible catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole) against the CsA cytotoxicity was due to an increased expression and activity of catalase that was significantly reduced by the effect of CsA. We conclude that heat pre-treatment strongly protects against CsA injury, and the mechanism of this protection is by means of inducing not only the expression of HSP70 but also the expression and activity of catalase, the main enzyme system involved in H(2)O(2) elimination.

  2. Active Flow Control Activities at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, Scott G.; Sellers, William L., III; Washburn, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA Langley continues to aggressively investigate the potential advantages of active flow control over more traditional aerodynamic techniques. This paper provides an update to a previous paper and describes both the progress in the various research areas and the significant changes in the NASA research programs. The goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids as well as to address engineering challenges. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several projects is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research are to be demonstrated either in bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight as part of the fundamental NASA R&D program and then transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD, and U.S. industry.

  3. Scuba diving activates vascular antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    Sureda, A; Batle, J M; Ferrer, M D; Mestre-Alfaro, A; Tur, J A; Pons, A

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to study the effects of scuba diving immersion on plasma antioxidant defenses, nitric oxide production, endothelin-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels. 9 male divers performed an immersion at 50 m depth for a total time of 35 min. Blood samples were obtained before diving at rest, immediately after diving, and 3 h after the diving session. Leukocyte counts, plasma 8oxoHG, malondialdehyde and nitrite levels significantly increased after recovery. Activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, catalase and superoxide significantly increased immediately after diving and these activities remained high after recovery. Plasma myeloperoxidase activity and protein levels and extracellular superoxide dismutase protein levels increased after 3 h. Endothelin-1 concentration significantly decreased after diving and after recovery. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentration significantly increased after diving when compared to pre-diving values, returning to initial values after recovery. Scuba diving at great depth activated the plasma antioxidant system against the oxidative stress induced by elevated pO₂ oxygen associated with hyperbaria. The decrease in endothelin-1 levels and the increase in nitric oxide synthesis could be factors that contribute to post-diving vasodilation. Diving increases vascular endothelial growth factor plasma levels which can contribute to the stimulation of tissue resistance to diving-derived oxidative damage.

  4. Modification of catalase and MAPK in Vicia faba cultivated in soil with high natural radioactivity and treated with a static magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Haghighat, Nazanin; Abdolmaleki, Parviz; Ghanati, Faezeh; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Payez, Atefeh

    2014-03-01

    The effects of a static magnetic field (SMF) and high natural radioactivity (HR) on catalase and MAPK genes in Vicia faba were investigated. Soil samples with high natural radioactivity were collected from Ramsar in north Iran where the annual radiation absorbed dose from background radiation is higher than 20mSv/year. The specific activity of the radionuclides of (232)Th, (236)Ra, and (40)K was measured using gamma spectrometry. The seeds were planted either in the soil with high natural radioactivity or in the control soils and were then exposed to a SMF of 30mT for 8 days; 8h/day. Levels of expression of catalase and MAPK genes, catalase activity and H2O2 content were evaluated. The results demonstrated significant differences in the expression of catalase and MAPK genes in SMF- and HR-treated plants compared to the controls. An increase in catalase activity was accompanied by increased expression of its gene and accumulation of H2O2. Relative expression of the MAPK gene in treated plants, however, was lower than those of the controls. The results suggest that the response of V. faba plants to SMF and HR may be mediated by modification of catalase and MAPK.

  5. Active Students in Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolås, Line; Nordseth, Hugo; Yri, Jørgen Sørlie

    2015-01-01

    To ensure student activity in webinars we have defined 10 learning tasks focusing on production and communication e.g. collaborative writing, discussion and polling, and investigated how the technology supports the learning activities. The three project partners in the VisPed-project use different video-conferencing systems, and we analyzed how it…

  6. [Field Learning Activities].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolde Forest Environmental Education Center, Reading, PA.

    Seventy field activities, pertinent to outdoor, environmental studies, are described in this compilation. Designed for elementary and junior high school students, the activities cover many discipline areas--science, social studies, language arts, health, history, mathematics, and art--and many are multidisciplinary in use. Topics range from soil…

  7. Warm-Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingguang, Yang

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how warm-up activities can help to make the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom a lively and interesting place. Warm-up activities are games carried out at the beginning of each class to motivate students to make good use of class time. (Author/VWL)

  8. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  9. Science World Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

    This document consists of three sections. Section I contains 19 activities developed by master teachers for the Science World '84 summer science program. These activities focus on studies involving airplane controls, trash bag kites, computers, meteorology, compass orienteering, soils, aquatic ecosystems, bogs, and others. Objectives, materials…

  10. The Journal Synthesizing Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Zev

    The journal synthesizing activity is intended to combine aspects of the formal essay with that of a diary. Activities associated with lecture topics are written up as short journal entries of approximately five typewritten pages and are turned in during the weekly class session at which the related topic is being discussed. The journal project…

  11. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  12. Activating Event Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Mary; Jones, Michael; Thomson, Caroline; Kelly, Sarah; McRae, Ken

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of results in sentence and discourse processing demonstrate that comprehension relies on rich pragmatic knowledge about real-world events, and that incoming words incrementally activate such knowledge. If so, then even outside of any larger context, nouns should activate knowledge of the generalized events that they denote or…

  13. Coordinating Shared Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  14. Activities: More Calculator Capers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Rosemary

    1983-01-01

    Provided is an activity designed to give grades 7-12 students opportunities to discover numerical patterns and to derive general conclusions from observing data. The activity focuses attention on patterns in products such as 33x34, 333x334, and 3333x3334. Three worksheets and answers are included. (JN)

  15. Choreography of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Langendorf, Christopher G; Kemp, Bruce E

    2015-01-01

    A recent study published in Cell Research by Li and colleagues reports a detailed biophysical and structural study of AMPK's intra-molecular interactions during activation. By employing subunit tagging and proximity analysis with the aid of AlphaScreen instrumentation, Li et al. add to our understanding of the choreography of activation of AMPK by both nucleotides and phosphorylation.

  16. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  17. Laboratory Activities in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Barnea, Nitza

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory activities have long had a distinctive and central role in the science curriculum, and science educators have suggested that many benefits accrue from engaging students in science laboratory activities. Many research studies have been conducted to investigate the educational effectiveness of laboratory work in science education in…

  18. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  19. Curriculum Activities on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmall, Vicki L.; Benge, Nancy

    This paper contains learning activities on aging for use with elementary, high school, and university students in health, family relationships, social studies, and art courses. The activities are intended to help youth develop a more realistic understanding of the aging process and to become aware of both the problems and benefits associated with…

  20. Students Active in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brutcher, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Describes SAIL (Students Active in Leadership) as a school-based, youth-directed group. States that the program helps teenagers learn leadership skills by developing and implementing community service activities. SAIL finds partners with whom to collaborate among local businesses, government, and health associations, and these partners provide the…

  1. Ten Minute Writing Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markus, Sharyn

    Designed with junior high school students in mind, the activities in this booklet are offered as ways to stimulate interest in writing using as little as ten minutes of class time. The activities are arranged in six sections: (1) developing observation skills and paying attention to details; (2) word play, descriptive words, and word collections…

  2. Nature's engines: active matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    2017-03-01

    Active materials, bacteria, molecular motors, and self-propelled colloids, continuously transform chemical energy from the environment to mechanical work. Dense active matter, from layers of cells to flocks of birds, self-assembles into intricate patterns. Nature's engines are complex and efficient, and we would like to exploit her ideas to fabricate nano-machines.

  3. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  4. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  5. [Biosignals of dermal activity].

    PubMed

    Rathkolb, O; Gallei, L

    1993-01-01

    Electrodermal activity (EDA) summarizes different electrophysiological dimensions of human skin. EDA is based on the activity of sweat glands and their innervation by the autonomic nervous system. EDA is used as indicator in the additional diagnostic assessment of patients in the fields of neurology and psychosomatic medicine.

  6. Active galactic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, Andrew C.

    1999-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363

  7. Reflections on Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  8. Student Activities. Managing Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Barbara; And Others

    This monograph suggests ways that college or university administrations can undertake a systematic and careful review of the risks posed by students' activities. Its purpose is to provide guidance in integrating the risk management process into a school's existing approaches to managing student organizations and activities. It is noted that no…

  9. The Activity of Trypsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Salvatore F.; Holzman, Tom

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment that illustrates the following points concerning the experimental determination of trypsin activity: (1) there is a difference in basing enzyme concentration on weight, absorbance, or active sites; and (2) the method of expressing enzyme concentration determines the value of specific, molecular, and catalytic center…

  10. Metastasis and AKT activation.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Meng; Sheng, Shijie; Pardee, Arthur B

    2008-10-01

    Metastasis is responsible for 90% of cancer patient deaths. More information is needed about the molecular basis for its potential detection and treatment. The activated AKT kinase is necessary for many events of the metastatic pathway including escape of cells from the tumor's environment, into and then out of the circulation, activation of proliferation, blockage of apoptosis, and activation of angiogenesis. A series of steps leading to metastatic properties can be initiated upon activation of AKT by phosphorylation on Ser-473. These findings lead to the question of how this activation is connected to metastasis. Activated AKT phosphorylates GSK-3beta causing its proteolytic removal. This increases stability of the negative transcription factor SNAIL, thereby decreasing transcription of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin that forms adhesions between adjacent cells, thereby permitting their detachment. How is AKT hyperactivated in metastatic cells? Increased PI3K or TORC2 kinase activity- or decreased PHLPP phosphatase could be responsible. Furthermore, a positive feedback mechanism is that the decrease of E-cadherin lowers PTEN and thereby increases PIP3, further activating AKT and metastasis.

  11. Aging and Semantic Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Darlene V.

    Three studies tested the theory that long term memory consists of a semantically organized network of concept nodes interconnected by leveled associations or relations, and that when a stimulus is processed, the corresponding concept node is assumed to be temporarily activated and this activation spreads to nearby semantically related nodes. In…

  12. Activities of the ILO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Seven articles on International Labour Organization (ILO) activities cover study groups at ILO headquarters, a Philippine rural workers seminar, women's participation in Central American union activities, worksite courses in India, and seminars and symposia in Cape Verde, Mauritius, and Sierra Leone. (SK)

  13. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  14. Active and Healthy Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Kovarik, Jessica; Leidy, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Active and Healthy School Program (AHS) can be used to alter the culture and environment of a school to help children make healthier choices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of AHS to increase physical activity while decreasing total screen time, increase healthy food choices, and improve knowledge about physical…

  15. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands,…

  16. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  17. Antioxidant catalase rescues against high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Liang, Lei; Shou, Xi-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Ren, Gu-Qun; Wang, Jian-Bang; Wang, Xi-Hui; Ai, Wen-Ting; Maris, Jackie R; Hueckstaedt, Lindsay K; Ma, Ai-Qun; Zhang, Yingmei

    2015-02-01

    Autophagy, a conservative degradation process for long-lived and damaged proteins, participates in a variety of biological processes including obesity. However, the precise mechanism of action behind obesity-induced changes in autophagy still remains elusive. This study was designed to examine the role of the antioxidant catalase in high fat diet-induced changes in cardiac geometry and function as well as the underlying mechanism of action involved with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice with cardiac overexpression of catalase were fed low or high fat diet for 20 weeks prior to assessment of myocardial geometry and function. High fat diet intake triggered obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia, the effects of which were unaffected by catalase transgene. Myocardial geometry and function were compromised with fat diet intake as manifested by cardiac hypertrophy, enlarged left ventricular end systolic and diastolic diameters, fractional shortening, cardiomyocyte contractile capacity and intracellular Ca²⁺ mishandling, the effects of which were ameliorated by catalase. High fat diet intake promoted reactive oxygen species production and suppressed autophagy in the heart, the effects of which were attenuated by catalase. High fat diet intake dampened phosphorylation of inhibitor kappa B kinase β(IKKβ), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis 2 (TSC2) while promoting phosphorylation of mTOR, the effects of which were ablated by catalase. In vitro study revealed that palmitic acid compromised cardiomyocyte autophagy and contractile function in a manner reminiscent of fat diet intake, the effect of which was significantly alleviated by inhibition of IKKβ, activation of AMPK and induction of autophagy. Taken together, our data revealed that the antioxidant catalase counteracts against high fat diet-induced cardiac geometric and functional anomalies possibly via an IKKβ-AMPK-dependent restoration of myocardial

  18. Distribution of a Nocardia brasiliensis Catalase Gene Fragment in Members of the Genera Nocardia, Gordona, and Rhodococcus

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Johnson, Wendy M.; Welsh, Oliverio; Resendiz-Uresti, Francisco L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.

    1999-01-01

    An immunodominant protein from Nocardia brasiliensis, P61, was subjected to amino-terminal and internal sequence analysis. Three sequences of 22, 17, and 38 residues, respectively, were obtained and compared with the protein database from GenBank by using the BLAST system. The sequences showed homology to some eukaryotic catalases and to a bromoperoxidase-catalase from Streptomyces violaceus. Its identity as a catalase was confirmed by analysis of its enzymatic activity on H2O2 and by a double-staining method on a nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine and ferricyanide; the result showed only catalase activity, but no peroxidase. By using one of the internal amino acid sequences and a consensus catalase motif (VGNNTP), we were able to design a PCR assay that generated a 500-bp PCR product. The amplicon was analyzed, and the nucleotide sequence was compared to the GenBank database with the observation of high homology to other bacterial and eukaryotic catalases. A PCR assay based on this target sequence was performed with primers NB10 and NB11 to confirm the presence of the NB10-NB11 gene fragment in several N. brasiliensis strains isolated from mycetoma. The same assay was used to determine whether there were homologous sequences in several type strains from the genera Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordona, and Streptomyces. All of the N. brasiliensis strains presented a positive result but only some of the actinomycetes species tested were positive in the PCR assay. In order to confirm these findings, genomic DNA was subjected to Southern blot analysis. A 1.7-kbp band was observed in the N. brasiliensis strains, and bands of different molecular weight were observed in cross-reacting actinomycetes. Sequence analysis of the amplicons of selected actinomycetes showed high homology in this catalase fragment, thus demonstrating that this protein is highly conserved in this group of bacteria. PMID:10325357

  19. Immunological Activation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils for Fungal Killing: Studies with Murine Cells and Blastomyces dermatitidis In Vitro,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The interaction of elicited murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro...albicans compared to normal PMN. Fungicidal activity was abrogated in the presence of catalase , implicating hydrogen peroxide generation as the killing mechanism in the activated cells.

  20. A Salt-Inducible Mn-Catalase (KatB) Protects Cyanobacterium from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Catalases, enzymes that detoxify H2O2, are widely distributed in all phyla, including cyanobacteria. Unlike the heme-containing catalases, the physiological roles of Mn-catalases remain inadequately characterized. In the cyanobacterium Anabaena, pretreatment of cells with NaCl resulted in unusually enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. On exposure to H2O2, the NaCl-treated Anabaena showed reduced formation of reactive oxygen species, peroxides, and oxidized proteins than the control cells (i.e. not treated with NaCl) exposed to H2O2. This protective effect correlated well with the substantial increase in production of KatB, a Mn-catalase. Addition of NaCl did not safeguard the katB mutant from H2O2, suggesting that KatB was indeed responsible for detoxifying the externally added H2O2. Moreover, Anabaena deficient in KatB was susceptible to oxidative effects of salinity stress. The katB gene was strongly induced in response to osmotic stress or desiccation. Promoter-gfp analysis showed katB to be expressed only in the vegetative cells but not in heterocysts. Biochemically, KatB was an efficient, robust catalase that remained active in the presence of high concentrations of NaCl. Our findings unravel the role of Mn-catalase in acclimatization to salt/oxidative stress and demonstrate that the oxidative stress resistance of an organism can be enhanced by a simple compound such as NaCl. PMID:26645454

  1. Important role of catalase in the cellular response of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Takuto; Furuta, Masakazu; Kataoka, Michihiko; Kishida, Masao

    2015-03-01

    Ionizing radiation indirectly causes oxidative stress in cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radicals (OH(-)) generated by the radiolysis of water. We investigated how the catalase function was affected by ionizing radiation and analyzed the phenotype of mutants with a disrupted catalase gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae exposed to radiation. The wild-type yeast strain and isogenic mutants with disrupted catalase genes were exposed to various doses of (60)Co gamma-rays. There was no difference between the wild-type strain and the cta1 disruption mutant following exposure to gamma-ray irradiation. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in the ctt1 disruption mutant, suggesting that this strain exhibited decreased survival on gamma-ray exposure compared with other strains. In all three strains, stationary phase cells were more tolerant to the exposure of gamma-rays than exponential phase cells, whereas the catalase activity in the wild-type strain and cta1 disruption mutant was higher in the stationary phase than in the exponential phase. These data suggest a correlation between catalase activity and survival following gamma-ray exposure. However, this correlation was not clear in the ctt1 disruption mutant, suggesting that other factors are involved in the tolerance to ROS induced by irradiation.

  2. Immunohistochemical localization and biochemical changes in catalase and superoxide dismutase during metamorphosis in the olfactory system of frog Microhyla ornata.

    PubMed

    Gaupale, Tekchand C; Londhe, Jayant; Ghaskadbi, Saroj; Subhedar, N K; Bhargava, Shobha

    2012-02-01

    Amphibian metamorphosis is characterized by rapid tissue remodeling and drastic changes in the body structure and function. Like other organs, olfactory system also undergoes a dramatic rearrangement as the animal experiences transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitat. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to play an important role during anuran metamorphosis and role of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) are believed to play a major role in these processes. Therefore, we hypothesize that antioxidant enzymes in the olfactory system may undergo changes that reflect metamorphic processes. Immunohistochemical study revealed the presence of catalase and SOD in the olfactory receptor neurons and also granular reaction in olfactory epithelium of medial diverticulum during metamorphosis. Catalase and SOD immunoreactivity were seen in the epithelium of lateral diverticulum, vomeronasal organ as metamorphosis proceeds and in the apical lining of olfactory epithelium of adult frog. Biochemical study showed that catalase activity gradually increases in the olfactory system from metamorphic stage 40-46 and adult, while SOD activity decreases from stage 40 to 46 and increases in adult. Thus, the localization and relative levels of catalase and SOD during metamorphosis in the olfactory system suggests that these enzymes may be involved in protection from oxidative damage.

  3. Differential response of the catalase, superoxide dismutase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to different environmental stresses in Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sawan; Kalyanasundaram, Gayathiri T; Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N

    2011-02-01

    The effect of salt, pH, and temperature stress on the cellular level of antioxidant enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) was studied in Debaryomyces nepalensis NCYC 3413, a halotolerant yeast. The catalase activity increased in different phases, while SOD and G3PDH activities declined in late stationary phase. A significant increase in SOD activity was observed under different stress as compared to control. Salt and temperature stress enhanced the catalase activity where as it was suppressed by pH stress. G3PDH level increased with salt stress, however, no significant change was observed under pH and temperature stress. The observations recorded in this investigation suggested that D. nepalensis has an efficient protective mechanism of antioxidant enzymes and G3PDH against salt, pH, and temperature stresses.

  4. Immunodetection of a brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål) salivary catalase-like protein into tissues of rice, Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Petrova, A; Smith, C M

    2014-02-01

    Saliva plays an important role in host plant-phloem-feeding insect molecular interactions. To better elucidate the role of insect saliva, a series of experiments were conducted to establish if catalase from the salivary glands of the brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål) was secreted into rice host plant tissue during feeding. Catalase is the main enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at high concentrations. H2O2 is a part of the free radicals system that mediates important physiological roles including signalling and defence. Previous studies have suggested that H2O2 is involved in the rice endogenous response to BPH feeding. If, the BPH secretes catalase into host plant tissue this will counter the effects of H2O2, from detoxification to interfering with plant signalling and defence mechanisms. When BPHs were fed on a hopper-resistant rice variety for 24 h, catalase activity in the salivary glands increased 3.5-fold compared with hoppers fed on a susceptible rice variety. Further supporting evidence of the effects of BPH catalase was demonstrated by immunodetection analyses where results from two independent sources: BPH-infested rice tissue and BPH-probed artificial diets, suggest that the BPH secretes catalase-like protein during feeding. The possible physiological roles of BPH-secreted catalase are discussed.

  5. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  6. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  7. Study of catalase electrode for organic peroxides assays.

    PubMed

    Horozova, Elena; Dimcheva, Nina; Jordanova, Zinaida

    2002-12-01

    The catalytic activity of immobilized catalase (EC 1.11.1.6) for two model peroxide compounds (dibenzoyl peroxide and 3-chloroperoxibenzoic acid) in a non-aqueous medium was used to prepare an organic-phase enzyme electrode (OPEE). The enzyme was immobilized within a polymeric film on spectrographic graphite. The amperometric signal of the enzyme electrode in substrate solutions was found to be due to the reduction of oxygen generated in the enzyme layer. The electrode response is proportional to peroxide concentrations up to about 40 microM within the potential range from -450 to -650 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl), and the response time is at most 90 s. The enzyme electrode retains about 35% of its initial activity after a 3-week storage at room temperature.

  8. List 9 - Active CERCLIS Sites:

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The List 9 displays the sequence of activities undertaken at active CERCLIS sites. An active site is one at which site assessment, removal, remedial, enforcement, cost recovery, or oversight activities are being planned or conducted.

  9. THE ACTIVE CENTAURS

    SciTech Connect

    Jewitt, David

    2009-05-15

    The Centaurs are recent escapees from the Kuiper Belt that are destined either to meet fiery oblivion in the hot inner regions of the solar system or to be ejected to the interstellar medium by gravitational scattering from the giant planets. Dynamically evolved Centaurs, when captured by Jupiter and close enough to the Sun for near-surface water ice to sublimate, are conventionally labeled as 'short-period' (specifically, Jupiter-family) comets. Remarkably, some Centaurs show comet-like activity even when far beyond the orbit of Jupiter, suggesting mass loss driven by a process other than the sublimation of water ice. We observed a sample of 23 Centaurs and found nine to be active, with mass-loss rates measured from several kg s{sup -1} to several tonnes s{sup -1}. Considered as a group, we find that the 'active Centaurs' in our sample have perihelia smaller than the inactive Centaurs (median 5.9 AU versus 8.7 AU), and smaller than the median perihelion distance computed for all known Centaurs (12.4 AU). This suggests that their activity is thermally driven. We consider several possibilities for the origin of the mass loss from the active Centaurs. Most are too cold for activity at the observed levels to originate via the sublimation of crystalline water ice. Solid carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide have the opposite problem: they are so volatile that they should drive activity in Centaurs at much larger distances than observed. We consider the possibility that activity in the Centaurs is triggered by the conversion of amorphous ice into the crystalline form accompanied by the release of trapped gases, including carbon monoxide. By imposing the condition that crystallization should occur when the crystallization time is shorter than the orbital period we find a qualitative match to the perihelion distribution of the active Centaurs and conclude that the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Centaurs contain amorphous ice.

  10. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  11. Purification and characterization of a mesohalic catalase from the halophilic bacterium Halobacterium halobium.

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Peterson, N J; Salin, M L

    1995-01-01

    When subjected to the stress of growth in a relatively low-salt environment (1.25 M NaCl), the halophilic bacterium Halobacterium halobium induces a catalase. The protein has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity and has an M(r) of 240,000 and a subunit size of approximately 62,000. The enzyme is active over a broad pH range of 6.5 to 10.0, with a peak in activity at pH 7.0. It has an isoelectric point of 4.0. This catalse, which is not readily reduced by dithionite, shows a Soret peak at 406 nm. Cyanide and azide inhibit the enzyme at micromolar concentrations, whereas maleimide is without effect. The addition of 20 mM 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole results in a 33% inhibition in enzymatic activity. The tetrameric protein binds NADP in a 1:1 ratio but does not peroxidize NADPH, NADH, or ascorbate. Although the enzymatic activity is maximal when assayed in a 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer with no NaCl, prolonged incubation in a buffer lacking NaCl results in inactive enzyme. Moreover, purification must be performed in the presence of 2 M NaCl. Equally as effective in retaining enzymatic function are NaCl, LiCl, KCl, CsCl, and NH4Cl, whereas divalent salts such as MgCl2 and CaCl2 result in the immediate loss of activity. The catalase is stained by pararosaniline, which is indicative of a glycosidic linkage. The Km for H2O2 is 60 mM, with inhibition observed at concentrations in excess of 90 mM. Thus, the mesohalic catalase purified from H. halobium seems to be similar to other catalases, except for the salt requirements, but differs markedly from the constitutive halobacterial hydroperoxidase. PMID:7814327

  12. Antioxidant activities of curcumin in allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Altıntoprak, Niyazi; Kar, Murat; Acar, Mustafa; Berkoz, Mehmet; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the antioxidant effects of curcumin in an experimental rat model of allergic rhinitis (AR). Female Wistar albino rats (n = 34) were divided randomly into four groups: healthy rats (control group, n = 8), AR with no treatment (AR + NoTr group, n = 10), AR with azelastine HCl treatment (AR + Aze group, n = 8), and AR with curcumin treatment (AR + Curc group, n = 8). On day 28, total blood IgE levels were measured. For measurement of antioxidant activity, the glutathione (GSH) level and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in both inferior turbinate tissue and serum. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured only in inferior turbinate tissue, and paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activities were measured only in serum. Statistically significant differences were found for all antioxidant measurements (GSH levels and CAT, SOD, GSH-Px activities in the serum and tissue, MDA levels in the tissue, and PON and ARE activities in the serum) between the four groups. In the curcumin group, serum SOD, ARE, and PON and tissue GSH values were higher than the control group. Moreover, tissue GSH levels and serum GSH-Px activities in the curcumin group were higher than in the AR + NoTr group. In the azelastine group, except MDA, antioxidant measurement values were lower than in the other groups. Curcumin may help to increase antioxidant enzymes and decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis. We recommend curcumin to decrease oxidative stress in allergic rhinitis.

  13. Algorithm-development activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall L.

    1994-01-01

    The task of algorithm-development activities at USF continues. The algorithm for determining chlorophyll alpha concentration, (Chl alpha) and gelbstoff absorption coefficient for SeaWiFS and MODIS-N radiance data is our current priority.

  14. MARIHUANA ACTIVITY OF CANNABINOL.

    PubMed

    Loewe, S

    1945-12-14

    Cannabinol, generally believed to be an inert component of hemp oil, is shown to have marihuana activity. The significance of this observation with regard to the relationship between structure and mamactivity in the class of cannabinols is discussed.

  15. Balance Food and Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Balance Food and Activity What is Energy Balance? Energy is another word for "calories." Your ... adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages. Energy Balance in Real Life Think of it as ...

  16. Activities in Teaching Weather

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Presented is a unit composed of activities for teaching weather. Topics include cloud types and formation, simple weather instruments, and the weather station. Illustrations include a weather chart and instruments. A bibliography is given. (MA)

  17. Extravehicular activity technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce W.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on extravehicular activity technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: extravehicular mobility unit; airlock and EMU support equipment; tools, mobility aids, and workstations; and telerobotic work aids interfaces.

  18. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  19. Active Fire Mapping Program

    MedlinePlus

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  20. ERLN Activities Details

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental Response Laboratory Network activities include the All Hazard Receipt Facility and Screening Protocol, standardizing chemical methods, Chemical Warfare Agent Fixed Laboratory Pilot Project, microbial efforts, and WLA response plan.

  1. The Activity Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Presents four examples on arithmetic mean and harmonic mean. Provides solution of each of the examples and instructional activities related to the examples. Lists eight references on mathematical problem solving. (YP)

  2. Active at Any Size

    MedlinePlus

    ... a row. Your muscles need time to recover. Mind and body exercise Your local hospital or fitness, ... can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . Additional Reading Tips to Help You Get Active Identifies and ...

  3. Exercise and activity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the ... your child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another ...

  4. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate planar terahertz metamaterial devices enabling actively controllable transmission amplitude, phase, or frequency at room temperature via carrier depletion or photoexcitation in the semiconductor substrate or in semiconductor materials incorporated into the metamaterial structure.

  5. Enrichment Activities for Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usiskin, Zalman

    1983-01-01

    Enrichment activities that teach about geometry as they instruct in geometry are given for some significant topics. The facets of geometry included are tessellations, round robin tournaments, geometric theorems on triangles, and connections between geometry and complex numbers. (MNS)

  6. Interactive Design Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulev, Petar; Farrer, Joan

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Computers and Human Well-being * To Fuzzy or Yes (No)! * Interactive Design Activism * Sensing the Sun * Personalised Public Health Advice * Modifying Human Behaviour * Transdisciplinarity, Knowledge Transfer and Multi-domain

  7. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  8. Active Limiters For Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1990-01-01

    Active or "smart" electro-optical shutters proposed for protection of photodetectors, imaging devices, and other sensitive optical or optoelectronic elements. Responds rapidly and automatically to increase in illumination above prescribed level.

  9. Math Lab Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumbaugh, Douglas K.; Hynes, Michael C.

    1974-01-01

    The goals, objects, materials and grade levels are specified in this description of a laboratory activity involving analytic geometry concepts. Students mark out bicycle gymkhana courses in which directions to participants are given by Cartesian coordinates. (JP)

  10. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, David S.; Ghoniem, Nasr M.; Powell, Roger W.

    1986-01-01

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  11. Low activation ferritic alloys

    DOEpatents

    Gelles, D.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Powell, R.W.

    1985-02-07

    Low activation ferritic alloys, specifically bainitic and martensitic stainless steels, are described for use in the production of structural components for nuclear fusion reactors. They are designed specifically to achieve low activation characteristics suitable for efficient waste disposal. The alloys essentially exclude molybdenum, nickel, nitrogen and niobium. Strength is achieved by substituting vanadium, tungsten, and/or tantalum in place of the usual molybdenum content in such alloys.

  12. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  13. Activated partial thromboplastin time.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is a commonly used coagulation assay that is easy to perform, is affordable, and is therefore performed in most coagulation laboratories, both clinical and research, worldwide. The APTT is based on the principle that in citrated plasma, the addition of a platelet substitute, factor XII activator, and CaCl2 allows for formation of a stable clot. The time required for the formation of a stable clot is recorded in seconds and represents the actual APTT result.

  14. Active aperture phased arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, R. P.

    1989-04-01

    Developments towards the realization of active aperture phased arrays are reviewed. The technology and cost aspects of the power amplifier and phase shifter subsystems are discussed. Consideration is given to research concerning T/R modules, MESFETs, side lobe control, beam steering, optical control techniques, and printed circuit antennas. Methods for configuring the array are examined, focusing on the tile and brick configurations. It is found that there is no technological impediment for introducing active aperture phased arrays.

  15. Intercreativity: Mapping Online Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meikle, Graham

    How do activists use the Internet? This article maps a wide range of activist practice and research by applying and developing Tim Berners-Lee's concept of ‘intercreativity' (1999). It identifies four dimensions of Net activism: intercreative texts, tactics, strategies and networks. It develops these through examples of manifestations of Net activism around one cluster of issues: support campaigns for refugees and asylum seekers.

  16. Cytochrome bd Displays Significant Quinol Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Sinan; Yu, Yuanjie; Pinkse, Martijn; Hoeser, Jo; Friedrich, Thorsten; Bald, Dirk; de Vries, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome bd is a prokaryotic terminal oxidase that catalyses the electrogenic reduction of oxygen to water using ubiquinol as electron donor. Cytochrome bd is a tri-haem integral membrane enzyme carrying a low-spin haem b558, and two high-spin haems: b595 and d. Here we show that besides its oxidase activity, cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is a genuine quinol peroxidase (QPO) that reduces hydrogen peroxide to water. The highly active and pure enzyme preparation used in this study did not display the catalase activity recently reported for E. coli cytochrome bd. To our knowledge, cytochrome bd is the first membrane-bound quinol peroxidase detected in E. coli. The observation that cytochrome bd is a quinol peroxidase, can provide a biochemical basis for its role in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide and may explain the frequent findings reported in the literature that indicate increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and decreased virulence in mutants that lack the enzyme. PMID:27279363

  17. Resveratrol lacks antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Collado-González, Mar; Guirao-Abad, José P; Sánchez-Fresneda, Ruth; Belchí-Navarro, Sarai; Argüelles, Juan-Carlos

    2012-06-01

    The putative candicidal activity of resveratrol is currently a matter of controversy. Here, the antifungal activity as well as the antioxidant response of resveratrol against Candida albicans, have been tested in a set of strains with a well-established genetic background At the doses usually employed in antifungal tests (10-40 μg/ml), resveratrol has no effect on the exponential growth of the C. albicans CAI.4 strain, a tenfold increase (400 μg/ml) was required in order to record a certain degree of cell killing, which was negligible in comparison with the strong antifungal effect caused by the addition of amphotericin B (5 μg/ml). An identical pattern was recorded in the prototrophic strains of C. albicans SC5314 and RM-100, whereas the oxidative sensitive trehalose-deficient mutant (tps1/tps1 strain) was totally refractory to the presence of resveratrol. In turn, the serum-induced yeast-to-hypha transition remained unaffected upon addition of different concentrations of resveratrol. Determination of endogenous trehalose and catalase activity, two antioxidant markers in C. albicans; revealed no significant changes in their basal contents induced by resveratrol. Collectively, our results seem to dismiss a main antifungal role as well as the therapeutic application of resveratrol against the infections caused by C. albicans.

  18. ABB: active bandwidth broker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Kason; Law, Eddie

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, we shall discuss a novel design on the policy-based management for the Internet. This design deploys the concept of active networking. As opposed to the traditional network design, active network empowers network node with the ability to manipulate data and program code in packets, and configure the network properties according to the needs of different applications. The policy-based management can control network routers in order to realize end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS), such as differentiated and integrated services, across the Internet. For the moment, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has defined the framework of the policy-based management. It employs a simple client/server model that uses Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol to facilitate policy management and control. Our design of Active Bandwidth Broker (ABB) belongs to an active application. Our goals are to distribute centralized workload of the policy-based management over multiple active nodes in the active networks, introduce mobility of the bandwidth brokers, and allows load sharing to the policy-based management. This results a network-wide intelligent, highly available, and consistent QoS control that allows performance protection for voice, video and Internet business application while reducing costs for growing networks.

  19. Rheology of Active Gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Active networks drive a diverse range of critical processes ranging from motility to division in living cells, yet a full picture of their rheological capabilities in non-cellular contexts is still emerging, e.g., How does the rheological response of a network capable of remodeling under internally-generated stresses differ from that of a passive biopolymer network? In order to address this and other basic questions, we have engineered an active gel composed of microtubules, bidirectional kinesin motors, and molecular depletant that self-organizes into a highly dynamic network of active bundles. The network continually remodels itself under ATP-tunable cycles of extension, buckling, fracturing, and self-healing. Using confocal rheometry we have simultaneously characterized the network's linear and non-linear rheological responses to shear deformation along with its dynamic morphology. We find several surprising and unique material properties for these active gels; most notably, rheological cloaking, the ability of the active gel to drive large-scale fluid mixing over several orders of flow magnitude while maintaining an invariant, solid-like rheological profile and spontaneous flow under confinement, the ability to exert micro-Newton forces to drive persistent directed motion of the rheometer tool. Taken together, these results and others to be discussed highlight the rich stress-structure-dynamics relationships in this class of biologically-derived active gels.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Cushnie, T P Tim; Lamb, Andrew J

    2005-11-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.