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Sample records for activity coefficient corrections

  1. Improved estimation of solubility and partitioning through correction of UNIFAC-derived activity coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, S.; Howard, P.H.

    1988-07-01

    Octanol-water partition coefficients (K/sub ow/) of 75 compounds ranging over 9 orders of magnitude are correlated by log K/sub ow/ = -0.40 + 0.73 log (..gamma../sub W/)/sub U/ -0.39 log (..gamma../sub 0/)/sub U/ (r = 0.98), where (..gamma..//sub W/)/sub U/ and (..gamma../sub 0/)/sub U/ are UNIFAC-derived activity coefficients in water and octanol, respectively. The constants 0.73 and -0.39 are obtained empirically and are intended to compensate for group nonadditivity. Correction factors of similar magnitude are obtained in independent correlations of water solubility with (..gamma../sub W/)/sub U/ and of octanol solubility with (..gamma../sub 0/)/sub U/, thereby confirming the validity of the approach.

  2. Correction method of secondary reflection effects in measurement of electro-optic coefficient in optically active materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Ph.; Georges, M.

    1992-07-01

    The propagation of light in linearly birefringent and optically active media, such as Bi 12SiO 20 crystals (BSO), has been widely studied by several workers. Various measurement methods of the electro-optic coefficient r41 have been described. One family of those methods consisting in measurement of the light polarization ellipticity after through the crystal has been analysed. Due to the high reflectivity of such crystals, we show that the effect of the secondary reflections can not be neglected. We present the theoretical description and analysis of this effect for one of these methods and we propose a corrective algorithm.

  3. Atmospheric Density Corrections Estimated from Fitted Drag Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, C. A.; Lechtenberg, T. F.; Mance, S. R.; Mehta, P.

    2010-12-01

    Fitted drag coefficients estimated using GEODYN, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Precision Orbit Determination and Geodetic Parameter Estimation Program, are used to create density corrections. The drag coefficients were estimated for Stella, Starlette and GFZ using satellite laser ranging (SLR) measurements; and for GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) using SLR, Doppler, and altimeter crossover measurements. The data analyzed covers years ranging from 2000 to 2004 for Stella and Starlette, 2000 to 2002 and 2005 for GFO, and 1995 to 1997 for GFZ. The drag coefficient was estimated every eight hours. The drag coefficients over the course of a year show a consistent variation about the theoretical and yearly average values that primarily represents a semi-annual/seasonal error in the atmospheric density models used. The atmospheric density models examined were NRLMSISE-00 and MSIS-86. The annual structure of the major variations was consistent among all the satellites for a given year and consistent among all the years examined. The fitted drag coefficients can be converted into density corrections every eight hours along the orbit of the satellites. In addition, drag coefficients estimated more frequently can provide a higher frequency of density correction.

  4. The electrochemical potential and ionic activity coefficients. A possible correction for Debye-Hückel and Maxwell-Boltzmann equations for dilute electrolyte equilibria.

    PubMed

    van der Weg, P B

    2009-11-15

    When the electrical contribution in the electrochemical potential of ionic species is reduced with a factor two from its traditional value, the ionic activity coefficients are closer to unity and need to account only for the short-range interactions at high concentrations. Such a change is needed to remove inconsistencies in the models and to comply with basic electrostatic principles. This will have serious implications, in many applications. For example, it will cause changes in many of the fundamental models that are used to explain measured data in the dilute range for the various disciplines that embrace classical electrochemistry. Examples are Debye-Hückel and Gouy-Chapman theories; Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution; Nernst theory; Donnan equilibrium, etc. These theories impact a wide range of observable phenomena such as activity coefficients of electrolytes, diffuse double layer capacitance, electrode potentials, membrane potentials, streaming potentials, electro-osmosis, flotation, sedimentation, corrosion, charged micellar behaviour, space-charge semiconductor behaviour, and electrical phenomena in biological tissue, e.g. membranes; cells; and nerves, etcetera. PMID:19656523

  5. On Similarity Coefficients for 2x2 Tables and Correction for Chance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrens, Matthijs J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies correction for chance in coefficients that are linear functions of the observed proportion of agreement. The paper unifies and extends various results on correction for chance in the literature. A specific class of coefficients is used to illustrate the results derived in this paper. Coefficients in this class, e.g. the simple…

  6. Correction and Communicative Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Huw P.

    1980-01-01

    In classes where the communicative approach to language teaching is taken and where learners are asked to form groups in order to communicate, the teacher should be ready to respond to requests, give immediate correction, and use a monitoring sheet to note errors. The sheet can also be used for individual students. (PJM)

  7. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Peiper, J. Christopher

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  8. The influence of edge geometry on end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Muttalip Aşkın; Lopez Arteaga, Ines; Efraimsson, Gunilla; Åbom, Mats; Hirschberg, Avraham

    2015-12-01

    Global expressions are proposed for end-correction coefficients in micro perforated plates (MPPs) using non-dimensional parameters. MPPs are sound absorbers with small perforation diameters such that the Stokes boundary layers fill up almost the entire perforation. Sound absorption does not only occur within the perforation, but also takes place just outside of it. The latter contribution plus the outside inertia effect on the transfer impedance of the MPP are referred to as end-corrections. In order to determine them, an analytical solution employing the very thin Stokes layer assumption has been derived. However, this assumption requires empirical coefficients in the end-corrections for accurate results. To explore the effects of various parameters a numerical model is used. This model is verified with open-end reflection coefficient measurements. The most prominent result from this study is that compared to plate thickness, the ratio of perforation diameter to Stokes layer thickness (Shear number) and edge geometry affect the end-correction coefficients more significantly. The effect of plate thickness can be neglected for practical purposes, therefore, expressions for the end-corrections in terms of Shear number and edge geometry are provided. The relative error of these expressions is <3% compared to the numerical results. PMID:26723322

  9. In vivo light fluence correction for determination of tissue absorption coefficient using Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Frederic M.; Joseph, James; Tomaszewski, Michal R.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2016-03-01

    Optoacoustic Tomography is a fast developing imaging modality, combining the high resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound detection with the high contrast available from optical absorption in tissue. The spectral profile of near infrared excitation light used in optoacoustic tomography instruments is modified by absorption and scattering as it propagates deep into biological tissue. The resulting images therefore provide only qualitative insight into the distribution of tissue chromophores. Knowledge of the spectral profile of excitation light across the mouse is needed for accurate determination of the absorption coefficient in vivo. Under the conditions of constant Grueneisen parameter and accurate knowledge of the light fluence, a linear relationship should exist between the initial optoacoustic pressure amplitude and the tissue absorption coefficient. Using data from a commercial optoacoustic tomography system, we implemented an iterative optimization based on the σ-Eddington approximation to the Radiative Transfer Equation to derive a light fluence map within a given object. We segmented the images based on the positions of phantom inclusions, or mouse organs, and used known scattering coefficients for initialization. Performing the fluence correction in simple phantoms allowed the expected linear relationship between recorded and independently measured absorption coefficients to be retrieved and spectral coloring to be compensated. For in vivo data, the correction resulted in an enhancement of signal intensities in deep tissues. This improved our ability to visualize organs at depth (> 5mm). Future work will aim to perform the optimization without data normalization and explore the need for methodology that enables routine implementation for in vivo imaging.

  10. Correction for multiple scattering of unpolarized photons in attenuation coefficient measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.E.; Sumini, M.; Satori, R.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations of the diffusion of unpolarized photons in thin thickness targets have been performed with recourse to a vector transport model taking rigorously into account the polarization introduced by the scattering interactions. An order-of-interactions solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for photons was used to describe the multiple scattering terms due to the prevailing effects in the X-ray regime. An analytical expression for the correction factor to the attenuation coefficient is given in term of the solid angle subtended by the detector and the energy interval characterizing the detection response. Although the main corrections are due to the influence of the pure Rayleigh effect, first- and second-order chains involving the Rayleigh and Compton effects have been considered as possible sources of overlapping contributions to the transmitted intensity. The extent of the corrections is estimated and some examples are given for pure element targets.

  11. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities...- 107889-12), which was the subject of FR. Doc. 2012-14238, is corrected as follows: On page 34887, column... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK85 Substantial Business Activities; Correction...

  12. Kinetic energy and momentum correction coefficients in straight compound channels with vegetated floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidifar, H.; Omid, M. H.; Keshavarzi, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the effect of flow relative depth (ratio of the floodplain to the main channel flow depths) and vegetation density on the kinetic energy and momentum correction coefficients (termed as α and β, respectively) was described based on an experimental study. A series of experiments was run using rigid dowels with seven flow relative depths and four vegetation densities in an asymmetric compound channel. The local flow velocities were measured using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV). Using regression analysis, velocity data were considered and equations were developed for calculating the kinetic energy and momentum correction coefficients as a function of the flow relative depth and vegetation density. The results show that the values of α and β decrease as the relative depth increases. Also, as the vegetation density increases, the effects of the vegetation on α and β increase too. Finally, by comparing with the findings of the previous researchers, it was found that the average values of the α for asymmetric compound channels with vegetation are 26.5% and 43.3% greater than those for asymmetric and symmetric compound channels without vegetation respectively while these values for β are 12.7% and 18.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the floodplain vegetation can increase the average values of coefficients α and β by 52.8% and 21.6%, respectively, in comparison with single channels.

  13. Light fluence correction for quantitative determination of tissue absorption coefficient using multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochu, Frederic M.; Joseph, James; Tomaszewski, Michal; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-07-01

    MultiSpectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is a fast developing imaging modality, combining the high resolution and penetration depth of ultrasound with the excellent contrast from optical imaging of tissue. Absorption and scattering of the near infrared excitation light modulates the spectral profile of light as it propagates deep into biological tissue, meaning the images obtained provide only qualitative insight into the distribution of tissue chromophores. The goal of this work is to accurately recover the spectral profile of excitation light by modelling light fluence in the data reconstruction, to enable quantitative imaging. We worked with a commercial small animal MSOT scanner and developed our light fluence correction for its' cylindrical geometry. Optoacoustic image reconstruction pinpoints the sources of acoustic waves detected by the transducers and returns the initial pressure amplitude at these points. This pressure is the product of the dimensionless Grüneisen parameter, the absorption coefficient and the light fluence. Under the condition of constant Grüneisen parameter and well modelled light fluence, there is a linear relationship between the initial pressure amplitude measured in the optoacoustic image and the absorption coefficient. We were able to reproduce this linear relationship in different physical regions of an agarose gel phantom containing targets of known optical absorption coefficient, demonstrating that our light fluence model was working. We also demonstrate promising results of light fluence correction effects on in vivo data.

  14. Dependence of the osmotic coefficients and average ionic activity coefficients on hydrophobic hydration in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergievskii, V. V.; Rudakov, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    The model that considers the nonideality of aqueous solutions of electrolytes with allowance for independent contributions of hydration of ions of various types and electrostatic interactions was substantiated using the cluster ion model. The empirical parameters in the model equations were found to be the hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration numbers of ions in the standard state and the dispersion of their distribution over the stoichiometric coefficients. A mathematically adequate description of the concentration dependences of the osmotic coefficients and average ion activity coefficients of electrolytes was given for several systems. The difference in the rate of the decrease in the hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration numbers of ions leads to extremum concentration dependences of the osmotic coefficients, which were determined by other authors from isopiestic data for many electrolytes and did not find explanation.

  15. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient.

    PubMed

    Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively. PMID:23464237

  16. Thermocouple error correction for measuring the flame temperature with determination of emissivity and heat transfer coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.

    2013-02-01

    Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.

  17. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development. PMID:25637995

  18. Mean ionic activity coefficients in aqueous NaCl solutions from molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-01-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous NaCl solutions of varying concentrations at 298.15 K and 1 bar have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations by gradually turning on the interactions of an ion pair inserted into the solution. Several common non-polarizable water and ion models have been used in the simulations. Gibbs-Duhem equation calculations of the thermodynamic activity of water are used to confirm the thermodynamic consistency of the mean ionic activity coefficients. While the majority of model combinations predict the correct trends in mean ionic activity coefficients, they overestimate their values at high salt concentrations. The solubility predictions also suffer from inaccuracies, with all models underpredicting the experimental values, some by large factors. These results point to the need for further ion and water model development.

  19. What is the correct value for the brain: blood partition coefficient for water

    SciTech Connect

    Herscovitch, P.; Raichle, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge of the brain: blood partition coefficient (lambda) for water is usually required for the measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with positron emission tomography (PET) and 0-15 labelled water. The correct calculation of this important parameter from the ratio of brain and blood water contents is reviewed, and the effect of physiological variations in these water contents on lambda is demonstrated. The currently accepted value for whole brain lambda is 0.95-0.96 ml/g, calculated from brain and blood water contents of 77g/100g and 80.5g/100g, respectively. However, this value for lambda is incorrect, because in the calculation the blood water content value was not adjusted for the density of blood. The correct value is 0.91 ml/g. Variations in brain or blood water content affect lambda. Over an hematocrit range of 25% to 55%, lambda varies from 0.86 to 0.93 ml/g, due to a decrease in blood water content. lambda changes with age, and varies regionally in the brain, as brain water content is inversely related to lipid and myelin content. The lambda of the human newborn brain, 1.10 ml/g, is considerably higher than in the adult. Differences in lambda between gray and white matter are well known. However, because of variations in water content, the lambda's of thalamus (0.88 ml/g) and caudate nucleus (0.96 ml/g) are less than that of cerebral cortex (0.99 ml/g), while the lambda of corpus callosum (0.89 ml/g) is greater than that of centrum semiovale (0.83 ml/g). These regional variations in lambda will assume more importance as PET resolution improves. The impact of using an incorrect lambda will depend upon the sensitivity of the particular CBF measurement technique to errors in lambda.

  20. Activity coefficients of chlorophenols in water at infinite dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Tabai, S.; Rogalski, M.; Solimando, R.; Malanowski, S.K.

    1997-11-01

    The total pressure of aqueous solutions of chlorophenols was determined by a ebulliometric total pressure method for the aqueous solutions of phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3-chlorophenol, 4-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol in the temperature range from 40 to 90 C. The activity coefficients at infinite dilution and the Henry constants were derived.

  1. Correcting Coefficient Alpha for Correlated Errors: Is [alpha][K]a Lower Bound to Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    When errors of measurement are positively correlated, coefficient alpha may overestimate the "true" reliability of a composite. To reduce this inflation bias, Komaroff (1997) has proposed an adjusted alpha coefficient, ak. This article shows that ak is only guaranteed to be a lower bound to reliability if the latter does not include correlated…

  2. A FORTRAN Program for Correcting Correlation Coefficients for Restriction in Range for Explicit or Implicit Restriction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mary A.; Boone, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Restriction in range is a measurement problem frequently encountered in research studies that utilize correlation coefficients. A FORTRAN program is described that can compute the estimated unrestricted correlation coefficient in either the explicit or implicit case. The user selects the appropriate formula to be employed from five that are…

  3. Emission-based estimation of lung attenuation coefficients for attenuation correction in time-of-flight PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib

    2015-06-21

    In standard segmentation-based MRI-guided attenuation correction (MRAC) of PET data on hybrid PET/MRI systems, the inter/intra-patient variability of linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) is ignored owing to the assignment of a constant LAC to each tissue class. This can lead to PET quantification errors, especially in the lung regions. In this work, we aim to derive continuous and patient-specific lung LACs from time-of-flight (TOF) PET emission data using the maximum likelihood reconstruction of activity and attenuation (MLAA) algorithm. The MLAA algorithm was constrained for estimation of lung LACs only in the standard 4-class MR attenuation map using Gaussian lung tissue preference and Markov random field smoothness priors. MRAC maps were derived from segmentation of CT images of 19 TOF-PET/CT clinical studies into background air, lung, soft tissue and fat tissue classes, followed by assignment of predefined LACs of 0, 0.0224, 0.0864 and 0.0975 cm(-1), respectively. The lung LACs of the resulting attenuation maps were then estimated from emission data using the proposed MLAA algorithm. PET quantification accuracy of MRAC and MLAA methods was evaluated against the reference CT-based AC method in the lungs, lesions located in/near the lungs and neighbouring tissues. The results show that the proposed MLAA algorithm is capable of retrieving lung density gradients and compensate fairly for respiratory-phase mismatch between PET and corresponding attenuation maps. It was found that the mean of the estimated lung LACs generally follow the trend of the reference CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) method. Quantitative analysis revealed that the MRAC method resulted in average relative errors of -5.2 ± 7.1% and -6.1 ± 6.7% in the lungs and lesions, respectively. These were reduced by the MLAA algorithm to -0.8 ± 6.3% and -3.3 ± 4.7%, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential and capability of emission-based methods in deriving patient

  4. An improved strip FRAP method for estimating diffusion coefficients: correcting for the degree of photobleaching.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Köhler, K; Davis, D M; Burroughs, N J

    2010-06-01

    Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching is a widely established method for the estimation of diffusion coefficients, strip bleaching with an associated recovery curve analysis being one of the simplest techniques. However, its implementation requires near 100% bleaching in the region of interest with negligible fluorescence loss outside, both constraints being hard to achieve concomitantly for fast diffusing molecules. We demonstrate that when these requirements are not met there is an error in the estimation of the diffusion coefficient D, either an under- or overestimation depending on which assumption is violated the most. We propose a simple modification to the recovery curve analysis incorporating the concept of the relative bleached mass m giving a revised recovery time parametrization tau=m(2)w(2)/4piD for a strip of width w. This modified model removes the requirement of 100% bleaching in the region of interest and allows for limited diffusion of the fluorophore during bleaching. We validate our method by estimating the (volume) diffusion coefficient of FITC-labelled IgG in 60% glycerol solution, D= 4.09 +/- 0.21 microm(2) s(-1), and the (surface) diffusion coefficient of a green-fluorescent protein-tagged class I MHC protein expressed at the surface of a human B cell line, D= 0.32 +/- 0.03 microm(2) s(-1) for a population of cells. PMID:20579262

  5. Molecular radiotherapy: The NUKFIT software for calculating the time-integrated activity coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Kletting, P.; Schimmel, S.; Luster, M.; Kestler, H. A.; Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.; Bröer, J. H.; Nosske, D.; Glatting, G.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Calculation of the time-integrated activity coefficient (residence time) is a crucial step in dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy. However, available software is deficient in that it is either not tailored for the use in molecular radiotherapy and/or does not include all required estimation methods. The aim of this work was therefore the development and programming of an algorithm which allows for an objective and reproducible determination of the time-integrated activity coefficient and its standard error.Methods: The algorithm includes the selection of a set of fitting functions from predefined sums of exponentials and the choice of an error model for the used data. To estimate the values of the adjustable parameters an objective function, depending on the data, the parameters of the error model, the fitting function and (if required and available) Bayesian information, is minimized. To increase reproducibility and user-friendliness the starting values are automatically determined using a combination of curve stripping and random search. Visual inspection, the coefficient of determination, the standard error of the fitted parameters, and the correlation matrix are provided to evaluate the quality of the fit. The functions which are most supported by the data are determined using the corrected Akaike information criterion. The time-integrated activity coefficient is estimated by analytically integrating the fitted functions. Its standard error is determined assuming Gaussian error propagation. The software was implemented using MATLAB.Results: To validate the proper implementation of the objective function and the fit functions, the results of NUKFIT and SAAM numerical, a commercially available software tool, were compared. The automatic search for starting values was successfully tested for reproducibility. The quality criteria applied in conjunction with the Akaike information criterion allowed the selection of suitable functions. Function fit

  6. Solubility parameter and activity coefficient of HDEHP dimer in select organic diluents by vapor pressure osmometry

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M.; Nilsson, M.; Zalupski, P.

    2013-07-01

    A thorough understanding of the non-ideal behavior of the chemical components utilized in solvent extraction contributes to the success of any large-scale spent nuclear fuel treatment. To address this, our current work uses vapor pressure osmometry to characterize the non-ideal behavior of the solvent extraction agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), a common extractant in proposed separation schemes. Solubility parameters were fit to data on HDEHP at four temperatures using models based on Scatchard Hildebrand regular solution theory with Flory Huggins entropic corrections. The results are comparable but not identical to the activity coefficients from prior slope analysis in the literature. (authors)

  7. Upgrading telescopes by active pupil wavefront correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, J. E.; Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Exit pupil correction of the Large Deployable Reflector's (a proposed IR to sub-mm space telescope) segmented primary can be done by reimaging it onto a like segmented surface at the exit pupil. This allows the primary to be more flexible, the adaptive element to be smaller, and the supporting structure to be cheaper than if all correction were performed at a stiffly supported primary. Piston, tilt, and decenter errors of an annulus of the primary and the equations for the required corrections are considered. To verify these, the perturbations with spline functions in the lens design program are simulated. Strehl ratios used to measure image quality show that a piston error of 1 mm is fully corrected over a 5 arcmin field for an f/10 system with a 0.7 n.a. primary at 30 micrometers. Limits of correction are also shown for tilt and decenter errors of segments. Tolerances are given for tilt and decenter errors of the remaining optics also.

  8. Second virial coefficients, including quantum corrections, for nitrogen using model potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, N.; Meath, William J.; Allnatt, A. R.

    The second virial coefficient of nitrogen has been calculated in the temperature range 75-700 K, from the sum of the classical contribution B(0) and the quantum contribution B(1) of order ℏ2, using the intermolecular potential of Berns and van der Avoird (BV) and reasonable variants of it. In some cases results for the full potentials are compared with those obtained when only the isotropic components were retained. For the BV potential B(1) is significant compared with the experimental errors only for T < 130 K; the anisotropic parts of the potential contribute more than the isotropic parts for B(1) in this temperature range, and also for B(0) in the temperature range 170-350 K. The results for the complete BV potential differ significantly from experiment at all temperatures. The effect of varying the dispersion constants C8 and C10 in the BV potential within the ranges of their estimated uncertainties was studied. Increasing both isotropic and anisotropic components of C8 and C10 by 10 and 20 per cent respectively yields excellent agreement with experiment, whereas increasing the isotropic components alone by these amounts gives good agreement with experiment except at the lowest temperatures. If all the second order dispersion energies in the BV potential are replaced by those recently obtained by Visser, Wormer and Stam agreement with experiment is improved but significant deviations remain at most temperatures.

  9. Communicating Correct Syntax through Translation Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anastos, Perry

    1979-01-01

    Audiolingual and translation exercises are presented that were designed to correct syntax of junior high school French language students. The exercises were given to eliminate translating the present progressive and the imperfect word for word, and to develop more awareness of reflexive construction and the imperfect tense. (SW)

  10. Transfer having a coupling coefficient higher than its active material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesieutre, George A. (Inventor); Davis, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A coupling coefficient is a measure of the effectiveness with which a shape-changing material (or a device employing such a material) converts the energy in an imposed signal to useful mechanical energy. Device coupling coefficients are properties of the device and, although related to the material coupling coefficients, are generally different from them. This invention describes a class of devices wherein the apparent coupling coefficient can, in principle, approach 1.0, corresponding to perfect electromechanical energy conversion. The key feature of this class of devices is the use of destabilizing mechanical pre-loads to counter inherent stiffness. The approach is illustrated for piezoelectric and thermoelectrically actuated devices. The invention provides a way to simultaneously increase both displacement and force, distinguishing it from alternatives such as motion amplification, and allows transducer designers to achieve substantial performance gains for actuator and sensor devices.

  11. Field calibration of multi-scattering correction factor for aethalometer aerosol absorption coefficient during CAPMEX Campaign, 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. W.; Yoon, S. C.; Park, R.; Ogren, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Filter-based instrument, such as aethalometer, is being widely used to measure equivalent black carbon(EBC) mass concentration and aerosol absorption coefficient(AAC). However, many other previous studies have poited that AAC and its aerosol absorption angstrom exponent(AAE) are strongly affected by the multi-scattering correction factor(C) when we retrieve AAC from aethalometer EBC mass concentration measurement(Weingartner et al., 2003; Arnott et al., 2005; Schmid et al., 2006; Coen et al., 2010). We determined the C value using the method given in Weingartner et al. (2003) by comparing 7-wavelngth aethalometer (AE-31, Magee sci.) to 3-wavelength Photo-Acoustic Soot Spectrometer (PASS-3, DMT) at Gosan climate observatory, Korea(GCO) during Cheju ABC plume-asian monsoon experiment(CAPMEX) campaign(August and September, 2008). In this study, C was estimated to be 4.04 ± 1.68 at 532 nm and AAC retrieved with this value was decreased as approximately 100% as than that retrieved with soot case value from Weingartner et al (2003). We compared the AAC determined from aethalomter measurements to that from collocated Continuous Light Absorption Photometer (CLAP) measurements from January 2012 to December 2013 at GCO and found good agreement in both AAC and AAE. This result suggests the determination of site-specific C is crucially needed when we calculate AAC from aethalometer measurements.

  12. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In the article by Heuslein et al, which published online ahead of print on September 3, 2015 (DOI: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305775), a correction was needed. Brett R. Blackman was added as the penultimate author of the article. The article has been corrected for publication in the November 2015 issue. PMID:26490278

  13. Out-of-field activity in the estimation of mean lung attenuation coefficient in PET/MR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berker, Yannick; Salomon, André; Kiessling, Fabian; Schulz, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    In clinical PET/MR, photon attenuation is a source of potentially severe image artifacts. Correction approaches include those based on MR image segmentation, in which image voxels are classified and assigned predefined attenuation coefficients to obtain an attenuation map. In whole-body imaging, however, mean lung attenuation coefficients (LAC) can vary by a factor of 2, and the choice of inappropriate mean LAC can have significant impact on PET quantification. Previously, we proposed a method combining MR image segmentation, tissue classification and Maximum Likelihood reconstruction of Attenuation and Activity (MLAA) to estimate mean LAC values. In this work, we quantify the influence of out-of-field (OOF) accidental coincidences when acquiring data in a single bed position. We therefore carried out GATE simulations of realistic, whole-body activity and attenuation distributions derived from data of three patients. A bias of 15% was found and significantly reduced by removing OOF accidentals from our data, suggesting that OOF accidentals are the major contributor to the bias. We found approximately equal contributions from OOF scatter and OOF randoms, and present results after correction of the bias by rescaling of results. Results using temporal subsets suggest that 30-second acquisitions may be sufficient for estimation mean LAC with less than 5% uncertainty if mean bias can be corrected for.

  14. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    In the article by Narayan et al (Narayan O, Davies JE, Hughes AD, Dart AM, Parker KH, Reid C, Cameron JD. Central aortic reservoir-wave analysis improves prediction of cardiovascular events in elderly hypertensives. Hypertension. 2015;65:629–635. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04824), which published online ahead of print December 22, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, some corrections were needed.On page 632, Figure, panel A, the label PRI has been corrected to read RPI. In panel B, the text by the upward arrow, "10% increase in kd,” has been corrected to read, "10% decrease in kd." The corrected figure is shown below.The authors apologize for these errors. PMID:26558821

  15. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    Seismic images of the Brooks Range, Arctic Alaska, reveal crustal-scale duplexing: Correction Geology, v. 23, p. 65 68 (January 1995) The correct Figure 4A, for the loose insert, is given here. See Figure 4A below. Corrected inserts will be available to those requesting copies of the article from the senior author, Gary S. Fuis, U.S. Geological Survey, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025. Figure 4A. P-wave velocity model of Brooks Range region (thin gray contours) with migrated wide-angle reflections (heavy red lines) and migreated vertical-incidence reflections (short black lines) superimposed. Velocity contour interval is 0.25 km/s; 4,5, and 6 km/s contours are labeled. Estimated error in velocities is one contour interval. Symbols on faults shown at top are as in Figure 2 caption.

  16. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Neogi T, Jansen TLTA, Dalbeth N, et al. 2015 Gout classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Ann Rheum Dis 2015;74:1789–98. The name of the 20th author was misspelled. The correct spelling is Janitzia Vazquez-Mellado. We regret the error. PMID:26881284

  17. Correction.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    In the article by Guessous et al (Guessous I, Pruijm M, Ponte B, Ackermann D, Ehret G, Ansermot N, Vuistiner P, Staessen J, Gu Y, Paccaud F, Mohaupt M, Vogt B, Pechère-Bertschi A, Martin PY, Burnier M, Eap CB, Bochud M. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions. Hypertension. 2015;65:691–696. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04512), which published online ahead of print December 8, 2014, and appeared in the March 2015 issue of the journal, a correction was needed.One of the author surnames was misspelled. Antoinette Pechère-Berstchi has been corrected to read Antoinette Pechère-Bertschi.The authors apologize for this error. PMID:26763012

  18. Correction.

    PubMed

    2015-05-22

    The Circulation Research article by Keith and Bolli (“String Theory” of c-kitpos Cardiac Cells: A New Paradigm Regarding the Nature of These Cells That May Reconcile Apparently Discrepant Results. Circ Res. 2015:116:1216-1230. doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.305557) states that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of fibroblasts and adventitial cells, some smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and rare cardiomyocytes originated from c-kit positive progenitors. However, van Berlo et al reported that only occasional fibroblasts and adventitial cells derived from c-kit positive progenitors in their studies. Accordingly, the review has been corrected to indicate that van Berlo et al (2014) observed that large numbers of endothelial cells, with some smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, and more rarely cardiomyocytes, originated from c-kit positive progenitors in their murine model. The authors apologize for this error, and the error has been noted and corrected in the online version of the article, which is available at http://circres.ahajournals.org/content/116/7/1216.full ( PMID:25999426

  19. Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    Alleged mosasaur bite marks on Late Cretaceous ammonites are limpet (patellogastropod) home scars Geology, v. 26, p. 947 950 (October 1998) This article had the following printing errors: p. 947, Abstract, line 11, “sepia” should be “septa” p. 947, 1st paragraph under Introduction, line 2, “creep” should be “deep” p. 948, column 1, 2nd paragraph, line 7, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 1, “creep” should be “deep” p. 949, column 1, 1st paragraph, line 5, “19774” should be “1977)” p. 949, column 1, 4th paragraph, line 7, “in particular” should be “In particular” CORRECTION Mammalian community response to the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: An isotaphonomic study in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming Geology, v. 26, p. 1011 1014 (November 1998) An error appeared in the References Cited. The correct reference appears below: Fricke, H. C., Clyde, W. C., O'Neil, J. R., and Gingerich, P. D., 1998, Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: Oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming): Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 160, p. 193 208.

  20. Correcting Radial Velocities for Long-Term Magnetic Activity Variations.

    PubMed

    Saar; Fischer

    2000-05-01

    We study stars in the Lick planetary survey for correlations between simultaneous measurements of high-precision radial velocities vr and magnetic activity (as measured in an SIR emission index from Ca ii lambda8662). We find significant correlations in approximately 30% of the stars. After removing linear trends between SIR and vr, we find that the dispersion in vr in these stars is decreased by an average of 17%, or approximately 45% of the dispersion above the measurement noise. F stars and less active stars with variable Ca ii H and K lines are the most successfully corrected. The magnitude of the slope of the SIR versus vr relations increases proportional to vsini and (excepting M dwarfs) tends to decrease with decreasing Teff. We argue that the main cause of these effects is modification of the mean line bisector shape brought on by long-term, magnetic activity-induced changes in the surface brightness and convective patterns. The correlations can be used to partially correct vr data for the effects of long-term activity variations, potentially permitting study of planets around some (higher mass) younger stars and planets producing smaller stellar reflex velocities. PMID:10790082

  1. Improved AIOMFAC model parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients for aqueous organic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbavale, G.; Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.

    2014-06-01

    This study presents a new, improved parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients in the AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) model applicable for aqueous as well as water-free organic solutions. For electrolyte-free organic and organic-water mixtures the AIOMFAC model uses a group-contribution approach based on UNIFAC (UNIversal quasi-chemical Functional-group Activity Coefficients). This group-contribution approach explicitly accounts for interactions among organic functional groups and between organic functional groups and water. The previous AIOMFAC version uses a simple parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients, aimed to be applicable in the temperature range from ~275 to ~400 K. With the goal to improve the description of a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend the AIOMFAC parameterisation for the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon to atmospherically relevant low temperatures with the introduction of a new temperature dependence parameterisation. The improved temperature dependence parameterisation is derived from classical thermodynamic theory by describing effects from changes in molar enthalpy and heat capacity of a multicomponent system. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of aqueous organic and water-free organic mixtures from the literature are carefully assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database, covering a wide temperature range (~190 to ~440 K) for many of the functional group combinations considered. Different experimental data types and their processing for the estimation of AIOMFAC model parameters are discussed. The new AIOMFAC parameterisation for the temperature dependence of activity coefficients from low to high temperatures shows an overall improvement of 25% in comparison to

  2. Active Correction of Aberrations of Low-Quality Telescope Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Yijian

    2007-01-01

    A system of active optics that includes a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror has been demonstrated to be an effective means of partly correcting wavefront aberrations introduced by fixed optics (lenses and mirrors) in telescopes. It is envisioned that after further development, active optics would be used to reduce wavefront aberrations of about one wave or less in telescopes having aperture diameters of the order of meters or tens of meters. Although this remaining amount of aberration would be considered excessive in scientific applications in which diffraction-limited performance is required, it would be acceptable for free-space optical- communication applications at wavelengths of the order of 1 m. To prevent misunderstanding, it is important to state the following: The technological discipline of active optics, in which the primary or secondary mirror of a telescope is directly and dynamically tilted, distorted, and/or otherwise varied to reduce wavefront aberrations, has existed for decades. The term active optics does not necessarily mean the same thing as does adaptive optics, even though active optics and adaptive optics are related. The term "adaptive optics" is often used to refer to wavefront correction at speeds characterized by frequencies ranging up to between hundreds of hertz and several kilohertz high enough to enable mitigation of adverse effects of fluctuations in atmospheric refraction upon propagation of light beams. The term active optics usually appears in reference to wavefront correction at significantly lower speeds, characterized by times ranging from about 1 second to as long as minutes. Hence, the novelty of the present development lies, not in the basic concept of active or adaptive optics, but in the envisioned application of active optics in conjunction with a deformable mirror to achieve acceptably small wavefront errors in free-space optical communication systems that include multi-meter-diameter telescope mirrors that are

  3. Activity coefficients of microquantities of lanthanides and actinides in nitric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasov, V.S.; Rozen, A.M.

    1988-09-01

    We carried out calculations on the basis of the Zdanovskii-Mikulin rule. The radii of the ions of the actinides americium and curium(III) (0.099 nm) are closest to the radius of the neodymium ion (0.0995 nm), and the radius of the californium ion (0.0976 nm) is closest to the radius of the promethium ion (0.0979 nm). It may accordingly be assumed that the activity coefficients of americium and curium are approximately equal to the activity coefficients of neodymium and that the values for californium are approximately equal to the values for promethium.

  4. Correcting Thermal Deformations in an Active Composite Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, Samuel C.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Wilkie, William K.

    2011-01-01

    Large, high-precision composite reflectors for future space missions are costly to manufacture, and heavy. An active composite reflector capable of adjusting shape in situ to maintain required tolerances can be lighter and cheaper to manufacture. An active composite reflector testbed was developed that uses an array of piezoelectric composite actuators embedded in the back face sheet of a 0.8-m reflector panel. Each individually addressable actuator can be commanded from 500 to +1,500 V, and the flatness of the panel can be controlled to tolerances of 100 nm. Measuring the surface flatness at this resolution required the use of a speckle holography interferometer system in the Precision Environmental Test Enclosure (PETE) at JPL. The existing testbed combines the PETE for test environment stability, the speckle holography system for measuring out-of-plane deformations, the active panel including an array of individually addressable actuators, a FLIR thermal camera to measure thermal profiles across the reflector, and a heat source. Use of an array of flat piezoelectric actuators to correct thermal deformations is a promising new application for these actuators, as is the use of this actuator technology for surface flatness and wavefront control. An isogrid of these actuators is moving one step closer to a fully active face sheet, with the significant advantage of ease in manufacturing. No extensive rib structure or other actuation backing structure is required, as these actuators can be applied directly to an easy-to-manufacture flat surface. Any mission with a surface flatness requirement for a panel or reflector structure could adopt this actuator array concept to create lighter structures and enable improved performance on orbit. The thermal environment on orbit tends to include variations in temperature during shadowing or changes in angle. Because of this, a purely passive system is not an effective way to maintain flatness at the scale of microns over several

  5. Influence of dental correction on nociceptive test responses, fecal appearance, body condition score, and apparent digestibility coefficient for dry matter of Zamorano-leones donkeys (Equus asinus).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, J B; Ferreira, L M; Bastos, E; San Roman, F; Viegas, C; Santos, A S

    2013-10-01

    The influence of dental correction on nociceptive (pressure) test responses, fecal appearance, BCS, and apparent digestibility coefficient for DM was studied in 18 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys, an endangered local breed from the Zamora province in Spain. For this purpose, donkeys were divided into 2 homogeneous control and treatment groups, based on age, BCS, and dental findings. On d 1, 45, 90, and 135, BCS and nociceptive test responses were evaluated in all donkeys. Feed and fecal samples were collected from all donkeys for 3 consecutive days, starting at each of the aforementioned days. Apparent digestibility coefficient for DM was estimated, using ADL as an internal marker. A progressive decrease of positive nociceptive test responses was observed from d 1 up to 90 (P < 0.01) in the treatment group. No difference between groups was observed for BCS. However, BCS at d 90 was greater (P = 0.018) than observed on d 1 or 45, indicating a time influence. Concerning apparent digestibility coefficient for DM, there were differences among collection days in apparent digestibility coefficient for DM (P < 0.05). No differences in fecal appearance were observed between treatments or collection days. This study highlighted the importance of regular dental care for not only Zamorano-Leonés donkeys but also the equid population, in general, to improve their welfare. PMID:23965395

  6. A thermodynamic model of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols to predict activity coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, T.

    2008-08-01

    Tropospheric aerosols contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behaviour. By means of activity coefficients, non-ideal behaviour can be taken into account. We present here a thermodynamic model named AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) that is able to calculate activity coefficients covering inorganic, organic, and organic-inorganic interactions in aqueous solutions over a wide concentration range. This model is based on the activity coefficient model LIFAC by Yan et al. (1999) that we modified and reparametrised to better describe atmospherically relevant conditions and mixture compositions. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH+4, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO-3, HSO-4, and SO2-4 as cations and anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols composed of the functional groups CHn and OH as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are well represented up to high ionic strength. Most notably, a semi-empirical middle-range parametrisation of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol+water+salt solutions strongly improves the agreement between experimental and modelled activity coefficients. At room temperature, this novel thermodynamic model offers the possibility to compute equilibrium relative humidities, gas/particle partitioning and liquid-liquid phase separations with high accuracy. In further studies, other organic functional groups will be introduced. The model framework is not restricted to specific ions or organic compounds and is therefore also applicable for other research topics.

  7. A thermodynamic model of mixed organic-inorganic aerosols to predict activity coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Luo, B. P.; Peter, Th.

    2008-03-01

    Tropospheric aerosols contain mixtures of inorganic salts, acids, water, and a large variety of organic compounds. Interactions between these substances in liquid mixtures lead to discrepancies from ideal thermodynamic behaviour. By means of activity coefficients, non-ideal behaviour can be taken into account. We present here a thermodynamic model named AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) that is able to calculate activity coefficients covering inorganic, organic, and organic-inorganic interactions in aqueous solutions over a wide concentration range. This model is based on the activity coefficient model LIFAC by Yan et al. (1999) that we modified and reparametrised to better describe atmospherically relevant conditions and mixture compositions. Focusing on atmospheric applications we considered H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, HSO4-, and SO42- as cations and anions and a wide range of alcohols/polyols composed of the functional groups CHn and OH as organic compounds. With AIOMFAC, the activities of the components within an aqueous electrolyte solution are well represented up to high ionic strength. Most notably, a semi-empirical middle-range parametrisation of direct organic-inorganic interactions in alcohol + water + salt solutions strongly improves the agreement between experimental and modelled activity coefficients. At room temperature, this novel thermodynamic model offers the possibility to compute equilibrium relative humidities, gas/particle partitioning and liquid-liquid phase separations with high accuracy. In further studies, other organic functional groups will be introduced. The model framework is not restricted to specific ions or organic compounds and is therefore also applicable for other research topics.

  8. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  9. Activity Coefficients of Acetone-Chloroform Solutions: An Undergraduate Experiment. Undergraduate Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozog, J. Z.; Morrison, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents information, laboratory procedures, and results of an undergraduate experiment in which activity coefficients for a two-component liquid-vapor system are determined. Working in pairs, students can perform the experiment with 10 solutions in a given three-hour laboratory period. (Author/JN)

  10. Correction and update to 'The earth's C21 and S21 gravity coefficients and the rotation of the core'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahr, John

    1990-01-01

    Wahr (1987) used satellite constraints on C21 and S21 (the spherical harmonic coefficients of the earth's external gravitational potential) to infer certain properties of the core and core/mantle boundary. It is shown here, contrary to the claim by Wahr, that it is not possible to use C21 and S21 to placed bounds on the core's products of inertia. As a result, Wahr's constraints on the l = 2, m = 1 components of the core/mantle boundary topography and on the angular orientation of the inner core with respect to the earth's rotation vector are not justified. On the other hand, Wahr's conclusions about the time-averaged torque between the core and mantle and the resulting implications for the l = 2, m = 1 components of fluid pressure at the top of the core can be strengthened. Wahr's conclusions about the mean rotational flow in the core are unaltered.

  11. Chemical Potentials, Activity Coefficients, and Solubility in Aqueous NaCl Solutions: Prediction by Polarizable Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Moučka, Filip; Nezbeda, Ivo; Smith, William R

    2015-04-14

    We describe a computationally efficient molecular simulation methodology for calculating the concentration dependence of the chemical potentials of both solute and solvent in aqueous electrolyte solutions, based on simulations of the salt chemical potential alone. We use our approach to study the predictions for aqueous NaCl solutions at ambient conditions of these properties by the recently developed polarizable force fields (FFs) AH/BK3 of Kiss and Baranyai (J. Chem. Phys. 2013, 138, 204507) and AH/SWM4-DP of Lamoureux and Roux (J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, 3308 - 3322) and by the nonpolarizable JC FF of Joung and Cheatham tailored to SPC/E water (J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 9020 - 9041). We also consider their predictions of the concentration dependence of the electrolyte activity coefficient, the crystalline solid chemical potential, the electrolyte solubility, and the solution specific volume. We first highlight the disagreement in the literature concerning calculations of solubility by means of molecular simulation in the case of the JC FF and provide strong evidence of the correctness of our methodology based on recent independently obtained results for this important test case. We then compare the predictions of the three FFs with each other and with experiment and draw conclusions concerning their relative merits, with particular emphasis on the salt chemical potential and activity coefficient vs concentration curves and their derivatives. The latter curves have only previously been available from Kirkwood-Buff integrals, which require approximate numerical integrations over system pair correlation functions at each concentration. Unlike the case of the other FFs, the AH/BK3 curves are nearly parallel to the corresponding experimental curves at moderate and higher concentrations. This leads to an excellent prediction of the water chemical potential via the Gibbs-Duhem equation and enables the activity coefficient curve to be brought into excellent agreement

  12. A Computationally Efficient Model for Multicomponent Activity Coefficients in Aqueous Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2004-10-04

    Three-dimensional models of atmospheric inorganic aerosols need an accurate yet computationally efficient parameterization of activity coefficients, which are repeatedly updated in aerosol phase equilibrium and gas-aerosol partitioning calculations. In this paper, we describe the development and evaluation of a new mixing rule for estimating multicomponent activity coefficients of electrolytes typically found in atmospheric aerosol systems containing H(+), NH4(+), Na(+), Ca(2+), SO4(2-), HSO4(-), NO3(-), and Cl(-) ions. The new mixing rule, called MTEM (Multicomponent Taylor Expansion Model), estimates the mean activity coefficient of an electrolyte A in a multicomponent solution from a linear combination of its values in ternary solutions of A-A-H2O, A-B-H2O, A-C-H2O, etc., as the amount of A approaches zero in the mixture at the solution water activity, aw, assuming aw is equal to the ambient relative humidity. Predictions from MTEM are found to be within a factor of 0.8 to 1.25 of the comprehensive Pitzer-Simonson-Clegg (PSC) model over a wide range of water activities, and are shown to be significantly more accurate than the widely used Kusik and Meissner (KM) mixing rule, especially for electrolytes in sulfate-rich aerosol systems and for relatively minor but important aerosol components such as HNO3 and HCl acids. Because the ternary activity coefficient polynomials are parameterized as a function of aw, they have to be computed only once at every grid point at the beginning of every 3-D model time step as opposed to repeated evaluations of the ionic strength dependent binary activity coefficient polynomials in the KM method. Additionally, MTEM also yields a non-iterative solution of the bisulfate ion dissociation in sulfate-rich systems, which is a major computational advantage over other iterative methods as will be shown by a comparison of the CPU time requirements of MTEM for both sulfate-poor and sulfate-rich systems relative to other methods.

  13. Modeling Secondary Organic Aerosols over Europe: Impact of Activity Coefficients and Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Couvidat, F.

    2014-12-01

    Semi-volatile organic species (SVOC) can condense on suspended particulate materials (PM) in the atmosphere. The modeling of condensation/evaporation of SVOC often assumes that gas-phase and particle-phase concentrations are at equilibrium. However, recent studies show that secondary organic aerosols (SOA) may not be accurately represented by an equilibrium approach between the gas and particle phases, because organic aerosols in the particle phase may be very viscous. The condensation in the viscous liquid phase is limited by the diffusion from the surface of PM to its core. Using a surrogate approach to represent SVOC, depending on the user's choice, the secondary organic aerosol processor (SOAP) may assume equilibrium or model dynamically the condensation/evaporation between the gas and particle phases to take into account the viscosity of organic aerosols. The model is implemented in the three-dimensional chemistry-transport model of POLYPHEMUS. In SOAP, activity coefficients for organic mixtures can be computed using UNIFAC for short-range interactions between molecules and AIOMFAC to also take into account the effect of inorganic species on activity coefficients. Simulations over Europe are performed and POLYPHEMUS/SOAP is compared to POLYPHEMUS/H2O, which was previously used to model SOA using the equilibrium approach with activity coefficients from UNIFAC. Impacts of the dynamic approach on modeling SOA over Europe are evaluated. The concentrations of SOA using the dynamic approach are compared with those using the equilibrium approach. The increase of computational cost is also evaluated.

  14. Improved AIOMFAC model parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients for aqueous organic mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganbavale, G.; Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Peter, T.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a new, improved parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients in the AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) model applicable for aqueous as well as water-free organic solutions. For electrolyte-free organic and organic-water mixtures the AIOMFAC model uses a group-contribution approach based on UNIFAC (UNIversal quasi-chemical Functional-group Activity Coefficients). This group-contribution approach explicitly accounts for interactions among organic functional groups and between organic functional groups and water. The previous AIOMFAC version uses a simple parameterisation of the temperature dependence of activity coefficients, aimed to be applicable in the temperature range from ~ 275 to ~ 400 K. With the goal to improve the description of a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend the AIOMFAC parameterisation for the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon to atmospherically relevant low temperatures. To this end we introduce a new parameterisation for the temperature dependence. The improved temperature dependence parameterisation is derived from classical thermodynamic theory by describing effects from changes in molar enthalpy and heat capacity of a multi-component system. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of aqueous organic and water-free organic mixtures from the literature are carefully assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database, covering a wide temperature range (~ 190 to ~ 440 K) for many of the functional group combinations considered. Different experimental data types and their processing for the estimation of AIOMFAC model parameters are discussed. The new AIOMFAC parameterisation for the temperature dependence of activity coefficients from low to high temperatures shows an overall improvement of 28% in

  15. Criteria for first- and second-order vibrational resonances and correct evaluation of the Darling-Dennison resonance coefficients using the canonical Van Vleck perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnoshchekov, Sergey V.; Isayeva, Elena V.; Stepanov, Nikolay F.

    2014-12-21

    The second-order vibrational Hamiltonian of a semi-rigid polyatomic molecule when resonances are present can be reduced to a quasi-diagonal form using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. Obtaining exact vibrational energy levels requires subsequent numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian matrix including the first- and second-order resonance coupling coefficients. While the first-order Fermi resonance constants can be easily calculated, the evaluation of the second-order Darling-Dennison constants requires more complicated algebra for seven individual cases with different numbers of creation-annihilation vibrational quanta. The difficulty in precise evaluation of the Darling-Dennison coefficients is associated with the previously unrecognized interference with simultaneously present Fermi resonances that affect the form of the canonically transformed Hamiltonian. For the first time, we have presented the correct form of the general expression for the evaluation of the Darling-Dennison constants that accounts for the underlying effect of Fermi resonances. The physically meaningful criteria for selecting both Fermi and Darling-Dennison resonances are discussed and illustrated using numerical examples.

  16. Humidity coefficient correction in the calculation equations of air refractive index by He-Ne laser based on phase step interferometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianghua; Liu, Jinghai; He, Yongxi; Luo, Huifu; Luo, Jun; Wang, Feng

    2015-02-10

    The refractive index of air (RIA) is an important parameter in precision measurement. The revisions to Edlen's equations by Boensch and Potulski [Metrologia 35, 133 (1998)] are mostly used to calculate the RIA at present. Since the humidity correction coefficients in the formulas were performed with four wavelengths of a Cd(114) lamp (644.0, 508.7, 480.1, and 467.9 nm) and at the temperature range of 19.6°C-20.1°C, the application is restricted when an He-Ne laser is used as the light source, which is mostly applied in optical precision measurement, and the environmental temperature is far away from 20°C as well. To solve this problem, a measurement system based on phase step interferometry for measuring the effect of the humidity to the RIA is presented, and a corresponding humidity correction equation is derived. The analysis and comparison results show that the uncertainty of the presented equation is better than that of Boensch and Potulski's. It is more suitable in present precision measurements by He-Ne laser, and the application temperature range extends to 14.6°C-24.0°C as well. PMID:25968028

  17. A New Method for Multicomponent Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes in Aqueous Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Zaveri, Rahul A.; Easter, Richard C.; Wexler, Anthony S.

    2005-01-21

    Three-dimensional models of atmospheric inorganic aerosols need an accurate yet computationally efficient parameterization of activity coefficients of various electrolytes in multicomponent aqueous solutions. This paper describes the development and application of a new mixing rule for calculating activity coefficients of electrolytes typically found in atmospheric aerosol systems containing H+, NH4+, Na+, Ca2+ SO42-, HSO4-, NO3-, and Cl- ions. The new mixing rule, called MTEM (Multicomponent Taylor Expansion Model), estimates the mean activity coefficient of an electrolyte in a multicomponent solution based on its values in binary solutions of all the electrolytes present in the mixture at the solution water activity aw, assuming aw is equal to the ambient relative humidity. The aerosol water content is calculated using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson method. For self-consistency, most of the MTEM and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson parameters are derived using the comprehensive Pitzer-Simonson-Clegg model at 298.15 K. MTEM is evaluated for several multicomponent systems representing various continental and marine aerosols, and is contrasted against the mixing rule of Kusik and Meissner and the newer approach of Metzger et al. [2002]. Predictions of MTEM are found to be generally within a factor of 0.8 to 1.25 of the comprehensive Pitzer-Simonson-Clegg model, and are shown to be significantly more accurate than predictions of the other two methods. MTEM also yields a non-iterative solution of the bisulfate ion dissociation in sulfate-rich systems – a major computational advantage over other iterative methods. CPU time requirements of MTEM relative to other methods for sulfate-poor and sulfate-rich systems are also discussed.

  18. Experimental Solubility Approach to Determine PDMS-Water Partition Constants and PDMS Activity Coefficients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Sharon; Schacht, Veronika J; Escher, Beate I; Hawker, Darryl W; Gaus, Caroline

    2016-03-15

    Freely dissolved aqueous concentration and chemical activity are important determinants of contaminant transport, fate, and toxic potential. Both parameters are commonly quantified using Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) based on a sorptive polymer such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). This method requires the PDMS-water partition constants, KPDMSw, or activity coefficient to be known. For superhydrophobic contaminants (log KOW >6), application of existing methods to measure these parameters is challenging, and independent measures to validate KPDMSw values would be beneficial. We developed a simple, rapid method to directly measure PDMS solubilities of solid contaminants, SPDMS(S), which together with literature thermodynamic properties was then used to estimate KPDMSw and activity coefficients in PDMS. PDMS solubility for the test compounds (log KOW 7.2-8.3) ranged over 3 orders of magnitude (4.1-5700 μM), and was dependent on compound class. For polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), solubility-derived KPDMSw increased linearly with hydrophobicity, consistent with trends previously reported for less chlorinated congeners. In contrast, subcooled liquid PDMS solubilities, SPDMS(L), were approximately constant within a compound class. SPDMS(S) and KPDMSw can therefore be predicted for a compound class with reasonable robustness based solely on the class-specific SPDMS(L) and a particular congener's entropy of fusion, melting point, and aqueous solubility. PMID:26881312

  19. Predicting passive and active tissue:plasma partition coefficients: interindividual and interspecies variability.

    PubMed

    Ruark, Christopher D; Hack, C Eric; Robinson, Peter J; Mahle, Deirdre A; Gearhart, Jeffery M

    2014-07-01

    A mechanistic tissue composition model incorporating passive and active transport for the prediction of steady-state tissue:plasma partition coefficients (K(t:pl)) of chemicals in multiple mammalian species was used to assess interindividual and interspecies variability. This approach predicts K(t:pl) using chemical lipophilicity, pKa, phospholipid membrane binding, and the unbound plasma fraction, together with tissue fractions of water, neutral lipids, neutral and acidic phospholipids, proteins, and pH. Active transport K(t:pl) is predicted using Michaelis-Menten transport parameters. Species-specific biological properties were identified from 126 peer reviewed journal articles, listed in the Supporting Information, for mouse, rat, guinea pig, rabbit, beagle dog, pig, monkey, and human species. Means and coefficients of variation for biological properties were used in a Monte Carlo analysis to assess variability. The results show K(t:pl) interspecies variability for the brain, fat, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, red blood cell, skin, and spleen, but uncertainty in the estimates obscured some differences. Compounds undergoing active transport are shown to have concentration-dependent K(t:pl). This tissue composition-based mechanistic model can be used to predict K(t:pl) for organic chemicals across eight species and 10 tissues, and can be an important component in drug development when scaling K(t:pl) from animal models to humans. PMID:24832575

  20. Relative effectiveness coefficient: a quality characteristic of toothpastes containing active components.

    PubMed

    Borissova, R; Kirova, E

    1996-12-01

    It has been proposed that the parameter of relative effectiveness coefficient (REC) be used for the qualitative assessment of toothpastes containing active ingredients. REC is the ratio between the concentration of the active component in water eluates obtained after three minutes and adequately prolonged (up to the reaching of equilibrium state) dispersion of the toothpaste in distilled water at a 1:4 ratio (condition simulating the use of toothpaste in the oral cavity). The change in REC after storage following its production, as well as testing the toothpaste stability at high and low temperatures, provides an evidence for deviations in its quality. REC was applied for the assessment of toothpastes containing 0.5% zinc citrate as an active ingredient. PMID:8996867

  1. 77 FR 20399 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... INFORMATION: The Board published in the Federal Register of March 16, 2012 (77 FR 15755), a document... document (FR Doc. 2012-6332) announced the approval of mandatory financial information collection on BHCs...: Announcement of Approval, FR Doc. 2012-6332, published on March 16, 2012, make the following corrections:...

  2. Computation of infinite dilute activity coefficients of binary liquid alloys using complex formation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awe, O. E.; Oshakuade, O. M.

    2016-04-01

    A new method for calculating Infinite Dilute Activity Coefficients (γ∞s) of binary liquid alloys has been developed. This method is basically computing γ∞s from experimental thermodynamic integral free energy of mixing data using Complex formation model. The new method was first used to theoretically compute the γ∞s of 10 binary alloys whose γ∞s have been determined by experiments. The significant agreement between the computed values and the available experimental values served as impetus for applying the new method to 22 selected binary liquid alloys whose γ∞s are either nonexistent or incomplete. In order to verify the reliability of the computed γ∞s of the 22 selected alloys, we recomputed the γ∞s using three other existing methods of computing or estimating γ∞s and then used the γ∞s obtained from each of the four methods (the new method inclusive) to compute thermodynamic activities of components of each of the binary systems. The computed activities were compared with available experimental activities. It is observed that the results from the method being proposed, in most of the selected alloys, showed better agreement with experimental activity data. Thus, the new method is an alternative and in certain instances, more reliable approach of computing γ∞s of binary liquid alloys.

  3. Limiting activity coefficients of some aromatic and aliphatic nitro compounds in water

    SciTech Connect

    Benes, M.; Dohnal, V.

    1999-09-01

    Limiting activity coefficients of nine nitroaromatic compounds and four nitroalkanes in water were determined in the range of environmentally related temperatures by measuring suitable phase equilibria. For liquid and solid nitroaromatics (nitrobenzene, 2-nitrotoluene, 3-nitrotoluene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 1-chloro-2-nitrobenzene, and 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene) the aqueous solubilities were measured by a conventional batch contacting method with UV spectrophotometric analysis, while for nitroalkanes (nitromethane, nitroethane, 1-nitropropane, and 2-nitropropane) the air-water partitioning (Henry`s law constant H{sub 12} or air-water partition coefficient K{sub aw}) was determined by the inert gas stripping method employing gas chromatography. Whenever possible, results were compared to literature values. Calculation of H{sub 12} or K{sub aw} for nitroaromatics from the measured solubilities is hindered by the lack of reliable vapor pressure data. On the basis of the temperature dependences of the solubilities measured, the enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution for the nitroaromatics in water were evaluated.

  4. Effect of fluoroscopic X-ray beam spectrum on air-kerma measurement accuracy: implications for establishing correction coefficients on interventional fluoroscopes with KAP meters.

    PubMed

    Wunderle, Kevin A; Rakowski, Joseph T; Dong, Frank F

    2016-01-01

    The first goal of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the displayed reference plane air kerma (Ka,r) or air kerma-area product (Pk,a) over a broad spectrum of X-ray beam qualities on clinically used interventional fluoroscopes incorporating air kerma-area product meters (KAP meters) to measure X-ray output. The second goal was to investigate the accuracy of a correction coefficient (CC) determined at a single beam quality and applied to the measured Ka,r over a broad spectrum of beam qualities. Eleven state-of-the-art interventional fluoroscopes were evaluated, consisting of eight Siemens Artis zee and Artis Q systems and three Philips Allura FD systems. A separate calibrated 60 cc ionization chamber (external chamber) was used to determine the accuracy of the KAP meter over a broad range of clinically used beam qualities. For typical adult beam qualities, applying a single CC deter-mined at 100 kVp with copper (Cu) in the beam resulted in a deviation of < 5% due to beam quality variation. This result indicates that applying a CC determined using The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 190 protocol or a similar protocol provides very good accuracy as compared to the allowed ± 35% deviation of the KAP meter in this limited beam quality range. For interventional fluoroscopes dedicated to or routinely used to perform pediatric interventions, using a CC established with a low kVp (~ 55-60 kVp) and large amount of Cu filtration (~ 0.6-0.9 mm) may result in greater accuracy as compared to using the 100 kVp values. KAP meter responses indicate that fluoroscope vendors are likely normalizing or otherwise influencing the KAP meter output data. Although this may provide improved accuracy in some instances, there is the potential for large discrete errors to occur, and these errors may be difficult to identify. PMID:27167287

  5. Dynamic changes of integrated backscatter, attenuation coefficient and bubble activities during high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Wan, Mingxi; Zhong, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Liao, Zhenzhong; Liu, Huanqing; Wang, Supin

    2009-11-01

    This paper simultaneously investigated the transient characteristics of integrated backscatter (IBS), attenuation coefficient and bubble activities as time traces before, during and after HIFU treatment, with different HIFU parameters (acoustic power and duty cycle) in both transparent tissue-mimicking phantoms and freshly excised bovine livers. These dynamic changes of acoustic parameters and bubble activities were correlated with the visualization of lesion development selected from photos, conventional B-mode ultrasound images and differential IBS images over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment. Two-dimensional radiofrequency (RF) data were acquired by a modified diagnostic ultrasound scanner to estimate the changes of mean IBS and attenuation coefficient averaged in the lesion region, and to construct the differential IBS images and B-mode ultrasound images simultaneously. Bubble activities over the whole procedure of HIFU treatment were investigated by the passive cavitation detection (PCD) method and the changes in subharmonic and broadband noise were correlated with the transient characteristics of IBS and attenuation coefficient. When HIFU was switched on, IBS and attenuation coefficient increased with the appearance of bubble clouds in the B-mode and differential IBS image. At the same time, the level of subharmonic and broadband noise rose abruptly. Then, there was an initial decrease in the attenuation coefficient, followed by an increase when at lower HIFU power. As the lesion appeared, IBS and attenuation coefficient both increased rapidly to a value twice that of normal. Then the changes in IBS and attenuation coefficient showed more complex patterns, but still showed a slower trend of increases with lesion development. Violent bubble activities were visible in the gel and were evident as strongly echogenic regions in the differential IBS images and B-mode images simultaneously. This was detected by a dramatic high level of subharmonic and broadband

  6. Biodegradation of 4-chlorophenol by acclimated and unacclimated activated sludge-Evaluation of biokinetic coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Sahinkaya, Erkan; Dilek, Filiz B. . E-mail: fdilek@metu.edu.tr

    2005-10-01

    Unacclimated and acclimated activated sludges were examined for their ability to degrade 4-CP (4-chlorophenol) in the presence and absence of a readily growing substrate using aerobic batch reactors. The effects of 4-CP on the {mu} (specific growth rate), COD removal efficiency, Y (yield coefficient), and q (specific substrate utilization rate) were investigated. It was observed that the toxicity of 4-CP on the culture decreased remarkably after acclimation. For example, the IC{sub 50} value on the basis of {mu} was found to increase from 130 to 218mg/L with the acclimation of the culture. Although an increase in 4-CP concentration up to 300mg/L has no adverse effect on the COD removal efficiency of the acclimated culture, a considerable decrease was observed in the case of an unacclimated culture. Although 4-CP removal was not observed with an unacclimated culture, almost complete removal was achieved with the acclimated culture, up to 300mg/L. The Haldane kinetic model adequately predicted the biodegradation of 4-CP and the kinetic constants obtained were q{sub m}=41.17mg/(gMLVSSh), K{sub s}=1.104mg/L, and K{sub i}=194.4mg/L. The degradation of 4-CP led to formation of 5-chloro-2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde, which was further metabolized, indicating complete degradation of 4-CP via a meta-cleavage pathway.

  7. Lab-scale experimental strategy for determining micropollutant partition coefficient and biodegradation constants in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Pomiès, M; Choubert, J M; Wisniewski, C; Miège, C; Budzinski, H; Coquery, M

    2015-03-01

    The nitrifying/denitrifying activated sludge process removes several micropollutants from wastewater by sorption onto sludge and/or biodegradation. The objective of this paper is to propose and evaluate a lab-scale experimental strategy for the determination of partition coefficient and biodegradation constant for micropollutant with an objective of modelling their removal. Four pharmaceutical compounds (ibuprofen, atenolol, diclofenac and fluoxetine) covering a wide hydrophobicity range (log Kow from 0.16 to 4.51) were chosen. Dissolved and particulate concentrations were monitored for 4 days, inside two reactors working under aerobic and anoxic conditions, and under different substrate feed conditions (biodegradable carbon and nitrogen). We determined the mechanisms responsible for the removal of the target compounds: (i) ibuprofen was biodegraded, mainly under aerobic conditions by cometabolism with biodegradable carbon, whereas anoxic conditions suppressed biodegradation; (ii) atenolol was biodegraded under both aerobic and anoxic conditions (with a higher biodegradation rate under aerobic conditions), and cometabolism with biodegradable carbon was the main mechanism; (iii) diclofenac and fluoxetine were removed by sorption only. Finally, the abilities of our strategy were evaluated by testing the suitability of the parameters for simulating effluent concentrations and removal efficiency at a full-scale plant. PMID:25300180

  8. Influences of the chemical structure of entrainers on the activity coefficients in presence of biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, A.; Fleischmann, A.; Fang, Ye; Ruck, W.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    In this work we analyzed the strength of the intermolecular forces between biodiesel and the entrainer and their influence on the entrainer's ability to interact with biodiesel. Furthermore we investigated the influence of the chemical structure of an entrainer to the interaction with biodiesel. For this purpose the activity coefficients γ∞ at infinite dilution of acids, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols in biodiesel were measured with the method of headspace gas chromatography (HSGC). Short-chained acids showed the highest interaction of the analyzed entrainers caused by their ability to build hydrogen bonds with biodiesel. Increased chain length of the acids cause reduced interaction with biodiesel, which is mainly due to the higher obstruction of the acid molecule and therefore the reduced ability to build hydrogen bonds with biodiesel. Aldehydes, ketones and alcohols showed lower interaction with biodiesel compared to the acids. Longer-chained alcohols showed increased interaction with biodiesel due to the raised London Forces and an inductive +I effect of the molecule chain.

  9. EIA Corrects Errors in Its Drilling Activity Estimates Series

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status.

  10. EIA Completes Corrections to Drilling Activity Estimates Series

    EIA Publications

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status.

  11. Measurement and Modeling of Mean Activity Coefficients of NaCl in an Aqueous Mixed Electrolyte Solution Containing Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Paniz; Dehghani, M. R.; Safahieh, Tina

    2016-08-01

    An electrochemical cell with two ion-selective electrodes (Na+ glass) and (Cl- solid state) was used to measure the mean ionic activity coefficient of NaCl in an aqueous mixture containing NaCl, glycine, and NaNO3 at 308.15 K. The experiments were conducted at fixed molality of NaNO3 (0.1 m) and various molalities of glycine (0-1 m) and NaCl (up to 0.8 m). The experimental data were modeled using a modified version of the Pitzer equation. Finally the activity coefficient ratio of glycine was determined based on the Maxwell equation.

  12. Activity coefficients of aqueous sodium chloride from 15° to 50°C measured with a glass electrode

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truesdell, A.H.

    1968-01-01

    Values of the mean activity coefficient of sodium chloride at 15°, 25°, 38° and 50°C were determined for aqueous NaCl solutions of 0.01 to 1.0 molal from electromotive force measurements on the cell: (sodium-sensitive glass electrode, aqueous sodium chloride, silver chloride-silver).

  13. COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY METHOD FOR PREDICTING VAPOR PRESSURES AND ACTIVITY COEFFICIENTS OF POLAR ORGANIC OXYGENATES IN PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterizations of interactions of polar multifunctional organic oxygenates in PM2.5 must be included in aerosol chemistry models for evaluating control strategies for reducing ambient concentrations of PM2.5 compounds. Vapor pressures and activity coefficients of these compo...

  14. The elastic modulus correction term in creep activation energies Applied to oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malu, M.; Tien, J. K.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of elastic modulus and the temperature dependence of elastic modulus on creep activation energies for an oxide dispersion strengthened nickel-base superalloy are investigated. This superalloy is commercially known as Inconel Alloy MA 753, strengthened both by gamma-prime precipitates and by yttria particles. It is shown that at intermediate temperatures, say below 1500 F, where elastic modulus is weakly dependent on temperature, the modulus correction term to creep activation energy is small. Accordingly, modulus corrections are insignificant for the superalloy considered, which shows high apparent creep activation energies at this temperature. On the contrary, at very high temperatures, the elastic modulus correction term can be significant, thus reducing the creep activation energy to that of vacancy self-diffusion. In order to obtain high-temperature creep resistance, a high-value elastic modulus with a weak dependence on temperature is required.

  15. A correction factor to f-chart predictions of active solar fraction in active-passive heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, B. L.; Beckman, W. A.; Duffie, J. A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Klein, S. A.

    1983-11-01

    The extent to which a passive system degrades the performance of an active solar space heating system was investigated, and a correction factor to account for these interactions was developed. The transient system simulation program TRNSYS is used to simulate the hour-by-hour performance of combined active-passive (hybrid) space heating systems in order to compare the active system performance with simplified design method predictions. The TRNSYS simulations were compared to results obtained using the simplified design calculations of the f-Chart method. Comparisons of TRNSYS and f-Chart were used to establish the accuracy of the f-Charts for active systems. A correlation was then developed to correct the monthly loads input into the f-Chart method to account for controller deadbands in both hybrid and active only buildings. A general correction factor was generated to be applied to the f-Chart method to produce more accurate and useful results for hybrid systems.

  16. Can we better use existing and emerging computing hardware to embed activity coefficient predictions in complex atmospheric aerosol models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, David; Alibay, Irfan; Ruske, Simon; Hindriksen, Vincent; Noisternig, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To predict the evolving concentration, chemical composition and ability of aerosol particles to act as cloud droplets, we rely on numerical modeling. Mechanistic models attempt to account for the movement of compounds between the gaseous and condensed phases at a molecular level. This 'bottom up' approach is designed to increase our fundamental understanding. However, such models rely on predicting the properties of molecules and subsequent mixtures. For partitioning between the gaseous and condensed phases this includes: saturation vapour pressures; Henrys law coefficients; activity coefficients; diffusion coefficients and reaction rates. Current gas phase chemical mechanisms predict the existence of potentially millions of individual species. Within a dynamic ensemble model, this can often be used as justification for neglecting computationally expensive process descriptions. Indeed, on whether we can quantify the true sensitivity to uncertainties in molecular properties, even at the single aerosol particle level it has been impossible to embed fully coupled representations of process level knowledge with all possible compounds, typically relying on heavily parameterised descriptions. Relying on emerging numerical frameworks, and designed for the changing landscape of high-performance computing (HPC), in this study we show that comprehensive microphysical models from single particle to larger scales can be developed to encompass a complete state-of-the-art knowledge of aerosol chemical and process diversity. We focus specifically on the ability to capture activity coefficients in liquid solutions using the UNIFAC method, profiling traditional coding strategies and those that exploit emerging hardware.

  17. The effect of concentration- and temperature-dependent dielectric constant on the activity coefficient of NaCl electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Valiskó, Mónika; Boda, Dezső

    2014-06-21

    Our implicit-solvent model for the estimation of the excess chemical potential (or, equivalently, the activity coefficient) of electrolytes is based on using a dielectric constant that depends on the thermodynamic state, namely, the temperature and concentration of the electrolyte, ε(c, T). As a consequence, the excess chemical potential is split into two terms corresponding to ion-ion (II) and ion-water (IW) interactions. The II term is obtained from computer simulation using the Primitive Model of electrolytes, while the IW term is estimated from the Born treatment. In our previous work [J. Vincze, M. Valiskó, and D. Boda, “The nonmonotonic concentration dependence of the mean activity coefficient of electrolytes is a result of a balance between solvation and ion-ion correlations,” J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154507 (2010)], we showed that the nonmonotonic concentration dependence of the activity coefficient can be reproduced qualitatively with this II+IW model without using any adjustable parameter. The Pauling radii were used in the calculation of the II term, while experimental solvation free energies were used in the calculation of the IW term. In this work, we analyze the effect of the parameters (dielectric constant, ionic radii, solvation free energy) on the concentration and temperature dependence of the mean activity coefficient of NaCl. We conclude that the II+IW model can explain the experimental behavior using a concentration-dependent dielectric constant and that we do not need the artificial concept of “solvated ionic radius” assumed by earlier studies.

  18. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panin, V. Y.; Aykac, M.; Casey, M. E.

    2013-06-01

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction.

  19. Simultaneous reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution from TOF data, acquired with external transmission source.

    PubMed

    Panin, V Y; Aykac, M; Casey, M E

    2013-06-01

    The simultaneous PET data reconstruction of emission activity and attenuation coefficient distribution is presented, where the attenuation image is constrained by exploiting an external transmission source. Data are acquired in time-of-flight (TOF) mode, allowing in principle for separation of emission and transmission data. Nevertheless, here all data are reconstructed at once, eliminating the need to trace the position of the transmission source in sinogram space. Contamination of emission data by the transmission source and vice versa is naturally modeled. Attenuated emission activity data also provide additional information about object attenuation coefficient values. The algorithm alternates between attenuation and emission activity image updates. We also proposed a method of estimation of spatial scatter distribution from the transmission source by incorporating knowledge about the expected range of attenuation map values. The reconstruction of experimental data from the Siemens mCT scanner suggests that simultaneous reconstruction improves attenuation map image quality, as compared to when data are separated. In the presented example, the attenuation map image noise was reduced and non-uniformity artifacts that occurred due to scatter estimation were suppressed. On the other hand, the use of transmission data stabilizes attenuation coefficient distribution reconstruction from TOF emission data alone. The example of improving emission images by refining a CT-based patient attenuation map is presented, revealing potential benefits of simultaneous CT and PET data reconstruction. PMID:23648397

  20. Corrective Feedback via Instant Messenger Learning Activities in NS-NNS and NNS-NNS Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotillo, Susana

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examines corrective feedback in native speaker-nonnative speaker (NS-NNS) and NNS-NNS dyads while participants were engaged in communicative and problem-solving activities via "Yahoo! Instant Messenger" (YIM). As "negotiation of meaning" studies of the 1990s have shown, linguistic items which learners negotiate in…

  1. Temperature-dependent solubilities and mean ionic activity coefficients of alkali halides in water from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2015-07-28

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous KCl, NaF, NaI, and NaCl solutions of varying concentrations have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations following a recently developed methodology based on gradual insertions of salt molecules [Z. Mester and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 044507 (2015)]. The non-polarizable ion models of Weerasinghe and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11342 (2003)], Gee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 1369 (2011)], Reiser et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044504 (2014)], and Joung and Cheatham [J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9020 (2008)] were used along with the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model [Berendsen et al., J. Phys. Chem. 91, 6269 (1987)] in the simulations. In addition to the chemical potentials in solution used to obtain the activity coefficients, we also calculated the chemical potentials of salt crystals and used them to obtain the solubility of these alkali halide models in SPC/E water. The models of Weerasinghe and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11342 (2003)] and Gee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 1369 (2011)] provide excellent predictions of the mean ionic activity coefficients at 298.15 K and 1 bar, but significantly underpredict or overpredict the solubilities. The other two models generally predicted the mean ionic activity coefficients only qualitatively. With the exception of NaF for which the solubility is significantly overpredicted, the model of Joung and Cheatham predicts salt solubilities that are approximately 40%-60% of the experimental values. The models of Reiser et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044504 (2014)] make good predictions for the NaCl and NaI solubilities, but significantly underpredict the solubilities for KCl and NaF. We also tested the transferability of the models to temperatures much higher than were used to parametrize them by performing simulations for NaCl at 373.15 K and 1 bar, and at 473.15 K and 15.5 bar. All models overpredict the drop in the values of mean ionic

  2. Temperature-dependent solubilities and mean ionic activity coefficients of alkali halides in water from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mester, Zoltan; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2015-07-01

    The mean ionic activity coefficients of aqueous KCl, NaF, NaI, and NaCl solutions of varying concentrations have been obtained from molecular dynamics simulations following a recently developed methodology based on gradual insertions of salt molecules [Z. Mester and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 044507 (2015)]. The non-polarizable ion models of Weerasinghe and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11342 (2003)], Gee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 1369 (2011)], Reiser et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044504 (2014)], and Joung and Cheatham [J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 9020 (2008)] were used along with the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model [Berendsen et al., J. Phys. Chem. 91, 6269 (1987)] in the simulations. In addition to the chemical potentials in solution used to obtain the activity coefficients, we also calculated the chemical potentials of salt crystals and used them to obtain the solubility of these alkali halide models in SPC/E water. The models of Weerasinghe and Smith [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11342 (2003)] and Gee et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 7, 1369 (2011)] provide excellent predictions of the mean ionic activity coefficients at 298.15 K and 1 bar, but significantly underpredict or overpredict the solubilities. The other two models generally predicted the mean ionic activity coefficients only qualitatively. With the exception of NaF for which the solubility is significantly overpredicted, the model of Joung and Cheatham predicts salt solubilities that are approximately 40%-60% of the experimental values. The models of Reiser et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 044504 (2014)] make good predictions for the NaCl and NaI solubilities, but significantly underpredict the solubilities for KCl and NaF. We also tested the transferability of the models to temperatures much higher than were used to parametrize them by performing simulations for NaCl at 373.15 K and 1 bar, and at 473.15 K and 15.5 bar. All models overpredict the drop in the values of mean ionic

  3. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  4. Measurement of gas/water uptake coefficients for trace gases active in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, P. . Dept. of Chemistry); Worsnop, D.W.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E. . Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics)

    1992-02-01

    Ocean produced reduced sulfur compounds including dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}CH) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) deliver a sulfur burden to the atmosphere which is roughly equal to sulfur oxides produced by fossil fuel combustion. These species and their oxidation products dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) dominate aerosol and CCN production in clean marine air. Furthermore, oxidation of reduced sulfur species will be strongly influenced by NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} chemistry in marine atmospheres. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. We have measured the chemical and physical parameters affecting the uptake of reduced sulfur compounds, their oxidation products, ozone, and nitrogen oxides by the ocean's surface, and marine clouds, fogs, and aerosols. These parameters include: gas/surface mass accommodation coefficients; physical and chemically modified (effective) Henry's law constants; and surface and liquid phase reaction constants. These parameters are critical to understanding both the interaction of gaseous trace species with cloud and fog droplets and the deposition of trace gaseous species to dew covered, fresh water and marine surfaces.

  5. Estimation of Organ Activity using Four Different Methods of Background Correction in Conjugate View Method.

    PubMed

    Shanei, Ahmad; Afshin, Maryam; Moslehi, Masoud; Rastaghi, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    To make an accurate estimation of the uptake of radioactivity in an organ using the conjugate view method, corrections of physical factors, such as background activity, scatter, and attenuation are needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of four different methods for background correction in activity quantification of the heart in myocardial perfusion scans. The organ activity was calculated using the conjugate view method. A number of 22 healthy volunteers were injected with 17-19 mCi of (99m)Tc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI) at rest or during exercise. Images were obtained by a dual-headed gamma camera. Four methods for background correction were applied: (1) Conventional correction (referred to as the Gates' method), (2) Buijs method, (3) BgdA subtraction, (4) BgdB subtraction. To evaluate the accuracy of these methods, the results of the calculations using the above-mentioned methods were compared with the reference results. The calculated uptake in the heart using conventional method, Buijs method, BgdA subtraction, and BgdB subtraction methods was 1.4 ± 0.7% (P < 0.05), 2.6 ± 0.6% (P < 0.05), 1.3 ± 0.5% (P < 0.05), and 0.8 ± 0.3% (P < 0.05) of injected dose (I.D) at rest and 1.8 ± 0.6% (P > 0.05), 3.1 ± 0.8% (P > 0.05), 1.9 ± 0.8% (P < 0.05), and 1.2 ± 0.5% (P < 0.05) of I.D, during exercise. The mean estimated myocardial uptake of (99m)Tc-MIBI was dependent on the correction method used. Comparison among the four different methods of background activity correction applied in this study showed that the Buijs method was the most suitable method for background correction in myocardial perfusion scan. PMID:26955568

  6. Prospective active marker motion correction improves statistical power in BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Melvyn B.; Goldman, Robin I.; Krueger, Sascha; Thomas, William J.; Sajda, Paul; Brown, Truman R.

    2013-01-01

    Group level statistical maps of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals acquired using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have become a basic measurement for much of systems, cognitive and social neuroscience. A challenge in making inferences from these statistical maps is the noise and potential confounds that arise from the head motion that occurs within and between acquisition volumes. This motion results in the scan plane being misaligned during acquisition, ultimately leading to reduced statistical power when maps are constructed at the group level. In most cases, an attempt is made to correct for this motion through the use of retrospective analysis methods. In this paper, we use a prospective active marker motion correction (PRAMMO) system that uses radio frequency markers for real-time tracking of motion, enabling on-line slice plane correction. We show that the statistical power of the activation maps is substantially increased using PRAMMO compared to conventional retrospective correction. Analysis of our results indicates that the PRAMMO acquisition reduces the variance without decreasing the signal component of the BOLD (beta). Using PRAMMO could thus improve the overall statistical power of fMRI based BOLD measurements, leading to stronger inferences of the nature of processing in the human brain. PMID:23220430

  7. A Method for Lung Boundary Correction Using Split Bregman Method and Geometric Active Contour Model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Changli; Zhang, Jianxun; Liang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    In order to get the extracted lung region from CT images more accurately, a model that contains lung region extraction and edge boundary correction is proposed. Firstly, a new edge detection function is presented with the help of the classic structure tensor theory. Secondly, the initial lung mask is automatically extracted by an improved active contour model which combines the global intensity information, local intensity information, the new edge information, and an adaptive weight. It is worth noting that the objective function of the improved model is converted to a convex model, which makes the proposed model get the global minimum. Then, the central airway was excluded according to the spatial context messages and the position relationship between every segmented region and the rib. Thirdly, a mesh and the fractal theory are used to detect the boundary that surrounds the juxtapleural nodule. Finally, the geometric active contour model is employed to correct the detected boundary and reinclude juxtapleural nodules. We also evaluated the performance of the proposed segmentation and correction model by comparing with their popular counterparts. Efficient computing capability and robustness property prove that our model can correct the lung boundary reliably and reproducibly. PMID:26089976

  8. On Implicit Active Constraints in Linear Semi-Infinite Programs with Unbounded Coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Goberna, M. A.; Lancho, G. A.; Todorov, M. I.; Vera de Serio, V. N.

    2011-04-15

    The concept of implicit active constraints at a given point provides useful local information about the solution set of linear semi-infinite systems and about the optimal set in linear semi-infinite programming provided the set of gradient vectors of the constraints is bounded, commonly under the additional assumption that there exists some strong Slater point. This paper shows that the mentioned global boundedness condition can be replaced by a weaker local condition (LUB) based on locally active constraints (active in a ball of small radius whose center is some nominal point), providing geometric information about the solution set and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type conditions for the optimal solution to be strongly unique. The maintaining of the latter property under sufficiently small perturbations of all the data is also analyzed, giving a characterization of its stability with respect to these perturbations in terms of the strong Slater condition, the so-called Extended-Nuernberger condition, and the LUB condition.

  9. Space Active Optics: toward optimized correcting mirrors for future large spaceborne observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lemaitre, Gérard; Liotard, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Wave-front correction in optical instruments is often needed, either to compensate Optical Path Differences, off-axis aberrations or mirrors deformations. Active optics techniques are developed to allow efficient corrections with deformable mirrors. In this paper, we will present the conception of particular deformation systems which could be used in space telescopes and instruments in order to improve their performances while allowing relaxing specifications on the global system stability. A first section will be dedicated to the design and performance analysis of an active mirror specifically designed to compensate for aberrations that might appear in future 3m-class space telescopes, due to lightweight primary mirrors, thermal variations or weightless conditions. A second section will be dedicated to a brand new design of active mirror, able to compensate for given combinations of aberrations with a single actuator. If the aberrations to be corrected in an instrument and their evolutions are known in advance, an optimal system geometry can be determined thanks to the elasticity theory and Finite Element Analysis.

  10. A coronagraph based on two spatial light modulators for active amplitude apodizing and phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jiangpei; Ren, Deqing; Zhang, Xi; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhao, Gang; Wu, Zhen; Chen, Rui; Liu, Chengchao; Yang, Feng; Yang, Chao

    2014-08-01

    Almost all high-contrast imaging coronagraphs proposed until now are based on passive coronagraph optical components. Recently, Ren and Zhu proposed for the first time a coronagraph that integrates a liquid crystal array (LCA) for the active pupil apodizing and a deformable mirror (DM) for the phase corrections. Here, for demonstration purpose, we present the initial test result of a coronagraphic system that is based on two liquid crystal spatial light modulators (SLM). In the system, one SLM is served as active pupil apodizing and amplitude correction to suppress the diffraction light; another SLM is used to correct the speckle noise that is caused by the wave-front distortions. In this way, both amplitude and phase error can be actively and efficiently compensated. In the test, we use the stochastic parallel gradient descent (SPGD) algorithm to control two SLMs, which is based on the point spread function (PSF) sensing and evaluation and optimized for a maximum contrast in the discovery area. Finally, it has demonstrated a contrast of 10-6 at an inner working angular distance of ~6.2 λ/D, which is a promising technique to be used for the direct imaging of young exoplanets on ground-based telescopes.

  11. POP-ART: thermodynamically correct activated event sampling in complex materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubynsky, M. V.; Vocks, Henk; Mousseau, Normand; Barkema, G. T.

    2006-03-01

    Dynamics of complex systems with a rugged energy landscape can be represented as a sequence of rare activated events during which the system jumps between different potential energy minima. The activation-relaxation technique (ART) [1] is an efficient method of sampling such events; however, because of an unknown bias in selecting these events it cannot easily provide thermodynamical information. We present a modification of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART) [2]. POP-ART combines short molecular dynamics runs with ART-like activated moves, with an additional accept/reject step designed to satisfy detailed balance and thus reproduce correct thermodynamics. Both correctness and efficiency of the method have been tested using a variety of systems. We mention briefly some ways of extending the approach to obtain correct dynamics as well.[1] G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4358 (1996)[2] H. Vocks, M.V. Chubynsky, G.T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, J. Chem. Phys., accepted

  12. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic compounds in 1-(meth)acryloyloxyalkyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide using inverse gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mutelet, Fabrice; Jaubert, Jean-Noël; Rogalski, Marek; Harmand, Julie; Sindt, Michèle; Mieloszynski, Jean-Luc

    2008-03-27

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution, gammainfinity, of organic compounds in two new room-temperature ionic liquids (n-methacryloyloxyhexyl-N-methylimidazolium bromide (C10H17O2MIM)(Br) at 313.15 and 323.15 K and n-acryloyloxypropyl-N-methylimidazolium bromide(C6H11O2MIM)(Br)) were determined using inverse gas chromatography. Phase loading studies of the net retention volume per gram of packing as a function of the percent phase loading were used to estimate the influence of concurrent retention mechanisms on the accuracy of activity coefficients at infinite dilution of solutes in both ionic liquids. It was found that most of the solutes were retained largely by partition with a small contribution from adsorption and that n-alkanes were retained predominantly by interfacial adsorption on ionic liquids studied in this work. The solvation characteristics of the two ionic liquids were evaluated using the Abraham solvation parameter model. PMID:18318530

  13. Active self-correction of back posture in children instructed with 'straighten your back' command.

    PubMed

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Pawłowska, Paulina; Stoliński, Lukasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2014-10-01

    The ability to adopt the properly corrected body posture is one of the factors determining the effectiveness of therapeutic programmes. This study determined the active self-correction expressed by the change of sagittal spinal curvatures (in standing and sitting positions) in 249 children (136 females, 113 males, aged 10-14 years) instructed with 'straighten your back' command (SYB). Spinal curvatures (sacral slope-SS, lumbar lordosis-LL, global, lower and upper thoracic kyphosis-TK, LK, UK, respectively) were assessed using Saunders inclinometer. The assessment was done in spontaneous standing and sitting positions and in the positions adopted after the SYB. In a standing position SYB led to the significant (P < 0.001) increase in SS, and the significant (P < 0.01) decrease in LL, TK, LK, UK. In a sitting position SYB led to significant changes (P < 0.001) from kyphotic to lordotic position of SS and LL and to the significant (P < 0.001) reduction of TK (36.5° ± 10.8 vs. 23.5° ± 11) and the flattening of LK (15.2° ± 8.7 vs. 1.0° ± 8.4). There were gender-based discrepancy regarding active self-correction only for LL in a standing and UK in a sitting position. Females demonstrated a significant decrease in LL (P < 0.001). UK significantly increased only in males (P < 0.001). The 'straighten your back' command leads to moving the spine away from mid-range towards end range of motion. Therefore, the command should not be used to elicit the most optimal back posture. Further studies are needed to determine if the active self-correction is different in females and males. PMID:24246905

  14. Conformal optical elements for correcting wavefront distortions in YAG : Nd{sup 3+} active elements

    SciTech Connect

    Korolkov, V P; Nasyrov, R K; Poleshchuk, A G; Arapov, Yu D; Ivanov, A F

    2013-02-28

    Correction of the wavefront is studied for the light beam passing wide-aperture YAG : Nd3+ single-crystal rods, which are used as active elements in high-power solid-state lasers. A nonideal character of the crystal structure is responsible for the deformation of the wavefront of passing radiation. By using the halftone technology we have developed conformal aberration correctors capable of compensating rod nonuniformities and reducing the laser radiation divergence by an order of magnitude. The results obtained make it possible to employ optically nonuniform active elements in laser constructions. (laser optics 2012)

  15. Surprisingly correct: unexpectedness of observed actions activates the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Anne-Marike; Krause, Kim H; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-04-01

    Not only committing errors, but also observing errors has been shown to activate the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, particularly BA 8 and adjacent rostral cingulate zone (RCZ). Currently, there is a debate on whether this activity reflects a response to the incorrectness of the committed action or to its unexpectedness. This article reports two studies investigating whether activity in BA 8/RCZ is due to the unexpectedness of observed errors or the incorrectness of the specific observed action. Both studies employed an action observation paradigm reliant on the observation of an actor tying sailing knots. The reported behavioral experiment delivered evidence that the paradigm successfully induced the expectation of incorrect actions as well as the expectation of correct actions. The functional magnetic resonance imaging study revealed that unexpectedly correct as well as unexpectedly incorrect actions activate the BA 8/RCZ. The same result was confirmed for a coordinate in the vicinity that has been previously reported to be activated in separate studies either by the error observation or by the unexpectedness of committed errors, and has been associated with the error-related negativity. The present results suggest that unexpectedness has an impact on the medial prefrontal correlate of observed errors. PMID:23670963

  16. Calibration correction of an active scattering spectrometer probe to account for refractive index of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Overbeck, V. R.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Russell, P. B.; Ferry, G. V.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the active scattering spectrometer probe (ASAS-X) to measure sulfuric acid aerosols on U-2 and ER-2 research aircraft has yielded results that are at times ambiguous due to the dependence of particles' optical signatures on refractive index as well as physical dimensions. The calibration correction of the ASAS-X optical spectrometer probe for stratospheric aerosol studies is validated through an independent and simultaneous sampling of the particles with impactors; sizing and counting of particles on SEM images yields total particle areas and volumes. Upon correction of calibration in light of these data, spectrometer results averaged over four size distributions are found to agree with similarly averaged impactor results to within a few percent: indicating that the optical properties or chemical composition of the sample aerosol must be known in order to achieve accurate optical aerosol spectrometer size analysis.

  17. EEG activity represents the correctness of perceptual decisions trial-by-trial

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Vazquez, Jose L.; Padrón, Isabel; Fernández-Rey, José; Acuña, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Performance monitoring is an executive function, which we depend on for detecting and evaluating the consequences of our behavior. Although event related potentials (ERPs) have revealed the existence of differences after correct and incorrect decisions, it is not known whether there is a trial-by-trial representation of the accuracy of the decision. We recorded the electroencephalographic activity (EEG) while participants performed a perceptual discrimination task, with two levels of difficulty, in which they received immediate feedback. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analyses were used to reveal two components that convey trial-by-trial representations of the correctness of the decisions. Firstly, the performance monitoring-related negativity (PM-N), a negative deflection whose amplitude is higher (more negative) after incorrect trials. Secondly, the performance monitoring-related positivity (PM-P), a positive deflection whose amplitude is higher after incorrect trials. During the time periods corresponding to these components, trials can be accurately categorized as correct or incorrect by looking at the EEG activity; this categorization is more accurate when based on the PM-P. We further show that the difficulty of the discrimination task has a different effect on each component: after easy trials the latency of the PM-N is shorter and the amplitude of the PM-P is higher than after difficult trials. Consistent with previous interpretations of performance-related ERPs, these results suggest a functional differentiation between these components. The PM-N could be related to an automatic error detection system, responsible for fast behavioral corrections of ongoing actions, while the PM-P could reflect the difference between expected and actual outcomes and be related to long-term changes in the decision process. PMID:24734012

  18. The influence of triple energy window scatter correction on activity quantification for 1 7 7Lu molecular radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Andrew P.; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M.; Hamilton, David

    2016-07-01

    Accurate activity quantification is the foundation for all methods of radiation dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy (MRT). The requirements for patient-specific dosimetry using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are challenging, particularly with respect to scatter correction. In this paper data from phantom studies, combined with results from a fully validated Monte Carlo (MC) SPECT camera simulation, are used to investigate the influence of the triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction on SPECT activity quantification for {{}1 7 7} Lu MRT. Results from phantom data show that; (1) activity quantification for the total counts in the SPECT field-of-view demonstrates a significant overestimation in total activity recovery when TEW scatter correction is applied at low activities (≤slant 200 MBq). (2) Applying the TEW scatter correction to activity quantification within a volume-of-interest with no background activity provides minimal benefit. (3) In the case of activity distributions with background activity, an overestimation of recovered activity of up to 30% is observed when using the TEW scatter correction. Data from MC simulation were used to perform a full analysis of the composition of events in a clinically reconstructed volume of interest. This allowed, for the first time, the separation of the relative contributions of partial volume effects (PVE) and inaccuracies in TEW scatter compensation to the observed overestimation of activity recovery. It is shown, that even with perfect partial volume compensation, TEW scatter correction can overestimate activity recovery by up to 11%. MC data is used to demonstrate that even a localized and optimized isotope-specific TEW correction cannot reflect a patient specific activity distribution without prior knowledge of the complete activity distribution. This highlights the important role of MC simulation in SPECT activity quantification.

  19. The influence of triple energy window scatter correction on activity quantification for (1 7 7)Lu molecular radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew P; Tipping, Jill; Cullen, David M; Hamilton, David

    2016-07-21

    Accurate activity quantification is the foundation for all methods of radiation dosimetry for molecular radiotherapy (MRT). The requirements for patient-specific dosimetry using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are challenging, particularly with respect to scatter correction. In this paper data from phantom studies, combined with results from a fully validated Monte Carlo (MC) SPECT camera simulation, are used to investigate the influence of the triple energy window (TEW) scatter correction on SPECT activity quantification for [Formula: see text]Lu MRT. Results from phantom data show that; (1) activity quantification for the total counts in the SPECT field-of-view demonstrates a significant overestimation in total activity recovery when TEW scatter correction is applied at low activities ([Formula: see text]200 MBq). (2) Applying the TEW scatter correction to activity quantification within a volume-of-interest with no background activity provides minimal benefit. (3) In the case of activity distributions with background activity, an overestimation of recovered activity of up to 30% is observed when using the TEW scatter correction. Data from MC simulation were used to perform a full analysis of the composition of events in a clinically reconstructed volume of interest. This allowed, for the first time, the separation of the relative contributions of partial volume effects (PVE) and inaccuracies in TEW scatter compensation to the observed overestimation of activity recovery. It is shown, that even with perfect partial volume compensation, TEW scatter correction can overestimate activity recovery by up to 11%. MC data is used to demonstrate that even a localized and optimized isotope-specific TEW correction cannot reflect a patient specific activity distribution without prior knowledge of the complete activity distribution. This highlights the important role of MC simulation in SPECT activity quantification. PMID:27351914

  20. Implementation of advanced matrix corrections for active interrogation of waste drums using the CTEN instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Melton, S.; Estep, R.; Hollas, C.

    1998-12-31

    The combined thermal/epithermal neutron instrument (CTEN) was designed at Los Alamos to improve measurement accuracy and mitigate self shielding effects inherent in the differential dieaway technique (DDT). A major goal in this research effort has been the development of a calibration technique that incorporates recently developed matrix and self-shielding corrections using data generated from additional detectors and new acquisition techniques. A comprehensive data set containing both active and passive measurements was generated using 26 different matrices and comprising a total of 1,400 measurements. In all, 31 flux-and-matrix-dependent parameters, 24 positional parameters, two dieaway times, and a correlated ratio were determined from each of the over 1,400 measurements. A reduced list of matrix indicators, prioritized using the alternating conditional expectation (ACE) algorithm, was used to train a neural network using a generalized regression technique (GRNN) to determine matrix- and position-corrected calibration factors. This paper describes the experimental, analytical, and empirical techniques used to determine the corrected calibration factor for an unknown waste drum. Results from a range of cases are compared with those obtained using a mobile DDT instrument and traditional DDT algorithms.

  1. Prospective Real-Time Correction for Arbitrary Head Motion Using Active Markers

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Melvyn B.; Krueger, Sascha; Thomas, William J.; Swaminathan, Srirama V.; Brown, Truman R.

    2011-01-01

    Patient motion during an MRI exam can result in major degradation of image quality, and is of increasing concern due to the aging population and its associated diseases. This work presents a general strategy for real-time, intra-image compensation of rigid-body motion that is compatible with multiple imaging sequences. Image quality improvements are established for structural brain MRI acquired during volunteer motion. A headband integrated with three active markers is secured to the forehead. Prospective correction is achieved by interleaving a rapid track-and-update module into the imaging sequence. For every repetition of this module, a short tracking pulse-sequence re-measures the marker positions; during head motion, the rigid-body transformation that realigns the markers to their initial positions is fed back to adaptively update the image-plane – maintaining it at a fixed orientation relative to the head – before the next imaging segment of k-space is acquired. In cases of extreme motion, corrupted lines of k-space are rejected and re-acquired with the updated geometry. High precision tracking measurements (0.01 mm) and corrections are accomplished in a temporal resolution (37 ms) suitable for real-time application. The correction package requires minimal additional hardware and is fully integrated into the standard user interface, promoting transferability to clinical practice. PMID:19488989

  2. Determination of Activity Coefficients of di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid Dimer in Select Organic Solvents Using Vapor Phase Osmometry

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Gray; Peter Zalupski; Mikael Nilsson

    2013-08-01

    Effective models for solvent extraction require accurate characterization of the nonideality effects for each component, including the extractants. In this study, the nonideal behavior of the industrial extractant di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid has been investigated using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). From the osmometry data, activity coefficients for the HDEHP dimer were obtained based on a formulation of the regular solution theory of Scatchard and Hildebrand, and the Margules two- and three-suffix equations. The results show similarity with a slope-analysis based relation from previous literature, although important differences are highlighted. The work points towards VPO as a useful technique for this type of study, but care must be taken with the choice of standard and method of analysis.

  3. Musculoskeletal modelling of muscle activation and applied external forces for the correction of scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study uses biomechanical modelling and computational optimization to investigate muscle activation in combination with applied external forces as a treatment for scoliosis. Bracing, which incorporates applied external forces, is the most popular non surgical treatment for scoliosis. Non surgical treatments which make use of muscle activation include electrical stimulation, postural control, and therapeutic exercises. Electrical stimulation has been largely dismissed as a viable treatment for scoliosis, although previous studies have suggested that it can potentially deliver similarly effective corrective forces to the spine as bracing. Methods The potential of muscle activation for scoliosis correction was investigated over different curvatures both with and without the addition of externally applied forces. The five King’s classifications of scoliosis were investigated over a range of Cobb angles. A biomechanical model of the spine was used to represent various scoliotic curvatures. Optimization was applied to the model to reduce the curves using combinations of both deep and superficial muscle activation and applied external forces. Results Simulating applied external forces in combination with muscle activation at low Cobb angles (< 20 degrees) over the 5 King’s classifications, it was possible to reduce the magnitude of the curve by up to 85% for classification 4, 75% for classifications 3 and 5, 65% for classification 2, and 60% for classification 1. The reduction in curvature was less at larger Cobb angles. For King’s classifications 1 and 2, the serratus, latissimus dorsi, and trapezius muscles were consistently recruited by the optimization algorithm for activation across all Cobb angles. When muscle activation and external forces were applied in combination, lower levels of muscle activation or less external force was required to reduce the curvature of the spine, when compared with either muscle activation or external force applied

  4. Quantitative Measurement of Protease-Activity with Correction of Probe Delivery and Tissue Absorption Effects

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Christopher D.; Reynolds, Fred; Tam, Jenny M.; Josephson, Lee; Mahmood, Umar

    2009-01-01

    Proteases play important roles in a variety of pathologies from heart disease to cancer. Quantitative measurement of protease activity is possible using a novel spectrally matched dual fluorophore probe and a small animal lifetime imager. The recorded fluorescence from an activatable fluorophore, one that changes its fluorescent amplitude after biological target interaction, is also influenced by other factors including imaging probe delivery and optical tissue absorption of excitation and emission light. Fluorescence from a second spectrally matched constant (non-activatable) fluorophore on each nanoparticle platform can be used to correct for both probe delivery and tissue absorption. The fluorescence from each fluorophore is separated using fluorescence lifetime methods. PMID:20161242

  5. A two-parameter kinetic model based on a time-dependent activity coefficient accurately describes enzymatic cellulose digestion

    PubMed Central

    Kostylev, Maxim; Wilson, David

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential source of renewable, low-carbon-footprint liquid fuels. Biomass recalcitrance and enzyme cost are key challenges associated with the large-scale production of cellulosic fuel. Kinetic modeling of enzymatic cellulose digestion has been complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the substrate and by the fact that a true steady state cannot be attained. We present a two-parameter kinetic model based on the Michaelis-Menten scheme (Michaelis L and Menten ML. (1913) Biochem Z 49:333–369), but with a time-dependent activity coefficient analogous to fractal-like kinetics formulated by Kopelman (Kopelman R. (1988) Science 241:1620–1626). We provide a mathematical derivation and experimental support to show that one of the parameters is a total activity coefficient and the other is an intrinsic constant that reflects the ability of the cellulases to overcome substrate recalcitrance. The model is applicable to individual cellulases and their mixtures at low-to-medium enzyme loads. Using biomass degrading enzymes from a cellulolytic bacterium Thermobifida fusca we show that the model can be used for mechanistic studies of enzymatic cellulose digestion. We also demonstrate that it applies to the crude supernatant of the widely studied cellulolytic fungus Trichoderma reesei and can thus be used to compare cellulases from different organisms. The two parameters may serve a similar role to Vmax, KM, and kcat in classical kinetics. A similar approach may be applicable to other enzymes with heterogeneous substrates and where a steady state is not achievable. PMID:23837567

  6. Treg activation defect in type 1 diabetes: correction with TNFR2 agonism

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Yoshiaki; Torrey, Heather; Butterworth, John; Zheng, Hui; Faustman, Denise L

    2016-01-01

    Activated T-regulatory cells (aTregs) prevent or halt various forms of autoimmunity. We show that type 1 diabetics (T1D) have a Treg activation defect through an increase in resting Tregs (rTregs, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD45RA) and decrease in aTregs (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD45RO) (n= 55 T1D, n=45 controls, P=0.01). The activation defect persists life long in T1D subjects (T1D=45, controls=45, P=0.01, P=0.04). Lower numbers of aTregs had clinical significance because they were associated with a trend for less residual C-peptide secretion from the pancreas (P=0.08), and poorer HbA1C control (P=0.03). In humans, the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) is obligatory for Treg induction, maintenance and expansion of aTregs. TNFR2 agonism is a method for stimulating Treg conversion from resting to activated. Using two separate in vitro expansion protocols, TNFR2 agonism corrected the T1D activation defect by triggering conversion of rTregs into aTregs (n=54 T1D, P<0.001). TNFR2 agonism was superior to standard protocols and TNF in proliferating Tregs. In T1D, TNFR2 agonist-expanded Tregs were homogeneous and functionally potent by virtue of suppressing autologous cytotoxic T cells in a dose-dependent manner comparable to controls. Targeting the TNFR2 receptor for Treg expansion in vitro demonstrates a means to correct the activation defect in T1D. PMID:26900470

  7. The unusual importance of activity coefficients for micelle solutions illustrated by an osmometry study of aqueous sodium decanoate and aqueous sodium decanoate + sodium chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Poonam; MacNeil, Jennifer A; Bowles, Justine; Leaist, Derek G

    2011-12-28

    Freezing-point and vapor-pressure osmometry data are reported for aqueous sodium decanoate (NaD) solutions and aqueous NaD + NaCl solutions. The derived osmotic coefficients are analyzed with a mass-action model based on the micelle formation reaction qNa(+) + nD(-) = (Na(q)D(n))(q-n) and Guggenheim equations for the micelle and ionic activity coefficients. Stoichiometric activity coefficients of the NaD and NaCl components and the equilibrium constant for micelle formation are evaluated. Illustrating the remarkable but not widely appreciated nonideal behavior of ionic surfactant solutions, the micelle activity coefficient drops to astonishingly low values, below 10(-7) (relative to unity for ideal solutions). The activity coefficients of the Na(+) and D(-) ions, raised to large powers of q and n, reduce calculated extents of micelle formation by up to 15 orders of magnitude. Activity coefficients, frequently omitted from the Gibbs equation, are found to increase the calculated surface excess concentration of NaD by up to an order of magnitude. Inflection points in the extent of micelle formation, used to calculate critical micelle concentration (cmc) lowering caused by added salt, provide unexpected thermodynamic evidence for the elusive second cmc. PMID:22037556

  8. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  9. Estimation of excess energies and activity coefficients for the penternary Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Mo system and its subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, A.; Arslan, H.; Dogan, T.

    2015-06-01

    Using different prediction methods, such as the General Solution Model of Kohler and Muggianu, the excess energy and activities of molybdenum for the sections of the phase diagram for the penternary Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Mo system with mole ratios xNi/ xMo = 1, xCr/ xMo = 1, xCo/ xMo = 1, and xAl/ xMo = r = 0.5 and 1, were thermodynamically investigated at a temperature of 2000 K, whereas the excess energy and activities of Bi for the section corresponding to the ternary Bi-Ga-Sb system with mole ratio xGa/ xSb = 1/9 were thermodynamically investigated at a temperature of 1073 K. In the case of r = 0.5 and 1 in the alloys Ni-Cr-Co-Al-Mo, a positive deviation in the activity coefficient was revealed, as molybdenum content increased. Moreover, in the calculations performed in Chou's GSM model, the obtained values for excess Gibbs energies are negative in the whole concentration range of bismuth at 1073 K and exhibit the minimum of about -2.2 kJ/mol at the mole ratio xGa/ xSb = 1/9 in the alloy Bi-Ga-Sb.

  10. Biotransformation and adsorption of pharmaceutical and personal care products by activated sludge after correcting matrix effects.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Li, Bing; Yu, Ke; Zhang, Tong

    2016-02-15

    This study reported significant suppressive matrix effects in analyses of six pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in activated sludge, sterilized activated sludge and untreated sewage by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitative matrix evaluation on selected PPCPs supplemented the limited quantification data of matrix effects on mass spectrometric determination of PPCPs in complex environment samples. The observed matrix effects were chemical-specific and matrix-dependent, with the most pronounced average effect (-55%) was found on sulfadiazine in sterilized activated sludge. After correcting the matrix effects by post-spiking known amount of PPCPs, the removal mechanisms and biotransformation kinetics of selected PPCPs in activated sludge system were revealed by batch experiment. Experimental data elucidated that the removal of target PPCPs in the activated sludge process was mainly by biotransformation while contributions of adsorption, hydrolysis and volatilization could be neglected. High biotransformation efficiency (52%) was observed on diclofenac while other three compounds (sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole and roxithromycin) were partially biotransformed by ~40%. The other two compounds, trimethoprim and carbamazepine, showed recalcitrant to biotransformation of the activated sludge. PMID:26706769

  11. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a gradient approach and an additional deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2015-09-01

    High development cost is a challenge for space telescopes and imaging satellites. One of the primary reasons for this high cost is the development of the primary mirror, which must meet diffraction limit surface figure requirements. Recent efforts to develop lower cost, lightweight, replicable primary mirrors include development of silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors and carbon fiber mirrors. The silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors at the Naval Postgraduate School do not meet the surface quality required for an optical telescope due to high spatial frequency residual surface errors. A technique under investigation at the Naval Postgraduate School is to correct the residual surface figure error using a deformable mirror in the optical path. We present a closed loop feedback gradient controller to actively control a SMT active segment and an additional deformable mirror to reduce residual wavefront error. The simulations and experimental results show that the gradient controller reduces the residual wavefront error more than an integral controller.

  12. Curvature wavefront sensing performance simulations for active correction of the Javalambre wide-field telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chueca, Sergio; Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cenarro, Andrés. Javier; Varela, Jesús; Ederoclite, Alessandro; Cristóbal-Hornillos, David; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Gruel, Nicolás.; Moles, Mariano; Yanes, Axel; Rueda, Fernando; Rueda, Sergio; Luis-Simoes, Roberto; Hernández-Fuertes, Javier; López-Sainz, Angel; Maícas-Sacristán, Natalio; Lamadrid, José Luis; Díaz-Martín, Miguel Chioare; Taylor, Keith

    2012-09-01

    In order to maintain image quality during Javalambre wide field telescope operations, deformations and rigid body motions must be actively controlled to minimize optical disturbances. For JST/T250 the aberrations of the telescope will be measured with four curvature sensors at the focal plane. To correct the measured distortions, the secondary mirror position (with a hexapod support) and the camera position can be modified in a control closed loop. Multiple software tools have been developed to accomplish this goal, constituting the "Observatorio Astrofísico de Javalambre" (OAJ) Active Optics Pipeline. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wave-front sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, pupil registration, wavefront estimators and the iteration matrix evaluation techniques. Some preliminary simulations have been made using a telescope model with a Optical Ray Tracing Software.

  13. Active optics correction forces for the VST 2.6m primary mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Perrotta, F.; Marty, L.

    2006-06-01

    In active optics systems obviously a fundamental role is played be the choice of polynomials to describe the primary mirror deformations. The well known Zernike polynomials are widely used because of their immediate interpretation in terms of optical aberrations. Nevertheless in an active optics correction system context, the choice of the so called "minimum energy modes" as the polynomials to represent the mechanical deformations is best justified by their derivation from mechanical properties. This is the approach followed for the 2.6m primary mirror of the VST telescope, to be hosted on top of the Cerro Paranal ESO observatory. The calibration forces to compensate a given amount of each aberration mode are computed and discussed.

  14. Correction: Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyunnho; Jung, Hana; Lee, Heejae; Yi, Hae Chang; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Hwang, Keum Taek

    2015-08-01

    Correction for 'Chemopreventive activity of ellagitannins and their derivatives from black raspberry seeds on HT-29 colon cancer cells' by Hyunnho Cho et al., Food Funct., 2015, 6, 1675-1683. PMID:26211477

  15. Correction: Enhanced photocatalytic activity of a self-stabilized synthetic flavin anchored on a TiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Manjula; Shaham-Waldmann, Nurit; Hossain, Mohammad S; Foss, Frank W; Rajeshwar, Krishnan; Paz, Yaron

    2016-09-14

    Correction for 'Enhanced photocatalytic activity of a self-stabilized synthetic flavin anchored on a TiO2 surface' by Manjula Pandiri et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, 18, 18575-18583. PMID:27509005

  16. Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Otto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included. PMID:25349458

  17. Activity Coefficients at Infinite Dilution of Organic Compounds in Trihexyl(tetradecyl)phophonium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Using Inverse Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Revelli, Anne-Laure; Sprunger, Laura; Gibbs, Jennifer; Acree, William; Baker, Gary A; Mutelet, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Activity coefficients at infinite dilution of organic compounds in the ionic liquid (IL) trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide were determined using inverse gas chromatography at three temperatures, T ) (302.45, 322.35, and 342.45) K. Linear free energy relationship (LFER) correlations have been obtained for describing the gas-to-IL and water-to-IL partition coefficients.

  18. Assisting people with multiple disabilities actively correct abnormal standing posture with a Nintendo Wii balance board through controlling environmental stimulation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Chu, Chiung-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest researches adopted software technology turning the Nintendo Wii Balance Board into a high performance change of standing posture (CSP) detector, and assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to control environmental stimulation using body swing (changing standing posture). This study extends Wii Balance Board functionality for standing posture correction (i.e., actively adjust abnormal standing posture) to assessed whether two persons with multiple disabilities would be able to actively correct their standing posture by controlling their favorite stimulation on/off using a Wii Balance Board with a newly developed standing posture correcting program (SPCP). The study was performed according to an ABAB design, in which A represented baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that both participants significantly increased time duration of maintaining correct standing posture (TDMCSP) to activate the control system to produce environmental stimulation during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:20381997

  19. Pharmacological activation of myosin II paralogs to correct cell mechanics defects.

    PubMed

    Surcel, Alexandra; Ng, Win Pin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ren, Yixin; Avery, Lindsay B; Krenc, Agata K; Meyers, David J; Rock, Ronald S; Anders, Robert A; Freel Meyers, Caren L; Robinson, Douglas N

    2015-02-01

    Current approaches to cancer treatment focus on targeting signal transduction pathways. Here, we develop an alternative system for targeting cell mechanics for the discovery of novel therapeutics. We designed a live-cell, high-throughput chemical screen to identify mechanical modulators. We characterized 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP), which enhances the cortical localization of the mechanoenzyme myosin II, independent of myosin heavy-chain phosphorylation, thus increasing cellular cortical tension. To shift cell mechanics, 4-HAP requires myosin II, including its full power stroke, specifically activating human myosin IIB (MYH10) and human myosin IIC (MYH14), but not human myosin IIA (MYH9). We further demonstrated that invasive pancreatic cancer cells are more deformable than normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, a mechanical profile that was partially corrected with 4-HAP, which also decreased the invasion and migration of these cancer cells. Overall, 4-HAP modifies nonmuscle myosin II-based cell mechanics across phylogeny and disease states and provides proof of concept that cell mechanics offer a rich drug target space, allowing for possible corrective modulation of tumor cell behavior. PMID:25605895

  20. Pharmacological activation of myosin II paralogs to correct cell mechanics defects

    PubMed Central

    Surcel, Alexandra; Ng, Win Pin; West-Foyle, Hoku; Zhu, Qingfeng; Ren, Yixin; Avery, Lindsay B.; Krenc, Agata K.; Meyers, David J.; Rock, Ronald S.; Anders, Robert A.; Freel Meyers, Caren L.; Robinson, Douglas N.

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to cancer treatment focus on targeting signal transduction pathways. Here, we develop an alternative system for targeting cell mechanics for the discovery of novel therapeutics. We designed a live-cell, high-throughput chemical screen to identify mechanical modulators. We characterized 4-hydroxyacetophenone (4-HAP), which enhances the cortical localization of the mechanoenzyme myosin II, independent of myosin heavy-chain phosphorylation, thus increasing cellular cortical tension. To shift cell mechanics, 4-HAP requires myosin II, including its full power stroke, specifically activating human myosin IIB (MYH10) and human myosin IIC (MYH14), but not human myosin IIA (MYH9). We further demonstrated that invasive pancreatic cancer cells are more deformable than normal pancreatic ductal epithelial cells, a mechanical profile that was partially corrected with 4-HAP, which also decreased the invasion and migration of these cancer cells. Overall, 4-HAP modifies nonmuscle myosin II-based cell mechanics across phylogeny and disease states and provides proof of concept that cell mechanics offer a rich drug target space, allowing for possible corrective modulation of tumor cell behavior. PMID:25605895

  1. In-flight aberrations corrections for large space telescopes using active optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, M.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Lemaitre, G.

    2010-07-01

    The need for both high quality images and light structures is a constant concern in the conception of space telescopes. The goal here is to determine how an active optics system could be embarked on a satellite in order to correct the wave front deformations of the optical train. The optical aberrations appearing in a space environment are due to mirrors' deformations, with three main origins: the thermal variations, the weightlessness in space with respect to the Assemblage, Integration and Testing (AIT) conditions on ground and the use of large weightlighted primary mirrors. We are developing a model of deformable mirror as minimalist as possible, especially in term of number of actuators, which is able to correct the first Zernike polynomials in the specified range of amplitude and precision. Flight constraints as weight, volume and power consumption have to be considered. Firstly, such a system is designed according to the equations from the elasticity theory: we determine the geometrical and mechanical characteristics of the mirror, the location of the forces to be applied and the way to apply them. The concept is validated with a Finite Element Analysis (FEA), allowing optimizing the system by taking into account parameters absent from the theory. At the end of the program the mirror will be realized and characterized in a representative optical configuration.

  2. Active correction of aperture discontinuities (ACAD) for space telescope pupils: a parametic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazoyer, Johan; Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Mawet, Dimitri; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; Choquet, Élodie; Carlotti, Alexis

    2015-09-01

    As the performance of coronagraphs improves, the achievable contrast is more and more dependent of the shape of the pupil. The future generation of space and ground based coronagraphic instruments will have to achieve high contrast levels on on-axis and/or segmented telescopes. To correct for the high amplitude aberrations introduced by secondary mirror structures and segmentation of the primary mirror, we explore a two deformable mirror (DM) method. The major difficulty of several DM methods is the non-linear relation linking actuator strokes to the point spread function in the coronagraph focal plane. The Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) method is achieving this minimization by solving a non linear differential Monge Ampere equation. Once this open loop method have reached the minimum, a close-loop stroke minimization method can be applied to correct for phase and amplitude aberrations to achieve the ultimate contrast. In this paper, I describe the results of the parametric analysis that that I have undertaken on this method. After recalling the principle of the method, I will described the explored parameter space (deformable mirror set-up, shape of the pupil, bandwidth, coronagraph designs). I will precisely described the way I simulated the Vortex coronagraph for this numerical simulation. Finally I will present the preliminary results of this parametric analysis for space telescope pupils only.

  3. Decreased-activity mutants of phosphoglucose isomerase in the cytosol and chloroplast of Clarkia xantiana. Impact on mass-action ratios and fluxes to sucrose and starch, and estimation of Flux Control Coefficients and Elasticity Coefficients.

    PubMed Central

    Kruckeberg, A L; Neuhaus, H E; Feil, R; Gottlieb, L D; Stitt, M

    1989-01-01

    1. Subcellular-compartment-specific decreased-activity mutants of phosphoglucose isomerase in Clarkia xantiana were used to analyse the control of sucrose and starch synthesis during photosynthesis. Mutants were available in which the plastid phosphoglucose isomerase complement is decreased to 75% or 50% of the wild-type level, and the cytosol complement to 64%, 36% or 18% of the wild-type level. 2. The effects on the [product]/[substrate] ratio and on fluxes to sucrose or starch and the rate of photosynthesis were studied with the use of saturating or limiting light intensity to impose a high or low flux through these pathways. 3. Removal of a small fraction of either phosphoglucose isomerase leads to a significant shift of the [product]/[substrate] ratio away, from equilibrium. We conclude that there is no 'excess' of enzyme over that needed to maintain its reactants reasonably close to equilibrium. 4. Decreased phosphoglucose isomerase activity can also alter the fluxes to starch or sucrose. However, the effect on flux does not correlate with the extent of disequilibrium, and also varies depending on the subcellular compartment and on the conditions. 5. The results were used to estimate Flux Control Coefficients for the chloroplast and cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerases. The chloroplast isoenzyme exerts control on the rate of starch synthesis and on photosynthesis in saturating light intensity and CO2, but not at low light intensity. The cytosolic enzyme only exerts significant control when its complement is decreased 3-5-fold, and differs from the plastid isoenzyme in exerting more control in low light intensity. It has a positive Control Coefficient for sucrose synthesis, and a negative Control Coefficient for starch synthesis. 6. The Elasticity Coefficients in vivo of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase were estimated to lie between 5 and 8 in the wild-type. They decrease in mutants with a lowered complement of cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase. 7. The

  4. THE CALCULATION OF BURNABLE POISON CORRECTION FACTORS FOR PWR FRESH FUEL ACTIVE COLLAR MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Favalli, Andrea; Swinhoe, Martyn T.

    2012-06-19

    Verification of commercial low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel takes place at the fuel fabrication facility as part of the overall international nuclear safeguards solution to the civilian use of nuclear technology. The fissile mass per unit length is determined nondestructively by active neutron coincidence counting using a neutron collar. A collar comprises four slabs of high density polyethylene that surround the assembly. Three of the slabs contain {sup 3}He filled proportional counters to detect time correlated fission neutrons induced by an AmLi source placed in the fourth slab. Historically, the response of a particular collar design to a particular fuel assembly type has been established by careful cross-calibration to experimental absolute calibrations. Traceability exists to sources and materials held at Los Alamos National Laboratory for over 35 years. This simple yet powerful approach has ensured consistency of application. Since the 1980's there has been a steady improvement in fuel performance. The trend has been to higher burn up. This requires the use of both higher initial enrichment and greater concentrations of burnable poisons. The original analytical relationships to correct for varying fuel composition are consequently being challenged because the experimental basis for them made use of fuels of lower enrichment and lower poison content than is in use today and is envisioned for use in the near term. Thus a reassessment of the correction factors is needed. Experimental reassessment is expensive and time consuming given the great variation between fuel assemblies in circulation. Fortunately current modeling methods enable relative response functions to be calculated with high accuracy. Hence modeling provides a more convenient and cost effective means to derive correction factors which are fit for purpose with confidence. In this work we use the Monte Carlo code MCNPX with neutron coincidence tallies to calculate the influence of Gd

  5. Methods of InSAR atmosphere correction for volcano activity monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F.; Webley, P.W.; Lu, Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    When a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) signal propagates through the atmosphere on its path to and from the sensor, it is inevitably affected by atmospheric effects. In particular, the applicability and accuracy of Interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques for volcano monitoring is limited by atmospheric path delays. Therefore, atmospheric correction of interferograms is required to improve the performance of InSAR for detecting volcanic activity, especially in order to advance its ability to detect subtle pre-eruptive changes in deformation dynamics. In this paper, we focus on InSAR tropospheric mitigation methods and their performance in volcano deformation monitoring. Our study areas include Okmok volcano and Unimak Island located in the eastern Aleutians, AK. We explore two methods to mitigate atmospheric artifacts, namely the numerical weather model simulation and the atmospheric filtering using Persistent Scatterer processing. We investigate the capability of the proposed methods, and investigate their limitations and advantages when applied to determine volcanic processes. ?? 2011 IEEE.

  6. EFFECTS OF COVAPORS ON ADSORPTION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF ORGANIC VAPORS ADSORBED ONTO ACTIVATED CARBON FROM FLOWING AIR

    SciTech Connect

    G. WOOD

    2000-12-01

    Published breakthrough time, adsorption rate, and capacity data for components of organic vapor mixtures adsorbed from flows through fixed activated carbon beds have been analyzed. Capacities (as stoichiometric centers of constant pattern breakthrough curves) yielded stoichiometric times {tau}, which are useful for determining elution orders of mixture components. We also calculated adsorption rate coefficients k{sub v} of the Wheeler (or, more general Reaction Kinetic) breakthrough curve equation, when not reported, from breakthrough times and {tau}. Ninety-five k{sub v} (in mixture)/ k{sub v} (single vapor) ratios at similar vapor concentrations were calculated and averaged for elution order categories. For 43 first-eluting vapors the average ratio (1.07) was statistically no different (0.21 standard deviation) than unity, so that we recommend using the single-vapor k{sub v} for such. Forty-seven second-eluting vapor ratios averaged 0.85 (0.24 standard deviation), also not significantly different from unity; however, other evidence and considerations lead us recommend using k{sub v} (in mixture) = 0.85 k{sub v} (single vapor). Five third- and fourth-eluting vapors gave an average of 0.56 (0.16 standard deviation) for a recommended k{sub v} (in mixture) = 0.56 k{sub v} (single vapor) for such.

  7. Vapor-liquid activity coefficients for methanol and ethanol from heat of solution data: application to steam-methane reforming.

    PubMed

    Kunz, R G; Baade, W F

    2001-11-16

    This paper presents equations and curves to calculate vapor-liquid phase equilibria for methanol and ethanol in dilute aqueous solution as a function of temperature, using activity coefficients at infinite dilution. These thermodynamic functions were originally derived to assess the distribution of by-product contaminants in the process condensate and the steam-system deaerator of a hydrogen plant [Paper ENV-00-171 presented at the NPRA 2000 Environmental Conference, San Antonio, TX, 10-12 September 2000], but have general applicability to other systems as well. The functions and calculation method described here are a necessary piece of an overall prediction technique to estimate atmospheric emissions from the deaerator-vent when the process condensate is recycled as boiler feed water (BFW) make-up. Having such an estimation technique is of particular significance at this time because deaerator-vent emissions are already coming under regulatory scrutiny in California [Emissions from Hydrogen Plant Process Vents, Adopted 21 January 2000] followed closely elsewhere in the US, and eventually worldwide. The overall technique will enable a permit applicant to estimate environmental emissions to comply with upcoming regulations, and a regulatory agency to evaluate those estimates. It may also be useful to process engineers as a tool to estimate contaminant concentrations and flow rates in internal process streams such as the steam-generating system. Metallurgists and corrosion engineers might be able to use the results for materials selection. PMID:11606240

  8. MR-based motion correction for PET imaging using wired active MR microcoils in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chuan; Brady, Thomas J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong; Ackerman, Jerome L.; Petibon, Yoann

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Artifacts caused by head motion present a major challenge in brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The authors investigated the feasibility of using wired active MR microcoils to track head motion and incorporate the measured rigid motion fields into iterative PET reconstruction. Methods: Several wired active MR microcoils and a dedicated MR coil-tracking sequence were developed. The microcoils were attached to the outer surface of an anthropomorphic{sup 18}F-filled Hoffman phantom to mimic a brain PET scan. Complex rotation/translation motion of the phantom was induced by a balloon, which was connected to a ventilator. PET list-mode and MR tracking data were acquired simultaneously on a PET-MR scanner. The acquired dynamic PET data were reconstructed iteratively with and without motion correction. Additionally, static phantom data were acquired and used as the gold standard. Results: Motion artifacts in PET images were effectively removed by wired active MR microcoil based motion correction. Motion correction yielded an activity concentration bias ranging from −0.6% to 3.4% as compared to a bias ranging from −25.0% to 16.6% if no motion correction was applied. The contrast recovery values were improved by 37%–156% with motion correction as compared to no motion correction. The image correlation (mean ± standard deviation) between the motion corrected (uncorrected) images of 20 independent noise realizations and static reference was R{sup 2} = 0.978 ± 0.007 (0.588 ± 0.010, respectively). Conclusions: Wired active MR microcoil based motion correction significantly improves brain PET quantitative accuracy and image contrast.

  9. In vivo correction of COX deficiency by activation of the AMPK/PGC-1α axis.

    PubMed

    Viscomi, Carlo; Bottani, Emanuela; Civiletto, Gabriele; Cerutti, Raffaele; Moggio, Maurizio; Fagiolari, Gigliola; Schon, Eric A; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo

    2011-07-01

    Increased mitochondrial biogenesis by activation of PPAR- or AMPK/PGC-1α-dependent homeostatic pathways has been proposed as a treatment for mitochondrial disease. We tested this hypothesis on three recombinant mouse models characterized by defective cytochrome c-oxidase (COX) activity: a knockout (KO) mouse for Surf1, a knockout/knockin mouse for Sco2, and a muscle-restricted KO mouse for Cox15. First, we demonstrated that double-recombinant animals overexpressing PGC-1α in skeletal muscle on a Surf1 KO background showed robust induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and increase of mitochondrial respiratory chain activities, including COX. No such effect was obtained by treating both Surf1(-/-) and Cox15(-/-) mice with the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate, which instead showed adverse effects in either model. Contrariwise, treatment with the AMPK agonist AICAR led to partial correction of COX deficiency in all three models, and, importantly, significant motor improvement up to normal in the Sco2(KO/KI) mouse. These results open new perspectives for therapy of mitochondrial disease. PMID:21723506

  10. Activity of red nucleus neurons in the cat during postural corrections

    PubMed Central

    Zelenin, P. V.; Beloozerova, I. N.; Sirota, M. G.; Orlovsky, G. N.; Deliagina, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    The dorsal-side-up body posture in standing quadrupeds is maintained by the postural system, which includes spinal and supraspinal mechanisms driven by somatosensory inputs from the limbs. A number of descending tracts can transmit suprasinal commands for postural corrections. The first aim of this study was to understand whether the rubrospinal tract participates in their transmission. We recorded activity of red nucleus neurons (RNNs) in the cat maintaining balance on the periodically tilting platform. Most neurons were identified as rubrospinal ones. It was found that many RNNs were profoundly modulated by tilts, suggesting that they transmit postural commands. The second aim of this study was to examine the contribution of sensory inputs from individual limbs to posture-related RNNs modulation. Each RNN was recorded during standing on all four limbs, as well as when two or three limbs were lifted from the platform and could not signal platform displacements. By comparing RNN responses in different tests, we found that the amplitude and phase of responses in the majority of RNNs were determined primarily by sensory input from the corresponding (fore or hind) contralateral limb, whereas inputs from other limbs made a much smaller contribution to RNNs modulation. These findings suggest that the rubrospinal system is primarily involved in the intra-limb postural coordination, i.e., in the feedback control of the corresponding limb and, to a lesser extent, in the inter-limb coordination. This study provides a new insight into the formation of supraspinal motor commands for postural corrections. PMID:20980611

  11. Linear solvation energy relationship of the limiting partition coefficient of organic solutes between water and activated carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luehrs, Dean C.; Hickey, James P.; Nilsen, Peter E.; Godbole, K.A.; Rogers, Tony N.

    1995-01-01

    A linear solvation energy relationship has been found for 353 values of the limiting adsorption coefficients of diverse chemicals:  log K = −0.37 + 0.0341Vi − 1.07β + D + 0.65P with R = 0.951, s = 0.51, n = 353, and F = 818.0, where Vi is the intrinsic molar volume; β is a measure of the hydrogen bond acceptor strength of the solute; D is an index parameter for the research group which includes the effects of the different types of carbon used, the temperature, and the length of time allowed for the adsorption equilibrium to be established; and P is an index parameter for the flatness of the molecule. P is defined to be unity if there is an aromatic system in the molecule or if there is a double bond or series of conjugated double bonds with no more that one non-hydrogen atom beyond the double bond and zero otherwise. A slightly better fit is obtained if the two-thirds power of Vi is used as a measure of the surface area in place of the volume term:  log K = −1.75 + 0.227V2/3 − 1.10β + D + 0.60P with R = 0.954, s = 0.49, n = 353, and F = 895.39. This is the first quantitative measure of the effect of the shape of the molecule on its tendency to be adsorbed on activated carbon.

  12. Control of Dual-Opposed Stirling Convertors with Active Power Factor Correction Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    When using recently-developed active power factor correction (APFC) controllers in power systems comprised of dual-opposed free-piston Stirling convertors, a variety of configurations of the convertors and controller(s) can be considered, with configuration ultimately selected based on benefits of efficiency, reliability, and robust operation. The configuration must not only achieve stable control of the two convertors, but also synchronize and regulate motion of the pistons to minimize net dynamic forces. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) System Dynamic Model (SDM) was used to study ten configurations of dual-opposed convertor systems. These configurations considered one controller with the alternators connected in series or in parallel, and two controllers with the alternators not connected (isolated). For the configurations where the alternators were not connected, several different approaches were evaluated to synchronize the two convertors. In addition, two thermodynamic configurations were considered: two convertors with isolated working spaces and convertors with a shared expansion space. Of the ten configurations studied, stable operating modes were found for four. Three of those four had a common expansion space. One stable configuration was found for the dual-opposed convertors with separate working spaces. That configuration required isochronous control of both convertors, and two APFC controllers were used to accomplish this. A frequency/phase control loop was necessary to allow each APFC controller to synchronize its associated convertor with a common frequency.

  13. Control of Dual-Opposed Stirling Convertors with Active Power Factor Correction Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Timothy F.; Lewandowski, Edward J.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    When using recently-developed active power factor correction (APFC) controllers in power systems comprised of dual-opposed free-piston Stirling convertors, a variety of configurations of the convertors and controller(s) can be considered, with configuration ultimately selected based on benefits of efficiency, reliability, and robust operation. The configuration must not only achieve stable control of the two convertors, but also synchronize and regulate motion of the pistons to minimize net dynamic forces. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) System Dynamic Model (SDM) was used to study ten configurations of dual-opposed convertor systems. These configurations considered one controller with the alternators connected in series or in parallel, and two controllers with the alternators not connected (isolated). For the configurations where the alternators were not connected, several different approaches were evaluated to synchronize the two convertors. In addition, two thermodynamic configurations were considered: two convertors with isolated working spaces and convertors with a shared expansion space. Of the ten configurations studied, stable operating modes were found for four. Three of those four had a common expansion space. One stable configuration was found for the dual-opposed convertors with separate working spaces. That configuration required isochronous control of both convertors, and two APFC controllers were used to accomplish this. A frequency/phase control loop was necessary to allow each APFC controller to synchronize its associated convertor with a common frequency.

  14. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  15. Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of the {xZnCl2 + (1 - x)ZnSO4}(aq) System at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Ninkovic, R; Miladinovic, J; Todorovic, M; Grujic, S; Rard, J A

    2006-06-27

    Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements were made for (xZnCl{sub 2} + (1 - x)ZnSO{sub 4})(aq) solutions with ZnCl{sub 2} molality fractions of x = (0, 0.3062, 0.5730, 0.7969, and 1) at the temperature 298.15 K, using KCl(aq) as the reference standard. These measurements cover the water activity range 0.901-0.919 {le} a{sub w} {le} 0.978. The experimental osmotic coefficients were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended ion-interaction (Pitzer) model for these mixed electrolyte solutions. A similar analysis was made of the available activity data for ZnCl{sub 2}(aq) at 298.15 K, while assuming the presence of equilibrium amounts of ZnCl{sup +}(aq) ion-pairs, to derive the ion-interaction parameters for the hypothetical pure binary electrolytes (Zn{sup 2+}, 2Cl{sup -}) and (ZnCl{sup +},Cl{sup -}). These parameters are required for the analysis of the mixture results. Although significant concentrations of higher-order zinc chloride complexes may also be present in these solutions, it was possible to represent the osmotic coefficients accurately by explicitly including only the predominant complex ZnCl{sup +}(aq) and the completely dissociated ions. The ionic activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients were calculated over the investigated molality range using the evaluated extended Pitzer model parameters.

  16. Case study of an approved corrective action integrating active remediation with intrinsic remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Teets, D.B.; Guest, P.R.; Blicker, B.R.

    1996-12-01

    Parsons Engineering Science, Inc., performed UST removals and/or site assessments at UST system locations at a former US Air Force Base (AFB) in Denver, Colorado. Four UST systems, incorporating 17 USTs, were located within the petroleum, oils, and lubricants bulk storage yard (POL Yard) of the former AFB. During the tank removals and subsequent site investigations, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination was found in soils at each site. Significant releases from two of the UST systems resulted in a dissolved benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) plume in the groundwater, and smear-zone contamination of soils beneath the majority of the POL Yard. Because of the close proximity of the UST systems, and the presence of the groundwater plume beneath the POL Yard, a corrective action plan (CAP) was prepared that encompassed all four UST systems. An innovative, risk-based CAP integrated active remediation of petroleum-contaminated soils with intrinsic remediation of groundwater. A natural attenuation evaluation for the dissolved BTEX was performed to demonstrate that natural attenuation processes are providing adequate remediation of groundwater and to predict the fate of the groundwater plume. BTEX concentrations versus distance were regressed to obtain attenuation rates, which were then used to calculate BTEX degradation rates using a one-dimensional, steady-state analytical solution. Additionally, electron acceptor concentrations in groundwater were compared to BTEX concentrations to provide evidence that natural attenuation of BTEX compounds was occurring. The natural attenuation evaluation was used in the CAP to support the intrinsic remediation with long-term monitoring alternative for groundwater, thereby avoiding the installation of an expensive groundwater remediation system.

  17. Effects of Active Student Response during Error Correction on the Acquisition, Maintenance, and Generalization of Science Vocabulary by Elementary Students: A Systematic Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drevno, Gregg E.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study compared active student response (ASR) error correction and no-response (NR) error correction while teaching science terms to five elementary students. When a student erred, the teacher modeled the definition and the student either repeated it (ASR) or not (NR). ASR error correction was superior on each of seven dependent variables.…

  18. Design of an input filter for power factor correction (PFC) AC to DC converters employing an active ripple cancellation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, D.Y.; Cho, B.H.

    1996-12-31

    An active input filter for power factor correction (PFC) circuit employing ripple current cancellation is proposed to reduce the filter`s size and cost.Switching ripple current can be filtered by an active circuit from the line current. A single stage passive filter with the active filter compensation circuit, a high filter can be synthesized to meet the electromagnetic interference (EMI) and power factor requirements. Analysis of the active filter and design procedure are detailed. Simulation result is presented to verify the high order filter characteristics of proposed scheme.

  19. Oxygen exchange at gas/oxide interfaces: how the apparent activation energy of the surface exchange coefficient depends on the kinetic regime.

    PubMed

    Fielitz, Peter; Borchardt, Günter

    2016-08-10

    In the dedicated literature the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the equilibrium oxygen exchange rate [Fraktur R] are considered to be directly proportional to each other regardless of the experimental circumstances. Recent experimental observations, however, contradict the consequences of this assumption. Most surprising is the finding that the apparent activation energy of KO depends dramatically on the kinetic regime in which it has been determined, i.e. surface exchange controlled vs. mixed or diffusion controlled. This work demonstrates how the diffusion boundary condition at the gas/solid interface inevitably entails a correlation between the oxygen surface exchange coefficient KO and the oxygen self-diffusion coefficient DO in the bulk ("on top" of the correlation between KO and [Fraktur R] for the pure surface exchange regime). The model can thus quantitatively explain the range of apparent activation energies measured in the different regimes: in the surface exchange regime the apparent activation energy only contains the contribution of the equilibrium exchange rate, whereas in the mixed or in the diffusion controlled regime the contribution of the oxygen self-diffusivity has also to be taken into account, which may yield significantly higher apparent activation energies and simultaneously quantifies the correlation KO ∝ DO(1/2) observed for a large number of oxides in the mixed or diffusion controlled regime, respectively. PMID:27460608

  20. Muscle activation characteristics of the front leg during baseball swings with timing correction for sudden velocity decrease.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings. PMID:25918848

  1. Muscle Activation Characteristics of the Front Leg During Baseball Swings with Timing Correction for Sudden Velocity Decrease

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Yoichi; Nakamoto, Hiroki; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Takahashi, Kyohei; Shima, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle in the front leg during timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of a target during baseball swings. Eleven male collegiate baseball players performed coincident timing tasks that comprised constant velocity of 8 m/s (unchanged) and a sudden decrease in velocity from 8 to 4 m/s (decreased velocity). Electromyography (EMG) revealed that the muscle activation was typically monophasic when responding unchanged conditions. The type of muscle activation during swings in response to decreased velocity condition was both monophasic and biphasic. When biphasic activation appeared in response to decreased velocity, the impact time and the time to peak EMG amplitude were significantly prolonged and the timing error was significantly smaller than that of monophasic activation. However, the EMG onset from the target start was consistent both monophasic and biphasic activation in response to conditions of decreased velocity. In addition, batters with small timing errors in response to decreased velocity were more likely to generate biphasic EMG activation. These findings indicated that timing correction for a sudden decrease in the velocity of an oncoming target is achieved by modifying the muscle activation characteristics of the vastus lateralis muscle of front leg from monophasic to biphasic to delay reaching peak muscle activation and thus prolong impact time. Therefore, the present findings suggests that the extent of timing errors in response to decreased velocity is influenced by the ability to correct muscle activation after its initiation rather than by delaying the initiation timing of muscle activation during baseball swings. PMID:25918848

  2. Correcting vital information: estimating infant mortality, Brazil, 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Paulo Germano; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges; de Almeida, Wanessa da Silva; Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To propose a simplified method of correcting vital information and estimating the coefficient of infant mortality in Brazil. METHODS Vital data in the information systems on mortality and live births were corrected using correction factors, estimated based on events not reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health and obtained by active search. This simplified method for correcting vital information for the period 2000-2009 for Brazil and its federal units establishes the level of adequacy of information on deaths and live births by calculating the overall coefficient of mortality standardized by age and the ratio between reported and expected live births, respectively, in each Brazilian municipality. By applying correction factors to the number of deaths and live births reported in each county, the vital statistics were corrected, making it possible to estimate the coefficient of infant mortality. RESULTS The highest correction factors were related to infant deaths, reaching values higher than 7 for municipalities with very precarious mortality information. For deaths and live births, the correction factors exhibit a decreasing gradient as indicators of adequacy of the vital information improve. For the year 2008, the vital information corrected by the simplified method per state were similar to those obtained in the research of active search. Both the birth rate and the infant mortality rate decreased in the period in all Brazilian regions. In the Northeast, the annual rate of decline was 6.0%, the highest in Brazil (4.7%). CONCLUSIONS The active search of deaths and births allowed correction factors to be calculated by level of adequacy of mortality information and live births. The simplified method proposed here allowed vital information to be corrected per state for the period 2000-2009 and the progress of the coefficient of infant mortality in Brazil, its regions and states to be assessed. PMID:24626543

  3. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273

  4. 78 FR 9455 - Agency Information Collection (eBenefits Portal) Activity Under OMB Review; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a collection of information notice in the Federal Register on January 31, 2013, that contained an error. The notice incorrectly identified the responsible VA organization. This document corrects that error by removing ``Office of Information and Technology'' and adding, in its place, ``Veterans Benefits...

  5. 78 FR 46003 - Agency Information Collection (Special Notice) Activities Under OMB Review; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ... Register on July 16, 2013 (78 FR 42593), that contained several errors. The notice announced that the...., Washington, DC 20420, at (202) 632-7492. Correction In FR Doc. 2013-17023, published on July 16, 2013, at... have removed ``(previously 852.210-74)'' from the title. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  6. 76 FR 9611 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Friday. Correction In the Federal Register of January 31, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011-1960, on page 5406, first... in the Federal Register of January 31, 2011, in FR Doc. 2011- 1960, on page 5407, third column... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE...

  7. 75 FR 26962 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ..., Washington, DC 20580, (202) 326-2509. Correction In the Federal Register of April 15, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010... information collection requirements associated with the Contact Lens Rule (the Rule), 16 CFR part 315. The...-0127. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the...

  8. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1–3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0–20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients. PMID:27441843

  9. A rotor unbalance response based approach to the identification of the closed-loop stiffness and damping coefficients of active magnetic bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Di, Long; Cheng, Changli; Xu, Yuanping; Lin, Zongli

    2016-01-01

    The stiffness and damping coefficients of active magnetic bearings (AMBs) have direct influence on the dynamic response of a rotor bearing system, including the bending critical speeds, modes of vibrations and stability. Rotor unbalance response is informative in the identification of these bearing support parameters. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying closed-loop AMB stiffness and damping coefficients based on the rotor unbalance response. We will use a flexible rotor-AMB test rig to help describe the proposed method as well as to validate the identification results. First, based on a rigid body model of the rotor, a formula is derived that computes the nominal values of the bearing stiffness and damping coefficients at a given rotating speed from the experimentally measured rotor unbalance response at the given speed. Then, based on a finite element model of the rotor, an error response surface is constructed for each parameter to estimate the identification errors induced by the rotor flexibility. The final identified values of the stiffness and damping coefficients equal the sums of the nominal values initially computed from the unbalance response and the identification errors determined by the error response surfaces. The proposed identification method is carried out on the rotor-AMB test rig. In order to validate the identification results, the identified values of the closed-loop AMB stiffness and damping coefficients are combined with the finite element model of the rotor to form a full model of the rotor-AMB test rig, from which the model unbalance responses at various rotating speeds are determined through simulation and compared with the experimental measurements. The close agreements between the simulation results and the measurements validate the proposed identification method.

  10. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshiki; Sugiura, Keita; Hashimoto, Takashi; Ueda, Akane; Konno, Yoshihiro; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1-3.9%). Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0-20%) in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients. PMID:27441843

  11. Surface temperature correction for active infrared reflectance measurements of natural materials.

    PubMed

    Snyder, W C; Wan, Z

    1996-05-01

    Land surface temperature algorithms for the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer satellite instrument will require the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of natural surfaces in the thermal infrared. We designed the spectral infrared bidirectional reflectance and emissivity instrument to provide such measurements by the use of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. A problem we encountered is the unavoidable surface heating caused by the source irradiance. For our system, the effects of the heating can cause a 30% error in the measured BRDF The error caused by heating is corrected by temporally curve fitting the radiance signal. This curve-fitting technique isolates the radiance caused by reflected irradiance. With this correction, other factors dominate the BRDF error. It is now ~5% and can be improved further. The method is illustrated with measurements of soil BRDF. PMID:21085353

  12. 78 FR 76613 - Registration Applications for Pesticide Products Containing New Active Ingredients; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...-OPP-2012-0391. In FR Doc. 2012-19989, published in the Federal Register of August 14, 2012 (77 FR...-Hv1a-SEQ2'' to read ``GS-omega/kappa-Hxtx-Hv1a.'' 2. EPA-HQ-OPP-2012-0391. In FR Doc. 2012-19989, published in the Federal Register of August 14, 2012 (77 FR 48519) (FRL-9357-7), is corrected as follows:...

  13. An Efficient Correction Algorithm for Eliminating Image Misalignment Effects on Co-Phasing Measurement Accuracy for Segmented Active Optics Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Dan; Xu, Shuyan; Nie, Haitao; Wang, Zongyang

    2016-01-01

    The misalignment between recorded in-focus and out-of-focus images using the Phase Diversity (PD) algorithm leads to a dramatic decline in wavefront detection accuracy and image recovery quality for segmented active optics systems. This paper demonstrates the theoretical relationship between the image misalignment and tip-tilt terms in Zernike polynomials of the wavefront phase for the first time, and an efficient two-step alignment correction algorithm is proposed to eliminate these misalignment effects. This algorithm processes a spatial 2-D cross-correlation of the misaligned images, revising the offset to 1 or 2 pixels and narrowing the search range for alignment. Then, it eliminates the need for subpixel fine alignment to achieve adaptive correction by adding additional tip-tilt terms to the Optical Transfer Function (OTF) of the out-of-focus channel. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed correction algorithm to improve the measurement accuracy during the co-phasing of segmented mirrors. With this alignment correction, the reconstructed wavefront is more accurate, and the recovered image is of higher quality. PMID:26934045

  14. Space active optics: performance of a deformable mirror for in-situ wave-front correction in space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laslandes, Marie; Hourtoule, Claire; Hugot, Emmanuel; Ferrari, Marc; Lopez, Céline; Devilliers, Christophe; Liotard, Arnaud; Chazallet, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    MADRAS (Mirror Active, Deformable and Regulated for Applications in Space) project aims at demonstrating the interest of Active Optics for space applications. We present the prototype of a 24 actuators, 100 mm diameter deformable mirror to be included in a space telescope's pupil relay to compensate for large lightweight primary mirror deformation. The mirror design has been optimized with Finite Element Analysis and its experimental performance characterized in representative conditions. The developed deformable mirror provides an efficient wave-front correction with a limited number of actuators and a design fitting space requirements.

  15. Measurement of gas/water uptake coefficients for trace gases active in the marine environment. [Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, P.; Worsnop, D.W.; Zahniser, M.S.; Kolb, C.E.

    1992-02-01

    Ocean produced reduced sulfur compounds including dimethylsulfide (DMS), hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), methyl mercaptan (CH{sub 3}CH) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) deliver a sulfur burden to the atmosphere which is roughly equal to sulfur oxides produced by fossil fuel combustion. These species and their oxidation products dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dimethyl sulfone (DMSO{sub 2}) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) dominate aerosol and CCN production in clean marine air. Furthermore, oxidation of reduced sulfur species will be strongly influenced by NO{sub x}/O{sub 3} chemistry in marine atmospheres. The multiphase chemical processes for these species must be understood in order to study the evolving role of combustion produced sulfur oxides over the oceans. We have measured the chemical and physical parameters affecting the uptake of reduced sulfur compounds, their oxidation products, ozone, and nitrogen oxides by the ocean`s surface, and marine clouds, fogs, and aerosols. These parameters include: gas/surface mass accommodation coefficients; physical and chemically modified (effective) Henry`s law constants; and surface and liquid phase reaction constants. These parameters are critical to understanding both the interaction of gaseous trace species with cloud and fog droplets and the deposition of trace gaseous species to dew covered, fresh water and marine surfaces.

  16. Systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient model for real-life counter-current chromatography separation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Da-Bing; Yi, Lun-Zhao; Qin, Yan-Hua; Yun, Yong-Huan; Deng, Bai-Chuan; Lu, Hong-Mei; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2015-05-01

    Solvent system selection is the first step toward a successful counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation. This paper introduces a systematic and practical solvent system selection strategy based on the nonrandom two-liquid segment activity coefficient (NRTL-SAC) model, which is efficient in predicting the solute partition coefficient. Firstly, the application of the NRTL-SAC method was extended to the ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water and chloroform/methanol/water solvent system families. Moreover, the versatility and predictive capability of the NRTL-SAC method were investigated. The results indicate that the solute molecular parameters identified from hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water solvent system family are capable of predicting a large number of partition coefficients in several other different solvent system families. The NRTL-SAC strategy was further validated by successfully separating five components from Salvia plebeian R.Br. We therefore propose that NRTL-SAC is a promising high throughput method for rapid solvent system selection and highly adaptable to screen suitable solvent system for real-life CCC separation. PMID:25818557

  17. Vapor pressure measurements on non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. Part 2. Tetraalkylammonium salts in methanol. Activity coefficients of various 1-1 electrolytes at high concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Barthel, J.; Lauermann, G.; Neueder, R.

    1986-10-01

    Precise vapor pressure data for solutions of Et/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/NBr, Bu/sub 4/Nl, Bu/sub 4/NClO/sub 4/, and Am/sub 4/NBr in methanol at 25/sup 0/C in the concentration range 0.04 < m(mol-(kg of solvent)/sup -1/) < 1.6 are communicated and discussed. Polynomials in molalities are given which may be used for calculating precise vapor pressure depressions of these solutions. Osmotic coefficients are calculated by taking into account the second virial coefficient of methanol vapor. Discussion of the data at low concentrations is based on the chemical model of electrolyte solutions taking into account non-coulombic interactions; ion-pair association constants are compared to those of conductance measurements. Pitzer equations are used to reproduce osmotic and activity coefficient at high concentrations; the set of Pitzer parameters b = 3.2, ..cap alpha../sub 1/ = 2.0 and ..cap alpha../sub 2/ = 20.0 is proposed for methanol solutions.

  18. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 5; Numerical Computation of Acoustic Mode Reflection Coefficients for an Unflanged Cylindrical Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    A computational method to predict modal reflection coefficients in cylindrical ducts has been developed based on the work of Homicz, Lordi, and Rehm, which uses the Wiener-Hopf method to account for the boundary conditions at the termination of a thin cylindrical pipe. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational routine to predict the reflection coefficients of higher order acoustic modes impinging on the unflanged termination of a cylindrical duct. This effort was conducted wider Task Order 5 of the NASA Lewis LET Program, Active Noise Control of aircraft Engines: Feasibility Study, and will be used as part of the development of an integrated source noise, acoustic propagation, ANC actuator coupling, and control system algorithm simulation. The reflection coefficient prediction will be incorporated into an existing cylindrical duct modal analysis to account for the reflection of modes from the duct termination. This will provide a more accurate, rapid computation design tool for evaluating the effect of reflected waves on active noise control systems mounted in the duct, as well as providing a tool for the design of acoustic treatment in inlet ducts. As an active noise control system design tool, the method can be used preliminary to more accurate but more numerically intensive acoustic propagation models such as finite element methods. The resulting computer program has been shown to give reasonable results, some examples of which are presented. Reliable data to use for comparison is scarce, so complete checkout is difficult, and further checkout is needed over a wider range of system parameters. In future efforts the method will be adapted as a subroutine to the GEAE segmented cylindrical duct modal analysis program.

  19. Correct disulfide pairing is required for the biological activity of crustacean androgenic gland hormone (AGH): synthetic studies of AGH.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Hidekazu; Hojo, Hironobu; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Ishii, Akira; Nozaki, Takamichi; Goto, Kiyomi; Nakahara, Yuko; Takahashi, Tetsuo; Hasegawa, Yuriko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nakahara, Yoshiaki

    2010-03-01

    Androgenic gland hormone (AGH) of the woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare, is a heterodimeric glycopeptide. In this study, we synthesized AGH with a homogeneous N-linked glycan using the expressed protein ligation method. Unexpectedly, disulfide bridge arrangement of a semisynthetic peptide differed from that of a recombinant peptide prepared in a baculovirus expression system, and the semisynthetic peptide showed no biological activity in vivo. To confirm that the loss of biological activity resulted from disulfide bond isomerization, AGH with a GlcNAc moiety was chemically synthesized by the selective disulfide formation. This synthetic AGH showed biological activity in vivo. These results indicate that the native conformation of AGH is not the most thermodynamically stable form, and correct disulfide linkages are important for conferring AGH activity. PMID:20092253

  20. Using an active primary surface to correct for low-order manufacturing errors in secondary mirrors of large reflector antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes-Medellin, German; Lovell, Amy J.; Enriquez, Rogerio; Smith, David R.

    2004-09-01

    In the fabrication of high-performance, low-cost secondary reflectors for radio telescopes, it is a significant challenge to avoid introduction of low-order surface errors such as astigmatism or coma. This arises primarily because low-order surface errors are easily induced by support structure placement or simple thermal variations in the manufacturing process. It is, of course, possible to bring these errors to within the required tolerance, but if an active primary reflector is present, it may be possible to relax the requirements on the secondary and perhaps lower its cost. In this paper, we take the Large Millimeter-wave Telescope (LMT/GTM) as an example system. We model the effects of correcting a deformed sub-reflector by using the existing segmented active primary. The sub-reflector deformation patterns employed are low-order (e.g., astigmatism or coma), but are allowed significant excursions from the nominal surface figure. For each case, we demonstrate the best theoretical performance, using the active primary to correct for the errors. Additionally, to determine whether such an approach would be practical, we also demonstrate the likely performance improvement that could be achieved using brief measurements on an astronomical source. In this approach, we introduce varying amounts of known low-order deformation patterns into the active primary and seek the combination that results in the maximum signal. Finally, we compare this result to the theoretical maximum and make recommendations on the practical utility of the approach.

  1. Warm-up with weighted bat and adjustment of upper limb muscle activity in bat swinging under movement correction conditions.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Yoichi; Ishii, Yasumitsu; Ikudome, Sachi; Nakamoto, Hiroki

    2014-02-01

    The effects of weighted bat warm-up on adjustment of upper limb muscle activity were investigated during baseball bat swinging under dynamic conditions that require a spatial and temporal adjustment of the swinging to hit a moving target. Seven male college baseball players participated in this study. Using a batting simulator, the task was to swing the standard bat coincident with the arrival timing and position of a moving target after three warm-up swings using a standard or weighted bat. There was no significant effect of weighted bat warm-up on muscle activity before impact associated with temporal or spatial movement corrections. However, lower inhibition of the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle activity was observed in a velocity-changed condition in the weighted bat warm-up, as compared to a standard bat warm-up. It is suggested that weighted bat warm-up decreases the adjustment ability associated with inhibition of muscle activation under movement correction conditions. PMID:24724516

  2. Critical Assessment of P2O5 Activity Coefficients in CaO-based Slags during Dephosphorization Process of Iron-based Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-min; Li, Jin-yan; Chai, Guo-Ming; Duan, Dong-ping; Zhang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    According to the experimental results of hot metal dephosphorization by CaO-based slags at a commercial-scale hot metal pretreatment station, activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in the CaO-based slags has been determined using the calculated comprehensive mass action concentration N_{{{{Fe}}t {{O}}}}{} of iron oxides by the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT) for representing the reaction ability of Fe t O, i.e., activity of a_{{{{Fe}}t {{O}}}}{} . The collected ten models from the literature for predicting activity coefficient γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags have been evaluated based on the determined activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 by the IMCT as the criterion. The collected ten models of activity coefficient γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags can be described in the form of a linear function as log γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} ≡ y = c0 + c1 x , in which independent variable x represents the chemical composition of slags, intercept c0 including the constant term depicts temperature effect and other unmentioned or acquiescent thermodynamic factors, and slope c1 is regressed by the experimental results. Thus, a general approach for obtaining good prediction results of activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags is proposed by revising the constant term in intercept c0 for the collected ten models. The better models with an ideal revising possibility or flexibility in the collected ten models have been selected and recommended.

  3. Critical Assessment of P2O5 Activity Coefficients in CaO-based Slags during Dephosphorization Process of Iron-based Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-min; Li, Jin-yan; Chai, Guo-Ming; Duan, Dong-ping; Zhang, Jian

    2016-08-01

    According to the experimental results of hot metal dephosphorization by CaO-based slags at a commercial-scale hot metal pretreatment station, activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in the CaO-based slags has been determined using the calculated comprehensive mass action concentration N_{{{{Fe}}t {{O}}}}{} of iron oxides by the ion and molecule coexistence theory (IMCT) for representing the reaction ability of Fe t O, i.e., activity of a_{{{{Fe}}t {{O}}}}{} . The collected ten models from the literature for predicting activity coefficient γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags have been evaluated based on the determined activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 by the IMCT as the criterion. The collected ten models of activity coefficient γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags can be described in the form of a linear function as log γ_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} ≡ y = c0 + c1 x , in which independent variable x represents the chemical composition of slags, intercept c0 including the constant term depicts temperature effect and other unmentioned or acquiescent thermodynamic factors, and slope c1 is regressed by the experimental results. Thus, a general approach for obtaining good prediction results of activity a_{{{{P}}_{ 2} {{O}}_{ 5} }} of P2O5 in CaO-based slags is proposed by revising the constant term in intercept c0 for the collected ten models. The better models with an ideal revising possibility or flexibility in the collected ten models have been selected and recommended.

  4. ERRORS IN APPLYING LOW ION-STRENGTH ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT ALGORITHMS TO HIGHER IONIC-STRENGTH AQUATIC MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicological and regulatory communities are currently exploring the use of free-ion-activity- models as a means of reducing uncertainties in current methods for assessing metals bioavailabi- lity from contaminated aquatic media. While most practitioners would support the des...

  5. ERRORS IN APPLYING LOW IONIC-STRENGTH ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT ALGORITHMS TO HIGHER IONIC-STRENGTH AQUATIC MEDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicological and regulatory communities are currently exploring the use of the free-ion-activity (FIA) model both alone and in conjunction with the biotic ligand model (BLM) as a means of reducing uncertainties in current methods for assessing metals bioavailability from aqu...

  6. Optical correction using fourier transform heterodyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, Bryan E.; Nemzek, Robert J.; Cooke, Bradly J.; Olivas, Nicholas L.; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Smith, J. A.; Weisse-Bernstein, Nina R.

    2005-08-01

    In this paper we briefly present the theory of Fourier Transform Heterodyne (FTH), describe past verification experiments carried out, and discuss the experiment designed to use this new imaging technology to perform optical correction. FTH uses the scalar projection of a reference laser beam and a test laser beam onto a single element detector. The complex current in the detector yields the coefficient of the scalar projection. By projecting a complete orthonormal basis set of reference beams onto the test beam, the amplitude and phase of the test beam can be measured, allowing the reconstruction of the phasefront of the image. Experiments to determine this technique's applicability to optical correction and optical self-correction are continuing. Applications of this technique beyond optical correction include adaptive optics; interferometry; and active, high background, low signal imaging.

  7. Activation of the biochemical processes in an oil-contaminated soil using a light-correcting film and humic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatov, D. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Yudina, N. V.

    2011-02-01

    It was shown that the use of a light-correcting film as a covering material for an oil-contaminated soil in combination with humic acids increased the number of the main physiological groups of the soil microorganisms responsible for the development of the soil's fertility (heterotrophic bacteria, actinomycetes, and micromycetes) by 60-100 times. The activity of the soil enzymes (catalase, dehydrogenase, polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase, and urease) increased by 3-6 times. The biochemical oxidation of oil hydrocarbons in the soil became significantly more intense.

  8. Application of single ion activity coefficients to determine solvent extraction mechanism for components of high level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-12-31

    The TRUEX solvent extraction process is being developed to remove and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from high-level and TRU radioactive wastes currently stored at US Department of Energy sites. Phosphoric acid is one of the chemical species of concern at the Hanford site where bismuth phosphate was used to recover plutonium. The mechanism of phosphoric acid extraction with TRUEX-NPH solvent at 25{degrees}C was determined by phosphoric acid distribution ratios, which were measured by using phosphoric acid radiotracer and a variety of aqueous phases containing different concentrations of nitric acid and nitrate ions. A model was developed for predicting phosphoric acid distribution ratios as a function of the thermodynamic activities of nitrate ion and hydrogen ion. The Generic TRUEX Model (GTM) was used to calculate these activities based on the Bromley method. The derived model supports CMPO and TBP extraction of a phosphoric acid-nitric acid complex and a CMPO-phosphoric acid complex in TRUEX-NPH solvent.

  9. A PHANTOM FOR DETERMINATION OF CALIBRATION COEFFICIENTS AND MINIMUM DETECTABLE ACTIVITIES USING A DUAL-HEAD GAMMA CAMERA FOR INTERNAL CONTAMINATION MONITORING FOLLOWING RADIATION EMERGENCY SITUATIONS.

    PubMed

    Ören, Ünal; Andersson, Martin; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to derive calibration coefficients (in terms of cps kBq(-1)) and minimum detectable activities, MDA, (in terms of kBq and corresponding dose rate) for the dual head gamma camera part of an SPECT/CT-instrument when used for in vivo internal contamination measurements in radiation emergency situations. A cylindrical-conical PMMA phantom with diameters in the range of 7-30 cm was developed in order to simulate different body parts and individuals of different sizes. A series of planar gamma camera investigations were conducted using an SPECT/CT modality with the collimators removed for (131)I and (137)Cs, radionuclides potentially associated with radiation emergencies. Energy windows of 337-391 and 490-690 keV were selected for (131)I and (137)Cs, respectively. The measurements show that the calibration coefficients for (137)Cs range from 10 to 19 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values in the range of 0.29-0.55 kBq for phantom diameters of 10-30 cm. The corresponding values for (131)I are 12-37 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values of 0.08-0.26 kBq. An internal dosimetry computer program was used for the estimation of minimum detectable dose rates. A thyroid uptake of 0.1 kBq (131)I (representing MDA) corresponds to an effective dose rate of 0.6 µSv d(-1) A (137)Cs source position representing the colon with an MDA of 0.55 kBq corresponds to an effective dose rate was 1 µSv y(-1) This method using a simple phantom for the determination of calibration coefficients, and MDA levels can be implemented within the emergency preparedness plans in hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. The derived data will help to quickly estimate the internal contamination of humans following radiation emergencies. PMID:26769903

  10. An AP endonuclease functions in active DNA demethylation and gene imprinting in Arabidopsis [corrected].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Córdoba-Cañero, Dolores; Qian, Weiqiang; Zhu, Xiaohong; Tang, Kai; Zhang, Huiming; Ariza, Rafael R; Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2015-01-01

    Active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair, beginning with removal of methylated cytosine by the ROS1/DME subfamily of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases. Active DNA demethylation in animals requires the DNA glycosylase TDG or MBD4, which functions after oxidation or deamination of 5-methylcytosine, respectively. However, little is known about the steps following DNA glycosylase action in the active DNA demethylation pathways in plants and animals. We show here that the Arabidopsis APE1L protein has apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activities and functions downstream of ROS1 and DME. APE1L and ROS1 interact in vitro and co-localize in vivo. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing of ape1l mutant plants revealed widespread alterations in DNA methylation. We show that the ape1l/zdp double mutant displays embryonic lethality. Notably, the ape1l+/-zdp-/- mutant shows a maternal-effect lethality phenotype. APE1L and the DNA phosphatase ZDP are required for FWA and MEA gene imprinting in the endosperm and are important for seed development. Thus, APE1L is a new component of the active DNA demethylation pathway and, together with ZDP, regulates gene imprinting in Arabidopsis. PMID:25569774

  11. Sensory feedback, error correction, and remapping in a multiple oscillator model of place-cell activity.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Joseph D; Knierim, James J; Zhang, Kechen

    2011-01-01

    Mammals navigate by integrating self-motion signals ("path integration") and occasionally fixing on familiar environmental landmarks. The rat hippocampus is a model system of spatial representation in which place cells are thought to integrate both sensory and spatial information from entorhinal cortex. The localized firing fields of hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid-cells demonstrate a phase relationship with the local theta (6-10 Hz) rhythm that may be a temporal signature of path integration. However, encoding self-motion in the phase of theta oscillations requires high temporal precision and is susceptible to idiothetic noise, neuronal variability, and a changing environment. We present a model based on oscillatory interference theory, previously studied in the context of grid cells, in which transient temporal synchronization among a pool of path-integrating theta oscillators produces hippocampal-like place fields. We hypothesize that a spatiotemporally extended sensory interaction with external cues modulates feedback to the theta oscillators. We implement a form of this cue-driven feedback and show that it can retrieve fixed points in the phase code of position. A single cue can smoothly reset oscillator phases to correct for both systematic errors and continuous noise in path integration. Further, simulations in which local and global cues are rotated against each other reveal a phase-code mechanism in which conflicting cue arrangements can reproduce experimentally observed distributions of "partial remapping" responses. This abstract model demonstrates that phase-code feedback can provide stability to the temporal coding of position during navigation and may contribute to the context-dependence of hippocampal spatial representations. While the anatomical substrates of these processes have not been fully characterized, our findings suggest several signatures that can be evaluated in future experiments. PMID:21994494

  12. NAD(+)-dependent activation of Sirt1 corrects the phenotype in a mouse model of mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Cerutti, Raffaele; Pirinen, Eija; Lamperti, Costanza; Marchet, Silvia; Sauve, Anthony A; Li, Wei; Leoni, Valerio; Schon, Eric A; Dantzer, Françoise; Auwerx, Johan; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways related to mitochondrial biogenesis are targets of Sirtuin1, a NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase. As NAD(+) boosts the activity of Sirtuin1 and other sirtuins, intracellular levels of NAD(+) play a key role in the homeostatic control of mitochondrial function by the metabolic status of the cell. We show here that supplementation with nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD(+) precursor, or reduction of NAD(+) consumption by inhibiting the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, leads to marked improvement of the respiratory chain defect and exercise intolerance of the Sco2 knockout/knockin mouse, a mitochondrial disease model characterized by impaired cytochrome c oxidase biogenesis. This strategy is potentially translatable into therapy of mitochondrial disorders in humans. PMID:24814483

  13. [Variable magnetic field of 8 Hz corrects the opioid system activity in mollusks behind the ferromagnetic screening].

    PubMed

    Temur'iants, N A; Kostiuk, A S

    2014-01-01

    The three phases of mollusk nociception alteration as a result of extended ferromagnetic screening combined with exposure to a variable magnetic field of 8 Hz correlated with phase changes in the opioid system activity (OSA) deduced from the naloxone action on the thermal avoidance response. On phase I, OSA inactivation was inhibited and, consequently, hyperalgesia progression was expedited. On phase II, OSA rose so that naloxone annulled completely the antinociceptive effect produced by the ferromagnetic screening. On phase III, OSA declined progressively, as naloxone merely reduced the antinociceptive effect because of apparently, growing OSA tolerance to the ferromagnetic screening. Phase I was absent when mollusks were exposed to the ferromagnetic screening and variable magnetic field; however, OSA changes on phases II and III were present. It was concluded that the variable magnetic field of 8 Hz can be used for correcting changes in the opioid system activity in mollusks behind the ferromagnetic screening. PMID:25163338

  14. Correction: Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Parapat, Riny Y; Wijaya, Muliany; Schwarze, Michael; Selve, Sören; Willinger, Marc; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Correction for 'Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions' by Riny Y. Parapat et al., Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 796-805. PMID:26961853

  15. Correction: Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parapat, Riny Y.; Wijaya, Muliany; Schwarze, Michael; Selve, Sören; Willinger, Marc; Schomäcker, Reinhard

    2016-03-01

    Correction for `Particle shape optimization by changing from an isotropic to an anisotropic nanostructure: preparation of highly active and stable supported Pt catalysts in microemulsions' by Riny Y. Parapat et al., Nanoscale, 2013, 5, 796-805.

  16. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  17. 78 FR 45051 - Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for Mining; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... June 20, 2013 (78 FR 37404). The document amended SBA's Small Business Size Regulations by increasing.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-14712 appearing on page 37404 in the June 20, 2013 Federal Register... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 121 RIN 3245-AG44 Small Business Size Standards; Support Activities for...

  18. Activation of the melastatin-related cation channel TRPM3 by D-erythro-sphingosine [corrected].

    PubMed

    Grimm, Christian; Kraft, Robert; Schultz, Günter; Harteneck, Christian

    2005-03-01

    TRPM3, a member of the melastatin-like transient receptor potential channel subfamily (TRPM), is predominantly expressed in human kidney and brain. TRPM3 mediates spontaneous Ca2+ entry and nonselective cation currents in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Using measurements with the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura-2 and the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we found that D-erythro-sphingosine, a metabolite arising during the de novo synthesis of cellular sphingolipids, activated TRPM3. Other transient receptor potential (TRP) channels tested [classic or canonical TRP (TRPC3, TRPC4, TRPC5), vanilloid-like TRP (TRPV4, TRPV5, TRPV6), and melastatin-like TRP (TRPM2)] did not significantly respond to application of sphingosine. Sphingosine-induced TRPM3 activation was not mediated by inhibition of protein kinase C, depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores, and intracellular conversion of sphingosine to sphingosine-1-phosphate. Although sphingosine-1-phosphate and ceramides had no effect, two structural analogs of sphingosine, dihydro-D-erythro-sphingosine and N,N-dimethyl-D-erythro-sphingosine, also activated TRPM3. Sphingolipids, including sphingosine, are known to have inhibitory effects on a variety of ion channels. Thus, TRPM3 is the first ion channel activated by sphingolipids. PMID:15550678

  19. Stability evaluation and correction of a pulsed neutron generator prompt gamma activation analysis system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source output stability is important for accurate measurement in prompt gamma neutron activation. This is especially true when measuring low-concentration elements such as in vivo nitrogen (~2.5% of body weight). We evaluated the stability of the compact DT neutron generator within an in vivo nitrog...

  20. Effect of Silicon on Activity Coefficients of Siderophile Elements (P, Au, Pd, As, Ge, Sb, and In) in Liquid Fe, with Application to Core Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Danielson, L. R.; Humayun, M.; Righter, M.; Lapen, T.; Boujibar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Earth's core contains approximately 10 percent light elements that are likely a combination of S, C, Si, and O, with Si possibly being the most abundant. Si dissolved into Fe liquids can have a large effect on the magnitude of the activity coefficient of siderophile elements (SE) in Fe liquids, and thus the partitioning behavior of those elements between core and mantle. The effect of Si can be small such as for Ni and Co, or large such as for Mo, Ge, Sb, As. The effect of Si on many siderophile elements is unknown yet could be an important, and as yet unquantified, influence on the core-mantle partitioning of SE. Here we report new experiments designed to quantify the effect of Si on the partitioning of P, Au, Pd, and many other SE between metal and silicate melt. The results will be applied to Earth, for which we have excellent constraints on the mantle siderophile element concentrations.

  1. Mechanisms by Which Interleukin-12 Corrects Defective NK Cell Anticryptococcal Activity in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kyei, Stephen K.; Ogbomo, Henry; Li, ShuShun; Timm-McCann, Martina; Xiang, Richard F.; Huston, Shaunna M.; Ganguly, Anutosh; Colarusso, Pina; Gill, M. John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans is a pathogenic yeast and a leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in AIDS patients. Natural killer (NK) cells are important immune effector cells that directly recognize and kill C. neoformans via a perforin-dependent cytotoxic mechanism. We previously showed that NK cells from HIV-infected patients have aberrant anticryptococcal killing and that interleukin-12 (IL-12) restores the activity at least partially through restoration of NKp30. However, the mechanisms causing this defect or how IL-12 restores the function was unknown. By examining the sequential steps in NK cell killing of Cryptococcus, we found that NK cells from HIV-infected patients had defective binding of NK cells to C. neoformans. Moreover, those NK cells that bound to C. neoformans failed to polarize perforin-containing granules to the microbial synapse compared to healthy controls, suggesting that binding was insufficient to restore a defect in perforin polarization. We also identified lower expression of intracellular perforin and defective perforin release from NK cells of HIV-infected patients in response to C. neoformans. Importantly, treatment of NK cells from HIV-infected patients with IL-12 reversed the multiple defects in binding, granule polarization, perforin content, and perforin release and restored anticryptococcal activity. Thus, there are multiple defects in the cytolytic machinery of NK cells from HIV-infected patients, which cumulatively result in defective NK cell anticryptococcal activity, and each of these defects can be reversed with IL-12. PMID:27555306

  2. Transmit B1 Field Correction at 7T using Actively Tuned Coupled Inner Elements

    PubMed Central

    Merkle, Hellmut; Murphy-Boesch, Joseph; van Gelderen, Peter; Wang, Shumin; Li, Tie-Qiang; Koretsky, Alan P.; Duyn, Josef H.

    2011-01-01

    When volume coils are used for 1H imaging of the human head at 7T, wavelength effects in tissue cause intensity variations that are typically brighter at the center of the head and darker in the periphery. Much of this image non-uniformity can be attributed to variation in the effective transmit B1 field, which falls by about 50% to the left and right of center at mid-elevation in the brain. Because most of this B1 loss occurs in the periphery of the brain, we have explored use of actively controlled, off-resonant loop elements to locally enhance the transmit B1 field in these regions. When tuned to frequencies above the NMR frequency, these elements provide strong local enhancement of the B1 field of the transmit coil. Because they are tuned off-resonance, some volume coil detuning results, but resistive loading of the coil mode remains dominated by the sample. By digitally controlling their frequency offsets, the field enhancement of each inner element can be placed under active control. Using an array of eight, digitally-controlled elements placed around a custom-built head phantom, we demonstrate the feasibility of improving the B1 homogeneity of a transmit/receive volume coil without the need for multiple RF transmit channels. PMID:21437974

  3. Expression and purification of correctly processed, active human TACE catalytic domain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Clarke, H R; Wolfson, M F; Rauch, C T; Castner, B J; Huang, C P; Gerhart, M J; Johnson, R S; Cerretti, D P; Paxton, R J; Price, V L; Black, R A

    1998-06-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) converting enzyme (TACE) releases soluble TNF alpha from cells. It is a member of the adamalysin family of metalloproteases. A truncated form of TACE cDNA was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified to homogeneity in order to study TACE structure and function. Recombinant TACE was expressed as a preproprotein including the pro- and catalytic (PROCAT) domains fused to the yeast alpha-factor leader. A C-terminal immunoreactive FLAG peptide was added for Western blot detection and anti-FLAG antibody column purification. We constructed two glycosylation mutant PROCAT TACE isoforms to facilitate purification. A PROCAT isoform, mutated to eliminate two N-linked glycosylation sites, was buffer exchanged and purified to homogeneity by ion exchange chromatography and an anti-FLAG antibody affinity step. N-terminal sequence analysis showed that the mutant preproprotein was processed in yeast at the furin protease cleavage site and yielded an active catalytic domain which has TNF alpha peptide-specific protease activity. Mass spectrometry of the purified catalytic domain showed that removal of both N-linked sites results in a homogeneous sized polypeptide lacking further posttranslational modifications. PMID:9631522

  4. MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2012-08-01

    Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

  5. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  6. Curvature wavefront sensing performance evaluation for active correction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

    PubMed

    Manuel, Anastacia M; Phillion, Donald W; Olivier, Scot S; Baker, Kevin L; Cannon, Brice

    2010-01-18

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, modified Paul-Baker design, with an 8.4-meter primary mirror, a 3.4-m secondary, and a 5.0-m tertiary, along with three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat focal plane with a field of view of 9.6 square degrees. In order to maintain image quality during operation, the deformations and rigid body motions of the three large mirrors must be actively controlled to minimize optical aberrations, which arise primarily from forces due to gravity and thermal expansion. We describe the methodology for measuring the telescope aberrations using a set of curvature wavefront sensors located in the four corners of the LSST camera focal plane. We present a comprehensive analysis of the wavefront sensing system, including the availability of reference stars, demonstrating that this system will perform to the specifications required to meet the LSST performance goals. PMID:20173981

  7. [Losartan for the correction of thrombocyte activity in patients suffering from arterial hypertension with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V B; medvedev, i N; Kumova, T A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate therapeutic effects of losartan on intravascular thrombocyte activity (ITA) in patients suffering from arterial hypertension with metabolic syndrome (MS). The subjects of the study were 35 patients administered losartan 50 mg a day for 4 months. The dynamics of the following parameters were evaluated: anthropometric parameters, blood lipids, lipid peroxidation in blood plasma and thrombocytes, the anti-oxidative protection of the liquid part of blood and platelets, and ITA. Student criterion was used for statistical analysis. In patients with AH and MS losartan had a positive effect on peroxidation syndrome and optimized ITA. To maintain the positive effects, prolonged administration of losartan is needed. In order to lower body mass in AH patients with MS losartan should be used in combination with non-drug means. PMID:18326282

  8. Second-order perturbative corrections to the restricted active space configuration interaction with the hole and particle approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, David

    2014-04-01

    Second-order corrections to the restricted active space configuration interaction (RASCI) with the hole and particle truncation of the excitation operator are developed. Theoretically, the computational cost of the implemented perturbative approach, abbreviated as RASCI(2), grows like its single reference counterpart in MP2. Two different forms of RASCI(2) have been explored, that is the generalized Davidson-Kapuy and the Epstein-Nesbet partitions of the Hamiltonian. The preliminary results indicate that the use of energy level shift of a few tenths of a Hartree might systematically improve the accuracy of the RASCI(2) energies. The method has been tested in the computation of the ground state energy profiles along the dissociation of the hydrogen fluoride and N2 molecules, the computation of correlation energy in the G2/97 molecular test set, and in the computation of excitation energies to low-lying states in small organic molecules.

  9. Second-order perturbative corrections to the restricted active space configuration interaction with the hole and particle approach

    SciTech Connect

    Casanova, David

    2014-04-14

    Second-order corrections to the restricted active space configuration interaction (RASCI) with the hole and particle truncation of the excitation operator are developed. Theoretically, the computational cost of the implemented perturbative approach, abbreviated as RASCI(2), grows like its single reference counterpart in MP2. Two different forms of RASCI(2) have been explored, that is the generalized Davidson-Kapuy and the Epstein-Nesbet partitions of the Hamiltonian. The preliminary results indicate that the use of energy level shift of a few tenths of a Hartree might systematically improve the accuracy of the RASCI(2) energies. The method has been tested in the computation of the ground state energy profiles along the dissociation of the hydrogen fluoride and N{sub 2} molecules, the computation of correlation energy in the G2/97 molecular test set, and in the computation of excitation energies to low-lying states in small organic molecules.

  10. Harmonic and power factor correction by means of active line conditioners with adaptive estimation control

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the proliferation of power electronic devices in recent years, the amount of harmonic current injected into power systems is on the increase causing undesirable voltage waveform distortion. A new type of versatile Active Power Line Conditioner able to supply a DC load while generating useful harmonics which help reduce the voltage distortion at the connected bus was designed, built and analyzed. The optimum design was obtained by means of an economic study that considers the power loss, the cost of an RFI filter and the effect of the switching rate. An adaptive methodology, requiring only knowledge of the bus voltage distortion, was developed and applied to adjust the amplitudes and phase angles of the injected harmonic currents. This novel approach is based on reducing the voltage Total Harmonic Distortion by minimizing the individual harmonic voltages in an error signal using a gradient method. Through successive adjustments, the difference between the actual bus voltage and the desired bus voltage is minimized. The proposed method can be successfully applied in low and medium voltage networks with multiple nonlinear loads scattered among linear loads.

  11. High Contrast Imaging with an Arbitrary Aperture: Active Correction of Aperture Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2013-12-01

    We discuss the application of a new method to achieve high-contrast images with Extremely Large Telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum in the optimization topology. We solve the highly non-linear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential Deformable Mirror system and show that high-throughput and high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We quantify the performances of this technique on various ELTs geometries. We illustrate its application when seeking to maintain high contrast in the configuration for which some of the primary mirror's segments might be missing.

  12. MR-based motion correction for PET imaging using wired active MR microcoils in simultaneous PET-MR: Phantom study1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chuan; Ackerman, Jerome L.; Petibon, Yoann; Brady, Thomas J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Ouyang, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Artifacts caused by head motion present a major challenge in brain positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The authors investigated the feasibility of using wired active MR microcoils to track head motion and incorporate the measured rigid motion fields into iterative PET reconstruction. Methods: Several wired active MR microcoils and a dedicated MR coil-tracking sequence were developed. The microcoils were attached to the outer surface of an anthropomorphic 18F-filled Hoffman phantom to mimic a brain PET scan. Complex rotation/translation motion of the phantom was induced by a balloon, which was connected to a ventilator. PET list-mode and MR tracking data were acquired simultaneously on a PET-MR scanner. The acquired dynamic PET data were reconstructed iteratively with and without motion correction. Additionally, static phantom data were acquired and used as the gold standard. Results: Motion artifacts in PET images were effectively removed by wired active MR microcoil based motion correction. Motion correction yielded an activity concentration bias ranging from −0.6% to 3.4% as compared to a bias ranging from −25.0% to 16.6% if no motion correction was applied. The contrast recovery values were improved by 37%–156% with motion correction as compared to no motion correction. The image correlation (mean ± standard deviation) between the motion corrected (uncorrected) images of 20 independent noise realizations and static reference was R2 = 0.978 ± 0.007 (0.588 ± 0.010, respectively). Conclusions: Wired active MR microcoil based motion correction significantly improves brain PET quantitative accuracy and image contrast. PMID:24694141

  13. Coefficients for Interrater Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zegers, Frits E.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of agreement between two raters rating several objects for a single characteristic can be expressed through an association coefficient, such as the Pearson product-moment correlation. How to select an appropriate association coefficient, and the desirable properties and uses of a class of such coefficients--the Euclidean…

  14. Lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) intrinsic activity correction and minimal detectable target activity study for SPECT imaging with a LSO-based animal PET scanner.

    PubMed

    Yao, Rutao; Ma, Tianyu; Shao, Yiping

    2008-08-21

    This work is part of a feasibility study to develop SPECT imaging capability on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based animal PET system. The SPECT acquisition was enabled by inserting a collimator assembly inside the detector ring and acquiring data in singles mode. The same LSO detectors were used for both PET and SPECT imaging. The intrinsic radioactivity of (176)Lu in the LSO crystals, however, contaminates the SPECT data, and can generate image artifacts and introduce quantification error. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of a LSO background subtraction method, and to estimate the minimal detectable target activity (MDTA) of image object for SPECT imaging. For LSO background correction, the LSO contribution in an image study was estimated based on a pre-measured long LSO background scan and subtracted prior to the image reconstruction. The MDTA was estimated in two ways. The empirical MDTA (eMDTA) was estimated from screening the tomographic images at different activity levels. The calculated MDTA (cMDTA) was estimated from using a formula based on applying a modified Currie equation on an average projection dataset. Two simulated and two experimental phantoms with different object activity distributions and levels were used in this study. The results showed that LSO background adds concentric ring artifacts to the reconstructed image, and the simple subtraction method can effectively remove these artifacts-the effect of the correction was more visible when the object activity level was near or above the eMDTA. For the four phantoms studied, the cMDTA was consistently about five times of the corresponding eMDTA. In summary, we implemented a simple LSO background subtraction method and demonstrated its effectiveness. The projection-based calculation formula yielded MDTA results that closely correlate with that obtained empirically and may have predicative value for imaging applications. PMID:18670052

  15. Lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) intrinsic activity correction and minimal detectable target activity study for SPECT imaging with a LSO-based animal PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rutao; Ma, Tianyu; Shao, Yiping

    2008-08-01

    This work is part of a feasibility study to develop SPECT imaging capability on a lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) based animal PET system. The SPECT acquisition was enabled by inserting a collimator assembly inside the detector ring and acquiring data in singles mode. The same LSO detectors were used for both PET and SPECT imaging. The intrinsic radioactivity of 176Lu in the LSO crystals, however, contaminates the SPECT data, and can generate image artifacts and introduce quantification error. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of a LSO background subtraction method, and to estimate the minimal detectable target activity (MDTA) of image object for SPECT imaging. For LSO background correction, the LSO contribution in an image study was estimated based on a pre-measured long LSO background scan and subtracted prior to the image reconstruction. The MDTA was estimated in two ways. The empirical MDTA (eMDTA) was estimated from screening the tomographic images at different activity levels. The calculated MDTA (cMDTA) was estimated from using a formula based on applying a modified Currie equation on an average projection dataset. Two simulated and two experimental phantoms with different object activity distributions and levels were used in this study. The results showed that LSO background adds concentric ring artifacts to the reconstructed image, and the simple subtraction method can effectively remove these artifacts—the effect of the correction was more visible when the object activity level was near or above the eMDTA. For the four phantoms studied, the cMDTA was consistently about five times of the corresponding eMDTA. In summary, we implemented a simple LSO background subtraction method and demonstrated its effectiveness. The projection-based calculation formula yielded MDTA results that closely correlate with that obtained empirically and may have predicative value for imaging applications.

  16. ΔF508 CFTR processing correction and activity in polarized airway and non-airway cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, SM; Pyle, LC; Jurkevante, A; Varga, K; Collawn, J; Sloane, PA; Woodworth, B; Mazur, M; Fulton, J; Fan, L; Li, Y; Fortenberry, J; Sorscher, EJ; Clancy, JP

    2010-01-01

    We examined the activity of ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) stably expressed in polarized cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE41o−) human airway cells and Fisher Rat Thyroid (FRT) cells following treatment with low temperature and a panel of small molecule correctors of ΔF508 CFTR misprocessing. Corr-4a increased ΔF508 CFTR-dependent Cl− conductance in both cell types, whereas treatment with VRT-325 or VRT-640 increased activity only in FRT cells. Total currents stimulated by forskolin and genistein demonstrated similar dose/response effects to Corr-4a treatment in each cell type. When examining the relative contribution of forskolin and genistein to total stimulated current, CFBE41o− cells had smaller forskolin-stimulated Isc following either low temperature or corr-4a treatment (10–30% of the total Isc produced by the combination of both CFTR agonists). In contrast, forskolin consistently contributed greater than 40% of total Isc in ΔF508 CFTR expressing FRT cells corrected with low temperature, and corr-4a treatment preferentially enhanced forskolin dependent currents only in FRT cells (60% of total Isc). ΔF508 CFTR cDNA transcript levels, ΔF508 CFTR C band levels, or cAMP signaling did not account for the reduced forskolin response in CFBE41o− cells. Treatment with non-specific inhibitors of phosphodiesterases (papaverine) or phosphatases (endothall) did not restore ΔF508 CFTR activation by forskolin in CFBE41o− cells, indicating that the Cl− transport defect in airway cells is distal to cAMP or its metabolism. The results identify important differences in ΔF508 CFTR activation in polarizing epithelial models of CF, and have important implications regarding detection of rescued of ΔF508 CFTR in vivo. PMID:20226262

  17. Active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device during comprehensive Class II correction in growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Giorgio; Alvetro, Lisa; Defraia, Efisio; Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanc

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the active-treatment effects of the Forsus fatigue resistant device (Forsus) during comprehensive correction of Class II malocclusion in growing patients. Methods Fifty-four patients (mean age, 12.5 ± 1.2 years) with Class II division 1 malocclusion were consecutively treated with fixed app-liances in combination with Forsus. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the beginning of the fixed treatment (T1), Forsus insertion (T2), its removal (T3), and end of the comprehensive therapy (T4). Statistical comparisons were carried out by repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). Results The overall therapeutic effects were mainly dentoalveolar and occurred mostly during the active treatment with Forsus (T2-T3, mean duration = 0.5 ± 0.1 years). The overjet and overbite decreased significantly (-3.5 and -1.5 mm, respectively) and the molar relationship improved by 4.3 mm. These changes were associated with significant retroclination of the maxillary incisors (-3.1°), proclination and intrusion of the mandibular incisors (+5.0° and -1.5 mm, respectively), and mesialization of the mandibular molars (+2.0 mm). Conclusions Forsus had mainly dentoalveolar effects and contributed largely to the overall therapeutic outcome. PMID:24892027

  18. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  19. Isopiestic Investigation of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of {yMgCl2 + (1 - y)MgSO4}(aq) and the Osmotic Coefficients of Na2SO4.MgSO4(aq) at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Miladinovic, J; Ninkovic, R; Todorovic, M; Rard, J A

    2007-06-06

    Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements were made for {l_brace}yMgCl{sub 2} + (1-y)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) solutions with MgCl{sub 2} ionic strength fractions of y = 0, 0.1997, 0.3989, 0.5992, 0.8008, and (1) at the temperature 298.15 K, using KCl(aq) as the reference standard. These measurements for the mixtures cover the ionic strength range I = 0.9794 to 9.4318 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. In addition, isopiestic measurements were made with NaCl(aq) as reference standard for mixtures of {l_brace}xNa{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + (1-x)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) with the molality fraction x = 0.50000 that correspond to solutions of the evaporite mineral bloedite (astrakanite), Na{sub 2}Mg(SO{sub 4}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O(cr). The total molalities, m{sub T} = m(Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) + m(MgSO{sub 4}), range from m{sub T} = 1.4479 to 4.4312 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} (I = 5.0677 to 15.509 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}), where the uppermost concentration is the highest oversaturation molality that could be achieved by isothermal evaporation of the solvent at 298.15 K. The parameters of an extended ion-interaction (Pitzer) model for MgCl2(aq) at 298.15 K, which were required for an analysis of the {l_brace}yMgCl{sub 2} + (1-y)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) mixture results, were evaluated up to I = 12.025 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} from published isopiestic data together with the six new osmotic coefficients obtained in this study. Osmotic coefficients of {l_brace}yMgCl{sub 2} + (1-y)MgSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq) solutions from the present study, along with critically-assessed values from previous studies, were used to evaluate the mixing parameters of the extended ion-interaction model.

  20. Activity coefficients at infinite dilution measurements for organic solutes and water in the ionic liquid 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyridinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Andrzej; Wlazło, Michał

    2010-05-27

    The activity coefficients at infinite dilution, gamma(13)(infinity), for 37 solutes, alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, thiophene, ethers, ketones, and water, in the ionic liquid 1-(3-hydroxypropyl)pyridinium trifluorotris(perfluoroethyl)phosphate [N-C(3)OHPY][FAP] were determined by gas-liquid chromatography at the temperatures from 308.15 to 358.15 K. The partial molar excess enthalpies at infinite dilution values DeltaH(1)(E,infinity) were calculated from the experimental gamma(13)(infinity) values obtained over the temperature range. The selectivities for aliphatics/aromatics hydrocarbons separation problem were calculated from the gamma(13)(infinity) values and compared to the literature values for other ionic liquids, N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and sulfolane. It was found that the investigated [N-C(3)OHPY][FAP] ionic liquid shows much higher selectivity and capacity at infinite dilution than the generally used organic solvents such as NMP, sulfolane, and other ionic liquids. PMID:20429540

  1. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a deformable mirror in a woofer-tweeter configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2016-04-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's segmented mirror telescope (SMT) was developed using prototype silicon carbide active hybrid mirror technology to demonstrate lower cost and rapid manufacture of primary mirror segments for a space telescope. The developmental mirror segments used too few actuators limiting the ability to adequately correct the surface figure error. To address the unintended shortfall of the developmental mirrors, a deformable mirror is added to the SMT and control techniques are developed. The control techniques are similar to woofer-tweeter adaptive optics, where the SMT segment represents the woofer and the deformable mirror represents the tweeter. The optical design of an SMT woofer-tweeter system is presented, and the impacts of field angle magnification on the placement and size of the deformable mirror are analyzed. A space telescope woofer-tweeter wavefront control technique is proposed using a global influence matrix and closed-loop constrained minimization controller. The control technique simultaneously manipulates the woofer and tweeter mirrors. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate a significant improvement in wavefront error of the primary mirror and the control technique shows significant wavefront error improvement compared to sequentially controlling the woofer and tweeter mirrors.

  2. Calculation of the standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of KCl{sup 0} and activity coefficients of aqueous KCl at temperatures and pressures to 1000{degree}C and 5 kbar

    SciTech Connect

    Pokrovskii, V.A.; Helgeson, H.C.

    1997-06-01

    Regression of experimental activity coefficient and dissociation constant data reported in the literature with the Hueckel and Setchenow equations and the revised HKF equations of state generated parameters and thermodynamic properties of dissociated KCl and KCl{sup 0} at 25{degrees}C and bar that can be used to calculate the standard partial molal thermodynamic properties of KCl{sup 0} and the activity coefficients of KCl at temperatures and pressures to 1000{degrees}C and 5 kbar. 46 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  4. The CPA Equation of State and an Activity Coefficient Model for Accurate Molar Enthalpy Calculations of Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide and Water/Brine

    SciTech Connect

    Myint, P. C.; Hao, Y.; Firoozabadi, A.

    2015-03-27

    Thermodynamic property calculations of mixtures containing carbon dioxide (CO2) and water, including brines, are essential in theoretical models of many natural and industrial processes. The properties of greatest practical interest are density, solubility, and enthalpy. Many models for density and solubility calculations have been presented in the literature, but there exists only one study, by Spycher and Pruess, that has compared theoretical molar enthalpy predictions with experimental data [1]. In this report, we recommend two different models for enthalpy calculations: the CPA equation of state by Li and Firoozabadi [2], and the CO2 activity coefficient model by Duan and Sun [3]. We show that the CPA equation of state, which has been demonstrated to provide good agreement with density and solubility data, also accurately calculates molar enthalpies of pure CO2, pure water, and both CO2-rich and aqueous (H2O-rich) mixtures of the two species. It is applicable to a wider range of conditions than the Spycher and Pruess model. In aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) mixtures, we show that Duan and Sun’s model yields accurate results for the partial molar enthalpy of CO2. It can be combined with another model for the brine enthalpy to calculate the molar enthalpy of H2O-CO2-NaCl mixtures. We conclude by explaining how the CPA equation of state may be modified to further improve agreement with experiments. This generalized CPA is the basis of our future work on this topic.

  5. In Silico Calculation of Infinite Dilution Activity Coefficients of Molecular Solutes in Ionic Liquids: Critical Review of Current Methods and New Models Based on Three Machine Learning Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Paduszyński, Kamil

    2016-08-22

    The aim of the paper is to address all the disadvantages of currently available models for calculating infinite dilution activity coefficients (γ(∞)) of molecular solutes in ionic liquids (ILs)-a relevant property from the point of view of many applications of ILs, particularly in separations. Three new models are proposed, each of them based on distinct machine learning algorithm: stepwise multiple linear regression (SWMLR), feed-forward artificial neural network (FFANN), and least-squares support vector machine (LSSVM). The models were established based on the most comprehensive γ(∞) data bank reported so far (>34 000 data points for 188 ILs and 128 solutes). Following the paper published previously [J. Chem. Inf. Model 2014, 54, 1311-1324], the ILs were treated in terms of group contributions, whereas the Abraham solvation parameters were used to quantify an impact of solute structure. Temperature is also included in the input data of the models so that they can be utilized to obtain temperature-dependent data and thus related thermodynamic functions. Both internal and external validation techniques were applied to assess the statistical significance and explanatory power of the final correlations. A comparative study of the overall performance of the investigated SWMLR/FFANN/LSSVM approaches is presented in terms of root-mean-square error and average absolute relative deviation between calculated and experimental γ(∞), evaluated for different families of ILs and solutes, as well as between calculated and experimental infinite dilution selectivity for separation problems benzene from n-hexane and thiophene from n-heptane. LSSVM is shown to be a method with the lowest values of both training and generalization errors. It is finally demonstrated that the established models exhibit an improved accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art model, namely, temperature-dependent group contribution linear solvation energy relationship, published in 2011 [J. Chem

  6. Correction for intravascular activity in the oxygen-15 steady-state technique is independent of the regional hematocrit

    SciTech Connect

    Lammertsma, A.A.; Baron, J.C.; Jones, T.

    1987-06-01

    The oxygen-15 steady-state technique to measure the regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen requires a correction for the nonextracted intravascular molecular oxygen-15. To perform this correction, an additional procedure is carried out using RBCs labeled with /sup 11/CO or C/sup 15/O. The previously reported correction method, however, required knowledge of the regional cerebral to large vessel hematocrit ratio. A closer examination of the underlying model eliminated this ratio. Both molecular oxygen and carbon monoxide are carried by RBCs and are therefore similarly affected by a change in hematocrit.

  7. Correction: Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Araya, Jorge Ignacio; Grand, André; Glossman-Mitnik, Daniel

    2016-01-28

    Correction for 'Towards the rationalization of catalytic activity values by means of local hyper-softness on the catalytic site: a criticism about the use of net electric charges' by Jorge Ignacio Martínez-Araya et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp03822g. PMID:26524565

  8. Correction: Impact of metallurgical activities on the content of trace elements in the spatial soil and plant parts of Rubus fruticosus L.

    PubMed

    Nujkić, M M; Dimitrijević, M D; Alagić, S Č; Tošić, S B; Petrović, J V

    2016-06-15

    Correction for 'Impact of metallurgical activities on the content of trace elements in the spatial soil and plant parts of Rubus fruticosus L.' by M. M. Nujkićet al., Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2016, 18, 350-360. PMID:27173003

  9. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  10. The Corrected Eta-Squared Coefficient: A Value Added Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnette, J. Jackson; McLean, James E.

    Eta-Squared (ES) is often used as a measure of strength of association of an effect, a measure often associated with effect size. It is also considered the proportion of total variance accounted for by an independent variable. It is simple to compute and interpret. However, it has one critical weakness cited by several authors (C. Huberty, 1994;…

  11. Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.

  12. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  13. The Use of Structure Coefficients in Regression Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Lucille N.

    It is recognized that parametric methods (e.g., t-tests, discriminant analysis, and methods based on analysis of variance) are special cases of canonical correlation analysis. In canonical correlation it has been argued that structure coefficients must be computed to correctly interpret results. It follows that structure coefficients may be useful…

  14. Corrective Action Plan for CAU No. 95: Area 15 EPA Farm Laboratory Building, Decontamination and Demolition Closure Activities - Nevada Test Site. Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Nacht, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides the selected corrective action alternative and proposes the closure implementation methodology for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm Laboratory Building 15-06 located in Area 15 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The facility is part of the Environmental Restoration Project managed by the U.S. Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) under the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Subproject which serves to manage and dispose of surplus facilities at the NTS in a manner that will protect personnel, the public, and the environment. It is identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 95 in Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). In July 1997, the DOE/NV verbally requested approval from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for the closure schedule to be accelerated. Currently, field activities are anticipated to be completed by September 30, 1997. In order to meet this new schedule NDEP has agreed to review this document as expeditiously as possible. Comments will be addressed in the Closure Report after field activities have been completed, unless significant issues require resolution during closure activities.

  15. Ex-vivo gene therapy restores LEKTI activity and corrects the architecture of Netherton syndrome-derived skin grafts.

    PubMed

    Di, Wei-Li; Larcher, Fernado; Semenova, Ekaterina; Talbot, Gill E; Harper, John I; Del Rio, Marcela; Thrasher, Adrian J; Qasim, Waseem

    2011-02-01

    Netherton syndrome (NS) is a debilitating congenital skin disorder caused by mutations in the SPINK5 gene encoding the lymphoepithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI). It is characterized by defective keratinization, recurrent infections, and hypernatraemic dehydration with a mortality rate of about 10% in the first year of life. Currently, there are no curative treatments for NS. We have developed a HIV-1 based, self-inactivating lentiviral vector to express SPINK5 in keratinocytes as part of an ex-vivo gene therapy strategy for NS. High transduction efficiency was achieved in NS keratinocytes and reconstitution of LEKTI expression was confirmed in previously deficient cells. These genetically corrected keratinocytes were further tested in an in vitro organotypic culture (OTC) system and in vivo mouse/human skin engraftment model. Results showed correction of epidermal architecture in both OTCs and regenerated skin grafts. Importantly, the results from corrected skin grafts indicated that even where detectable LEKTI expression was restored to a limited numbers of cells, a wider bystander benefit occurred around these small populations. As LEKTI is a secreted protein, the genetically modified graft may provide not only an immediate local protective barrier, but also act as a source of secreted LEKTI providing a generalized benefit following ex-vivo gene therapy. PMID:20877344

  16. Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2008-11-15

    While over the last century or more considerable effort has been put into the problem of finding approximate solutions for wave equations in general, and quantum mechanical problems in particular, it appears that as yet relatively little work seems to have been put into the complementary problem of establishing rigourous bounds on the exact solutions. We have in mind either bounds on parametric amplification and the related quantum phenomenon of particle production (as encoded in the Bogoliubov coefficients), or bounds on transmission and reflection coefficients. Modifying and streamlining an approach developed by one of the present authors [M. Visser, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 427-438, (arXiv:quant-ph/9901030)], we investigate this question by developing a formal but exact solution for the appropriate second-order linear ODE in terms of a time-ordered exponential of 2x2 matrices, then relating the Bogoliubov coefficients to certain invariants of this matrix. By bounding the matrix in an appropriate manner, we can thereby bound the Bogoliubov coefficients.

  17. Range Restriction and Attenuation Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Michael D.; Mendoza, Jorge L.

    The present paper reviews the techniques commonly used to correct an observed correlation coefficient for the simultaneous influence of attenuation and range restriction effects. It is noted that the procedure which is currently in use may be somewhat biased because it treats range restriction and attenuation as independent restrictive influences.…

  18. Jitter Correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waegell, Mordecai J.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Jitter_Correct.m is a MATLAB function that automatically measures and corrects inter-frame jitter in an image sequence to a user-specified precision. In addition, the algorithm dynamically adjusts the image sample size to increase the accuracy of the measurement. The Jitter_Correct.m function takes an image sequence with unknown frame-to-frame jitter and computes the translations of each frame (column and row, in pixels) relative to a chosen reference frame with sub-pixel accuracy. The translations are measured using a Cross Correlation Fourier transformation method in which the relative phase of the two transformed images is fit to a plane. The measured translations are then used to correct the inter-frame jitter of the image sequence. The function also dynamically expands the image sample size over which the cross-correlation is measured to increase the accuracy of the measurement. This increases the robustness of the measurement to variable magnitudes of inter-frame jitter

  19. INTEGRATING NEPHELOMETER RESPONSE CORRECTIONS FOR BIMODAL SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Correction factors are calculated for obtaining true scattering extinction coefficients from integrating nephelometer measurements. The corrections are based on the bimodal representation of ambient aerosol size distributions, and take account of the effects of angular truncation...

  20. Correction of dental artifacts within the anatomical surface in PET/MRI using active shape models and k-nearest-neighbors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladefoged, Claes N.; Andersen, Flemming L.; Keller, Sune H.; Beyer, Thomas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Lauze, François

    2014-03-01

    In combined PET/MR, attenuation correction (AC) is performed indirectly based on the available MR image information. Metal implant-induced susceptibility artifacts and subsequent signal voids challenge MR-based AC. Several papers acknowledge the problem in PET attenuation correction when dental artifacts are ignored, but none of them attempts to solve the problem. We propose a clinically feasible correction method which combines Active Shape Models (ASM) and k- Nearest-Neighbors (kNN) into a simple approach which finds and corrects the dental artifacts within the surface boundaries of the patient anatomy. ASM is used to locate a number of landmarks in the T1-weighted MR-image of a new patient. We calculate a vector of offsets from each voxel within a signal void to each of the landmarks. We then use kNN to classify each voxel as belonging to an artifact or an actual signal void using this offset vector, and fill the artifact voxels with a value representing soft tissue. We tested the method using fourteen patients without artifacts, and eighteen patients with dental artifacts of varying sizes within the anatomical surface of the head/neck region. Though the method wrongly filled a small volume in the bottom part of a maxillary sinus in two patients without any artifacts, due to their abnormal location, it succeeded in filling all dental artifact regions in all patients. In conclusion, we propose a method, which combines ASM and kNN into a simple approach which, as the results show, succeeds to find and correct the dental artifacts within the anatomical surface.

  1. Correction for Inhibition Leads to an Allosteric Co-Agonist Model for Pentobarbital Modulation and Activation of α1β3γ2L GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Alexis M.; Forman, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pentobarbital, like propofol and etomidate, produces important general anesthetic effects through GABAA receptors. Photolabeling also indicates that pentobarbital binds to some of the same sites where propofol and etomidate act. Quantitative allosteric co-agonist models for propofol and etomidate account for modulatory and agonist effects in GABAA receptors and have proven valuable in establishing drug site characteristics and for functional analysis of mutants. We therefore sought to establish an allosteric co-agonist model for pentobarbital activation and modulation of α1β3γ2L receptors, using a novel approach to first correct pentobarbital activation data for inhibitory effects in the same concentration range. Methods Using oocyte-expressed α1β3γ2L GABAA receptors and two-microelectrode voltage-clamp, we quantified modulation of GABA responses by a low pentobarbital concentration and direct effects of high pentobarbital concentrations, the latter displaying mixed agonist and inhibitory effects. We then isolated and quantified pentobarbital inhibition in activated receptors using a novel single-sweep “notch” approach, and used these results to correct steady-state direct activation for inhibition. Results Combining results for GABA modulation and corrected direct activation, we estimated receptor open probability and optimized parameters for a Monod-Wyman-Changeux allosteric co-agonist model. Inhibition by pentobarbital was consistent with two sites with IC50s near 1 mM, while co-agonist model parameters suggest two allosteric pentobarbital agonist sites characterized by KPB ≈ 5 mM and high efficacy. The results also indicate that pentobarbital may be a more efficacious agonist than GABA. Conclusions Our novel approach to quantifying both inhibitory and co-agonist effects of pentobarbital provides a basis for future structure-function analyses of GABAA receptor mutations in putative pentobarbital binding sites. PMID:27110714

  2. Bile acid structure-activity relationship: evaluation of bile acid lipophilicity using 1-octanol/water partition coefficient and reverse phase HPLC.

    PubMed

    Roda, A; Minutello, A; Angellotti, M A; Fini, A

    1990-08-01

    Two independent methods have been developed and compared to determine the lipophilicity of a representative series of naturally occurring bile acids (BA) in relation to their structure. The BA included cholic acid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), deoxycholic acid (DCA), hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), ursocholic acid (UCA), hyocholic acid (HCA), as well as their glycine and taurine amidates. Lipophilicity was determined using a 1-octanol/water shake-flask procedure and the experiments were performed at different pH and ionic strengths and at initial BA concentrations below their critical micellar concentrations (CMC) and the water solubility of the protonated form. The experimental data show that both the protonated (HA) and ionized (A-) forms of BA can distribute in 1-octanol, and consequently a partition coefficient for HA (logP' HA) and for A- (logP' A-) must be defined. An equation to predict a weighted apparent distribution coefficient (D) value as a function of pH and pKa has been developed and fits well with the experimental data. Differences between logP for protonated and ionized species for unconjugated BA were in the order of 1 log unit, which increased to 2 for glycine-amidate BA. The partition coefficient of the A- form increased with Na+ concentration and total ionic strength, suggesting an ion-pair mechanism for its partition into 1-octanol. Lipophilicity was also assessed using reverse phase chromatography (C-18-HPLC), and a capacity factor (K') for ionized species was determined. Despite a broad correlation with the logP data, some BA behaved differently. The logP values showed that the order of lipophilicity was DCA greater than CDCA greater than UDCA greater than HDCA greater than HCA greater than CA greater than UCA for both the protonated and ionized unconjugated and glycine-amidate BA, while the K' data showed an inversion for some BA, i.e., DCA greater than CDCA greater than CA greater than HCA greater than UDCA

  3. Active optics for dynamical correction of fluctuations of atmospheric refraction on a differential optical absorption spectroscopy device.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Inzunza, Rodrigo A; Gutiérrez, Javier; Saavedra, Carlos

    2012-10-20

    We have designed and developed a feedback mechanism for continuous monitoring in a long-pass differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) setup. This allows one to correct photo-thermal deflection due to the local fluctuations refraction index of the air. For this purpose, using an unbalanced beam splitter, a small fraction of the collected DOAS signal is imaged onto a low-cost CCD camera using a biconvex lens, while the other portion of the signal is coupled into a fiber optic for trace gas detection. By monitoring the registered signal at the CCD camera, a feedback mechanism acting on the transversal position of the lens is able to compensate an arbitrary transversal displacement of the collected signal at the focal plane of the receiver telescope, allowing an optimal coupling into the optical fiber. PMID:23089775

  4. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green-Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  5. Diffusion coefficient of three-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhumagulova, K. N.; Ramazanov, T. S.; Masheeva, R. U.

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this work is an investigation of the diffusion coefficient of the dust component in complex plasma. The computer simulation of the Yukawa liquids was made on the basis of the Langevin equation, which takes into account the influence of buffer plasma on the dust particles dynamics. The Green–Kubo relation was used to calculate the diffusion coefficient. Calculations of the diffusion coefficient for a wide range of the system parameters were performed. Using obtained numerical data, we constructed the interpolation formula for the diffusion coefficient. We also show that the interpolation formula correctly describes experimental data obtained under microgravity conditions.

  6. The one hundredth year of Rudolf Wolf's death: Do we have the correct reconstruction of solar activity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.; Nesmes-Ribes, Elizabeth

    1994-01-01

    In the one hundred years since Wolf died, little effort has gone into research to see if improved reconstructions of sunspot numbers can be made. We have gathered more than 349,000 observations of daily sunspot group counts from more than 350 observers active from 1610 to 1993. Based upon group counts alone, it is possible to make an objective and homogeneous reconstruction of sunspot numbers. From our study, it appears that the Sun has steadily increased in activity since 1700 with the exception of a brief decrease in the Dalton Minimum (1795-1823). The significant results here are the greater depth of the Dalton Minimum, the generally lower activity throughout the 1700's, and the gradual rise in activity from the Maunder Minimum to the present day. This solar activity reconstruction is quite similar to those Wolf published before 1868 rather than the revised Wolf reconstructions after 1873 which used geomagnetic fluctuations.

  7. Second-site suppressors of HIV-1 capsid mutations: restoration of intracellular activities without correction of intrinsic capsid stability defects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Disassembly of the viral capsid following penetration into the cytoplasm, or uncoating, is a poorly understood stage of retrovirus infection. Based on previous studies of HIV-1 CA mutants exhibiting altered capsid stability, we concluded that formation of a capsid of optimal intrinsic stability is crucial for HIV-1 infection. Results To further examine the connection between HIV-1 capsid stability and infectivity, we isolated second-site suppressors of HIV-1 mutants exhibiting unstable (P38A) or hyperstable (E45A) capsids. We identified the respective suppressor mutations, T216I and R132T, which restored virus replication in a human T cell line and markedly enhanced the fitness of the original mutants as revealed in single-cycle infection assays. Analysis of the corresponding purified N-terminal domain CA proteins by NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the E45A and R132T mutations induced structural changes that are localized to the regions of the mutations, while the P38A mutation resulted in changes extending to neighboring regions in space. Unexpectedly, neither suppressor mutation corrected the intrinsic viral capsid stability defect associated with the respective original mutation. Nonetheless, the R132T mutation rescued the selective infectivity impairment exhibited by the E45A mutant in aphidicolin-arrested cells, and the double mutant regained sensitivity to the small molecule inhibitor PF74. The T216I mutation rescued the impaired ability of the P38A mutant virus to abrogate restriction by TRIMCyp and TRIM5α. Conclusions The second-site suppressor mutations in CA that we have identified rescue virus infection without correcting the intrinsic capsid stability defects associated with the P38A and E45A mutations. The suppressors also restored wild type virus function in several cell-based assays. We propose that while proper HIV-1 uncoating in target cells is dependent on the intrinsic stability of the viral capsid, the effects of stability

  8. A nano-disperse ferritin-core mimetic that efficiently corrects anemia without luminal iron redox activity.

    PubMed

    Powell, Jonathan J; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Faria, Nuno; Poots, Lynsey K; Hondow, Nicole; Pennycook, Timothy J; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Simpson, Robert J; Brown, Andy P; Pereira, Dora I A

    2014-10-01

    The 2-5 nm Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide core of ferritin is less ordered and readily bioavailable compared to its pure synthetic analogue, ferrihydrite. We report the facile synthesis of tartrate-modified, nano-disperse ferrihydrite of small primary particle size, but with enlarged or strained lattice structure (~2.7Å for the main Bragg peak versus 2.6Å for synthetic ferrihydrite). Analysis indicated that co-precipitation conditions can be achieved for tartrate inclusion into the developing ferrihydrite particles, retarding both growth and crystallization and favoring stabilization of the cross-linked polymeric structure. In murine models, gastrointestinal uptake was independent of luminal Fe(III) reduction to Fe(II) and, yet, absorption was equivalent to that of ferrous sulphate, efficiently correcting the induced anemia. This process may model dietary Fe(III) absorption and potentially provide a side effect-free form of cheap supplemental iron. From the clinical editor: Small size tartrate-modified, nano-disperse ferrihydrite was used for efficient gastrointestinal delivery of soluble Fe(III) without the risk for free radical generation in murine models. This method may provide a potentially side effect-free form iron supplementation. PMID:24394211

  9. A CORRECTION.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D

    1940-03-22

    IN a recently published volume on "The Origin of Submarine Canyons" the writer inadvertently credited to A. C. Veatch an excerpt from a submarine chart actually contoured by P. A. Smith, of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. The chart in question is Chart IVB of Special Paper No. 7 of the Geological Society of America entitled "Atlantic Submarine Valleys of the United States and the Congo Submarine Valley, by A. C. Veatch and P. A. Smith," and the excerpt appears as Plate III of the volume fist cited above. In view of the heavy labor involved in contouring the charts accompanying the paper by Veatch and Smith and the beauty of the finished product, it would be unfair to Mr. Smith to permit the error to go uncorrected. Excerpts from two other charts are correctly ascribed to Dr. Veatch. PMID:17839404

  10. Interim Closure Activities at Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, R. F.

    2011-10-24

    This letter report documents interim activities that have been completed at CAU 114 to support ongoing access and generate information necessary to plan future closure activities. General housekeeping and cleanup of debris was conducted in the EMAD yard, cold bays, support areas of Building 3900, and postmortem cell tunnel area of the hot bay. All non-asbestos ceiling tiles and loose and broken non-friable asbestos floor tiles were removed from support galleries and office areas. Non-radiologically contaminated piping and equipment in the cold areas of the building and in the two 120-ton locomotives in the yard were tapped, characterized, drained, and verified free of contents.

  11. Use of Global Meteorological Model to Correct for Stratified Tropospheric Delays in SAR Data: Application to Active Mexican Stratovolcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinel, V. M.; Doin, M.; de La Cruz-Reyna, S.; Hooper, A.

    2008-12-01

    Artefacts induced by temporal changes of water content within the tropospheric layer have long been recognised as the main limitation for the use of InSAR data in order to detect magma movement at depth beneath stratovolcanoes (Delacourt, 1998). Difficulty in discriminating between tropospheric artefacts and deformation induced by magma accumulation or withdrawal at depth is mainly due to the similarity of the expected signal centred on the volcanic edifice. However it is of prime importance to be able to detect magma storage which is the most reliable precursor for volcanic eruptions. We processed time series of InSAR data acquired by ENVISAT from December 2002 to August 2006 at Popocatépetl and Colima Volcano (Mexico) using both the Stanford method for persistent scatterers and a derived small baseline approach (Hooper, 2008). Tropospheric delays are estimated for each interferogram using temperature, pressure and water content profiles from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a global atmospheric model provided by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. A strong seasonal effect is observed leading to maximum value for delays of 10 rad/km corresponding to 4 fringes on the volcano slopes. These delays are validated using the correlation between the wrapped phase and the elevation as well as spectrometer data acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging System (MERIS) onboard on the ENVISAT platform. The tropospheric effect is removed from the wrapped phase which improves the unwrapping process. On Popocatépetl no significant deformations were observed. We could not detect any deep magma storage zone beneath Colima volcano, but its summit area exhibits a constant and almost linear subsidence of more than 1.5 cm/year mainly related to recent volcanic deposits loading. References: Delacourt, P. Briole and J. Achache, Tropospheric corrections of SAR interferograms with strong topography. Application to Etna. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2849- 2852

  12. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  13. Corin mutations K317E and S472G from preeclamptic patients alter zymogen activation and cell surface targeting. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ningzheng; Zhou, Tiantian; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Meng; Li, Hui; Huang, Xiaoyi; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Yi; Fukuda, Koichi; Qin, Jun; Wu, Qingyu

    2014-06-20

    Corin is a membrane-bound serine protease that acts as the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) convertase in the heart. Recent studies show that corin also activates ANP in the pregnant uterus to promote spiral artery remodeling and prevent pregnancy-induced hypertension. Two CORIN gene mutations, K317E and S472G, were identified in preeclamptic patients and shown to have reduced activity in vitro. In this study, we carried out molecular modeling and biochemical experiments to understand how these mutations impair corin function. By molecular modeling, the mutation K317E was predicted to alter corin LDL receptor-2 module conformation. Western blot analysis of K317E mutant in HEK293 cells showed that the mutation did not block corin expression on the cell surface but inhibited corin zymogen activation. In contrast, the mutation S472G was predicted to abolish a β-sheet critical for corin frizzled-2 module structure. In Western blot analysis and flow cytometry, S472G mutant was not detected on the cell surface in transfected HEK293 cells. By immunostaining, the S472G mutant was found in the ER, indicating that the mutation S472G disrupted the β-sheet, causing corin misfolding and ER retention. Thus, these results show that mutations in the CORIN gene may impair corin function by entirely different mechanisms. Together, our data provide important insights into the molecular basis underlying corin mutations that may contribute to preeclampsia in patients. PMID:24828501

  14. Solute concentration effect on osmotic reflection coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    Adamski, R P; Anderson, J L

    1983-01-01

    A theory for the effect of concentration on osmotic reflection coefficient, correct to first order, was developed at the molecular level by considering the effect of solute-solute interactions on solute concentration and the fluid stress tensor within a solvent-filled pore. The solvent was modeled as a continuous fluid and potential energies between solute molecules and the pore wall were assumed to be pairwise additive. Although the theory is more general, calculations are presented only for excluded volume effects (hard-sphere for solute, hard-wall for pore). The relationship between the first-order concentration effect and the infinite dilution value of reflection coefficient appears to be geometry independent. The theory is discussed in light of experimental studies of osmotic flow that have recently appeared in the literature. PMID:6626681

  15. Sensitive assay of glycogen phosphorylase activity by analysing the chain-lengthening action on a Fluorogenic [corrected] maltooligosaccharide derivative.

    PubMed

    Makino, Yasushi; Omichi, Kaoru

    2009-07-01

    The action of glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is essentially reversible, although GP is generally classified as a glycogen-degrading enzyme. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive and convenient assay for GP activity by analysing its chain-lengthening action on a fluorogenic maltooligosaccharide derivative in a glucose-1-phosphate-rich medium. Characterization of the substrate specificity of GP using pyridylaminated (PA-) maltooligosaccharides of various sizes revealed that a maltotetraosyl (Glc(4)) residue comprising the non-reducing-end of a PA-maltooligosaccharide is indispensable for the chain-lengthening action of GP, and PA-maltohexaose is the most suitable substrate for the purpose of this study. By using a high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence spectrophotometer, PA-maltoheptaose produced by the chain elongation of PA-maltohexaose could be isolated and quantified at 10 fmol. This method was used to measure the GP activities of crude and purified GP preparations, and was demonstrated to have about 1,000 times greater sensitivity than the spectrophotometric orthophosphate assay. PMID:19279194

  16. [Quorum sensing systems of regulation, synthesis of phenazine antibiotics, and antifungal (corrected) activity in rhizospheric bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449].

    PubMed

    Veselova, M a; Klein, Sh; Bass, I A; Lipasova, V A; Metlitskaia, A Z; Ovadis, M I; Chernin, L S; Khmel', I A

    2008-12-01

    Strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis 449, an antagonist of a broad spectrum of phytopathogenic microorganisms isolated from the maize rhizosphere, was shown to produce three phenazine antibiotics: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), 2-hydroxylphenazine-1-carboxylic acid (2-OH-PCA), and 2-hydroxylphenazine (2-OH-PHZ). Two Quorum Sensing (QS) systems of regulation were identified: PhzIR and CsaI/R. Genes phzI and csaI were cloned and sequenced. Cells of strain 449 synthesize at least three types of AHL: N-butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-AHL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-AHL), and N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (30C6-AHL). Transposon mutagenesis was used to generate mutants of strain 449 deficient in synthesis of phenazines, which carried inactivated phzA and phzB genes of the phenazine operon and gene phzO. Mutations phzA- and phzB-caused a drastic reduction in the antagonistic activity of bacteria toward phytopathogenic fungi. Both mutants lost the ability to protect cucumber and leguminous plants against phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. These results suggest a significant role of phenazines in the antagonistic activity of P. chlororaphis 449. PMID:19178080

  17. Drag Coefficient of Hexadecane Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Yoshinobu; Hishida, Makoto; Kajimoto, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Gaku

    This paper deals with the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles and their free rising velocity in liquid. The drag coefficient was experimentally investigated in Reynolds number range of about 40-300. The present experimental results are summarized in the following; (1) the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles formed in liquid coolant by direct contact cooling is higher than that of a smooth surface sphere, this high drag coefficient seems to be attributed to the non-smooth surface of the solidified hexadecane particles, (2) experimental correlation for the drag coefficient of the solidified hexadecane particles was proposed, (3 ) the measured rising velocity of the solidified hexadecane particle agrees well with the calculated one, (4) the drag coefficients of hexadecane particles that were made by pouring hexadecane liquid into a solid hollow sphere agreed well with the drag coefficient of smooth surface sphere.

  18. KiC assay: a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach for kinase client screening and activity analysis [corrected].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yadong; Thelen, Jay J

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications (PTMs) involved in the transduction of cellular signals. The number of kinases in eukaryotic genomes ranges from several hundred to over one thousand. And with rapidly evolving mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches, thousands to tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites (phosphosites) have been reported from various eukaryotic organisms, from man to plants. In this relative context, few bona fide kinase-client relationships have been identified to date. To merge the gap between these phosphosites and the cognate kinases that beget these events, comparable large-scale methodologies are required. We describe in detail a MS-based method for identifying kinase-client interactions and quantifying kinase activity. We term this novel Kinase-Client assay, the KiC assay. The KiC assay relies upon the fact that substrate specificities of many kinases are largely determined by primary amino acid sequence or phosphorylation motifs, which consist of key amino acids surrounding the phosphorylation sites. The workflow for detecting kinase-substrate interactions includes four major steps: (1) preparation of purified kinases and synthetic peptide library, (2) in vitro kinase peptide library assay, (3) liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem MS (MS/MS) analysis, and (4) data processing and interpretation. Kinase activity is quantified with the KiC assay by monitoring spectral counts of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated peptides as the readout from LC-tandem mass spectrometry. The KiC assay can be applied as a discovery assay to screen kinases against a synthetic peptide library to find kinase-client relationships or as a targeted assay to characterize kinase kinetics. PMID:22665311

  19. Critical exponents from cluster coefficients.

    PubMed

    Rotman, Z; Eisenberg, E

    2009-09-01

    For a large class of repulsive interaction models, the Mayer cluster integrals can be transformed into a tridiagonal real symmetric matrix R_{mn} , whose elements converge to two constants. This allows for an effective extrapolation of the equation of state for these models. Due to a nearby (nonphysical) singularity on the negative real z axis, standard methods (e.g., Padé approximants based on the cluster integrals expansion) fail to capture the behavior of these models near the ordering transition, and, in particular, do not detect the critical point. A recent work [E. Eisenberg and A. Baram, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 5755 (2007)] has shown that the critical exponents sigma and sigma;{'} , characterizing the singularity of the density as a function of the activity, can be exactly calculated if the decay of the R matrix elements to their asymptotic constant follows a 1/n;{2} law. Here we employ renormalization group (RG) arguments to extend this result and analyze cases for which the asymptotic approach of the R matrix elements toward their limiting value is of a more general form. The relevant asymptotic correction terms (in RG sense) are identified, and we then present a corrected exact formula for the critical exponents. We identify the limits of usage of the formula and demonstrate one physical model, which is beyond its range of validity. The formula is validated numerically and then applied to analyze a number of concrete physical models. PMID:19905081

  20. Toward more reliable long-term indices of geomagnetic activity: Correcting a new inhomogeneity problem in early geomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holappa, L.; Mursula, K.

    2015-10-01

    For the time before the space era, our knowledge of the centennial evolution of solar wind (SW) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is based on proxies derived from geomagnetic indices. The reliability of these proxies is dependent on the homogeneity of magnetic field data. In this paper, we study the interhourly (IHV) and interdiurnal (IDV1d) variability indices calculated from the data of two British observatories, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, and compare them to the corresponding indices of the German Niemegk observatory. We find an excess of about 14 ± 4% (5.8 ± 2%) and 27 ± 10% (15 ± 6%) in the IHV (IDV1d) in the indices of Eskdalemuir and Lerwick in 1935-1969. The timing of this excess accurately coincides with instrument changes made in these observatories, strongly supporting the interpretation that the excess is indeed caused by instrument related inhomogeneities in the data of Eskdalemuir and Lerwick. We show that the detected excess notably modifies the long-term trend of geomagnetic activity and the centennial evolution of IMF strength and solar wind speed estimated using these indices. We note that the detected inhomogeneity problem may not be limited to the data of the two studied observatories but may be quite common to long series of geomagnetic measurements. These results question the reliability of the present measures of the centennial change in solar wind speed and IMF.

  1. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trade- offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin; Soummer, Rémi; Perrin, Marshall; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Élodie; Hoffmann, Jordan; Carlotti, Alexis; Mawet, Dimitri

    2014-08-01

    We present a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach relies on using two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and / or segment gaps. We solve the highly non-linear Monge-Ampere equation that is the fundamental equation describing the physics of phase induced amplitude modulation. We determine the optimum configuration for our two sequential Deformable Mirror system and show that high-throughput and high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies. We name this process Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD). We show that for geometries similar to JWST, ACAD can attain at least 10-7 in contrast and an order of magnitude higher for future Extremely Large Telescopes, even when the pupil features a "missing segment" . Because the converging non-linear mappings resulting from our Deformable Mirror shapes damps near-field diffraction artifacts in the vicinity of the discontinuities this solution is particularly appealing in terms of spectral bandwidth. We present preliminary results that illustrate the performances of ACAD in the presence of diffraction for apertures for with secondary support structures of varying width and argue that the ultimate contrast achieved can by combining ACAD with modern wavefront control algorithms.

  2. Towards more reliable long-term indices of geomagnetic activity: correcting a new inhomogeneity problem in early geomagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holappa, Lauri; Mursula, Kalevi

    2016-07-01

    For the time before the space era our knowledge of the centennial evolution of solar wind (SW) and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is based on proxies derived from geomagnetic indices. The reliability of these proxies is dependent on the homogeneity of magnetic field data. In this paper we study the interhourly (IHV) and interdiurnal (IDV_{1d}) variability indices calculated from the data of two British observatories, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, and compare them to the corresponding indices of the German Niemegk observatory. We find an excess of about 14 ± 4% (5.8 ± 2%) and 27 ± 10% (15 ± 6%) in the IHV (IDV_{1d}) in the indices of Eskdalemuir and Lerwick in 1935-1969. The timing of this excess accurately coincides with instrument changes made in these observatories, strongly supporting the interpretation that the excess is indeed caused by instrument related inhomogeneities in the data of Eskdalemuir and Lerwick. We show that the detected excess notably modifies the long-term trend of geomagnetic activity and the centennial evolution of IMF strength and solar wind speed estimated using these indices. We note that the detected inhomogeneity problem may not be limited to the data of the two studied observatories, but may be quite common to long series of geomagnetic measurements. These results question the reliability of the present measures of the centennial change in solar wind speed and IMF.

  3. Multispectral imaging of the olfactory bulb activation: influence of realistic differential pathlength correction factors on the derivation of oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, R.; Gurden, H.; Chery, R.; Bendhamane, M.; Martin, C.; Pain, F.

    2011-02-01

    In vivo multispectral reflectance imaging has been extensively used in the somatosensory cortex (SsC) in anesthetized rodents to collect intrinsic signal during activation and derive hemodynamics signals time courses. So far it has never been applied to the Olfactory Bulb (OB), although this structure is particularly well suited to the optical study of brain activation due to the its well defined organization, the ability to physiologically activate it with odorants, and the low depth of the activated layers. To obtain hemodynamics parameters from reflectance variations data, it is necessary to take into account a corrective factor called Differential Pathlength (DP). It is routinely estimated using Monte Carlo simulations, modeling photons propagation in simplified infinite geometry tissue models. The first goal of our study was to evaluate the influence of more realistic layered geometries and optical properties on the calculation of DP and ultimately on the estimation of the hemodynamics parameters. Since many valuable results have been obtained previously by others in the SSc, for the purpose of validation and comparison we performed Monte Carlo simulations in both the SSC and the OB. We verified the assumption of constant DP during activation by varying the hemoglobin oxygen saturation, total hemoglobin concentration and we also studied the effect of a superficial bone layer on DP estimation for OB. The simulations show the importance of defining a finite multilayer model instead of the coarse infinite monolayer model, especially for the SSc, and demonstrate the need to perform DP calculation for each structure taking into account their anatomofunctional properties. The second goal of the study was to validate in vivo multispectral imaging for the study of hemodynamics in the OB during activation. First results are presented and discussed.

  4. High contrast imaging with an arbitrary aperture: active correction of aperture discontinuities: fundamental limits and practical trades offs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, Laurent; Norman, Colin Arthur; Soummer, Remi; Perrin, Marshall D.; N'Diaye, Mamadou; Choquet, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper we discussed a new method to achieve high-contrast images using segmented and/or on-axis telescopes. Our approach, named Active Compensation of Aperture Discontinuities (ACAD) relies on two sequential Deformable Mirrors to compensate for the large amplitude excursions in the telescope aperture due to secondary support structures and/or segment gaps. In this configuration the parameter landscape of Deformable Mirror Surfaces that yield high contrast Point Spread Functions is not linear, and non-linear methods are needed to find the true minimum. In particular we showed that broadband high contrast solutions can be achieved using realistic surface deformations that are accessible using existing technologies for a variety of telescope pupil geometries. In this paper we first focus on the fundamental limits and practical trade-offs associated with ACAD. In a first part we will study the fundamental limits and practical tradeoffs associated with ACAD, regardless of the downstream coronagraphic architecture. The mathematical techniques to finding ACAD DM shapes require to solve a complex differential equation. We will first discuss the scaling laws underlying this non-linear solution and their impact of DM placement and geometry wishing the optical design of an instrument. We will then consider the sensitivity to low order aberrations: in principle an ACAD solution that comprises large strokes will be more sensitive to these aberrations than one with smaller strokes. As a consequence, we will quantify this sensitive both using analytical models and numerical simulations. We will present diffractive end to end simulations and quantify the ultimate contrast and bandwidth achievable with ACAD, which can be reached by superposing using a classical linear wavefront control algorithms on top of the Monge Ampere solution. Finally, recent work has shown that coronagraph designs can also accommodate for secondary support structures and/or segments gaps, at a

  5. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Booth, A. M.; Lienhard, D. M.; Soonsin, V.; Krieger, U. K.; Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G.; Peter, T.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-09-01

    We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, HSO4-, and SO42-. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization algorithms. A number of exemplary calculations for systems containing atmospherically relevant aerosol components are shown. Amongst others, we discuss aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate with

  6. New and extended parameterization of the thermodynamic model AIOMFAC: calculation of activity coefficients for organic-inorganic mixtures containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, carbonyl, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, and aromatic functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuend, A.; Marcolli, C.; Booth, A. M.; Lienhard, D. M.; Soonsin, V.; Krieger, U. K.; Topping, D. O.; McFiggans, G.; Peter, T.; Seinfeld, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients) at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H+, Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, Br-, NO3-, HSO4-, and SO42-. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization algorithms. A number of exemplary calculations for systems containing atmospherically relevant aerosol components are shown. Amongst others, we discuss aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate with

  7. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  8. Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana

    2009-09-01

    We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.

  9. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  10. Total individual ion activity coefficients of calcium and carbonate in seawater at 25°C and 35%. salinity, and implications to the agreement between apparent and thermodynamic constants of calcite and aragonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plummer, L. Neil; Sundquist, Eric T.

    1982-01-01

    We have calculated the total individual ion activity coefficients of carbonate and calcium,  and , in seawater. Using the ratios of stoichiometric and thermodynamic constants of carbonic acid dissociation and total mean activity coefficient data measured in seawater, we have obtained values which differ significantly from those widely accepted in the literature. In seawater at 25°C and 35%. salinity the (molal) values of  and  are 0.038 ± 0.002 and 0.173 ± 0.010, respectively. These values of  and  are independent of liquid junction errors and internally consistent with the value . By defining  and  on a common scale (), the product  is independent of the assigned value of  and may be determined directly from thermodynamic measurements in seawater. Using the value  and new thermodynamic equilibrium constants for calcite and aragonite, we show that the apparent constants of calcite and aragonite are consistent with the thermodynamic equilibrium constants at 25°C and 35%. salinity. The demonstrated consistency between thermodynamic and apparent constants of calcite and aragonite does not support a hypothesis of stable Mg-calcite coatings on calcite or aragonite surfaces in seawater, and suggests that the calcite critical carbonate ion curve of Broecker and Takahashi (1978,Deep-Sea Research25, 65–95) defines the calcite equilibrium boundary in the oceans, within the uncertainty of the data.

  11. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 corrects differentiation of DM1 myoblasts through activation of RNA CUG-binding protein, CUGBP1

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sakai, Keiko; Schoser, Benedikt; Huichalaf, Claudia; Schneider-Gold, Christiane; Nguyen, Heather; Wang, Gou-Li; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.; Timchenko, Lubov T.

    2008-07-01

    Differentiation of myocytes is impaired in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1, DM1. CUG repeat binding protein, CUGBP1, is a key regulator of translation of proteins that are involved in muscle development and differentiation. In this paper, we present evidence that RNA-binding activity of CUGBP1 and its interactions with initiation translation complex eIF2 are differentially regulated during myogenesis by specific phosphorylation and that this regulation is altered in DM1. In normal myoblasts, Akt kinase phosphorylates CUGBP1 at Ser28 and increases interactions of CUGBP1 with cyclin D1 mRNA. During differentiation, CUGBP1 is phosphorylated by cyclinD3-cdk4/6 at Ser302, which increases CUGBP1 binding with p21 and C/EBP{beta} mRNAs. While cyclin D3 and cdk4 are elevated in normal myotubes; DM1 differentiating cells do not increase these proteins. In normal myotubes, CUGBP1 interacts with cyclin D3/cdk4/6 and eIF2; however, interactions of CUGBP1 with eIF2 are reduced in DM1 differentiating cells and correlate with impaired muscle differentiation in DM1. Ectopic expression of cyclin D3 in DM1 cells increases the CUGBP1-eIF2 complex, corrects expression of differentiation markers, myogenin and desmin, and enhances fusion of DM1 myoblasts. Thus, normalization of cyclin D3 might be a therapeutic approach to correct differentiation of skeletal muscle in DM1 patients.

  12. Effect of the difficulty level of a biofeedback device for postural correction on the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius muscle activity and trunk flexion angle during computer work.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the difficulty level of a biofeedback device for postural correction on the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius muscle activity and trunk flexion angle during computer work. [Subjects] Ten computer workers were included in this study. [Methods] The biofeedback tool used in this study provided visual and auditory feedback with regard to changes in trunk flexion angle under two different conditions during computer work: The first condition was when there was an increase of more than 10 degrees in a standard sitting posture. The second condition was when there was an increase of more than 20 degrees in the same posture. [Results] The trunk flexion angle showed no significant difference between conditions. The muscle activities of the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius under condition 1 (high difficulty level) was significantly increased compared with those under condition 2 (low difficulty level). [Conclusion] This result showed that frequent feedback with greater sensitivity can trigger stress and lead to the outbreak of other illnesses. PMID:27065535

  13. Effect of the difficulty level of a biofeedback device for postural correction on the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius muscle activity and trunk flexion angle during computer work

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the difficulty level of a biofeedback device for postural correction on the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius muscle activity and trunk flexion angle during computer work. [Subjects] Ten computer workers were included in this study. [Methods] The biofeedback tool used in this study provided visual and auditory feedback with regard to changes in trunk flexion angle under two different conditions during computer work: The first condition was when there was an increase of more than 10 degrees in a standard sitting posture. The second condition was when there was an increase of more than 20 degrees in the same posture. [Results] The trunk flexion angle showed no significant difference between conditions. The muscle activities of the orbicularis oculi and upper trapezius under condition 1 (high difficulty level) was significantly increased compared with those under condition 2 (low difficulty level). [Conclusion] This result showed that frequent feedback with greater sensitivity can trigger stress and lead to the outbreak of other illnesses. PMID:27065535

  14. Assessment of ionospheric and tropospheric corrections for PPP-RTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Paulo; Fund, François; Morel, Laurent; Monico, João; Durand, Stéphane; Durand, Fréderic

    2016-04-01

    The PPP-RTK is a state of art GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) technique employed to determine accurate positions in real-time. To perform the PPP-RTK it is necessary to accomplish the SSR (State Space Representation) of the spatially correlated errors affecting the GNSS observables, such as the tropospheric delay and the ionospheric effect. Using GNSS data of local or regional GNSS active networks, it is possible to determine quite well the atmospheric errors for any position in the network coverage area, by modeling these effects or biases. This work presents the results of tropospheric and ionospheric modeling employed to obtain the respective corrections. The region in the study is France and the Orphéon GNSS active network is used to generate the atmospheric corrections. The CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) satellite orbit products are used to perform ambiguity fixing in GNSS processing. Two atmospheric modeling approaches are considered: 1) generation of a priori correction by coefficients estimated using the GNSS network and 2) the use of interpolated ionospheric and tropospheric effects from the closest reference stations to the user's location, as suggested in the second stage of RTCM (Ratio Technical Commission for Maritime) messages development. Finally, the atmospheric corrections are introduced in PPP-RTK as a priori values to allow improvements in ambiguity fixing and to reduce its convergence time. The discussion emphasizes the positive and the negative points of each solution or even the associated use of them.

  15. Experimental and modeling study of thermal rate coefficients and cross sections for electron attachment to C(60).

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Albert A; Friedman, Jeffrey F; Shuman, Nicholas S; Miller, Thomas M; Schaffer, Linda C; Troe, Jürgen

    2010-05-21

    Thermal electron attachment to C(60) has been studied by relative rate measurements in a flowing afterglow Langmuir probe apparatus. The rate coefficients of the attachment k(1) are shown to be close to 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) with a small negative temperature coefficient. These results supersede measurements from the 1990s which led to much smaller values of k(1) with a large positive temperature coefficient suggesting an activation barrier. Theoretical modeling of k(1) in terms of generalized Vogt-Wannier capture theory shows that k(1) now looks more consistent with measurements of absolute attachment cross sections sigma(at) than before. The comparison of capture theory and experimental rate or cross section data leads to empirical correction factors, accounting for "intramolecular vibrational relaxation" or "electron-phonon coupling," which reduce k(1) below the capture results and which, on a partial wave-selected level, decrease with increasing electron energy. PMID:20499963

  16. RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...

  17. Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.

    1993-01-01

    Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…

  18. Improved diffusion coefficients generated from Monte Carlo codes

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, B. R.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.; Aviles, B. N.

    2013-07-01

    Monte Carlo codes are becoming more widely used for reactor analysis. Some of these applications involve the generation of diffusion theory parameters including macroscopic cross sections and diffusion coefficients. Two approximations used to generate diffusion coefficients are assessed using the Monte Carlo code MC21. The first is the method of homogenization; whether to weight either fine-group transport cross sections or fine-group diffusion coefficients when collapsing to few-group diffusion coefficients. The second is a fundamental approximation made to the energy-dependent P1 equations to derive the energy-dependent diffusion equations. Standard Monte Carlo codes usually generate a flux-weighted transport cross section with no correction to the diffusion approximation. Results indicate that this causes noticeable tilting in reconstructed pin powers in simple test lattices with L2 norm error of 3.6%. This error is reduced significantly to 0.27% when weighting fine-group diffusion coefficients by the flux and applying a correction to the diffusion approximation. Noticeable tilting in reconstructed fluxes and pin powers was reduced when applying these corrections. (authors)

  19. Activation and dissociation of CO2 on the (001), (011), and (111) surfaces of mackinawite (FeS): A dispersion-corrected DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzade, N. Y.; Roldan, A.; de Leeuw, N. H.

    2015-09-01

    Iron sulfide minerals, including mackinawite (FeS), are relevant in origin of life theories, due to their potential catalytic activity towards the reduction and conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic molecules, which may be applicable to the production of liquid fuels and commodity chemicals. However, the fundamental understanding of CO2 adsorption, activation, and dissociation on FeS surfaces remains incomplete. Here, we have used density functional theory calculations, corrected for long-range dispersion interactions (DFT-D2), to explore various adsorption sites and configurations for CO2 on the low-index mackinawite (001), (110), and (111) surfaces. We found that the CO2 molecule physisorbs weakly on the energetically most stable (001) surface but adsorbs relatively strongly on the (011) and (111) FeS surfaces, preferentially at Fe sites. The adsorption of the CO2 on the (011) and (111) surfaces is shown to be characterized by significant charge transfer from surface Fe species to the CO2 molecule, which causes a large structural transformation in the molecule (i.e., forming a negatively charged bent CO2-δ species, with weaker C—O confirmed via vibrational frequency analyses). We have also analyzed the pathways for CO2 reduction to CO and O on the mackinawite (011) and (111) surfaces. CO2 dissociation is calculated to be slightly endothermic relative to the associatively adsorbed states, with relatively large activation energy barriers of 1.25 eV and 0.72 eV on the (011) and (111) surfaces, respectively.

  20. An Orally Active Phenylaminotetralin-Chemotype Serotonin 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A Receptor Partial Agonist that Corrects Motor Stereotypy in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Felsing, Daniel E; Liu, Yue; Zhu, Wanying; Wood, JodiAnne T; Perry, Charles K; Vemula, Rajender; Booth, Raymond G

    2015-07-15

    Stereotypy (e.g., repetitive hand waving) is a key phenotype of autism spectrum disorder, Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and other neuropsychiatric disorders, and its severity correlates with cognitive and attention deficits. There are no effective treatments, however, for stereotypy. Perturbation of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission contributes to stereotypy, suggesting that distinct 5-HT receptors may be pharmacotherapeutic targets to treat stereotypy and related neuropsychiatric symptoms. For example, preclinical studies indicate that 5-HT7 receptor activation corrects deficits in mouse models of Fragile X and Rett syndromes, and clinical trials for autism are underway with buspirone, a 5-HT1A partial agonist with relevant affinity at 5-HT7 receptors. Herein, we report the synthesis, in vitro molecular pharmacology, behavioral pharmacology, and pharmacokinetic parameters in mice after subcutaneous and oral administration of (+)-5-(2'-fluorophenyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-amine ((+)-5-FPT), a new, dual partial agonist targeting both 5-HT7 (Ki = 5.8 nM, EC50 = 34 nM) and 5-HT1A (Ki = 22 nM, EC50 = 40 nM) receptors. Three unique, heterogeneous mouse models were used to assess the efficacy of (+)-5-FPT to reduce stereotypy: idiopathic jumping in C58/J mice, repetitive body rotations in C57BL/6J mice treated with the NMDA antagonist, MK-801, and repetitive head twitching in C57BL/6J mice treated with the 5-HT2 agonist, DOI. Systemic (+)-5-FPT potently and efficaciously reduced or eliminated stereotypy in each of the mouse models without altering locomotor behavior on its own, and additional tests showed that (+)-5-FPT, at the highest behaviorally active dose tested, enhanced social interaction and did not cause behaviors indicative of serotonin syndrome. These data suggest that (+)-5-FPT is a promising medication for treating stereotypy in psychiatric disorders. PMID:26011730

  1. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  2. Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W.E.

    2001-07-31

    A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.

  3. Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of NaCl + SrCl2 + H2O at 298.15 K, and Representation with an Extended Ion-Interaction Model

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, S L; Rard, J A; Miller, D G

    2004-11-09

    Isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements were made at 298.15 K for aqueous NaCl + SrCl{sub 2} solutions, using NaCl(aq) as the reference standard. The measurements for these ternary solutions were made at NaCl ionic strength fractions of y{sub 1} = 0.17066, 0.47366, and 0.82682 for the water activity range 0.9835 {ge} a{sub w} {ge} 0.8710. Our results, and those from two previous isopiestic studies, were combined and used with previously determined parameters for NaCl(aq) and those for SrCl{sub 2}(aq) determined here to evaluate the mixing parameters{sup S}{Theta}{sub Na,Sr} = (0.0562 {+-} 0.0007) kg {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and {Psi}{sub Na,Sr,Cl} = -(0.00705 {+-} 0.00017) kg{sup 2} {center_dot} mol{sup -2} for an extended form of Pitzer's ion-interaction model. These model parameters are valid for ionic strengths of I {le} 7.0 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}, where higher-order electrostatic effects have been included in the mixture model. If the fitting range is extended to the saturated solution molalities, then {sup S}{Theta}{sub Na,Sr} = (0.07885 {+-} 0.00195) kg {center_dot} mol{sup -1} and {Psi}{sub Na,Sr,Cl} = -(0.01230 {+-} 0.00033) kg{sup 2} {center_dot} mol{sup -2}. The extended ion-interaction model parameters obtained from available isopiestic data for SrCl{sub 2}(aq) at 298.15 K yield recommended values of the water activities and osmotic and activity coefficients.

  4. Transport Coefficients in weakly compressible turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    A theory of transport coefficients in weakly compressible turbulence is derived by applying Yoshizawa's two-scale direct interaction approximation to the compressible equations of motion linearized about a state of incompressible turbulence. The result is a generalization of the eddy viscosity representation of incompressible turbulence. In addition to the usual incompressible eddy viscosity, the calculation generates eddy diffusivities for entropy and pressure, and an effective bulk viscosity acting on the mean flow. The compressible fluctuations also generate an effective turbulent mean pressure and corrections to the speed of sound. Finally, a prediction unique to Yoshizawa's two-scale approximation is that terms containing gradients of incompressible turbulence quantities also appear in the mean flow equations. The form these terms take is described.

  5. Correction: Acid-catalyzed carboxylic acid esterification and ester hydrolysis mechanism: acylium ion as a sharing active intermediate via a spontaneous trimolecular reaction based on density functional theory calculation and supported by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongchang; Wang, Yilei; Hua, Ruimao

    2015-12-28

    Correction for 'Acid-catalyzed carboxylic acid esterification and ester hydrolysis mechanism: acylium ion as a sharing active intermediate via a spontaneous trimolecular reaction based on density functional theory calculation and supported by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry' by Hongchang Shi et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cp02914g. PMID:26583937

  6. Factors influencing the stream-aquifer flow exchange coefficient.

    PubMed

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J; Mehl, Steffen; Morgado, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of river gain from or loss to a hydraulically connected water table aquifer is crucial in issues of water rights and also when attempting to optimize conjunctive use of surface and ground waters. Typically in groundwater models this exchange flow is related to a difference in head between the river and some point in the aquifer, through a "coefficient." This coefficient has been defined differently as well as the location for the head in the aquifer. This paper proposes a new coefficient, analytically derived, and a specific location for the point where the aquifer head is used in the difference. The dimensionless part of the coefficient is referred to as the SAFE (stream-aquifer flow exchange) dimensionless conductance. The paper investigates the factors that influence the value of this new conductance. Among these factors are (1) the wetted perimeter of the cross-section, (2) the degree of penetration of the cross-section, and (3) the shape of the cross-section. The study shows that these factors just listed are indeed ordered in their respective level of importance. In addition the study verifies that the analytical correct value of the coefficient is matched by finite difference simulation only if the grid system is sufficiently fine. Thus the use of the analytical value of the coefficient is an accurate and efficient alternative to ad hoc estimates for the coefficient typically used in finite difference and finite element methods. PMID:24010703

  7. Calculation of NaCl, KCl and LiCl Salts Activity Coefficients in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000)-Water System Using Modified PHSC Equation of State, Extended Debye-Hückel Model and Pitzer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Azam

    2016-07-01

    For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.

  8. Apolipoprotein C-II deficiency syndrome. Clinical features, lipoprotein characterization, lipase activity, and correction of hypertriglyceridemia after apolipoprotein C-II administration in two affected patients.

    PubMed Central

    Baggio, G; Manzato, E; Gabelli, C; Fellin, R; Martini, S; Enzi, G B; Verlato, F; Baiocchi, M R; Sprecher, D L; Kashyap, M L

    1986-01-01

    Two patients (brother and sister, 41 and 39 yr of age, respectively) have been shown to have marked elevation of plasma triglycerides and chylomicrons, decreased low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL), a type I lipoprotein phenotype, and a deficiency of plasma apolipoprotein C-II (apo C-II). The male patient had a history of recurrent bouts of abdominal pain often accompanied by eruptive xanthomas. The female subject, identified by family screening, was asymptomatic. Hepatosplenomegaly was present in both subjects. Analytical and zonal ultracentrifugation revealed a marked increase in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins including chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins, a reduction in LDL, and the presence of virtually only the HDL3 subfraction. LDL were heterogeneous with the major subfraction of a higher hydrated density than that observed in plasma lipoproteins of normal subjects. Apo C-II levels, quantitated by radioimmunoassay, were 0.13 mg/dl and 0.12 mg/dl, in the male and female proband, respectively. A variant of apo C-II (apo C-IIPadova) with lower apparent molecular weight and more acidic isoelectric point was identified in both probands by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The marked hypertriglyceridemia and elevation of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were corrected by the infusion of normal plasma or the injection of a biologically active synthesized 44-79 amino acid residue peptide fragment of apo C-II. The reduction in plasma triglycerides after the injection of the synthetic apo C-II peptide persisted for 13-20 d. These results definitively established that the dyslipoproteinemia in this syndrome is due to a deficiency of normal apo C-II. A possible therapeutic role for replacement therapy of apo C-II by synthetic or recombinant apo C-II in those patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia and recurrent pancreatitis may be possible in the future. Images PMID:3944267

  9. Angular Fock coefficients: Refinement and further development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

    2015-10-01

    The angular coefficients ψk ,p(α ,θ ) of the Fock expansion characterizing the S -state wave function of the two-electron atomic system are calculated in hyperspherical angular coordinates α and θ . To solve the problem the Fock recurrence relations separated into the independent individual equations associated with definite power j of the nucleus charge Z are applied. The "pure" j components of the angular Fock coefficients, orthogonal to the hyperspherical harmonics Yk l, are found for even values of k . To this end, the specific coupling equation is proposed and applied. Effective techniques for solving the individual equations with the simplest nonseparable and separable right-hand sides are proposed. Some mistakes or misprints made earlier in representations of ψ2 ,0, are noted and corrected. All j components of ψ4 ,1 and the majority of components and subcomponents of ψ3 ,0 are calculated and presented. All calculations are carried out with the help of Wolfram Mathematica.

  10. Transport coefficients of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.

    2016-08-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.

  11. Transport coefficients of He(+) ions in helium.

    PubMed

    Viehland, Larry A; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R; Wright, Timothy G

    2016-02-21

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of (4)He(+) in (4)He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X(2)Σu (+) and A(2)Σg (+) states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of (4)He(+) in (4)He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:26896985

  12. Transport coefficients of He+ ions in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viehland, Larry A.; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R.; Wright, Timothy G.

    2016-02-01

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of 4He+ in 4He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X2Σu+ and A2Σg+ states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of 4He+ in 4He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects.

  13. Isopiestic Determination of the Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of Li2SO4(aq) at T = 298.15 and 323.15 K, and Representation with an Extended Ion-interaction (Pitzer) model

    SciTech Connect

    Rard, J A; Clegg, S L; Palmer, D A

    2007-01-03

    Isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements were made for Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(aq) from 0.1069 to 2.8190 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 298.15 K, and from 0.1148 to 2.7969 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 323.15 K, with NaCl(aq) as the reference standard. Published thermodynamic data for this system were reviewed, recalculated for consistency, and critically assessed. The present results and the more reliable published results were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended version of Pitzer's ion-interaction model with an ionic-strength dependent third virial coefficient, as well as those of the standard Pitzer model, for the osmotic and activity coefficients at both temperatures. Published enthalpies of dilution at 298.15 K were also analyzed to yield the parameters of the ion-interaction models for the relative apparent molar enthalpies of dilution. The resulting models at 298.15 K are valid to the saturated solution molality of the thermodynamically stable phase Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O(cr). Solubilities of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O(cr) at 298.15 K were assessed, and the selected value of m(sat.) = 3.13 {+-} 0.04 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} was used to evaluate the thermodynamic solubility product K{sub s}(Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, cr, 298.15 K) = (2.62 {+-} 0.19) and a CODATA-compatible standard molar Gibbs energy of formation {Delta}{sub f}G{sub m}{sup o} (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, cr, 298.15 K) = -(1564.6 {+-} 0.5) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}.

  14. 77 FR 72199 - Technical Corrections; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...) is correcting a final rule that was published in the Federal Register on July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39899... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On July 6, 2012 (77 FR 39899), the NRC published a final rule in the Federal Register... typographical and spelling errors, and making other edits and conforming changes. This correcting amendment...

  15. Rx for Pedagogical Correctness: Professional Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Thomas J.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the difficulties caused by educators holding to a view of teaching that assumes that there is one "pedagogically correct" way of running a classroom. Provides three examples of harmful pedagogical correctness ("untracked" classes, cooperative learning, and testing and test-wiseness). Argues that such dogmatic views of education limit…

  16. RECOMBINATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF Be-LIKE Si

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, I.; Boehm, S.; Schuch, R.; Loch, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    Recombination of Be-like Si{sup 10+} over the 0-43 eV electron-ion energy range is measured at the CRYRING electron cooler. In addition to radiative and dielectronic recombination, the recombination spectrum also shows strong contributions from trielectronic recombination. Below 100 meV, several very strong resonances associated with a spin-flip of the excited electron dominate the spectrum and also dominate the recombination in the photoionized plasma. The resonant plasma rate coefficients corrected for the experimental field ionization are in good agreement with calculated results by Gu and with AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations. All other calculations significantly underestimate the plasma rate coefficients at low temperatures.

  17. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    PubMed

    Coursol; Gorozhankin; Yakushev; Briancon; Vylov

    2000-03-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z = 30 to Z = 103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10 < or = Z < or = 104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Rosel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations. PMID:10724406

  18. Seebeck coefficient of one electron

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, Zahid A. K.

    2014-03-07

    The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ΔT between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ΔT are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ΔT, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.

  19. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…

  20. Ratings of Job Performance of Georgia Correctional Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosin, Jerome Alan

    Expansion and modification of a 27-item Delphi derived form for assessing campus police performance resulted in a 43-item form to measure job performance of correctional officers in the Georgia Department of Corrections. The self-rating scale, with a reliability coefficient of .995 (n=120) was subjected to factor analysis and varimax rotation and…

  1. Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbertson, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…

  2. Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.

  3. Tables of the coefficients A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.

  4. Estimating the Polyserial Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedrick, Edward J.; Breslin, Frederick C.

    1996-01-01

    Simple noniterative estimators of the polyserial correlation coefficient are developed by exploiting a general relationship between the polyserial correlation and the point polyserial correlation to give extensions of the biserial estimators of K. Pearson (1909), H. E. Brogden (1949), and F. M. Lord (1963) to the multicategory setting. (SLD)

  5. FISICO: Fast Image SegmentatIon COrrection

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Waldo; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Ignasiak, Dominika; Diserens, Gaëlle; Häni, Levin; Wiest, Roland; Vermathen, Peter; Boesch, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose In clinical diagnosis, medical image segmentation plays a key role in the analysis of pathological regions. Despite advances in automatic and semi-automatic segmentation techniques, time-effective correction tools are commonly needed to improve segmentation results. Therefore, these tools must provide faster corrections with a lower number of interactions, and a user-independent solution to reduce the time frame between image acquisition and diagnosis. Methods We present a new interactive method for correcting image segmentations. Our method provides 3D shape corrections through 2D interactions. This approach enables an intuitive and natural corrections of 3D segmentation results. The developed method has been implemented into a software tool and has been evaluated for the task of lumbar muscle and knee joint segmentations from MR images. Results Experimental results show that full segmentation corrections could be performed within an average correction time of 5.5±3.3 minutes and an average of 56.5±33.1 user interactions, while maintaining the quality of the final segmentation result within an average Dice coefficient of 0.92±0.02 for both anatomies. In addition, for users with different levels of expertise, our method yields a correction time and number of interaction decrease from 38±19.2 minutes to 6.4±4.3 minutes, and 339±157.1 to 67.7±39.6 interactions, respectively. PMID:27224061

  6. Computing connection coefficients of compactly supported wavelets on bounded intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, C.H.; Peyton, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    Daubechies wavelet basis functions have many properties that make them desirable as a basis for a Galerkin approach to solving PDEs: they are orthogonal, with compact support, and their connection coefficients can be computed. The method developed by Latto et al. to compute connection coefficients does not provide the correct inner product near the endpoints of a bounded interval, making the implementation of boundary conditions problematic. Moreover, the highly oscillatory nature of the wavelet basis functions makes standard numerical quadrature of integrals near the boundary impractical. The authors extend the method of Latto et al. to construct and solve a linear system of equations whose solution provides the exact computation of the integrals at the boundaries. As a consequence, they provide the correct inner product for wavelet basis functions on a bounded interval.

  7. Eyeglasses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Glasses & Contacts Eyeglasses for Vision Correction Dec. 12, 2015 Wearing eyeglasses is an easy way to correct refractive errors. Improving your vision with eyeglasses offers the opportunity to select from ...

  8. Estimating biokinetic coefficients in the PACT™ system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyao; Arbuckle, Wm Brian

    2016-02-01

    When powdered activated carbon (PAC) is continuously added to the aeration tank of an activated sludge reactor, the modification is called a PACT™ process (for powdered activated carbon treatment). The PAC provides many benefits, but complicates the determination of biological phenomena. Determination of bio-oxidation kinetics in a PACT system is a key to fully understanding enhanced biological mechanisms resulting from PAC addition. A model is developed to account for the main mechanisms involved in the PACT system -- adsorption, air stripping and bio-oxidation. The model enables the investigation of biokinetic information, including possible synergistic effects. Six parallel reactors were used to treat a synthetic waste; three activated sludge and three PACT. The PACT reactors provided significantly reduced effluent TOC (total organic carbon). Biokinetic coefficients were obtained from steady-state data using averaged reactor data and by using all data (22 points for each reactor). As expected, the PACT reactors resulted in a substantial reduction in the effluent concentration of non-biodegradable total organic carbon. The Monod equation's half-saturation coefficient (Ks) was reduced significantly in the PACT reactors, resulting in higher growth rates at lower concentrations. The maximum specific substrate utilization (qm) rate was also reduced about 25% using the averaged data and remained unchanged using all the data. The substrate utilization values are affected by errors in biomass determination and more research is needed to accurately determine biomass. PMID:26613352

  9. Voros product, noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole and corrected area law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan; Modak, Sujoy Kumar

    2010-03-01

    We show the importance of the Voros product in defining a noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole. The corrected entropy/area law is then computed in the tunneling formalism. Two types of corrections are considered; one, due to the effects of noncommutativity and the other, due to the effects of going beyond the semiclassical approximation. The leading correction to the semiclassical entropy/area-law is logarithmic and its coefficient involves the noncommutative parameter.

  10. Research in Correctional Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Forty-three leaders in corrections and rehabilitation participated in the seminar planned to provide an indication of the status of research in correctional rehabilitation. Papers include: (1) "Program Trends in Correctional Rehabilitation" by John P. Conrad, (2) "Federal Offenders Rahabilitation Program" by Percy B. Bell and Merlyn Mathews, (3)…

  11. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  12. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  13. Measurement of attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuzeng; Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing

    2016-02-01

    Attenuation corrections in nonlinear acoustics play an important role in the study of nonlinear fluids, biomedical imaging, or solid material characterization. The measurement of attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear regime is not easy because they depend on the source pressure and requires accurate diffraction corrections. In this work, the attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonic waves which come from the absorption of water are measured in nonlinear ultrasonic experiments. Based on the quasilinear theory of the KZK equation, the nonlinear sound field equations are derived and the diffraction correction terms are extracted. The measured sound pressure amplitudes are adjusted first for diffraction corrections in order to reduce the impact on the measurement of attenuation coefficients from diffractions. The attenuation coefficients of the fundamental and second harmonics are calculated precisely from a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting process of the experiment data. The results show that attenuation coefficients in a nonlinear condition depend on both frequency and source pressure, which are much different from a linear regime. In a relatively lower drive pressure, the attenuation coefficients increase linearly with frequency. However, they present the characteristic of nonlinear growth in a high drive pressure. As the diffraction corrections are obtained based on the quasilinear theory, it is important to use an appropriate source pressure for accurate attenuation measurements.

  14. Calibration of an HPGe detector and self-attenuation correction for 210Pb: Verification by alpha spectrometry of 210Po in environmental samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saïdou; Bochud, François; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Buchillier, Thierry; Njock Moïse, Kwato; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2007-08-01

    In this work the calibration of an HPGe detector for 210Pb measurement is realised by a liquid standard source and the determination of this radionuclide in solid environmental samples by gamma spectrometry takes into account a correction factor for self-attenuation of its 46.5 keV line. Experimental, theoretical and Monte Carlo investigations are undertaken to evaluate self-attenuation for cylindrical sample geometry. To validate this correction factor, 210Po (at equilibrium with 210Pb) alpha spectrometry procedure using microwave acid digestion under pressure is developed and proposed. The different self-attenuation correction methods are in coherence, and corrected 210Pb activities are in good agreement with the results of 210Po. Finally, self-attenuation corrections are proposed for environmental solid samples whose density ranges between 0.8 and 1.4 g/cm 3 and whose mass attenuation coefficient is around 0.4 cm 2/g.

  15. Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K

    2014-01-01

    We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic PMID:26167440

  16. Quantum self-correction in the 3D cubic code model.

    PubMed

    Bravyi, Sergey; Haah, Jeongwan

    2013-11-15

    A big open question in the quantum information theory concerns the feasibility of a self-correcting quantum memory. A quantum state recorded in such memory can be stored reliably for a macroscopic time without need for active error correction, if the memory is in contact with a cold enough thermal bath. Here we report analytic and numerical evidence for self-correcting behavior in the quantum spin lattice model known as the 3D cubic code. We prove that its memory time is at least L(cβ), where L is the lattice size, β is the inverse temperature of the bath, and c>0 is a constant coefficient. However, this bound applies only if the lattice size L does not exceed a critical value which grows exponentially with β. In that sense, the model can be called a partially self-correcting memory. We also report a Monte Carlo simulation indicating that our analytic bounds on the memory time are tight up to constant coefficients. To model the readout step we introduce a new decoding algorithm, which can be implemented efficiently for any topological stabilizer code. A longer version of this work can be found in Bravyi and Haah, arXiv:1112.3252. PMID:24289671

  17. Quantum Self-Correction in the 3D Cubic Code Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Haah, Jeongwan

    2013-11-01

    A big open question in the quantum information theory concerns the feasibility of a self-correcting quantum memory. A quantum state recorded in such memory can be stored reliably for a macroscopic time without need for active error correction, if the memory is in contact with a cold enough thermal bath. Here we report analytic and numerical evidence for self-correcting behavior in the quantum spin lattice model known as the 3D cubic code. We prove that its memory time is at least Lcβ, where L is the lattice size, β is the inverse temperature of the bath, and c>0 is a constant coefficient. However, this bound applies only if the lattice size L does not exceed a critical value which grows exponentially with β. In that sense, the model can be called a partially self-correcting memory. We also report a Monte Carlo simulation indicating that our analytic bounds on the memory time are tight up to constant coefficients. To model the readout step we introduce a new decoding algorithm, which can be implemented efficiently for any topological stabilizer code. A longer version of this work can be found in Bravyi and Haah, arXiv:1112.3252.

  18. Corrective Action Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The glossary of technical terms was prepared to facilitate the use of the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) issued by OSWER on November 14, 1986. The CAP presents model scopes of work for all phases of a corrective action program, including the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI), Corrective Measures Study (CMS), Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI), and interim measures. The Corrective Action Glossary includes brief definitions of the technical terms used in the CAP and explains how they are used. In addition, expected ranges (where applicable) are provided. Parameters or terms not discussed in the CAP, but commonly associated with site investigations or remediations are also included.

  19. Ionization coefficients in gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marić, D.; Šašić, O.; Jovanović, J.; Radmilović-Rađenović, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj.

    2007-03-01

    We have tested the application of the common E/N ( E—electric field, N—gas number density) or Wieland approximation [Van Brunt, R.J., 1987. Common parametrizations of electron transport, collision cross section, and dielectric strength data for binary gas mixtures. J. Appl. Phys. 61 (5), 1773-1787.] and the common mean energy (CME) combination of the data for pure gases to obtain ionization coefficients for mixtures. Test calculations were made for Ar-CH4, Ar-N2, He-Xe and CH4-N2 mixtures. Standard combination procedure gives poor results in general, due to the fact that the electron energy distribution is considerably different in mixtures and in individual gases at the same values of E/N. The CME method may be used for mixtures of gases with ionization coefficients that do not differ by more than two orders of magnitude which is better than any other technique that was proposed [Marić, D., Radmilović-Rađenović, M., Petrović, Z.Lj., 2005. On parametrization and mixture laws for electron ionization coefficients. Eur. Phys. J. D 35, 313-321.].

  20. Nonlinear Varying Coefficient Models with Applications to Studying Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Kürüm, Esra; Li, Runze; Wang, Yang; SEntürk, Damla

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by a study on factors affecting the level of photosynthetic activity in a natural ecosystem, we propose nonlinear varying coefficient models, in which the relationship between the predictors and the response variable is allowed to be nonlinear. One-step local linear estimators are developed for the nonlinear varying coefficient models and their asymptotic normality is established leading to point-wise asymptotic confidence bands for the coefficient functions. Two-step local linear estimators are also proposed for cases where the varying coefficient functions admit different degrees of smoothness; bootstrap confidence intervals are utilized for inference based on the two-step estimators. We further propose a generalized F test to study whether the coefficient functions vary over a covariate. We illustrate the proposed methodology via an application to an ecology data set and study the finite sample performance by Monte Carlo simulation studies. PMID:24976756

  1. Nonlinear Varying Coefficient Models with Applications to Studying Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kürüm, Esra; Li, Runze; Wang, Yang; ŞEntürk, Damla

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by a study on factors affecting the level of photosynthetic activity in a natural ecosystem, we propose nonlinear varying coefficient models, in which the relationship between the predictors and the response variable is allowed to be nonlinear. One-step local linear estimators are developed for the nonlinear varying coefficient models and their asymptotic normality is established leading to point-wise asymptotic confidence bands for the coefficient functions. Two-step local linear estimators are also proposed for cases where the varying coefficient functions admit different degrees of smoothness; bootstrap confidence intervals are utilized for inference based on the two-step estimators. We further propose a generalized F test to study whether the coefficient functions vary over a covariate. We illustrate the proposed methodology via an application to an ecology data set and study the finite sample performance by Monte Carlo simulation studies. PMID:24976756

  2. Maxwell boundary condition and velocity dependent accommodation coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2013-11-15

    A modification of Maxwell's boundary condition for the Boltzmann equation is developed that allows to incorporate velocity dependent accommodation coefficients into the microscopic description. As a first example, it is suggested to consider the wall-particle interaction as a thermally activated process with three parameters. A simplified averaging procedure leads to jump and slip boundary conditions for hydrodynamics. Coefficients for velocity slip, temperature jump, and thermal transpiration flow are identified and compared with those resulting from the original Maxwell model and the Cercignani-Lampis model. An extension of the model leads to temperature dependent slip and jump coefficients.

  3. Real time closed orbit correction system

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.H.; Biscardi, R.; Bittner, J.; Bozoki, E.; Galayda, J.; Krinsky, S.; Nawrocky, R.; Singh, O.; Vignola, G.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a global closed orbit feedback experiment, based upon a real time harmonic analysis of both the orbit movement and the correction magnetic fields. The feedback forces the coefficients of a few harmonics near the betatron tune to vanish, and significantly improves the global orbit stability. We present the results of the experiment in the UV ring using 4 detectors and 4 trims, in which maximum observed displacement was reduced by a factor of between 3 and 4. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Conformal anomaly c-coefficients of superconformal 6d theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose general relations between the conformal anomaly and the chiral (R-symmetry and gravitational) anomaly coefficients in 6d (1, 0) superconformal theories. The suggested expressions for the three type B conformal anomaly c i -coefficients complement the expression for the type A anomaly a-coefficient found in arXiv:1506.03807. We check them on several examples — the standard (1, 0) hyper and tensor multiplets as well as some higher derivative short multiplets containing vector fields that generalize the super-conformal 6d vector multiplet discussed in arXiv:1506.08727. We also consider a family of higher derivative superconformal (2, 0) 6d multiplets associated to 7d multiplets in the KK spectrum of 11d supergravity compactified on S 4. In particular, we prove that (2,0) 6d conformal supergravity coupled to 26 tensor multiplets is free of all chiral and conformal anomalies. We discuss some interacting (1, 0) superconformal theories, predicting the c i -coefficients for the "E-string" theory on multiple M5-branes at E 8 9-brane and for the theory describing M5-branes at an orbifold singularity {C}^2/Γ . Finally, we elaborate on holographic computation of subleading corrections to conformal anomaly coefficients coming from R 2 + R 3 terms in 7d effective action, revisiting, in particular, the (2,0) theory case.

  5. 78 FR 75449 - Miscellaneous Corrections; Corrections

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... INFORMATION: The NRC published a final rule in the Federal Register on June 7, 2013 (78 FR 34245), to make.... The final rule contained minor errors in grammar, punctuation, and referencing. This document corrects... specifying metric units. The final rule inadvertently included additional errors in grammar and...

  6. The effect of metal artefact reduction on CT-based attenuation correction for PET imaging in the vicinity of metallic hip implants: A phantom study

    PubMed Central

    Harnish, Roy; Prevrhal, Sven; Alavi, Abass; Zaidi, Habib; Lang, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine if metal artefact reduction (MAR) combined with a priori knowledge of prosthesis material composition can be applied to obtain CT-based attenuation maps with sufficient accuracy for quantitative assessment of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in lesions near metallic prostheses. Methods A custom hip prosthesis phantom with a lesion-sized cavity filled with 0.2 ml 18F-FDG solution having an activity of 3.367 MBq adjacent to a prosthesis bore was imaged twice with a chrome-cobalt steel hip prosthesis and a plastic replica, respectively. Scanning was performed on a clinical hybrid PET/CT system equipped with an additional external 137Cs transmission source. PET emission images were reconstructed from both phantom configurations with CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) and with CT-based attenuation correction using MAR (MARCTAC). To compare results with the attenuation-correction method extant prior to the advent of PET/CT, we also carried out attenuation correction with 137Cs transmission-based attenuation correction (TXAC). CTAC and MARCTAC images were scaled to attenuation coefficients at 511 keV using a tri-linear function that mapped the highest CT values to the prosthesis alloy attenuation coefficient. Accuracy and spatial distribution of the lesion activity was compared between the three reconstruction schemes. Results Compared to the reference activity of 3.37 MBq, the estimated activity quantified from the PET image corrected by TXAC was 3.41 MBq. The activity estimated from PET images corrected by MARCTAC was similar in accuracy at 3.32 MBq. CTAC corrected PET images resulted in nearly 40% overestimation of lesion activity at 4.70 MBq. Comparison of PET images obtained with the plastic and metal prostheses in place showed that CTAC resulted in a marked distortion of the 18F-FDG distribution within the lesion, whereas application of MARCTAC and TXAC resulted in lesion distributions similar to those observed with the plastic replica

  7. Boomwhackers and End-Pipe Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    End-pipe corrections seldom come to mind as a suitable topic for an introductory physics lab. Yet, the end-pipe correction formula can be verified in an engaging and inexpensive lab that requires only two supplies: plastic-tube toys called boomwhackers and a meter-stick. This article describes a lab activity in which students model data from…

  8. 75 FR 68407 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... 67013, the Presidential Determination number should read ``2010-12'' (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. C1... Migration Needs Resulting from Violence in Kyrgyzstan Correction In Presidential document...

  9. On prismatic corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartkowski, Zygmunt; Bartkowska, Janina

    2006-02-01

    In the prismatic corrections there are described the differences between the nominal and interior prisms, or tilts of the eye to fix straightforward (Augenausgleichbewegung). In the astigmatic corrections, if the prism doesn't lie in the principal sections of the cylinder, the directions of both events are different. In the corrections of the horizontal strabismus there appears the vertical component of the interior prism. The approximated formulae describing these phenomena are presented. The suitable setting can correct the quality of the vision in the important for the patient direction.

  10. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  11. Evaluation and automatic correction of metal-implant-induced artifacts in MR-based attenuation correction in whole-body PET/MR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.; Maus, J.; Hofheinz, F.; Petr, J.; Lougovski, A.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Platzek, I.; van den Hoff, J.

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a new automatic method for compensation of metal-implant-induced segmentation errors in MR-based attenuation maps (MRMaps) and to evaluate the quantitative influence of those artifacts on the reconstructed PET activity concentration. The developed method uses a PET-based delineation of the patient contour to compensate metal-implant-caused signal voids in the MR scan that is segmented for PET attenuation correction. PET emission data of 13 patients with metal implants examined in a Philips Ingenuity PET/MR were reconstructed with the vendor-provided method for attenuation correction (MRMaporig, PETorig) and additionally with a method for attenuation correction (MRMapcor, PETcor) developed by our group. MRMaps produced by both methods were visually inspected for segmentation errors. The segmentation errors in MRMaporig were classified into four classes (L1 and L2 artifacts inside the lung and B1 and B2 artifacts inside the remaining body depending on the assigned attenuation coefficients). The average relative SUV differences (\\varepsilon _{rel}^{av}) between PETorig and PETcor of all regions showing wrong attenuation coefficients in MRMaporig were calculated. Additionally, relative SUVmean differences (ɛrel) of tracer accumulations in hot focal structures inside or in the vicinity of these regions were evaluated. MRMaporig showed erroneous attenuation coefficients inside the regions affected by metal artifacts and inside the patients' lung in all 13 cases. In MRMapcor, all regions with metal artifacts, except for the sternum, were filled with the soft-tissue attenuation coefficient and the lung was correctly segmented in all patients. MRMapcor only showed small residual segmentation errors in eight patients. \\varepsilon _{rel}^{av} (mean ± standard deviation) were: ( - 56 ± 3)% for B1, ( - 43 ± 4)% for B2, (21 ± 18)% for L1, (120 ± 47)% for L2 regions. ɛrel (mean ± standard deviation) of hot focal structures were

  12. Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge; Smaranda, Loredana; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2011-09-01

    A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.

  13. Ricean Bias Correction in Linear Polarization Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Bong Won

    2011-12-01

    I developed an enhanced correction method for Ricean bias which occurs in linear polarization measurement. Two known methods for Ricean bias correction are reviewed. In low signal-to-noise area, the method based on the mode of the equation gives better representation of the fractional polarization. But a caution should be given that the accurate estimation of noise level, i.e. σ of the polarized flux, is important. The maximum likelihood method is better choice for high signal-to-noise area. I suggest a hybrid method which uses the mode of the equation at the low signal-to-noise area and takes the maximum likelihood method at the high signal-to-noise area. A modified correction coefficient for the mode solution is proposed. The impact on the depolarization measure analysis is discussed.

  14. Ratios of internal conversion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    2006-03-15

    We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.

  15. [Obtaining aerosol backscattering coefficient using pure rotational Raman-Mie scattering spectrum].

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Chen, Si-Ying; Zhang, Yin-Chao; Chen, He; Guo, Pan

    2012-11-01

    Both the traditional Klett and Fernald methods used to obtain atmospheric aerosol backscattering coefficient require the hypothesis of relationship between the extinction coefficient and backscattering coefficient, and this will bring error. According to the theory that the pure rotational Raman backscattering coefficient is only related to atmospheric temperature and pressure, a new method is presented for inverting aerosol backscattering coefficient, which needed the intensity of elastic scattering and rotational Raman combined with atmospheric temperature and pressure obtained with the sounding balloons in this article. This method can not only eliminate the errors of the traditional Klett and Fernald methods caused by the hypothesis, but also avoid the error caused by the correction of the overlap. Finally, the aerosol backscattering coefficient was acquired by using this method and the data obtained via the Raman-Mie scattering Lidar of our lab. And the result was compared with that of Klett and Fernald. PMID:23387171

  16. The emission coefficient of uranium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (Temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range (200 A - 6000 A). The results are compared to theory and other measurements. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also given.

  17. Global orbit corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Symon, K.

    1987-11-01

    There are various reasons for preferring local (e.g., three bump) orbit correction methods to global corrections. One is the difficulty of solving the mN equations for the required mN correcting bumps, where N is the number of superperiods and m is the number of bumps per superperiod. The latter is not a valid reason for avoiding global corrections, since, we can take advantage of the superperiod symmetry to reduce the mN simultaneous equations to N separate problems, each involving only m simultaneous equations. Previously, I have shown how to solve the general problem when the machine contains unknown magnet errors of known probability distribution; we made measurements of known precision of the orbit displacements at a set of points, and we wish to apply correcting bumps to minimize the weighted rms orbit deviations. In this report, we will consider two simpler problems, using similar methods. We consider the case when we make M beam position measurements per superperiod, and we wish to apply an equal number M of orbit correcting bumps to reduce the measured position errors to zero. We also consider the problem when the number of correcting bumps is less than the number of measurements, and we wish to minimize the weighted rms position errors. We will see that the latter problem involves solving equations of a different form, but involving the same matrices as the former problem.

  18. M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.

  19. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  20. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  1. Online application for the barometric coefficient calculation of the NMDB stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalis, P.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Yanke, V.; Belov, A.; Eroshenko, E.; Gerontidou, M.; Koutroumpi, I.

    2013-02-01

    The primary processing of the neutron monitor data includes all the necessary actions and procedures that each cosmic ray station follows in order to provide the worldwide neutron monitor network with good quality data. One of the main corrections of the primary data is the pressure correction due to the barometric effect. The barometric effect induces variations to the measured data of the neutron monitors which are related to the variations of the local atmospheric pressure of the stations. This correction requires the definition of the barometric coefficient which is calculated experimentally. The accurate calculation of the coefficient is a prerequisite for the quality of the data. This paper presents the implementation of an online tool which calculates the barometric coefficient of a cosmic ray station, by taking advantage of the fact that most stations publish their data on the Neutron Monitor Data Base.

  2. CD22ΔE12 as a molecular target for corrective repair using a RNA trans-splicing strategy: Anti-leukemic activity of a rationally designed RNA trans-splicing molecule

    PubMed Central

    Uckun, Fatih M.; Qazi, Sanjive; Ma, Hong; Reaman, Gregory H.; Mitchell, Lloyd G.

    2015-01-01

    Our recent studies have demonstrated that the CD22 exon 12 deletion (CD22ΔE12) is a characteristic genetic defect of therapy-refractory clones in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL) and implicated the CD22ΔE12 genetic defect in the aggressive biology of relapsed or therapy-refractory pediatric BPL. The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the biologic significance of the CD22ΔE12 molecular lesion and determine if it could serve as a molecular target for corrective repair using RNA trans-splicing therapy. We show that both pediatric and adult B-lineage lymphoid malignancies are characterized by a very high incidence of the CD22ΔE12 genetic defect. We provide experimental evidence that the correction of the CD22ΔE12 genetic defect in human CD22ΔE12+ BPL cells using a rationally designed CD22 RNA trans-splicing molecule (RTM) caused a pronounced reduction of their clonogenicity. The RTM-mediated correction replaced the downstream mutation-rich segment of Intron 12 and remaining segments of the mutant CD22 pre-mRNA with wildtype CD22 Exons 10-14, thereby preventing the generation of the cis-spliced aberrant CD22ΔE12 product. The anti-leukemic activity of this RTM against BPL xenograft clones derived from CD22ΔE12+ leukemia patients provides the preclinical proof-of-concept that correcting the CD22ΔE12 defect with rationally designed CD22 RTMs may provide the foundation for therapeutic innovations that are needed for successful treatment of high-risk and relapsed BPL patients. PMID:25567759

  3. Detection of community structure in networks based on community coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hu; Wei, Hui

    2012-12-01

    Determining community structure in networks is fundamental to the analysis of the structural and functional properties of those networks, including social networks, computer networks, and biological networks. Modularity function Q, which was proposed by Newman and Girvan, was once the most widely used criterion for evaluating the partition of a network into communities. However, modularity Q is subject to a serious resolution limit. In this paper, we propose a new function for evaluating the partition of a network into communities. This is called community coefficient C. Using community coefficient C, we can automatically identify the ideal number of communities in the network, without any prior knowledge. We demonstrate that community coefficient C is superior to the modularity Q and does not have a resolution limit. We also compared the two widely used community structure partitioning methods, the hierarchical partitioning algorithm and the normalized cuts (Ncut) spectral partitioning algorithm. We tested these methods on computer-generated networks and real-world networks whose community structures were already known. The Ncut algorithm and community coefficient C were found to produce better results than hierarchical algorithms. Unlike several other community detection methods, the proposed method effectively partitioned the networks into different community structures and indicated the correct number of communities.

  4. Discharge coefficients of holes angled to the flow direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, N.; Henshall, S. E.; Manning, A.

    1992-06-01

    In the cooling passages of gas turbine blades, branches are often angled to the direction of the internal flow. This is particularly the case with film cooling holes. Accurate knowledge of the discharge coefficient of such holes at the design stage is vital so that the holes are correctly sized thus avoiding wastage of coolant and the formation of hot spots on the blade. This paper describes an experimental investigation to determine the discharge coefficient of 30 deg inclined holes with various degrees of inlet radiusing and with the axis of the hole at various orientation angles to the direction of the flow. Results are given for nominal main flow Mach numbers of 0, 0.15 and 0.3. The effects of radiusing, orientation and cross flow Mach number are quantified in the paper, the general trends are described, and the criteria for optimum performance are identified.

  5. Large Seebeck coefficient in frustrated doped Mott insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenault, Louis-François; Shastry, B. Sriram; Sémon, Patrick; Tremblay, André-Marie

    2011-03-01

    Since calculations based on the standard Kubo formula have proven extremely difficult for electric and thermal transport, Shastry and co-workers suggested two novel approximate ways to obtain the thermopower (S) in interacting systems. One method is based on the high-frequency limit. The other, based on ideas of Kelvin, is purely thermodynamical. With these we study the Hubbard model on a 3d FCC lattice, a frustrated lattice. The high dimensionality of the problem justifies the use of dynamical mean field theory (DMFT). CTQMC in the hybridization expansion and the fast IPT are the impurity solver. The Seebeck coefficient is obtained as a function of doping and temperature for different U. Within DMFT, vertex corrections vanish for transports coefficients, hence the bubble suffices. This enables us to further assess how both approximate methods compare with each other and with the DC Kubo approach. At low T, results can be interpreted in terms of effective Fermi temperatures and carrier number.

  6. Calculation of self-diffusion coefficients in iron

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Baohua

    2014-01-15

    On the basis of available P-V-T equation of state of iron, the temperature and pressure dependence of self-diffusion coefficients in iron polymorphs (α, δ, γ and ε phases) have been successfully reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk properties. The calculated diffusion parameters, such as self-diffusion coefficient, activation energy and activation volume over a broad temperature range (500-2500 K) and pressure range (0-100 GPa), compare favorably well with experimental or theoretical ones when the uncertainties are considered.

  7. Determination of gamma-ray self-attenuation correction in environmental samples by combining transmission measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Šoštarić, Marko; Babić, Dinko; Petrinec, Branko; Zgorelec, Željka

    2016-07-01

    We develop a simple and widely applicable method for determining the self-attenuation correction in gamma-ray spectrometry on environmental samples. The method relies on measurements of the transmission of photons over the matrices of a calibration standard and an analysed sample. Results of this experiment are used in subsequent Monte Carlo simulations in which we first determine the linear attenuation coefficients (μ) of the two matrices and then the self-attenuation correction for the analysed sample. The method is validated by reproducing, over a wide energy range, the literature data for the μ of water. We demonstrate the use of the method on a sample of sand, for which we find that the correction is considerable below ~400keV, where many naturally occurring radionuclides emit gamma rays. At the lowest inspected energy (~60keV), one measures an activity that is by a factor of ~1.8 smaller than its true value. PMID:27157125

  8. 75 FR 68409 - Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ..., the Presidential Determination number should read ``2010-14'' (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. C1-2010... Migration Needs Resulting From Flooding In Pakistan Correction In Presidential document 2010-27673...

  9. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age ...

  10. Correcting Hubble Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, John M.; Sheahen, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the theory behind the workings of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spherical aberration in the primary mirror that caused a reduction in image quality, and the corrective device that compensated for the error. (JRH)

  11. Accumulation of fatty acids in Chlorella vulgaris under heterotrophic conditions in relation to activity of acetyl-CoAcarboxylase, temperature, and co-immobilization with Azospirillum brasilense [corrected].

    PubMed

    Leyva, Luis A; Bashan, Yoav; Mendoza, Alberto; de-Bashan, Luz E

    2014-10-01

    The relation between fatty acid accumulation, activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and consequently lipid accumulation was studied in the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris co-immobilized with the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense under dark heterotrophic conditions with Na acetate as a carbon source. In C. vulgaris immobilized alone, cultivation experiments for 6 days showed that ACC activity is directly related to fatty acid accumulation, especially in the last 3 days. In co-immobilization experiments, A. brasilense exerted a significant positive effect over ACC activity, increased the quantity in all nine main fatty acids, increased total lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris, and mitigated negative effects of nonoptimal temperature for growth. No correlation between ACC activity and lipid accumulation in the cells was established for three different temperatures. This study demonstrated that the interaction between A. brasilense and C. vulgaris has a significant effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation in the microalgae. PMID:25129521

  12. Three-dimensional autoradiographic localization of quench-corrected glycine receptor specific activity in the mouse brain using sup 3 H-strychnine as the ligand

    SciTech Connect

    White, W.F.; O'Gorman, S.; Roe, A.W. )

    1990-03-01

    The autoradiographic analysis of neurotransmitter receptor distribution is a powerful technique that provides extensive information on the localization of neurotransmitter systems. Computer methodologies are described for the analysis of autoradiographic material which include quench correction, 3-dimensional display, and quantification based on anatomical boundaries determined from the tissue sections. These methodologies are applied to the problem of the distribution of glycine receptors measured by 3H-strychnine binding in the mouse CNS. The most distinctive feature of this distribution is its marked caudorostral gradient. The highest densities of binding sites within this gradient were seen in somatic motor and sensory areas; high densities of binding were seen in branchial efferent and special sensory areas. Moderate levels were seen in nuclei related to visceral function. Densities within the reticular formation paralleled the overall gradient with high to moderate levels of binding. The colliculi had low and the diencephalon had very low levels of binding. No binding was seen in the cerebellum or the telencephalon with the exception of the amygdala, which had very low levels of specific binding. This distribution of glycine receptors correlates well with the known functional distribution of glycine synaptic function. These data are illustrated in 3 dimensions and discussed in terms of the significance of the analysis techniques on this type of data as well as the functional significance of the distribution of glycine receptors.

  13. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  14. Distribution Coefficients of Impurities in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.

    2014-04-01

    Impurities dissolved in very pure metals at the level of parts per million often cause an elevation or depression of the freezing temperature of the order of millikelvins. This represents a significant contribution to the uncertainty of standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrations. An important parameter for characterizing the behavior of impurities is the distribution coefficient , which is the ratio of the solid solubility to liquid solubility. A knowledge of for a given binary system is essential for contemporary methods of evaluating or correcting for the effect of impurities, and it is therefore of universal interest to have the most complete set of values possible. A survey of equilibrium values of (in the low concentration limit) reported in the literature for the International Temperature Scale of 1990 fixed points of Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Au, Ag, and Cu is presented. In addition, thermodynamic calculations of using MTDATA are presented for 170 binary systems. In total, the combined values of from all available sources for 430 binary systems are presented. In addition, by considering all available values of for impurities in 25 different metal solvents (1300 binary systems) enough data are available to characterize patterns in the value of for a given impurity as a function of its position in the periodic table. This enables prediction of for a significant number of binary systems for which data and calculations are unavailable. By combining data from many sources, values of for solutes (atomic number from 1 to 94) in ITS-90 fixed points from Hg to Cu are suggested, together with some tentative predicted values where literature data and calculations are unavailable.

  15. Progress in the development of high degree potential coefficient models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.

    1989-01-01

    A natural extension of the recent satellite derived potential coefficient models is the development of high degree (maximum 180 or 360) expansions. Such expansions are based on the combination of the satellite derived models with terrestrial gravity data and satellite altimeter data. Such models are useful for more precise geoid undulation computations, for simulation studies involving different typed of future missions (e.g., gradiometry), and as reference fields for different types of gravimetric computations. The attention is to the effect of the terrain, ellipsoidal terms, and weighting. The basic methods used for the high degree solutions are reviewed. Various correction terms are described and recent models are discussed and compared.

  16. Relation between spectroscopic constants with limited Dunham coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Suresh

    2005-12-01

    Statement of Kaur and Mahajan [1] about the definition of Delta used by Chandra [2] is not correct. Even if we take Delta = mu omega_e^2 r_e^2/2 D_e, the relation between Delta and G(=8 omega_e x_e/B_e) is obtained as Delta = 4.21452856 G, provided the vibrational energy of a diatomic molecule is expressed in terms of limited Dunham coefficients, Y_{10}, Y_{20}, Y_{01} and Y_{11}. This relation is still different from that of Kaur and Mahajan [3].

  17. Transport coefficients from the two particle irreducible effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarts, Gert; Martínez Resco, Jose M.

    2003-10-01

    We show that the lowest nontrivial truncation of the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action correctly determines transport coefficients in a weak coupling or 1/N expansion at leading (logarithmic) order in several relativistic field theories. In particular, we consider a single real scalar field with cubic and quartic interactions in the loop expansion, the O(N) model in the 2PI-1/N expansion, and QED with single and many fermion fields. Therefore, these truncations will provide a correct description, to leading (logarithmic) order, of the long time behavior of these systems, i.e. the approach to equilibrium. This supports the promising results obtained for the dynamics of quantum fields out of equilibrium using 2PI effective action techniques.

  18. A coefficient of agreement as a measure of thematic classification accuracy.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenfield, G.H.; Fitzpatrick-Lins, K.

    1986-01-01

    The classification error matrix typically contains tabulated results of accuracy evaluation for a thematic classification, such as a land-use and land-cover map. Diagonal elements of the matrix represent counts correct. The usual designation of classification accuracy has been total percent correct. Nondiagonal elements of the matrix have usually been neglected. A coefficient of agreement is determined for the interpreted map as a whole, and individually for each interpreted category. These coefficients utilize all cell values in the matrix.-from Authors

  19. Fast Fourier transform to measure pressure coefficient of muons in the GRAPES-3 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, P. K.; Ahmad, S.; Antia, H. M.; Arunbabu, K. P.; Chandra, A.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hariharan, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Jagadeesan, P.; Jain, A.; Kawakami, S.; Kojima, H.; Morris, S. D.; Nayak, P. K.; Oshima, A.; Rao, B. S.; Reddy, L. V.; Shibata, S.

    2016-06-01

    The GRAPES-3 large area (560 m2) tracking muon telescope is operating at Ooty in India since 2001. It records 4 × 109 muons of energy ≥ 1 GeV every day. These high statistics data have enabled extremely sensitive measurements of solar phenomena, including the solar anisotropies, Forbush decreases, coronal mass ejections etc. to be made. However, prior to such studies, the variation in observed muon rate caused by changes in atmospheric pressure needs to be corrected. Traditionally, the pressure coefficient (β) for the muon rate was derived from the observed data. But the influence of various solar effects makes the measurement of β somewhat difficult. In the present work, a different approach to circumvent this difficulty was used to measure β, almost independent of the solar activity. This approach exploits a small amplitude (∼1 hPa) periodic (12 h) variation of atmospheric pressure at Ooty that introduces a synchronous variation in the muon rate. By using the fast Fourier transform technique the spectral power distributions at 12 h from the atmospheric pressure, and muon rate were used to measure β. The value of pressure coefficient was found to be β =(- 0.128 ± 0.005) % hPa-1.

  20. Direct Validation of the Wall Interference Correction System of the Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulbrich, Norbert; Boone, Alan R.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the test of a large semispan model was used to perform a direct validation of a wall interference correction system for a transonic slotted wall wind tunnel. At first, different sets of uncorrected aerodynamic coefficients were generated by physically changing the boundary condition of the test section walls. Then, wall interference corrections were computed and applied to all data points. Finally, an interpolation of the corrected aerodynamic coefficients was performed. This interpolation made sure that the corrected Mach number of a given run would be constant. Overall, the agreement between corresponding interpolated lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficient sets was very good. Buoyancy corrections were also investigated. These studies showed that the accuracy goal of one drag count may only be achieved if reliable estimates of the wall interference induced buoyancy correction are available during a test.

  1. Aberration Corrected Photoemission Electron Microscopy with Photonics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, Joseph P. S.

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) uses photoelectrons excited from material surfaces by incident photons to probe the interaction of light with surfaces with nanometer-scale resolution. The point resolution of PEEM images is strongly limited by spherical and chromatic aberration. Image aberrations primarily originate from the acceleration of photoelectrons and imaging with the objective lens and vary strongly in magnitude with specimen emission characteristics. Spherical and chromatic aberration can be corrected with an electrostatic mirror, and here I develop a triode mirror with hyperbolic geometry that has two adjacent, field-adjustable regions. I present analytic and numerical models of the mirror and show that the optical properties agree to within a few percent. When this mirror is coupled with an electron lens, it can provide a large dynamic range of correction and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration can be varied independently. I report on efforts to realize a triode mirror corrector, including design, characterization, and alignment in our microscope at Portland State University (PSU). PEEM may be used to investigate optically active nanostructures, and we show that photoelectron emission yields can be identified with diffraction, surface plasmons, and dielectric waveguiding. Furthermore, we find that photoelectron micrographs of nanostructured metal and dielectric structures correlate with electromagnetic field calculations. We conclude that photoemission is highly spatially sensitive to the electromagnetic field intensity, allowing the direct visualization of the interaction of light with material surfaces at nanometer scales and over a wide range of incident light frequencies.

  2. Correction of Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities in the Skeletal Muscles of Old Rats in Response to Addition of Olive Oil to the Ration.

    PubMed

    Bronnikov, G E; Kulagina, T P; Aripovskii, A V; Kramarova, L I

    2015-06-01

    Activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome C-oxidase (complex IV), and citrate synthase were measured by spectrophotometry in m. quadriceps femoris homogenate from old rats receiving olive oil with the ration. Reduced activities of complexes I and IV in old animals were restored to the level of young animals after 6-week consumption of olive oil. Activity of citrate synthase did not change with age. Positive effect of olive oil on fatty-acid composition of the muscle tissue in old animals was demonstrated. The content of summary monounsaturated fatty acids, reduced with aging, and of summary polyunsaturated ones, increasing with age, were restored in old rats to the levels virtually not differing from the levels of young animals. PMID:26087754

  3. Trypsin pre-treatment corrects SRID over-estimation of immunologically active, pre-fusion HA caused by mixed immunoprecipitin rings.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingxia; Palladino, Giuseppe; Xie, Yuhong; Ferrari, Annette; Ma, Xiuwen; Han, Liqun; Dormitzer, Philip R; Settembre, Ethan C

    2016-06-17

    Influenza vaccines are the primary intervention to prevent the substantial health burden of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Subunit and split influenza vaccines are formulated, released for clinical use, and tested for stability based on their content of immunologically active (capable of eliciting functional antibodies) hemagglutinin (HA). Single-radial immunodiffusion (SRID), the standard in vitro potency assay in the field, is believed to specifically detect immunologically active HA. We confirmed that, with conformationally homogeneous HA preparations, SRID specifically detected native, pre-fusion HA, which elicited influenza neutralizing and hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies in mice, and it did not detect low-pH stressed, post-fusion HA, which was selectively removed from the SRID gel during a blotting step and was significantly less immunologically active. This selective detection was due to the SRID format, not a conformational specificity of the sheep antiserum used in the SRID, as the same antiserum detected non-stressed and low-pH stressed HA similarly when used in an ELISA format. However, when low-pH stressed HA was mixed with non-stressed HA, SRID detected both forms in mixed immunoprecipitin rings, leading to over-quantification of pre-fusion HA. We previously reported that trypsin digestion of antigen samples selectively degrade stressed HA, so that an otherwise conformationally insensitive biophysical quantification technique, reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), can specifically quantify trypsin-resistant, immunologically active, pre-fusion HA. Here, we report that trypsin digestion can also improve the specificity of SRID so that it can quantify immunologically active, pre-fusion HA when it is mixed with less immunologically active, post-fusion HA. PMID:27154389

  4. Response of selected binomial coefficients to varying degrees of matrix sparseness and to matrices with known data interrelationships

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Archer, A.W.; Maples, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous departures from ideal relationships are revealed by Monte Carlo simulations of widely accepted binomial coefficients. For example, simulations incorporating varying levels of matrix sparseness (presence of zeros indicating lack of data) and computation of expected values reveal that not only are all common coefficients influenced by zero data, but also that some coefficients do not discriminate between sparse or dense matrices (few zero data). Such coefficients computationally merge mutually shared and mutually absent information and do not exploit all the information incorporated within the standard 2 ?? 2 contingency table; therefore, the commonly used formulae for such coefficients are more complicated than the actual range of values produced. Other coefficients do differentiate between mutual presences and absences; however, a number of these coefficients do not demonstrate a linear relationship to matrix sparseness. Finally, simulations using nonrandom matrices with known degrees of row-by-row similarities signify that several coefficients either do not display a reasonable range of values or are nonlinear with respect to known relationships within the data. Analyses with nonrandom matrices yield clues as to the utility of certain coefficients for specific applications. For example, coefficients such as Jaccard, Dice, and Baroni-Urbani and Buser are useful if correction of sparseness is desired, whereas the Russell-Rao coefficient is useful when sparseness correction is not desired. ?? 1989 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  5. Geological Corrections in Gravimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikuška, J.; Marušiak, I.

    2015-12-01

    Applying corrections for the known geology to gravity data can be traced back into the first quarter of the 20th century. Later on, mostly in areas with sedimentary cover, at local and regional scales, the correction known as gravity stripping has been in use since the mid 1960s, provided that there was enough geological information. Stripping at regional to global scales became possible after releasing the CRUST 2.0 and later CRUST 1.0 models in the years 2000 and 2013, respectively. Especially the later model provides quite a new view on the relevant geometries and on the topographic and crustal densities as well as on the crust/mantle density contrast. Thus, the isostatic corrections, which have been often used in the past, can now be replaced by procedures working with an independent information interpreted primarily from seismic studies. We have developed software for performing geological corrections in space domain, based on a-priori geometry and density grids which can be of either rectangular or spherical/ellipsoidal types with cells of the shapes of rectangles, tesseroids or triangles. It enables us to calculate the required gravitational effects not only in the form of surface maps or profiles but, for instance, also along vertical lines, which can shed some additional light on the nature of the geological correction. The software can work at a variety of scales and considers the input information to an optional distance from the calculation point up to the antipodes. Our main objective is to treat geological correction as an alternative to accounting for the topography with varying densities since the bottoms of the topographic masses, namely the geoid or ellipsoid, generally do not represent geological boundaries. As well we would like to call attention to the possible distortions of the corrected gravity anomalies. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract APVV-0827-12.

  6. The variation of aerofoil lift and drag coefficients with changes in size and speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1923-01-01

    This report contains the results of an investigation into the effect of changes in size and speed upon aerofoil lift and drag coefficients. Certain empirical limitations to the interchangeability of v and l in the general equation of fluid resistance are pointed out and the existing methods of correcting for scale are criticized. New methods of correcting for scale by means of simple formulae are derived and checked by comparison with test results.

  7. The Sampling Distribution of the Kristof Reliability Coefficient, the Feldt Coefficient, and Guttman's Lambda-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, M. U.; Feldt, Leonard S.

    1977-01-01

    Two new reliability coefficients have been derived for situations in which a test must be divided into parts of unequal length. This report summarizes a study of the statistical bias and the standard errors of these coefficients and compares them to Guttman's lambda coefficients and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. (Author/JKS)

  8. Gas-film coefficients for streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for predicting the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of organic solutes from streams are developed. The film coefficient is a function of windspeed and water temperature. The dependence of the coefficient on windspeed is determined from published information on the evaporation of water from a canal. The dependence of the coefficient on temperature is determined from laboratory studies on the evaporation of water. Procedures for adjusting the coefficients for different organic solutes are based on the molecular diffusion coefficient and the molecular weight. The molecular weight procedure is easiest to use because of the availability of molecular weights. However, the theoretical basis of the procedure is questionable. The diffusion coefficient procedure is supported by considerable data. Questions, however, remain regarding the exact dependence of the film coefficint on the diffusion coefficient. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficient procedure with a 0.68-power dependence be used when precise estimate of the gas-film coefficient are needed and that the molecular weight procedure be used when only approximate estimates are needed.

  9. The effect of IPMC parameters in electromechanical coefficient based on equivalent beam theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çilingir, Halime Didem; Menceloglu, Yusuf; Papila, Melih

    2008-03-01

    "Effective" electromechanical coupling coefficient for IPMC by equivalent bimorph beam model is studied. The collective effect of the membrane thickness and operating voltage is demonstrated by using a design of experiment of three and four levels of the two factors, respectively. Experiments and finite element analyses using MSC.NASTRAN are used to evaluate the tip displacement and the coupling coefficient for which approximations as function of the thickness and voltage are constructed. Initial curvature of the strips before electrical excitation is also shown to be a factor in "effective" coupling coefficient. A correction factor approach is proposed to include the effect of the preimposed curvature.

  10. ICRP dose coefficients: computational development and current status.

    PubMed

    Bolch, W E; Petoussi-Henss, N; Paquet, F; Harrison, J

    2016-06-01

    Major current efforts within Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) involve the development of dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides, and those for exposure to environmental radiation fields. These efforts build upon changes in radiation and tissue weighting factors (Publication 103), radionuclide decay schemes (Publication 107), computational phantoms of the adult reference male and female (Publication 110), external dose coefficients for adult reference workers for idealised radiation fields (Publication 116), models of radionuclide intake (Publications 66, 100 and 130), and models of radionuclide systemic biokinetics (Publication 130). This paper will review the overall computational framework for both internal and external dose coefficients. For internal exposures, the work entails assessment of organ self-dose and cross-dose from monoenergetic particle emissions (specific absorbed fraction), absorbed dose per nuclear transformation (S value), time-integrated activity of the radionuclide in source tissues (inhalation, ingestion, and systemic biokinetic models), and their numerical combination to yield the organ equivalent dose or effective dose per activity inhaled or ingested. Various challenges are reviewed that were not included in the development of Publication 30 dose coefficients, which were based upon much more simplified biokinetic models and computational phantoms. For external exposures, the computations entail the characterisation of environmental radionuclide distributions, the transport of radiation particles through that environment, and the tracking of energy deposition to the organs of the exposed individual. Progress towards the development of dose coefficients to members of the general public (adolescents, children, infants and fetuses) are also reviewed. PMID:27048756

  11. A Constitutively Active Gαi3 Protein Corrects the Abnormal Retinal Pigment Epithelium Phenotype of Oa1−/− mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Alejandra; Wang, Ying; Ahmedli, Novruz B.; Jiang, Meisheng; Farber, Debora B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Ocular Albinism type 1 (OA1) is a disease caused by mutations in the OA1 gene and characterized by the presence of macromelanosomes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) as well as abnormal crossing of the optic axons at the optic chiasm. We showed in our previous studies in mice that Oa1 activates specifically Gαi3 in its signaling pathway and thus, hypothesized that a constitutively active Gαi3 in the RPE of Oa1−/− mice might keep on the Oa1 signaling cascade and prevent the formation of macromelanosomes. To test this hypothesis, we have generated transgenic mice that carry the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) protein in the RPE of Oa1−/− mice and are now reporting the effects that the transgene produced on the Oa1−/− RPE phenotype. Methods Transgenic mice carrying RPE-specific expression of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) were generated by injecting fertilized eggs of Oa1−/− females with a lentivirus containing the Gαi3 (Q204L) cDNA. PCR, Southern blots, Western blots and confocal microscopy were used to confirm the presence of the transgene in the RPE of positive transgenic mice. Morphometrical analyses were performed using electron microscopy to compare the size and number of melanosomes per RPE area in putative Oa1−/−, Gαi3 (Q204L) transgenic mice with those of wild-type NCrl and Oa1−/− mice. Results We found a correlation between the presence of the constitutively active Gαi3 (Q204L) transgene and the rescue of the normal phenotype of RPE melanosomes in Oa1−/−, Gαi3 (Q204L) mice. These mice have higher density of melanosomes per RPE area and a larger number of small melanosomes than Oa1−/− mice, and their RPE phenotype is similar to that of wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results show that a constitutively active Gαi3 protein can by-pass the lack of Oa1 protein in Oa1−/− mice and consequently rescue the RPE melanosomal phenotype. PMID:24098784

  12. Peteye detection and correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Luo, Huitao; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Redeyes are caused by the camera flash light reflecting off the retina. Peteyes refer to similar artifacts in the eyes of other mammals caused by camera flash. In this paper we present a peteye removal algorithm for detecting and correcting peteye artifacts in digital images. Peteye removal for animals is significantly more difficult than redeye removal for humans, because peteyes can be any of a variety of colors, and human face detection cannot be used to localize the animal eyes. In many animals, including dogs and cats, the retina has a special reflective layer that can cause a variety of peteye colors, depending on the animal's breed, age, or fur color, etc. This makes the peteye correction more challenging. We have developed a semi-automatic algorithm for peteye removal that can detect peteyes based on the cursor position provided by the user and correct them by neutralizing the colors with glare reduction and glint retention.

  13. Aureolegraph internal scattering correction.

    PubMed

    DeVore, John; Villanucci, Dennis; LePage, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    Two methods of determining instrumental scattering for correcting aureolegraph measurements of particulate solar scattering are presented. One involves subtracting measurements made with and without an external occluding ball and the other is a modification of the Langley Plot method and involves extrapolating aureolegraph measurements collected through a large range of solar zenith angles. Examples of internal scattering correction determinations using the latter method show similar power-law dependencies on scattering, but vary by roughly a factor of 8 and suggest that changing aerosol conditions during the determinations render this method problematic. Examples of corrections of scattering profiles using the former method are presented for a range of atmospheric particulate layers from aerosols to cumulus and cirrus clouds. PMID:23207299

  14. Coupling coefficient of gain-guided lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.

    1984-01-01

    An analytical model is presented for the coupling coefficient for two gain-guided coupled waveguides, e.g., semiconductor laser arrays. A common parabolic gain distribution is assumed for the lasers, and the effective dielectric constant distribution is approximated in terms of the bulk refraction index, wavelength, power filling factor, and the antiguiding factor. The fundamental mode is then formulated and used in an integral for the coupling coefficient. The dependence of the coefficient of various waveguide parameters is described.

  15. Computation of virial coefficients from integral equations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Lai, Chun-Liang; Pettitt, B Montgomery

    2015-06-01

    A polynomial-time method of computing the virial coefficients from an integral equation framework is presented. The method computes the truncated density expansions of the correlation functions by series transformations, and then extracts the virial coefficients from the density components. As an application, the method was used in a hybrid-closure integral equation with a set of self-consistent conditions, which produced reasonably accurate virial coefficients for the hard-sphere fluid and Gaussian model in high dimensions. PMID:26049482

  16. Computation of virial coefficients from integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Lai, Chun-Liang; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2015-06-01

    A polynomial-time method of computing the virial coefficients from an integral equation framework is presented. The method computes the truncated density expansions of the correlation functions by series transformations, and then extracts the virial coefficients from the density components. As an application, the method was used in a hybrid-closure integral equation with a set of self-consistent conditions, which produced reasonably accurate virial coefficients for the hard-sphere fluid and Gaussian model in high dimensions.

  17. Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.

  18. Boomwhackers and End-Pipe Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2014-02-01

    End-pipe corrections seldom come to mind as a suitable topic for an introductory physics lab. Yet, the end-pipe correction formula can be verified in an engaging and inexpensive lab that requires only two supplies: plastic-tube toys called boomwhackers and a meterstick. This article describes a lab activity in which students model data from plastic tubes to arrive at the end-correction formula for an open pipe. Students also learn the basic mathematics behind the musical scale, and come to appreciate the importance of end-pipe physics in the engineering design of toy musical tubes.

  19. Higher-order corrections in threshold resummation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moch, S.; Vermaseren, J. A. M.; Vogt, A.

    2005-10-01

    We extend the threshold resummation exponents G in Mellin- N space to the fourth logarithmic (N 3LL) order collecting the terms αs2( to all orders in the strong coupling constant α. Comparing the results to our previous three-loop calculations for deep-inelastic scattering (DIS), we derive the universal coefficients B and B governing the final-state jet functions to order αs3, extending the previous quark and gluon results by one and two orders. A curious relation is found at second order between these quantities, the splitting functions and the large-angle soft emissions in Drell-Yan type processes. We study the numerical effect of the N 3LL corrections using both the fully exponentiated form and the expansion of the coefficient function in towers of logarithms.

  20. Assessment of Four Typical Topographic Corrections in Landsat TM Data for Snow Cover Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of snow cover information extraction in remote-sensing images dependent on a variety of factors, especially in mountain area with complex terrain. This paper aims at analyzing the accuracy of snow cover information extraction from remot esensing images, using Landsat5 TM images and DEM data, with the study area of Xinjiang Tianshan, measuring topographic correction effects of Cosine correction, C correction, SCS correction, and SCS + C correction from four aspects: visual comparison, standard deviation, correlation analysis and histogram, then extract snow cover area for study area. Results showed that C correction and SCS+C correction performed better among four classic terrain correction models, which indicated changes in snow pixel rat io after correction with variation range of 2% , and correlation coefficient of each band is highest before and after correction.

  1. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angle are distorted by the earth's atmosphere. High precision refraction correction equations are presented which are ideally suited for surveying because their inputs are optically measured range and optically measured elevation angle. The outputs are true straight line range and true geometric elevation angle. The 'short distances' used in surveying allow the calculations of true range and true elevation angle to be quickly made using a programmable pocket calculator. Topics covered include the spherical form of Snell's Law; ray path equations; and integrating the equations. Short-, medium-, and long-range refraction corrections are presented in tables.

  2. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, S.T.

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies for the Superconducting Super Collider. The correction coil cables have wires collected in wire array with a center rib sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly. The core assembly is surrounded by an assembly housing having an inner spiral wrap and a counter wound outer spiral wrap. An alternate embodiment of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable on a particle tube in a particle tube assembly. 7 figs.

  3. Target Mass Corrections Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    W. Melnitchouk; F. Steffens

    2006-03-07

    We propose a new implementation of target mass corrections to nucleon structure functions which, unlike existing treatments, has the correct kinematic threshold behavior at finite Q{sup 2} in the x {yields} 1 limit. We illustrate the differences between the new approach and existing prescriptions by considering specific examples for the F{sub 2} and F{sub L} structure functions, and discuss the broader implications of our results, which call into question the notion of universal parton distribution at finite Q{sup 2}.

  4. Coefficients of Productivity for Yellowstone's Grizzly Bear Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (<100 m) or far away from forest/nonforest edges, and areas inside or outside of ungulate winter ranges. Densities of bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  5. Targeting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling restores subventricular zone neural stem cells and corrects neuromotor deficits in Atm knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeesun; Wong, Paul K Y

    2012-07-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a progressive degenerative disorder that results in major neurological disability. In A-T patients, necropsy has revealed atrophy of cerebellar cortical layers along with Purkinje and granular cell loss. We have previously identified an oxidative stress-mediated increase in phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the resultant downregulation of Bmi-1 and upregulation of p21 as key components of the mechanism causing defective proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm(-/-) mice. However, the in vivo aspect of alteration in SVZ tissue and the functional significance of p38MAPK activation in NSCs for neuropathogenesis of ATM deficiency remain unknown. Here we show that the NSC population was abnormally decreased in the SVZ of 3-month-old Atm(-/-) mice; this decrease was accompanied by p38MAPK activation. However, after a 2-month treatment with the p38MAPK inhibitor SB203580, starting at 1 month old, Atm(-/-) mice showed restoration of normal levels of Bmi-1 and p21 with the rescue of NSC population in the SVZ. In addition, treated Atm(-/-) mice exhibited more Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Most importantly, motor coordination of Atm(-/-) mice was significantly improved in the treatment group. Our results show for the first time in vivo evidence of depleted NSCs in the SVZ of Atm(-/-) mice and also demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of p38MAPK signaling has the potential to treat neurological defects of A-T. This study provides a promising approach targeting the oxidative stress-dependent p38 signaling pathway not only for A-T but also for other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:23197859

  6. Use of recombinant activated factor VII for reduction of perioperative blood loss during elective surgical correction of spine deformity in a Jehovah's Witness. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kącka, Katarzyna; Kącki, Wojciech; Merak, Joanna; Błęka, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Planned surgical procedures at patients who refuse allogenic blood transfusion because of religious convictions are important problem, not only medical but also ethical and juristical. At the study authors report the successful use of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa) for the reduction of perioperative blood loss in four years old child - Jehovah's Witness, who had planned Torode kyphectomy. Applied perioperative management together with preparing to surgery with erythropoietin allowed for reduction of blood loss and avoiding of blood transfusion. Authors state, that appropriate perioperative proceeding makes a possibility of safe surgical procedures also at patients who refuse the transfusion. PMID:21057153

  7. Bi-Directional Fluorescence Distribution and its Correction for Estimates of Gross Ecosystem Productivity and Photosynthetic Light-Use Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liangyun; Liu, Xinjie

    2015-04-01

    Passive measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) presents a new way for directly estimating the photosynthetic activities. In this study, one diurnal multi-angular spectral experiment and three independent diurnal flux experiments were carried out on winter wheat and maize to assess directional emission of SIF for estimating photosynthesis activities. Firstly, the Bi-Directional Fluorescence Distribution Function (BFDF) of SIF was investigated. A BFDF shape similar to the red Bi-Directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) was observed for the directional SIF emissions at 688 nm. Secondly, the relationship between the directional emission of canopy SIF and BRDF reflectance was examined, finding a strict linear correlation between SIF and reflectance at 688 nm, with an R2> 0.80 for all seven BRDF observations on winter wheat. Then, a BFDF correction model for the canopy SIF at 688 nm was presented by dividing by the canopy reflectance, and about 65.3% of the directional variation was successfully removed. Finally, the BFDF-corrected SIF signals were linked to photosynthetic activities, including gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and photosynthetic light-use efficiency (LUE), and the determination coefficients between photosynthetic activities and the BFDF-corrected SIF increased for most cases. For GEP, the determination coefficients were slightly improved from 0.563, 0.382, and 0.613 (for raw SIF signals) to 0.592, 0.473, and 0.640 for all three diurnal experiments. For LUE, the determination coefficients increased from 0.393, and 0.358 to 0.517, and 0.528 for two experiments, while deceased slightly from 0.695 to 0.607 for one experiment. Therefore, according to the above preliminary results, the canopy SIF cannot be regarded as isotropic, and the directional emission SIF may be an important uncertainty in estimates of GEP and LUE.

  8. The Digital Correction Unit: A data correction/compaction chip

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, S.; Nielsen, B.; Paffrath, L.; Russell, J.; Sherden, D.

    1986-10-01

    The Digital Correction Unit (DCU) is a semi-custom CMOS integrated circuit which corrects and compacts data for the SLD experiment. It performs a piece-wise linear correction to data, and implements two separate compaction algorithms. This paper describes the basic functionality of the DCU and its correction and compaction algorithms.

  9. Refraction corrections for surveying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Optical measurements of range and elevation angles are distorted by refraction of Earth's atmosphere. Theoretical discussion of effect, along with equations for determining exact range and elevation corrections, is presented in report. Potentially useful in optical site surveying and related applications, analysis is easily programmed on pocket calculator. Input to equation is measured range and measured elevation; output is true range and true elevation.

  10. Writing: Revisions and Corrections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1978-01-01

    A fifth grader wanted to know what he had to do to get all his ideas the way he wanted them in his story writing "and" have the spelling, punctuation and quotation marks correctly styled. His teacher encouraged him to think about writing as a process and provided the student with three steps as guidelines for effective writing. (Author/RK)

  11. Counselor Education for Corrections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsigian, Linda

    Counselor education programs most often prepare their graduates to work in either a school setting, anywhere from the elementary level through higher education, or a community agency. There is little indication that counselor education programs have seriously undertaken the task of training counselors to enter the correctional field. If…

  12. Exposure Corrections for Macrophotography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolic, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    Describes a method for determining the exposure correction factors in close-up photography and macrophotography. The method eliminates all calculations during picture-taking, and allows the use of a light meter to obtain the proper f-stop/exposure time combinations. (Author/MLH)

  13. Empirical mode decomposition-based motion artifact correction method for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yue; Han, Junxia; Liang, Zhenhu; Yan, Jiaqing; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a promising technique for monitoring brain activity. However, it is sensitive to motion artifacts. Many methods have been developed for motion correction, such as spline interpolation, wavelet filtering, and kurtosis-based wavelet filtering. We propose a motion correction method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which is applied to segments of data identified as having motion artifacts. The EMD method is adaptive, data-driven, and well suited for nonstationary data. To test the performance of the proposed EMD method and to compare it with other motion correction methods, we used simulated hemodynamic responses added to real resting-state fNIRS data. The EMD method reduced mean squared error in 79% of channels and increased signal-to-noise ratio in 78% of channels. Moreover, it produced the highest Pearson's correlation coefficient between the recovered signal and the original signal, significantly better than the comparison methods (p<0.01, paired t-test). These results indicate that the proposed EMD method is a first choice method for motion artifact correction in fNIRS.

  14. Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unnam, J.; Tenney, D. R.; Brewer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure.

  15. New analytical approach for neutron beam-hardening correction.

    PubMed

    Hachouf, N; Kharfi, F; Hachouf, M; Boucenna, A

    2016-01-01

    In neutron imaging, the beam-hardening effect has a significant effect on quantitative and qualitative image interpretation. This study aims to propose a linearization method for beam-hardening correction. The proposed method is based on a new analytical approach establishing the attenuation coefficient as a function of neutron energy. Spectrum energy shift due to beam hardening is studied on the basis of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) simulated data and the analytical data. Good agreement between MCNP and analytical values has been found. Indeed, the beam-hardening effect is well supported in the proposed method. A correction procedure is developed to correct the errors of beam-hardening effect in neutron transmission, and therefore for projection data correction. The effectiveness of this procedure is determined by its application in correcting reconstructed images. PMID:26609685

  16. Mutual diffusion coefficients in systems containing the nickel ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C. F.; Veríssimo, Luis V. M. M.; Gomes, Joselaine C. S.; Santos, Cecilia I. A. V.; Barros, Marisa C. F.; Lobo, Victor M. M.; Sobral, Abílio J. F. N.; Esteso, Miguel A.; Leaist, Derek G.

    2013-04-01

    Mutual diffusion coefficients of nickel chloride in water have been measured at 293.15 K and 303.15 K and at concentrations between 0.020 mol dm-3 and 0.100 mol dm-3, using a conductimetric cell. The experimental mutual diffusion coefficients are discussed on the basis of the Onsager-Fuoss model. The equivalent conductances at infinitesimal concentration of the nickel ion in these solutions at those temperatures have been estimated using these results. In addition, from these data, we have estimated some transport and structural parameters, such as limiting diffusion coefficient, ionic conductance at infinitesimal concentration, hydrodynamic radii and activation energy, contributing this way to a better understanding of the structure of these systems and of their thermodynamic behavior in aqueous solution at different concentrations.

  17. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  18. Radiometer gives true absorption and emission coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Novel radiometer, unaffected by scattering and polarization, measures true absorption and emmission coefficients for arbitrary mixture of gases and polluting particles. It has potential astronomical, meteorological, and environmental applications, such as determination of radiative heat budget, aerosol relative concentration, and morphology of cloud, haze, and fog formations. Data and temperature can be coupled directly to small computer for online calculation of radiation coefficients.

  19. On Burnett coefficients in periodic media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conca, Carlos; Orive, Rafael; Vanninathan, Muthusamy

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate a curious property of general periodic structures. It is well known that the corresponding homogenized matrix is positive definite. We calculate here the next order Burnett coefficients associated with such structures. We prove that these coefficients form a tensor which is negative semidefinite. We also provide some examples showing degeneracy in multidimension.

  20. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  1. Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.

  2. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  3. Diffusion coefficients of several aqueous alkanolamine solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Snijder, E.D.; Riele, M.J.M. te; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-07-01

    In absorption processes of acid gases (H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], COS) in alkanolamine solutions, diffusion coefficients are used for the calculation of the mass transfer rate. The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), correlations for the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature at different concentrations are given. A single relation for every amine has been derived which correlates the diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and concentration. The temperature was varied between 298 and 348 K, and the concentration between 0 and 4000-5000 mol/m[sup 3]. Furthermore, a modified Stokes-Einstein relation is presented for the prediction of the diffusion coefficients in the alkanolamines in relation to the viscosity of the solvent and the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. The diffusion coefficients at low concentrations are compared with some available relations for the estimation of diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution, and it appears that the agreement is fairly good.

  4. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  5. Calculator program set up for film coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Gracey, J.O.; Teter, D.L.

    1982-11-15

    Describes a mechanized computation scheme for the film coefficients used in heat transfer calculations designed for the Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculator. Presents tables showing application conditions (small diagram included) and the corresponding heat transfer equations for 10 heat flow situations; symbols used; user instructions, a complete film coefficient program; and storage assignments. Example problem and corresponding printout are given.

  6. Code System to Calculate Correlation & Regression Coefficients.

    1999-11-23

    Version 00 PCC/SRC is designed for use in conjunction with sensitivity analyses of complex computer models. PCC/SRC calculates the partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and the standardized regression coefficients (SRC) from the multivariate input to, and output from, a computer model.

  7. Structure, antimicrobial activities and mode of interaction with membranes of novel [corrected] phylloseptins from the painted-belly leaf frog, Phyllomedusa sauvagii.

    PubMed

    Raja, Zahid; André, Sonia; Piesse, Christophe; Sereno, Denis; Nicolas, Pierre; Foulon, Thierry; Oury, Bruno; Ladram, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis of skin secretions from the Painted-belly leaf frog Phyllomedusa sauvagii led to the identification of 5 novel phylloseptins (PLS-S2 to -S6) and also of phylloseptin-1 (PSN-1, here renamed PLS-S1), the only member of this family previously isolated in this frog. Synthesis and characterization of these phylloseptins revealed differences in their antimicrobial activities. PLS-S1, -S2, and -S4 (79-95% amino acid sequence identity; net charge  = +2) were highly potent and cidal against Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug resistant S. aureus strains, and killed the promastigote stage of Leishmania infantum, L. braziliensis and L. major. By contrast, PLS-S3 (95% amino acid identity with PLS-S2; net charge  = +1) and -S5 (net charge  = +2) were found to be almost inactive against bacteria and protozoa. PLS-S6 was not studied as this peptide was closely related to PLS-S1. Differential scanning calorimetry on anionic and zwitterionic multilamellar vesicles combined with circular dichroism spectroscopy and membrane permeabilization assays on bacterial cells indicated that PLS-S1, -S2, and -S4 are structured in an amphipathic α-helix that disrupts the acyl chain packing of anionic lipid bilayers. As a result, regions of two coexisting phases could be formed, one phase rich in peptide and the other lipid-rich. After reaching a threshold peptide concentration, the disruption of lipid packing within the bilayer may lead to local cracks and disintegration of the microbial membrane. Differences in the net charge, α-helical folding propensity, and/or degree of amphipathicity between PLS-S1, -S2 and -S4, and between PLS-S3 and -S5 appear to be responsible for their marked differences in their antimicrobial activities. In addition to the detailed characterization of novel phylloseptins from P. sauvagii, our study provides additional data on the previously isolated PLS-S1 and on the mechanism of action of phylloseptins. PMID

  8. An Irreducible Form of Gamma Matrices for HMDS Coefficients of the Heat Kernel in Higher Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, M.; Yajima, S.; Higashida, Y.; Kubota, S.; Tokuo, S.; Kamo, Y.

    2009-05-01

    The heat kernel method is used to calculate 1-loop corrections of a fermion interacting with general background fields. To apply the Hadamard-Minakshisundaram-DeWitt-Seeley (HMDS) coefficients a_q(x,x') of the heat kernel to calculate the corrections, it is meaningful to decompose the coefficients into tensorial components with irreducible matrices, which are the totally antisymmetric products of γ matrices. We present formulae for the tensorial forms of the γ-matrix-valued quantities X, tilde{Λ}_{μν} and their product and covariant derivative in terms of the irreducible matrices in higher dimensions. The concrete forms of HMDS coefficients obtained by repeated application of the formulae simplifies the derivation of the loop corrections after the trace calculations, because each term in the coefficients contains one of the irreducible matrices and some of the terms are expressed by commutator and the anticommutator with respect to th e generator of non-abelian gauge groups. The form of the third HMDS coefficient is useful for evaluating some of the fermionic anomalies in 6-dimensional curved space. We show that the new formulae appear in the chiral {U(1)} anomaly when the vector and the third-order tensor gauge fields do not commute.

  9. Spectral absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of Saharan dust during SAMUM-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, T.; Schladitz, A.; Massling, A.; Kaaden, N.; Kandler, K.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2009-02-01

    ABSTRACT During the SAMUM-1 experiment, absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of mineral dust particles were investigated in southern Morocco. Main absorbing constituents of airborne samples were identified to be iron oxide and soot. Spectral absorption coefficients were measured using a spectral optical absorption photometer (SOAP) in the wavelength range from 300 to 800 nm with a resolution of 50 nm. A new method that accounts for a loading-dependent correction of fibre filter based absorption photometers, was developed. The imaginary part of the refractive index was determined using Mie calculations from 350 to 800 nm. The spectral absorption coefficient allowed a separation between dust and soot absorption. A correlation analysis showed that the dust absorption coefficient is correlated (R2 up to 0.55) with the particle number concentration for particle diameters larger than 0.5 μm, whereas the coefficient of determination R2 for smaller particles is below 0.1. Refractive indices were derived for both the total aerosol and a dust aerosol that was corrected for soot absorption. Average imaginary parts of refractive indices of the entire aerosol are 7.4 × 10-3, 3.4 × 10-3 and 2.0 × 10-3 at wavelengths of 450, 550 and 650 nm. After a correction for the soot absorption, imaginary parts of refractive indices are 5.1 × 10-3, 1.6 × 10-3 and 4.5 × 10-4.

  10. An agreement coefficient for image comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, L.; Gallo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  11. Justification for change in AXAIR dispersion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1994-02-01

    AXAIR is the primary dose assessment code used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to predict doses following hypothetical releases of relatively short durations. The atmospheric dispersion coefficients currently used in AXAIR are analytical expressions developed to fit the curves in the Turner Workbook as referred to in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.145. This report explores the ramifications and benefits of changing the dispersion coefficients to a combination of Pasquill`s lateral dispersion coefficients and Briggs` vertical dispersion coefficients. The differences in the dispersion coefficients have a minor effect on the relative air concentrations for stability classes A--D, but a significant difference is seen for classes E, F, and G.

  12. Analytic structure of one-loop coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bo; Wang, Honghui

    2013-05-01

    By the unitarity cut method, analytic expressions of one-loop coefficients have been given in spinor forms. In this paper, we present one-loop coefficients of various bases in Lorentz-invariant contraction forms of external momenta. Using these forms, the analytic structure of these coefficients becomes manifest. Firstly, coefficients of bases contain only second-type singularities while the first-type singularities are included inside scalar bases. Secondly, the highest degree of each singularity is correlated with the degree of the inner momentum in the numerator. Thirdly, the same singularities will appear in different coefficients, thus our explicit results could be used to provide a clear physical picture under various limits (such as soft or collinear limits) when combining contributions from all bases.

  13. A beam hardening correction method based on HL consistency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Xuanqin; Tang, Shaojie; Yu, Hengyong

    2006-08-01

    XCT with polychromatic tube spectrum causes artifact called beam hardening effect. The current correction in CT device is carried by apriori polynomial from water phantom experiment. This paper proposes a new beam hardening correction algorithm that the correction polynomial depends on the relativity of projection data in angles, which obeys Helgasson-Ludwig Consistency (HL Consistency). Firstly, a bi-polynomial is constructed to characterize the beam hardening effect based on the physical model of medical x-ray imaging. In this bi-polynomial, a factor r(γ,β) represents the ratio of the attenuation contributions caused by high density mass (bone, etc.) to low density mass (muscle, vessel, blood, soft tissue, fat, etc.) respectively in the projection angle β and fan angle γ. Secondly, let r(γ,β)=0, the bi-polynomial is degraded as a sole-polynomial. The coefficient of this polynomial can be calculated based on HL Consistency. Then, the primary correction is reached, which is also more efficient in theoretical than the correction method in current CT devices. Thirdly, based on the result of a normal CT reconstruction from the corrected projection data, r(γ,β) can be estimated. Fourthly, the coefficient of bi-polynomial can also be calculated based HL Consistency and the final correction are achieved. Experiments of circular cone beam CT indicate this method an excellent property. Correcting beam hardening effect based on HL Consistency, not only achieving a self-adaptive and more precise correction, but also getting rid of regular inconvenient water phantom experiments, will renovate the correction technique of current CT devices.

  14. Immediate error correction process following sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shulan; Cheng, I-Chen; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2007-06-01

    Previous studies have suggested that one night of sleep deprivation decreases frontal lobe metabolic activity, particularly in the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC), resulting in decreased performance in various executive function tasks. This study thus attempted to address whether sleep deprivation impaired the executive function of error detection and error correction. Sixteen young healthy college students (seven women, nine men, with ages ranging from 18 to 23 years) participated in this study. Participants performed a modified letter flanker task and were instructed to make immediate error corrections on detecting performance errors. Event-related potentials (ERPs) during the flanker task were obtained using a within-subject, repeated-measure design. The error negativity or error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) seen immediately after errors were analyzed. The results show that the amplitude of the Ne/ERN was reduced significantly following sleep deprivation. Reduction also occurred for error trials with subsequent correction, indicating that sleep deprivation influenced error correction ability. This study further demonstrated that the impairment in immediate error correction following sleep deprivation was confined to specific stimulus types, with both Ne/ERN and behavioral correction rates being reduced only for trials in which flanker stimuli were incongruent with the target stimulus, while the response to the target was compatible with that of the flanker stimuli following sleep deprivation. The results thus warrant future systematic investigation of the interaction between stimulus type and error correction following sleep deprivation. PMID:17542943

  15. Correction coil cable

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Sou-Tien

    1994-11-01

    A wire cable assembly (10, 310) adapted for the winding of electrical coils is taught. A primary intended use is for use in particle tube assemblies (532) for the superconducting super collider. The correction coil cables (10, 310) have wires (14, 314) collected in wire arrays (12, 312) with a center rib (16, 316) sandwiched therebetween to form a core assembly (18, 318 ). The core assembly (18, 318) is surrounded by an assembly housing (20, 320) having an inner spiral wrap (22, 322) and a counter wound outer spiral wrap (24, 324). An alternate embodiment (410) of the invention is rolled into a keystoned shape to improve radial alignment of the correction coil cable (410) on a particle tube (733) in a particle tube assembly (732).

  16. CTI Correction Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, Richard; Stoughton, Chris; Leauthaud, Alexie; Rhodes, Jason; Koekemoer, Anton; Ellis, Richard; Shaghoulian, Edgar

    2013-07-01

    Charge Transfer Inefficiency (CTI) due to radiation damage above the Earth's atmosphere creates spurious trailing in images from Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging detectors. Radiation damage also creates unrelated warm pixels, which can be used to measure CTI. This code provides pixel-based correction for CTI and has proven effective in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys raw images, successfully reducing the CTI trails by a factor of ~30 everywhere in the CCD and at all flux levels. The core is written in java for speed, and a front-end user interface is provided in IDL. The code operates on raw data by returning individual electrons to pixels from which they were unintentionally dragged during readout. Correction takes about 25 minutes per ACS exposure, but is trivially parallelisable to multiple processors.

  17. Error-correction coding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinds, Erold W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the progress made towards the completion of a specific task on error-correcting coding. The proposed research consisted of investigating the use of modulation block codes as the inner code of a concatenated coding system in order to improve the overall space link communications performance. The study proposed to identify and analyze candidate codes that will complement the performance of the overall coding system which uses the interleaved RS (255,223) code as the outer code.

  18. Correction and updating.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    In the heading of David Cassidy's review of The Private Lives of Albert Einstein (18 February, p. 997) the price of the book as sold by its British publisher, Faber and Faber, was given incorrectly; the correct price is pound15.99. The book is also to be published in the United States by St. Martin's Press, New York, in April, at a price of $23.95. PMID:17817438

  19. PREDICTION OF THE SOLUBILITY, ACTIVITY COEFFICIENT AND LIQUID/LIQUID PARTITION COEFFICIENT OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvation models, based on fundamental chemical structure theory, were developed in the SPARC mechanistic tool box to predict a large array of physical properties of organic compounds in water and in non-aqueous solvents strictly from molecular structure. The SPARC self-interact...

  20. Evaluation of Dimensionality in the Assessment of Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha and Omega Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…

  1. Spreading coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons on water

    SciTech Connect

    Takii, Taichi; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the equilibrium spreading coefficients of some aliphatic hydrocarbons (C[sub 6]C[sub 10]) on water. The thickness of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon sample floating on a stagnant water pool was measured interferometrically and used to calculate the spreading coefficient of the hydrocarbon with the aid of Langmuir's capillarity theory. The dependences of the spreading coefficient, thus observed, on temperature (0--50 C) and on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule are in qualitative agreement with the predictions based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces.

  2. On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.

  3. Determination of absorption coefficients of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Lodenquai, J.F. )

    1994-08-01

    The equations that are usually presented as those used to determine the absorption coefficients of materials in film form based on measurements of transmission and reflection coefficients are fundamentally incorrect. These equations omit a multiplicative factor arising from the complex nature of the refractive indices of the materials. This factor enters explicitly into the relationship between the transmission and reflection coefficients for such materials and is not necessarily close to unity, although in practice this factor can be approximated by unity at least in the infrared through the optical range of wavelengths.

  4. Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea.

    PubMed

    Haltrin, V I

    1999-02-20

    A differential equation of a Riccati type for the diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea is proposed. For a homogeneous sea with arbitrary inherent optical properties this equation is solved analytically. For an inhomogeneous sea it is solved approximately for any arbitrary stratification. The resulting equation expresses the diffuse reflection coefficient of the sea through vertical profiles of absorption and backscattering coefficients, bottom albedo, and sea depth. The results of calculations with this equation are compared with Monte Carlo computations. It was found that the precision of this approach is in the range of 15%. PMID:18305694

  5. Generalized Coefficients for Hopf Cyclic Cohomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Kucerovsky, Dan; Rangipour, Bahram

    2014-09-01

    A category of coefficients for Hopf cyclic cohomology is defined. It is shown that this category has two proper subcategories of which the smallest one is the known category of stable anti Yetter-Drinfeld modules. The middle subcategory is comprised of those coefficients which satisfy a generalized SAYD condition depending on both the Hopf algebra and the (co)algebra in question. Some examples are introduced to show that these three categories are different. It is shown that all components of Hopf cyclic cohomology work well with the new coefficients we have defined.

  6. Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang

    2008-01-01

    The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950

  7. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.

    2010-07-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  8. Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Deqiang

    Optical interconnects are considered a promising solution for long distance and high bitrate data transmissions, outperforming electrical interconnects in terms of loss and dispersion. Due to the bandwidth and distance advantage of optical interconnects, longer links have been implemented with optics. Recent studies show that optical interconnects have clear advantages even at very short distances---intra system interconnects. The biggest challenge for such optical interconnects is the alignment tolerance. Many free space optical components require very precise assembly and installation, and therefore the overall cost could be increased. This thesis studied the misalignment tolerance and possible alignment correction solutions for optical interconnects at backplane or board level. First the alignment tolerance for free space couplers was simulated and the result indicated the most critical alignments occur between the VCSEL, waveguide and microlens arrays. An in-situ microlens array fabrication method was designed and experimentally demonstrated, with no observable misalignment with the waveguide array. At the receiver side, conical lens arrays were proposed to replace simple microlens arrays for a larger angular alignment tolerance. Multilayer simulation models in CodeV were built to optimized the refractive index and shape profiles of the conical lens arrays. Conical lenses fabricated with micro injection molding machine and fiber etching were characterized. Active component VCSOA was used to correct misalignment in optical connectors between the board and backplane. The alignment correction capability were characterized for both DC and AC (1GHz) optical signal. The speed and bandwidth of the VCSOA was measured and compared with a same structure VCSEL. Based on the optical inverter being studied in our lab, an all-optical flip-flop was demonstrated using a pair of VCSOAs. This memory cell with random access ability can store one bit optical signal with set or

  9. Correction for solute/solvent interaction extends accurate freezing point depression theory to high concentration range.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, G D; Keener, C R; Cameron, I L

    1994-12-01

    The authors describe empirical corrections to ideally dilute expressions for freezing point depression of aqueous solutions to arrive at new expressions accurate up to three molal concentration. The method assumes non-ideality is due primarily to solute/solvent interactions such that the correct free water mass Mwc is the mass of water in solution Mw minus I.M(s) where M(s) is the mass of solute and I an empirical solute/solvent interaction coefficient. The interaction coefficient is easily derived from the constant in the linear regression fit to the experimental plot of Mw/M(s) as a function of 1/delta T (inverse freezing point depression). The I-value, when substituted into the new thermodynamic expressions derived from the assumption of equivalent activity of water in solution and ice, provides accurate predictions of freezing point depression (+/- 0.05 degrees C) up to 2.5 molal concentration for all the test molecules evaluated; glucose, sucrose, glycerol and ethylene glycol. The concentration limit is the approximate monolayer water coverage limit for the solutes which suggests that direct solute/solute interactions are negligible below this limit. This is contrary to the view of many authors due to the common practice of including hydration forces (a soft potential added to the hard core atomic potential) in the interaction potential between solute particles. When this is recognized the two viewpoints are in fundamental agreement. PMID:7699200

  10. Universal relations of transport coefficients from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Cherman, Aleksey; Nellore, Abhinav

    2009-09-15

    We show that there are universal high-temperature relations for transport coefficients of plasmas described by a wide class of field theories with gravity duals. These theories can be viewed as strongly coupled large-N{sub c} conformal field theories deformed by one or more relevant operators. The transport coefficients we study are the speed of sound and bulk viscosity, as well as the conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and charge susceptibility of probe U(1) charges. We show that the sound bound v{sub s}{sup 2}{<=}1/3 is satisfied at high temperatures in these theories and also discuss bounds on the diffusion coefficient, the conductivity, and the bulk viscosity.

  11. Factors affecting miscible flooding dispersion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Yellig, W.F.; Baker, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    Miscible solvent slug size, and therefore cost, is dependent on the mixing or dispersion taking place in the reservoir. Fluid mixing also can be important in the interpretation of laboratory simulations of miscible floods. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of velocity, viscosity ratio, rock type, and core length on dispersion (mixing) coefficients measured in short cores, with the objective of scaling laboratory measurements to field systems. Statistical analysis of the results of the tests, matched with the capacitance-dispersion (dead-end pore volume) model, shows that an effective dispersion coefficient derived from the model is the most consistent measure of mixing in the systems studied. Viscosity ratios differing by + 4% from unity had no significant effect on the effective dispersion coefficient. The effect of system length on the effective dispersion coefficient is shown.

  12. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    PubMed Central

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  13. Second coefficient of viscosity in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.

  14. Assessing the correctional orientation of corrections officers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byongook; Maxwell, Sheila Royo

    2004-12-01

    The correctional goal in South Korea has recently changed from the straightforward punishment of inmates to rehabilitation. Currently, emphases are being placed on education, counseling, and other treatment programs. These changes have consequently begun to also change the corrections officers' roles from a purely custodial role to a human service role, in which officers are expected to manage rehabilitation and treatment programs. Despite these changes, few studies have examined the attitudes of corrections officers toward rehabilitation programming. This is an important dimension to examine in rehabilitation programming, as corrections officers play a major role in the delivery of institutional programs. This study examines the attitudes of South Korean corrections officers toward rehabilitation programs. Approximately 430 corrections officers were sampled. Results show that correctional attitudes are largely influenced by not only officers' own motivations for joining corrections but also by institutional factors such as job stress. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:15538029

  15. Bootstrap Standard Error and Confidence Intervals for the Correlation Corrected for Range Restriction: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai; Chan, Daniel W.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The standard Pearson correlation coefficient is a biased estimator of the true population correlation, ?, when the predictor and the criterion are range restricted. To correct the bias, the correlation corrected for range restriction, r-sub(c), has been recommended, and a standard formula based on asymptotic results for estimating its standard…

  16. On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.

    The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.

  17. Two-dimensional correlation coefficient mapping in gas chromatography: Jet fuel classification for environmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gufeng; Karnes, John; Bunker, Christopher E.; Lei Geng, M.

    2006-11-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using two-dimensional correlation coefficient mapping to classify gas chromatograms of environmental hazards. Correct identification and classification of the contaminants is the prerequisite for their appropriate treatment and containments. A data set consisting of 76 gas chromatograms of eight types of jet fuels, which are common sources of hydrocarbon contamination in ground water, is examined with two-dimensional statistical sample-sample correlation coefficients. Analysis demonstrates that jet fuel samples of the same type correlate strongly with each other but less significantly with other jet fuel classes. According to the magnitude of the correlation coefficients between each pair of the samples, jet fuel types of each sample in the data set can be assigned with an accuracy of 100% through a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) procedure. Correlation coefficient mapping is thus a promising method to classify samples of environmental importance.

  18. A first-principles methodology for diffusion coefficients in metals and dilute alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantina, Manjeera

    This work is a study exploring the extent of suitability of static first-principles calculations for studying diffusion in metallic systems. Specifically, vacancy-mediated volume diffusion in pure elements and alloys with dilute concentration of impurities is studied. A novel procedure is discovered for predicting diffusion coefficients that overcomes the shortcomings of the well-known transition state theory, by Vineyard. The procedure that evolves from Eyring's reaction rate theory yields accurate diffusivity results that include anharmonic effects within the quasi-harmonic approximation. Alongside, the procedure is straightforward in its application within the conventional harmonic approximation, from the results of static first-principles calculations. To prove the extensibility of the procedure, diffusivities have been computed for a variety of systems. Over a wide temperature range, the calculated self-diffusion and impurity diffusion coefficients using local density approximation (LDA) of density functional theory (DFT) are seen to be in excellent match with experimental data. Self-diffusion coefficients have been calculated for: (i) fcc Al, Cu, Ni and Ag (ii) bcc W and Mo (v) hcp Mg, Ti and Zn. Impurity diffusion coefficients have been computed for: (i) Mg, Si, Cu, Li, Ag, Mo and 3d transition elements in fcc Al (ii) Mo, Ta in bcc W and Nb, Ta and W in bcc Mo (iii) Sn and Cd in hcp Mg and Al in hcp Ti. It is also an observation from this work, that LDA does not require surface correction for yielding energetics of vacancy-containing system in good comparison with experiments, unlike generalized gradient approximation (GGA). It is known that first-principles' energy minimization procedures based on electronic interactions are suited for metallic systems wherein the valence electrons are freely moving. In this thesis, research has been extended to study suitability of first-principles calculations within LDA/GGA including the localization parameter U, for Al

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  20. Timebias corrections to predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Roger; Gibbs, Philip

    1993-01-01

    The importance of an accurate knowledge of the time bias corrections to predicted orbits to a satellite laser ranging (SLR) observer, especially for low satellites, is highlighted. Sources of time bias values and the optimum strategy for extrapolation are discussed from the viewpoint of the observer wishing to maximize the chances of getting returns from the next pass. What is said may be seen as a commercial encouraging wider and speedier use of existing data centers for mutually beneficial exchange of time bias data.

  1. The Aberration Corrected SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, David C.

    2005-09-09

    The performance of the conventional low-energy CD-SEM is limited by the aberrations inherent in the probe forming lens. Multi-pole correctors are now available which can reduce or eliminate these aberrations. An SEM equipped with such a corrector offers higher spatial resolution and more probe current from a given electron source, and other aspects of the optical performance are also improved, but the much higher numerical aperture associated with an aberration corrected lens results in a reduction in imaging depth of field.

  2. GONG Magnetogram Zero-Point Correction Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, R.; Harvey, J.; Hill, F.; Toner, C.

    2003-05-01

    Line-of-sight component magnetograms from GONG+ are produced every minute at every site. The noise level is about 3 G per pixel but the zero point is incorrect by as much as 10 G. This zero point error varies across the solar image and with time. This error precludes using the magnetograms for meaningful extrapolations of weak photospheric fields into the corona. Experiments show the cause is slow, asymmetric, locally varying switching of the LCD modulator from one retardation state to the other, generating a false magnetic field pattern (zero error). The mirrors directing sunlight into the instrument produce slight ( 1 varying during the day which interacts with modulator imperfections to make a complicated correction problem. Atmospheric variations during the one-minute integration period can also cause trouble. The zero point error should affect the daily calibration in virtually the same way as a regular magnetogram taken at the same time. The daily calibration is used to create a 'magnetic flat field' to correct a nearly simultaneous regular magnetogram. The result should be a nearly rror-free magnetogram that can then be used to determine the zero point error during the rest of the day by subtracting suitably rotated and masked versions of the data. This error is then fit with a suitable function (e.g. Zernike polynomials) and the coefficients used to synthesize a correction at any time. The coefficients are smoothed and averaged over several days to reduce instrumental and atmospheric noise, and real solar changes that might leak through the masks. Present performance, determined by comparison among different sites, is good to about 1 G. A limitation appears to be seeing effects causing rapidly changing, small fluctuations of the zero point error. This is being investigated.

  3. Using Online Annotations to Support Error Correction and Corrective Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Shiou-Wen; Lo, Jia-Jiunn

    2009-01-01

    Giving feedback on second language (L2) writing is a challenging task. This research proposed an interactive environment for error correction and corrective feedback. First, we developed an online corrective feedback and error analysis system called "Online Annotator for EFL Writing". The system consisted of five facilities: Document Maker,…

  4. PAC91 - PROPERTIES AND COEFFICIENTS 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbride, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    The two principal functions of PAC91 are to provide a means of generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constant data and to supply a means of fitting these functions to empirical equations by using a least-squares fit. The coefficients obtained from the fit may then be used to generate a library of thermodynamic data in a uniform and easy-to-use format for use in other computer codes. Several large compilations of selected or calculated thermodynamic data currently exist. Nevertheless, there is a continuing need for additional calculations due to the discovery of new species, the revision of existing molecular constant data and structural parameters, the need for data at temperatures other than those already published, the availability of new or revised heats of formation, dissociation or transition, and the revision of fundamental constants or atomic weights. Calculations may also be needed to compare the results of assuming various possible forms of the partition function. In addition, there is often a preference for thermodynamic data in functional rather than tabular form. In order to satisfy these needs, the PAC91 program can perform any combination of the following: (1) calculate thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy) for any set of 1 to 202 temperatures, (2) obtain a least-squares fit of the first three of these functions (either individually, two at a time, or all three simultaneously) for up to eight temperature intervals, and (3) calculate, as a function of temperature, heats of formation and equilibrium constants from assigned reference elements. The thermodynamic functions for ideal gases may be calculated from molecular constant data using one of several partition function variations provided by the program. For monatomic gases, one of three partition function cutoff techniques may be selected by the user, and unobserved but predicted electronic energy levels may be included by the program

  5. OCT Motion Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Martin F.; Hornegger, Joachim

    From the introduction of time domain OCT [1] up to recent swept source systems, motion continues to be an issue in OCT imaging. In contrast to normal photography, an OCT image does not represent a single point in time. Instead, conventional OCT devices sequentially acquire one-dimensional data over a period of several seconds, capturing one beam of light at a time and recording both the intensity and delay of reflections along its path through an object. In combination with unavoidable object motion which occurs in many imaging contexts, the problem of motion artifacts lies in the very nature of OCT imaging. Motion artifacts degrade image quality and make quantitative measurements less reliable. Therefore, it is desirable to come up with techniques to measure and/or correct object motion during OCT acquisition. In this chapter, we describe the effect of motion on OCT data sets and give an overview on the state of the art in the field of retinal OCT motion correction.

  6. Worldwide radiosonde temperature corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Luers, J.; Eskridge, R.

    1997-11-01

    Detailed heat transfer analyses have been performed on ten of the world`s most commonly used radiosondes from 1960 to present. These radiosondes are the USA VIZ and Space Data, the Vaisala RS-80, RS-185/21, and RS12/15, the Japanese RS2-80, Russian MARS, RKZ, and A22, and the Chinese GZZ. The temperature error of each radiosonde has been calculated as a function of altitude and the sonde and environmental parameters that influence its magnitude. Computer models have been developed that allow the correction of temperature data from each sonde as a function of these parameters. Recommendations are made concerning the use of data from each of the radiosondes for climate studies. For some radiosondes, nighttime data requires no corrections. Other radiosondes require that day and daytime data is not feasible because parameters of significance, such as balloon rise rate, are not retrievable. The results from this study provide essential information for anyone attempting to perform climate studies using radiosonde data. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Turbulence compressibility corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coakley, T. J.; Horstman, C. C.; Marvin, J. G.; Viegas, J. R.; Bardina, J. E.; Huang, P. G.; Kussoy, M. I.

    1994-01-01

    The basic objective of this research was to identify, develop and recommend turbulence models which could be incorporated into CFD codes used in the design of the National AeroSpace Plane vehicles. To accomplish this goal, a combined effort consisting of experimental and theoretical phases was undertaken. The experimental phase consisted of a literature survey to collect and assess a database of well documented experimental flows, with emphasis on high speed or hypersonic flows, which could be used to validate turbulence models. Since it was anticipated that this database would be incomplete and would need supplementing, additional experiments in the NASA Ames 3.5-Foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel (HWT) were also undertaken. The theoretical phase consisted of identifying promising turbulence models through applications to simple flows, and then investigating more promising models in applications to complex flows. The complex flows were selected from the database developed in the first phase of the study. For these flows it was anticipated that model performance would not be entirely satisfactory, so that model improvements or corrections would be required. The primary goals of the investigation were essentially achieved. A large database of flows was collected and assessed, a number of additional hypersonic experiments were conducted in the Ames HWT, and two turbulence models (kappa-epsilon and kappa-omega models with corrections) were determined which gave superior performance for most of the flows studied and are now recommended for NASP applications.

  8. Smooth eigenvalue correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikse, Anne; Veldhuis, Raymond; Spreeuwers, Luuk

    2013-12-01

    Second-order statistics play an important role in data modeling. Nowadays, there is a tendency toward measuring more signals with higher resolution (e.g., high-resolution video), causing a rapid increase of dimensionality of the measured samples, while the number of samples remains more or less the same. As a result the eigenvalue estimates are significantly biased as described by the Marčenko Pastur equation for the limit of both the number of samples and their dimensionality going to infinity. By introducing a smoothness factor, we show that the Marčenko Pastur equation can be used in practical situations where both the number of samples and their dimensionality remain finite. Based on this result we derive methods, one already known and one new to our knowledge, to estimate the sample eigenvalues when the population eigenvalues are known. However, usually the sample eigenvalues are known and the population eigenvalues are required. We therefore applied one of the these methods in a feedback loop, resulting in an eigenvalue bias correction method. We compare this eigenvalue correction method with the state-of-the-art methods and show that our method outperforms other methods particularly in real-life situations often encountered in biometrics: underdetermined configurations, high-dimensional configurations, and configurations where the eigenvalues are exponentially distributed.

  9. The Rational Polynomial Coefficients Modification Using Digital Elevation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alidoost, F.; Azizi, A.; Arefi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The high-resolution satellite imageries (HRSI) are as primary dataset for different applications such as DEM generation, 3D city mapping, change detection, monitoring, and deformation detection. The geo-location information of HRSI are stored in metadata called Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). There are many methods to improve and modify the RPCs in order to have a precise mapping. In this paper, an automatic approach is presented for the RPC modification using global Digital Elevation Models. The main steps of this approach are: relative digital elevation model generation, shift parameters calculation, sparse point cloud generation and shift correction, and rational polynomial fitting. Using some ground control points, the accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated based on statistical descriptors in which the results show that the geo-location accuracy of HRSI can be improved without using Ground Control Points (GCPs).

  10. Modifications of functions, Fourier coefficients and nonlinear approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoryan, Martin G

    2012-03-31

    This work continues the author's investigations of the convergence of greedy algorithms from the standpoint of classical results on correction of functions. In particular, the following result is obtained: for each {epsilon}, 0<{epsilon}<1, there exists a measurable set E subset of [0,1) of measure |E|>1-{epsilon} such that for each function f element of L{sup 1}[0,1) a function f-tilde element of L{sup 1}(0,1) equal to f on E can be found such that the greedy algorithm for f-tilde with respect to the Walsh system converges to it almost everywhere on [0,1], and all the nonzero elements of the sequence of Walsh-Fourier coefficients of the function thus obtained are arranged in decreasing order of their absolute values. Bibliography: 35 titles.

  11. Fuel temperature reactivity coefficient calculation by Monte Carlo perturbation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, H. J.; Kim, C. H.

    2013-07-01

    We present an efficient method to estimate the fuel temperature reactivity coefficient (FTC) by the Monte Carlo adjoint-weighted correlated sampling method. In this method, a fuel temperature change is regarded as variations of the microscopic cross sections and the temperature in the free gas model which is adopted to correct the asymptotic double differential scattering kernel. The effectiveness of the new method is examined through the continuous energy MC neutronics calculations for PWR pin cell problems. The isotope-wise and reaction-type-wise contributions to the FTCs are investigated for two free gas models - the constant scattering cross section model and the exact model. It is shown that the proposed method can efficiently predict the reactivity change due to the fuel temperature variation. (authors)

  12. Beam Hardening Corrections in Quantitative Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Vedula, Venumadhav; Venugopal, Manoharan; Raghu, C.; Pandey, Pramod

    2007-03-21

    Volumetric computed tomography (VCT) is the emerging 3D NDE inspection technique that gives highest throughput and better image quality. Industrial components in general demands higher x-ray energy for inspection for which polychromatic x-ray sources are used in common. Polychromatic nature of the x-rays gives rise to non-linear effects in the VCT projection data measurements called to be the beam hardening (BH) effects. BH produces prominent artifacts in the reconstructed images thereby deteriorating the image quality. Quantitative analysis such as density quantification, dimensional analysis etc., becomes difficult with the presence of these artifacts. This paper describes the BH correction using preprocessing technique for the homogeneous materials. Selection of effective energy at which the monoenergetic linear attenuation coefficient of a particular material equals to that of the polyenergetic beam is critical for BH correction. Various methods to determine the effective energy and their consequence in the quantitative measurements have been investigated in the present study. In this paper, BH corrections for heterogeneous materials have also been explored.

  13. Scatter corrections for cone beam optical CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olding, Tim; Holmes, Oliver; Schreiner, L. John

    2009-05-01

    Cone beam optical computed tomography (OptCT) employing the VISTA scanner (Modus Medical, London, ON) has been shown to have significant promise for fast, three dimensional imaging of polymer gel dosimeters. One distinct challenge with this approach arises from the combination of the cone beam geometry, a diffuse light source, and the scattering polymer gel media, which all contribute scatter signal that perturbs the accuracy of the scanner. Beam stop array (BSA), beam pass array (BPA) and anti-scatter polarizer correction methodologies have been employed to remove scatter signal from OptCT data. These approaches are investigated through the use of well-characterized phantom scattering solutions and irradiated polymer gel dosimeters. BSA corrected scatter solutions show good agreement in attenuation coefficient with the optically absorbing dye solutions, with considerable reduction of scatter-induced cupping artifact at high scattering concentrations. The application of BSA scatter corrections to a polymer gel dosimeter lead to an overall improvement in the number of pixel satisfying the (3%, 3mm) gamma value criteria from 7.8% to 0.15%.

  14. Contact Lenses for Vision Correction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Lenses Colored Contact Lenses Contact Lenses for Vision Correction Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Brenda ... on the surface of the eye. They correct vision like eyeglasses do and are safe when used ...

  15. Thermal corrections to Electroweak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masood, Samina

    2016-03-01

    We study the electroweak processes at finite temperatures. This includes the decay rates of electroweak gauge bosons and beta decays. Major thermal corrections come from QED type radiative corrections. Heavy mass of the electroweak gauge bosons helps to suppress the radiative corrections due to the electroweak gauge boson loops. Therefore, dominant thermal corrections are due to the photon loops. We also discuss the relevance of our results to astrophysics and cosmology.

  16. Particle scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients: An in situ closure and sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, Heike; Neusüß, Christian; Wendisch, Manfred; Stratmann, Frank; Koziar, Christian; Keil, Andreas; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Ebert, Martin

    2002-11-01

    Comparisons between measured and calculated aerosol scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients were made based on in situ, ground-based measurements during the Melpitz INTensive (MINT) and Lindenberg Aerosol Characterization Experiment 1998 (LACE 98) field studies. Furthermore, airborne measurements made with the same type of instruments are reviewed and compared with the ground-based measurements. Agreement between measured and calculated values is on the order of ±20% for scattering and backscattering coefficients. A sensitivity analysis showed a large influence on the calculated particle scattering and backscattering coefficients resulting from sizing uncertainties in the measured number size distributions. Measured absorption coefficients were significantly smaller than the corresponding calculated values. The largest uncertainty for the calculated absorption coefficients resulted from the size-dependent fraction of elemental carbon (EC) of the aerosol. A correction for the measured fractions of EC could significantly improve the agreement between measured and calculated absorption coefficients. The overall uncertainty of the calculated values was investigated with a Monte Carlo method by simultaneously and randomly varying the input parameters of the calculations, where the variation of each parameter was bounded by its uncertainty. The measurements were mostly found to be within the range of uncertainties of the calculations, with uncertainties for the calculated scattering and backscattering coefficients of about ±20% and for the absorption coefficients of about ±30%. Thus, to increase the accuracy of calculated scattering, backscattering, and absorption coefficients, it is crucial to further reduce the error in particle number size distribution measurement techniques. In addition, further improvement of the techniques for measuring absorption coefficients and further investigation of the measurement of the fraction of EC of the aerosol is

  17. Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.

    2004-07-01

    The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.

  18. Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging Using Acoustic Backscatter Coefficients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boote, Evan Jeffery

    Current clinical ultrasound scanners render images which have brightness levels related to the degree of backscattered energy from the tissue being imaged. These images offer the interpreter a qualitative impression of the scattering characteristics of the tissue being examined, but due to the complex factors which affect the amplitude and character of the echoed acoustic energy, it is difficult to make quantitative assessments of scattering nature of the tissue, and thus, difficult to make precise diagnosis when subtle disease effects are present. In this dissertation, a method of data reduction for determining acoustic backscatter coefficients is adapted for use in forming quantitative ultrasound images of this parameter. In these images, the brightness level of an individual pixel corresponds to the backscatter coefficient determined for the spatial position represented by that pixel. The data reduction method utilized rigorously accounts for extraneous factors which affect the scattered echo waveform and has been demonstrated to accurately determine backscatter coefficients under a wide range of conditions. The algorithms and procedures used to form backscatter coefficient images are described. These were tested using tissue-mimicking phantoms which have regions of varying scattering levels. Another phantom has a fat-mimicking layer for testing these techniques under more clinically relevant conditions. Backscatter coefficient images were also formed of in vitro human liver tissue. A clinical ultrasound scanner has been adapted for use as a backscatter coefficient imaging platform. The digital interface between the scanner and the computer used for data reduction are described. Initial tests, using phantoms are presented. A study of backscatter coefficient imaging of in vivo liver was performed using several normal, healthy human subjects.

  19. Juvenile Correctional Facilities. 1998 Minnesota Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Harrison, Patricia A.; Hedger, Scott A.

    This document reports on a voluntary survey designed to compare responses of adolescents in corrections with adolescents in public schools in 1998. Findings are highlighted in sections entitled: (1) "Youth, Their Families, and Their Environment"; (2) "Psychological Distress"; (3) "Sexual Activity"; (4) "School Perceptions"; and (5) "Antisocial and…

  20. College Curriculum for Correctional Instructional Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPD Consortium C, Houston, TX.

    The project objective was to gather data for the purpose of identifying the scope and sequence of activities needed by instructional personnel in Texas correctional settings to meet the needs of students in a multidisciplinary setting. Six questionnaires were developed and administered to seven different sample groups: inmates, parolees, teachers,…

  1. Jet-boundary corrections for reflection-plane models in rectangular wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Robert S; Toll, Thomas A

    1943-01-01

    A detailed method for determining the jet-boundary corrections for reflection-plane models in rectangular wind tunnels is presented. The method includes the determination of the tunnel span local distribution and the derivation of equations for the corrections to the angle of attack, the lift and drag coefficients, and the pitching-, rolling-, yawing-, and hinge-moment coefficients. The principle effects of aerodynamic induction and of the boundary-induced curvature of the streamlines have been considered. An example is included to illustrate the method. Numerical values of the more important corrections for reflection-plane models in 7 by 10-foot closed wind tunnels are presented.

  2. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOEpatents

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  3. Yearbook of Correctional Education 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duguid, Stephen, Ed.

    This yearbook contains conference papers, commissioned papers, reprints of earlier works, and research-in-progress. They offer a retrospective view as well as address the mission and perspective of correctional education, its international dimension, correctional education in action, and current research. Papers include "Correctional Education and…

  4. Job Satisfaction in Correctional Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehl, Ron J.

    For more than a decade, correctional leaders throughout the country have attempted to come to grips with the basic issues involved in ascertaining and meeting the needs of correctional institutions. This study investigated job satisfaction in 122 correctional officers employed in both rural and urban prison locations for the State of Kansas…

  5. Systemic Retinaldehyde Treatment Corrects Retinal Oxidative Stress, Rod Dysfunction, and Impaired Visual Performance in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Bruce A.; Kern, Timothy S.; Bissig, David; Patel, Priya; Bhatia, Ankit; Kefalov, Vladimir J.; Roberts, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes appears to induce a visual cycle defect because rod dysfunction is correctable with systemic treatment of the visual cycle chromophore 11-cis-retinaldehyde. However, later studies have found no evidence for visual cycle impairment. Here, we further examined whether photoreceptor dysfunction is corrected with 11-cis-retinaldehyde. Because antioxidants correct photoreceptor dysfunction in diabetes, the hypothesis that exogenous visual chromophores have antioxidant activity in the retina of diabetic mice in vivo was tested. Methods Rod function in 2-month-old diabetic mice was evaluated using transretinal electrophysiology in excised retinas and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) MRI to measure light-evoked expansion of subretinal space (SRS) in vivo. Optokinetic tracking was used to evaluate cone-based visual performance. Retinal production of superoxide free radicals, generated mostly in rod cells, was biochemically measured with lucigenin. Diabetic mice were systemically treated with a single injection of either 11-cis-retinaldehyde, 9-cis-retinaldehyde (a chromophore surrogate), or all-trans-retinaldehyde (the photoisomerization product of 11-cis-retinaldehyde). Results Consistent with previous reports, diabetes significantly reduced (1) dark-adapted rod photo responses (transretinal recording) by ∼18%, (2) rod-dominated light-stimulated SRS expansion (ADC MRI) by ∼21%, and (3) cone-dominated contrast sensitivity (using optokinetic tracking [OKT]) by ∼30%. Both 11-cis-retinaldehyde and 9-cis-retinaldehyde largely corrected these metrics of photoreceptor dysfunction. Higher-than-normal retinal superoxide production in diabetes by ∼55% was also significantly corrected following treatment with 11-cis-retinaldehyde, 9-cis-retinaldehyde, or all-trans-retinaldehyde. Conclusions Collectively, data suggest that retinaldehydes improve photoreceptor dysfunction in diabetic mice, independent of the visual cycle, via an antioxidant mechanism. PMID

  6. Eucken correction in high-temperature gases with electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Istomin, V. A.; Kustova, E. V. Mekhonoshina, M. A.

    2014-05-14

    In the present paper, thermal conductivity coefficient of high-temperature molecular and atomic gases with excited electronic states is studied using both the kinetic theory algorithm developed by authors earlier and the well known simple expression for the thermal conductivity coefficient proposed by Eucken and generalized by Hirschfelder. The influence of large collision diameters of excited states on the thermal conductivity is discussed. The limit of validity of the Eucken correction is evaluated on the basis of the kinetic theory calculations; an improved model suitable for air species under high-temperature conditions is proposed.

  7. The Green-Ampt limit with reference to infiltration coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.; Broadbridge, P.

    2012-07-01

    Recent progress with an analytic nonlinear model has provided the exact infiltration coefficients for realistic soil behaviors with nonsingular hydraulic functions, as well as their exact delta-function diffusivity limits. After some correction and reinterpretation of the approximate analytical method, the exactly solvable model validates some previously obtained approximate infiltration functions. The Green-Ampt infiltration function follows from a delta-function diffusivity limit with a hydraulic conductivity that may be, among other possibilities, a linear function of water content. Just as a linear conductivity function is an overestimate for a realistic soil, the second Philip infiltration coefficient S1 in the Green-Ampt infiltration function is too large due to conductivity being overestimated. Better agreement with experiment (halving the value of S1) is obtained from the analytic nonlinear model, with a limiting delta-function diffusivity and a matching Gardner exponential hydraulic conductivity function. In general, infiltration behavior is determined by the limiting forms of the diffusivity and conductivity relative to one another at the saturated water content, or alternatively, the relationship between the conductivity and soil moisture potential. A new infiltration model demonstrates the possible range of S1 for physically valid limiting conductivity functions. We show that in the delta-function diffusivity limit, the solution behaves as if the potential at the wet front were time dependent, decreasing in magnitude from an initial value at the traditional Green-Ampt level.

  8. Permeability Coefficients of Lipophilic Compounds Estimated by Computer Simulations.

    PubMed

    Ghaemi, Zhaleh; Alberga, Domenico; Carloni, Paolo; Laio, Alessandro; Lattanzi, Gianluca

    2016-08-01

    The ability of a drug to cross the intestine-blood barrier is a key quantity for drug design and employment and is normally quantified by the permeability coefficient P, often evaluated in the so-called Caco-2 assay. This assay is based on measuring the initial growth rate of the concentration of the drug beyond the cellular barrier but not its steady-state flux through the membrane. This might lead to confusion since, in the case of lipophilic drugs, the initial slope is strongly affected by the retention of the drug in the membrane. This effect is well known but seldom considered in the assay. Here, we exploit all-atoms molecular dynamics and bias exchange metadynamics to calculate the concentration of two lipophilic drugs across a model membrane as a function of time. This allows estimating both the steady-state flux and the initial slope of the concentration growth and comparing Caco-2 and steady-state estimates of P. We show that our computational procedure is able to reproduce the experimental values, although these may differ from the permeability coefficients by orders of magnitude. Our findings are generalized by a simplified one-dimensional model of the permeation process that may act as a roadmap to assess which measure of membrane permeability would be more appropriate and, consequently, whether retention corrections should be included in estimates based on Caco-2 assays. PMID:27392273

  9. Calculation of the mass transfer coefficient for the combustion of a carbon particle

    SciTech Connect

    Scala, Fabrizio

    2010-01-15

    In this paper we address the calculation of the mass transfer coefficient around a burning carbon particle in an atmosphere of O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O. The complete set of Stefan-Maxwell equations is analytically solved under the assumption of no homogeneous reaction in the boundary layer. An expression linking the oxygen concentration and the oxygen flux at the particle surface (as a function of the bulk gas composition) is derived which can be used to calculate the mass transfer coefficient. A very simple approximate explicit expression is also given for the mass transfer coefficient, that is shown to be valid in the low oxygen flux limit or when the primary combustion product is CO{sub 2}. The results are given in terms of a correction factor to the equimolar counter-diffusion mass transfer coefficient, which is typically available in the literature for specific geometries and/or fluid-dynamic conditions. The significance of the correction factor and the accuracy of the different available expressions is illustrated for several cases of practical interest. Results show that under typical combustion conditions the use of the equimolar counter-diffusion mass transfer coefficient can lead to errors up to 10%. Larger errors are possible in oxygen-enriched conditions, while the error is generally low in oxy-combustion. (author)

  10. Rulison Site corrective action report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    Project Rulison was a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program, to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface (BGS). This Corrective Action Report describes the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon- and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments from an old drilling effluent pond and characterization of the mud pits used during drilling of the R-EX well at the Rulison Site. The Rulison Site is located approximately 65 kilometers (40 miles) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for the 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the AEC. This report also describes the activities performed to determine whether contamination is present in mud pits used during the drilling of well R-EX, the gas production well drilled at the site to evaluate the effectiveness of the detonation in stimulating gas production. The investigation activities described in this report were conducted during the autumn of 1995, concurrent with the cleanup of the drilling effluent pond. This report describes the activities performed during the soil investigation and provides the analytical results for the samples collected during that investigation.

  11. Composite Transport Coefficient for Electron Thermal Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.; Daughton, W.

    1996-11-01

    A series of experiments by the Alcator C-Mod machine over a range of heating conditions (ohmic to strongly r.f. heated) has led to the construction of a composite transport coefficient for the electron thermal energy. This is represented by the difference of two terms: one corresponding to an outflow of thermal energy and the other one corresponding to an inflow. There are theoretical arguments(B. Coppi and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Fluids B) 3 p. 2582 (1991) in support of a composite transport coefficient involving the elements of a transport matrix with an inflow term related for instance to the features of the current density profile relative to those of the electron temperature. In deriving the transport coefficient D_e^th that has been used to simulate the Alcator C-Mod plasmas, we have assumed that the driving factor of the underlying modes is the plasma pressure gradient. Thus D_e^th ∝ D_e^o [β_p* - C] where β_p* = (8π p* / B_p^2), p* ≡ -r(dp/dr) is evaluated at the point of maximum pressure gradient, C ≈ 3/16 is a positive numerical coefficient and D_e^o ∝ I_p/(nT)^5/6 is basically the Coppi-Mazzucato-Gruber diffusion coefficient introduced earlier to reproduce the results of experiments with ohmic heating. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy

  12. Estimation of soil sorption coefficients using QSARs

    SciTech Connect

    Doucette, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Sorption coefficients quantitatively describe the extent to which an organic chemical distributes itself between an environmental solid and the aqueous phase that it is contact with at equilibrium. Because of the difficulty and expense associated with measuring sorption coefficients, estimated values are often used in place of site specific, experimental values for fate modeling. Most reported methods for estimating the sorption of organic chemicals onto environmental solids are based on observation that for many organic chemicals, and in particular neutral hydrophobic organics, sorption is directly proportional to the quantity of organic matter associated with the solid. Normalizing soil or sediment specific sorption coefficients to the organic carbon content of the sorbent yields a new ``constant``, Koc, that is considered unique property of the organic chemical being sorbed. Values of Koc are then typically estimated from correlations between Koc and various descriptors of hydrophobicity such as octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow), aqueous solubility (S), molecular connectivity indices (MCIs) and retention times or capacity factors generated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Group contribution methods have also been described. While the so-called ``Koc approach`` for estimating sorption coefficients is most appropriate for neutral, hydrophobic organic chemicals on environmental solids containing a significant amount of organic matter, it has been applied to a wide variety of chemical and soil types. This presentation will focus on a discussion of the Koc approach, its applicability and limitations. A comparison of several widely used methods for estimating Koc will be presented.

  13. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  14. Temperature Corrected Bootstrap Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Joey C.; Zwally, H. Jay

    1997-01-01

    A temperature corrected Bootstrap Algorithm has been developed using Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer data in preparation to the upcoming AMSR instrument aboard ADEOS and EOS-PM. The procedure first calculates the effective surface emissivity using emissivities of ice and water at 6 GHz and a mixing formulation that utilizes ice concentrations derived using the current Bootstrap algorithm but using brightness temperatures from 6 GHz and 37 GHz channels. These effective emissivities are then used to calculate surface ice which in turn are used to convert the 18 GHz and 37 GHz brightness temperatures to emissivities. Ice concentrations are then derived using the same technique as with the Bootstrap algorithm but using emissivities instead of brightness temperatures. The results show significant improvement in the area where ice temperature is expected to vary considerably such as near the continental areas in the Antarctic, where the ice temperature is colder than average, and in marginal ice zones.

  15. Electronic measurement correction devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mahns, R.R.

    1984-04-01

    The electronics semi-conductor revolution has touched every industry and home in the nation. The gas industry is no exception. Sophisticated gas measurement instrumentation has been with us for several decades now, but only in the last 10 years or so has it really begun to boom. First marketed were the flow computers dedicated to orifice meter measurement; but with steadily decreasing manufacturing costs, electronic instrumentation is now moving into the area of base volume, pressure and temperature correction previously handled almost solely by mechanical integrating instruments. This paper takes a brief look at some of the features of the newcomers on the market and how they stack up against the old standby mechanical base volume/pressure/temperature correctors.

  16. A Phase III, Randomized, Multi-Center, Double-Masked, Matched-Pairs, Active-Controlled Trial to Compare the Efficacy and Safety between Neuramis Deep and Restylane in the Correction of Nasolabial Folds

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Changsik; Park, Jihoon; Hong, Jinmyung; Jeong, Jaehoon; Bang, Saik

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted this clinical study to compare the efficacy and safety between Neuramis Deep and Restylane in the correction of nasolabial folds. Methods In this phase III, randomized, multi-center, double-masked, matched-pairs, active-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01585220), we evaluated a total of 67 subjects (n=67). All the subjects underwent Neuramis Deep treatment on one side and Restylane on the contralateral side of the bilateral nasolabial folds at a ratio of 1:1. To compare the efficacy of Neuramis Deep and Restylane, we evaluated the Wrinkle Severity Rating Scale scores and those of the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. In addition, we compared the safety of Neuramis Deep and Restylane based on adverse events, physical examination, and clinical laboratory tests. Results Neuramis Deep was not inferior in improving the nasolabial folds as compared with Restylane. In addition, there was no significant difference in the efficacy between Neuramis Deep and Restylane. There were no significant differences in safety parameters between Neuramis Deep and Restylane. Conclusions In conclusion, our results indicate that Neuramis Deep may be a safe, effective material for improving the nasolabial folds. However, further studies are warranted to compare the tolerability of Neuramis Deep and Restylane based on histopathologic findings. PMID:26618119

  17. a Modified Approach Based on Influence Coefficient Method for Balancing Crank-Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KANG, Y.; CHANG, Y.-P.; TSENG, M.-H.; TANG, P.-H.; CHANG, Y.-F.

    2000-07-01

    The conventional balancing machines utilize two-plane separation for the determination of equivalent imbalances. However, the imbalance masses of a crank-shaft cannot be corrected at arbitrary locations of the balancing planes. This study has presented a modified method for balancing crank-shafts by using the soft-pedestal machines. The modified influence coefficient method for asymmetrical rotor-bearing systems has been applied to balance crank-shafts. Also, the decomposition method for irremovable masses has been replaced by an iteration method based on an influence coefficient approach. Furthermore, the validity and accuracy of the modified approach are verified in balancing practical crank-shafts.

  18. Multi-layer universal correction magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Parzen, G.

    1981-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for constructing a universal correction magnet in which the return currents play an active role in determining the field. The return currents are not hidden by the iron shield. The coil is wound in many layers, instead of just one layer. Each layer has a particular symmetry, and generates a particular class of field multipoles such that the location of the return current for each independently excited current block is clear. Three layers may be sufficient in many cases. This approach is applied to the ISABELLE storage accelerator correction system.

  19. Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1991-11-01

    When a pair of images are compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This paper evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitation of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair images. Results show that three-stage procedure, consisting of first establishing congruence of the two images, than using the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives, and finally qualifying a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These algorithmic stages would be especially useful in arms control treaty verification.

  20. Temperature coefficients of multijunction solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virshup, G. F.; Chung, B.-C.; Ladle Ristow, M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Brinker, D.

    1990-01-01

    Temperature coefficients measured in solar simulators with those measured under AM0 solar illumination are compared to illustrate the challenges in making these measurements. It is shown that simulator measurements of the short-circuit current (delta Jsc/delta T) are inaccurate due to the mismatch between the solar spectrum and the simulators at the bandgaps of the solar cells. Especially susceptible to error is the delta Jsc/delta T of cells which are components in monolithic multijunction solar cells, such as GaAs filtered by 1.93-eV AlGaAs, which has an AM0 coefficient of 6.82 micro-A/sq cm/deg C, compared to a Xenon simulator coefficient of 22.2 micro-A/sq cm/deg C.

  1. Improved Diffusion Coefficients for Stellar Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.

    2014-04-01

    We are currently working on the fourth generation of our codes for building evolutionary and static models of hot subdwarf and white dwarf stars. One of the improvements of these codes consists in an update of all the microphysics involved in the computations. As part of our efforts, we have taken a look at possible improvements for the diffusion coefficients. Since the publication of the widely used diffusion coefficients of Paquette et al. (1986), the number-crunching power of computers has immensely increased, allowing more accurate computations of the triple collision integrals. We have thus produced new tables of diffusion coefficients with higher accuracy and higher resolution than before, of general use in stellar astrophysics.

  2. Block error correction codes for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Wafaa R.; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2011-06-01

    Face recognition is one of the most desirable biometric-based authentication schemes to control access to sensitive information/locations and as a proof of identity to claim entitlement to services. The aim of this paper is to develop block-based mechanisms, to reduce recognition errors that result from varying illumination conditions with emphasis on using error correction codes. We investigate the modelling of error patterns in different parts/blocks of face images as a result of differences in illumination conditions, and we use appropriate error correction codes to deal with the corresponding distortion. We test the performance of our proposed schemes using the Extended Yale-B Face Database, which consists of face images belonging to 5 illumination subsets depending on the direction of light source from the camera. In our experiments each image is divided into three horizontal regions as follows: region1, three rows above the eyebrows, eyebrows and eyes; region2, nose region and region3, mouth and chin region. By estimating statistical parameters for errors in each region we select suitable BCH error correction codes that yield improved recognition accuracy for that particular region in comparison to applying error correction codes to the entire image. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to a depth of 3 is used for face feature extraction, followed by global/local binarization of coefficients in each subbands. We shall demonstrate that the use of BCH improves separation of the distribution of Hamming distances of client-client samples from the distribution of Hamming distances of imposter-client samples.

  3. Atmospheric degradation correction of terahertz beams using multiscale signal restoration.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Choonwoo; Kong, Seong G

    2010-02-10

    We present atmospheric degradation correction of terahertz (THz) beams based on multiscale signal decomposition and a combination of a Wiener deconvolution filter and artificial neural networks. THz beams suffer from strong attenuation by water molecules in the air. The proposed signal restoration approach finds the filter coefficients from a pair of reference signals previously measured from low-humidity conditions and current background air signals. Experimental results with two material samples of different chemical compositions demonstrate that the multiscale signal restoration technique is effective in correcting atmospheric degradation compared to individual and non-multiscale approaches. PMID:20154764

  4. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Virial expansion coefficients in the harmonic approximation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J R; Zinner, N T; Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S

    2012-08-01

    The virial expansion method is applied within a harmonic approximation to an interacting N-body system of identical fermions. We compute the canonical partition functions for two and three particles to get the two lowest orders in the expansion. The energy spectrum is carefully interpolated to reproduce ground-state properties at low temperature and the noninteracting high-temperature limit of constant virial coefficients. This resembles the smearing of shell effects in finite systems with increasing temperature. Numerical results are discussed for the second and third virial coefficients as functions of dimension, temperature, interaction, and transition temperature between low- and high-energy limits. PMID:23005730

  6. Huge Seebeck coefficients in nonaqueous electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, M.; Nakamae, S.; Roger, M.; Guenoun, P.

    2011-03-01

    The Seebeck coefficients of the nonaqueous electrolytes tetrabutylammonium nitrate, tetraoctylphosphonium bromide, and tetradodecylammonium nitrate in 1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and ethylene-glycol are measured in a temperature range from T = 30 °C to T = 45 °C. The Seebeck coefficient is generally of the order of a few hundreds of microvolts per Kelvin for aqueous solution of inorganic ions. Here we report huge values of 7 mV/K at 0.1 M concentration for tetrabutylammonium nitrate in 1-dodecanol. These striking results open the question of unexpectedly large kosmotrope or "structure making" effects of tetraalkylammonium ions on the structure of alcohols.

  7. Errors and correction of precipitation measurements in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhihua; Li, Mingqin

    2007-05-01

    In order to discover the range of various errors in Chinese precipitation measurements and seek a correction method, 30 precipitation evaluation stations were set up countrywide before 1993. All the stations are reference stations in China. To seek a correction method for wind-induced error, a precipitation correction instrument called the “horizontal precipitation gauge” was devised beforehand. Field intercomparison observations regarding 29,000 precipitation events have been conducted using one pit gauge, two elevated operational gauges and one horizontal gauge at the above 30 stations. The range of precipitation measurement errors in China is obtained by analysis of intercomparison measurement results. The distribution of random errors and systematic errors in precipitation measurements are studied in this paper. A correction method, especially for wind-induced errors, is developed. The results prove that a correlation of power function exists between the precipitation amount caught by the horizontal gauge and the absolute difference of observations implemented by the operational gauge and pit gauge. The correlation coefficient is 0.99. For operational observations, precipitation correction can be carried out only by parallel observation with a horizontal precipitation gauge. The precipitation accuracy after correction approaches that of the pit gauge. The correction method developed is simple and feasible.

  8. Alternate corrections for estimating actual wetland evapotranspiration from potential evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barclay, Shoemaker W.; Sumner, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Corrections can be used to estimate actual wetland evapotranspiration (AET) from potential evapotranspiration (PET) as a means to define the hydrology of wetland areas. Many alternate parameterizations for correction coefficients for three PET equations are presented, covering a wide range of possible data-availability scenarios. At nine sites in the wetland Everglades of south Florida, USA, the relatively complex PET Penman equation was corrected to daily total AET with smaller standard errors than the PET simple and Priestley-Taylor equations. The simpler equations, however, required less data (and thus less funding for instrumentation), with the possibility of being corrected to AET with slightly larger, comparable, or even smaller standard errors. Air temperature generally corrected PET simple most effectively to wetland AET, while wetland stage and humidity generally corrected PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman most effectively to wetland AET. Stage was identified for PET Priestley-Taylor and Penman as the data type with the most correction ability at sites that are dry part of each year or dry part of some years. Finally, although surface water generally was readily available at each monitoring site, AET was not occurring at potential rates, as conceptually expected under well-watered conditions. Apparently, factors other than water availability, such as atmospheric and stomata resistances to vapor transport, also were limiting the PET rate. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  9. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 214: BUNKERS AND STORAGE AREAS NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report is to document that the closure of CAU 214 complied with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Corrective Action Plan closure requirements. The closure activities specified in the Corrective Action Plan were based on the approved corrective action alternatives presented in the CAU 214 Corrective Action Decision Document.

  10. RCRA corrective action program guide (Interim)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for compliance with an increasingly complex spectrum of environmental regulations. One of the most complex programs is the corrective action program proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA). The proposed regulations were published on July 27, 1990. The proposed Subpart S rule creates a comprehensive program for investigating and remediating releases of hazardous wastes and hazardous waste constituents from solid waste management units (SWMUs) at facilities permitted to treat, store, or dispose of hazardous wastes. This proposed rule directly impacts many DOE facilities which conduct such activities. This guidance document explains the entire RCRA Corrective Action process as outlined by the proposed Subpart S rule, and provides guidance intended to assist those persons responsible for implementing RCRA Corrective Action at DOE facilities.

  11. moco: Fast Motion Correction for Calcium Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dubbs, Alexander; Guevara, James; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Motion correction is the first step in a pipeline of algorithms to analyze calcium imaging videos and extract biologically relevant information, for example the network structure of the neurons therein. Fast motion correction is especially critical for closed-loop activity triggered stimulation experiments, where accurate detection and targeting of specific cells in necessary. We introduce a novel motion-correction algorithm which uses a Fourier-transform approach, and a combination of judicious downsampling and the accelerated computation of many L 2 norms using dynamic programming and two-dimensional, fft-accelerated convolutions, to enhance its efficiency. Its accuracy is comparable to that of established community-used algorithms, and it is more stable to large translational motions. It is programmed in Java and is compatible with ImageJ. PMID:26909035

  12. moco: Fast Motion Correction for Calcium Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dubbs, Alexander; Guevara, James; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Motion correction is the first step in a pipeline of algorithms to analyze calcium imaging videos and extract biologically relevant information, for example the network structure of the neurons therein. Fast motion correction is especially critical for closed-loop activity triggered stimulation experiments, where accurate detection and targeting of specific cells in necessary. We introduce a novel motion-correction algorithm which uses a Fourier-transform approach, and a combination of judicious downsampling and the accelerated computation of many L2 norms using dynamic programming and two-dimensional, fft-accelerated convolutions, to enhance its efficiency. Its accuracy is comparable to that of established community-used algorithms, and it is more stable to large translational motions. It is programmed in Java and is compatible with ImageJ. PMID:26909035

  13. Online image corrections applied to a dedicated breast PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliner, L.; González, A. J.; Correcher, C.; Benlloch, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present the online implementation of attenuation, scatter and random corrections using the LMEM algorithm for the dedicated breast PET named MAMMI. The attenuation correction is based on image segmentation, the random correction is derived from the rate estimation of single photon events and the scatter correction is determined by the dual energy window method. These three corrections are estimated and implemented in the reconstruction process without almost increasing the reconstruction time. The image quality is evaluated in terms of image uniformity and contrast using the reconstructed images of two custom-designed phantoms. When we apply the three corrections, the measured uniformity in the whole field of view is (10± 1)% compared to (17± 1)% without corrections. The adapted recovery contrast coefficients (normalized to 1) are approximately (0.80± 0.02) in hot areas, improving the value of (0.66± 0.07) obtained without corrections. The reconstruction processing time is also studied, finding an increment of around 7% when the three corrections are simultaneously included. Finally, 25 breast image datasets are also analyzed. The average acquisition time per patient is around 1200 seconds and the reconstruction times with corrections vary from 100 to 400 seconds using (1× 1× 1) mm3 voxel size and from 300 to 1800 seconds using (0.5× 0.5× 0.5) mm3 voxel size. These reconstructions are performed with a virtual pixel size of (1.6× 1.6) mm2 and twelve iterations.

  14. The prediction of normal force and rolling moment coefficients for a spinning wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, B. W.

    1981-01-01

    Nonlinear airfoil section data for angles of attack from 0 to 180 deg were used in a small computer code to numerically integrate the section normal force coefficients along the span as a function of the local velocity and angle of attack resulting from the combined spinning and descending motion. A correction was developed to account for the radial pressure gradient in the separated, rotating flow region above the wing. This correction was found to be necessary in order to obtain agreement, both in form and magnitude, with rotary balance test data.

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  17. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  18. Algebraic Flux Correction II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Dmitri; Möller, Matthias; Gurris, Marcel

    Flux limiting for hyperbolic systems requires a careful generalization of the design principles and algorithms introduced in the context of scalar conservation laws. In this chapter, we develop FCT-like algebraic flux correction schemes for the Euler equations of gas dynamics. In particular, we discuss the construction of artificial viscosity operators, the choice of variables to be limited, and the transformation of antidiffusive fluxes. An a posteriori control mechanism is implemented to make the limiter failsafe. The numerical treatment of initial and boundary conditions is discussed in some detail. The initialization is performed using an FCT-constrained L 2 projection. The characteristic boundary conditions are imposed in a weak sense, and an approximate Riemann solver is used to evaluate the fluxes on the boundary. We also present an unconditionally stable semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and an iterative solver for the fully discrete problem. The results of a numerical study indicate that the nonlinearity and non-differentiability of the flux limiter do not inhibit steady state convergence even in the case of strongly varying Mach numbers. Moreover, the convergence rates improve as the pseudo-time step is increased.

  19. Thermodynamics of Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2015-10-01

    Information processing at the molecular scale is limited by thermal fluctuations. This can cause undesired consequences in copying information since thermal noise can lead to errors that can compromise the functionality of the copy. For example, a high error rate during DNA duplication can lead to cell death. Given the importance of accurate copying at the molecular scale, it is fundamental to understand its thermodynamic features. In this paper, we derive a universal expression for the copy error as a function of entropy production and work dissipated by the system during wrong incorporations. Its derivation is based on the second law of thermodynamics; hence, its validity is independent of the details of the molecular machinery, be it any polymerase or artificial copying device. Using this expression, we find that information can be copied in three different regimes. In two of them, work is dissipated to either increase or decrease the error. In the third regime, the protocol extracts work while correcting errors, reminiscent of a Maxwell demon. As a case study, we apply our framework to study a copy protocol assisted by kinetic proofreading, and show that it can operate in any of these three regimes. We finally show that, for any effective proofreading scheme, error reduction is limited by the chemical driving of the proofreading reaction.

  20. Labyrinth walking in corrections.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Donna M; Sharma, Amy

    2012-02-01

    A 6 week labyrinth walking program was pilot tested in a correctional setting and goals were to: 1) determine the feasibility of a labyrinth walking curriculum; 2) pilot test measures of health related quality of life (QOL) (pre and post-surveys) and blood pressure; and 3) examine the influence of relationship-centered teaching on subject satisfaction. Relational communication was used as a framework for this study, emphasizing concepts of trust, competency and similarly in the teacher. A pretest/posttest descriptive design was used. The sample was 14 offenders at a Massachusetts county jail. The intervention included six 90 minute sessions, composed of a lecture, a labyrinth walk, and journal writing. Measures included a demographic survey; pre and post session walk blood pressures; pre and post program QOL measures; and a post program measure of satisfaction. The sample was 57% Caucasian, 36% Hispanic, and 7% African American, with an average age of 34, mostly high school educated and single. Drug of choice was alcohol with age of use at 12 and 1/2 years. Seventy-nine percent were previously incarcerated more than twice. QOL data were not changed pre to post. BP data trended in a healthy direction from weeks 1 to 6. Satisfaction with the teacher and the program was high. The labyrinth walking pilot program was proven feasible, low cost and satisfying for the participants. Recommendations for future studies are discussed. PMID:22468660

  1. Partial volume correction using cortical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaasvær, Kamille R.; Haubro, Camilla D.; Eskildsen, Simon F.; Borghammer, Per; Otzen, Daniel; Ostergaard, Lasse R.

    2010-03-01

    Partial volume effect (PVE) in positron emission tomography (PET) leads to inaccurate estimation of regional metabolic activities among neighbouring tissues with different tracer concentration. This may be one of the main limiting factors in the utilization of PET in clinical practice. Partial volume correction (PVC) methods have been widely studied to address this issue. MRI based PVC methods are well-established.1 Their performance depend on the quality of the co-registration of the MR and PET dataset, on the correctness of the estimated point-spread function (PSF) of the PET scanner and largely on the performance of the segmentation method that divide the brain into brain tissue compartments.1, 2 In the present study a method for PVC is suggested, that utilizes cortical surfaces, to obtain detailed anatomical information. The objectives are to improve the performance of PVC, facilitate a study of the relationship between metabolic activity in the cerebral cortex and cortical thicknesses, and to obtain an improved visualization of PET data. The gray matter metabolic activity after performing PVC was recovered by 99.7 - 99.8 % , in relation to the true activity when testing on simple simulated data with different PSFs and by 97.9 - 100 % when testing on simulated brain PET data at different cortical thicknesses. When studying the relationship between metabolic activities and anatomical structures it was shown on simulated brain PET data, that it is important to correct for PVE in order to get the true relationship.

  2. Bitplane Image Coding With Parallel Coefficient Processing.

    PubMed

    Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Enfedaque, Pablo; Moure, Juan C; Sanchez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Image coding systems have been traditionally tailored for multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computing. In general, they partition the (transformed) image in codeblocks that can be coded in the cores of MIMD-based processors. Each core executes a sequential flow of instructions to process the coefficients in the codeblock, independently and asynchronously from the others cores. Bitplane coding is a common strategy to code such data. Most of its mechanisms require sequential processing of the coefficients. The last years have seen the upraising of processing accelerators with enhanced computational performance and power efficiency whose architecture is mainly based on the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) principle. SIMD computing refers to the execution of the same instruction to multiple data in a lockstep synchronous way. Unfortunately, current bitplane coding strategies cannot fully profit from such processors due to inherently sequential coding task. This paper presents bitplane image coding with parallel coefficient (BPC-PaCo) processing, a coding method that can process many coefficients within a codeblock in parallel and synchronously. To this end, the scanning order, the context formation, the probability model, and the arithmetic coder of the coding engine have been re-formulated. The experimental results suggest that the penalization in coding performance of BPC-PaCo with respect to the traditional strategies is almost negligible. PMID:26441420

  3. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  4. Transport coefficients for electrons in Hg vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dujko, Sasa; White, Ron; Petrovic, Zoran

    2012-06-01

    Transport coefficients and distribution functions are calculated for electrons in Hg vapor under swarm conditions using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation, over a range of E/N values and temperatures relevant to lamp discharges. It is shown that for higher E/N the electron distribution is non-thermal for all Hg vapor temperatures considered, and that the speed distribution function significantly deviates from a Maxwellian under these conditions. Our work has been motivated, in part, by recent suggestions that highly accurate data for transport coefficients required as input in fluid models of Hg vapor lamp discharges may significantly improve the existing models. Current models of such lamps require a knowledge of the plasma electrical conductivity, which can be calculated from the cross sections for electron scattering in Hg vapor and mobility coefficients presented in this work. The effect of metastable atoms on the swarm parameters is also discussed. The influence of a magnetic field on electron transport coefficients in Hg vapor is investigated over a range of B/N values and angles between the fields.

  5. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  6. Oxygen atom loss coefficient of carbon nanowalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetic, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Zaplotnik, Rok

    2015-04-01

    Extremely high values of atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowall (CNW) surface are reported. CNW layers consisting of interconnected individual nanostructures with average length of 1.1 μm, average thickness of 66 nm and surface density of 3 CNW/μm2 were prepared by plasma jet enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using C2H2/H2/Ar gas mixtures. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry (RS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface loss coefficient was measured at room temperature in a flowing afterglow at different densities of oxygen atoms supplied from inductively coupled radiofrequency O2 plasma. The RF generator operated at 13.56 MHz and different nominal powers up to 900 W corresponding to different O-atom density in the afterglow up to 1.3 × 1021 m-3. CNW and several different samples of known coefficients for heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral oxygen atoms have been placed separately in the afterglow chamber and the O-atom density in their vicinity was measured with calibrated catalytic probes. Comparison of measured results allowed for determination of the loss coefficient for CNWs and the obtained value of 0.59 ± 0.03 makes this material an extremely effective sink for O-atoms.

  7. Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...

  8. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  9. Microcomputer Listens to the Coefficient of Restitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a procedure for determining the coefficient of restitution using a microcomputer which collects and sends data to a large computer where analysis is done and graphical output is generated. The data collection hardware and software are described, and results are illustrated. (Author/SK)

  10. A Primer on Partial Correlation Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waliczek, Tina M.

    Part and partial correlation coefficients are used to measure the strength of a relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable while controlling for one or more other variables. The present paper discusses the uses and limitations of partial correlations and presents a small heuristic data set to illustrate the discussion.…

  11. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  12. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-28

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  13. Uses and Misuses of the Correlation Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Daniel, Larry G.

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth critical analysis of the use and misuse of correlation coefficients. Various analytical and interpretational misconceptions are reviewed, beginning with the egregious assumption that correlational statistics may be useful in inferring causality. Additional misconceptions, stemming from…

  14. EXAMINATION OF SCALE-DEPENDENT DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many hydrologists have observed that dispersion coefficients, when measured in the field, turn out to be scale-dependent. Recently, Guven, et al., (1983) presented a study which contains a basis for understanding the phenomenon of scale-dependent dispersion within a deterministic...

  15. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  16. Electro-osmotic drag coefficient of water and methanol in polymer electrolytes at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, D.; Wainright, J.S.; Landau, U.; Savinell, R.F.

    1996-04-01

    The electro-osmotic drag coefficient of water in two polymer electrolytes was experimentally determined as a function of water activity and current density for temperatures up to 200 C. The results show that the electro-osmotic drag coefficient varies from 0.2 to 0.6 in Nafion{reg_sign}/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} membrane electrolyte, but is essentially zero in phosphoric acid-doped PBI (polybenzimidazole) membrane electrolyte over the range of water activity considered. The near-zero electro-osmotic drag coefficient found in PBI indicates that this electrolyte should lessen the problems associated with water redistribution in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  17. [Correction method for infrared spectral emissivity measurement system based on integrating sphere reflectometer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Feng; Dai, Jing-Min; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Lei

    2013-08-01

    In view of the influence of non-ideal reference standard on spectral emissivity measurement, by analyzing the principle of infrared emissivity measurement system based on integrating sphere reflectometer, a calibration method suitable for measuring spectral emissivity system using the reflection measurement was proposed. By fitting a spectral reflectance curve of the reference standard sample to the given reflectance data, the correction coefficient of measurement system was computed. Then the output voltage curve of reference standard sample was corrected by this coefficient. The system error caused by the imperfection of reference standard was eliminated. The correction method was applied to the spectral emissivity measurement system based on integrating sphere reflectometer. The results measured by the corrected system and the results measured by energy comparison measurement were compared to verify the feasibility and effectivity of this correction method in improving the accuracy of spectral emissivity measurement. PMID:24159891

  18. Effects of attenuation map accuracy on attenuation-corrected micro-SPECT images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), attenuation of photon flux in tissue affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Attenuation maps derived from X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be employed for attenuation correction. The attenuation coefficients as well as registration accuracy between SPECT and CT can be influenced by several factors. Here we investigate how such inaccuracies influence micro-SPECT quantification. Methods Effects of (1) misalignments between micro-SPECT and micro-CT through shifts and rotation, (2) globally altered attenuation coefficients and (3) combinations of these were evaluated. Tests were performed with a NEMA NU 4–2008 phantom and with rat cadavers containing sources with known activity. Results Changes in measured activities within volumes of interest in phantom images ranged from <1.5% (125I) and <0.6% (201Tl, 99mTc and 111In) for 1-mm shifts to <4.5% (125I) and <1.7% (201Tl, 99mTc and 111In) with large misregistration (3 mm). Changes induced by 15° rotation were smaller than those by 3-mm shifts. By significantly altering attenuation coefficients (±10%), activity changes of <5.2% for 125I and <2.7% for 201Tl, 99mTc and 111In were induced. Similar trends were seen in rat studies. Conclusions While getting sufficient accuracy of attenuation maps in clinical imaging is highly challenging, our results indicate that micro-SPECT quantification is quite robust to various imperfections of attenuation maps. PMID:23369630

  19. Lesion quantification in oncological positron emission tomography: a maximum likelihood partial volume correction strategy.

    PubMed

    De Bernardi, Elisabetta; Faggiano, Elena; Zito, Felicia; Gerundini, Paolo; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    A maximum likelihood (ML) partial volume effect correction (PVEC) strategy for the quantification of uptake and volume of oncological lesions in 18F-FDG positron emission tomography is proposed. The algorithm is based on the application of ML reconstruction on volumetric regional basis functions initially defined on a smooth standard clinical image and iteratively updated in terms of their activity and volume. The volume of interest (VOI) containing a previously detected region is segmented by a k-means algorithm in three regions: A central region surrounded by a partial volume region and a spill-out region. All volume outside the VOI (background with all other structures) is handled as a unique basis function and therefore "frozen" in the reconstruction process except for a gain coefficient. The coefficients of the regional basis functions are iteratively estimated with an attenuation-weighted ordered subset expectation maximization (AWOSEM) algorithm in which a 3D, anisotropic, space variant model of point spread function (PSF) is included for resolution recovery. The reconstruction-segmentation process is iterated until convergence; at each iteration, segmentation is performed on the reconstructed image blurred by the system PSF in order to update the partial volume and spill-out regions. The developed PVEC strategy was tested on sphere phantom studies with activity contrasts of 7.5 and 4 and compared to a conventional recovery coefficient method. Improved volume and activity estimates were obtained with low computational costs, thanks to blur recovery and to a better local approximation to ML convergence. PMID:19673203

  20. Limb Correction of Polar-Orbiting Imagery for the Improved Interpretation of RGB Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Elmer, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composite imagery combines information from several spectral channels into one image to aid in the operational analysis of atmospheric processes. However, infrared channels are adversely affected by the limb effect, the result of an increase in optical path length of the absorbing atmosphere between the satellite and the earth as viewing zenith angle increases. This paper reviews a newly developed technique to quickly correct for limb effects in both clear and cloudy regions using latitudinally and seasonally varying limb correction coefficients for real-time applications. These limb correction coefficients account for the increase in optical path length in order to produce limb-corrected RGB composites. The improved utility of a limb-corrected Air Mass RGB composite from the application of this approach is demonstrated using Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery. However, the limb correction can be applied to any polar-orbiting sensor infrared channels, provided the proper limb correction coefficients are calculated. Corrected RGB composites provide multiple advantages over uncorrected RGB composites, including increased confidence in the interpretation of RGB features, improved situational awareness for operational forecasters, and the ability to use RGB composites from multiple sensors jointly to increase the temporal frequency of observations.