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Sample records for activity colony-forming units

  1. Activity of MKT 077, a rhodacyanine dye, against human tumor colony-forming units.

    PubMed

    Petit, T; Izbicka, E; Lawrence, R A; Nalin, C; Weitman, S D; Von Hoff, D D

    1999-03-01

    MKT 077 is related to rhodamine 123 dye and demonstrates preferential accumulation in the mitochondria of cancer cells compared to normal cells. This difference in retention between cancer and normal cells led to the finding that MKT 077 selectively inhibits the growth of cancer cells in vitro. To define the preclinical activity profile of MKT 077, the compound was tested in vivo against a large variety of human tumors utilizing the human tumor-cloning assay. MKT 077 was studied using a sequential 2 h exposure separated by 24 h (2-24-2 h) and a 24 h exposure at final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, 10.0 and 20.0 microg/ml. MKT 077 was also studied using continuous exposure at final concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 microg/ml. A decrease in tumor colony formation was considered significant if survival of colonies treated with MKT 077 was 50% or less compared to untreated controls. A total of 149 specimens was treated with MKT 077 with 51, 58 and 34 evaluable specimens with the 2-24-2 h, the 24 h and the continuous exposure, respectively. The results of the present study suggest a positive relationship between concentration and response. No relationship between exposure schedule and activity was observed. Inhibitory effects were obtained against multiple tumor types. High cytotoxic activity was obtained against breast, ovary, endometrial, colon and non-small cell lung cancer with concentrations of 2 microg/ml or above. In conclusion, the broad spectrum of cytotoxicity of MKT 077 in the human tumor-cloning assay and the unique mechanism of action of MKT 077 encourage additional preclinical and clinical studies with this compound and other rhodacyanine dyes.

  2. Evaluation of in vivo antimycobacterial activity of some folklore medicinal plants and enumeration of colony forming unit in murine model

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Acheenta Gohain; Raj, Himangshu; Konch, Pranab; Hussain, P.; Barua, Chandana C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was carried out to investigate the in vivo antimycobacterial activity of methanol extract of Alstonia scholaris and Mucuna imbricata in murine model. Materials and Methods: Female BALB/c mice were infected with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv suspension. Extracts were administered orally for 2 weeks from 7th day postinfection at a dose of 200 mg/kg and rifampicin at 20 mg/kg as standard. The synergistic groups were 10 and 100 mg/kg for rifampicin and extract, respectively. Results: The final body weight of mycobacteria-infected group was significantly reduced (15.41 ± 0.42, P < 0.01), but following treatment with the plant extract plus rifampicin could elevate the body weight. Colony forming unit (CFU) count of lung (8.71 ± 0.01) and spleen (8.59 ± 0.01) was significantly higher in infected and untreated group (P < 0.01). It was observed that activity of the synergistic group displayed powerful and maximum response against tuberculosis (TB) infection with lower CFU counts. Histopathology study showed cells such as lymphocytes, epithelioid, Langhans giant cell, and fibrous tissue proliferation in lungs; depletion of lymphocytes in the spleen. Conclusions: The data indicate that methanol extract of A. scholaris has potential antimycobacterial activity, and the synergistic group consisting of rifampicin and A. scholaris could be a rational choice for the treatment of TB. PMID:27721538

  3. Measuring of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. A correlation of the optical measurements with colony forming units

    PubMed Central

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Villarreal-Treviño, Licet; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Rivadeneyra-Espinoza, Liliana; Said-Fernández, Salvador; de León, Mario Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    The quantification of colony forming units (cfu), turbidity, and optical density at 600 nm (OD600) measurements were used to evaluate Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. Turbidity and OD600 measurements displayed similar growth curves, while cfu quantification showed a continuous growth curve. We determined the cfu equivalents to McFarland and OD600 units. PMID:24159318

  4. Gender differences in circulating endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming capacity and migratory activity in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hoetzer, Greta L; MacEneaney, Owen J; Irmiger, Heather M; Keith, Rebecca; Van Guilder, Gary P; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Middle-aged women have a lower prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular events compared with men. The mechanisms responsible for this gender-specific difference are unclear. Numeric and functional impairments of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. It is currently unknown whether there are gender-related differences in EPC number and function in middle-aged adults. We tested the hypothesis that EPCs isolated from middle-aged women demonstrate greater colony-forming capacity and migratory activity compared with men of similar age. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 sedentary adults, 25 men (59 +/- 1 years of age) and 25 women (58 +/- 1 years of age). Mononuclear cells were isolated and preplated for 2 days, and nonadherent cells were further cultured for 7 days to determine EPC colony-forming units. Migratory activity of EPCs was determined using a modified Boyden chamber. The number of EPC colony-forming units was significantly higher (approximately 150%) in samples collected from women (16 +/- 3) compared with that collected from men (7 +/- 1). In addition, EPC migration (relative fluorescent units) was approximately 40% greater in women (729 +/- 74) than in men (530 +/- 67). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that EPC colony-forming capacity and migratory activity are higher in middle-aged women than in men.

  5. Association of Colony Forming Units with Coronary Artery and Abdominal Aortic Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Susan; Cohen, Kenneth S.; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Larson, Martin G.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; McCabe, Elizabeth L.; Martin, Roderick P.; Klein, Rachael J.; Hashmi, Basma; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Wang, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Certain bone marrow-derived cell populations, termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), have been reported to possess angiogenic activity. Experimental data suggest that depletion of these angiogenic cell populations may promote atherogenesis, but limited data are available regarding their relation to subclinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in humans. Methods and Results We studied 889 participants of the Framingham Heart Study who were free of clinically apparent cardiovascular disease (mean age, 65 years; 55% women). Participants underwent EPC phenotyping using an early outgrowth colony forming unit (CFU) assay and cell surface markers. Participants also underwent non-contrast multidetector computed tomography to assess the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis, as reflected by burden of coronary artery calcification (CAC) and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC). In this study sample, we examined the association of EPC-related phenotypes with both CAC and AAC. Across decreasing tertiles of CFU, there was a progressive increase in median CAC and AAC scores. In multivariable analyses adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, each standard deviation increase in CFU was associated with an approximately 16% decrease in CAC (P=0.02) and 17% decrease in AAC (P=0.03). In contrast, neither CD34+/KDR+ nor CD34+ variation were associated with significant differences in coronary or aortic calcification. Conclusion In this large, community-based sample of men and women, lower CFU number was associated with a higher burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries and aorta. Decreased angiogenic potential could contribute to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. PMID:20823386

  6. Baseline correlation and comparative kinetics of cerebrospinal fluid colony-forming unit counts and antigen titers in cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Annemarie E; Teparrukkul, Paprit; Pinpraphaporn, Supraphada; Larsen, Robert A; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Peacock, Sharon; Day, Nicholas; White, Nicholas J; Harrison, Thomas S

    2005-08-15

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cryptococcal colony-forming unit counts and CSF cryptococcal antigen titers serve as alternative measures of organism load in cryptococcal meningitis. For these measures, we correlated baseline values and rates of decline during the first 2 weeks of therapy in 68 human immunodeficiency virus--seropositive patients with cryptococcal meningitis. At baseline, there was a strong correlation between CSF cryptococcal colony-forming unit counts and CSF cryptococcal antigen titers. During the first 2 weeks of therapy, CSF cryptococcal colony-forming unit counts decreased by >5 logs, and CSF cryptococcal antigen titers decreased by 1.5 dilutions. In individual patients, there was no correlation between the rate of decline in CSF cryptococcal colony-forming unit counts and that in CSF cryptococcal antigen titers.

  7. A novel adjunctive cleansing method to reduce colony-forming units on duodenoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Karl; Chang, Joseph; Lo, Simon; Giap, Andrew; Lim, Brian; Wu, Bechien

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related infections are of increasing global concern due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria such as carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE), with bacterial biofilm production postulated as one cause of persistent infection from such virulent organisms. Because N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to possess antibacterial and biofilm-disruption properties, we aimed to evaluate if NAC would demonstrate clinical utility in reducing the colony forming units (CFU) at the elevator end of a duodenoscope, one of the hardest areas to clean. Patients and methods: This was a pilot study of 16 procedures involving the use of a duodenoscope. After use, the elevator tip of a duodenoscope was cultured and submerged for 30 minutes, either in 20 % NAC (200 mg/mL, intervention) or in sterile water (control). After 30 minutes, the elevator tip was re-cultured. Results: Submersion of the distal end of a duodenoscope in 20 % NAC (200 mg/mL) for 30 minutes resulted in a statistically significant reduction in bacterial colony forming units compared to control (average reduction 41.6 % vs 8.8 %, P = 0.001). There was no visible damage and no optical distortion to the duodenoscope after submersion in NAC. Conclusions: In summary, NAC may be a safe, simple, and useful adjunct to currently available methods of duodenoscope reprocessing. Further research may better define NAC’s role in duodenoscope reprocessing, either broadly or specifically after procedures suspected to produce a high risk of bacterial contamination (e. g. choledocholithiasis). PMID:27853743

  8. Tracking of replicative senescence in mesenchymal stem cells by colony-forming unit frequency.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, Anne; Hemeda, Hatim; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Long-term culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) has major impact on cellular characteristics and differentiation potential. Numerous clinical trials raise high hopes in regenerative medicine and this necessitates reliable quality control of the cellular products-also with regard to replicative senescence. The maximum number of population doublings before entering the senescent state depends on the cell type, tissue of origin, culture medium as well as cell culture methods. Therefore, it would be valuable to predict the remaining proliferative potential in the course of culture expansion. Here, we describe a refined fibroblastic colony forming unit (CFU-f) assay which can be performed at any passage during culture expansion with simple cell culture techniques. This method is based on limiting dilutions in the 96-well format to determine the proportion of highly proliferative and clonogenic cells. The number of CFU-f declines rapidly during culture expansion. Especially at higher passages the CFU-f frequency correlates very well with the remaining cumulative population doublings. This approach can be used as quality measure to estimate the remaining proliferative potential of MSC in culture.

  9. Prospective isolation and global gene expression analysis of the erythrocyte colony-forming unit (CFU-E).

    PubMed

    Terszowski, Grzegorz; Waskow, Claudia; Conradt, Peter; Lenze, Dido; Koenigsmann, Jessica; Carstanjen, Dirk; Horak, Ivan; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2005-03-01

    The erythrocyte colony-forming unit (CFU-E) is a rare bone marrow (BM) progenitor that generates erythrocyte colonies in 48 hours. The existence of CFU-Es is based on these colonies, but CFU-Es have not been purified prospectively by phenotype. We have separated the "nonstem," "nonlymphoid" compartment (lineage marker [lin]-c-Kit+Sca-1-IL-7Ralpha-) into interleukin 3 receptor alpha negative (IL-3Ralpha-) and IL-3Ralpha+ subsets. Within IL-3Ralpha- but not IL-3Ralpha+ cells we have identified TER119-CD41-CD71+ erythrocyte-committed progenitors (EPs). EPs generate CFU-E colonies at about 70% efficiency and generate reticulocytes in vivo. Depletion of EPs from BM strongly reduces CFU-E frequencies. EPs lack potential for erythrocyte burst-forming unit, megakaryocyte, granulocyte (G), and monocyte (M) colonies, and for spleen colony-forming units. Chronically suppressed erythropoiesis in interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP)-deficient BM is associated with reduced frequencies of both the EP population and CFU-E colonies. During phenylhydrazine-induced acute anemia, numbers of both the EP population and CFU-E colonies increase. Collectively, EPs (lin-c-Kit+Sca-1-IL-7Ralpha-IL-3Ralpha-CD41-CD71+) account for most, if not all, CFU-E activity in BM. As a first molecular characterization, we have compared global gene expression in EPs and nonerythroid GM progenitors. These analyses define an erythroid progenitor-specific gene expression pattern. The prospective isolation of EPs is an important step to analyze physiologic and pathologic erythropoiesis.

  10. Response of colony-forming units-spleen to heavy charged particles.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, E J; Kelly, L S; Mahlmann, L J; Schooley, J C; Thomas, R H; Howard, J; Alpen, E L

    1983-10-01

    Survival of colony-forming units-spleen (CFU-S) was measured after single doses of photons or heavy charged particles from the BEVALAC. The purposes were to define the radiosensitivity to heavy ions used medically and to evaluate relationships between relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and dose-averaged linear energy transfer (LET infinity). In in vitro irradiation experiments. CFU-S suspensions were exposed to 220 kVp X rays or to 20Ne (372 MeV/micron) or 40Ar (447 MeV/micron) particles in the plateau portion of the Bragg curve. In in vivo irradiation experiments, donor mice from which CFU-S were harvested were exposed to 12C (400 MeV/micron). 20Ne (400 or 670 MeV/micron), or 40Ar (570 MeV/micron) particles in Bragg peaks spread to 4 or 10 cm by spiral ridge filters. Based on RBE at 10 survival, the maximum RBE of 2.1 was observed for 40Ar particles characterized by an LET infinity of approximately 100 keV/micron. Lower RBEs were determined at lower or higher estimated values of LET infinity and ranged from 1.1 for low energy 40Ar particles to 1.5-1.6 for low energy 12C and 20Ne. The responses of CFU-S are compared with responses of other model systems to heavy charged particles and with the reported sensitivity of CFU-S to neutrons of various energies. The maximum RBE reported here, 2.1 for high energy 40Ar particles, is somewhat lower than values reported for fission-spectrum neutrons, and is appreciably lower than values for monoenergetic 0.43-1.8 MeV neutrons. Low energy 12C and 20Ne particles have RBEs in the range of values reported for 14.7 MeV neutrons.

  11. Rat granulocyte colony-forming unit (CFU-G) assay for the assessment of drug-induced hematotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matsumura-Takeda, K; Kotosai, K; Ozaki, A; Hara, H; Yamashita, S

    2002-06-01

    To assess the drug-induced hematotoxicity to granulocyte progenitors, we established a modified colony-forming assay using rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). In the presence of various colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), rat BMCs were disseminated on methylcellulose at a concentration of 1.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) (5 x 10(4) cells/0.5 ml/well in a 12-well plate). Mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) stimulated the formation of almost all macrophage colonies. Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) alone or in combination with mouse interleukin-3 (mIL-3) did not significantly effect on the number of rat colony-forming units in culture (CFU-C). When BMCs were seeded at 5.2 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) (5 x 10(5) cells/1 ml/dish in a 35-mm dish), hG-CSF increased the number of the colonies in a dose-dependent manner, and resulted in about 50 colonies at 50 ng/ml. The constituent cells of the colonies were identified as neutrophils. Under these conditions, the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on granulocyte colony-forming units (CFU-G) were examined in rats and mice. The inhibitory effect of 5-FU on rat CFU-G was similar to the effect on mouse CFU-G. These results indicate that the rat CFU-G induced by hG-CSF is capable of being used for the evaluation of drug-induced hematotoxicity.

  12. Endothelial cell colony forming units derived from malignant breast diseases are resistant to tumor necrosis factor-α-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chen-Pin; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Pan, Huay-Ben; Yen, Yi-Chen; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ssu-Han; Chen, Yu-Lin; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2016-11-24

    Mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow is a crucial step in the formation of de novo blood vessels, and levels of peripheral blood EPCs have been shown to be elevated in certain malignant states. Using flow cytometry and a Hill-based colony forming unit (CFU) assay, the present study indicated that higher levels of CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) double-positive EPCs, as well as increased formation of endothelial cell colony-forming units (EC-CFUs) are associated with benign and malignant breast diseases, providing possible indicators for breast disease detection. Gene expression profiles revealed a genetic difference between CD34(+) VEGFR2(+) EPCs and EC-CFUs. Decreased expression of tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) signalling-related genes and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signalling were demonstrated in EC-CFUs derived from patients with malignant breast disease in comparison with those from healthy controls. Interestingly, our data provided the first evidence that EC-CFUs derived from patients with malignant breast disease were resistant to TNF-α-induced apoptosis, indicating a plausible target for future therapeutic interventions.

  13. Endothelial cell colony forming units derived from malignant breast diseases are resistant to tumor necrosis factor-α-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Pin; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Pan, Huay-Ben; Yen, Yi-Chen; Tseng, Hui-Hwa; Hung, Yu-Ting; Wang, Ssu-Han; Chen, Yu-Lin; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow is a crucial step in the formation of de novo blood vessels, and levels of peripheral blood EPCs have been shown to be elevated in certain malignant states. Using flow cytometry and a Hill-based colony forming unit (CFU) assay, the present study indicated that higher levels of CD34 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) double-positive EPCs, as well as increased formation of endothelial cell colony-forming units (EC-CFUs) are associated with benign and malignant breast diseases, providing possible indicators for breast disease detection. Gene expression profiles revealed a genetic difference between CD34+ VEGFR2+ EPCs and EC-CFUs. Decreased expression of tumour necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2) signalling-related genes and inhibition of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced signalling were demonstrated in EC-CFUs derived from patients with malignant breast disease in comparison with those from healthy controls. Interestingly, our data provided the first evidence that EC-CFUs derived from patients with malignant breast disease were resistant to TNF-α-induced apoptosis, indicating a plausible target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:27881867

  14. Modeling the relationship between most probable number (MPN) and colony-forming unit (CFU) estimates of fecal coliform concentration.

    PubMed

    Gronewold, Andrew D; Wolpert, Robert L

    2008-07-01

    Most probable number (MPN) and colony-forming-unit (CFU) estimates of fecal coliform bacteria concentration are common measures of water quality in coastal shellfish harvesting and recreational waters. Estimating procedures for MPN and CFU have intrinsic variability and are subject to additional uncertainty arising from minor variations in experimental protocol. It has been observed empirically that the standard multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) decimal dilution analysis MPN procedure is more variable than the membrane filtration CFU procedure, and that MTF-derived MPN estimates are somewhat higher on average than CFU estimates, on split samples from the same water bodies. We construct a probabilistic model that provides a clear theoretical explanation for the variability in, and discrepancy between, MPN and CFU measurements. We then compare our model to water quality samples analyzed using both MPN and CFU procedures, and find that the (often large) observed differences between MPN and CFU values for the same water body are well within the ranges predicted by our probabilistic model. Our results indicate that MPN and CFU intra-sample variability does not stem from human error or laboratory procedure variability, but is instead a simple consequence of the probabilistic basis for calculating the MPN. These results demonstrate how probabilistic models can be used to compare samples from different analytical procedures, and to determine whether transitions from one procedure to another are likely to cause a change in quality-based management decisions.

  15. Radiation sensitivity and cycling status of mouse bone marrow prothymocytes and day 8 colony forming units spleen (CFUs)

    SciTech Connect

    Boersma, W.J.

    1983-11-01

    Mouse bone marrow prothymocytes as determined in an in vivo thymus regeneration assay have an in vitro gamma radiation sensitivity which is different from that of spleen colony forming cells (CFUs). Determination of Do according to in vivo irradiation revealed similar but insignificant differences. Prothymocytes in normal bone marrow maintain a low but slightly different proliferative state as compared to CFUs, according to determinations using the /sup 3/H-TdR suicide technique. In regenerating bone marrow prothymocytes were found to be sensitive to an inhibitory effect of in vitro incubation with cold thymidine. CFUs and normal bone marrow prothymocytes were not affected by cold thymidine. Taking into account the cold thymidine effect it can be concluded that prothymocytes and CFUs in regenerating bone marrow are fully in cycle. These results are best explained when prothymocytes and CFUs are considered to be different cells.

  16. [The effects of an aroma candy on oral Candida albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states in healthy elderly carrying Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motofumi; Hayama, Kazumi; Takahashi, Miki; Ezawa, Kunio; Yamazaki, Masatoshi; Matsukawa, Taiji; Kishi, Akinobu; Satou, Nobuya; Abe, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In a preceding paper, we showed that aroma candy containing oligonol, capric acid, and cinnamon (cassia) powder had potent inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Candida albicans in vitro and protective activity against murine oral candidiasis. In order to assess the effects of this candy (the test candy) on oral C. albicans colony-forming units (CFU) and oral hygiene states, a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover comparative study was performed. Twenty subjects were divided into two groups. One group ingested the test candy in the first 7 days followed by 2 weeks washing-off period, then ingested the placebo candy (control candy) for 7 days. The other group was vice versa. C. albicans CFU in all oral rinse samples from the subjects before and after 7 days ingestion of candy was measured. The degree of oral malodor in all subjects was monitored using a portable measuring instrument. The results showed no statistically significant difference between test-candy group and placebo group for C. albicans CFU. However, C. albicans CFU in test-candy group with>4,000 CFUs was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (p<0.05). Scores of oral malodor in the test-candy group was significantly decreased after 7 days ingestion of test-candy (p<0.05). A questionnaire survey of oral hygiene states indicated that in the test-candy group, oral malodor, glutinous feeling, and refreshing feeling significantly improved in comparison with control-candy group (p<0.05). Our study suggests that the aroma candy is effective in oral health care of elderly carrying C. albicans.

  17. αSMA Expression in Large Colonies of Colony-Forming Units-Fibroblast as an Early Predictor of Bone Marrow MSC Expandability

    PubMed Central

    Aizman, Irina; Holland, William S.; Yang, Cher; Bates, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Clinical applications of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) require the manufacture of large cell lots, which involves multiple passages for cell expansion and sometimes genetic modification. MSCs from various sources, including bone marrow (BM), exhibit high donor-to-donor variability in their growth characteristics. This can lead to unpredictable manufacturing outcomes with respect to success or failure of individual lots. Early determination of lot success has the potential to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of the MSC manufacturing process. However, methods that effectively predict lot growth potential early in the manufacturing process are currently lacking. Here we report that the growth potential of an MSC lot can be predicted a few days after BM plating based on α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) protein expression in large colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-f) colonies. The proposed prediction method could be a useful tool to prospectively determine MSC lot success or failure. PMID:28003933

  18. A comparison of the effects of two antiseptic agents on Staphylococcus epidermidis colony forming units at the peritoneal dialysis catheter exit site.

    PubMed

    Shelton, D M

    1991-01-01

    Peritonitis is the most common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epi), a common skin organism, is the microorganism that is identified is the majority of episodes of peritonitis. The PD catheter breaks the natural skin barrier and allows a periluminal migration of bacteria from the skin surface into the sterile peritoneal cavity. Exit site care is routinely performed to decrease the colony counts of microorganisms on the skin surrounding the PD catheter. Research data is limited to support any of the currently used protocols for exit site care. This study compared the effect of two antiseptic agents, povidone-iodine (P-I) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CG), on S. epi colony forming units (cfu) at the PD catheter exit site over a 24 hour period. Because the distribution of the research data was markedly non-normal, a descriptive approach was used to interpret the data. Results showed that there was no difference between P-I and CG immediately after exit site care. All patients had zero growth at Time I. One trend that emerged was that at 24 hours after exit site care with P-I, more patients (54%) had S. epi cfu than did patients (15%) cleaned with CG.

  19. Risk assessment of human myelotoxicity of anticancer drugs: a predictive model and the in vitro colony forming unit granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay.

    PubMed

    Masubuchi, N

    2006-02-01

    Myelotoxicity is one of the major limitations to the use of anticancer drugs. It is desirable to evaluate human myelotoxicity before a Phase I study, however, this is difficult because of the differences in susceptibility between humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to establish a reliable method to predict the human maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of five camptothecin derivatives: SN-38, DX-8951f, topotecan (TPT), 9-aminocamptothecin (9-AC), and camptothecin (CAM). The myelotoxicity of camptothecin derivatives was evaluated on bone marrow from mice, dogs, and humans using a 14-day colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) assay to determine the 50%, 75%, and 90% inhibitory concentration values (IC50, IC75, and IC90, respectively). Then, using human and murine IC90 values for myelotoxicity of these compounds, in vivo toxicological data, and pharmacokinetic parameters (data referred to the literature), human MTDs were predicted retrospectively. The mechanism-based prediction model which is proposed uses the in vitro CFU-GM assay and in vivo parameters on the basis of free fraction of area under the concentration-curve (AUC) at the MTD (r2 = 0.887) and suggests that the human MTDs were well predicted for the five camptothecin derivatives by this model rather than by other models. The application of this model for in vitro hematotoxicology could be very useful in the development of new anticancer agents.

  20. CKbeta8-1 alters expression of cyclin E in colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) lineage from human cord blood CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Noh, Eui Kyu; Ra, Jae Sun; Lee, Seong Ae; Kwon, Byoung S; Han, In Seob

    2005-12-31

    A C6 beta-chemokine, CKbeta8-1, suppressed the colony formation of CD34+ cells of human cord blood (CB). Molecular mechanisms involved in CKbeta8-1-medicated suppression of colony formation of CD34+ cells are not known. To address this issue, the level of various G1/S cell cycle regulating proteins in CKbeta8-1-treated CD34+ cells were compared with those in untreated CD34+ cells. CKbeta8-1 did not significantly alter the expression of the G1/S cycle regulation proteins (cyclin D1, D3, and E), CDK inhibitor (p27and Rb), and other cell proliferation regulation protein (p53) in CB CD34+ cells. Here we describe an in vitro system in which CB CD34+ cells were committed to a multipotent progenitor lineage of colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) by a simple combination of recombinant human (rh) GM-CSF and rhIL-3. In this culture system, we found that cyclin E protein appeared later and disappeared faster in the CKbeta8-1-treated cells than in the control cells during CFU-GM lineage development. These findings suggested that cyclin E may play a role in suppressing the colony formation of CFU-GM by CKbeta8-1.

  1. Expression of protease-activated receptor 1 and 2 and anti-tubulogenic activity of protease-activated receptor 1 in human endothelial colony-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Tiago M; Vara, Dina S; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P; Pula, Giordano

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are obtained from the culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (hPBMNC) fractions and are characterised by high proliferative and pro-vasculogenic potential, which makes them of great interest for cell therapy. Here, we describe the detection of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 amongst the surface proteins expressed in ECFCs. Both receptors are functionally coupled to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, which become activated and phosphorylated in response to selective PAR1- or PAR2-activating peptides. Specific stimulation of PAR1, but not PAR2, significantly inhibits capillary-like tube formation by ECFCs in vitro, suggesting that tubulogenesis is negatively regulated by proteases able to stimulate PAR1 (e.g. thrombin). The activation of ERKs is not involved in the regulation of tubulogenesis in vitro, as suggested by use of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and by the fact that PAR2 stimulation activates ERKs without affecting capillary tube formation. Both qPCR and immunoblotting showed a significant downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) in response to PAR1 stimulation. Moreover, the addition of VEGF (50-100 ng/ml) but not basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) (25-100 ng/ml) rescued tube formation by ECFCs treated with PAR1-activating peptide. Therefore, we propose that reduction of VEGF responsiveness resulting from down-regulation of VEGFR2 is underlying the anti-tubulogenic effect of PAR1 activation. Although the role of PAR2 remains elusive, this study sheds new light on the regulation of the vasculogenic activity of ECFCs and suggests a potential link between adult vasculogenesis and the coagulation cascade.

  2. Manufacture of Clinical-Grade Human Clonal Mesenchymal Stem Cell Products from Single Colony Forming Unit-Derived Colonies Based on the Subfractionation Culturing Method.

    PubMed

    Yi, TacGhee; Kim, Si-na; Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Junghee; Cho, Yun-Kyoung; Shin, Dong-Hee; Tak, Sun-Ji; Moon, Sun-Hwa; Kang, Ji-Eun; Ji, In-Mi; Lim, Huyn-Ja; Lee, Dong-Soon; Jeon, Myung-Shin; Song, Sun U

    2015-12-01

    Stem cell products derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in clinical trials, and a few products have been already commercialized. However, the therapeutic effects of clinical-grade MSCs are still controversial owing to mixed results from recent clinical trials. A potential solution to overcome this hurdle may be to use clonal stem cells as the starting cell material to increase the homogeneity of the final stem cell products. We have previously developed an alternative isolation and culture protocol for establishing a population of clonal MSCs (cMSCs) from single colony forming unit (CFU)-derived colonies. In this study, we established a good manufacturing practice (GMP)-compatible procedure for the clinical-grade production of human bone marrow-derived cMSCs based on the subfractionation culturing method. We optimized the culture procedures to expand and obtain a clonal population of final MSC products from single CFU-derived colonies in a GMP facility. The characterization results of the final cMSC products met our preset criteria. Animal toxicity tests were performed in a good laboratory practice facility, and showed no toxicity or tumor formation in vivo. These tests include single injection toxicity, multiple injection toxicity, biodistribution analysis, and tumorigenicity tests in vivo. No chromosomal abnormalities were detected by in situ karyotyping using oligo-fluorescence in situ hydridization (oligo-FISH), providing evidence of genetic stability of the clinical-grade cMSC products. The manufacture and quality control results indicated that our GMP methodology could produce sufficient clonal population of MSC products from a small amount of bone marrow aspirate to treat a number of patients.

  3. Combination of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes the highest number of primitive haemopoietic progenitors as shown by pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay.

    PubMed

    Horsfall, M J; Hui, C H; To, L B; Begley, C G; Basser, R L; Simmons, P J

    2000-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with poor prognosis carcinoma of the breast underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization using five different regimens. The yields of primitive haemopoietic progenitors were quantified by a recently described pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay using limiting dilution analysis (LDA). Results of days 14 and 35 pre-CFU were also correlated with conventional CD34+ cell enumeration, CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTCIC) assays. The yield of pre-CFUs with the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) was significantly higher than with G-CSF alone, cyclophosphamide (Cyclo) and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and GM-CSF, or Cyclo alone. No significant correlation between neutrophil engraftment and pre-CFU could be demonstrated. Furthermore, CFU-GM was shown to bear a stronger correlation with pre-CFU and LTCIC than CD34+ cell measurement; thus, CFU-GM remains a useful biological tool for haemopoietic stem cell assay. We conclude that the combination of G-CSF and SCF mobilizes the highest number of pre-CFUs as measured by functional pre-CFU assay, which provides an alternative measurement of primitive haemopoietic progenitors to the LTCIC assay.

  4. A new experimental protocol as an alternative to the colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) clonogenic assay to assess the haematotoxic potential of new drugs.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Gianni; Vandin, Luca; Bonato, Monica; Repeto, Paolo; Sciuscio, Davide

    2006-08-01

    In this work, a first attempt to set-up a new in vitro experimental protocol with culture in liquid medium and flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow progenitors is described. This protocol is proposed as an alternative to the colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) clonogenic in vitro assay currently used to assess the toxic potential of new drugs in the bone marrow. This new experimental approach should enable to speed up the procedure of the in vitro haematotoxic potential assessment, to reduce inter-experimental variability and to enhance result accuracy. Preliminary results obtained demonstrated that the progenitor cell count by flow cytometry replacing the light microscopy granulocyte/macrophage colony count represents a tremendous improvement in terms of accuracy and standardisation. Moreover, differential counts of cell sub-populations can be performed by using specific monoclonal antibodies. Furthermore, this method demonstrated to be time-saving, since 4 day cell incubation period is required instead of 7-14 day incubation in the CFU-GM clonogenic assay. On the basis of results obtained so far, the new experimental protocol proposed looks a promising alternative to the CFU-GM clonogenic assay currently used.

  5. Graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. IV. B cell functional defect associated with a depletion of splenic colony-forming units in marrow of graft-versus-host-reactive mice

    SciTech Connect

    Seddik, M.; Seemayer, T.A.; Lapp, W.S.

    1986-02-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether a functional B cell defect occurred in the bone marrow of mice experiencing a GVH reaction (GVHBM). GVH reactions were induced in AxCBA F1 adult mice by an injection of A strain lymphoid cells. The GVH reaction was confirmed by immunosuppression and thymus histology. At various intervals after GVH induction, GVHBM was tested for its ability to restore B cell function in adult thymectomized irradiated mice reconstituted with normal thymocytes. GVHBM cells obtained seven days after GVH induction restored but slightly the plaque forming cell (PFC) response to sheep erythrocytes and the mitogen response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). GVHBM cells obtained 10 days or later failed to reconstitute the PFC or LPS responses. GVHBM cells suppressed neither the T or B cell function of normal spleen cells nor the LPS mitogen response of normal bone marrow cells. In addition, the splenic colony-forming units (CFU-s) in GVHBM were slightly decreased by day 10 after GVH induction and markedly depressed by day 22 after GVH induction. These results suggest that the GVH reaction may affect two different events in B cell differentiation. The early decrease in functional B cells that occurs before there is any change in the CFU-s population suggests a direct effect on B cell production, whereas the later absence of functional B cells could be due to the marked decline in stem cell production (CFU-s).

  6. Concordant mast cell and basophil production by individual hematopoietic blast colony-forming cells.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Donald; Ng, Ashley P; Baldwin, Tracey M; Di Rago, Ladina; Mifsud, Sandra

    2013-05-28

    Previous studies have shown that mouse bone marrow cells can produce mast cells when stimulated in vitro by stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3). Experiments to define the marrow cells able to generate mast cells showed that the most active subpopulations were the Kit(+) Sca1(-) progenitor cell fraction and the more ancestral Kit(+) Sca1(+) blast colony-forming cell fraction. In clonal cultures, up to 64% of blast colony-forming cells were able to generate mast cells when stimulated by SCF and IL-3, and, of these, the most active were those in the CD34(-) Flt3R(-) long-term repopulating cell fraction. Basophils, identified by the monoclonal antibody mMCP-8 to mouse mast cell serine protease-8, were also produced by 50% of blast colony-forming cells with a strong concordance in the production of both cell types by individual blast colony-forming cells. Enriched populations of marrow-derived basophils were shown to generate variable numbers of mast cells after a further incubation with SCF and IL-3. The data extend the repertoire of lineage-committed cells able to be produced by multipotential hematopoietic blast colony-forming cells and show that basophils and mast cells can have common ancestral cells and that basophils can probably generate mast cells at least under defined in vitro conditions.

  7. Recovery of hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated mice pretreated with interleukin 1 (IL-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, G.N.; Neta, R.; Vigneulle, R.M.; Patchen, M.L.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Data in this report determined the effect of a single injection of recombinant interleukin 1 a (rIL-1) prior to irradiation of B6D2F1 mice on the recovery of colony-forming cells (CFC) at early and late times after sublethal and lethal doses of radiation, Injection of rIL-1 promoted an earlier recovery of mature cells in the blood and CFC in the bone marrow and spleen. For example, 8 days after 6.5-Gy irradiation, the number of CFU-E (colony-forming units erythroid), BFU-E (burst-forming units-erythroid), and GMCFC (granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells) per femur was approximately 1.5-fold higher in rIL-injected mice than in saline-injected mice. Also, 5, 9, and 12 days after irradiation, the number of both day 8 and day 12 CFU-S (colony-forming units-spleen) was almost twofold greater in bone marrow from rIL1-injected mice. The earlier recovery of CFU-S in rIL-1 injected mice was not associated with an increase in the number of CFU-S that survived immediately after irradiation. Also, 7 months after irradiation, the number of CFU-S per femur of both saline-and rIL-1 injected mice was still < 50% of normal values. Data in this report demonstrate that a single injection of rIL-1 prior to irradiation accelerates early hematopoietic recovery in irradiation mice, but does not prevent expression of radiation-induced front-end damage damage to hematopoietic tissues.

  8. Colony-forming cell assay for human hematopoietic progenitor cells harvested by a novel continuous-flow cell separation method.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Hiroyuki; Chen, Hong Miao; Okada, Tadashi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2007-06-01

    In order to prove the functional potentiality of cells separated according to their densities by a novel continuous-flow cell separation method, the colony-forming cell (CFC) assay was performed on the harvested cells from peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. The number of colony-forming unit-granulocyte, erythroid, macrophage, megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM), which are considered to be stem cells, was approximately 3% of colonies developed from the peripheral blood and approximately 4% of colonies from the umbilical cord blood. It appears that this new method could allow us for harvesting of hematopoietic progenitor cells without losing their native ability to proliferate.

  9. Exercise-Induced Norepinephrine Decreases Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Colony-Forming Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Mangge, Harald; Pekovits, Karin; Fuchs, Robert; Allard, Nathalie; Schinagl, Lukas; Hofmann, Peter; Dohr, Gottfried; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Domej, Wolfgang; Müller, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed that ergometry increased circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (CPC) numbers, but reduced hematopoietic colony forming capacity/functionality under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia. Herein we investigated whether an exercise-induced elevated plasma free/bound norepinephrine (NE) concentration could be responsible for directly influencing CPC functionality. Venous blood was taken from ten healthy male subjects (25.3+/−4.4 yrs) before and 4 times after ergometry under normoxia and normobaric hypoxia (FiO2<0.15). The circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell numbers were correlated with free/bound NE, free/bound epinephrine (EPI), cortisol (Co) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, the influence of exercise-induced NE and blood lactate (La) on CPC functionality was analyzed in a randomly selected group of subjects (n = 6) in vitro under normoxia by secondary colony-forming unit granulocyte macrophage assays. Concentrations of free NE, EPI, Co and IL-6 were significantly increased post-exercise under normoxia/hypoxia. Ergometry-induced free NE concentrations found in vivo showed a significant impairment of CPC functionality in vitro under normoxia. Thus, ergometry-induced free NE was thought to trigger CPC mobilization 10 minutes post-exercise, but as previously shown impairs CPC proliferative capacity/functionality at the same time. The obtained results suggest that an ergometry-induced free NE concentration has a direct negative effect on CPC functionality. Cortisol may further influence CPC dynamics and functionality. PMID:25180783

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Circulating Lymphatic Endothelial Colony Forming Cells

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Terri A.; Wentz, Breanna L.; Lagunoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The identification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells has led to speculation regarding their origin as well as their contribution to neovascular development. Two distinct types of endothelium make up the blood and lymphatic vessel system. However, it has yet to be determined whether there are distinct lymphatic-specific circulating endothelial progenitor cells. Objective This study aims to isolate and characterize the cellular properties and global gene expression of lymphatic-specific endothelial progenitor cells. Methods and Results We isolated circulating endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) from whole peripheral blood. These cells are endothelial in nature, as defined by their expression of endothelial markers and their ability to undergo capillary morphogenesis in three-dimensional culture. A subset of isolated colonies express markers of lymphatic endothelium, including VEGFR-3 and Prox-1, with low levels of VEGFR-1, a blood endothelial marker, while the bulk of the isolated cells express high VEGFR-1 levels with low VEGFR-3 and Prox-1 expression. The different isolates have differential responses to VEGF-C, a lymphatic endothelial specific cytokine, strongly suggesting that there are lymphatic specific and blood specific ECFCs. Global analysis of gene expression revealed key differences in the regulation of pathways involved in cellular differentiation between blood and lymphatic-specific ECFCs. Conclusion These data indicate that there are two distinguishable circulating ECFC types, blood and lymphatic, which are likely to have discrete functions during neovascularization. PMID:26597759

  11. Impaired colony-forming capacity of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hye-Cheol; Oh, Doyeon; Hwang, Seong-Gyu; Cho, Yong-Wook; Lee, Seon-Ju; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is classified into emphysema and chronic bronchitis, which are thought to result from different pathophysiological pathways. Smoking-induced lung parenchymal destruction and inadequate repair are involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema. In addition, decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and increased endothelial cell apoptosis in the lung may participate in emphysema pathogenesis. As stem cells, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may play a key role in the maintenance of vascular integrity by replacing and repairing the damaged endothelial cells in the tissues. To determine whether the lack of appropriate repair by circulating EPCs in cases of smoking-induced endothelial cell injury participates in emphysema pathogenesis, we determined the association between the colony-forming or migratory capacity of circulating EPCs and the presence of emphysema in 51 patients with COPD. The patients were divided into emphysema (n = 23) and non-emphysema groups (n = 28) based on high-resolution computed tomography. Twenty-two smokers with normal lung function and 14 normal non-smokers served as controls. Circulating EPCs isolated from patients with emphysema showed significantly lower colony-forming units (CFUs) than those from patients with non-emphysema group, smokers with normal lung function, and normal non-smokers. EPCs from patients with emphysema showed significantly lower migratory capacity than those from normal non-smoking controls (p < 0.05). On multivariate analysis, the EPC-CFU was independently associated with emphysema (OR 0.944, 95% CI = 0.903-0.987, p = 0.011). Thus, impaired functions of circulating EPCs may contribute to the development of emphysema.

  12. Do two different stem cell grafts: G-CSF stimulated and unstimulated bone marrow differ according to hematopoietic colony forming capacity?

    PubMed

    Özgüner, Meltem; Azık, Mehmet Fatih; Tavil, Betül; Bozkaya, Ikbal; Köksal, Yasin; Canal, Elif; Uçkan, Duygu; Tunç, Bahattin

    2014-06-01

    The study was designed to compare colony forming capacity of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) stimulated bone marrow (G-BM) with standard unstimulated bone marrow (U-BM) of healthy donors of pediatric patients. CFU-Assay results of 26 healthy donors of pediatric patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were analyzed retrospectively. 13 of donors received 10 μg/kg per day of G-CSF as a single injection for 3 consecutive days and other 13 of donors had unstimulated BM. Colony forming capacity of hematopoietic stem cells evaluated with Colony Forming Unit-Assay (CFU-Assay) with in semi-solid agar culture medium after 14-18 days of culture period. CFU-Assay results of G-BM and U-BM (expressed as means) were; Burst Forming Unit-Erythroid (BFU-E): 15.20 × 10(4)/kg and 8.38 × 10(4)/kg, Colony Forming Unit-Granulocyte Macrophage (CFU-GM): 10.35 × 10(4)/kg and 5.67 × 10(4)/kg, Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid (CFU-E): 0.59 × 10(4)/kg and 0.33 × 10(4)/kg, CFU-Granulocyte Erythroid Macrophage Megakaryocyte (CFU-GEMM): 0.52 × 10(4)/kg and 0.53 × 10(4)/kg respectively. BFU-E and CFU-GM capacity of G-BM was increased and statistically significantly different than standard U-BM (p ⩽ 0.01). In conclusion, increased colony forming capacity of hematopoietic stem cells of G-BM when compared with standard unstimulated BM could be a major advantage for transplantation.

  13. Identification and enrichment of colony-forming cells from the adult murine pituitary

    SciTech Connect

    Lepore, D.A.; Roeszler, K.; Wagner, J.; Ross, S.A.; Bauer, K.; Thomas, P.Q. , E-Mail: paul.thomas@mcri.edu.au

    2005-08-01

    Stem and progenitor cells have been identified in many adult tissues including bone marrow, the central nervous system, and skin. While there is direct evidence to indicate the activity of a progenitor cell population in the pituitary gland, this putative subpopulation has not yet been identified. Herein we describe the isolation and characterization of a novel clonogenic cell type in the adult murine pituitary, which we have termed Pituitary Colony-Forming Cells (PCFCs). PCFCs constitute 0.2% of pituitary cells, and generate heterogeneous colonies from single cells. PCFCs exhibit variable proliferative potential, and may exceed 11 population doublings in 14 days. Enrichment of PCFCs to 61.5-fold with 100% recovery can be obtained through the active uptake of the fluorescent dipeptide, {beta}-Ala-Lys-N{epsilon}-AMCA. PCFCs are mostly contained within the large, agranular subpopulation of AMCA{sup +} cells, and constitute 28% of this fraction, corresponding to 140.5-fold enrichment. Interestingly, the AMCA{sup +} population contains rare cells that are GH{sup +} or PRL{sup +}. GH{sup +} cells were also identified in PCFC single cell colonies, suggesting that PCFCs have the potential to differentiate into GH{sup +} cells. Together, these data show that the pituitary contains a rare clonogenic population which may correspond to the somatotrope/lactotrope progenitors suggested by previous experiments.

  14. Measuring Survival of Hematopoietic Cancer Cells with the Colony-Forming Assay in Soft Agar.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Lisa C; Waterhouse, Nigel J

    2016-08-01

    Colony-forming assays measure the ability of cells in culture to grow and divide into groups. Any cell that has the potential to form a colony may also have the potential to cause cancer or relapse in vivo. Colony-forming assays also provide an indirect measurement of cell death because any cell that is dead or dying will not continue to proliferate. The proliferative capacity of adherent cells such as fibroblasts can be determined by growing cells at low density on culture dishes and counting the number of distinct groups that form over time. Cells that grow in suspension, such as hematopoietic cells, cannot be assayed this way because the cells move freely in the media. Assays to determine the colony-forming ability of hematopoietic cells must therefore be performed in solid matrices that restrict large-scale movement of the cells. One such matrix is soft agar. This protocol describes the use of soft agar to compare the colony-forming ability of untreated hematopoietic cells to the colony-forming ability of hematopoietic cells that have been treated with a cytotoxic agent.

  15. Endothelial colony forming cells ameliorate endothelial dysfunction via secreted factors following ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Collett, Jason A; Mehrotra, Purvi; Crone, Allison; Shelley, W Christopher; Yoder, Mervin C; Basile, David P

    2017-02-22

    Damage to endothelial cells contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI) by leading to impaired perfusion. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are endothelial precursor cells with high proliferative capacity, pro-angiogenic activity, and in vivo vessel forming potential. We hypothesized that ECFCs may ameliorate the degree of AKI and/or promote repair of the renal vasculature following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Rat pulmonary microvascular ECs (PMVEC) with high proliferative potential were compared with pulmonary artery ECs (PAEC) with low proliferative potential in rats subjected to renal I/R. PMVEC administration reduced renal injury and hastened recovery as indicated by serum creatinine and tubular injury scores, while PAEC did not. Vehicle-treated control animals showed consistent reductions in renal medullary blood flow (MBF) within 2 hours of reperfusion, while PMVEC protected against loss in MBF as measured by laser Doppler. Interestingly, PMVEC mediated protection occurred in the absence of homing to the kidney. Conditioned medium (CM) from human cultured cord blood ECFC also conveyed beneficial effects against I/R injury and loss of MBF. Moreover, ECFC-CM significantly reduced the expression of adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and p-selectin, and decreased the number of differentiated lymphocytes typically recruited into the kidney following renal ischemia. Taken together, these data suggest that ECFC secrete factors that preserve renal function post ischemia, in part, by preserving microvascular function.

  16. Cord Blood Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells from Newborns with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher D.; Black, Claudine P.; Ryan, Sharon L.; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Abman, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) are decreased in the cord blood of preterm infants with moderate-to-severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We quantified ECFC from infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a neonatal disorder with severe lung hypoplasia. Unlike newborns who develop BPD, those with CDH had increased and highly-proliferative cord blood ECFC. PMID:23684109

  17. Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+) Handling and Apoptotic Resistance in Tumor-Derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Valentina; Dragoni, Silvia; Lim, Dmitry; Biggiogera, Marco; Aronica, Adele; Cinelli, Mariapia; De Luca, Antonio; Rosti, Vittorio; Porta, Camillo; Guerra, Germano; Moccia, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Truly endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) can be mobilized from bone marrow to support the vascular network of growing tumors, thereby sustaining the metastatic switch. Endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) are the only EPC subtype belonging to the endothelial phenotype and capable of incorporating within neovessels. The intracellular Ca(2+) machinery plays a key role in ECFC activation and is remodeled in renal cellular carcinoma-derived ECFCs (RCC-ECFCs). Particularly, RCC-ECFCs seems to undergo a drop in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+) ]ER ). This feature is remarkable when considering that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3 )-dependent ER-to-mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer regulates the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Herein, we sought to assess whether: (1) the [Ca(2+) ]ER and the InsP3 -induced ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) shuttle are reduced in RCC-ECFCs; and (2) the dysregulation of ER Ca(2+) handling leads to apoptosis resistance in tumor-derived cells. RCC-ECFCs displayed a reduction both in [Ca(2+) ]ER and in the InsP3 -dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, while they expressed normal levels of Bcl-2 and Bak. The decrease in [Ca(2+) ]ER was associated to a remarkable ER expansion in RCC-ECFCs, which is a hallmark of ER stress, and did not depend on the remodeling of the Ca(2+) -transporting and the ER Ca(2+) -storing systems. As expected, RCC-ECFCs were less sensitive to rapamycin- and thapsigargin-induced apoptosis; however, buffering intracellular Ca(2+) levels with BAPTA dampened apoptosis in both cell types. Finally, store-operated Ca(2+) entry was seemingly uncoupled from the apoptotic machinery in RCC-ECFCs. Thus, the chronic underfilling of the ER Ca(2+) pool could confer a survival advantage to RCC-ECFCs and underpin RCC resistance to pharmacological treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2260-2271, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The isolation and culture of endothelial colony-forming cells from human and rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Alphonse, Rajesh S; Vadivel, Arul; Zhong, Shumei; Zong, Shumei; McConaghy, Suzanne; Ohls, Robin; Yoder, Mervin C; Thébaud, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Blood vessels are crucial for the normal development, lifelong repair and homeostasis of tissues. Recently, vascular progenitor cell-driven 'postnatal vasculogenesis' has been suggested as an important mechanism that contributes to new blood vessel formation and organ repair. Among several described progenitor cell types that contribute to blood vessel formation, endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) have received widespread attention as lineage-specific 'true' vascular progenitors. Here we describe a protocol for the isolation of pulmonary microvascular ECFCs from human and rat lung tissue. Our technique takes advantage of an earlier protocol for the isolation of circulating ECFCs from the mononuclear cellular fraction of peripheral blood. We adapted the earlier protocol to isolate resident ECFCs from the distal lung tissue. After enzymatic dispersion of rat or human lung samples into a cellular suspension, CD31-expressing cells are positively selected using magnetic-activated cell sorting and plated in endothelial-specific growth conditions. The colonies arising after 1-2 weeks in culture are carefully separated and expanded to yield pure ECFC cultures after a further 2-3 weeks. The resulting cells demonstrate the defining characteristics of ECFCs such as (i) 'cobblestone' morphology of cultured cell monolayers; (ii) acetylated low-density lipoprotein uptake and Ulex europaeus lectin binding; (iii) tube-like network formation in Matrigel; (iv) expression of endothelial cell-specific surface markers and the absence of hematopoietic or myeloid surface antigens; (v) self-renewal potential displayed by the most proliferative cells; and (vi) contribution to de novo vessel formation in an in vivo mouse implant model. Assuming typical initial cell adhesion and proliferation rates, the entire procedure can be completed within 4 weeks. Isolation and culture of lung vascular ECFCs will allow assessment of the functional state of these cells in experimental and human

  19. Inhibition of human erythroid colony-forming units by tumor necrosis factor requires beta interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Means, R T; Krantz, S B

    1993-01-01

    We have previously reported that inhibition of human CFU-erythroid (E) colony formation by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an indirect effect mediated by a soluble factor released from a fraction of marrow accessory cells which are predominantly stromal elements (Means, R. T., Jr., E. N. Dessypris, and S. B. Krantz. 1990. J. Clin. Invest. 86:538-541). Further studies reported here identify a mediator of this effect. The inhibitory effect of recombinant TNF on marrow CFU-E is ablated by neutralizing antibodies to human beta IFN, but not by antibodies to gamma IFN or IL-1. Anti-beta IFN also neutralizes the inhibitory effect of conditioned medium prepared from marrow cells exposed to TNF. Human beta IFN inhibits colony formation by unpurified marrow CFU-E as well as highly purified CFU-E generated from peripheral blood progenitors, and limiting dilution analysis shows that this is a direct inhibitory effect. TNF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the anemia of chronic diseases since blood TNF levels are elevated in many patients with this syndrome, and since exposure to TNF produces a similar anemia in either humans or mice. The present study demonstrates that beta IFN is a required mediator of this inhibitory effect on erythropoiesis. PMID:8432849

  20. Characterization of colony-forming cells in adult human articular cartilage.

    PubMed

    Ozbey, Ozlem; Sahin, Zeliha; Acar, Nuray; Ozcelik, Filiz Tepekoy; Ozenci, Alpay Merter; Koksoy, Sadi; Ustunel, Ismail

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that adult human articular cartilage contains stem-like cells within the native structure. In this study, we aimed to determine the localization of putative stem cell markers such as CD90, STRO-1, OCT-3/4, CD105 and CD166 in adult human articular cartilage tissue sections and demonstrate the expression of these markers within the expanded surface zone colony-forming (CF) cells and evaluate their differentiation potential. Biopsy samples were either fixed immediately for immunohistochemical analyses or processed for in vitro cell culture. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometry analyses were performed by using CD90, STRO-1, OCT-3/4, CD105 and CD166 antibodies. Isolated colony-forming (CF) cells were further stimulated, by using the appropriate growth factors in their pellet culture, to obtain cartilage, bone and adipose lineages. We observed that the expression of the stem cell markers were in various zones of the human adult cartilage. Flow cytometry results showed that in CF cells the expression of CD90 and CD166 was high, while OCT-3/4 was low. We also determined that CF cells could be stimulated towards cartilage, bone and adipose lineages. The results of this research support the idea that the resident stem-like cells in adult human articular cartilage express these putative stem cell markers, but further experimental investigations are needed to determine the precise localization of these cells.

  1. Post-UV colony-forming ability of normal fibroblast strains and of the xeroderma pigmentosum group G strain

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, S.F.; Tarone, R.E.; Moshell, A.N.; Ganges, M.B.; Robbins, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    In xeroderma pigmentosum, an inherited disorder of defective DNA repair, post-uv colony-forming ability of fibroblasts from patients in complementation groups A through F correlates with the patients' neurological status. The first xeroderma pigmentosum patient assigned to the recently discovered group G had the neurological abnormalities of XP. Researchers have determined the post-uv colony-forming ability of cultured fibroblasts from this patient and from 5 more control donors. Log-phase fibroblasts were irradiated with 254 nm uv light from a germicidal lamp, trypsinized, and replated at known densities. After 2 to 4 weeks' incubation the cells were fixed, stained and scored for colony formation. The strains' post-uv colony-forming ability curves were obtained by plotting the log of the percent remaining post-uv colony-forming ability as a function of the uv dose. The post-uv colony-forming ability of 2 of the 5 new normal strains was in the previously defined control donor zone, but that of the other 3 extended down to the level of the most resistant xeroderma pigmentosum strain. The post-uv colony-forming ability curve of the group G fibroblasts was not significantly different from the curves of the group D fibroblast strains from patients with clinical histories similar to that of the group G patient.

  2. Breakdown of coral colonial form under reduced pH conditions is initiated in polyps and mediated through apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kvitt, Hagit; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Maor-Landaw, Keren; Zandbank, Keren; Kushmaro, Ariel; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Fine, Maoz; Tchernov, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Certain stony corals can alternate between a calcifying colonial form and noncalcifying solitary polyps, supporting the hypothesis that corals have survived through geologic timescale periods of unfavorable calcification conditions. However, the mechanisms enabling this biological plasticity are yet to be identified. Here we show that incubation of two coral species (Pocillopora damicornis and Oculina patagonica) under reduced pH conditions (pH 7.2) simulating past ocean acidification induce tissue-specific apoptosis that leads to the dissociation of polyps from coenosarcs. This in turn leads to the breakdown of the coenosarc and, as a consequence, to loss of coloniality. Our data show that apoptosis is initiated in the polyps and that once dissociation between polyp and coenosarc terminates, apoptosis subsides. After reexposure of the resulting solitary polyps to normal pH (pH 8.2), both coral species regenerated coenosarc tissues and resumed calcification. These results indicate that regulation of coloniality is under the control of the polyp, the basic modular unit of the colony. A mechanistic explanation for several key evolutionarily important phenomena that occurred throughout coral evolution is proposed, including mechanisms that permitted species to survive the third tier of mass extinctions. PMID:25646434

  3. CD44 expression in endothelial colony-forming cells regulates neurovascular trophic effect

    PubMed Central

    Sakimoto, Susumu; Marchetti, Valentina; Aguilar, Edith; Lee, Kelsey; Usui, Yoshihiko; Bucher, Felicitas; Trombley, Jennifer K.; Fallon, Regis; Wagey, Ravenska; Peters, Carrie; Scheppke, Elizabeth L.; Westenskow, Peter D.

    2017-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities are a common component of eye diseases that often lead to vision loss. Vaso-obliteration is associated with inherited retinal degenerations, since photoreceptor atrophy lowers local metabolic demands and vascular support to those regions is no longer required. Given the degree of neurovascular crosstalk in the retina, it may be possible to use one cell type to rescue another cell type in the face of severe stress, such as hypoxia or genetically encoded cell-specific degenerations. Here, we show that intravitreally injected human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) that can be isolated and differentiated from cord blood in xeno-free media collect in the vitreous cavity and rescue vaso-obliteration and neurodegeneration in animal models of retinal disease. Furthermore, we determined that a subset of the ECFCs was more effective at anatomically and functionally preventing retinopathy; these cells expressed high levels of CD44, the hyaluronic acid receptor, and IGFBPs (insulin-like growth factor–binding proteins). Injection of cultured media from ECFCs or only recombinant human IGFBPs also rescued the ischemia phenotype. These results help us to understand the mechanism of ECFC-based therapies for ischemic insults and retinal neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:28138561

  4. Hyaluronic Acid Hydrogels Support Cord-Like Structures from Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Derek; Hanjaya-Putra, Donny; Bose, Vivek; Luong, Eli

    2011-01-01

    The generation of functional vascular networks has the potential to improve treatment for vascular diseases and to facilitate successful organ transplantation. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) have robust proliferative potential and can form vascular networks in vivo. ECFCs are recruited from a bone marrow niche to the site of vascularization, where cues from the extracellular matrix instigate vascular morphogenesis. Although this process has been elucidated using natural matrix, little is known about vascular morphogenesis by ECFCs in synthetic matrix, a xeno-free scaffold that can provide a more controllable and clinically relevant alternative for regenerative medicine. We sought to study hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels as three-dimensional scaffolds for capillary-like structure formation from ECFCs, and to determine the crucial parameters needed to design such synthetic scaffolds. We found that ECFCs express HA-specific receptors and that vascular endothelial growth factor stimulates hyaluronidase expression in ECFCs. Using a well-defined and controllable three-dimensional HA culture system, we were able to decouple the effect of matrix viscoelasticity from changes in adhesion peptide density. We determined that decreasing matrix viscoelasticity, which corresponds to a loose ultrastructure, significantly increases ECFC vascular tube length and area, and that the effect of local delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor within the hydrogel depends on the makeup of the synthetic environment. Collectively, these results set forth initial design criteria that need to be considered in developing vascularized tissue constructs. PMID:21247340

  5. Proteomic analysis of oxidative modification in endothelial colony-forming cells treated by hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jun; Liu, Ying; Chang, Ming; Sun, Chong-Ling; Li, Da-Wei; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Hu, Lin-Sen

    2012-06-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) which circulate in the peripheral blood and reside in blood vessels are proven to promote the repair of damaged endothelium and improve the function of endothelial cells after vascular injury. Recently, EPCs have been extensively studied as risk biomarkers and a potential therapeutic tool for cardiovascular disease. It is known that oxidative stress is one of the most important pathogenetic factors impairing endothelial function. During the repair process after endothelial injury, EPCs are exposed to oxidative stress. In this study, we treated endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) with hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as an oxidative stress model and observed the changes in cytology and morphology of ECFCs. In addition, we investigated the alterations in oxidative levels of proteins associated with H₂O₂-induced morphological and cytological changes in ECFCs by proteomic analysis of oxidative modification. The results showed that H₂O₂ treatment led to a decreased proliferation, increased apoptosis and impaired tube-forming ability of ECFCs in a dose-dependent manner. Five proteins with upregulated oxidative levels were identified successfully. The upregulated oxidative levels of these five proteins may be responsible for the dysfunction of ECFCs under oxidative stress. Our results may provide some novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress action on ECFCs.

  6. DECREASED LEVEL OF CORD BLOOD CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIAL COLONY-FORMING CELLS IN PREECLAMPSIA

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L.; Stiefel, Pablo; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Dominguez-Simeon, Maria J.; Villar, Jose; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risk for the offspring. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that participate in the formation of vasculature during development. However, the effect of preeclampsia on fetal levels of ECFCs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether cord blood ECFC abundance and function are altered in preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included women with normal (n=35) and preeclamptic (n=15) pregnancies. We measured ECFC levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates and characterized ECFC phenotype, cloning-forming ability, proliferation and migration towards VEGF-A and FGF-2, in vitro formation of capillary-like structures, and in vivo vasculogenic ability in immunodeficient mice. We found that the level of cord blood ECFCs was statistically lower in preeclampsia than in control pregnancies (P = .04), a reduction that was independent of other obstetric factors. In addition, cord blood ECFCs from preeclamptic pregnancies required more time to emerge in culture than control ECFCs. However, once derived in culture, ECFC function was deemed normal and highly similar between preeclampsia and control, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. This study demonstrates that preeclampsia affects ECFC abundance in neonates. A reduced level of ECFCs during preeclamptic pregnancies may contribute to an increased risk of developing future cardiovascular events. PMID:24752434

  7. Enhanced Viability of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells in Fibrin Microbeads for Sensor Vascularization.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Jarel K; Zivkovic, Lada; Fisher, John P; Yoder, Mervin C; Brey, Eric M

    2015-09-18

    Enhanced vascularization at sensor interfaces can improve long-term function. Fibrin, a natural polymer, has shown promise as a biomaterial for sensor coating due to its ability to sustain endothelial cell growth and promote local vascularization. However, the culture of cells, particularly endothelial cells (EC), within 3D scaffolds for more than a few days is challenging due to rapid loss of EC viability. In this manuscript, a robust method for developing fibrin microbead scaffolds for long-term culture of encapsulated ECs is described. Fibrin microbeads are formed using sodium alginate as a structural template. The size, swelling and structural properties of the microbeads were varied with needle gauge and composition and concentration of the pre-gel solution. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) were suspended in the fibrin beads and cultured within a perfusion bioreactor system. The perfusion bioreactor enhanced ECFCs viability and genome stability in fibrin beads relative to static culture. Perfusion bioreactors enable 3D culture of ECs within fibrin beads for potential application as a sensor coating.

  8. Decreased level of cord blood circulating endothelial colony-forming cells in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Hernandez, Rocio; Miranda, Maria L; Stiefel, Pablo; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Praena-Fernández, Juan M; Dominguez-Simeon, Maria J; Villar, Jose; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Melero-Martin, Juan M

    2014-07-01

    Preeclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder associated with increased cardiovascular risk for the offspring. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that participate in the formation of vasculature during development. However, the effect of preeclampsia on fetal levels of ECFCs is largely unknown. In this study, we sought to determine whether cord blood ECFC abundance and function are altered in preeclampsia. We conducted a prospective cohort study that included women with normal (n=35) and preeclamptic (n=15) pregnancies. We measured ECFC levels in the umbilical cord blood of neonates and characterized ECFC phenotype, cloning-forming ability, proliferation, and migration toward vascular endothelial growth factor-A and fibroblast growth factor-2, in vitro formation of capillary-like structures, and in vivo vasculogenic ability in immunodeficient mice. We found that the level of cord blood ECFCs was statistically lower in preeclampsia than in control pregnancies (P=0.04), a reduction that was independent of other obstetric factors. In addition, cord blood ECFCs from preeclamptic pregnancies required more time to emerge in culture than control ECFCs. However, once derived in culture, ECFC function was deemed normal and highly similar between preeclampsia and control, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. This study demonstrates that preeclampsia affects ECFC abundance in neonates. A reduced level of ECFCs during preeclamptic pregnancies may contribute to an increased risk of developing future cardiovascular events.

  9. Umbilical Cord Blood Circulating Progenitor Cells and Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Are Decreased in Preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Gumina, Diane L; Black, Claudine P; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Winn, Virginia D; Baker, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disease characterized by the new onset of hypertension and proteinuria. Mothers with PE are known to develop endothelial dysfunction, but its effect on infants has been understudied, as newborns are often asymptomatic. Recent studies indicate that infants born from preeclamptic pregnancies develop endothelial dysfunction including higher blood pressure during childhood and an increased risk of stroke later in life. We hypothesize that PE reduces the number and function of fetal angiogenic progenitor cells and may contribute to this increased risk. We quantified 2 distinct types of angiogenic progenitors, pro-angiogenic circulating progenitor cells (CPCs) and endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), from the umbilical cord blood of preeclamptic pregnancies and normotensive controls. Pro-angiogenic and nonangiogenic CPCs were enumerated via flow cytometry and ECFCs by cell culture. Additionally, we studied the growth, migration, and tube formation of ECFCs from PE and gestational age-matched normotensive control pregnancies. We found that PE resulted in decreased cord blood pro-angiogenic CPCs and ECFCs. Nonangiogenic CPCs were also decreased. Preeclamptic ECFCs demonstrated decreased growth and migration but formed tube-like structures in vitro similar to controls. Our results suggest that the preeclamptic environment alters the number and function of angiogenic progenitor cells and may increase the risk of later vascular disease.

  10. The sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan rescues senescence of endothelial colony-forming cells for ischemic repair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Sang Hun; Choi, Sung Hyun; Asahara, Takayuki; Kwon, Sang-Mo

    2015-06-01

    The efficacy of cell therapy using endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) in the treatment of ischemia is limited by the replicative senescence of isolated ECFCs in vitro. Such senescence must therefore be overcome in order for such cell therapies to be clinically applicable. This study aimed to investigate the potential of sulfated polysaccharide fucoidan to rescue ECFCs from cellular senescence and to improve in vivo vascular repair by ECFCs. Fucoidan-preconditioning of senescent ECFCs was shown by flow cytometry to restore the expression of functional ECFC surface markers (CD34, c-Kit, VEGFR2, and CXCR4) and stimulate the in vitro tube formation capacity of ECFCs. Fucoidan also promoted the expression of cell cycle-associated proteins (cyclin E, Cdk2, cyclin D1, and Cdk4) in senescent ECFCs, significantly reversed cellular senescence, and increased the proliferation of ECFCs via the FAK, Akt, and ERK signaling pathways. Fucoidan was found to enhance the survival, proliferation, incorporation, and endothelial differentiation of senescent ECFCs transplanted in ischemic tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model. Moreover, ECFC-induced functional recovery and limb salvage were markedly improved by fucoidan pretreatment of ECFCs. To our knowledge, the findings of our study are the first to demonstrate that fucoidan enhances the neovasculogenic potential of ECFCs by rescuing them from replicative cellular senescence. Pretreatment of ECFCs with fucoidan may thus provide a novel strategy for the application of senescent stem cells to therapeutic neovascularization.

  11. High proliferative potential endothelial colony-forming cells contribute to hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery vasa vasorum neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Nijmeh, Hala; Balasubramaniam, Vivek; Burns, Nana; Ahmad, Aftab; Stenmark, Kurt R; Gerasimovskaya, Evgenia V

    2014-04-01

    Angiogenic expansion of the vasa vasorum (VV) is an important contributor to pulmonary vascular remodeling in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension (PH). High proliferative potential endothelial progenitor-like cells have been described in vascular remodeling and angiogenesis in both systemic and pulmonary circulations. However, their role in hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery (PA) VV expansion in PH is not known. We hypothesized that profound PA VV neovascularization observed in a neonatal calf model of hypoxia-induced PH is due to increased numbers of subsets of high proliferative cells within the PA adventitial VV endothelial cells (VVEC). Using a single cell clonogenic assay, we found that high proliferative potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) comprise a markedly higher percentage in VVEC populations isolated from the PA of hypoxic (VVEC-Hx) compared with control (VVEC-Co) calves. VVEC-Hx populations that comprised higher numbers of HPP-CFC also demonstrated markedly higher expression levels of CD31, CD105, and c-kit than VVEC-Co. In addition, significantly higher expression of CD31, CD105, and c-kit was observed in HPP-CFC vs. the VVEC of the control but not of hypoxic animals. HPP-CFC exhibited migratory and tube formation capabilities, two important attributes of angiogenic phenotype. Furthermore, HPP-CFC-Co and some HPP-CFC-Hx exhibited elevated telomerase activity, consistent with their high replicative potential, whereas a number of HPP-CFC-Hx exhibited impaired telomerase activity, suggestive of their senescence state. In conclusion, our data suggest that hypoxia-induced VV expansion involves an emergence of HPP-CFC populations of a distinct phenotype with increased angiogenic capabilities. These cells may serve as a potential target for regulating VVEC neovascularization.

  12. Maternal Body-Mass Index and Cord Blood Circulating Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Miranda, Maria L.; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Stiefel, Pablo; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Bernal-Bermejo, Jose; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis M.; Villar, Jose; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that are particularly abundant in umbilical cord blood. We sought to determine whether ECFC abundance in cord blood is associated with maternal body-mass index (BMI) in non-pathological pregnancies. Study design We measured the level of ECFCs in the cord blood of neonates (n=27) born from non-obese healthy mothers with non-pathological pregnancies and examined whether ECFC abundance correlated with maternal BMI. We also examined the effect of maternal BMI on ECFC phenotype and function using angiogenic and vasculogenic assays. Results We observed variation in ECFC abundance among subjects and found a positive correlation between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and ECFC content (r=0.51, P=0.007), which was independent of other obstetric factors. Despite this variation, ECFC phenotype and functionality were deemed normal and highly similar between subjects with maternal BMI <25 kg/m2 and BMI between 25–30 kg/m2, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. Conclusions This study underlines the need to consider maternal BMI as a potential confounding factor for cord blood levels of ECFCs in future comparative studies between healthy and pathological pregnancies. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of progenitor cells that circulate in peripheral blood and can give rise to endothelial cells (1,2), contributing to the formation of new vasculature and the maintenance of vascular integrity (3–5). The mechanisms that regulate the abundance of these cells in vivo remain poorly understood. ECFCs are rare in adult peripheral blood (1,2,10). In contrast, there is an elevated number of these cells in fetal blood during the third trimester of pregnancy (11–13). Emerging evidence indicates that deleterious conditions during fetal life can impair ECFC content and function. For instance, offspring of diabetic mothers have been shown to have

  13. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  14. Colony-forming progenitor cells in the postnatal mouse liver and pancreas give rise to morphologically distinct insulin-expressing colonies in 3D cultures.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Feng, Tao; Chai, Jing; Ghazalli, Nadiah; Gao, Dan; Zerda, Ricardo; Li, Zhuo; Hsu, Jasper; Mahdavi, Alborz; Tirrell, David A; Riggs, Arthur D; Ku, Hsun Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In our previous studies, colony-forming progenitor cells isolated from murine embryonic stem cell-derived cultures were differentiated into morphologically distinct insulin-expressing colonies. These colonies were small and not light-reflective when observed by phase-contrast microscopy (therefore termed "Dark" colonies). A single progenitor cell capable of giving rise to a Dark colony was termed a Dark colony-forming unit (CFU-Dark). The goal of the current study was to test whether endogenous pancreas, and its developmentally related liver, harbored CFU-Dark. Here we show that dissociated single cells from liver and pancreas of one-week-old mice give rise to Dark colonies in methylcellulose-based semisolid culture media containing either Matrigel or laminin hydrogel (an artificial extracellular matrix protein). CFU-Dark comprise approximately 0.1% and 0.03% of the postnatal hepatic and pancreatic cells, respectively. Adult liver also contains CFU-Dark, but at a much lower frequency (~0.003%). Microfluidic qRT-PCR, immunostaining, and electron microscopy analyses of individually handpicked colonies reveal the expression of insulin in many, but not all, Dark colonies. Most pancreatic insulin-positive Dark colonies also express glucagon, whereas liver colonies do not. Liver CFU-Dark require Matrigel, but not laminin hydrogel, to become insulin-positive. In contrast, laminin hydrogel is sufficient to support the development of pancreatic Dark colonies that express insulin. Postnatal liver CFU-Dark display a cell surface marker CD133⁺CD49f(low)CD107b(low) phenotype, while pancreatic CFU-Dark are CD133⁻. Together, these results demonstrate that specific progenitor cells in the postnatal liver and pancreas are capable of developing into insulin-expressing colonies, but they differ in frequency, marker expression, and matrix protein requirements for growth.

  15. [Knockdown of Larp4b in Lin(-) cells does not affect the colony forming ability of mouse hematopoietic cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Pang, Ya-Kun; Cheng, Hui; Dong, Fang; Liang, Hao-Yue; Zhang, Ying-Chi; Wang, Xiao-Min; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Tao; Yuan, Wei-Ping

    2013-06-01

    Larp4b is a member of the LARP family, which can interact with RNA and generally stimulate the translation of mRNA. Abnormal expression of Larp4b can be found in leukemia patients in our previous study. This study was purposed to detect the relative expression of Larp4b mRNA in different subpopulations of mouse hematopoietic cells, to construct lentivirus vector containing shLarp4b targeting mouse gene Larp4b and to explore its effects on mouse Lin(-) cells infected with shLarp4b by lentivirus. SF-LV-shLarP4b-EGFP and control vectors were constructed and two-plasmid lentivirus packing system was used to transfect 293T cells. After 48 h and 72 h, lentivirus SF-LV-shLarp4b-EGFP was harvested and was used to infect Lin(-) cells. After 48 h, EGFP(+) cells was sorted by flow cytometry (FCM). Meanwhile, semi-quantitative real time-PCR, AnnexinV-PE/7-AAD staining, PI staining and colony forming cell assay (CFC) were performed to determine the expression of Larp4b and its effect on the proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The results showed that Larp4b was highly expressed in myeloid cells. SF-LV-shLarp4b-EGFP was successfully constructed according to the restriction endonuclease digestion assay. RT-PCR confirmed that Larp4b was efficiently knockdown in mouse Lin(-) cells. The low expression of Larp4b did not affect the colony forming number, the apoptosis and cell cycle of Lin(-) cells. It is concluded that knockdown of Larp4b in mouse Lin(-) cells do not contribute to the colony forming ability and the growth of Lin(-) cells in vitro. This useful knockdown system will be used to study in vivo Larp4b in future.

  16. Impaired colony-forming ability following. gamma. irradiation of skin fibroblasts from tuberous scierosis patients. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, M.C.; Sell, B.M.; Smith, B.P.; Bech-Hansen, N.T.

    1982-05-01

    The radiosensitivity of cultured dermal fibroblasts from human subjects afflicted with tuberous sclerosis (TS), a hereditary neurocutaneous syndrome, was assessed by assaying loss of colony-forming ability in response to acute ..gamma..-ray exposure. Related to control strains from clinically normal donors, three cell lines (GM1635, GM1643, GM2333) from two affected patients displayed enhanced sensitivity to inactivation by /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-ray treatment, whether administered oxically (air-saturated) or hypoxically (N/sub 2/-gassed); a fourth strain (GM1644) from a third patient exhibited normal radiosensitivity under both treatment conditions. The post-..gamma..-irradiaton colony-forming ability of the three hypersensitive TS strains was intermediate between that of normal controls and that of strains from patients inheriting the radiotherapy-sensitive neurovascular disorder ataxia telangiectasia. The variability in the radioresponse of the TS stains (three sensitive and one normal) is not surprising, considering the widely recognized clinical heterogeneity in the disease. Our findings, aside from providing a laboratory marker for early (possible presymptomatic) detection of persons at high risk for TS, may lead to a better understanding of the origin and progressive development of this multifaceted syndrome.

  17. Maturity effects on colony-forming units of Macrophomina phaseolina infection as measured using near-isogenic lines of soybeans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina) causes significant yield losses in soybean [Glycine max( L.) Merr.] production worldwide. The effect of maturity on the severity of charcoal rot is not well understood mainly because maturity is generally confounded with genotypic background. Therefore, the re...

  18. Effects of space vacuum and solar ultraviolet irradiation (254 nanometers) on the colony forming ability of Bacillus subtilis spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buecker, H.; Horneck, G.; Wollenhaupt, H.

    1973-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores are highly resistant to harsh environments. Therefore, in the Apollo 16 Microbial Response to Space Environment Experiment (M191), these spores were exposed to space vacuum or solar ultraviolet irradiation, or both, to estimate the change of survival for terrestrial organisms in space. The survival of the spores was determined in terms of colony-forming ability. Comparison of the flight results with results of simulation experiments on earth applying high vacuum or ultraviolet irradiation, or both, revealed no remarkable difference. Simultaneous exposure to both these space factors resulted in a synergistic effect (that is, an ultraviolet supersensitivity). Therefore, the change of survival in space is assumed to depend on the degree of protection against solar ultraviolet irradiation.

  19. The effect of LED-light action on microbial colony forming ability of several species of staphylococcus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, Elena S.; Permyakova, Natalia F.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-05-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) now is widespread for treatment of the various skin infections caused by Propionibacterium acnes or Staphylococcii spp. We used PDT for influence on opportunistic microflora of human skin presented by Staphylococcus hominis, S. warnery, S. epidermidis S. aureus 209 P, S. aureus 69. Species S. epidermidis, S. aureus 209 P, S. hominis to some extent reduced colonies forming ability under action of dual wavelength LED-light (442 nm and 597 nm). For species S. warnery, S. aureus 69 the increase in CFU number under action of light relative to control was characteristic. Our experiments have shown, that phototherapy can be used for treatment of diseases associated with S. aureus 209 P. The doze 8 J/cm2 caused reduction in CFU of this species on 40% relative to control.

  20. Effect of adrenalectomy on recipients of allogeneic lymphocytes on inactivation of endogenous colony-forming cells in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Semenkov, V.F.

    1985-06-01

    This paper presents a study of the killer functions of lymph node cells directed against endogenous colony-forming cells in adrenalectomized recipients in a genetic system with one-way incompatibility: parental line - F/sub 1/ hybrid. Mice were irradiated with Co 60 gamma rays on the EGO-2 apparatus with dose rate from 200 to 250 R/min. The results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test. It can be tentatively suggested that the killer action of T lymphocytes on endogenous colonies was intensified in adrenal-ectomized recipients with endogenous hypocorticism, as a result of cooperation with the cortisol-sensitive subpopulation of T helper cells, of a change in the properties of the antigen-recognizing receptors, or an increase in the sensitivity of target cells to the killer action of T lymphocytes.

  1. Intravenous Administration of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Overexpressing Integrin β1 Augments Angiogenesis in Ischemic Legs.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kazuko; Takemura, Genzou; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Okada, Hideshi; Kanamori, Hiromitsu; Kawamura, Itta; Watanabe, Takatomo; Morishita, Kentaro; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Masanori; Mikami, Atsushi; Kosai, Ken-ichiro; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2016-02-01

    When injected directly into ischemic tissue in patients with peripheral artery disease, the reparative capacity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) appears to be limited by their poor survival. We, therefore, attempted to improve the survival of transplanted EPCs through intravenous injection and gene modification. We anticipated that overexpression of integrin β1 will enable injected EPCs to home to ischemic tissue, which abundantly express extracellular matrix proteins, the ligands for integrins. In addition, integrin β1 has an independent angiogenesis-stimulating function. Human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs; late-outgrowth EPCs) were transduced using a lentiviral vector encoding integrin β1 (ITGB1) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). We then locally or systemically injected phosphate-buffered saline or the genetically modified ECFCs (GFP-ECFCs or ITGB1-ECFCs; 1 × 10(5) cells each) into NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull mice whose right femoral arteries had been occluded 24 hours earlier. Upregulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, was apparent in the ischemic legs. Four weeks later, blood perfusion of the ischemic limb was significantly augmented only in the ITGB1-ECFC group. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts revealed increases in the perfused blood vessels in the ischemic legs of mice in the ITGB1-ECFC group and significant increases in the density of both capillaries and arterioles. Transplanted ECFC-derived vessels accounted for 28% ± 4.2% of the vessels in the ITGB1-ECFC group, with no cell fusion. Intravenous administration of ECFCs engineered to home to ischemic tissue appears to efficiently mediate therapeutic angiogenesis in a mouse model of peripheral artery disease. Significance: The intravenous administration of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) genetically modified to overexpress integrin β1 effectively stimulated angiogenesis in ischemic mouse hindlimbs. Transplanted ECFCs were

  2. Intravenous Administration of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Overexpressing Integrin β1 Augments Angiogenesis in Ischemic Legs

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Kazuko; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Okada, Hideshi; Kanamori, Hiromitsu; Kawamura, Itta; Watanabe, Takatomo; Morishita, Kentaro; Tsujimoto, Akiko; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Masanori; Mikami, Atsushi; Kosai, Ken-ichiro; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    When injected directly into ischemic tissue in patients with peripheral artery disease, the reparative capacity of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) appears to be limited by their poor survival. We, therefore, attempted to improve the survival of transplanted EPCs through intravenous injection and gene modification. We anticipated that overexpression of integrin β1 will enable injected EPCs to home to ischemic tissue, which abundantly express extracellular matrix proteins, the ligands for integrins. In addition, integrin β1 has an independent angiogenesis-stimulating function. Human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs; late-outgrowth EPCs) were transduced using a lentiviral vector encoding integrin β1 (ITGB1) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP). We then locally or systemically injected phosphate-buffered saline or the genetically modified ECFCs (GFP-ECFCs or ITGB1-ECFCs; 1 × 105 cells each) into NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull mice whose right femoral arteries had been occluded 24 hours earlier. Upregulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, was apparent in the ischemic legs. Four weeks later, blood perfusion of the ischemic limb was significantly augmented only in the ITGB1-ECFC group. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular casts revealed increases in the perfused blood vessels in the ischemic legs of mice in the ITGB1-ECFC group and significant increases in the density of both capillaries and arterioles. Transplanted ECFC-derived vessels accounted for 28% ± 4.2% of the vessels in the ITGB1-ECFC group, with no cell fusion. Intravenous administration of ECFCs engineered to home to ischemic tissue appears to efficiently mediate therapeutic angiogenesis in a mouse model of peripheral artery disease. Significance The intravenous administration of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) genetically modified to overexpress integrin β1 effectively stimulated angiogenesis in ischemic mouse hindlimbs. Transplanted ECFCs were observed

  3. Cooperation between human fibrocytes and endothelial colony-forming cells increases angiogenesis via the CXCR4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Smadja, David M; Dorfmüller, Peter; Guerin, Coralie L; Bieche, Ivan; Badoual, Cécile; Boscolo, Elisa; Kambouchner, Marianne; Cazes, Aurélie; Mercier, Olaf; Humbert, Marc; Gaussem, Pascale; Bischoff, Joyce; Israël-Biet, Dominique

    2014-11-01

    Fibrotic diseases of the lung are associated with a vascular remodelling process. Fibrocytes (Fy) are a distinct population of blood-borne cells that co-express haematopoietic cell antigens and fibroblast markers, and have been shown to contribute to organ fibrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fibrocytes cooperate with endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) to induce angiogenesis. We isolated fibrocytes from blood of patient with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and characterised them by flow cytometry, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RTQ-PCR), and confocal microscopy. We then investigated the angiogenic interaction between fibrocytes and cord-blood-derived ECFC, both in vitro and in an in vivo Matrigel implant model. Compared to fibroblast culture medium, fibrocyte culture medium increased ECFC proliferation and differentiation via the SDF-1/CXCR4 pathway. IPF-Fy co-implanted with human ECFC in Matrigel plugs in immunodeficient mice formed functional microvascular beds, whereas fibroblasts did not. Evaluation of implants after two weeks revealed an extensive network of erythrocyte-containing blood vessels. CXCR4 blockade significantly inhibited this blood vessel formation. The clinical relevance of these data was confirmed by strong CXCR4 expression in vessels close to fibrotic areas in biopsy specimens from patients with IPF, by comparison with control lungs. In conclusion, circulating fibrocytes might contribute to the intense remodelling of the pulmonary vasculature in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Prospective surface marker-based isolation and expansion of fetal endothelial colony-forming cells from human term placenta.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jatin; Seppanen, Elke; Chong, Mark S K; Yeo, Julie S L; Teo, Erin Y L; Chan, Jerry K Y; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2013-11-01

    The term placenta is a highly vascularized tissue and is usually discarded upon birth. Our objective was to isolate clinically relevant quantities of fetal endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from human term placenta and to compare them to the well-established donor-matched umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived ECFCs. A sorting strategy was devised to enrich for CD45-CD34+CD31Lo cells prior to primary plating to obtain pure placental ECFCs (PL-ECFCs) upon culture. UCB-ECFCs were derived using a well-described assay. PL-ECFCs were fetal in origin and expressed the same cell surface markers as UCB-ECFCs. Most importantly, a single term placenta could yield as many ECFCs as 27 UCB donors. PL-ECFCs and UCB-ECFCs had similar in vitro and in vivo vessel forming capacities and restored mouse hind limb ischemia in similar proportions. Gene expression profiles were only minimally divergent between PL-ECFCs and UCB-ECFCs, probably reflecting a vascular source versus a circulating source. Finally, PL-ECFCs and UCB-ECFCs displayed similar hierarchies between high and low proliferative colonies. We report a robust strategy to isolate ECFCs from human term placentas based on their cell surface expression. This yielded much larger quantities of ECFCs than UCB, but the cells were comparable in immunophenotype, gene expression, and in vivo functional ability. We conclude that PL-ECFCs have significant bio-banking and clinical translatability potential.

  5. Endothelial colony forming cells and mesenchymal progenitor cells form blood vessels and increase blood flow in ischemic muscle.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyu-Tae; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Kuppermann, David; Melero-Martin, Juan M; Bischoff, Joyce

    2017-04-10

    Here we investigated whether endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) and mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC) form vascular networks and restore blood flow in ischemic skeletal muscle, and whether host myeloid cells play a role. ECFC + MPC, ECFC alone, MPC alone, or vehicle alone were injected into the hind limb ischemic muscle one day after ligation of femoral artery and vein. At day 5, hind limbs injected with ECFC + MPC showed greater blood flow recovery compared with ECFC, MPC, or vehicle. Tail vein injection of human endothelial specific Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I demonstrated an increased number of perfused human vessels in ECFC + MPC compared with ECFC. In vivo bioluminescence imaging showed ECFC persisted for 14 days in ECFC + MPC-injected hind limbs. Flow cytometric analysis of ischemic muscles at day 2 revealed increased myeloid lineage cells in ECFC + MPC-injected muscles compared to vehicle-injected muscles. Neutrophils declined by day 7, while the number of myeloid cells, macrophages, and monocytes did not. Systemic myeloid cell depletion with anti-Gr-1 antibody blocked the improved blood flow observed with ECFC + MPC and reduced ECFC and MPC retention. Our data suggest that ECFC + MPC delivery could be used to reestablish blood flow in ischemic tissues, and this may be enhanced by coordinated recruitment of host myeloid cells.

  6. Chemokine Ligand 5 (CCL5) Derived from Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells (ECFCs) Mediates Recruitment of Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells (SPCs) toward Critical Vascular Locations in Moyamoya Disease

    PubMed Central

    Phi, Ji Hoon; Suzuki, Naoko; Moon, Youn Joo; Park, Ae Kyung; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Choi, Seung-Ah; Chong, Sangjoon; Shirane, Reizo; Kim, Seung-Ki

    2017-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of moyamoya disease (MMD) are still obscure. Previous studies indicated that angiogenic chemokines may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recently, it was discovered that peripheral blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) have defective functions in MMD patients. Therefore, the interaction of ECFCs and SPCs, the precursors of two crucial cellular components of vascular walls, with some paracrine molecules is an intriguing subject. In this study, co-culture of ECFCs and SPCs from MMD patients and healthy normal subjects revealed that MMD ECFCs, not SPCs, are responsible for the defective functions of both ECFCs and SPCs. Enhanced migration of SPCs toward MMD ECFCs supported the role for some chemokines secreted by MMD ECFCs. Expression arrays of MMD and normal ECFCs suggested that several candidate cytokines differentially produced by MMD ECFCs. We selected chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 6 (CXCR6), interleukin-8 (IL8), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and CCL5 for study, based on the relatively higher expression of these ligands in MMD ECFCs and their cognate receptors in MMD SPCs. Migration assays showed that only CCL5 significantly augmented the migration activities of SPCs toward ECFCs. Treatment with siRNA for the CCL5 receptor (CCR5) abrogated the effect, confirming that CCL5 is responsible for the interaction of MMD ECFCs and SPCs. These data indicate that ECFCs, not SPCs, are the major players in MMD pathogenesis and that the chemokine CCL5 mediates the interactions. It can be hypothesized that in MMD patients, defective ECFCs direct aberrant SPC recruitment to critical vascular locations through the action of CCL5. PMID:28072843

  7. Flow cytometric method for in situ preparation of standard materials of a small defined number of microbial cells with colony-forming potentiality.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hideaki; Nakano, Koichiro; Takatani, Norimasa; Yoshida, Tomonori; Igimi, Shizunobu; Saito, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    Standard materials of a small defined number of cells with colony-forming potentiality are essential for the rational validation of food microbiological methods. An in situ flow cytometric method using viable staining with 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFDA) and tryptic soy agar (TSA) was previously proposed and its feasibility was demonstrated with five strains. In this study, this method was applied to 16 strains to support its broad applicability. The cell sorting gate was previously determined based on the CFDA stainability alone. Now the structural properties of cells designated by forward and side-scattering intensities have been introduced as the second gating criteria. Under the optimum gate condition, 100 cells have been selected and sorted on TSA. Consequently, a 95% or higher colony-forming rate has been attained for every strain. A successful application to microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. is especially of great importance because it suggests further broader applicability.

  8. [NVP-BEZ235 inhibits proliferation and colony-forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying-Ying; Hu, Liang-Shan; Han, Hui-Juan; Song, Chao-Yang; Huang, Yu-Xian; Guo, Kun-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of NVP-BEZ235, a dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, on proliferation, cell cycle and colony forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1a cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect expression of CD34 and CD38 on the surface of human AML KG1a cells; Trypan blue assay was used to analyze the effect of NVP-BEZ235 at various concentrations on proliferation of KG1a cells; flow cytometry was performed to examine the cell cycle of KG1a cells after NVP-BEZ235 treatment; Soft agar colony-forming experiment was used to detect the colony forming ability of KG1a cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 at various concentrations. The results indicated that the percentage of CD34(+)CD38(-) AML KG1a cells was (98.02 ± 0.72)%. NVP-BEZ235 (0.125 - 1 µmol/L) inhibited the proliferation of KG1a cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) and the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) at 24 h and 48 h were 0.597 µmol/L and 0.102 µmol/L, respectively. KG1a cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase after treating with 0.5 µmol/L NVP-BEZ235 for 24 h, it was significantly higher than that of control group (83.2 ± 3.80)% vs (43.47 ± 9.60)% (P < 0.05). KG1a cells treated with NVP-BEZ235 (0 - 1 µmol/L) for 14 d and 21 d, the number of colony decreased respectively from (375.67 ± 21.46) per 2500 KG1a cells and (706.33 ± 87.31) per 2500 KG1a cells to 0, with statistical significance (P < 0.05). It is concluded that NVP-BEZ235 can inhibit proliferation and colony-forming capability of CD34(+)CD38(-) human AML KG1a cells.

  9. Erythropoietin Pretreatment of Transplanted Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells Enhances Recovery in a Cerebral Ischemia Model by Increasing Their Homing Ability: A SPECT/CT Study.

    PubMed

    Garrigue, Philippe; Hache, Guillaume; Bennis, Youssef; Brige, Pauline; Stalin, Jimmy; Pellegrini, Lionel; Velly, Lionel; Orlandi, Francesca; Castaldi, Elena; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence; Guillet, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are promising candidates for cell therapy of ischemic diseases, as less than 10% of patients with an ischemic stroke are eligible for thrombolysis. We previously reported that erythropoietin priming of ECFCs increased their in vitro and in vivo angiogenic properties in mice with hindlimb ischemia. The present study used SPECT/CT to evaluate whether priming of ECFCs with erythropoietin could enhance their homing to the ischemic site after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion in rats and potentiate their protective or regenerative effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, cerebral apoptosis, and cerebral blood flow (CBF).

  10. X-ray-induced chromosome damage in live mammalian cells, and improved measurements of its effects on their colony-forming ability.

    PubMed

    Joshi, G P; Nelson, W J; Revell, S H; Shaw, C A

    1982-02-01

    We have improved the precision of the technique described by Grote et al. (1981 a,b) for the observation of the radiation responses of live cultured mammalian cells with an incubated phase-contrast microscope: the colony-forming abilities of single cells obtained by selective detachment of mitoses (instead of cell pairs as previously) may now be followed individually and may be directly compared with chromosome damage detected after post-radiation mitosis (M1). An X-ray dose of 1.4 Gy to diploid Syrian hamster cells (BHK 21 C13) in G1 had no effect on cell ability to reach M1. If chromosome fragment loss was then detected (as micronuclei) in the daughter-cell pair then colony-forming ability nearly always deteriorated, and either a stop-growth (79 per cent) or a slow-growth (21 per cent) colony resulted; but chromosomal bridges which persisted beyond M1 broke during interphase 1 and themselves caused no detectable cell damage additional to that attributable to the micronuclei which accompanied them.

  11. Priming of endothelial colony-forming cells in a mesenchymal niche improves engraftment and vasculogenic potential by initiating mesenchymal transition orchestrated by NOTCH signaling.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Abbas; Patel, Jatin; Wong, Ho Yi; Donovan, Prudence; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2017-02-01

    The prospect of using endothelial progenitors is currently hampered by their low engraftment upon transplantation. We report that mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), independent of source and age, improve the engraftment of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs). MSC coculture altered ECFC appearance to an elongated mesenchymal morphology with reduced proliferation. ECFC primed via MSC contact had reduced self-renewal potential, but improved capacity to form tube structures in vitro and engraftment in vivo Primed ECFCs displayed major differences in transcriptome compared to ECFCs never exposed to MSCs, affecting genes involved in the cell cycle, up-regulating of genes influencing mesenchymal transition, adhesion, extracellular matrix. Inhibition of NOTCH signaling, a potential upstream regulator of mesenchymal transition, in large part modulated this gene expression pattern and functionally reversed the mesenchymal morphology of ECFCs. The collective results showed that primed ECFCs survive better and undergo a mesenchymal transition that is dependent on NOTCH signaling, resulting in significantly increased vasculogenic potential.-Shafiee, A., Patel, J., Wong, H. Y., Donovan, P., Hutmacher, D. W., Fisk, N. M., Khosrotehrani, K. Priming of endothelial colony-forming cells in a mesenchymal niche improves engraftment and vasculogenic potential by initiating mesenchymal transition orchestrated by NOTCH signaling.

  12. Random motor unit activation by electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Jubeau, M; Gondin, J; Martin, A; Sartorio, A; Maffiuletti, N A

    2007-11-01

    Whether the involvement of motor units is different between surface neuromuscular electrostimulation and voluntary activation remains an unresolved issue. The aim of this pilot study was to verify if motor unit activation during electrostimulation is nonselective/random (i.e., without obvious sequencing related to fibre type), as recently suggested by Gregory and Bickel [6]. Sixteen healthy men randomly performed submaximal isometric contractions (10-s duration) of the quadriceps femoris muscle at 20, 40 and 60 % of maximal voluntary torque under both stimulated and voluntary conditions. During the contractions, paired stimuli were delivered to the femoral nerve (twitch interpolation technique) and the characteristics of the superimposed doublet were compared between the two conditions. For each torque level, time-to-peak torque was significantly longer (p range = 0.05 - 0.0002) during electrostimulation compared to voluntary contractions. Moreover, time-to-peak torque during voluntary trials decreased significantly when increasing the torque level from 20 to 60 % of maximal voluntary torque (p range = 0.03 - 0.0001), whereas it was unchanged during electrostimulation. In conclusion, over-the-muscle electrostimulation would neither result in motor unit recruitment according to Henneman's size principle nor would it result in a reversal in voluntary recruitment order. During electrostimulation, muscle fibres are activated without obvious sequencing related to fibre type.

  13. Tumor-tropic endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) loaded with near-infrared sensitive Au nanoparticles: A "cellular stove" approach to the photoablation of melanoma.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Giancarlo; Zoppi, Angela; Olmi, Roberto; Trigari, Silvana; Traversi, Rita; Severi, Mirko; Bani, Daniele; Bianchini, Francesca; Torre, Eugenio; Margheri, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Biagioni, Alessio; Calorini, Lido; Laurenzana, Anna; Fibbi, Gabriella; Del Rosso, Mario

    2016-06-28

    In the photothermal treatments (PTs) of tumor, the localization of a high number of near-infrared (NIR) absorbing gold nanoparticles in the tumor mass is still a challenging issue. Here, we propose a promising strategy to deliver therapeutic chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles to tumor cells as hidden cargo of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) endowed with an innate tumor-tropism. Remarkably, ECFC gold enrichement doesn't affect cell viability and preserves the endothelial lineage characteristics such as capillary morphogenesis and cell migration. We demonstrate that heavily Au-doped ECFCs are able to efficiently warm up the tumor environment, and kill the cancer cells via hyperthermic heating both in vitro as well as in vivo. Thus, we show an excellent thermotransductive property of gold enriched ECFCs and their capability to kill melanoma cells at moderate NIR light intensities.

  14. Tumor-tropic endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) loaded with near-infrared sensitive Au nanoparticles: A “cellular stove” approach to the photoablation of melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Margheri, Giancarlo; Zoppi, Angela; Olmi, Roberto; Trigari, Silvana; Traversi, Rita; Severi, Mirko; Bani, Daniele; Bianchini, Francesca; Torre, Eugenio; Margheri, Francesca; Chillà, Anastasia; Biagioni, Alessio; Calorini, Lido; Laurenzana, Anna; Fibbi, Gabriella; Rosso, Mario Del

    2016-01-01

    In the photothermal treatments (PTs) of tumor, the localization of a high number of near-infrared (NIR) absorbing gold nanoparticles in the tumor mass is still a challenging issue. Here, we propose a promising strategy to deliver therapeutic chitosan-coated gold nanoparticles to tumor cells as hidden cargo of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) endowed with an innate tumor-tropism. Remarkably, ECFC gold enrichement doesn't affect cell viability and preserves the endothelial lineage characteristics such as capillary morphogenesis and cell migration. We demonstrate that heavily Au-doped ECFCs are able to efficiently warm up the tumor environment, and kill the cancer cells via hyperthermic heating both in vitro as well as in vivo. Thus, we show an excellent thermotransductive property of gold enriched ECFCs and their capability to kill melanoma cells at moderate NIR light intensities. PMID:27223433

  15. Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis in oral candidosis: quantitative analysis, exoenzyme activity, and antifungal drug sensitivity.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Karen Regina Carim; Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; Komesu, Marilena Chinali; Candido, Regina Celia

    2009-02-01

    Candida albicans and C. tropicalis obtained from whole saliva of patients presenting signs of oral candidosis were assayed for quantification of colony forming units, exoenzyme activity (phospholipase and proteinase) and antifungal drug sensitivity (amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole) by the reference method of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The number of colony forming units per milliliter varied according to the Candida species involved and whether a single or mixed infection was present. Proteinase activity was observed in both C. albicans and C. tropicalis, but phospholipase activity was noted only in C. albicans. In vitro resistance to antifungals was verified in both species, but C. tropicalis appears to be more resistant to the tested antifungals than C. albicans.

  16. Modified a colony forming unit microbial adherence to hydrocarbons assay and evaluated cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm production of Vibrio scophthalmi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio scophthalmi has been considered as an opportunistic pathogen of the flat fish. There is little information available on V. scophthalmi adhesion to the host, an important step in the initial infection process. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop a modified Microbial Adherence to H...

  17. Quantification of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Isolates in Soybean Roots by Colony-forming Unit Assays and Real-time Quantitative PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (FSG; syn. F. virguliforme Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi) is a soil-borne fungus that infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) a widespread and destructive soybean disease. The goal of this study was to develop and used a real-time quantitative...

  18. Human endothelial colony-forming cells expanded with an improved protocol are a useful endothelial cell source for scaffold-based tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Bernd; Horsch, Liska D; Radtke, Stefan; Fischer, Johannes C; Horn, Peter A; Giebel, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is to supply larger three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered tissue transplants with sufficient amounts of nutrients and oxygen and to allow metabolite removal. Consequently, artificial vascularization strategies of such transplants are desired. One strategy focuses on endothelial cells capable of initiating new vessel formation, which are settled on scaffolds commonly used in tissue engineering. A bottleneck in this strategy is to obtain sufficient amounts of endothelial cells, as they can be harvested only in small quantities directly from human tissues. Thus, protocols are required to expand appropriate cells in sufficient amounts without interfering with their capability to settle on scaffold materials and to initiate vessel formation. Here, we analysed whether umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) fulfil these requirements. In a first set of experiments, we showed that marginally expanded ECFCs settle and survive on different scaffold biomaterials. Next, we improved ECFC culture conditions and developed a protocol for ECFC expansion compatible with 'Good Manufacturing Practice' (GMP) standards. We replaced animal sera with human platelet lysates and used a novel type of tissue-culture ware. ECFCs cultured under the new conditions revealed significantly lower apoptosis and increased proliferation rates. Simultaneously, their viability was increased. Since extensively expanded ECFCs could still settle on scaffold biomaterials and were able to form tubular structures in Matrigel assays, we conclude that these ex vivo-expanded ECFCs are a novel, very potent cell source for scaffold-based tissue engineering.

  19. Self-Renewal and High Proliferative Colony Forming Capacity of Late-Outgrowth Endothelial Progenitors Is Regulated by Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitors Driven by Notch Signaling.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jatin; Wong, Ho Yi; Wang, Weili; Alexis, Josue; Shafiee, Abbas; Stevenson, Alexander J; Gabrielli, Brian; Fisk, Nicholas M; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-04-01

    Since the discovery of endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC), there has been significant interest in their therapeutic potential to treat vascular injuries. ECFC cultures display significant heterogeneity and a hierarchy among cells able to give rise to high proliferative versus low proliferative colonies. Here we aimed to define molecularly this in vitro hierarchy. Based on flow cytometry, CD34 expression levels distinguished two populations. Only CD34 + ECFC had the capacity to reproduce high proliferative potential (HPP) colonies on replating, whereas CD34- ECFCs formed only small clusters. CD34 + ECFCs were the only ones to self-renew in stringent single-cell cultures and gave rise to both CD34 + and CD34- cells. Upon replating, CD34 + ECFCs were always found at the centre of HPP colonies and were more likely in G0/1 phase of cell cycling. Functionally, CD34 + ECFC were superior at restoring perfusion and better engrafted when injected into ischemic hind limbs. Transcriptomic analysis identified cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) cell cycle inhibiting genes (p16, p21, and p57), the Notch signaling pathway (dll1, dll4, hes1, and hey1), and the endothelial cytokine il33 as highly expressed in CD34 + ECFC. Blocking the Notch pathway using a γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) led to reduced expression of cell cycle inhibitors, increased cell proliferation followed by a loss of self-renewal, and HPP colony formation capacity reflecting progenitor exhaustion. Similarly shRNA knockdown of p57 strongly affected self-renewal of ECFC colonies. ECFC hierarchy is defined by Notch signalling driving cell cycle regulators, progenitor quiescence and self-renewal potential.

  20. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  1. CD34 expression modulates tube-forming capacity and barrier properties of peripheral blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs).

    PubMed

    Tasev, Dimitar; Konijnenberg, Lara S F; Amado-Azevedo, Joana; van Wijhe, Michiel H; Koolwijk, Pieter; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M

    2016-07-01

    Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFC) are grown from circulating CD34(+) progenitors present in adult peripheral blood, but during in vitro expansion part of the cells lose CD34. To evaluate whether the regulation of CD34 characterizes the angiogenic phenotypical features of PB-ECFCs, we investigated the properties of CD34(+) and CD34(-) ECFCs with respect to their ability to form capillary-like tubes in 3D fibrin matrices, tip-cell gene expression, and barrier integrity. Selection of CD34(+) and CD34(-) ECFCs from subcultured ECFCs was accomplished by magnetic sorting (FACS: CD34(+): 95 % pos; CD34(-): 99 % neg). Both fractions proliferated at same rate, while CD34(+) ECFCs exhibited higher tube-forming capacity and tip-cell gene expression than CD3(4-) cells. However, during cell culture CD34(-) cells re-expressed CD34. Cell-seeding density, cell-cell contact formation, and serum supplements modulated CD34 expression. CD34 expression in ECFCs was strongly suppressed by newborn calf serum. Stimulation with FGF-2, VEGF, or HGF prepared in medium supplemented with 3 % albumin did not change CD34 mRNA or surface expression. Silencing of CD34 with siRNA resulted in strengthening of cell-cell contacts and increased barrier function of ECFC monolayers as measured by ECIS. Furthermore, CD34 siRNA reduced tube formation by ECFC, but did not affect tip-cell gene expression. These findings demonstrate that CD34(+) and CD34(-) cells are different phenotypes of similar cells and that CD34 (1) can be regulated in ECFC; (2) is positively involved in capillary-like sprout formation; (3) is associated but not causally related to tip-cell gene expression; and (4) can affect endothelial barrier function.

  2. Ambient Cured Alkali Activated Flyash Masonry Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod M.

    2016-09-01

    Geopolymers belong to a category of non-conventional and non-Portland cement based cementitious binders which are produced using industrial by products like fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS). This paper reports on the development of geopolymer mortars for production of masonry units. The geopolymer mortars were prepared by mixing various by products with manufactured sand and a liquid mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. After curing at ambient conditions, the masonry units were tested for strength properties such as water absorption, initial rate of absorption, compression, shear- bond, and stress-strain behaviour etc. It was observed that the flexural strength of the blocks is more than 2 MPa and shear bond strength is more than 0.4MPa. It was found that the properties of geopolymer blocks were superior to the traditional masonry units. Hence they can be recommended for structural masonry.

  3. Microbiologic effects of SnF2 and NaF mouthrinses in subjects with high caries activity: results after one year.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, N; Klock, B; Camosci, D A; Manwell, M A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-two adults, considered to have high caries activity, rinsed for one yr with either SnF2 or acidulated NaF mouthrinses. Total colony-forming units and numbers of S. mutans and lactobacilli were estimated from saliva samples. Large reductions were found in the number of recoverable S. mutans in subjects rinsing with SnF2 but not in the NaF group.

  4. United Nations geothermal activities in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Beredjick, N.

    1987-07-01

    The United Nations implements technical cooperation projects in developing countries through its Department of Technical Cooperation for Development (DTCD). The DTCD is mandated to explore for and develop natural resources (water, minerals, and relevant infrastructure) and energy - both conventional and new and renewable energy sources. To date, the United Nations has been involved in over 30 geothermal exploration projects (completed or underway) in 20 developing countries: 8 in Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar); 8 in Asia (China, India, Jordan, Philippines, Thailand); 9 in Latin America (Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama) and 6 in Europe (Greece, Romania, Turkey, Yugoslavia). Today, the DTCD has seven UNDP geothermal projects in 6 developing countries. Four of these (Bolivia, China, Honduras, and Kenya) are major exploration projects whose formulation and execution has been possible thanks to the generous contributions under cost-sharing arrangements from the government of Italy. These four projects are summarized.

  5. Tritium activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.L.; LaMarche, P.

    1995-07-01

    There have been many significant changes in the status of tritium activities in the US since the 4th Tritium Conference in October, 1991. The replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at Savannah River Site and the Weapons Engineering Tritium Facility (WETF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory are now operational with tritium. The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has initiated a highly successful experimental campaign studying DT plasmas, and has produced more than 10 Megawatts (MW) of fusion power in a D-T plasma. Sandia National Laboratory has ceased tritium operations at the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) and many of the activities previously performed there have been transferred to Los Alamos and Savannah River. The tritium laboratory at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has reduced the tritium inventory to <5 grams. The Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos continues to be at the forefront of tritium technology and safety development for the fusion energy program.

  6. Foot-mounted inertial measurement unit for activity classification.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Mostafa; Esfahani, Ehsan T

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification technique for daily base activity recognition for human monitoring during physical therapy in home. The proposed method estimates the foot motion using single inertial measurement unit, then segments the motion into steps classify them by template-matching as walking, stairs up or stairs down steps. The results show a high accuracy of activity recognition. Unlike previous works which are limited to activity recognition, the proposed approach is more qualitative by providing similarity index of any activity to its desired template which can be used to assess subjects improvement.

  7. Obesity, Health, and Physical Activity: Discourses from the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zieff, Susan G.; Veri, Maria J.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the obesity, health, and physical activity discourses of the past 35 years in the context of the United States with particular reference to five social sectors: the biomedical domain; the popular media; nonprofit foundations, centers and agencies; various national and multinational corporations; and government at all levels.…

  8. Canada and the United States. Perspective. Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    The similarities and differences of Canada and the United States are explored in this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Ten learning objectives are given which encourage students to examine: 1) the misconceptions Americans and Canadians have about each other and their ways of life; 2) the effect and influence of French and English exploration and…

  9. Synchronization of motor unit activity during voluntary contraction in man.

    PubMed

    Datta, A K; Stephens, J A

    1990-03-01

    1. Motor unit synchronization has been studied in human first dorsal interosseous muscle. 2. Two needle electrodes were inserted into the muscle and the activity of pairs of motor units recorded. 3. Pre- and post-stimulus histograms of the firing of unit pairs showed a narrow central peak of duration 1.3-9.3 ms (88% of sample in the range 1-6 ms; mode 3.0 ms), together with a variable amount of synchronization of somewhat longer duration. 4. For the duration of the whole synchronization peak (85% sample in range 5-15 ms; mode between 6.1 and 8.0 ms (31% of sample], units fired between 8 and 485% times more often than would have been expected had the units been firing independently of one another. Amplitudes of the peak of the recorded histograms expressed as a proportion of control ranged from 1.8 to 10.9 (mean 3.9; bin width 160 microseconds). 5. The strength of synchronization between the firing of motor unit pairs was inversely related to differences in recruitment threshold. The largest amount of synchronization was observed for pairs of units in which both had recruitment thresholds less than 0.5 N or greater than 1.0 N. Less synchronization was found between pairs of units in which one had a recruitment threshold less than 0.05 N and the other a threshold greater than 1.0 N. 6. The time course of synchronization was well matched by the predictions of a theoretical model based on the hypothesis that underlying the observed synchronization is the joint arrival of EPSPs from branched last-order input fibres.

  10. Antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against Fusarium sp.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Trojanowska, Krystyna; Mueller, Anna

    2002-01-01

    The antifungal activity of Bacillus coagulans against three pathogenic species of Fusarium was examined. Fungal growth was determined by colony forming units, dry matter and ergosterol level. Biosynthesis of Fusarium mycotoxins was also investigated. The strongest inhibition of fungal growth was noticed when Bacillus coagulans was co-inoculated at the beginning of culture. Estimation of ergosterol level as a determinant of fungal growth showed the greatest degree of Fusarium sp. inhibition. Addition of Bacillus coagulans to Fusarium culmorum culture inhibits the DON (deoxynivalenol) production.

  11. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  12. Sleep and nursing care activities in an intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Ritmala-Castren, Marita; Virtanen, Irina; Leivo, Sanna; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the quality of sleep of non-intubated patients and the night-time nursing care activities in an intensive care unit. The study also aimed to evaluate the effect of nursing care activities on the quality of sleep. An overnight polysomnography was performed in 21 alert, non-intubated, non-sedated adult patients, and all nursing care activities that involved touching the patient were documented by the bedside nurse. The median (interquartile range) amount of sleep was 387 (170, 486) minutes. The portion of deep non-rapid-eye-movement (non-REM) sleep varied from 0% to 42% and REM sleep from 0% to 65%. The frequency of arousals and awakenings varied from two to 73 per hour. The median amount of nursing care activities was 0.6/h. Every tenth activity presumably awakened the patient. Patients who had more care activities had more light N1 sleep, less light N2 sleep, and less deep sleep. Nursing care was often performed while patients were awake. However, only 31% of the intervals between nursing care activities were over 90 min. More attention should be paid to better clustering of care activities.

  13. Examination of Bacterial Characteristics of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors in Three Pilot-Scale Plants for Treating Low-Strength Wastewater by Application of the Colony-Forming-Curve Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuo; Fujiki, Kiichi; Taroda, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic sludge ecosystems arising in anaerobic membrane bioreactors of three pilot-scale plants treating low-strength (less than 1 g of biological oxygen demand per liter) sewage or soybean-processing wastewater were examined by analysis of the colony-forming-curves (CFC) obtained by counting colonies at suitable intervals. The wastewaters, containing high amounts of suspended solids (SS) (SS/chemical oxygen demand ratio, 0.51 to 0.80), were treated by using two types of bioreactors: (i) a hydrolyzation reactor for solubilization and acidification of SS in wastewater and (ii) a methane fermentation reactor for producing methane. The colony counts for the two sewage treatment plants continued to increase even after 3 weeks of incubation, whereas those for soybean-processing wastewater reached an approximately constant level within 3 weeks of incubation. The CFCs were analyzed by correlating the rate of colony appearance on roll tubes with the physiological types of bacteria present in the bioreactors. It was found that there were large numbers of slow-colony-forming anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactors and that the viable populations consisted of a few groups with different growth rates. It is considered that the slow-growing colonies appearing after 10 days of incubation were the dominant microflora in the sewage treated by hydrolyzation reactors. In particular, highly concentrated sludge (30.0 g of mixed-liquor volatile SS per liter) retained by the membrane separation module contained a large number of such bacteria. Slow-growing colonies of these bacteria could be counted by using a sludge extract medium prepared from only the supernatant of autoclaved sludge. In addition, the highest colony counts were almost always obtained with the sludge extract medium, meaning that most of the anaerobic bacteria in these sludges have complex nutrient requirements for growth. This report also indicates the usefulness of application of the CFC analysis method to

  14. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2002-12-10

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  15. Active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wendy D [Kennewick, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA; Matson, Dean W [Kennewick, WA; Roberts, Gary L [West Richland, WA; Stewart, Donald C [Richland, WA; Tonkovich, Annalee Y [Pasco, WA; Zilka, Jennifer L [Pasco, WA; Schmitt, Stephen C [Dublin, OH; Werner, Timothy M [Columbus, OH

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an active microchannel fluid processing unit and method of making, both relying on having (a) at least one inner thin sheet; (b) at least one outer thin sheet; (c) defining at least one first sub-assembly for performing at least one first unit operation by stacking a first of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with a first of the at least one outer thin sheet into a first stack and placing an end block on the at least one inner thin sheet, the at least one first sub-assembly having at least a first inlet and a first outlet; and (d) defining at least one second sub-assembly for performing at least one second unit operation either as a second flow path within the first stack or by stacking a second of the at least one inner thin sheet in alternating contact with second of the at least one outer thin sheet as a second stack, the at least one second sub-assembly having at least a second inlet and a second outlet.

  16. Recovering activity and illusion: the nephrology day care unit.

    PubMed

    Remón Rodríguez, C; Quirós Ganga, P L; González-Outón, J; del Castillo Gámez, R; García Herrera, A L; Sánchez Márquez, M G

    2011-01-01

    Day Care Units are an alternative to hospital care that improves more efficiency. The Nephrology, by its technical characteristics, would be benefit greatly from further development of this care modality. The objectives of this study are to present the process we have developed the Nephrology Day Care Unit in the Puerto Real University Hospital (Cádiz, Spain). For this project we followed the Deming Management Method of Quality improvement, selecting opportunities, analyzing causes, select interventions, implement and monitor results. The intervention plan includes the following points: 1) Define the place of the Day Care Unit in the organization of our Clinical Department of Nephrology, 2) Define the Manual of organization, 3) Define the structural and equipment resources, 4) Define the Catalogue of services and procedures, 5) Standards of Care Processes. Protocols and Clinical Pathways; and 6) Information and Registration System. In the first 8 months we have been performed nearly 2000 procedures, which corresponds to an average of about 10 procedures per day, and essentially related to Hemodialysis in critical or acute patients, the Interventional Nephrology, the Clinical Nephrology and Peritoneal Dialysis. The development of the Nephrology Day Care Units can help to increase our autonomy, our presence in Hospitals, recover the progressive loss of clinical activity (diagnostic and therapeutic skills) in the past to the benefit of other Specialties. It also contributes to: Promote and develop the Diagnostic and Interventional Nephrology; improve the clinical management of patients with Primary Health Level, promote the Health Education and Investigation, collaborate in the Resources Management, and finally, to make more attractive and exciting our Specialty, both for nephrologists to training specialists.

  17. Procoagulant activity in stored units of red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Aleshnick, Maya; Foley, Jonathan H; Keating, Friederike K; Butenas, Saulius

    2016-06-10

    The procoagulant activity (PA) of stored units of red blood cells (RBC) increases over time, which is related to the expression/exposure of tissue factor (TF). However, there is a discrepancy between the TF measured and changes in PA observed, suggesting that other blood components contribute to this activity. Our goal was to evaluate changes in PA of stored RBCs and to determine possible contributors to it. RBC units from 4 healthy donors were prepared and stored at 4 °C. On selected days, RBC aliquots were reconstituted with autologous plasma and tested in the thromboelastography assay. Corresponding supernatants were tested in a clotting assay. For all donors, the clotting time (CT) of reconstituted RBC units decreased from ∼3000-4000s on day 1 to ∼1000-1600s on day 30, with the most dramatic changes occurring between days 1 and 5. Anti-TF antibody slightly prolonged the CT. The concentration of TF did not change significantly over time and was within the range of 0.3-2.3 pM. Bovine lactadherin (LTD) prolonged the CT of the RBC (by 2.4-3.4-fold in days 3-5 and by 1.3-1.8-fold at day 30). Anti-TF antibody together with LTD had a cumulative effect on the CT prolongation. CT of supernatants responded to both anti-TF and anti-FXIa antibodies. Three contributors to the PA of stored RBC were identified, i.e. FXIa in solution and phosphatidylserine and TF exposed on blood cells and microparticles. Failure of LTD and antibodies to completely eliminate PA suggests that other components of blood could contribute to it.

  18. ISS Plasma Contactor Units Operations During Strong Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alred, J.; Mikatarian, R.; Barsamian, H.; Minow, J.; Koontz, S.

    2003-12-01

    The large structure and high voltage arrays of the ISS represent a complex system that interacts with the Earth's ionosphere. To mitigate spacecraft charging problems on the ISS, two Plasma Contactor Units discharge ionized xenon gas to "clamp" the potential of the ISS with respect to the low Earth orbit plasma. The Plasma Interaction Model, a model of ISS plasma interaction developed from the basic physics of the interaction phenomena, includes magnetic induction effects, plasma temperature and density effects, interaction of the high voltage solar arrays with ionospheric plasma, and accounts for other conductive areas on the ISS. To augment this model, the PCU discharge current has been monitored for the ISS in a variety of flight attitudes as well as during the annual seasons. A review of the PCU discharge currents shows a correlation to the geomagnetic activity. The variation in the PCU discharge current during strong geomagnetic activity will be presented. Also, the PCU discharge currents during periods of low geomagnetic activity will be discussed. The presentation will conclude with a comparison of satellite plasma measurements during different stages of geomagnetic activity.

  19. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  20. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  1. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  2. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  3. 36 CFR 9.83 - Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities in National Park System units. 9.83 Section 9.83 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Coordination of AMRAP activities in National Park System units. (a) To facilitate compliance with this Subpart... agreeable schedule of AMRAP projects and activities in Alaska units of the National Park System....

  4. Heterotrophic activities of bacterioplankton and bacteriobenthos.

    PubMed

    Chocair, J A; Albright, L J

    1981-03-01

    Several marine waters and surface sediments of coastal British Columbia were analyzed and compared for bacterial colony forming units (CFU) and numbers of active bacteria (NAB) as indicated by microautoradiography, glucose and alanine heterotrophic activities, and dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC). Bacteria numbers (CFU, NAB) were usually much greater (by several orders of magnitude) in surface sediments than in overlying waters. DOC and POC were also generally greater in surface sediments than in overlying waters, often by as much as one order of magnitude. Both glucose and alanine heterotrophic potentials were greater in surface sediments; however, on a per active cell (NAB) basis, no significant differences were noted between the glucose-specific activities of the bacteria of the surface sediments and overlying waters. The data suggest that these surface sediments carry greater standing crops of bacteria than overlying waters without significant decreases in glucose-specific activities.

  5. Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone with CP-45,899 against large inocula of beta-lactamase-producing Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, P K; Washington, J A

    1981-01-01

    Bactericidal activity of cefoperazone, alone and in combination with the beta-lactamase inhibitor CP-45,899, was tested against inocula of 10(7) colony-forming units of beta-lactamase-producing isolates of Haemophilus influenzae type b per ml. Of 19 strains tested, 10 required greater than or equal to 64 microgram of cefoperazone per ml for killing, whereas no strains were killed by less than 64 microgram of CP-45,899 per ml. Synergy occurred with the combination of 4 microgram of each agent per ml against 9 of the 10 cefoperazone-resistant strains. PMID:6269484

  6. Mining Claim Activity on Federal Land in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Several statistical compilations of mining claim activity on Federal land derived from the Bureau of Land Management's LR2000 database have previously been published by the U.S Geological Survey (USGS). The work in the 1990s did not include Arkansas or Florida. None of the previous reports included Alaska because it is stored in a separate database (Alaska Land Information System) and is in a different format. This report includes data for all states for which there are Federal mining claim records, beginning in 1976 and continuing to the present. The intent is to update the spatial and statistical data associated with this report on an annual basis, beginning with 2005 data. The statistics compiled from the databases are counts of the number of active mining claims in a section of land each year from 1976 to the present for all states within the United States. Claim statistics are subset by lode and placer types, as well as a dataset summarizing all claims including mill site and tunnel site claims. One table presents data by case type, case status, and number of claims in a section. This report includes a spatial database for each state in which mining claims were recorded, except North Dakota, which only has had two claims. A field is present that allows the statistical data to be joined to the spatial databases so that spatial displays and analysis can be done by using appropriate geographic information system (GIS) software. The data show how mining claim activity has changed in intensity, space, and time. Variations can be examined on a state, as well as a national level. The data are tied to a section of land, approximately 640 acres, which allows it to be used at regional, as well as local scale. The data only pertain to Federal land and mineral estate that was open to mining claim location at the time the claims were staked.

  7. Lung segmentation from HRCT using united geometric active contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwei; Li, Chuanfu; Xiong, Jin; Feng, Huanqing

    2007-12-01

    Accurate lung segmentation from high resolution CT images is a challenging task due to various detail tracheal structures, missing boundary segments and complex lung anatomy. One popular method is based on gray-level threshold, however its results are usually rough. A united geometric active contours model based on level set is proposed for lung segmentation in this paper. Particularly, this method combines local boundary information and region statistical-based model synchronously: 1) Boundary term ensures the integrality of lung tissue.2) Region term makes the level set function evolve with global characteristic and independent on initial settings. A penalizing energy term is introduced into the model, which forces the level set function evolving without re-initialization. The method is found to be much more efficient in lung segmentation than other methods that are only based on boundary or region. Results are shown by 3D lung surface reconstruction, which indicates that the method will play an important role in the design of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) system.

  8. Applying activity-based costing to the nuclear medicine unit.

    PubMed

    Suthummanon, Sakesun; Omachonu, Vincent K; Akcin, Mehmet

    2005-08-01

    Previous studies have shown the feasibility of using activity-based costing (ABC) in hospital environments. However, many of these studies discuss the general applications of ABC in health-care organizations. This research explores the potential application of ABC to the nuclear medicine unit (NMU) at a teaching hospital. The finding indicates that the current cost averages 236.11 US dollars for all procedures, which is quite different from the costs computed by using ABC. The difference is most significant with positron emission tomography scan, 463 US dollars (an increase of 96%), as well as bone scan and thyroid scan, 114 US dollars (a decrease of 52%). The result of ABC analysis demonstrates that the operational time (machine time and direct labour time) and the cost of drugs have the most influence on cost per procedure. Clearly, to reduce the cost per procedure for the NMU, the reduction in operational time and cost of drugs should be analysed. The result also indicates that ABC can be used to improve resource allocation and management. It can be an important aid in making management decisions, particularly for improving pricing practices by making costing more accurate. It also facilitates the identification of underutilized resources and related costs, leading to cost reduction. The ABC system will also help hospitals control costs, improve the quality and efficiency of the care they provide, and manage their resources better.

  9. 78 FR 49553 - Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Three Mile Island, Unit 2; Post Shutdown Decommissioning Activities Report AGENCY: Nuclear...) for Three Mile Island, Unit 2 (TMI-2). The PSDAR provides an overview of GPUN's...

  10. Measuring the Effectiveness of Active Associate TFI Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology Air University Air Education and Training Command...commanders to establish a healthy command climate and deliberately execute the mission, lead people, manage resources, and improve the unit. A vital part...support, including organization of Service forces, control of resources and equipment, personnel management , logistics, individual and unit training

  11. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, and published in the "Catalog of Information on Water Data, Index to Water Quality Section, Edition 1970." This is one of four indexes, each of which is a separate section of the Catalog. Three of the indexes, "Index to Water-Quality Section," "Index to Surface-Water Section," and "Index to Ground-.Water Stations," contain information on data acquired on a recurrent basis at specific locations for a period of 3 years or more. The fourth section, "Index to Areal Investigations and Miscellaneous Activities," is concerned with specific projects or shorter-term data activities that involve field or laboratory measurements or observations not included in any other section of the Catalog. The Catalog is a record of activities throughout the country (and in some places along the international border between the United States and Canada) conducted by Federal and non-Federal agencies engaged in the acquisition of water data and who furnish such information for presentation in the Catalog. The Catalog itself is an outgrowth of an assignment to the Department of the Interior and in turn to the Geological Survey, by the Office of Management and Budget, through the medium of OMB Circular A-67. This Circular states in part that one of the assigned responsibilities will be maintenance of a "central catalog of information on...water data and on Federal activities being planned or conducted to acquire such data." As an extension of this activity, non-Federal agencies are solicited to participate in the program. In this report, information is presented by means of tables and illustrations preceded by brief explanations. It includes the agencies collecting the data, the number of stations located on surface and ground waters where temperature measurements are made, the distribution of stations by States and by the 21 regions of the Water Resources Council (WRC) (a Federal agency created in accordance with the Water Resources Planning Act of

  12. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  13. Integrated Activities for a Who-Dun-It Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching PreK-8, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Describes how the Rogers Elementary School initiates student-created activities. Includes 33 activities chosen from a total of 60 suggestions from these students. These activities are grouped under two major themes, "Fingerprints" and "Detectives." Explains strategies of which these activities can help students in learning…

  14. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  15. Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Tongans in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Moy, Karen; Dinger, Mary K.; Williams, Daniel P.; Harbour, Vanessa J.

    2011-01-01

    Until recently, health statistics data for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) in the United States were almost nonexistent, due to their being historically aggregated into one homogenous group with Asian Americans. However, recent studies on U.S. NHPI highlight a multitude of obesity-related health disparities indicating the necessity…

  16. Motor unit activity after eccentric exercise and muscle damage in humans.

    PubMed

    Semmler, J G

    2014-04-01

    It is well known that unaccustomed eccentric exercise leads to muscle damage and soreness, which can produce long-lasting effects on muscle function. How this muscle damage influences muscle activation is poorly understood. The purpose of this brief review is to highlight the effect of eccentric exercise on the activation of muscle by the nervous system, by examining the change in motor unit activity obtained from surface electromyography (EMG) and intramuscular recordings. Previous research shows that eccentric exercise produces unusual changes in the EMG–force relation that influences motor performance during isometric, shortening and lengthening muscle contractions and during fatiguing tasks. When examining the effect of eccentric exercise at the single motor unit level, there are substantial changes in recruitment thresholds, discharge rates, motor unit conduction velocities and synchronization, which can last for up to 1 week after eccentric exercise. Examining the time course of these changes suggests that the increased submaximal EMG after eccentric exercise most likely occurs through a decrease in motor unit conduction velocity and an increase in motor unit activity related to antagonist muscle coactivation and low-frequency fatigue. Furthermore, there is a commonly held view that eccentric exercise produces preferential damage to high-threshold motor units, but the evidence for this in humans is limited. Further research is needed to establish whether there is preferential damage to high-threshold motor units after eccentric exercise in humans, preferably by linking changes in motor unit activity with estimates of motor unit size using selective intramuscular recording techniques.

  17. Physical Activity Opportunity in United States Public Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Lisa; Butterfield, Stephen A.; Pratt, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that many elementary schools have curtailed recess and Physical Education (Morrow, Jackson & Payne 1999). These finding are at a variance with the goal of Healthy People 2010 to increase physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity opportunities (PAO) in U. S. public elementary schools.…

  18. Development Activities on an Advanced Propellant Flow Control Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noci, G.; Siciliano, P.; Fallerini, L.; Kutufa, N.; Rivetti, A.; Galassi, C.; Bruschi, P.; Piotto, M.

    2004-10-01

    A new generation of propellant control equipment for electric propulsion systems is needed in order to improve performance and operating ranges, symplify h/w configuration, reduce mass and dimensions, eliminate mass flow ripple, reduce time response. In this frame, the development of key components, their assembly and experimental investigation/ validation is on-going at Alenia Spazio-Laben/Business Unit Proel Tecnologie ( Proel in the following ) in the frame of an ESA GSTP program. The new components shall support different EP technologies, future EP multi-tasking capability and wide operating ranges. This paper reports about the development effort, its achievements and perspectives. 1. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS BOL Beginning of Life CMBR Ceramic multilayer bender ring CTA Constant Temperature Anemometry. DUT Device under test EOL End of Life EP Electric Propulsion GEO Geosyncrhonous Earth Orbit GFCU Gas Flow Control Unit GIT Gridded ion thruster HET Hall Effect Thrusters LEO Low Earth Orbit LPC Low pressure capillary MEOP Maximum Expected Operating Pressure MFS Mass Flow rate Sensor NSSK North-South Station Keeping Pred Reduced pressure Ptank Tank pressure RMT Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster RMTA Radiofrequency Magnetic Thruster Assembly ROOV Regulation and On-Off Valve SoW Statement of Work SPT Stationary Plasma Thruster.

  19. Sialidase Activity in Mycoplasma synoviae

    PubMed Central

    May, Meghan; Kleven, Stanley H.; Brown, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Eleven strains of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma synoviae were evaluated for the presence of sialidase activity by using the fluorogenic substrate 2′-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid and the sialidase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The kinetics of in vitro growth in modified Frey’s medium were also assessed for each strain. Five strains had been isolated from clinically symptomatic chickens, and strains WVU1853T and K3344 have been demonstrated to be capable of reproducing disease in specific pathogen-free chickens. All strains exhibited sialidase activity, although the amount varied 65 fold (P < 0.0001) from 1.3 x 10−7 to 2.0 x 10−9 activity units/colony-forming unit among strains. Strains originally isolated from clinically symptomatic birds had more (P < 0.05) sialidase activity than strains from asymptomatic birds. Strain WVU1853T exhibited the most sialidase activity (P < 0.0001) and grew to the highest culture density (P < 0.0001) among strains, but across strains the rank correlation of growth rate with sialidase activity was not significant. Negligible activity was detected in conditioned culture supernatant fluid. This is the first report of sialidase activity in pathogenic strains of M. synoviae, which suggests a potential enzymatic basis for virulence of the organism. PMID:18251389

  20. A review of recent activity in the United States.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, H.L.; Petrie, W.L.

    1979-01-01

    Either an overabundance or a deficiency of trace metals in the food chain can ultimately affect adversely the health of livestock and man. Increasing interest in the United States in the distribution of metals in the environment and in metal pollutants has led to widespread interdisciplinary research sponsored by governmental, private and academic groups concerning the availability of trace elements for absorption by plants and animals, and the effects of trace elements throughout the food chain. Effects on the environment of coal-fired power plants, the mining and processing of metals, asbestos, and phosphate, and the disposal of industrial and nuclear wastes have also received much attention in the past few years.-Authors

  1. Relationships between sensory input, motor output and unit activity in interpositus and red nuclei during intentional movement.

    PubMed

    Soechting, J F; Burton, J E; Onoda, N

    1978-08-18

    The relationship between unit activity in interpositus (8 units) and red nuclei (11 units) and the EMG activity of the biceps during intentional elbow flexion movements was investigated by means of cross-correlation analysis. This analysis showed that there were long-lasting (200 msec) changes in the probability of EMG activity both before and after a single spike in neurons which covaried with the motor output. The dependence of the activity of these units on sensory inputs was investigated by (1) calculating the quantitative relationship between angular displacement and unit activity and (2) recording unit activity after the sensory input from peripheral afferents had been eliminated by dorsal rhizotomy.

  2. United States Department of Energy Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, R.J.; Adcock, P.W.; DeVault, R.C.

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is working with partners from the gas heating and cooling industry to improve energy efficiency using advance absorption technologies, to eliminate chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), to reduce global warming through more efficient combustion of natural gas, and to impact electric peak demand of air conditioning. To assist industry in developing these gas heating and cooling absorption technologies, the US DOE sponsors the Thermally Activated Heat Pump Program. It is divided into five key activities, addressing residential gas absorption heat pumps, large commercial chillers, advanced absorption fluids, computer-aided design, and advanced ``Hi-Cool`` heat pumps.

  3. 77 FR 326 - Agency Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes): Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes): Activity....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  4. 76 FR 61148 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes) Activity... information technology. Title: Application for United States Flag for Burial Purposes, VA Form 21-2008....

  5. 77 FR 69650 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers... concerning the Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. This request for comment is...: Title: Holders or Containers which Enter the United States Duty Free. OMB Number: 1651-0035. Form...

  6. Pivoting output unit control systems activated by jacks. [for controlling aircraft flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belliere, P.

    1978-01-01

    An invention to be used for controlling aircraft flaps is described. It is applicable to control systems with two coaxial output units which pivot simultaneously with respect to two fixed units and which are activated by two opposed, straight coaxial jacks.

  7. Population, 54 Activities: An Experimental Unit, First Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Univ., CO. Center for Teaching International Relations.

    Supplementary teaching activities at the junior- and senior-high school level on issues and topics involving population factors are provided. Topics include population growth, demography, graphing, population distribution, and population control. Community and national census factors as well as world population are studied. Students are helped to…

  8. Marine Activity Dynamics (M.A.D.). Unit S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence. Education Information Center.

    This curriculum guide describes an activity-oriented marine study program, designed for use with middle school children (grade 5). The content focuses primarily upon the life sciences, with some emphasis on chemistry and geology. Following the development of a rationale for the inclusion of marine sciences in the school curriculum, a middle…

  9. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that...

  11. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  12. Active tectonic studies in the United States, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Weldon, R.J., II )

    1991-01-01

    The techniques and instrumentation used in active tectonic studies are discussed, and recent results are reviewed. It is suggested that a critical mass of data on several particular regions has been accumulated, making possible critical debates and attempts to assess earthquake hazards. Particular attention is given to studies of the Pacific Northwest region, basin and range deformation studies, and distributed deformation and hidden earthquake sources. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  13. Active learning in the United Kingdom undergraduate dental course.

    PubMed

    Carrotte, P V

    1993-09-25

    'Active Learning' is a frequently encountered term much in vogue in educational circles and widely considered in many current textbooks and papers. It is, however, a most difficult term to define. This paper seeks firstly to explore and discuss the meaning of the term with special relation to undergraduate dental education, and then, in a consideration of the different approaches to studying, considers aspects of the current dental undergraduate curriculum, both teaching and assessment, which may have an influence on the student's approach to learning.

  14. United States data collection activities and requirements, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrin, S.; Mcgregor, D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential market for a data collection system was investigated to determine whether the user needs would be sufficient to support a satellite relay data collection system design. The activities of 107,407 data collections stations were studied to determine user needs in agriculture, climatology, environmental monitoring, forestry, geology, hydrology, meteorology, and oceanography. Descriptions of 50 distinct data collections networks are described and used to form the user data base. The computer program used to analyze the station data base is discussed, and results of the analysis are presented in maps and graphs. Information format and coding is described in the appendix.

  15. Update: influenza activity -- United States and worldwide, May 18-September 20, 2014.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lenee; Brammer, Lynnette; Smith, Sophie; Mustaquim, Desiree; Steffens, Craig; Abd Elal, Anwar Isa; Gubareva, Larisa; Hall, Henrietta; Wallis, Teresa; Villanueva, Julie; Xu, Xiyan; Bresee, Joseph; Cox, Nancy; Finelli, Lyn

    2014-10-03

    During May 18-September 20, 2014, the United States experienced low levels of seasonal influenza activity overall. Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1), influenza A (H3N2), and influenza B viruses were detected worldwide and were identified sporadically in the United States. In August, two influenza A (H3N2) variant viruses (H3N2v) were detected in Ohio. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States and worldwide during May 18-September 20, 2014.

  16. Overview of solar detoxification activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M; Williams, T; Turchi, C

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories, has been investigating a process that uses solar energy to destroy hazardous wastes in air and water. The process, photocatalytic oxidation, uses ultraviolet light in conjunction with the semiconductor titanium dioxide to generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Early research and development activities have demonstrated that photocatalysis may be cost effective for some applications. The Department of Energy is currently working to establish a commercial industry that uses solar energy to destroy hazardous wastes in air, water, and soil. To achieve this objective, NREL and Sandia are bringing together environmental firms, solar manufacturers, and organizations that have waste or remediation problems.

  17. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  20. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1855 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1855 Section 60.1855 Protection of Environment... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon to control dioxins/furans or mercury emissions, you must keep records of five items:...

  6. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit III--Cylindrical Grinding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the third unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  7. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit II--Surface Grinding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the second unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  8. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit I--Grinding Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the first unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  9. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  10. Interaction of drug based copper(II) complexes with Herring Sperm DNA and their biological activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mohan N.; Patel, Chintan R.; Joshi, Hardik N.

    2012-11-01

    Square pyramidal Cu(II) complexes with NS donor ligand and ciprofloxacin have been synthesized and characterized using analytical and spectral techniques. The synthesized complexes have been tested for their antimicrobial activity using double dilution technique in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and colony forming unit (CFU). The DNA binding ability of the complexes with Sperm Herring DNA has been performed using absorption titration and viscosity measurement. The nuclease activity of complexes with plasmid DNA (pUC19) has been carried out using agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using NBT/NADH/PMS system. The cytotoxic properties of metal complexes have been evaluated using brine shrimp lethality bioassay.

  11. Olfactory bulb units - Activity correlated with inhalation cycles and odor quality.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macrides, F.; Chorover, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Single olfactory bulb units were studied in two macrosmatic species of rodents under conditions intended to preserve the cyclical stimulation which normally accompanies nasal breathing. Patterns of unit activity related to the inhalation cycle were observed in all animals, often in the absence of specific stimuli, and could not be explained in simple mechanical terms. Distinctive changes in these patterns occurred in response to certain odors, and were generally independent of changes in the overall firing frequency. These findings indicate that a change in the overall firing frequency of unit discharges is neither a necessary nor sufficient measure of responsiveness to odors in the rodent olfactory bulb, and that stimulus-specific temporal distributions of unit firing may be involved in olfacto-endocrine activities.

  12. Acute effects of alcohol on unit activity in the motor cortex of freely moving rabbits: comparison with the limbic cortex.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, Y I; Grinchenko, Y V; Laukka, S; Järvilehto, T; Maz, V N

    1991-07-01

    Unit activity was recorded from the motor cortex of eight freely moving rabbits in order to examine the acute effect of ethanol (1 g kg-1) on organization of unit activity and to compare it with our earlier results from the limbic cortex. The rabbits performed a food-acquisition task in the experimental cage. Unit activity was recorded during behaviour in the control experiment followed by the alcohol experiment on the next day. After ethanol, behavioural mistakes and the duration of the behavioural cycle significantly increased. In the control experiments activation of 58% of the units had no constant relation to the phases of the behavioural cycle (non-involved units), whereas 42% of the units were constantly activated during certain phases (involved units). Two per cent of the latter units were activated in relation to newly learned behavioural acts (e.g. pedal pressing; L units), 28% in relation to food seizure and/or grinding (S units) and 12% in relation to certain movements during different behavioural acts (M units). Ethanol had no effect on the number of active units and the same relation between the number of non-involved and involved units or between the number of different types of involved units was found. However, the number of involved units decreased in the upper and increased in the lower cortical layers. Also the number of units with low background frequency increased, although the frequency within activations did not change. In our earlier study the number of active units in the limbic cortex decreased after ethanol by one third and the relation between the number of L and M units was reversed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Recordkeeping § 62.15310 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15310 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 62.15310 Section 62.15310 Protection of Environment... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Recordkeeping § 62.15310 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon? For municipal waste combustion...

  16. 40 CFR 60.1370 - What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated carbon?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste combustion units that use activated carbon? 60.1370 Section 60.1370 Protection of Environment... SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is... Recordkeeping § 60.1370 What records must I keep for municipal waste combustion units that use activated...

  17. Distribution of the forces produced by motor unit activity in the human flexor digitorum profundus

    PubMed Central

    Kilbreath, S L; Gorman, R B; Raymond, J; Gandevia, S C

    2002-01-01

    In humans, the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), which is a multi-tendoned muscle, produces forces that flex the four distal interphalangeal joints of the fingers. We determined whether the force associated with activity in a single motor unit in the FDP was confined to a single finger or distributed to more than one finger during a natural grasp. The discharge of single low-threshold motor units (n = 69) was recorded at sites across the muscle during weak voluntary grasping involving all fingers and spike-triggered averaging of the forces under each of the finger pads was used to assess the distribution pattern. Spike-triggered averaging revealed that time-locked changes in force occurred under the ‘test’ finger (that finger on which the unit principally acted) as well as under the ‘non-test’ fingers. However, for the index-, middle- and ring-finger units, the changes in force under non-test fingers were typically small (< 20 % of those under the test finger). For little-finger units, the mean changes in force under the adjacent ring finger were large (>50 % of those under the test finger). The distribution of forces by little-finger units differed significantly from that for each of the other three fingers. Apart from increases in force under non-test fingers, there was occasional unloading of adjacent fingers (22/267 combinations), usually affecting the index finger. The increases in force under the test finger correlated significantly with the background force for units acting on the middle, ring and little fingers. During a functional grasp, the activity of single units in the FDP allows for a relatively selective control of forces at the tips of the index, middle and ring fingers, but this is limited for little-finger units. PMID:12181299

  18. Update: influenza activity--United States and worldwide, May 19-September 28, 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-10-25

    During May 19-September 28, 2013,* the United States experienced low levels of seasonal influenza activity overall. Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 (pH1N1), influenza A (H3N2), and influenza B viruses were detected worldwide and were identified sporadically in the United States. In June, influenza A (H3N2) variant(†) viruses (H3N2)v were first detected in Indiana, and between June 18 and September 28, a total of 20 cases of influenza A variant viruses ([H3N2]v and influenza A (H1N1) variant [H1N1]v) were reported from five states. This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States and worldwide from May 19 through September 28, 2013.

  19. Nurse Activism in the newborn intensive care unit: actions in response to an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Settle, Peggy Doyle

    2014-03-01

    Nurses working in a newborn intensive care unit report that treatment decision disagreements for infants in their care may lead to ethical dilemmas involving all health-care providers. Applying Rest's Four-Component Model of Moral Action as the theoretical framework, this study examined the responses of 224 newborn intensive care unit nurses to the Nurses Ethical Involvement Survey. The three most frequent actions selected were as follows: talking with other nurses, talking with doctors, and requesting a team meeting. The multiple regression analysis indicates that newborn intensive care unit nurses with greater concern for the ethical aspects of clinical practice (p = .001) and an increased perception of their ability to influence ethical decision making (p = .018) were more likely to display Nurse Activism. Future research is necessary to identify other factors leading to and inhibiting Nurse Activism as these findings explained just 8.5% of the variance.

  20. Nursing Activities Score: nursing work load in a burns Intensive Care Unit1

    PubMed Central

    Camuci, Marcia Bernadete; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Cardeli, Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the nursing work load in a Burns Intensive Care Unit according to the Nursing Activities Score. Method an exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The Nursing Activities Score was used for data collection between October 2011 and May 2012, totalling 1,221 measurements, obtained from 50 patients' hospital records. Data for qualitative variables was described in tables; for the quantitative variables, calculations using statistical measurements were used. Results the mean score for the Nursing Activities Score was 70.4% and the median was 70.3%, corresponding to the percentage of the time spent on direct care to the patient in 24 hours. Conclusion the Nursing Activities Score provided information which involves the process of caring for patients hospitalized in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and indicated that there is a high work load for the nursing team of the sector studied. PMID:26107842

  1. Motivational Attitudes toward Participating in Physical Activity among International Students Attending Colleges in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoh, Taeho

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate motivational attitudes toward participating in physical activity among international students attending colleges in the United States. Five-hundred twenty-one students participated in this study. The results indicated that the factors of organic development ("keeping good health and physical…

  2. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International... the United States. (a) Activities incidental to international or foreign business. An Edge or... permitted by section 25A(6) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) and are incidental to international or...

  3. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International... the United States. (a) Activities incidental to international or foreign business. An Edge or... permitted by section 25A(6) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) and are incidental to international or...

  4. 12 CFR 211.6 - Permissible activities of Edge and agreement corporations in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) International... the United States. (a) Activities incidental to international or foreign business. An Edge or... permitted by section 25A(6) of the FRA (12 U.S.C. 615) and are incidental to international or...

  5. 78 FR 21191 - NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA Activities Under the United Nations World Forum for... upcoming scheduled meetings of the World Forum for the Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations (WP.29) and its... each calendar year the Agency would provide a list of scheduled meetings of the World Forum for...

  6. Teen Sexual Activity, Pregnancy and Childbearing among Latinos in the United States. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    The Latino population is the fastest-growing major racial/ethnic group in the United States. By 2020, approximately 16 percent of the population will be Latino. This increase will be even more pronounced among teens. This fact sheet summarizes data from the National Vital Statistics Reports on reported sexual activity, pregnancy rates, and…

  7. Our Working World: Cities at Work. Text, Resource Unit, and Activity Book, Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senesh, Lawrence

    This unit of 22 related items includes a text, activity book, resource book, workbook, records, and filmstrips, all dealing with the history, present, and future of cities. The program tries to involve third grade children in the cities' problems by helping them feel they should participate in discovering the causes of the major problems cities…

  8. Lesture Less And Listen More...A Laboratory, Activity Oriented Unit On Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Jerry; Munch, Theodore W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a drug unit which uses videotape interviews to: (1) motivate adolescents to develop positive attitudes toward drug abuse; (2) increase student participation in classroom activities; (3) use appropriate science exercises to further understandings; and (4) permit students to work on things of personal interest. (Author/CJ)

  9. 78 FR 38068 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0083. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) will be submitting the...

  10. 75 FR 15446 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs And Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: United States- Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland.... Customs and Border (CBP) invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on...

  11. 78 FR 23280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act (CBTPA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department...: Direct all written comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations...

  12. State Research Coordinating Unit Activities for the Period July 1, 1972--December 31, 1972. Semiannual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    In an alphabetical listing by States, the report summarizes the research activities of the State Research Coordinating Units (RCU's) conducted under Section 131 (6) of Part C of the Vocational Education Amendments of 1968 during the first six months of fiscal year 1973. The report's purpose is to provide information that will assist States to be…

  13. 78 FR 9720 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Holders or Containers Which Enter the United States Duty Free AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... collection. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security will...

  14. Role of ?reative Social Practices in the Development of United Activities in Russian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkov, Yury Grigorievich; Kulikov, Sergey Pavlovich; Krotov, Dmitry Valerievich; Salogub, Anzhela Mikhailovna; Gnatyuk, Maksim Aleksandrovich

    2016-01-01

    The article reveals the role of creative social practices in the development of united activities in Russian society. Creative social practices in Russian society are implemented by different social groups and strata for the purpose of self-realization, participation in socially important affairs when agreed by state institutions, ensuring safety…

  15. Resveratrol accelerates erythroid maturation by activation of FoxO3 and ameliorates anemia in beta-thalassemic mice

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Sara Santos; De Falco, Luigia; Ghaffari, Saghi; Brugnara, Carlo; Sinclair, David A.; Matte’, Alessandro; Iolascon, Achille; Mohandas, Narla; Bertoldi, Mariarita; An, Xiuli; Siciliano, Angela; Rimmelé, Pauline; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Michan, Shaday; Zoratti, Elisa; Anne, Janin; De Franceschi, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenolic-stilbene, has received increased attention in the last decade due to its wide range of biological activities. Beta(β)-thalassemias are inherited red cell disorders, found worldwide, characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and red cell oxidative damage with reduced survival. We evaluated the effects of low-dose-resveratrol (5 μM) on in vitro human erythroid differentiation of CD34+ from normal and β-thalassemic subjects. We found that resveratrol induces accelerated erythroid-maturation, resulting in the reduction of colony-forming units of erythroid cells and increased intermediate and late erythroblasts. In sorted colony-forming units of erythroid cells resveratrol activates Forkhead-box-class-O3, decreases Akt activity and up-regulates anti-oxidant enzymes as catalase. In an in vivo murine model for β-thalassemia, resveratrol (2.4 mg/kg) reduces ineffective erythropoiesis, increases hemoglobin levels, reduces reticulocyte count and ameliorates red cell survival. In both wild-type and β-thalassemic mice, resveratrol up-regulates scavenging enzymes such as catalase and peroxiredoxin-2 through Forkhead-box-class-O3 activation. These data indicate that resveratrol inhibits Akt resulting in FoxO3 activation with upregulation of cytoprotective systems enabling the pathological erythroid precursors to resist the oxidative damage and continue to differentiate. Our data suggest that the dual effect of resveratrol on erythropoiesis through activation of FoxO3 transcriptional factor combined with the amelioration of oxidative stress in circulating red cells may be considered as a potential novel therapeutic strategy in treating β-thalassemia. PMID:23975182

  16. Breaking the Chain of Infection: Dental Unit Water Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Amrita; Mehta, Sonia; Dang, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The air–water syringes, ultrasonic scalers, high speed air turbine handpieces are connected to dental units by a network of small-bore plastic tubes through which water and air travel to activate or cool the instruments and it had been shown that this system is extensively contaminated with microbial biofilms and pose a potential risk of infection for patients as well as dental professionals. Aim To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants in reducing the microbial colony count in water derived from Dental Unit Waterlines. Materials and Methods Five random dental units were selected and samples were collected before and after intervention with 5 disinfectants (0.02% H2O2 continuously, 0.02% H2O2 continuously with shock treatment with 0.25% H2O2 weekly, 0.12% Chlorohexidine and 12% Ethanol overnight, 1:50 Original Listerine overnight, 2% Sodium Perborate and 2% EDTA 5 minutes in morning) using different disinfection methods for 4 weeks. Samples were cultured on Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) agar for microbial counting. Results Results were recorded as Colony forming units/ml (cfu/ml) and were evaluated statistically. Results showed that all the dental unit waterlines were heavily contaminated with microbes before any intervention. After 1 day of disinfection regime the counts reduced significantly and showed progressive reduction in consecutive weeks. Goals set by ADA & CDC were ultimately achieved at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion All the disinfectants were equally effective in reducing the microbial colony count of DUWLs, irrespective of their concentration and method of disinfection. PMID:27630960

  17. Recent Data Generation Activities at the Atomic and Molecular Data Unit of the IAEA

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.E.H.; Humbert, D.

    2005-05-27

    The main data generation mechanism of the Atomic and Molecular (A+M) Data Unit of the IAEA is the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). The International Fusion Research Council Subcommittee on Atomic and Molecular Data for Fusion recommends topics for new CRPs to be initiated by the A+M Unit. A typical CRP has a lifetime of three to five years. At the start of the CRP a Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) is held with the purpose of formulating a detailed work plan. At later RCMs progress on these work plans is reported and the studies debated and expanded. At the conclusion of the CRP the results are compiled in a volume of the journal Atomic and Plasma-Material Interaction Data for Fusion. Numerical results are also added to the electronic database as appropriate. Normally the Unit has three to four active CRPs, and also holds Technical Meetings and invites individual Consultants to IAEA Headquarters, Vienna for specific tasks. Such activities can result in providing advice on a particular topic, on data for a particular process, or a new capability to be made widely available. Recently, consultants to the Unit have provided extensive additions to the Unit databases, as well as interfaces to run several calculational tools through the Internet. Specific examples will be presented.

  18. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin against Contemporary Bacterial Pathogens from the United States and Europe, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, M. A.; Sader, H. S.; Rhomberg, P. R.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The in vitro activities of delafloxacin and comparator antimicrobial agents against 6,485 bacterial isolates collected from medical centers in Europe and the United States in 2014 were tested. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and beta-hemolytic streptococci and had activity similar to that of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin against certain members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Overall, the broadest coverage of the tested pathogens (Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli) was observed with meropenem and tigecycline in both Europe and the United States. Delafloxacin was shown to be active against organisms that may be encountered in acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections. PMID:28167542

  19. Proposal for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual active microring optical integrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yunhong; Zhang, Xiaobei; Zhang, Xinliang; Huang, Dexiu

    2008-11-01

    A novel approach for loadable and erasable optical memory unit based on dual microring optical integrators is proposed and studied. The optical integrator, which can generate an optical step function for data storing, is synthesized using active media for loss compensation and a tunable phase shifter for data reading at any time. The input data into the memory is return-to-zero (RZ) signal, and the output data read from the memory is also RZ format with a narrower pulse width. An optical digital register based on the proposed optical memory unit is also investigated and simulated, which shows the potential for large scale data storage and serial-to-parallel data conversion. A great number of such memory units can be densely integrated on a photonic circuit for future large scale data storage and buffer.

  20. Surveillance report for active trachoma, 2006: National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Betty; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2007-12-01

    The National Trachoma Surveillance and Reporting Unit (NTSRU) was established in November 2006 to improve the quality and consistency of data collection and reporting of active trachoma in Australia. Active trachoma data collected in 2006, prior to the commencement of the NTSRU, were reported by the Northern Territory, South Australia and Western Australia. In most regions, Aboriginal children aged 5-9 years were screened for signs of active trachoma, following the World Health Organization simplified trachoma grading system. In the Northern Territory the Healthy School Aged Kids program conducted school-based screening for active trachoma in 74 schools in five regions (n = 2,253). In South Australia Aboriginal school children presented for active trachoma screening when an eye team visited five Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (n = 275). In Western Australia population health units in collaboration with staff from population health care services, conducted school based screening for active trachoma in 53 schools in four regions (n = 1,719). Regional active trachoma prevalence for 2006 varied between the states and the Northern Territory with reported prevalences ranging from: Northern Territory = 2.5%-30%, South Australia = 0%-25%, and Western Australia = 18%-53%. Few data were reported on facial cleanliness or other aspects of the SAFE strategy, and no data were reported for trichiasis.

  1. PRE-AND POST-ACTIVITY STRETCHING PRACTICES OF COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC TRAINERS IN THE UNITED STATES.

    PubMed

    Popp, Jennifer K; Bellar, David; Hoover, Donald L; Craig, Bruce W; Leitzelar, Brianna N; Wanless, Elizabeth A; Judge, Lawrence W

    2015-02-14

    The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of collegiate-certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States. Participants (n= 521) were provided an overview of the study, as well as a hyperlink to a web-based survey. The "Pre- and Post-Activity Practices in Athletic Training Questionnaire" consisted of demographic items and elements to measure knowledge and practices related to pre- and post-activity stretching routines. In previous studies, the survey demonstrated construct validity, α = .722. Pearson chi-square test was used to evaluate goodness of fit, and kappa was calculated to measure agreement between items. Only 32.2% of ATs recommended dynamic stretching (DS) to be performed pre-activity, whereas a larger percentage (42.2%) recommended a combination of static stretching (SS) and DS. ATs reported that only 28.0% of athletes are performing DS prior to activity. Conversely, 60.6% of collegiate ATs recommended SS post-exercise, and 61.0% of athletes agree and perform post-workout static stretching (κ=0.761, P<0.001). Collegiate ATs appear to under-utilize the current research evidence, which indicates that DS is more beneficial than SS when used pre-activity, and ATs continue to regularly incorporate SS in their pre-activity routines. However, there is evidence that collegiate ATs in the United States emphasize SS post-activity in a manner consistent with current research.

  2. Hurricane intensification along United States coast suppressed during active hurricane periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossin, James P.

    2017-01-01

    The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.

  3. Hurricane intensification along United States coast suppressed during active hurricane periods.

    PubMed

    Kossin, James P

    2017-01-19

    The North Atlantic ocean/atmosphere environment exhibits pronounced interdecadal variability that is known to strongly modulate Atlantic hurricane activity. Variability in sea surface temperature (SST) is correlated with hurricane variability through its relationship with the genesis and thermodynamic potential intensity of hurricanes. Another key factor that governs the genesis and intensity of hurricanes is ambient environmental vertical wind shear (VWS). Warmer SSTs generally correlate with more frequent genesis and greater potential intensity, while VWS inhibits genesis and prevents any hurricanes that do form from reaching their potential intensity. When averaged over the main hurricane-development region in the Atlantic, SST and VWS co-vary inversely, so that the two factors act in concert to either enhance or inhibit basin-wide hurricane activity. Here I show, however, that conditions conducive to greater basin-wide Atlantic hurricane activity occur together with conditions for more probable weakening of hurricanes near the United States coast. Thus, the VWS and SST form a protective barrier along the United States coast during periods of heightened basin-wide hurricane activity. Conversely, during the most-recent period of basin-wide quiescence, hurricanes (and particularly major hurricanes) near the United States coast, although substantially less frequent, exhibited much greater variability in their rate of intensification, and were much more likely to intensify rapidly. Such heightened variability poses greater challenges to operational forecasting and, consequently, greater coastal risk during hurricane events.

  4. Cord blood banking activity in Iran National Cord Blood Bank: a two years experience.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mostafa; Atarodi, Kamran; Nakhlestani, Mozhdeh; Abolghasemi, Hasan; Sadegh, Hosein; Faranoosh, Mohammad; Golzade, Khadije; Fadai, Razieh; Niknam, Fereshte; Zarif, Mahin Nikougoftar

    2014-02-01

    Today umbilical cord blood (UCB) has known as a commonly used source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation and many cord blood banks have been established around the world for collection and cryopreservation of cord blood units. Herein, we describe our experience at Iran National Cord Blood Bank (INCBB) during 2 years of activity. From November 2010 to 2012, UCBs were collected from 5 hospitals in Tehran. All the collection, processing, testing, cryopreservation and storage procedures were done according to standard operation procedures. Total nucleated cells (TNC) count, viability test, CD34+ cell count, colony forming unit (CFU) assay, screening tests and HLA typing were done on all banked units. Within 3770 collected units, only 32.9% fulfilled banking criteria. The mean volume of units was 105.2 ml and after volume reduction the mean of TNC, viability, CD34+ cells and CFUs was 10.76×10(8), 95.2%, 2.99×10(6) and 7.1×10(5), respectively. One unit was transplanted at Dec 2012 to a 5-year old patient with five of six HLA compatibilities. In our country banking of UCB is new and high rate of hematopoietic stem cell transplants needs expanding CB banks capacity to find more matching units, optimization of methods and sharing experiences to improve biological characterization of units.

  5. Liposome containing cinnamon oil with antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    PubMed

    Cui, Haiying; Li, Wei; Li, Changzhu; Vittayapadung, Saritporn; Lin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The global burden of bacterial disease remains high and is set against a backdrop of increasing antimicrobial resistance. There is a pressing need for highly effective and natural antibacterial agents. In this work, the anti-biofilm effect of cinnamon oil on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated. Then, cinnamon oil was encapsulated in liposomes to enhance its chemical stability. The anti-biofilm activities of the liposome-encapsulated cinnamon oil against MRSA biofilms on stainless steel, gauze, nylon membrane and non-woven fabrics were evaluated by colony forming unit determination. Scanning electron microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy analyses were employed to observe the morphological changes in MRSA biofilms treated with the encapsulated cinnamon oil. As a natural and safe spice, the cinnamon oil exhibited a satisfactory antibacterial performance on MRSA and its biofilms. The application of liposomes further improves the stability of antimicrobial agents and extends the action time.

  6. Factors affecting the in vitro activity of cefoperazone against the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro activity of cefoperazone against 32 strains of bacteria of the Bacteroides fragilis group was determined on four media by using a variety of test parameters. Lower mean minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained on Mueller-Hinton blood agar and supplemented brain heart infusion agar than were obtained on brucella laked blood agar or Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Higher MICs were obtained with 6-h inocula than with 24-h inocula, and slightly higher MICs were obtained with tests read at 48 as compared with 24 h. Conducting tests in an anaerobic glove box had little effect. The greatest differences in mean MICs were seen with inoculum densities of 10(4) and 10(5) colony-forming units. PMID:6459765

  7. Inadequate physical activity and health care expenditures in the United States.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Susan A; Fulton, Janet E; Pratt, Michael; Yang, Zhou; Adams, E Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the percentage of health care expenditures in the non-institutionalized United States (U.S.) adult population associated with levels of physical activity inadequate to meet current guidelines. Leisure-time physical activity data from the National Health Interview Survey (2004-2010) were merged with health care expenditure data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2006-2011). Health care expenditures for inactive (i.e., no physical activity) and insufficiently active adults (i.e., some physical activity but not enough to meet guidelines) were compared with active adults (i.e., ≥150minutes/week moderate-intensity equivalent activity) using an econometric model. Overall, 11.1% (95% CI: 7.3, 14.9) of aggregate health care expenditures were associated with inadequate physical activity (i.e., inactive and insufficiently active levels). When adults with any reported difficulty walking due to a health problem were excluded, 8.7% (95% CI: 5.2, 12.3) of aggregate health care expenditures were associated with inadequate physical activity. Increasing adults' physical activity to meet guidelines may reduce U.S. health care expenditures.

  8. Geography, Race/Ethnicity, and Physical Activity Among Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Elizabeth Kelley; Porch, Tichelle; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-02-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity reduces one's risk of chronic disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. These preventive benefits associated with physical activity are of particular importance for men, who have shorter life expectancy and experience higher rates of chronic diseases as compared to women. Studies at the community and national levels have found that social and environmental factors are important determinants of men's physical activity, but little is known about how regional influences affect physical activity behaviors among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and physical activity among men in the United States, and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in physical activity within these geographic regions. Cross-sectional data from men who participated the 2000 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey ( N = 327,556) was used. The primary outcome in this study was whether or not men had engaged in sufficient physical activity to receive health benefits, defined as meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Race/ethnicity and geographic region were the primary independent variables. Within every region, Hispanic and Asian men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. Within the Northeast, South, and West, black men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. The key findings indicate that the odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity among men differ significantly between geographic regions and within regions by race/ethnicity.

  9. Temporal and geographic trends of rotavirus activity in the United States, 1997-2004.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Reina M; Curns, Aaron T; Holman, Robert C; Pandya-Smith, Indra; LaMonte, Ashley; Bresee, Joseph S; Glass, Roger I

    2006-05-01

    Rotavirus (RV) has a characteristic seasonal pattern in the 48 contiguous states of the continental United States, and climatologic factors have been implicated though not confirmed. Since 1997, three significant events occurred, including strong El Niño and La Niña climatologic phenomena, and the brief introduction of a rotavirus (RV) vaccine. We examined trends in RV activity in the continental United States between 1997 and 2004, using data from a network of over 70 laboratories that voluntarily report weekly RV detection rates within the National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS). Analysis of NREVSS data indicates characteristic winter activity that begins in the Southwest in December or January, moves across the country, and ends in the Northeast in April or May. This pattern was not affected by the brief use of RV vaccine nor by periods of climate change associated with the El Niño and La Niña phenomena. The temporal and geographic pattern of RV spread in the United States has persisted since its initial description and defies easy explanation. An impact of the RV vaccine was not observed, either because of the limited uptake of the vaccine or the inherent variability of the system. NRVESS permits a gross assessment of RV geographic and temporal trends in the United States, but underscores the need for additional assessment mechanisms.

  10. Frost Growth CFD Model of an Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Geoghegan, Patrick J; Petrov, Andrei Y; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Zaltash, Abdolreza; Linkous, Randall Lee

    2008-01-01

    A frost growth model is incorporated into a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of a heat pump by means of a user-defined function in FLUENT, a commercial CFD code. The transient model is applied to the outdoor section of an Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop (IADR) unit in heating mode. IADR is a hybrid vapor compression and active desiccant unit capable of handling 100% outdoor air (dedicated outdoor air system) or as a total conditioning system, handling both outdoor air and space cooling or heating loads. The predicted increase in flow resistance and loss in heat transfer capacity due to frost build-up are compared to experimental pressure drop readings and thermal imaging. The purpose of this work is to develop a CFD model that is capable of predicting frost growth, an invaluable tool in evaluating the effectiveness of defrost-on-demand cycles.

  11. Prevalence of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Stroke Survivors in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Eboneé N.; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of stroke is greatest among adults who have experienced a previous stroke, transient ischemic attack, or myocardial infarction. Physical activity may reduce the secondary risk of stroke through mediating effects on blood pressure, vasoconstriction, and circulating lipid concentrations; however, little is known about the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. Methods Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), we describe self-reported and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior among adults with a self-reported history of stroke. We also contrast physical activity among stroke survivors with that of adults without stroke (unexposed) to illustrate expected behavior in the absence of disease. Results Fewer participants with stroke met weekly physical activity guidelines as outlined in the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans when compared with unexposed participants (17.9% vs 25.0%) according to self-reported data. In addition, participants with stroke reported less moderate (46.1% vs 54.7%) and vigorous (9.1% vs 19.6%) leisure activity compared with unexposed participants. As measured by accelerometer, time since diagnosis was inversely associated with physical activity engagement, and participants with stroke recorded more daily hours of sedentary behavior compared with unexposed participants (10.1 hours vs 8.9 hours). Conclusion Findings from this study provide a basis for future work seeking to measure the impact of physical activity on the secondary prevention of stroke by characterizing the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behavior among stroke survivors in the United States. PMID:24985392

  12. Active Galaxies Educational Unit: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    As a part of its educational effort, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Education and Public Outreach group at Sonoma State University (SSU) has put together a series of activities based on the science of one of NASA's exciting space missions, the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST). GLAST is a NASA satellite planned…

  13. Nursing Activities Score and workload in the intensive care unit of a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Altafin, Juliana Aparecida Morini; Grion, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho; Tanita, Marcos Toshyiuki; Festti, Josiane; Cardoso, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz; Veiga, Caio Fabrício Fonseca; Kamiji, Danielle; Barbosa, Álan Roger Gomes; Matsubara, Caio Cesar Takeshi; Lara, Aline Bobato; Lopes, Cesar Castello Branco; Blum, Djavani; Matsuo, Tiemi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The nursing workload consists of the time spent by the nursing staff to perform the activities for which they are responsible, whether directly or indirectly related to patient care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nursing workload in an adult intensive care unit at a university hospital using the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) instrument. Methods A longitudinal, prospective study that involved the patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a university hospital between March and December 2008. The data were collected daily to calculate the NAS, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and the Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS-28) of patients until they left the adult intensive care unit or after 90 days of hospitalization. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results In total, 437 patients were evaluated, which resulted in an NAS of 74.4%. The type of admission, length of stay in the intensive care unit and the patients’ condition when leaving the intensive care unit and hospital were variables associated with differences in the nursing workload. There was a moderate correlation between the mean NAS and APACHE II severity score (r=0.329), the mean organic dysfunction SOFA score (r=0.506) and the mean TISS-28 score (r=0.600). Conclusion We observed a high nursing workload in this study. These results can assist in planning the size of the staff required. The workload was influenced by clinical characteristics, including an increased workload required for emergency surgical patients and patients who died. PMID:25295824

  14. Electronic Word of Mouth on Twitter About Physical Activity in the United States: Exploratory Infodemiology Study

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Background Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. Objective In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. Methods This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Results Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users’ past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04

  15. Economic impacts of anthropogenic activities on coastlines of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magoon, Orville T.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Lent, Linda K.; Richmond, James A.; Treadwell, Donald D.; Douglass, Scott L.; Edge, Billy L.; Ewing, Lesley C.; Pratt, Anthony P.

    2004-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities primarily impact coasts by reducing sediment inputs, altering sediment transport processes, and accelerating sediment losses to the offshore. These activities include: sand and gravel extraction, navigation and shore protection works; non-structural shoreline management strategies such as beach nourishment, sand by-passing and beach scraping, dams and flood control works; channel and inlet dredging; subsidence caused by fluid extraction and reduction of carbonate beach material. Although many of these activities have improved the quality of life, they also have had unintended effects on the coast. The issues that arise from human alterations of the coast are common to many coastal regions around the world; this paper draws from several areas of the United States to present an overview and provisional assessment of the economic consequences of anthropogenic activities along the Pacific coast.

  16. Dynamics of single unit activity in the association cortex of waking cats during defensive conditioning.

    PubMed

    Shevko, G N; Bakanova, N F

    1981-01-01

    Responses of neurons in association area 5 during defensive conditioning to acoustic stimulation were studied in chronic experiments on cats. As a rule the neurons responded by excitation to presentation of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. During the conditioned reflex unit responses usually appeared in the first 50 msec after the beginning of acoustic stimulation, i.e., they were connected with the action of the conditioned stimulus and not with manifestations of conditioned-reflex motion. The most significant changes in responses of cortical association units were observed in the initial period of conditioning. During stabilization of the conditioned reflex, responses of some neurons became stabilized, whereas in other neurons the spontaneous activity and intensity of responses increased, and in a third group the response to one of the stimuli disappeared. This last result indicated a switch during conditioning from polysensory unit responses to monosensory specialized responses. Extinctive inhibition was found to consist of a gradual decrease in the level of the spike discharge and its approximation to spontaneous activity, i.e., to be passive in character.

  17. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range.

  18. Examination of Hand Muscle Activation and Motor Unit Indices Derived from Surface EMG in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jie; Li, Sheng; Wang, Ying-Chih

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we used muscle and motor unit indices, derived from convenient surface electromyography (EMG) measurements, for examination of paretic muscle changes post stroke. For 12 stroke subjects, compound muscle action potential and voluntary surface EMG signals were recorded from paretic and contralateral first dorsal interosseous, abductor pollicis brevis, and abductor digiti minimi muscles. Muscle activation index (AI), motor unit number index (MUNIX), and motor unit size index (MUSIX) were then calculated for each muscle. There was a significant AI reduction for all the three muscles in paretic side compared with contralateral side, providing an evidence of muscle activation deficiency after stroke. The hand MUNIX (defined by summing the values from the three muscles) was significantly reduced in paretic side compared with contralateral side, whereas the hand MUSIX was not significantly different. Furthermore, diverse changes in MUNIX and MUSIX were observed from the three muscles. A major feature of the present examinations is the primary reliance on surface EMG, which offers practical benefits because it is noninvasive, induces minimal discomfort and can be performed quickly. PMID:24967982

  19. Commentary: The Relative Research Unit: An Approach to Measuring and Encouraging Clinician Participation in Research Activities

    PubMed Central

    Embi, Peter J.; Tsevat, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Recent nationwide initiatives to accelerate clinical and translational research, including comparative effectiveness research, increasingly will require clinician participation in research-related activities at the point-of-care, activities such as participant recruitment for clinical research studies and systematic data collection. A key element to the success of such initiatives that has not yet been adequately addressed is how to provide incentives to clinicians for the time and effort that such participation will require. Models to calculate the value of clinical care services are commonly used to compensate clinicians, and similar models have been proposed to calculate and compensate researchers’ efforts. However, to the authors’ knowledge, no such model has been proposed for calculating the value of research-related activities performed by non-investigator clinicians, be they in academic or community settings. In this commentary, the authors propose a new model for doing just that. They describe how such a relative research unit model could be used to provide both direct and indirect incentives for clinician participation in research activities. Direct incentives could include financial compensation, while indirect incentives could include credit towards promotion and tenure and towards the maintenance of specialty board certification. The authors discuss the principles behind this relative research unit approach as well as ethical, funding, and other considerations to fully developing and deploying such a model, across academic environments first and then more broadly across the health care community. PMID:22201633

  20. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, isolated from Indian shrub Adhatoda vasica Ness. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ignacimuthu, S; Shanmugam, N

    2010-12-01

    In folk medicine, Adhatoda vasica Ness. (Acanthaceae) is used to treat asthma and cough. The leaves of A. vasica were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The hexane extract showed 97 percent reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) at 100 microg/ml. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Two natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were bioassayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two compounds showed strong antimycobacterial activity. Vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine isolated from hexane extract of A. vasica leaves, significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis and one multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strain and one sensitive strain at 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Our study demonstrated that both the compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, could be evaluated further for developing a drug to control M. tuberculosis.

  1. Update: Influenza Activity--United States and Worldwide, May 24-September 5, 2015.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Lenee; Kniss, Krista; Smith, Sophie; Mustaquim, Desiree; Steffens, Craig; Flannery, Brendan; Fry, Alicia M; Bresee, Joseph; Wallis, Teresa; Garten, Rebecca; Xu, Xiyan; Elal, Anwar Isa Abd; Gubareva, Larisa; Wentworth, David E; Burns, Erin; Katz, Jacqueline; Jernigan, Daniel; Brammer, Lynnette

    2015-09-18

    During May 24–September 5, 2015, the United States experienced typical low levels of seasonal influenza activity. Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1), influenza A (H3N2), and influenza B viruses were detected worldwide and were identified sporadically in the United States. All of the influenza viruses collected from U.S. states and other countries during that time have been characterized antigenically and/or genetically as being similar to the influenza vaccine viruses recommended for inclusion in the 2015–16 Northern Hemisphere vaccine. During May 24–September 5, 2015, three influenza variant† virus infections were reported; one influenza A (H3N2) variant virus (H3N2v) from Minnesota in July, one influenza A (H1N1) variant (H1N1v) from Iowa in August, and one H3N2v from Michigan in August.

  2. Evaluating amphibian responses in wetlands impacted by mining activities in the western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G.; Wyant, J.; Meganck, R.; Williams, B.

    1991-01-01

    An increasing awareness of declining amphibian populations in the United States requires that the authors develop strategies for evaluating anthropogenic impacts on wetlands and the biota dependent upon these habitats. For example, in the western United States, mining activities may impact a wetland and its biota directly through habitat destruction or run-off of sediments and contaminants generated during mining operations. Amphibians which frequent these transition zones between terrestrial and aquatic habitats may be key biological indicators of a wetland's status. Through a demonstration project located in the mining regions of western Montana, the authors are currently using laboratory and field methods for a wetland evaluation required within a Superfund ecological risk assessment.

  3. Real-time detection of respiratory activity using an inertial measurement unit.

    PubMed

    Gollee, Henrik; Chen, Wei

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the use of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to measure respiratory activity is presented. Movement of the abdomen was recorded by an IMU attached to a belt around the abdomen. The resulting signal was compared with reference measurements of the airflow at the mouth. The results of experimental evaluation show that the method can correctly detect the number of breaths together with the timing of the onsets of expiration and inspiration in real-time. They also indicate that the signal can be used to differentiate between different breathing situations. This novel method could therefore be suitable for use in automatic abdominal stimulation systems to support respiratory activity in tetraplegia where the stimulation is applied depending on the respirator activity of the subject.

  4. Physical Activity and Reported Barriers to Activity Among Type 2 Diabetic Patients in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kaabi, Juma; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Afandi, Bachar; Parkar, Hasratali; Nagelkerke, Nicolaas

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to assess the physical activity practice among type 2 diabetic patients in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients who participated in the outpatient clinics in Al-Ain District, during 2006. The patients completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and measurements of blood pressure, body mass index, body fat, abdominal circumference, glycemic control (HbA1c), and fasting lipid profile. RESULTS: Of the 390 patients recruited, only 25% reported an increase in their physical activity levels following the diagnosis of diabetes, and only 3% reported physical activity levels that meet the recommended guidelines. More than half of the study subjects had uncontrolled hypertension (53%) and unacceptable lipid profiles; 71% had a high low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 73% had low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and 59% had hypertriglyceridemia. Forty-four percent were obese and a further 34% were overweight. Abdominal obesity was also common (59%). Only 32% had an acceptable glycemic control. CONCLUSIONS: The physical activity practice of type 2 diabetic patients in the UAE is largely inadequate to meet the recommended level necessary to prevent or ameliorate diabetic complications. Interventions aiming at overcoming the barriers to physical activity are urgently needed. PMID:20043039

  5. Tristable and multiple bistable activity in complex random binary networks of two-state units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, Simon; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    We study complex networks of stochastic two-state units. Our aim is to model discrete stochastic excitable dynamics with a rest and an excited state. Both states are assumed to possess different waiting time distributions. The rest state is treated as an activation process with an exponentially distributed life time, whereas the latter in the excited state shall have a constant mean which may originate from any distribution. The activation rate of any single unit is determined by its neighbors according to a random complex network structure. In order to treat this problem in an analytical way, we use a heterogeneous mean-field approximation yielding a set of equations generally valid for uncorrelated random networks. Based on this derivation we focus on random binary networks where the network is solely comprised of nodes with either of two degrees. The ratio between the two degrees is shown to be a crucial parameter. Dependent on the composition of the network the steady states show the usual transition from disorder to homogeneously ordered bistability as well as new scenarios that include inhomogeneous ordered and disordered bistability as well as tristability. The various steady states differ in their spiking activity expressed by a state dependent spiking rate. Numerical simulations agree with analytic results of the heterogeneous mean-field approximation.

  6. Relationship between observed upper mantle structures and recent tectonic activity across the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryol, C. Berk; Wagner, Lara S.; Fischer, Karen M.; Hawman, Robert B.

    2016-05-01

    The lithospheric structure of the Southeastern United States is a product of earlier episodes of continental collision and breakup. The region is located in the interior of the North American Plate, away from active plate margins. However, there is ongoing tectonism in the region with multiple zones of seismicity, uplifting arches, and Cenozoic intraplate volcanism. The mechanisms controlling this activity and the state of stress remain enigmatic. Two important factors are plate strength and preexisting, inherited structures. Here we present new tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the Southeastern United States, revealing large-scale structural variations in the upper mantle. Examples include the relatively thick lithospheric mantle of stable North America that abruptly thins beneath the Paleozoic Appalachian orogeny, and the slow upper mantle of the Proterozoic Reelfoot rift. Our results also indicate fast seismic velocity patterns that can be interpreted as ongoing lithospheric foundering. This provides a viable explanation for seismicity, uplifting, and young intraplate volcanism. We postulate that not only tectonic inheritance but also continuing lithospheric foundering may control the ongoing activity of the region long after it became a passive margin. Based on distinct variations in the geometry and thickness of the lithospheric mantle and foundered lithosphere, we propose that piecemeal delamination has occurred beneath the region throughout the Cenozoic, removing a significant amount of reworked/deformed mantle lithosphere. Ongoing lithospheric foundering beneath the eastern margin of stable North America explains significant variations in thickness of lithospheric mantle across the former Grenville deformation front.

  7. Design, Synthesis, Activity and Docking Study of Sorafenib Analogs Bearing Sulfonylurea Unit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunjiang; Wang, Min; Tang, Qidong; Luo, Rong; Chen, Le; Zheng, Pengwu; Zhu, Wufu

    2015-10-23

    Two series of novel sorafenib analogs containing a sulfonylurea unit were synthesized and their chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR, MS spectrum and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for the cytotoxicity against A549, Hela, MCF-7, and PC-3 cancer cell lines. Some of the compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity, especially compounds 1-(2,4-difluorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6c) and 1-(4-bromophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-(2-(methylcarbamoyl)pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)urea (6f) with the IC50 values against four cancer cell lines ranging from 16.54±1.22 to 63.92±1.81 μM, respectively. Inhibitory rates against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2/KDR) kinase at 10 μM of target compounds were further carried out in this paper in order to investigate the target of these compounds. Structure-activity relationships (SARs) and docking studies indicated that the sulfonylurea unit was important to these kinds of compounds. None of the substitutions in the phenoxy group and small halogen atoms such as 2,4-difluoro substitution of the aryl group contributed to the activity. The results suggested that sulfonylurea sorafenib analogs are worthy of further study.

  8. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship to solar activity in the United States, 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Weil, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common condition treated by neurosurgeons. The inherent variability in the incidence and presentation of ruptured cerebral aneurysms has been investigated in association with seasonality, circadian rhythm, lunar cycle, and climate factors. We aimed to identify an association between solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) and the incidence of aneurysmal SAH, all of which appear to behave in periodic fashions over long time periods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) provided longitudinal, retrospective data on patients hospitalized with SAH in the United States, from 1988 to 2010, who underwent aneurysmal clipping or coiling. Solar activity and SAH incidence data were modeled with the cosinor methodology and a 10-year periodic cycle length. The NIS database contained 32,281 matching hospitalizations from 1988 to 2010. The acrophase (time point in the cycle of highest amplitude) for solar flux and for sunspots were coincident. The acrophase for aneurysmal SAH incidence was out of phase with solar activity determined by non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Aneurysmal SAH incidence peaks appear to be delayed behind solar activity peaks by 64 months (95% CI; 56-73 months) when using a modeled 10-year periodic cycle. Solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) appears to be associated with the incidence of aneurysmal SAH. As solar activity reaches a relative maximum, the incidence of aneurysmal SAH reaches a relative minimum. These observations may help identify future trends in aneurysmal SAH on a population basis.

  9. Activities of the Climate Forecast Unit (CFU) on regional decadal prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guemas, V.; Prodhomme, C.; Doblas-Reyes, F.; Volpi, D.; Caron, L. P.; Davis, M.; Menegoz, M.; Saurral, R. I.; Bellprat, O.

    2014-12-01

    The Climate Forecasting Unit (CFU) is a research unit devoted to develop climate forecast systems to contribute to the creation of climate services that aims to 1) develop climate forecast systems and prediction methodologies, 2) investigate the potential sources of skill and understand the limitation of state-of-the-art forecast systems, 3) formulate reliable climate forecasts that meet specific user needs and 4) contribute to the development of climate services. This presentation will provide an overview of the latest results of this research unit in the field of regional decadal prediction focusing on 1) an assessment of the relative merits of the full-field and the anomaly initialisation techniques, 2) a description of the forecast quality of North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity and South Pacific climate, 3) an evaluation of the impact of volcanic aerosol prescription during decadal forecasts, and 4) the strategy for the development of a climate service to ensure that forecasts are both useful and action-oriented. Results from several European projects, SPECS, PREFACE and EUPORIAS, will be used to illustrate these findings.

  10. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Public information report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The document presents answers to frequently asked questions about plans for cleanup and decontamination activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. Answers to the questions asked are based on information in the NRC 'Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement related to decontamination and disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from March 28, 1979, accident, Three Mile Island Nuclear Station, Unit 2,' NUREG-0683.

  11. Stages of Learning: Building a Native Curriculum. Teachers' Guide, Student Activities--Part I, Research Unit--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candline, Mary

    This language arts curriculum developed for Native American students in Manitoba (Canada) consists of a teachers' guide, a student guide, and a research unit. The curriculum includes reading selections and learning activities appropriate for the different reading levels of both upper elementary and secondary students. The purpose of the unit is…

  12. Control of Hydroid Colony Form by Surface Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Buss, Leo W.; Buss, Evan D.; Anderson, Christopher P.; Power, Michael; Zinter, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The colonial hydroid Podocoryna carnea grows adherent to surfaces progressing along them by a motile stolon tip. We here ask whether the stolon tip grows preferentially within grooves etched in silicon wafers. In a series of pilot experiments, we varied the dimensions of grooves and found that stolons did not utilize grooves with a width:depth of 5:5 μm or 10:10 μm, occasionally followed grooves 25:25 μm in size, and preferentially grew within grooves of a width:depth of 50:50 μm and 100:50 μm. We then grew colonies in grids, with fixed 50:50 μm width:depth channels intersecting at 90° every 950, 700, 450, or 150 μm. We find that stolons grew within grooves early in colony ontogeny, but remained restricted to them only in the grid pattern with channel intersections every 150 μm. Finally, we created a grid in the shape of the Yale Y logo, with channels of 50:50 μm width:depth and intersections every 100 μm. The resulting colonies conformed to that of the logo. Our findings demonstrate that stolons respond to surface heterogeneity and that surface etching can be used to fabricate microfluidic circuits comprised of hydroid perisarc. PMID:27257948

  13. Prevalence and correlates of local health department activities to address mental health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Purtle, Jonathan; Klassen, Ann C; Kolker, Jennifer; Buehler, James W

    2016-01-01

    Mental health has been recognized as a public health priority for nearly a century. Little is known, however, about what local health departments (LHDs) do to address the mental health needs of the populations they serve. Using data from the 2013 National Profile of Local Health Departments - a nationally representative survey of LHDs in the United States (N=505) - we characterized LHDs' engagement in eight mental health activities, factors associated with engagement, and estimated the proportion of the U.S. population residing in jurisdictions where these activities were performed. We used Handler's framework of the measurement of public health systems to select variables and examined associations between LHD characteristics and engagement in mental health activities using bivariate analyses and multilevel, multivariate logistic regression. Assessing gaps in access to mental healthcare services (39.3%) and implementing strategies to improve access to mental healthcare services (32.8%) were the most common mental health activities performed. LHDs that provided mental healthcare services were significantly more likely to perform population-based mental illness prevention activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.1; 95% CI: 5.1, 10.0) and engage in policy/advocacy activities to address mental health (AOR: 3.9; 95% CI: 2.7, 5.6). Our study suggests that many LHDs are engaged in activities to address mental health, ranging from healthcare services to population-based interventions, and that LHDs that provide healthcare services are more likely than others to perform mental health activities. These findings have implications as LHDs reconsider their roles in the era of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and LHD accreditation.

  14. Interruptions of activities experienced by nursing professionals in an intensive care unit 1

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Daniele de Oliveira; Silva, Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the interruptions experienced by nursing professionals while undertaking care activities. Method: an observational study undertaken in two intensive care units. Two nurses observed 33 nursing professionals for three hours. The data were recorded in real time, using a semistructured instrument. Results: after 99 hours of observation of 739 activities, it was identified that 46.82% were interrupted, resulting in 7.85 interruptions per hour. On average, the interruptions compromised 9.42% of the nursing professionals' worktime. The activities geared towards indirect care of the patient suffered the highest number of interruptions (56.65%), with the nursing records being the activity interrupted most. The principal source of the interruptions was external, coming from the health professionals (51%), and the main causes were those related to the patients (34.70%) and to interpersonal communication (26.47%). Conclusion: the activity of nursing suffers a high number of interruptions, mainly caused by the health professionals themselves, indicating that the work environment needs to undergo interventions aiming to reduce the risk of compromising of the professional's performance and to increase the patients' safety. PMID:27627123

  15. Effect of light units on tooth bleaching with visible-light activating titanium dioxide photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Ayaka; Otsuki, Masayuki; Sadr, Alireza; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different light sources on the efficiency of an office bleaching agent containing visible-light activating titanium dioxide photocatalyst (VL-TiO(2)) using an artificial discoloration tooth model. Extracted bovine teeth were stained by black tea. The CIE L*a*b* values were measured before and after nine consecutive treatments by the VL-TiO(2)-containing bleaching agent (TiON in Office, GC, Tokyo, Japan). A halogen light unit (CB; CoBee, GC) or an LED unit (G-light, GC) with two modes (blue and violet: GL-BV, blue: GL-B) were used to activate the bleaching agent in three groups (n=8). Brightness (ΔL) and color difference (ΔE) increased as bleaching repeated in all groups. Two-way ANOVA showed that both number of treatments and light sources significantly affected ΔE (p<0.05). GL-BV showed better bleaching effect than GL-B. In measurement of irradiation spectra, CB showed a wide spectrum (380-530 nm), GL-B had a sharp peak at 470 nm and GL-BV showed an additional peak at 405 nm. It was concluded that the light source influenced the efficiency of the tooth bleaching with VL-TiO(2).

  16. 12 CFR 347.113 - Restrictions applicable to activities by a foreign organization in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... foreign organization engages in the United States are incidental to its international or foreign business... representative office. (2) The following activities are incidental to international or foreign business: (i... INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING §...

  17. Effect of Relative Arrangement of Cationic and Lipophilic Moieties on Hemolytic and Antibacterial Activities of PEGylated Polyacrylates

    PubMed Central

    Punia, Ashish; Lee, Kevin; He, Edward; Mukherjee, Sumit; Mancuso, Andrew; Banerjee, Probal; Yang, Nan-Loh

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic amphiphilic polymers have been established as potentially efficient agents to combat widespread deadly infections involving antibiotic resistant superbugs. Incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains into amphiphilic copolymers can reduce their hemolytic activity while maintaining high antibacterial activity. Our study found that the incorporation of PEG has substantially different effects on the hemolytic and antibacterial activities of copolymers depending on structural variations in the positions of cationic centers relative to hydrophobic groups. The PEG side chains dramatically reduced the hemolytic activities in copolymers with hydrophobic hexyl and cationic groups on the same repeating unit. However, in case of terpolymers with cationic and lipophilic groups placed on separate repeating units, the presence of PEG has significantly lower effect on hemolytic activities of these copolymers. PEGylated terpolymers displayed substantially lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) than Escherichia coli (E. coli) suggesting the deterring effect of S. aureus’ peptidoglycan cell wall against the penetration of PEGylated polymers. Time-kill studies confirmed the bactericidal activity of these copolymers and a 5 log reduction in E. coli colony forming units was observed within 2 h of polymer treatment. PMID:26473831

  18. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M; Morton, Douglas C; Collatz, G James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-04-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001-2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems.

  19. Management and climate contributions to satellite-derived active fire trends in the contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; McCarty, Jessica L; Wang, Dongdong; Rogers, Brendan M; Morton, Douglas C; Collatz, G James; Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T

    2014-01-01

    Fires in croplands, plantations, and rangelands contribute significantly to fire emissions in the United States, yet are often overshadowed by wildland fires in efforts to develop inventories or estimate responses to climate change. Here we quantified decadal trends, interannual variability, and seasonality of Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of active fires (thermal anomalies) as a function of management type in the contiguous U.S. during 2001–2010. We used the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity database to identify active fires within the perimeter of large wildland fires and land cover maps to identify active fires in croplands. A third class of fires defined as prescribed/other included all residual satellite active fire detections. Large wildland fires were the most variable of all three fire types and had no significant annual trend in the contiguous U.S. during 2001–2010. Active fires in croplands, in contrast, increased at a rate of 3.4% per year. Cropland and prescribed/other fire types combined were responsible for 77% of the total active fire detections within the U.S and were most abundant in the south and southeast. In the west, cropland active fires decreased at a rate of 5.9% per year, likely in response to intensive air quality policies. Potential evaporation was a dominant regulator of the interannual variability of large wildland fires, but had a weaker influence on the other two fire types. Our analysis suggests it may be possible to modify landscape fire emissions within the U.S. by influencing the way fires are used in managed ecosystems. Key Points Wildland, cropland, and prescribed fires had different trends and patterns Sensitivity to climate varied with fire type Intensity of air quality regulation influenced cropland burning trends PMID:26213662

  20. Hippocampal and Cerebellar Single-Unit Activity During Delay and Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Green, John T.; Arenos, Jeremy D.

    2007-01-01

    In delay eyeblink conditioning, the CS overlaps with the US and only a brainstem-cerebellar circuit is necessary for learning. In trace eyeblink conditioning, the CS ends before the US is delivered and several forebrain structures, including the hippocampus, are required for learning, in addition to a brainstem-cerebellar circuit. The interstimulus interval (ISI) between CS onset and US onset is perhaps the most important factor in classical conditioning, but studies comparing delay and trace conditioning have typically not matched these procedures in this crucial factor, so it is often difficult to determine whether results are due to differences between delay and trace or to differences in ISI. In the current study, we employed a 580-ms CS-US interval for both delay and trace conditioning and compared hippocampal CA1 activity and cerebellar interpositus nucleus activity in order to determine whether a unique signature of trace conditioning exists in patterns of single-unit activity in either structure. Long-Evans rats were chronically implanted in either CA1 or interpositus with microwire electrodes and underwent either delay eyeblink conditioning, or trace eyeblink conditioning with a 300-ms trace period between CS offset and US onset. On trials with a CR in delay conditioning, CA1 pyramidal cells showed increases in activation (relative to a pre-CS baseline) during the CS-US period in sessions 1-4 that was attenuated by sessions 5-6. In contrast, on trials with a CR in trace conditioning, CA1 pyramidal cells did not show increases in activation during the CS-US period until sessions 5-6. In sessions 5-6, increases in activation were present only to the CS and not during the trace period. For rats with interpositus electrodes, activation of interpositus neurons on CR trials was present in all sessions in both delay and trace conditioning. However, activation was greater in trace compared to delay conditioning in the first half of the CS-US interval (during the

  1. [Community vegetable gardens as a health promotion activity: an experience in Primary Healthcare Units].

    PubMed

    Costa, Christiane Gasparini Araújo; Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Ribeiro, Silvana Maria; Salandini, Marcia Fernanda de Sousa; Bógus, Cláudia Maria

    2015-10-01

    Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is being practiced in different settings, contributing to the improvement of health in communities and healthier environments. In order to identify the meanings and implications of the practice of UPA in Primary Healthcare Units (PHU) as an activity of health promotion (HP), and to what extent its therapeutic dimension characterizes it as an activity aligned with complementary and integrative practices (CIP), a qualitative cross-sectional study was performed in Embu das Artes, State of São Paulo. From the analysis, the following main themes arose: health concept, health outcomes, the return to traditional practices and habits and the reorientation of health services. It was possible to identify the close link between the cultivation of vegetable gardens and HP guidelines and fields of action, such as creating healthier environments, boosting community actions, developing personal skills, stimulating autonomy and empowerment and demands for the reorientation of services. The garden activities, set up in PHU areas, proved to be an implementation strategy of CIP. The conclusion reached is that vegetable gardening activities in community gardens are seen to be health promotion practices that integrate key elements of CIP.

  2. BDNF contributes to IBS-like colonic hypersensitivity via activating the enteroglia-nerve unit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Du, Chao; Chen, Fei-Xue; Li, Chang-Qing; Yu, Yan-Bo; Han, Ting; Akhtar, Suhail; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Tan, Xiao-Di; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-02-03

    The over-expressed colonic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to be associated with abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the neuropathological mechanism is unclear. We here investigated the involvement of enteroglial cells (EGCs) and enteric nerves in IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity. We showed that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) and substance P (SP) were significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of IBS patients. The upregulation of those proteins was also observed in the colon of mice with visceral hypersensitivity, but not in the colon of BDNF(+/-) mice. Functionally, TrkB or EGC inhibitors, or BDNF knockdown significantly suppressed visceral hypersensitivity in mice. Using the EGC cell line, we found that recombinant human BDNF (r-HuBDNF) could directly activate EGCs via the TrkB-phospholipase Cγ1 pathway, thereby inducing a significant upregulation of SP. Moreover, supernatants from r-HuBDNF-activated EGC culture medium, rather than r-HuBDNF alone, triggered markedly augmented discharges in isolated intestinal mesenteric afferent nerves. r-HuBDNF alone could cause mesenteric afferent mechanical hypersensitivity independently, and this effect was synergistically enhanced by activated EGCs. We conclude that EGC-enteric nerve unit may be involved in IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity, and this process is likely initiated by BDNF-TrkB pathway activation.

  3. BDNF contributes to IBS-like colonic hypersensitivity via activating the enteroglia-nerve unit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Du, Chao; Chen, Fei-Xue; Li, Chang-Qing; Yu, Yan-Bo; Han, Ting; Akhtar, Suhail; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Tan, Xiao-Di; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The over-expressed colonic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to be associated with abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the neuropathological mechanism is unclear. We here investigated the involvement of enteroglial cells (EGCs) and enteric nerves in IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity. We showed that glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) and substance P (SP) were significantly increased in the colonic mucosa of IBS patients. The upregulation of those proteins was also observed in the colon of mice with visceral hypersensitivity, but not in the colon of BDNF+/− mice. Functionally, TrkB or EGC inhibitors, or BDNF knockdown significantly suppressed visceral hypersensitivity in mice. Using the EGC cell line, we found that recombinant human BDNF (r-HuBDNF) could directly activate EGCs via the TrkB-phospholipase Cγ1 pathway, thereby inducing a significant upregulation of SP. Moreover, supernatants from r-HuBDNF-activated EGC culture medium, rather than r-HuBDNF alone, triggered markedly augmented discharges in isolated intestinal mesenteric afferent nerves. r-HuBDNF alone could cause mesenteric afferent mechanical hypersensitivity independently, and this effect was synergistically enhanced by activated EGCs. We conclude that EGC-enteric nerve unit may be involved in IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity, and this process is likely initiated by BDNF-TrkB pathway activation. PMID:26837784

  4. Military unit support, postdeployment social support, and PTSD symptoms among active duty and National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq.

    PubMed

    Han, Sohyun C; Castro, Frank; Lee, Lewina O; Charney, Meredith E; Marx, Brian P; Brailey, Kevin; Proctor, Susan P; Vasterling, Jennifer J

    2014-06-01

    Research suggests that military unit support and community postdeployment social support are associated with fewer PTSD symptoms following military deployment. This study extended prior research by examining the associations among predeployment unit support and PTSD symptoms before Iraq deployment as well as unit support, PTSD symptoms, and postdeployment social support after deployment among 835 U.S. Army and 173 National Guard soldiers. Multiple regression analyses indicated that predeployment unit support was not significantly associated with postdeployment PTSD severity in either group of soldiers, whereas higher unit support during deployment was significantly associated with lower postdeployment PTSD severity among active duty soldiers only. Among both groups, higher levels of postdeployment social support were associated with lower levels of postdeployment PTSD symptom severity. These findings suggest that postdeployment social support is a particularly strong buffer against postdeployment PTSD symptoms among both groups of soldiers whereas the effects of unit support may be limited.

  5. Acute two-photon imaging of the neurovascular unit in the cortex of active mice

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Cam Ha T.; Gordon, Grant R.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo two-photon scanning fluorescence imaging is a powerful technique to observe physiological processes from the millimeter to the micron scale in the intact animal. In neuroscience research, a common approach is to install an acute cranial window and head bar to explore neocortical function under anesthesia before inflammation peaks from the surgery. However, there are few detailed acute protocols for head-restrained and fully awake animal imaging of the neurovascular unit during activity. This is because acutely performed awake experiments are typically untenable when the animal is naïve to the imaging apparatus. Here we detail a method that achieves acute, deep-tissue two-photon imaging of neocortical astrocytes and microvasculature in behaving mice. A week prior to experimentation, implantation of the head bar alone allows mice to train for head-immobilization on an easy-to-learn air-supported ball treadmill. Following just two brief familiarization sessions to the treadmill on separate days, an acute cranial window can subsequently be installed for immediate imaging. We demonstrate how running and whisking data can be captured simultaneously with two-photon fluorescence signals with acceptable movement artifacts during active motion. We also show possible applications of this technique by (1) monitoring dynamic changes to microvascular diameter and red blood cells in response to vibrissa sensory stimulation, (2) examining responses of the cerebral microcirculation to the systemic delivery of pharmacological agents using a tail artery cannula during awake imaging, and (3) measuring Ca2+ signals from synthetic and genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in astrocytes. This method will facilitate acute two-photon fluorescence imaging in awake, active mice and help link cellular events within the neurovascular unit to behavior. PMID:25698926

  6. [Diminution of antifungal activity of fluconazole associated with ibuprofen and piroxicam in experimental histoplasmosis of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)

    PubMed

    Finquelievich, Jorge Luis; Iovannitti, Cristina; Landaburu, Fernanda; Raffin, Gabriel; SanJuan, Norberto; Elías-Costa, Maria Rosa; Negroni, Ricardo

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if tha association of non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs (piroxicam and ibuprofen) with fluconazole, affects the antifungal activity of the azole compound, in an experimental model histoplasmosis in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Sixty hamsters were intracardially inoculated with 4x10(6) yeasts of Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. Treatments began one week after the challenge and continued for three weeks. The hamsters were divided in six groups of ten animals each and received the following treatment: 1- fluconazole 8 mg/kg/day; 2- ibuprofen 20 mg/kg/day; 3- piroxicam 20 mg/kg/day; 4- fluconazole+ibuprofen; 5- fluconazole+piroxicam and 6- only received the solvent of these drugs. One week after ending the treatment, all the animals were sacrified and the evaluation of the treatments was based on the results of blood cultures, on the determination of colony forming units per gram of spleen, and the histopathologic studies of the same organ. The animals treated with fluconazole plus ibuprofen or piroxicam showed more colony colony forming units per gram (3.9x10(7) and 3.3x10(7)) when compared with the animals treated with fluconazole alone (0.9x10(7)). The histopathologic results of the hamsters that received fluconazole showed well-organized granulomas with few yeast-like elements inside the macrophages. In contrast, those which received fluconazole associated with antiinflammatory drugs presented lax granulomas containing numerous yeast-like elements. These findings let us to conclude that non-steroids antiinflammatory drugs diminish the antifungal efficacy of fluconazole in this animal model.

  7. Unit Activity of Hippocampal Interneurons before Spontaneous Seizures in an Animal Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristics during theta and sharp waves suggested that a parvalbumin-positive basket cell and putative bistratified cells, but not oriens lacunosum moleculare cells, were activated preictally. Preictal changes occurred much earlier than those described by most previous in vitro studies. Preictal activation of interneurons began earliest (>4 min before seizure onset), increased most, was most prevalent in the subiculum, and was minimal in CA3. Preictal inactivation of interneurons was most common in CA1 (27% of interneurons) and included a putative ivy cell and parvalbumin-positive basket cell. Increased or decreased preictal activity correlated with whether interneurons fired faster or slower, respectively, during theta activity. Theta waves were more likely to occur before seizure onset, and increased preictal firing of subicular interneurons correlated with theta activity. Preictal changes by other hippocampal interneurons were largely independent of theta waves. Within seconds of seizure onset, many interneurons displayed a brief pause in firing and a later, longer drop that was associated with reduced action potential amplitude. These findings suggest that many interneurons inactivate during seizures, most increase their activity preictally, but some fail to do so at the critical time before seizure onset. PMID:25904809

  8. Unit Activity of Hippocampal Interneurons before Spontaneous Seizures in an Animal Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Izumi; Fujita, Satoshi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2015-04-22

    Mechanisms of seizure initiation are unclear. To evaluate the possible roles of inhibitory neurons, unit recordings were obtained in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum of epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Most interneurons in the dentate gyrus, CA1, and subiculum increased their firing rate before seizures, and did so with significant consistency from seizure to seizure. Identification of CA1 interneuron subtypes based on firing characteristics during theta and sharp waves suggested that a parvalbumin-positive basket cell and putative bistratified cells, but not oriens lacunosum moleculare cells, were activated preictally. Preictal changes occurred much earlier than those described by most previous in vitro studies. Preictal activation of interneurons began earliest (>4 min before seizure onset), increased most, was most prevalent in the subiculum, and was minimal in CA3. Preictal inactivation of interneurons was most common in CA1 (27% of interneurons) and included a putative ivy cell and parvalbumin-positive basket cell. Increased or decreased preictal activity correlated with whether interneurons fired faster or slower, respectively, during theta activity. Theta waves were more likely to occur before seizure onset, and increased preictal firing of subicular interneurons correlated with theta activity. Preictal changes by other hippocampal interneurons were largely independent of theta waves. Within seconds of seizure onset, many interneurons displayed a brief pause in firing and a later, longer drop that was associated with reduced action potential amplitude. These findings suggest that many interneurons inactivate during seizures, most increase their activity preictally, but some fail to do so at the critical time before seizure onset.

  9. 31 CFR 538.531 - Official activities of the United States Government and international organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the official business of the United States Government or the United Nations by contractors or grantees... conduct of the official business of the United Nations specialized agencies, programmes, and funds by... States Government or the United Nations, or its specialized agencies, programmes, and funds, to any...

  10. cVEMP morphology changes with recording electrode position, but single motor unit activity remains constant.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Sally M; Colebatch, James G; Borire, Adeniyi; Straumann, Dominik; Weber, Konrad P

    2016-04-15

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs) recorded over the lower quarter of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle in normal subjects may have opposite polarity to those recorded over the midpoint. It has thus been suggested that vestibular projections to the lower part of SCM might be excitatory rather than inhibitory. We tested the hypothesis that the SCM muscle receives both inhibitory and excitatory vestibular inputs. We recorded cVEMPs in 10 normal subjects with surface electrodes placed at multiple sites along the anterior (sternal) component of the SCM muscle. We compared several reference sites: sternum, ipsilateral and contralateral earlobes, and contralateral wrist. In five subjects, single motor unit responses were recorded at the upper, middle, and lower parts of the SCM muscle using concentric needle electrodes. The surface cVEMP had the typical positive-negative polarity at the midpoint of the SCM muscle. In all subjects, as the recording electrode was moved toward each insertion point, p13 amplitude became smaller and p13 latency increased, then the polarity inverted to a negative-positive waveform (n1-p1). Changing the reference site did not affect reflex polarity. There was a significant short-latency change in activity in 61/63 single motor units, and in each case this was a decrease or gap in firing, indicating an inhibitory reflex. Single motor unit recordings showed that the reflex was inhibitory along the entire SCM muscle. The cVEMP surface waveform inversion near the mastoid and sternal insertion points likely reflects volume conduction of the potential occurring with increasing distance from the motor point.

  11. Pharmacist recommendations in an intensive care unit: three-year clinical activities

    PubMed Central

    Fideles, Giovanni Montini Andrade; de Alcântara-Neto, José Martins; Peixoto Júnior, Arnaldo Aires; de Souza-Neto, Paulo José; Tonete, Taís Luana; da Silva, José Eduardo Gomes; Neri, Eugenie Desirèe Rabelo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical activities performed and the accepted pharmacist recommendations made by a pharmacist as a part of his/her daily routine in an adult clinical intensive care unit over a period of three years. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive, and exploratory study was conducted at a tertiary university hospital from June 2010 to May 2013, in which pharmacist recommendations were categorized and analyzed. Results A total of 834 pharmacist recommendations (278 per year, on average) were analyzed and distributed across 21 categories. The recommendations were mainly made to physicians (n = 699; 83.8%) and concerned management of dilutions (n = 120; 14.4%), dose adjustment (n = 100; 12.0%), and adverse drug reactions (n = 91; 10.9%). A comparison per period demonstrated an increase in pharmacist recommendations with larger clinical content and a reduction of recommendations related to logistic aspects, such as drug supply, over time. The recommendations concerned 948 medications, particularly including systemic anti-infectious agents. Conclusion The role that the pharmacist played in the intensive care unit of the institution where the study was performed evolved, shifting from reactive actions related to logistic aspects to effective clinical participation with the multi-professional staff (proactive actions). PMID:26340155

  12. Nursing activities score (NAS): a proposal for practical application in intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Leilane Andrade; Padilha, Katia Grillo; Cardoso Sousa, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    For over 30 years in an attempt to demonstrate the cost-benefit ratio of the intensive care unit (ICU) a variety of tools have been developed to measure not only the severity of illness of the patient but also to capture the true cost of nursing workload. In this context, the nursing activities score (NAS) was developed as a result of modifications to the therapeutic interventions scoring system-28 (TISS-28). The NAS is a tool to measure nursing workload ICU and it has been shown to be twice as effective in measuring how nurses spend their time caring for critically ill patients than the TISS-28. This paper discuss the introduction of the NAS into everyday use in an intensive care unit in Brazil and highlights the challenges of standardisation of operational definitions, training requirements and accurate completion of the documentation when using such a tool. The rationale and steps undertaken to achieve this are outlined and the benefits of such a process are highlighted.

  13. Prolonged activity evokes potentiation and the "sag" phenomenon in slow motor units of rat soleus.

    PubMed

    Drzymała-Celichowska, Hanna; Raikova, Rositsa; Krutki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Slow motor units (MUs) have no sag in their unfused tetani. This study in anesthetized rats shows that the sag can be observed in slow soleus MUs after prolonged activity. Twitches and unfused tetanic contractions were recorded from male (n=35) and female (n=39) MUs before and after the four minutes of the fatigue test (trains of 13 pulses at 40 Hz repeated every second). After this activity twitch contractions potentiated and a shift in the steep part of the force-frequency curve towards lower frequencies was observed in both sexes. Initially no sag was visible in unfused tetani, but after the fatigue test the phenomenon was observed in 77% of male, while in 13% of female MUs, the result consistent with the previously reported higher content of IIa myosin and faster contraction of MUs in male soleus. The decomposition of tetani with sag into trains of twitch-shape responses to consecutive stimuli revealed higher forces of initial decomposed twitches than later. The revealed alterations the force development due to long-lasting activation of slow MUs were sex-related and more pronounced in male soleus.

  14. Role of Inflammasome Activation in the Pathophysiology of Vascular Diseases of the Neurovascular Unit

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Islam N.; Ishrat, Tauheed; Fagan, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Inflammation is the standard double-edged defense mechanism that aims at protecting the human physiological homeostasis from devastating threats. Both acute and chronic inflammation have been implicated in the occurrence and progression of vascular diseases. Interference with components of the immune system to improve patient outcome after ischemic injury has been uniformly unsuccessful. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the innate immune response to injury in order to modulate, rather than to block inflammation and improve the outcome for vascular diseases. Recent Advances: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors or NOD-like receptor proteins (NLRPs) can be activated by sterile and microbial inflammation. NLR family plays a major role in activating the inflammasome. Critical Issues: The aim of this work is to review recent findings that provided insights into key inflammatory mechanisms and define the place of the inflammasome, a multi-protein complex involved in instigating inflammation in neurovascular diseases, including retinopathy, neurodegenerative diseases, and stroke. Future Directions: The significant contribution of NLRP-inflammasome activation to vascular disease of the neurovascular unit in the brain and retina suggests that therapeutic strategies focused on specific targeting of inflammasome components could significantly improve the outcomes of these diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1188–1206. PMID:25275222

  15. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  16. Substantia nigra dopaminergic unit activity in behaving cats: effect of arousal on spontaneous discharge and sensory evoked activity.

    PubMed

    Strecker, R E; Jacobs, B L

    1985-12-30

    Single-unit activity of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra was recorded in freely moving cats during a variety of conditions designed to shed light on the hypotheses that these neurons are involved in the regulation of arousal-stress and/or selective attention. Both aversive and non-aversive arousing experimental conditions were used, including tail pinch, immersion of feet in ice-water, white noise, inaccessible food, feeding, grooming, inaccessible rats, and somatosensory stimulation. None of these conditions had an effect on tonic neuronal discharge rate. However, these neurons did exhibit brief excitatory and inhibitory responses to phasic auditory or visual stimuli presented when the cat was sitting quietly. These responses were dramatically attenuated if these stimuli were presented during the aforementioned conditions of behavioral arousal. This sharply contrasts with the inability of these same conditions to influence spontaneous discharge rate. The sensitivity of this neuronal sensory response to the concurrent behavioral condition supports the hypothesis that these neurons are involved in attentional processes or selective responding. The lack of responsiveness of these neurons to a variety of arousal/stress manipulations supports the hypothesis that dopaminergic neurons play a permissive, rather than an active, role in these processes.

  17. The relationship between soleus and gastrocnemius muscle activity in conscious cats--a model for motor unit recruitment?

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J A

    1983-04-01

    Force and electromyogram (e.m.g.) data were recorded from medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of conscious cats using chronically implanted devices. A digital computer was used to take simultaneous samples of the data from both muscles and construct two-dimensional frequency distributions relating the activities in the two muscles. The results show that posture is the only activity where soleus may be active without corresponding activity in the medial gastrocnemius muscle. In locomotion the ratio between soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscle activities changed with treadmill speed, although peak soleus force remained constant at approximately 80% of the isometric tetanic tension measured in terminal experiments. A hypothesis is put forward, associating these findings with the activities of slow and fast motor units and emphasizing the influence of neural activity in the determination of motor unit recruitment.

  18. Simulated evolution of the vertebral body based on basic multicellular unit activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Chunqiu; Han, Jingyun; Wu, Han; Fan, Yubo

    2011-07-01

    A numerical model based on the theory of bone remodeling is proposed to predict the evolution of trabecular bone architecture within the vertebral body and to investigate the process of degeneration in vertebral bone. In this study, particular attention is paid on the description of microstructure changes during the aging process. To take into account the effect of basic multicellular units (BMUs), a set of computational algorithms has been developed. It is assumed that BMU activation probability depends on the state of damaged bone tissue (damage accumulation, ω), which is evaluated according to previous research concerning bone fatigue damage. Combining these algorithms with the finite-element method (FEM), the microstructure of vertebral bone has been predicted for up to 8 simulated years. Moreover, biomechanical material properties have been monitored to investigate the changes of vertebral bone with age. This study shows that the simulation based on BMU activities has the potential to define and predict the morphological evolution of the vertebral body. It can be concluded that the novel algorithms incorporating the coupled effects of both adaptive remodeling and microdamage remodeling could be utilized to gain greater insight into the mechanism of bone loss in the elderly population.

  19. Multiple unit activity recorded longitudinally in rats from pubescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Malmo, H P; Malmo, R B

    1982-01-01

    Longitudinal multiple unit activity (MUA) recordings of excellent quality over time periods as long as 26 months are described. The validity of the method was demonstrated by showing persistence of specific and idiosyncratic MUA responses to controlled sensory stimulation over these long time periods. This longitudinal MUA method was used to study level of localization neuronal activity as a function of aging. In agreement with deoxyglucose data from Sokoloff's laboratory, we found significant age-related declines in inferior and superior colliculi. In addition, our results showed the advantage of a longitudinal method over a cross-sectional one in following progressive changes into old age. The further declines in midbrain MUA level (though not in forebrain level) from middle age to old age that we observed were highly significant. The deoxyglucose method, on the other hand, had failed to show this kind of progression in those midbrain sites, probably because of a survival effect, a common sampling artifact in cross-sectional studies of aging.

  20. Learning Activities and Resource Units: Intermediate 4-8. [Arizona] Migrant Child Institute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Warren H., Ed.

    A requirement of Arizona's Migrant Teacher Institutes was the preparation of instructional resource units. Development of these units was a key element in the three-stage recommendations related to individualizing instruction in both reading and oral language. The three stages were: Room Organization--Realistic Learning Centers, Unit Themes and…

  1. Development of the Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit Extravehicular Activity Data Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.; Murray, Sean; Wichowski, Robert; Rosenbush, David

    2012-01-01

    The Self-Powered Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Data Recorder (SPEEDR) is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based device designed to collect high-rate EMU Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) data for download at a later time. During EVA, the existing EMU PLSS data downlink capability is one data packet every 2 minutes and is subject to bad packets or loss of signal. Higher-rate PLSS data is generated by the Enhanced Caution and Warning System but is not normally captured or distributed. Access to higher-rate data will increase the capability of EMU anomaly resolution team to pinpoint issues remotely, saving crew time by reducing required call-down Q&A and on-orbit diagnostic activities. With no Space Shuttle flights post Fiscal Year 2011 (FY11), and potentially limited down-mass capability, the ISS crew and ground support personnel will have to be capable of on-orbit operations to maintain, diagnose, repair, and return to service EMU hardware, possibly through 2028. Collecting high-rate EMU PLSS data during both intravehicular activity (IVA) and EVA operations will provide trending analysis for life extension and/or predictive performance. The SPEEDR concept has generated interest as a tool/technology that could be used for other International Space Station subsystems or future exploration-class space suits where hardware reliability/availability is critical and low/variable bandwidth may require store then forward methodology. Preliminary work in FY11 produced a functional prototype consisting of an FPGA evaluation board, custom memory/interface circuit board, and custom software. The SPEEDR concept includes a stand-alone battery that is recharged by a computer Universal Serial Bus (USB) port while data are being downloaded.

  2. Study of active noise control system for a commercial HVAC unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devineni, Naga

    Acoustic noise is a common problem in everyday life. If the appliances that are present in the work and living areas generate noise then it's a serious problem. One such appliance is the Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning system (HVAC) in which blower fan and compressor units are housed together. Operation of a HVAC system creates two kinds of noise. One is the noise due to the air flow and the other is the result of the compressor. Both of them exhibit different signal properties and need different strategies to control them. There has been previous efforts in designing noise control systems that can control noise from the HVAC system. These include passive methods which use sound absorption materials to attenuate noise and active methods which cancel noise by generating anti-noise. Passive methods are effective in limiting the high frequency noise, but are inefficient in controlling low frequency noise from the compressor. Compressor noise is one of the strong low frequency components that propagate through the walls, therefore there is need for deploying active signal processing methods that consider the signal properties into consideration to cancel the noise acoustically. The quasi periodic nature of the compressor noise is exploited in noise modeling which aids in implementing an adaptive linear prediction filter in estimating the anti noise [12]. In this thesis, a multi channel architecture has been studied for a specific HVAC system in order to improve noise cancellation by creating larger quiet zone. In addition to the multi-channel architecture, a real time narrow band Active Noise Control (ANC) was employed to cancel noise under practical conditions.

  3. United Republic of Tanzania. United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. United Nations Fund for Population Activities UNFPA. Office of Policy Analysis and Statistics.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The lack of community child care services is a serious deterrent to women seeking responsibilities outside the home. The Pathfinder Fund supported CESUN, Centro de Estudos Supletivos de Narandiba, an educational organization devoted to nonformal training, was consulted to conduct 3 courses for community women in child care in 2 favelas (shanty towns) in Brazil. Women with a limited educational background were taught a broad range of topics, from child development to nutrition to daycare management, greatly increasing their confidence and community involvement. Child care cooperatives were built and staffed, offering young children supervised activities and balanced meals for the 1st time. The Caregivers Training Course has provided new jobs for community women, and is freeing other women to seek new work, while improving their child's quality of life.

  4. Chronic neural probe for simultaneous recording of single-unit, multi-unit, and local field potential activity from multiple brain sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothof, F.; Bonini, L.; Lanzilotto, M.; Livi, A.; Fogassi, L.; Orban, G. A.; Paul, O.; Ruther, P.

    2016-08-01

    Objective. Drug resistant focal epilepsy can be treated by resecting the epileptic focus requiring a precise focus localisation using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) probes. As commercial SEEG probes offer only a limited spatial resolution, probes of higher channel count and design freedom enabling the incorporation of macro and microelectrodes would help increasing spatial resolution and thus open new perspectives for investigating mechanisms underlying focal epilepsy and its treatment. This work describes a new fabrication process for SEEG probes with materials and dimensions similar to clinical probes enabling recording single neuron activity at high spatial resolution. Approach. Polyimide is used as a biocompatible flexible substrate into which platinum electrodes and leads are integrated with a minimal feature size of 5 μm. The polyimide foils are rolled into the cylindrical probe shape at a diameter of 0.8 mm. The resulting probe features match those of clinically approved devices. Tests in saline solution confirmed the probe stability and functionality. Probes were implanted into the brain of one monkey (Macaca mulatta), trained to perform different motor tasks. Suitable configurations including up to 128 electrode sites allow the recording of task-related neuronal signals. Main results. Probes with 32 and 64 electrode sites were implanted in the posterior parietal cortex. Local field potentials and multi-unit activity were recorded as early as one hour after implantation. Stable single-unit activity was achieved for up to 26 days after implantation of a 64-channel probe. All recorded signals showed modulation during task execution. Significance. With the novel probes it is possible to record stable biologically relevant data over a time span exceeding the usual time needed for epileptic focus localisation in human patients. This is the first time that single units are recorded along cylindrical polyimide probes chronically implanted 22 mm deep into the

  5. High gamma power in ECoG reflects cortical electrical stimulation effects on unit activity in layers V/VI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdan-Shahmorad, Azadeh; Kipke, Daryl R.; Lehmkuhle, Mark J.

    2013-12-01

    Objective. Cortical electrical stimulation (CES) has been used extensively in experimental neuroscience to modulate neuronal or behavioral activity, which has led this technique to be considered in neurorehabilitation. Because the cortex and the surrounding anatomy have irregular geometries as well as inhomogeneous and anisotropic electrical properties, the mechanism by which CES has therapeutic effects is poorly understood. Therapeutic effects of CES can be improved by optimizing the stimulation parameters based on the effects of various stimulation parameters on target brain regions. Approach. In this study we have compared the effects of CES pulse polarity, frequency, and amplitude on unit activity recorded from rat primary motor cortex with the effects on the corresponding local field potentials (LFP), and electrocorticograms (ECoG). CES was applied at the surface of the cortex and the unit activity and LFPs were recorded using a penetrating electrode array, which was implanted below the stimulation site. ECoGs were recorded from the vicinity of the stimulation site. Main results. Time-frequency analysis of LFPs following CES showed correlation of gamma frequencies with unit activity response in all layers. More importantly, high gamma power of ECoG signals only correlated with the unit activity in lower layers (V-VI) following CES. Time-frequency correlations, which were found between LFPs, ECoGs and unit activity, were frequency- and amplitude-dependent. Significance. The signature of the neural activity observed in LFP and ECoG signals provides a better understanding of the effects of stimulation on network activity, representative of large numbers of neurons responding to stimulation. These results demonstrate that the neurorehabilitation and neuroprosthetic applications of CES targeting layered cortex can be further improved by using field potential recordings as surrogates to unit activity aimed at optimizing stimulation efficacy. Likewise, the signatures

  6. Heat stress control in the TMI-2 (Three Mile Island Unit 2) defueling and decontamination activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schork, J.S.; Parfitt, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    During the initial stages of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) defueling and decontamination activities for the reactor building, it was realized that the high levels of loose radioactive contamination would require the use of extensive protective clothing by entry personnel. While there was no doubt that layered protective clothing protects workers from becoming contaminated, it was recognized that these same layers of clothing would impose a very significant heat stress burden. To prevent the potentially serious consequences of a severe reaction to heat stress by workers in the hostile environment of the TMI-2 reactor building and yet maintain the reasonable work productivity necessary to perform the recovery adequately, an effective program of controlling worker exposure to heat stress had to be developed. Body-cooling devices produce a flow of cool air, which is introduced close to the skin to remove body heat through convection and increased sweat evaporation. The cooling effect produced by the Vortex tube successfully protected the workers from heat stress, however, there were several logistical and operational problems that hindered extensive use of these devices. The last type of cooling garment examined was the frozen water garment (FWG) developed by Elizier Kamon at the Pennsylvania State University as part of an Electric Power Research Institute research grant. Personal protection, i.e., body cooling, engineering controls, and administrative controls, have been implemented successfully.

  7. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site

    PubMed Central

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called ‘catalytic residues’ are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06181.001 PMID:25902402

  8. Mathematical modeling of copper(II) ion inhibition on COD removal in an activated sludge unit.

    PubMed

    Pamukoglu, M Yunus; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-07-19

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the Cu(II) ion inhibition on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from synthetic wastewater containing 15 mg l(-1) Cu(II) in an activated sludge unit. Experimental data obtained at different sludge ages (5-30 days) and hydraulic residence times (HRT) (5-25 h) were used to determine the kinetic, stoichiometric and inhibition constants for the COD removal rate in the presence and absence of Cu(II) ions. The inhibition pattern was identified as non-competitive, since Cu(II) ion inhibitions were observed both on maximum specific substrate removal rate (k) and on the saturation constant (Ks) with the inhibition constants of 97 and 18 mg l(-1), respectively, indicating more pronounced inhibition on Ks. The growth yield coefficient (Y) decreased and the death rate constant (b) increased in the presence of Cu(II) ions due to copper ion toxicity on microbial growth with inhibition constants of 29 and 200 mg l(-1), respectively indicating more effective inhibition on the growth yield coefficient or higher maintenance requirements. The mathematical model with the predetermined kinetic constants was able to predict the system performance reasonably well especially at high HRT operations.

  9. Anti-nuclear weapons activism in the United States and Great Britain: a comparative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, G.

    1987-01-01

    This study is a response to the lacuna in empirical research into political activism and the nuclear issue and seeks to ascertain the social and value characteristics, political attitudes, and political behavior of activists in the United States and Great Britain. Consideration is also given to gender differences in light of evidence of an emerging gender gap in these two countries. The study investigates the common forces cited in two sets of literature - post-industrialism and anti-nuclear weapons movements - which provide a framework for analysis. Survey research data is employed to assess cross-national similarities and differences. The findings obtained indicate that while American and British activists exhibit common social and value characteristics, British activists appear more integrated in their political opposition to nuclear weapons compared with their American counterparts. Survey results indicate that the political-action repertoire of these activists is quite diverse, suggesting a new style of politics in advanced industrial democracies. Gender-based analysis reveals two important findings. First, activist American men differ significantly from the other three social groups in their attitudes towards nuclear weapons. Second, activist women in both national settings participate at a level equal to or exceeding that of activist men.

  10. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    PubMed

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  11. Design and Certification of the Extravehicular Activity Mobility Unit (EMU) Water Processing Jumper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Laurie J.; Neumeyer, Derek J.; Lewis, John F.

    2006-01-01

    The Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure due to cooling water contamination from biomass and corrosion byproducts forming solids around the EMU pump rotor. The coolant had no biocide and a low pH which induced biofilm growth and corrosion precipitates, respectively. NASA JSC was tasked with building hardware to clean the ionic, organic, and particulate load from the EMU coolant loop before and after Extravehicular Activity (EVAs). Based on a return sample of the EMU coolant loop, the chemical load was well understood, but there was not sufficient volume of the returned sample to analyze particulates. Through work with EMU specialists, chemists, (EVA) Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) representation, safety and mission assurance, astronaut crew, and team engineers, requirements were developed for the EMU Water Processing hardware (sometimes referred to as the Airlock Coolant Loop Recovery [A/L CLR] system). Those requirements ranged from the operable level of ionic, organic, and particulate load, interfaces to the EMU, maximum cycle time, operating pressure drop, flow rate, and temperature, leakage rates, and biocide levels for storage. Design work began in February 2005 and certification was completed in April 2005 to support a return to flight launch date of May 12, 2005. This paper will discuss the details of the design and certification of the EMU Water Processing hardware and its components

  12. Active Immunization in the United States: Developments over the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Dennehy, Penelope H.

    2001-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified immunization as the most important public health advance of the 20th century. The purpose of this article is to review the changes that have taken place in active immunization in the United States over the past decade. Since 1990, new vaccines have become available to prevent five infectious diseases: varicella, rotavirus, hepatitis A, Lyme disease, and Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Improved vaccines have been developed to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcus, pertussis, rabies, and typhoid infections. Immunization strategies for the prevention of hepatitis B, measles, meningococcal infections, and poliomyelitis have changed as a result of the changing epidemiology of these diseases. Combination vaccines are being developed to facilitate the delivery of multiple antigens, and improved vaccines are under development for cholera, influenza, and meningococcal disease. Major advances in molecular biology have enabled scientists to devise new approaches to the development of vaccines against diseases ranging from respiratory viral to enteric bacterial infections that continue to plague the world's population. PMID:11585789

  13. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, Daniel J.; Compton, Jana E.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Singh, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of damage costs attributable to source at management-relevant scales could inform decisions in areas where anthropogenic N leakage causes harm. We used recently compiled data describing N inputs in the conterminous United States (US) to assess potential damage costs associated with anthropogenic N. We estimated fates of N leaked to the environment (air/deposition, surface freshwater, groundwater, and coastal zones) in the early 2000s by multiplying watershed-level N inputs (8-digit US Geologic Survey Hydrologic Unit Codes; HUC8s) with published coefficients describing nutrient uptake efficiency, leaching losses, and gaseous emissions. We scaled these N leakage estimates with mitigation, remediation, direct damage, and substitution costs associated with human health, agriculture, ecosystems, and climate (per kg of N) to calculate annual damage cost (US dollars in 2008 or as reported) of anthropogenic N per HUC8. Estimates of N leakage by HUC8 ranged from <1 to 125 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with most N leaked to freshwater ecosystems. Estimates of potential damages (based on median estimates) ranged from 1.94 to 2255 ha-1 yr-1 across watersheds, with a median of 252 ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems and respiratory effects of atmospheric N pollution were important across HUC8s. However, significant data gaps remain in our ability to fully assess N damages, such as damage costs from harmful algal blooms and drinking water contamination. Nationally, potential health and environmental damages of anthropogenic N in the early 2000s totaled 210 billion yr-1 USD (range: 81-441 billion yr-1). While a number of gaps and uncertainties remain in these estimates, overall this work represents a starting point to inform decisions

  14. Our Physical World. Language Arts Theme Units: Cross-Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    This book is part of a series of books presenting ready-to-use instructional units on themes typically taught in the primary grades. The topics focus on science, math, social studies or literature, but use language arts skills consistently in each unit. Each book in the series also uses as many frames of mind or intelligences as possible. Within a…

  15. 75 FR 10809 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT); Biometric Data Collection at the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology (US-VISIT..., entitled ``United States Visitor and Immigrant Status Indicator Technology Program (US-VISIT);...

  16. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  17. The Animals Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units: Cross-Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    This book is part of a series of books presenting ready-to-use instructional units on themes typically taught in the primary grades. The topics focus on science, math, social studies or literature, but use language arts skills consistently in each unit. Each book in the series also uses as many frames of mind or intelligences as possible. Within a…

  18. China: Past and Present. A Supplemental Activity Unit on Chinese Culture for Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Lynn

    Designed as a supplement to the classroom text, this unit contains 14 lessons on Chinese culture and society. Students are encouraged to compare the cultures of traditional and modern China as well as those of China and the United States. Materials are divided into two sections. The first section contains lesson outlines, including teaching plans,…

  19. United States of America National Bibliographical Services and Related Activities in 1965-67.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Helen Dudenbostel

    This publication represents a combination of three separate reports, one for each of the three years (1965, 1966, and 1967), prepared in reply to a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization questionnaire. These reports are not intended to cover all bibliographical services in the United States; however, it is hoped that they…

  20. A United States of Europe--The Impossible Dream? Learning Activity Package, Social Studies, Grade 8. [And] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Amy

    Developed for the Carroll County Public Schools, this Learning Activity Package (LAP) for grade 8 offers a way to provide individualized learning about the nationalism and economics of Europe and the potentialities of a united Common Market. Students become familiar with the economics of European countries, geography and terrain, business and…

  1. 10 CFR 50.13 - Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities. 50.13 Section 50.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... the effects of (a) attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the facility...

  2. 10 CFR 50.13 - Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities. 50.13 Section 50.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... the effects of (a) attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the facility...

  3. Influence of Negotiations between Preservice Teachers and Pupils on Instruction within Multi-Activity and Sport Education Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl-Alexander, Zachary; Curtner-Smith, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of negotiations between pupils and preservice teachers (PTs) on PTs' instruction within multi-activity (MA) teaching and sport education (SE). Participants were 17 PTs engaged in a secondary early field experience in which they taught 12-lesson MA and SE soccer units. Data were collected using…

  4. Self-Efficacy and Participation in Physical and Social Activity among Older Adults in Spain and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Jessica M.; Multhaup, Kristi S.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Barton, Cole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We explored Bandura's self-efficacy theory as applied to older adult (aged 63-92) participation in physical and social activity in a cross-cultural study. Design and Methods: Older adults in Spain (n = 53) and the United States (n = 55) completed questions regarding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and participation in physical and…

  5. 10 CFR 50.13 - Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities. 50.13 Section 50.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC... the effects of (a) attacks and destructive acts, including sabotage, directed against the facility...

  6. Mangroves Build Land. "Mangroves are a Valuable Resource." Grades 7 and 8. A Two Lesson Unit. Student Learning Activity Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, James

    This module is an activity and film-oriented unit focusing on the importance of mangroves in the South Florida ecosystem. The module is part of a series designed to be used by teachers, students, and community members to help them utilize community resources in developing and teaching environmental concepts and responsibility, and in seeking ways…

  7. Thematic Science Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jean M.; Cliatt, Mary Jo Puckett

    1990-01-01

    Described are four interdisciplinary units entitled "A Very Fishy Unit,""Building Healthy Bodies Unit,""Hands-On Plants Units," and "Butterflies Spell Beauty Unit." Each unit contains science activities, skills and concepts covered, and activities that cover other disciplines. (KR)

  8. Modulation of motor unit activity in biceps brachii by neuromuscular electrical stimulation applied to the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Amiridis, Ioannis G; Mani, Diba; Almuklass, Awad; Matkowski, Boris; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) current intensity and pulse width applied to the right elbow flexors on the discharge characteristics of motor units in the left biceps brachii. Three NMES current intensities were applied for 5 s with either narrow (0.2 ms) or wide (1 ms) stimulus pulses: one at 80% of motor threshold and two that evoked contractions at either ∼10% or ∼20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. The discharge times of 28 low-threshold (0.4-21.6% MVC force) and 16 high-threshold (31.7-56.3% MVC force) motor units in the short head of biceps brachii were determined before, during, and after NMES. NMES elicited two main effects: one involved transient deflections in the left-arm force at the onset and offset of NMES and the other consisted of nonuniform modulation of motor unit activity. The force deflections, which were influenced by NMES current intensity and pulse width, were observed only when low-threshold motor units were tracked. NMES did not significantly influence the discharge characteristics of tracked single-threshold motor units. However, a qualitative analysis indicated that there was an increase in the number of unique waveforms detected during and after NMES. The findings indicate that activity of motor units in the left elbow flexors can be modulated by NMES current and pulse width applied to right elbow flexors, but the effects are not distributed uniformly to the involved motor units.

  9. 12 CFR 347.105 - Permissible financial activities outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., distributing, and dealing in equity securities outside the United States. (15) Operating a travel agency in..., subject to compliance with any attendant restrictions in 12 CFR 225.28(b). (9) General insurance...

  10. 12 CFR 347.105 - Permissible financial activities outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., distributing, and dealing in equity securities outside the United States. (15) Operating a travel agency in..., subject to compliance with any attendant restrictions in 12 CFR 225.28(b). (9) General insurance...

  11. 12 CFR 347.105 - Permissible financial activities outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., distributing, and dealing in equity securities outside the United States. (15) Operating a travel agency in..., subject to compliance with any attendant restrictions in 12 CFR 225.28(b). (9) General insurance...

  12. 12 CFR 347.105 - Permissible financial activities outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., distributing, and dealing in equity securities outside the United States. (15) Operating a travel agency in..., subject to compliance with any attendant restrictions in 12 CFR 225.28(b). (9) General insurance...

  13. Activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Steeve; Berghaus, Londa J; Lee, Elise A

    2015-08-05

    Studies with facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens have shown that evaluation of the bactericidal activity of antimicrobial agents against intracellular bacteria is more closely associated with in vivo efficacy than traditional in vitro susceptibility testing. The objective of this study was to determine the relative activity of 10 antimicrobial agents against intracellular Rhodococcus equi. Equine monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with virulent R. equi and exposed to erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, rifampin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, vancomycin, imipenem, or doxycycline at concentrations achievable in plasma at clinically recommended dosages in foals. The number of intracellular R. equi was determined 48h after infection by counting colony forming units (CFUs). The number of R. equi CFUs in untreated control wells were significantly higher than those of monolayers treated with antimicrobial agents. Numbers of R. equi were significantly lower in monolayers treated with enrofloxacin followed by those treated with gentamicin, and vancomycin, when compared to monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents. Numbers of R. equi in monolayers treated with doxycycline were significantly higher than those of monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents. Differences in R. equi CFUs between monolayers treated with other antimicrobial agents were not statistically significant. Enrofloxacin, gentamicin, and vancomycin are the most active drugs in equine monocyte-derived macrophages infected with R. equi. Additional studies will be needed to determine if these findings correlate with in vivo efficacy.

  14. Recruitment and Decruitment of Motor Units Activities of M. Biceps Brachii During Isovelocity Movements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    haviors of motor units of m. biceps brachii (biceps short head muscle) during flexion movements in wide range of elbow joint angle. In this study, eight...range (from 0 [deg] to 120 [deg]) of elbow joint angle with a surface electrode array. We identified ac- tion potensials of each moitor unit and...ing flexion movements in wide range of elbow joint angle. In this study, eight surface electromyograms (EMGs) were measured during flexion movements

  15. Single-unit activity in piriform cortex during slow-wave state is shaped by recent odor experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Donald A

    2010-02-03

    Memory and its underlying neural plasticity play important roles in sensory discrimination and cortical pattern recognition in olfaction. Given the reported function of slow-wave sleep states in neocortical and hippocampal memory consolidation, we hypothesized that activity during slow-wave states within the piriform cortex may be shaped by recent olfactory experience. Rats were anesthetized with urethane and allowed to spontaneously shift between slow-wave and fast-wave states as recorded in local field potentials within the anterior piriform cortex. Single-unit activity of piriform cortical layer II/III neurons was recorded simultaneously. The results suggest that piriform cortical activity during slow-wave states is shaped by recent (several minutes) odor experience. The temporal structure of single-unit activity during slow waves was modified if the animal had been stimulated with an odor within the receptive field of that cell. If no odor had been delivered, the activity of the cell during slow-wave activity was stable across the two periods. The results demonstrate that piriform cortical activity during slow-wave state is shaped by recent odor experience, which could contribute to odor memory consolidation.

  16. Apparent discrepancy between single-unit activity and (/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose labeling in optic tectum of the rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect

    Auker, C.R.; Meszler, R.M.; Carpenter, D.O.

    1983-06-01

    Autoradiographic analysis of (1-/sup 14/C)2-deoxy-D-glucose-6-phosphate ((/sup 14/C)2-DG-P) accumulation in the rattlesnake brain stem and optic tectum was used in an effort to map infrared and visual neuronal pathways. Visual stimulation with a standard stimulus (a heat lamp) resulted in dense labeling of the superficial layers of the optic tectum. Infrared stimulation resulted in labeling at the first synaptic relay, the lateral descending nucleus of the trigeminal tract, but not at higher levels. Responses of infrared units in one hemitectum and visual units in the other were analyzed. There were no clear differences in the number, maximal density, spread, or rates of accommodation of visual units and infrared units, although the locus of maximal density was more superficial for visual units. In general, infrared units generated a greater number of action potentials. All infrared units responded to onset but they varied greatly in their ability to maintain discharge for the duration of the stimulus. Infrared stimuli generated single, large, triphasic on-responses, whereas visual stimulation generated complex multiphasic and long-lasting on- and off-responses. The major infrared-on peak reached maximal amplitude at greater depths and was larger than the major visual-on peak. Amplitude of the infrared peak fell off more rapidly with distance than did amplitude of the visual peak. These observations are consistent with the view that infrared stimulation is effective in discharging neurons but is not associated with intense synaptic excitation. Our observations suggest that 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake is not necessarily correlated with the degree of action potential activation of specific neuronal pathways. The amount of (/sup 14/C)2-DG-P labeling may reflect the metabolic requirements for support of synaptic depolarization as well as that supporting action potentials.

  17. Detecting bladder fullness through the ensemble activity patterns of the spinal cord unit population in a somatovisceral convergence environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae Hong; Kim, Chang-Eop; Shin, Jaewoo; Im, Changkyun; Koh, Chin Su; Seo, In Seok; Kim, Sang Jeong; Shin, Hyung-Cheul

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Chronic monitoring of the state of the bladder can be used to notify patients with urinary dysfunction when the bladder should be voided. Given that many spinal neurons respond both to somatic and visceral inputs, it is necessary to extract bladder information selectively from the spinal cord. Here, we hypothesize that sensory information with distinct modalities should be represented by the distinct ensemble activity patterns within the neuronal population and, therefore, analyzing the activity patterns of the neuronal population could distinguish bladder fullness from somatic stimuli. Approach. We simultaneously recorded 26-27 single unit activities in response to bladder distension or tactile stimuli in the dorsal spinal cord of each Sprague-Dawley rat. In order to discriminate between bladder fullness and tactile stimulus inputs, we analyzed the ensemble activity patterns of the entire neuronal population. A support vector machine (SVM) was employed as a classifier, and discrimination performance was measured by k-fold cross-validation tests. Main results. Most of the units responding to bladder fullness also responded to the tactile stimuli (88.9-100%). The SVM classifier precisely distinguished the bladder fullness from the somatic input (100%), indicating that the ensemble activity patterns of the unit population in the spinal cord are distinct enough to identify the current input modality. Moreover, our ensemble activity pattern-based classifier showed high robustness against random losses of signals. Significance. This study is the first to demonstrate that the two main issues of electroneurographic monitoring of bladder fullness, low signals and selectiveness, can be solved by an ensemble activity pattern-based approach, improving the feasibility of chronic monitoring of bladder fullness by neural recording.

  18. Netherlands: A Conceptual Unit. Instructional Activities Series IA/S-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swatridge, L. W.; Vass, B.

    This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. The activity investigates resource management and economics. It employs the student-activity approach to inquiry learning by using group work, simulations, and team research reports. Given data about…

  19. Receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) stimulates the proliferation of epithelial cells of the epidermo-pilosebaceous unit

    PubMed Central

    Duheron, Vincent; Hess, Estelle; Duval, Monique; Decossas, Marion; Castaneda, Beatriz; Klöpper, Jennifer E.; Amoasii, Leonela; Barbaroux, Jean-Baptiste; Williams, Ifor R.; Yagita, Hideo; Penninger, Josef; Choi, Yongwon; Lézot, Frédéric; Groves, Richard; Paus, Ralf; Mueller, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), known for controlling bone mass, has been recognized for its role in epithelial cell activation of the mammary gland. Because bone and the epidermo-pilosebaceous unit of the skin share a lifelong renewal activity where similar molecular players operate, and because mammary glands and hair follicles are both skin appendages, we have addressed the function of RANK in the hair follicle and the epidermis. Here, we show that mice deficient in RANK ligand (RANKL) are unable to initiate a new growth phase of the hair cycle and display arrested epidermal homeostasis. However, transgenic mice overexpressing RANK in the hair follicle or administration of recombinant RANKL both activate the hair cycle and epidermal growth. RANK is expressed by the hair follicle germ and bulge stem cells and the epidermal basal cells, cell types implicated in the renewal of the epidermo-pilosebaceous unit. RANK signaling is dispensable for the formation of the stem cell compartment and the inductive hair follicle mesenchyme, and the hair cycle can be rescued by Rankl knockout skin transplantation onto nude mice. RANKL is actively transcribed by the hair follicle at initiation of its growth phase, providing a mechanism for stem cell RANK engagement and hair-cycle entry. Thus, RANK–RANKL regulates hair renewal and epidermal homeostasis and provides a link between these two activities. PMID:21402940

  20. CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, M F; Peeters, M C; Luteijn, T; Visser, P; Speck, N A; Dzierzak, E

    2000-10-15

    The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region before the onset of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, CFU-S(11) activity in the complex developing vascular and urogenital regions of the AGM was localized. From E10 onward, CFU-S(11) activity is associated with the aortic vasculature, and is found also in the urogenital ridges (UGRs). Together with data obtained from organ explant cultures, in which up to a 16-fold increase in CFU-S(11) activity was observed, it was determined that CFU-S(11) can be increased autonomously both in vascular sites and in UGRs. Furthermore, CFU-S(11) activity is present in vitelline and umbilical vessels. This, together with the presence of CFU-S(11) in the UGRs 2 days before HSC activity, suggests both temporally and spatially distinct emergent sources of CFU-S(11). (Blood. 2000;96:2902-2904)

  1. Travel On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Transportation for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Jane; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual for grades 4-6 covers all four topics. Materials in four chapters comprising fourteen mini-units cover…

  2. Travel On! Mini-Units and Learning Activities on Transportation for Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Jane; And Others

    One of a series of eleven curriculum manuals which cover the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the environment, transportation safety, and bicycles for elementary, secondary, and adult levels, this manual for grades K-3 covers all four topics. Materials in the thirteen mini-units present different aspects of…

  3. The Navajo Way of Life: A Resource Unit with Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Dahlia

    A resource unit on the Navajo way of life, for grades 4-6, contains sections on Navajo history, art, and crafts, homes, music, poetry and games; Navajo and Pueblo cookery (including recipes); traditional Navajo dress, ceremony and legends; and successful Navajos, past and present. Sections include text, vocabulary words, drawings, maps, and…

  4. Harriet Tubman Integrated Unit. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Woude, Gladys

    Harriet Tubman, a famous Civil War freedom fighter from Maryland, is the focus of this unit that integrates the arts and history. Students will learn about Harriet Tubman through music, art, dance, literature, and reference materials. The five lessons will be models and a springboard for the research projects that the students will complete about…

  5. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  6. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  7. Learning Projects of the Active Aging Eighty-Five and Over Population in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Keith; Schaefer, Chris

    Despite the fact that people in the United States are living longer, research on the learning projects of the population of individuals 85 years old or older remains sparse and sporadic. The literature that does exist debunks a number of common myths about aging and learning by establishing the following: adults aged 65 and over are a highly…

  8. Motor unit activity when young and old adults perform steady contractions while supporting an inertial load.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Michael A; Gould, Jeffrey R; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the discharge characteristics of biceps brachii motor units of young and old adults when they performed steady, submaximal contractions while the arm supported different inertial loads. Young (28 ± 4 yr; n = 16) and old (75 ± 4 yr; n = 14) adults performed steady contractions with the elbow flexors at target forces set at either small (11.7 ± 4.4% maximum) or large (17.8 ± 6.5% maximum) differences below the recruitment threshold force of the motor unit (n = 40). The task was to maintain an elbow angle at 1.57 rad until the motor unit was recruited and discharged action potentials for ∼120 s. Time to recruitment was longer for the larger target force difference (187 ± 227 s vs. 23 ± 46 s, P < 0.001). Once recruited, motor units discharged action potentials either repetitively or intermittently, with a greater proportion of motor units exhibiting the repetitive pattern for old adults. Discharge rate at recruitment and during the steady contraction was similar for the two target force differences for old adults but was greater for the small target force difference for young adults. Discharge variability was similar at recruitment for the two age groups but less for the old adults during the steady contraction. The greatest difference between the present results and those reported previously when the arm pulled against a rigid restraint was that old adults modulated discharge rate less than young adults across the two contraction intensities for both load types.

  9. UNIT, PETROLOGY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THIS TEACHER'S GUIDE FOR A UNIT ON PETROLOGY IS SUITABLE FOR ADAPTATION AT EITHER THE UPPER ELEMENTARY OR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVELS. THE UNIT BEGINS WITH A STORY THAT INTRODUCES VOLCANIC ACTION AND IGNEOUS ROCK FORMATION. SELECTED CONCEPTS ARE LISTED FOLLOWED BY SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES. A BIBLIOGRAPHY, FILM LIST, VOCABULARY LIST, AND QUESTION AND…

  10. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity.

  11. United States Marine Corps 2012 Financial Report. Schedule of Budgetary Activity for Fiscal Year 2012 Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    in 2012 –– Sustaining U.S. Global Leadership: Priorities for 21st Century Defense –– provides the framework by which the Marine Corps will balance...civilian and military leaders. As a maritime nation with global commitments and responsibilities, the United States relies on the Marine Corps for...the unparalleled ability to project U.S. power rapidly across the global land, sea, air, space, and cyber “commons.” Today, Marines stand ready to

  12. Periodic Modulation of Motor-Unit Activity in Extrinsic Hand Muscles During Multidigit Grasping

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jamie A.; Winges, Sara A.; Santello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We recently examined the extent to which motor units of digit flexor muscles receive common input during multidigit grasping. This task elicited moderate to strong motor-unit synchrony (common input strength, CIS) across muscles (flexor digitorum profundus, FDP, and flexor pollicis longus, FPL) and across FDP muscle compartments, although the strength of this common input was not uniform across digit pairs. To further characterize the neural mechanisms underlying the control of multidigit grasping, we analyzed the relationship between firing of single motor units from these hand muscles in the frequency domain by computing coherence. We report three primary findings. First, in contrast to what has been reported in intrinsic hand muscles, motor units belonging to different muscles and muscle compartments of extrinsic digit flexors exhibited significant coherence in the 0- to 5- and 5- to 10-Hz frequency ranges and much weaker coherence in the higher 10–20 Hz range (maximum 0.0025 and 0.0008, respectively, pooled across all FDP compartment pairs). Second, the strength and incidence of coherence differed considerably across digit pairs. Third, contrary to what has been reported in the literature, across-muscle coherence can be stronger and more prevalent than within-muscle coherence, as FPL–FDP2 (thumb-index digit pair) exhibited the strongest and most prevalent coherence in our data (0.010 and 43% at 3 Hz, respectively). The heterogeneous organization of common input to these muscles and muscle compartments is discussed in relation to the functional role of individual digit pairs in the coordination of multiple digit forces in grasping. PMID:15744006

  13. Antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm: A comparison between EDTA, chlorhexidine, cetrimide, MTAD and QMix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Chen, Min; Lu, Yan; Guo, Xiangjun; Qiao, Feng; Wu, Ligeng

    2015-08-01

    We compared the antibacterial and residual antimicrobial activities of five root canal irrigants (17% EDTA,2% chlorhexidine,0.2% cetrimide, MTAD, and QMix) in a model of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation. Sixty dentin blocks with 3-week E. faecalis biofilm were divided into six equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated. A blank control group was also established. Antibacterial activities of the irrigants were evaluated by counting colony forming units. To test residual antimicrobial activities, 280 dentin blocks were divided into seven equal groups and flushed with irrigant for 2 min or left untreated and then incubated with E. faecalis suspension for 48 h, or used as a blank. No bacteria were observed in the blank control group. The number of viable E. faecalis was significantly fewer in the irrigant-treated groups compared with the untreated control (P < 0.05). Among the five irrigants, QMix had the strongest antibacterial activity. Residual antimicrobial activities of CHX were significantly higher at 12 h, 24 h and 36 h compared to untreated control (P < 0.05). All five root canal irrigants were effective to some extent against E. faecalis, but QMix and CHX had the strongest, and CHX the longest (up to 36 h), antimicrobial activity.

  14. Stability and activity of an Enterobacter aerogenes-specific bacteriophage under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Verthé, K; Possemiers, S; Boon, N; Vaneechoutte, M; Verstraete, W

    2004-09-01

    A bacteriophage, designated UZ1 and showing lytic activity against a clinically important strain (BE1) of Enterobacter aerogenes was isolated from hospital sewage. The stability and lytic activity against this strain under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions was evaluated. After addition of bacteriophage UZ1 to a liquid feed at gastric pH 2, the phage was immediately inactivated and could not be recovered. However, by use of an antacid to neutralize stomach acidity, no significant changes in phage titer were observed after 2 h incubation at 37 degrees C. After supplementing pancreatic juice and further incubation for 4 h, the phage titer remained stable. The persistence of UZ1 in a mixed microbial ecosystem that was representative for the large intestine was monitored using an in vitro simulation of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem. A pulse administration of bacteriophage UZ1 at a concentration of 10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU)/ml to reactor 3 (which simulates the ascending colon) showed that, in the absence of the host, bacteriophage UZ1 persisted for 13 days in the simulated colon, while the theoretical washout was calculated at 16 days. To assess its lytic activity in an intestinal microbial ecosystem, a green fluorescent protein (gfp)-labeled E. aerogenes BE1 strain was constructed and gfp-specific primers were designed in order to quantify the host strain using real-time PCR. It was observed that bacteriophage UZ1 was able to replicate and showed lytic activity against E. aerogenes BE1/ gfp in an intestinal microbial ecosystem. Indeed, after 17 h a 2 log unit reduction of E. aerogenes BE1/ gfp was measured as compared with the assay without bacteriophage UZ1, while the phage titer increased by 2 log units at an initial multiplicity of infection of 0.07 PFU/colony-forming unit. This is the first report of an in vitro model to study bacteriophage activity in the complex intestinal microbial community.

  15. Aberrant SSEA-4 upregulation mediates myofibroblast activity to promote pre-cancerous oral submucous fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2016-11-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), regarded as a precancerous condition, is characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibro-elastic change in the lamina properia and epithelial atrophy. The pathologic mechanisms of OSF still need to be further clarified. In the study, we investigated the functional expression of SSEA-4, which is a well-known stemness marker, in myofibroblast activity and the clinical significance in OSF tissues. The expression of SSEA-4 in OSF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Functional analysis of SSEA-4 on myofibroblast activity of OSF was achieved by lentiviral silencing ST3GAL2. Immunohisitochemistry demonstrated that SSEA-4 expression was significantly higher expression in areca quid chewing-associated OSF tissues than those of normal oral mucosa tissues. From flow cytometry analysis, arecoline dose-dependently activated SSEA-4 expression in primary human normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Sorted SSEA-4-positive cells from fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) have higher colony-forming unit, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression than SSEA-4-negative subset. Knockdown of ST3GAL2 in fBMFs suppressed SSEA-4 expression, collagen contraction, migration, invasiveness, and wound healing capability. Consistently, silencing ST3GAL2 was found to repress arecoline-induced myofibroblast activity in BMFs. The study highlights SSEA-4 as a critical marker for therapeutic intervention to mediate myofibroblast transdifferentiation in areca quid chewing-associated OSF.

  16. Aberrant SSEA-4 upregulation mediates myofibroblast activity to promote pre-cancerous oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cheng-Chia; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Chang, Yu-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), regarded as a precancerous condition, is characterized by juxta-epithelial inflammatory reaction followed by fibro-elastic change in the lamina properia and epithelial atrophy. The pathologic mechanisms of OSF still need to be further clarified. In the study, we investigated the functional expression of SSEA-4, which is a well-known stemness marker, in myofibroblast activity and the clinical significance in OSF tissues. The expression of SSEA-4 in OSF was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Functional analysis of SSEA-4 on myofibroblast activity of OSF was achieved by lentiviral silencing ST3GAL2. Immunohisitochemistry demonstrated that SSEA-4 expression was significantly higher expression in areca quid chewing-associated OSF tissues than those of normal oral mucosa tissues. From flow cytometry analysis, arecoline dose-dependently activated SSEA-4 expression in primary human normal buccal mucosal fibroblasts (BMFs). Sorted SSEA-4-positive cells from fibrotic BMFs (fBMFs) have higher colony-forming unit, collagen gel contraction, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression than SSEA-4-negative subset. Knockdown of ST3GAL2 in fBMFs suppressed SSEA-4 expression, collagen contraction, migration, invasiveness, and wound healing capability. Consistently, silencing ST3GAL2 was found to repress arecoline-induced myofibroblast activity in BMFs. The study highlights SSEA-4 as a critical marker for therapeutic intervention to mediate myofibroblast transdifferentiation in areca quid chewing-associated OSF. PMID:27845370

  17. Design and activity of novel lactoferrampin analogues against O157:H7 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jenniffer; Ortiz, Claudia; Guzmán, Fanny; Cárdenas, Constanza; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Torres, Rodrigo

    2014-04-01

    Lactoferrampin 265-284 (LFampin 265-284) is a peptide consisting of residues 265-284 of N1-domain of bovine Lactoferrin (LF). This peptide has several cationic groups in the C-terminal lobe, exhibiting an antibacterial activity against a wide range of microorganisms. However, LFampin 265-284 exhibits low antimicrobial activity against the O157:H7 enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7) when compared with Lactoferrin chimera and Lactoferricin. Here, we have designed three analogues of LFampin 265-284 based on the distribution of cationic groups, hydrophobicity, size, and sequence. Analogues were synthesized by solid phase chemistry using Fmoc methodology obtaining peptides with 95% purity. All peptides maintain the ability to adopt helical conformations (checked by circular dichroism spectra and molecular simulations). Some of these analogues exhibited a significant increase in antimicrobial activity by counting colony forming units against EHEC O157:H7 compared to native LFampin 265-284, with MIC of 10 and 40 µM for 264G-D265K and 264G-D265K/S272R, respectively. The incorporation of a GKLI sequence in the N-terminal lobe increased dramatically its antibacterial activity, an effect which has been attributed to the addition of cationic groups in the N-terminal side that may stabilize the helical conformation of the new designed peptides.

  18. Rapid bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Hiroko; Inoue, Kazue; Okumura, Ryo; Hoshino, Kazuki

    2013-02-01

    The initial bactericidal activity of quinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae at the concentration equivalent to their respective peak serum concentration (C(max)) and free drug fraction of C(max) (fC(max)) were investigated. The bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin (STFX), levofloxacin (LVFX), moxifloxacin (MFLX), and garenoxacin (GRNX) were compared by determining the actual killing of bacteria at C(max) and fC(max) for 1 and 2 hours based on the Japanese maximum dose per administration (100, 500, 400, and 400 mg, respectively). Against 4 quinolone-susceptible clinical isolates (wild-type), STFX with C(max) and fC(max) exhibited the most rapid bactericidal activity resulting in an average reduction of > or = 3.0 log10 colony forming units (CFU)/ mL in 1 hour. STFX with C(max) and fC(max) also showed the most rapid and potent bactericidal activity against 9 clinical isolates with single par (C/E) mutation, resulting in > or = 3.0 log10 CFU/mL average reduction in viable cells in 1 hour. STFX showed a statistically significant advantage in initial bactericidal activity over other quinolones for single mutants (P < 0.001). The propensity that the difference in the initial bactericidal activity between STFX and other quinolones was higher in single mutants than wild-type strains, was confirmed using S. pneumoniae ATCC49619 (wild-type) and its laboratory single parC mutant. As a result, STFX showed a similar rapid and potent initial bactericidal activity against both strains, while initial bactericidal activity for other quinolones was significantly reduced in the single mutant (P < 0.05). In conclusion, STFX has the most rapid and potent initial bactericidal activity against wild-type and single mutants of S. pneumoniae and its bactericidal activity is not affected by the presence of a single par mutation compared to LVFX, MFLX, and GRNX.

  19. Coordinated Interaction between Hippocampal Sharp-Wave Ripples and Anterior Cingulate Unit Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal–cortical interaction during sleep promotes transformation of memory for long-term storage in the cortex. In particular, hippocampal sharp-wave ripple-associated neural activation is important for this transformation during slow-wave sleep. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been shown to be crucial for expression and likely storage of long-term memory. However, little is known about how ACC activity is influenced by hippocampal ripple activity during sleep. We report here about coordinated interactions between hippocampal ripple activity and ACC neural firings. By recording from the ACC and hippocampal CA1 simultaneously in mice, we found that almost all ACC neurons showed increased activity before hippocampal ripple activity; moreover, a subpopulation (17%) displayed a further activation immediately after ripple activity. This postripple activation of ACC neurons correlated positively with ripple amplitude, and the same neurons were excited upon electrical stimulation of the CA1. Interestingly, the preripple activation of ACC neurons was present during the sleep state, but not during the awake state. These results suggest intimate interactions between hippocampal sharp-wave ripples and ACC neurons in a state-dependent manner. Importantly, sharp-wave ripples and associated activation appear to regulate activity of a small population of ACC neurons, a process that may play a critical role in memory consolidation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The hippocampus communicates with the cortex for memory transformation. Memories of previous experiences become less dependent on the hippocampus and increasingly dependent on cortical areas, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, little evidence is available to directly support this hippocampus-to-cortex information transduction hypothesis of memory consolidation. Here we show that a subpopulation of ACC neurons becomes active just after hippocampal ripple activity, and that electrical stimulation of

  20. Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parks, S; Housemann, R; Brownson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4) possible correlations of these patterns with meeting of physical activity recommendations. Design: A cross sectional study with an over sampling of lower income adults was conducted in 1999–2000. Setting: United States. Participants: 1818 United States adults. Main results: Lower income residents were less likely than higher income residents to meet physical activity recommendations. Rural residents were least likely to meet recommendations; suburban residents were most likely to meet recommendations. Suburban, higher income residents were more than twice as likely to meet recommendations than rural, lower income residents. Significant differences across income levels and urban/rural areas were found for those reporting neighbourhood streets, parks, and malls as places to exercise; fear of injury, being in poor health, or dislike as barriers to exercise and those reporting encouragement from relatives as social support for exercise. Evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between number of places to exercise and likelihood to meet recommendations for physical activity. Conclusions: Both income level and urban rural status were important predictors of adults' likelihood to meet physical activity recommendations. In addition, environmental variables vary in importance across socioeconomic status and urban-rural areas. PMID:12490645

  1. Mitochondria Association to Calcium Release Units is Controlled by Age and Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background At the most basic level, skeletal muscle contraction requires Ca2+ and ATP and, thus, is under direct control of two important intracellular organelles: Ca2+ release units (CRUs) - specialized intracellular junctions, also named triads, which are involved in excitation-contraction (EC) coupling - and mitochondria, the organelles deputed to produce the energy required for most cellular functions (i.e. aerobic ATP production). It is now becoming clear that: a) CRUs and mitochondria interact functionally and structurally, as entry of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix is required to stimulate the respiratory chain, and increase production of ATP (Fig. 1) (Sembrowich et al. 1985 1; Brookes et al. 2004 2; Rossi et al. 2009) 3; b) we recently discovered that, in adult skeletal muscle fibers, mitochondria and CRUs are placed in close proximity to each other (Fig. 2) and structurally linked by small strands called tethers (Fig. 3) (Boncompagni et al. 2009)4. Scientific hypothesis of the study Miss-function of mitochondria and functional/structural changes affecting the EC coupling apparatus have been both proposed to contribute to the age-related decline of skeletal muscle performance (Delbono et al. 1995 5; Boncompagni et al. 2006 6). In this study, we tested the following hypothesis: muscle activity improves/maintains the correct association between CRUs and mitochondria, which is challenged by ageing and inactivity. Experimental Plan We have studied the morphology, frequency, and sarcomericlocalization of both CRUs and mitochondria using light, confocal, and electron microscopy (EM) in: a) Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL) muscles from adult (3-12 months of age) and ageing (≥24 months of age) wild type (WT) mice; and b) in human biopsies from sedentary elderly subjects (70 ± 5 years) and age matched sportmen (69 ± 4 years of age) to determine how EC coupling and mitochondrial apparatuses are affected by age and exercise. Results A Studies in mice revealed

  2. Battered mothers speak out: participatory human rights documentation as a model for research and activism in the United States.

    PubMed

    Slote, Kim Y; Cuthbert, Carrie; Mesh, Cynthia J; Driggers, Monica G; Bancroft, Lundy; Silverman, Jay G

    2005-11-01

    This article describes the work of the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project, a multiyear effort that documented human rights violations against battered women and their children in the Massachusetts family court system. This article (a) presents the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project's participatory human rights methodology as an alternative model for research and activism on violence against women and children in the United States, (b) summarizes the authors' findings and human rights analysis of how the Massachusetts family courts handled custody and visitation in specified cases involving partner and child abuse, and (c) discusses U.S. obligations under international human rights law and the value of a human rights approach to violence against women and children in the United States.

  3. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit II--Horizontal Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to set up and operate a horizontal mill. Tasks addressed in the LAP include mounting style "A" or "B" arbors and adjusting arbor…

  4. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit I--Introduction to Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to identify parts and attachments of vertical and horizontal milling machines, identify work-holding devices, state safety rules, and…

  5. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit III--Vertical Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to set up and operate a vertical mill. Tasks addressed in the LAP include mounting and removing cutters and cutter holders for vertical…

  6. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  7. Muscle-Strengthening Activities and Participation among Adults in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loustalot, Fleetwood; Carlson, Susan A.; Kruger, Judy; Buchner, David M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe those who reported meeting the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" ("2008 Guidelines") muscle-strengthening standard of 2 or more days per week, including all seven muscle groups, and to assess the type and location of muscle-strengthening activities performed. Method: Data from HealthStyles…

  8. Grafting synthetic transmembrane units to the engineered low-toxicity α-hemolysin to restore its hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Ui, Mihoko; Harima, Kousuke; Takei, Toshiaki; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Tabata, Kazuhito V; Noji, Hiroyuki; Endo, Sumire; Akiyama, Kimio; Muraoka, Takahiro; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-12-01

    The chemical modification of proteins to provide desirable functions and/or structures broadens their possibilities for use in various applications. Usually, proteins can acquire new functions and characteristics, in addition to their original ones, via the introduction of synthetic functional moieties. Here, we adopted a more radical approach to protein modification, i.e., the replacement of a functional domain of proteins with alternative chemical compounds to build "cyborg proteins." As a proof of concept model, we chose staphylococcal α-hemolysin (Hla), which is a well-studied, pore-forming toxin. The hemolytic activity of Hla mutants was dramatically decreased by truncation of the stem domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the membrane. However, the impaired hemolytic activity was significantly restored by attaching a pyrenyl-maleimide unit to the cysteine residue that was introduced in the remaining stem domain. In contrast, negatively charged fluorescein-maleimide completely abolished the remaining activity of the mutants.

  9. EPI-001, A Compound Active against Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Targets Transactivation Unit 5 of the Androgen Receptor.

    PubMed

    De Mol, Eva; Fenwick, R Bryn; Phang, Christopher T W; Buzón, Victor; Szulc, Elzbieta; de la Fuente, Alex; Escobedo, Albert; García, Jesús; Bertoncini, Carlos W; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; McEwan, Iain J; Riera, Antoni; Salvatella, Xavier

    2016-09-16

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is the lethal condition suffered by prostate cancer patients that become refractory to androgen deprivation therapy. EPI-001 is a recently identified compound active against this condition that modulates the activity of the androgen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is essential for disease progression. The mechanism by which this compound exerts its inhibitory activity is however not yet fully understood. Here we show, by using high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that EPI-001 selectively interacts with a partially folded region of the transactivation domain of the androgen receptor, known as transactivation unit 5, that is key for the ability of prostate cells to proliferate in the absence of androgens, a distinctive feature of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our results can contribute to the development of more potent and less toxic novel androgen receptor antagonists for treating this disease.

  10. EPI-001, a compound active against castration-resistant prostate cancer, targets transactivation unit 5 of the androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    De Mol, Eva; Fenwick, R. Bryn; Phang, Christopher T. W.; Buzón, Victor; Szulc, Elzbieta; de la Fuente, Alex; Escobedo, Albert; García, Jesús; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Estébanez-Perpiñá, Eva; McEwan, Iain J.; Riera, Antoni; Salvatella, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is the lethal condition suffered by prostate cancer patients that become refractory to androgen deprivation therapy. EPI-001 is a recently identified compound active against this condition that modulates the activity of the androgen receptor, a nuclear receptor that is essential for disease progression. The mechanism by which this compound exerts its inhibitory activity is however not yet fully understood. Here we show, by using high resolution solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, that EPI-001 selectively interacts with a partially folded region of the transactivation domain of the androgen receptor, known as transactivation unit 5, that is key for the ability of prostate cells to proliferate in the absence of androgens, a distinctive feature of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Our results can contribute to the development of more potent and less toxic novel androgen receptor antagonists for treating this disease. PMID:27356095

  11. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 2: Mechanics II, Momentum, Energy, Rotational and Harmonic Motion, and Chaos (Units 8 - 15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including:

      Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

    • Racial/Ethnic Differences in Associations Between Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines, United States, 2013–2014

      PubMed Central

      Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yen, Irene H.; Kwon, Simona C.

      2016-01-01

      Introduction Neighborhood factors are increasingly recognized as determinants of health. Neighborhood social cohesion may be associated with physical activity, but previous studies examined data aggregated across racial/ethnic groups. We assessed whether neighborhood social cohesion was associated with physical activity in a nationally representative data set and explored the role of race/ethnicity. Methods We combined National Health Interview Survey data from 2013 and 2014 (n = 64,754) and constructed a neighborhood social cohesion score by summing responses to 4 questions. The outcome of meeting aerobic physical activity guidelines was defined as 150 or more minutes per week of moderate activity or 75 or more minutes of vigorous activity. Multivariable models regressing physical activity on neighborhood social cohesion were adjusted for demographic factors; interaction analyses assessed effect modification by race/ethnicity. Results In adjusted analyses, a 1-unit increase in the neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.05). Neighborhood social cohesion and physical activity were associated among non-Hispanic white adults (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20–1.42) and Hispanic adults (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03–1.34]) but not among non-Hispanic black or Asian American adults (Chinese, Filipino, and Asian Indians). Conclusion Neighborhood social cohesion was associated with meeting physical activity guidelines in a nationally representative sample; this association may be most meaningful for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic populations. Additional studies are needed to identify neighborhood factors that help non-Hispanic black and Asian Americans to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:27930284

    • 76 FR 55088 - Information Collection Activity: Unitization, Extension of a Collection; Submitted for Office of...

      Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

      2011-09-06

      ... agreements.'' The Independent Offices Appropriations Act (31 U.S.C. 9701), the Omnibus Appropriations Bill... normal course of their activities. We consider these to be usual and customary and took that into...

    • Disparities in Adolescents' Residence in Neighborhoods Supportive of Physical Activity - United States, 2011-2012.

      PubMed

      Watson, Kathleen B; Harris, Carmen D; Carlson, Susan A; Dorn, Joan M; Fulton, Janet E

      2016-06-17

      In 2013, only 27% of adolescents in grades 9-12 met the current federal guideline for aerobic physical activity (at least 60 minutes of physical activity each day*), and sex and racial/ethnic disparities in meeting the guideline exist (1). The Community Preventive Services Task Force has recommended a range of community-level evidence-based approaches(†) to increase physical activity by improving neighborhood supports for physical activity.(§) To assess the characteristics of adolescents who live in neighborhoods that are supportive of physical activity, CDC analyzed data on U.S. children and adolescents aged 10-17 years (defined as adolescents for this report) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Overall, 65% of U.S. adolescents live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity, defined as neighborhoods that are perceived as safe and have sidewalks or walking paths and parks, playgrounds, or recreation centers. Adolescents who were Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity; who lived in lower-income households, households with less educated parents, and rural areas; or who were overweight or obese were less likely to live in neighborhoods supportive of physical activity than were white adolescents and adolescents from higher income households, with a more highly educated parent, living in urban areas, and not overweight or obese. Within demographic groups, the largest disparity in the percentage of adolescents living in these neighborhoods was observed between adolescents living in households with a family income <100% of the Federal Poverty Level (FPL) (51%) and adolescents living in households with a family income ≥400% of the FPL (76%). Efforts to improve neighborhood supports, particularly in areas with a substantial percentage of low-income and minority residents, might increase physical activity among adolescents and reduce health disparities.

    • Chlamydia screening among sexually active young female enrollees of health plans--United States, 2000-2007.

      PubMed

      2009-04-17

      Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the United States, with more than 2.8 million new cases estimated to occur each year. During 2007, approximately 1.1 million cases of chlamydia were reported to CDC; more than half of these were in females aged 15-25 years. Untreated chlamydia can progress to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In 1989, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended routine chlamydia screening of sexually active young women. To evaluate the rates of chlamydia screening among sexually active young females, CDC analyzed data reported by commercial and Medicaid health plans to the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) during 2000-2007. The percentage of enrolled sexually active females who were screened for chlamydia was estimated for each of 41 states that had at least five health plans reporting HEDIS chlamydia screening data and for four U.S. geographic regions. Nationally, the annual screening rate increased from 25.3% in 2000 to 43.6% in 2006, and then decreased slightly to 41.6% in 2007. The regional rate of chlamydia screening in 2007 was highest in the Northeast (45.5%) and lowest in the South (37.3%). Increased screening by health-care providers is necessary to reduce the burden of chlamydial infection in the United States.

    • Silver nanoparticles with antimicrobial activities against Streptococcus mutans and their cytotoxic effect.

      PubMed

      Pérez-Díaz, Mario Alberto; Boegli, Laura; James, Garth; Velasquillo, Cristina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto; Martínez-Martínez, Rita-Elizabeth; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Fidel

      2015-10-01

      Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. The goal of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans, antibiofilm activity against mature S. mutans biofilms and the compatibility with human fibroblasts. The antimicrobial activity of AgNPs against the planktonic clinical isolate was size and concentration dependent, with smaller AgNPs having a lower minimum inhibitory concentration. A reduction of 2.3 log in the number of colony-forming units of S. mutans was observed when biofilms grown in a CDC reactor were exposed to 100 ppm of AgNPs of 9.5±1.1 nm. However, AgNPs at high concentrations (>10 ppm) showed a cytotoxic effect upon human dermal fibroblasts. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a planktonic S. mutans clinical isolate and killed established S. mutans biofilms, which suggests that AgNPs could be used for prevention and treatment of dental caries. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into therapeutic and preventive strategies.

    • An atomic orbital-based formulation of the complete active space self-consistent field method on graphical processing units

      SciTech Connect

      Hohenstein, Edward G.; Luehr, Nathan; Ufimtsev, Ivan S.; Martínez, Todd J.

      2015-06-14

      Despite its importance, state-of-the-art algorithms for performing complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) computations have lagged far behind those for single reference methods. We develop an algorithm for the CASSCF orbital optimization that uses sparsity in the atomic orbital (AO) basis set to increase the applicability of CASSCF. Our implementation of this algorithm uses graphical processing units (GPUs) and has allowed us to perform CASSCF computations on molecular systems containing more than one thousand atoms. Additionally, we have implemented analytic gradients of the CASSCF energy; the gradients also benefit from GPU acceleration as well as sparsity in the AO basis.

    • Exploring the Linkage between Activity-Friendly Zoning, Inactivity, and Cancer Incidence in the United States.

      PubMed

      Nicholson, Lisa M; Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F

      2017-03-07

      Background: Physical activity (PA) protects against cancer and enhances cancer survivorship. Given high inactivity rates nationwide, population-level physical activity facilitators are needed. Several authoritative bodies have recognized that zoning and planning helps create activity-friendly environments. This study examined the association between activity-friendly zoning, inactivity, and cancer in 478 of the most populous U.S. counties.Methods: County geocodes linked county-level data: cancer incidence and smoking (State Cancer Profiles), inactivity (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System), 11 zoning measures (compiled by the study team), and covariates (from the American Community Survey and NAVTEQ). For each zoning measure, single mediation regression models and Sobel tests examined whether activity-friendly zoning was associated with reduced cancer incidence, and whether inactivity mediated those associations. All models were clustered on state with robust SEs and significance at the P < 0.05 level.Results: Zoning for crosswalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths were associated with reduced cancer incidence (β between -0.71 and -1.27, P < 0.05), about 1 case per 100,000 for each 10 percentage-point increase in county population exposure to zoning. Except for crosswalks, each association was mediated by inactivity. However, county smoking attenuated these results, with only crosswalks remaining significant. Results were similar for males (with zoning for bike-pedestrian connectivity, street connectivity, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths), but not females, alone.Conclusions: Zoning can help to create activity-friendly environments that support decreased inactivity, and possibly reduced cancer incidence.Impact: Given low physical activity levels nationwide, cross-sectoral collaborations with urban planning can inform cancer prevention and public health efforts to decrease inactivity and cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev

    • The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

      PubMed

      Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

      2014-05-01

      [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

    • An Investigation into Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) Activation in the Southwestern United States

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Crosbie, E. C.; Youn, J.; Wonaschuetz, A.; Sorooshian, A.

      2013-12-01

      Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) comprise a key component of the total aerosol with critical influences on weather and climate. The importance of CCN concentration is often linked to radiative feedbacks associated with cloud albedo, which has important consequences for climate sensitivity, however the importance of CCN may also extend to cloud dynamics in convective environments and atmospheric electricity. We present data from fifteen months of field measurements taken in an urban environment on a rooftop of a building at the University of Arizona campus in Tucson, Arizona. CCN were measured at high temporal resolution concurrently with measurements of particle size distributions, meteorological parameters, and the composition of the organic fraction of the aerosol. We investigate monthly, weekly, and diurnal patterns in the data along with activation ratio and apparent activation diameter, which provide important insight into the micro-scale dependencies of cloud activation. Furthermore, we examine the relationship between CCN and local and regional meteorology, with particular focus on the North American Monsoon season, to investigate feedback and response mechanisms relating to dynamics, microphysics, and chemistry. Monsoon aerosol are shown to have favorable composition to allow for higher CCN activity and thus lower apparent activation diameters. This finding coincides with enhanced aqueous-phase chemistry to produce more hygroscopic aerosol constituents such as sulfate and water-soluble organic compounds.

  1. Fishy Activities for Your Small Fry. A Unit Plan in Fish Biology for Grades Kindergarten through Sixth. Educational Series Number 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Mary E.; And Others

    This unit in fish biology is suitable for kindergarten through sixth grade. Provided in the unit are: (1) behavioral objectives for grades K-3 and 4-6; (2) an overview of activities and instructional strategies; (3) background information on fishes; (4) diagrams of internal/external fish structure; (5) list of key vocabulary words; (6) discussion…

  2. Designing an Optical Instrument: A Culminating STEM Activity for a Primary Science Light Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; English, Lyn

    2016-01-01

    Nationally and internationally there have been calls for a focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) teaching and learning in schools to prepare students for the many future careers in the STEM fields. One way to do this is through engineering activities that provide opportunities for integrating STEM to solve problems using…

  3. 12 CFR 347.105 - Permissible financial activities outside the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acquire or hold equity interests in a foreign organization that will result in the bank and its affiliates: (1) Holding more than 50 percent, in the aggregate, of the voting equity interest in such foreign organization; or (2) Controlling such foreign organization, unless the activities of a foreign organization...

  4. Analyzing Science Activities in Force and Motion Concepts: A Design of an Immersion Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayar, Mehmet C.; Aydeniz, Mehmet; Yalvac, Bugrahan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the science activities offered at 7th grade in the Turkish science and technology curriculum along with addressing the curriculum's original intent. We refer to several science education researchers' ideas, including Chinn & Malhotra's (Science Education, 86:175--218, 2002) theoretical framework and Edelson's (1998)…

  5. 78 FR 78788 - Nondiscrimination in Programs or Activities Conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... activities conducted by the Department. The changes are proposed to clarify the roles and responsibilities of... in 1999 (64 FR 66709, Nov 30, 1999). The changes are proposed to clarify the roles and... compliance purposes, collect, maintain, and annually compile data on the race, ethnicity, and gender of...

  6. Sports Management Faculty External Grant-Writing Activities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVinney, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to fill a void in information, provide relevant, current data for faculty members related to external grant-writing activities related to the academic field of sport management and serve as a tool that may aid in the advancement of external grant-writing efforts within the field of sport management. All data is specific to…

  7. ASSESSMENT OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY IN EFFLUENTS FROM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Newly developed molecular biology methods have been used for the measurement of estrogenic activity in source-biased studies of sewage treatment plants. Studies in Texas and New Mexico have shown the utility of the measurement of changes in vitellogenin gene expression in fathea...

  8. Cost of reactive nitrogen release from human activities to the environment in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The leakage of reactive nitrogen (N) from human activities to the environment can cause human health and ecological problems. Often these harmful effects are not reflected in the costs of food, fuel, and fiber that derive from N use. Spatial analyses of economic costs and benef...

  9. Dental Charting. Learning Activities, Unit Tests, Progress Chart, and Work Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Univ., Austin. Center for Occupational Curriculum Development.

    These materials are part of a series dealing with skills and information needed by students in dental assisting. The individualized student materials are suitable for classroom, laboratory, or cooperative training programs. These student materials, designed to be used with the Dental Charting Student Manual, consist of learning activities, unit…

  10. Mining claim activity on federal land in the contiguous United States, 1976 through 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Frank, David G.

    2006-01-01

    The data show how mining claim activity has changed in intensity, space, and time. Variations can be examined on a state, as well as a national level. The data are tied to a section of land, approximately 640 acres, which allows it to be used at regional, as well as local scale. It is restricted in that it only encompasses Federal land.

  11. Purposeful Movement: The Integration of Physical Activity into a Mathematics Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Kailey; Dinkel, Danae; Schaffer, Connie; Hiveley, Seth; Colpitts, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Classroom physical activity (PA) has been linked to a multitude of health and academic benefits. However, due to barriers such as lack of time and resources many teachers are not implementing classroom PA to the degree they would like to. One innovative solution is to integrate classroom PA into academic concepts. Based on self-determination…

  12. Literature Links: Thematic Units Linking Read-Alouds and Computer Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labbo, Linda D.; Love, Mary Susan; Park Prior, Miri; Hubbard, Betty P.; Ryan, Tammy

    2006-01-01

    This book gives the reader ideas for providing primary-grade students with literacy learning opportunities that integrate conventional literacies, such as phonics and comprehension, with new literacies, such as multimedia composition and hyperlink navigation. The reader will find a variety of linked activities, including reading children's books,…

  13. Heterogeneous Niche Activity of Ex-Vivo Expanded MSCs as Factor for Variable Outcomes in Hematopoietic Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Lee, Ho-Sun; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Jin-A; Chu, In-Sun; Leem, Sun-Hee; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2016-01-01

    Ex-vivo expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used for paracrine support of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regeneration, but inconsistent outcomes have hindered ongoing clinical trials. Here, we show that significant heterogeneity in the niche activity of MSCs is created during their culture in various serum-supplemented media. The MSCs cultured under stimulatory or non-stimulatory culture conditions exhibited differences in colony forming unit-fibroblast contents, expression levels of cross-talk molecules (Jagged-1 and CXCL-12) and their support for HSC self-renewal. Accordingly, the enhancing effects of MSCs on hematopoietic engraftment were only visible when HSCs were co-transplanted with MSCs under stimulatory conditions. Of note, these differences in MSCs and their effects on HSCs were readily reversed by switching the cultures, indicating that the difference in niche activity can be caused by distinct functional state, rather than by clonal heterogeneity. Supporting the findings, transcriptomic analysis showed distinct upstream signaling pathways such as inhibition of P53 and activation of ER-stress response gene ATF4 for MSCs under stimulatory conditions. Taken together, our study shows that the niche activity of MSCs can vary rapidly by the extrinsic cues during culture causing variable outcomes in hematopoietic recoveries, and point to the possibility that MSCs can be pre-screened for more predictable efficacy in various cell therapy trials. PMID:28030562

  14. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles in combination with nystatin and chlorhexidine digluconate against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Gorup, Luiz F; de Camargo, Emerson R; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, Debora B; Henriques, Mariana

    2013-11-01

    Although silver nanoparticles (SN) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional antifungal drugs in the control of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, the antifungal activity of SN in combination with antifungal drugs against Candida biofilms remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of SN in combination with nystatin (NYT) or chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. The drugs alone or combined with SN were applied on mature Candida biofilms (48 h), and after 24 h of treatment their antibiofilm activities were assessed by total biomass quantification (by crystal violet staining) and colony forming units enumeration. The structure of Candida biofilms was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The data indicated that SN combined with either NYT or CHG demonstrated synergistic antibiofilm activity, and this activity was dependent on the species and on the drug concentrations used. SEM images showed that some drug combinations were able to disrupt Candida biofilms. The results of this study suggest that the combination of SN with NYT or CHG may have clinical implications in the treatment of denture stomatitis. However, further studies are needed before recommending the use of these drugs safely in clinical situations.

  15. Daily dynamics of the number and activity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in fallow and intensely cultivated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emer, N. R.; Semenov, A. M.; Zelenev, V. V.; Zinyakova, N. B.; Kostina, N. V.; Golichenkov, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    The daily dynamics (during 33 days) of the number (colony-forming units (CFU)) of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and of the nitrogen-fixing activity (the acetylene method) were determined in a gray forest soil under a fallow land and under an intensely cultivated field. The daily dynamics of the CFUs determined on the nitrogen-free medium in the samples from both plots had wavelike patterns. The daily values of the actual and potential activities of nitrogen fixation in the samples from the fallow land plot and of the actual activity of nitrogen fixation in the samples from the intensely cultivated soil were low and close to the detection limit. The potential activity of nitrogen fixation in the intensely cultivated soil was significant and also had a wavelike pattern. The harmonic analysis of the daily dynamics of the CFUs and nitrogen fixation showed the statistically significant harmonics of these biological characteristics pointing to the objective and regular character of the wavelike dynamics. The revealed dynamics of the biological characteristics of the soils and the methods of their analysis are important in terms of the comparative study of the biological properties of different soils.

  16. Identification of an active disaccharide unit of a glycoconjugate receptor for pneumococci attaching to human pharyngeal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Glycoconjugates containing the disaccharide unit GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 3Gal beta were suggested as receptors for pneumococci adhering to human pharyngeal epithelial cells. The receptor activity was detected both by inhibition of adhesion by an excess of free oligosaccharide and by induction or increase of adhesion after coating of target cells with glycolipid. Studies with free natural and synthetic oligosaccharides identified the disaccharide GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 3Gal beta as one critical binding site. The specificity of recognition was shown inter alia by the lack of inhibitory activity of GlcNAc beta 1 leads to 4Gal beta, which differs only in the linkage of the two sugars. Specific interference with pneumococcal adhesion by administration of soluble receptor sugar may improve our understanding of the role of adhesion in vivo. PMID:6886624

  17. Integrating psychological research on girls with feminist activism: a model for building a liberation psychology in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathryn E; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S; Lyons, Aoife L

    2003-03-01

    A liberation psychology is needed to bridge the gap between psychology's focus on individual distress and broad social forces that foster such distress. We offer a model for bridging this gap by focusing on a specific area of psychology (psychological research on girls) and a specific social movement (feminist activism). Psychological research on girls and feminist activism share the common goal of improving the lives of girls and women. However, both have fallen short of this goal. This is due, in part, to the weaknesses associated with each endeavor and to the fact that the complementary strengths of each have remained isolated from the other. In this paper, we propose a common language and shared framework to integrate psychological research with feminist activism. First, we review the basic strengths and weaknesses associated with psychological research and feminist activism, with a particular focus on how they are distinct from one another. Second, we provide a taxonomic framework for integrating these two areas on the basis of the stress paradigm, with specific examples provided from our recent reviews of the literature and our own empirical work with adolescent girls. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future work needed to integrate psychological research on girls with feminist activism toward the goal of building a liberation psychology in the United States.

  18. Functional properties and regulatory complexity of a minimal RBCS light-responsive unit activated by phytochrome, cryptochrome, and plastid signals.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Aída; López-Ochoa, Luisa; Argüello-Astorga, Gerardo; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2002-04-01

    Light-inducible promoters are able to respond to a wide spectrum of light through multiple photoreceptor systems. Several cis-acting elements have been identified as components of light-responsive promoter elements; however, none of these regulatory elements by itself appears to be sufficient to confer light responsiveness; rather, the combination of at least two elements seems to be required. Using phylogenetic structural analysis, we have identified conserved DNA modular arrays (CMAs) associated with light-responsive promoter regions that have been conserved throughout the evolutionary radiation of angiosperms. Here, we report the functional characterization of CMA5, a native 52-bp fragment of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia rbcS 8B promoter, which contains an I- and a G-box cis-element. CMA5 behaves as a light-responsive minimal unit capable of activating a heterologous minimal promoter in a phytochrome-, cryptochrome-, and plastid-dependent manner. We also show that CMA5 light induction requires HY5 and that downstream negative regulators COP (constitutive photomorphogenic)/DET (de-etiolated) regulate its activity. Our results show that the simplest light-responsive promoter element from photosynthesis-associated genes described to date is the common target for different signals involved in light regulation. The possible mechanism involved in light-transcriptional regulation and tissue specificity of combinatorial elements units is discussed.

  19. Influence of technical processing units on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot (Daucus carrot L.) juice essential oil.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tingting; Luo, Jiyang; Tian, Chengrui; Sun, Xiangyu; Quan, Meiping; Zheng, Cuiping; Kang, Lina; Zhan, Jicheng

    2015-03-01

    The effect of three processing units (blanching, enzyme liquefaction, pasteurisation) on chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of carrot juice essential oil was investigated in this paper. A total of 36 compounds were identified by GC-MS from fresh carrot juice essential oil. The main constituents were carotol (20.20%), sabinene (12.80%), β-caryophyllene (8.04%) and α-pinene (6.05%). Compared with the oil of fresh juice, blanching and pasteurisation could significantly decrease the components of the juice essential oil, whereas enzyme liquefaction had no considerable effect on the composition of juice essential oil. With regard to the antimicrobial activity, carrot juice essential oil could cause physical damage and morphological alteration on microorganisms, while the three different processing units showed noticeable differences on the species of microorganisms, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Results revealed that the carrot juice essential oil has great potential for application as a natural antimicrobial applied in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  20. Active Reconfigurable Metamaterial Unit Cell Based on Non-Foster Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    68  Figure 4-24 OPAMP transconductance amplifier circuit as a replacement for a MOSFET device...resistance (solid black – simulations, dashed red - measurements) ................................................... 98  Figure 4-64 Floating NIC with two...prototype There are some practical aspects of the basic circuit: • UHF silicone depleted-type MOSFETs Q1 and Q2 are the main active devices • Q3

  1. Middle Miocene hiatus in volcanic activity in the Great Basin area of the Western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Noble, D.C.; Silberman, M.L.

    1970-01-01

    A summary of potassium-argon dates shows that a high level of igneous activity in the Great Basin and adjacent regions during middle Tertiary time (40 to 20 my ago) was followed by a period of relative quiescence in middle Miocene time that lasted for several million years (from 20 to 17 my ago). Volcanism resumed 16 my ago mainly at the margins of the region and has continued to the present. ?? 1970.

  2. Inversion of Multi-Station Schumann Resonance Background Records for Global Lightning Activity in Absolute Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. R.; Mushtak, V. C.; Guha, A.; Boldi, R. A.; Bor, J.; Nagy, T.; Satori, G.; Sinha, A. K.; Rawat, R.; Hobara, Y.; Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Price, C. G.; Neska, M.; Alexander, K.; Yampolski, Y.; Moore, R. C.; Mitchell, M. F.; Fraser-Smith, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Every lightning flash contributes energy to the TEM mode of the natural global waveguide that contains the Earth's Schumann resonances. The modest attenuation at ELF (0.1 dB/Mm) allows for the continuous monitoring of the global lightning with a small number of receiving stations worldwide. In this study, nine ELF receiving sites (in Antarctica (3 sites), Hungary, India, Japan, Poland, Spitsbergen and USA) are used to provide power spectra at 12-minute intervals in two absolutely calibrated magnetic fields and occasionally, one electric field, with up to five resonance modes each. The observables are the extracted modal parameters (peak intensity, peak frequency and Q-factor) for each spectrum. The unknown quantities are the geographical locations of three continental lightning 'chimneys' and their lightning source strengths in absolute units (C2 km2/sec). The unknowns are calculated from the observables by the iterative inversion of an evolving 'sensitivity matrix' whose elements are the partial derivatives of each observable for all receiving sites with respect to each unknown quantity. The propagation model includes the important day-night asymmetry of the natural waveguide. To overcome the problem of multiple minima (common in inversion problems of this kind), location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network has been used to make initial guess solutions based on centroids of stroke locations in each chimney. Results for five consecutive days in 2009 (Jan 7-11) show UT variations with the African chimney dominating on four of five days, and America dominating on the fifth day. The amplitude variations in absolute source strength exceed that of the 'Carnegie curve' of the DC global circuit by roughly twofold. Day-to-day variations in chimney source strength are of the order of tens of percent. Examination of forward calculations performed with the global inversion solution often show good agreement with the observed diurnal variations at

  3. Surface Disinfectants for Burn Units Evaluated by a New Double Method, Using Microorganisms Recently Isolated From Patients, on a Surface Germ-Carrier Model.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Rafael; Vizcaino, Maria Jose; Herruzo, Irene; Sanchez, Manuel

    2016-09-27

    Assessment methods of surface disinfection based on international standards (Environmental Protection Agency, European Norms, etc) do not correspond to hospital reality. New evaluation methods of surfaces disinfection are proposed to choose the most suitable disinfectant to act against clinically relevant microorganisms detected on the surfaces of burn units. 1) "Immediate effect": 6 products were compared using a glass germ-carrier and 20 recently isolated microorganisms from different patients in the intensive care units. Disinfectants were applied with microfiber cloths. Log10 reductions were calculated for colony forming units produced after 15 minutes of disinfectant application. 2) "Residual effect": the glass germ-carriers were previously impregnated with one of the studied disinfectants. After a 30-minute wait period, they were then contaminated with 1 microorganism (from the 20 above-mentioned). After 15 minutes, the disinfectant was inhibited and the log10 reduction of colony forming units was assessed. The immediate effect (disinfection and microorganism drag and transfer to the cloth) produced complete elimination of the inoculums for all products used except one (a diluted quaternary ammonium). The average residual effect found on the 20 microorganisms was moderate: 2 to 3 log10 colony forming unit reduction with chlorine dioxide or 0.5% chlorhexidine (and lower with the other products), obtaining surfaces refractory to recontamination, at least, during 30 minutes. Two tests should be performed before advising surface disinfectant: 1) direct effect and 2) residual efficacy. These characteristics should be considered when a new surface disinfectant is chosen. Chlorine dioxide has a similar or better direct effect than sodium hypochlorite and a similar residual effect than chlorhexidine.

  4. Factors to Consider in Blending Active and Reserve Manpower Within Military Units

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Consultant, Wex- ford Group; LtCol Charles Q. Brown, U.S. Air Force Reserve; Col. John Nicholson, U.S. Marine Corps Reserve; and CAPT Lou Farrell...Bradley, Lt. Gen. John A., “Future Total Force Means More Reserve Opportunities,” Citizen Airman. As of May 2, 2007: http://fi ndarticles.com/p...articles/mi_m0PAK/is_2_57/ai_n13803229 Brinkerhoff , John R., and Stanley A. Horowitz, Active-Reserve Integration in the Coast Guard, Alexandria, Va

  5. Considering the antibacterial activity of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil treated with gamma-irradiation in vitro and in vivo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faezeh, Fatema; Salome, Dini; Abolfazl, Dadkhah; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of essential oils (EOs) obtained from the aerial parts of Zataria multiflora Boiss against Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by in vivo and in vitro methods. Also, the effects of gamma-irradiation (0, 10 and 25 kGy) as a new microbial decontamination on the antibacterial activities of Z. multiflora were examined. For this purpose, the collected herbs were exposed to radiation at doses of 0, 10 and 25 kGy following essential oil (EOs) extraction by steam distillation. Then, the in vitro antibacterial potency of the irradiated and non-irradiated oils was determined by using disc diffusion, agar well diffusion and MIC and MBC determination assays. The in vivo antibacterial activity was also studied in sepsis model induced by CLP surgery by Colony forming units (CFUs) determination. The results showed that the extracted oils were discovered to be effective against all the gram positive and gram negative pathogens in vitro system. In addition, the oil significantly diminished the increased CFU count observed in CLP group. Moreover, the irradiated samples were found to possess the antibacterial activities as the non-irradiated ones both in vitro and in vivo systems. These data indicated the potential use of gamma-irradiation as a safe technique for preservation of Z. multiflora as a medicinal plant with effective antibacterial activities.

  6. Associations between active shooter incidents and gun ownership and storage among families with young children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2017-04-04

    The presence of firearms and their unsafe storage in the home can increase risk of firearm-related death and injury, but public opinion suggests that firearm ownership is a protective factor against gun violence. This study examined the effects of a recent nearby active shooter incident on gun ownership and storage practices among families with young children. A series of regression models, with data from the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort merged with the FBI's Active Shooter Incidents data collected in 2003-2006, were used to examine whether household gun ownership and storage practices differed in the months prior to and following an active shooter incident that occurred anywhere in the United States or within the same state. Approximately one-fifth of young children lived in households with one or more guns; of these children, only two-thirds lived in homes that stored all guns in locked cabinets. Results suggest that the experience of a recent active shooter incident was associated with an increased likelihood of storing all guns locked, with the magnitude dependent on the temporal and geographic proximity of the incident. The severity of the incident, defined as the number of fatalities, predicted an increase in storing guns locked. Findings suggest that public shootings change behaviors related to firearm storage among families with young children.

  7. Muscle-tendon units localization and activation level analysis based on high-density surface EMG array and NMF algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chengjun; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Some skeletal muscles can be subdivided into smaller segments called muscle-tendon units (MTUs). The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework to locate the active region of the corresponding MTUs within a single skeletal muscle and to analyze the activation level varieties of different MTUs during a dynamic motion task. Approach. Biceps brachii and gastrocnemius were selected as targeted muscles and three dynamic motion tasks were designed and studied. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the data collection experiments, and 128-channel surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals were collected with a high-density sEMG electrode grid (a grid consists of 8 rows and 16 columns). Then the sEMG envelopes matrix was factorized into a matrix of weighting vectors and a matrix of time-varying coefficients by nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm. Main results. The experimental results demonstrated that the weightings vectors, which represent invariant pattern of muscle activity across all channels, could be used to estimate the location of MTUs and the time-varying coefficients could be used to depict the variation of MTUs activation level during dynamic motion task. Significance. The proposed method provides one way to analyze in-depth the functional state of MTUs during dynamic tasks and thus can be employed on multiple noteworthy sEMG-based applications such as muscle force estimation, muscle fatigue research and the control of myoelectric prostheses. This work was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China under Grant 61431017 and 61271138.

  8. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  9. Frontal brain activation in premature infants' response to auditory stimuli in neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yuri; Fukuhara, Rie; Aoyama, Shiori; Toshima, Tamotsu

    2009-07-01

    The present study was focusing on the very few contacts with the mother's voice that NICU infants have in the womb as well as after birth, we examined whether they can discriminate between their mothers' utterances and those of female nurses in terms of the emotional bonding that is facilitated by prosodic utterances. Twenty-six premature infants were included in this study, and their cerebral blood flows were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. They were exposed to auditory stimuli in the form of utterances made by their mothers and female nurses. A two (stimulus: mother and nurse) x two (recording site: right frontal area and left frontal area) analysis of variance (ANOVA) for these relative oxy-Hb values was conducted. The ANOVA showed a significant interaction between stimulus and recording site. The mother's and the nurse's voices were activated in the same way in the left frontal area, but showed different reactions in the right frontal area. We presume that the nurse's voice might become associated with pain and stress for premature infants. Our results showed that the premature infants reacted differently to the different voice stimuli. Therefore, we presume that both mothers' and nurses' voices represent positive stimuli for premature infants because both activate the frontal brain. Accordingly, we cannot explain our results only in terms of the state-dependent marker for infantile individual differences, but must also address the stressful trigger of nurses' voices for NICU infants.

  10. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  11. Adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer in the United kingdom: a review of activity for the British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy annual meeting 2015.

    PubMed

    Gilham, David Edward; Anderson, John; Bridgeman, John Stephen; Hawkins, Robert Edward; Exley, Mark Adrian; Stauss, Hans; Maher, John; Pule, Martin; Sewell, Andrew Kelvin; Bendle, Gavin; Lee, Steven; Qasim, Waseem; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma

    2015-05-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy is delivering objective clinical responses across a number of cancer indications in the early phase clinical setting. Much of this clinical activity is taking place at major clinical academic centers across the United States. This review focuses upon cancer-focused cell therapy activity within the United Kingdom as a contribution to the 2015 British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy annual general meeting. This overview reflects the diversity and expansion of clinical and preclinical studies within the United Kingdom while considering the background context of this work against new infrastructural developments and the requirements of nationalized healthcare delivery within the UK National Health Service.

  12. Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Cancer in the United Kingdom: A Review of Activity for the British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy Annual Meeting 2015

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John; Bridgeman, John Stephen; Hawkins, Robert Edward; Exley, Mark Adrian; Stauss, Hans; Maher, John; Pule, Martin; Sewell, Andrew Kelvin; Bendle, Gavin; Lee, Steven; Qasim, Waseem; Thrasher, Adrian; Morris, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adoptive T-cell therapy is delivering objective clinical responses across a number of cancer indications in the early phase clinical setting. Much of this clinical activity is taking place at major clinical academic centers across the United States. This review focuses upon cancer-focused cell therapy activity within the United Kingdom as a contribution to the 2015 British Society of Gene and Cell Therapy annual general meeting. This overview reflects the diversity and expansion of clinical and preclinical studies within the United Kingdom while considering the background context of this work against new infrastructural developments and the requirements of nationalized healthcare delivery within the UK National Health Service. PMID:25860661

  13. Effect of electromagnetic fields on the denitrification activity of Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Fojt, Lukás; Strasák, Ludek; Vetterl, Vladimír

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic activity (denitrification) of Paracoccus denitrificans was estimated electrochemically by reduction of duroquinone (DQ). Graphite electrodes covered with whole bacterial cells behind a dialysis membrane were used for measurement. P. denitrificans reduce nitrate and/or nitrite under anaerobic conditions to nitrogen gas. DQ acts as an electron mediator. After donation of the electrons to the respiratory system of the bacteria, produced DQ is reduced to durohydroquinone on the electrode surface electrocatalytically. P. denitrificans were exposed to low-frequency magnetic field (10 mT, 50 Hz) for 24 min. In comparison with the control samples, the reduction peak of I-E curves that represent denitrification activity of the cells decreased significantly after magnetic field exposure. The decrease of the peak current was about 20%. The CFU-colony forming units-method was used to estimate the number of surviving bacteria. After 24 min exposure of 10 mT magnetic field P. denitrificans culture on electrode indicates 21% bacterial death.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

    PubMed Central

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Pal, Sweta; Samantarrai, Devyani; Panigrahi, Tapan K.; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Pramanik, Krishna; Mallick, Bibekanand; Jha, Suman

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10–20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (<50 μM) has insignificant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity. PMID:26437582

  15. Novel composite plastics containing silver(I) acylpyrazolonato additives display potent antimicrobial activity by contact.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Fabio; Palmucci, Jessica; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Condello, Francesca; Ferraro, Stefano; Marangoni, Mirko; Crispini, Alessandra; Scuri, Stefania; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario; Nabissi, Massimo; Chierotti, Michele R; Gobetto, Roberto

    2015-01-07

    New silver(I) acylpyrazolonato derivatives displaying a mononuclear, polynuclear, or ionic nature, as a function of the ancillary azole ligands used in the synthesis, have been fully characterized by thermal analysis, solution NMR spectroscopy, solid-state IR and NMR spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction techniques. These derivatives have been embedded in polyethylene (PE) matrix, and the antimicrobial activity of the composite materials has been tested against three bacterial strains (E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus): Most of the composites show antimicrobial action comparable to PE embedded with AgNO3 . Tests by contact and release tests for specific migration of silver from PE composites clearly indicate that, at least in the case of the PE, for composites containing polynuclear silver(I) additives, the antimicrobial action is exerted by contact, without release of silver ions. Moreover, PE composites can be re-used several times, displaying the same antimicrobial activity. Membrane permeabilization studies and induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation tests confirm the disorganization of bacterial cell membranes. The cytotoxic effect, evaluated in CD34(+) cells by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) and CFU (colony forming units) assays, indicates that the PE composites do not induce cytotoxicity in human cells. Studies of ecotoxicity, based on the test of Daphnia magna, confirm tolerability of the PE composites by higher organisms and exclude the release of Ag(+) ions in sufficient amounts to affect water environment.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of iron oxide nanoparticle upon modulation of nanoparticle-bacteria interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakha, Manoranjan; Pal, Sweta; Samantarrai, Devyani; Panigrahi, Tapan K.; Mallick, Bairagi C.; Pramanik, Krishna; Mallick, Bibekanand; Jha, Suman

    2015-10-01

    Investigating the interaction patterns at nano-bio interface is a key challenge for safe use of nanoparticles (NPs) to any biological system. The study intends to explore the role of interaction pattern at the iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-bacteria interface affecting antimicrobial propensity of IONP. To this end, IONP with magnetite like atomic arrangement and negative surface potential (n-IONP) was synthesized by co-precipitation method. Positively charged chitosan molecule coating was used to reverse the surface potential of n-IONP, i.e. positive surface potential IONP (p-IONP). The comparative data from fourier transform infrared spectroscope, XRD, and zeta potential analyzer indicated the successful coating of IONP surface with chitosan molecule. Additionally, the nanocrystals obtained were found to have spherical size with 10-20 nm diameter. The BacLight fluorescence assay, bacterial growth kinetic and colony forming unit studies indicated that n-IONP (<50 μM) has insignificant antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. However, coating with chitosan molecule resulted significant increase in antimicrobial propensity of IONP. Additionally, the assay to study reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicated relatively higher ROS production upon p-IONP treatment of the bacteria. The data, altogether, indicated that the chitosan coating of IONP result in interface that enhances ROS production, hence the antimicrobial activity.

  17. The antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine digluconate against Streptococcus mutans biofilms follows sigmoidal patterns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Woo; Jung, Ji-Eun; Yang, Yeon-Mi; Kim, Jae-Gon; Yi, Ho-Keun; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) against mature Streptococcus mutans biofilms. Streptococcus mutans biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs and then treated with 0-20% CHX, once, three times, or five times (1 min per treatment) during the period of mature biofilm formation (beyond 46 h). After the treatments, the colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the treated biofilms were determined. The pH values of the spent culture medium were also determined to investigate the change in pH resulting from the antibacterial activity of CHX. The relationships between the concentration of CHX and the CFU counts and the concentration of CHX and culture medium pH, relative to the number of treatments performed, were evaluated using a sigmoidal curve-fitting procedure. The changes in CFU counts and culture medium pH followed sigmoidal curves and were dependent on the concentration of CHX (R(2) = 0.99). The sigmoidal curves were left-shifted with increasing number of treatments. Furthermore, the culture-medium pH of the treated biofilms increased as their CFU counts decreased. The lowest CHX concentration to increase culture-medium pH above the critical pH also decreased as the number of treatments increased. These results may provide fundamental information for selecting the appropriate CHX concentrations to treat S. mutans biofilms.

  18. Stimulatory effects of androgens on normal children's bone marrow in culture: effects on BFU-E, CFU-E, and uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Claustres, M; Sultan, C

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of natural and synthetic androgens on children's erythropoietic precursor cells in culture. Cultures of normal marrow were carried out according to a miniaturized methylcellulose method in the presence of erythropoietin. We then evaluated the effects of testosterone, nortestosterone, fluoxymesterone and etiocholanolone (10(-9)-10(-6) M) on erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E) and burst-forming units (BFU-E). Androgen-induced growth of erythroid progenitors was quantified by directly scoring colonies and by a biochemical determination of the uroporphyrinogen I synthase activity (UROS). We observed a significant increase (p less than or equal to 0.05) in the number of CFU-E and BFU-E and in the UROS activity of derived colonies in the presence of androgens (10(-8) or 10(-7)M). This microculture assay could be useful not only to study the effect of androgens on erythroid progenitor cells in culture, but also to predict the best androgenic treatment of anemia in children and adults.

  19. Oil atlas: National Petroleum Technology Office activities across the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tiedemann, H.A.

    1998-03-01

    Petroleum imports account for the largest share of the US trade deficit. Over one-third of the 1996 merchandise trade deficit is attributed to imported oil. The good news is that substantial domestic oil resources, both existing and yet-to-be-discovered, can be recovered using advanced petroleum technologies. The Energy Information Agency estimates that advanced technologies can yield 10 billion additional barrels, equal to $240 billion in import offsets. The US Department of Energy`s National Petroleum Technology Office works with industry to develop advanced petroleum technologies and to transfer successful technologies to domestic oil producers. This publication shows the locations of these important technology development efforts and lists DOE`s partners in this critical venture. The National Petroleum Technology Office has 369 active technology development projects grouped into six product lines: Advanced Diagnostics and Imaging Systems; Advanced Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation; Reservoir Life Extension and Management; Emerging Processing Technology Applications; Effective Environmental Protection; and Crosscutting Program Areas.

  20. Slow potentials and spike unit activity of the cerebral cortex of rabbits exposed to microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Chizhenkova, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Unanesthetized rabbits exposed to 12.5-cm microwaves at a field intensity of 40 mW/cm/sup 2/ in the region of the head showed an increase in the number of slow waves and spindle-shaped firings in the EEG and a change in the discharge frequency of neurons in the visual cortex in 41-52% of the cases. An enhancement of the evoked response of visual cortex neurons to light was observed in 61% of the cases and a facilitation of the driving response in 80% of all cases. It is concluded that the evoked response is a more sensitive indicator of the microwave effect than background activity. The effects of the fields were most distinctly observed with the driving response.

  1. Glycerol Monolaurate Antibacterial Activity in Broth and Biofilm Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Schlievert, Patrick M.; Peterson, Marnie L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is an antimicrobial agent that has potent activity against gram-positive bacteria. This study examines GML antibacterial activity in comparison to lauric acid, in broth cultures compared to biofilm cultures, and against a wide range of gram-positive, gram-negative, and non-gram staining bacteria. Methodology/Principal Findings GML is ≥200 times more effective than lauric acid in bactericidal activity, defined as a ≥3 log reduction in colony-forming units (CFU)/ml, against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes in broth cultures. Both molecules inhibit superantigen production by these organisms at concentrations that are not bactericidal. GML prevents biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae, as representative gram-positive and gram-negative organisms, tested in 96 well microtiter plates, and simultaneously is bactericidal for both organisms in mature biofilms. GML is bactericidal for a wide range of potential bacterial pathogens, except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. In the presence of acidic pH and the cation chelator ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, GML has greatly enhanced bactericidal activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae. Solubilization of GML in a nonaqueous delivery vehicle (related to K-Y Warming®) enhances its bactericidal activity against S. aureus. Both R and S, and 1 and 2 position lauric acid derivatives of GML exhibit bactericidal activity. Despite year-long passage of Staphylococcus aureus on sub-growth inhibitory concentrations of GML (0.5 x minimum bactericidal concentration), resistance to GML did not develop. Conclusions/Significance GML may be useful as a broad-spectrum human or animal topical microbicide and may be useful as an environmental surface microbicide for management of bacterial infections and contamination. PMID:22808139

  2. Effects of Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuexin; Liu, Zhiming; Yang, Zhiping; Bao, Pengyun; Zhang, Congyao; Ding, Jianfeng

    2014-07-01

    The effects of a diet containing Hanseniaspora opuntiae C21 on growth and digestive enzyme activity were estimated in juvenile Apostichopus japonicus. Groups of sea cucumbers were fed diets containing H. opuntiae C21 at 0 (control), 104, 105, and 106 CFU (colony-forming units)/g feed. Results showed that after 45 d the specific growth rate (SGR) of sea cucumbers fed a C21-supplemented diet at 10 4 CFU/g feed was significantly higher than that of the control ( P < 0.05). Intestinal trypsin and lipase activities were significantly enhanced by C21 administration at 104 and 105 CFU/g feed compared with the control ( P < 0.05). After feeding for 23-42 d, C21 was demonstrated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to be present in the intestine of sea cucumbers. In addition, after feeding the C21-supplemented diets for 15 d, the sea cucumbers were switched to an unsupplemented diet and C21 was confirmed to be capable of colonizing the intestine for at least 31 d after cessation of feeding. In conclusion, C21 was shown to successfully colonize the intestine of juvenile A. japonicus via dietary supplementation, and improve growth and digestive enzyme activity.

  3. Low-impact sampling under an active solid low-level radioactive waste disposal unit using horizontal drilling technology

    SciTech Connect

    Puglisi, C.V.; Vold, E.L.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the performance of the solid low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) disposal units located on a mesa top at TA-54, Area G, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM, and to provide in-situ (vadose zone) site characterization information to Area G`s Performance Assessment. The vadose zone beneath an active disposal unit (DU 37), was accessed by utilizing low-impact, air-rotary horizontal drilling technology. Core samples were pulled, via wire-line core method, in 3 horizontal holes fanning out below DU 37 at approximately 5 foot intervals depending on recovery percentage. Samples were surveyed and prepared in-field following Environmental Restoration (ER) guidelines. Samples were transferred from the field to the CST-9 Radvan for initial radiological screening. Following screening, samples were delivered to CST-3 analytical lab for analyses including moisture content, 23 inorganics, 60 volatile organic compounds (VOC`s), 68 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC`s), tritium, lead 210, radium 226 & 228, cesium 137, isotopic plutonium, americium 241, strontium 90, isotopic uranium, and isotopic thorium. Other analyses included matric potential, alpha spectroscopy, gamma spectroscopy, and gross alpha/beta. The overall results of the analysis identified only tritium as having migrated from the DU. Am-241, Eu-152, and Pu-238 were possibly identified above background but the results are not definitive. Of all organics analysed for, only ethyl acetate was tentatively identified slightly above background. All inorganics were found to be well below regulatory limits. Based on the results of the above mentioned analyses, it was determined that Area G`s disposal units are performing well and no significant liquid phase migration of contaminants has occurred.

  4. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, Theodore J.; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as “active transportation”), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9–23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5–6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5–38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh–Durham–Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15–59) premature deaths potentially could

  5. Estimating Active Transportation Behaviors to Support Health Impact Assessment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2016-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) has been promoted as a means to encourage transportation and city planners to incorporate health considerations into their decision-making. Ideally, HIAs would include quantitative estimates of the population health effects of alternative planning scenarios, such as scenarios with and without infrastructure to support walking and cycling. However, the lack of baseline estimates of time spent walking or biking for transportation (together known as "active transportation"), which are critically related to health, often prevents planners from developing such quantitative estimates. To address this gap, we use data from the 2009 US National Household Travel Survey to develop a statistical model that estimates baseline time spent walking and biking as a function of the type of transportation used to commute to work along with demographic and built environment variables. We validate the model using survey data from the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, USA, metropolitan area. We illustrate how the validated model could be used to support transportation-related HIAs by estimating the potential health benefits of built environment modifications that support walking and cycling. Our statistical model estimates that on average, individuals who commute on foot spend an additional 19.8 (95% CI 16.9-23.2) minutes per day walking compared to automobile commuters. Public transit riders walk an additional 5.0 (95% CI 3.5-6.4) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. Bicycle commuters cycle for an additional 28.0 (95% CI 17.5-38.1) minutes per day compared to automobile commuters. The statistical model was able to predict observed transportation physical activity in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region to within 0.5 MET-hours per day (equivalent to about 9 min of daily walking time) for 83% of observations. Across the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill region, an estimated 38 (95% CI 15-59) premature deaths potentially could be avoided if the entire

  6. Survey on astrobiology research and teaching activities within the United kingdom.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Burchell, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    While astrobiology is apparently growing steadily around the world, in terms of the number of researchers drawn into this interdisciplinary area and teaching courses provided for new students, there have been very few studies conducted to chart this expansion quantitatively. To address this deficiency, the Astrobiology Society of Britain (ASB) conducted a questionnaire survey of universities and research institutions nationwide to ascertain the current extent of astrobiology research and teaching in the UK. The aim was to provide compiled statistics and an information resource for those who seek research groups or courses of study, and to facilitate new interdisciplinary collaborations. The report here summarizes details gathered on 33 UK research groups, which involved 286 researchers (from undergraduate project students to faculty members). The survey indicates that around 880 students are taking university-level courses, with significant elements of astrobiology included, every year in the UK. Data are also presented on the composition of astrobiology students by their original academic field, which show a significant dominance of physics and astronomy students. This survey represents the first published systematic national assessment of astrobiological academic activity and indicates that this emerging field has already achieved a strong degree of penetration into the UK academic community.

  7. Online sexual activity: cross-national comparison between United States and Peruvian college students.

    PubMed

    Velezmoro, Rodrigo; Negy, Charles; Livia, Jose

    2012-08-01

    The current generation of college students commonly uses the Internet for myriad sexually-related purposes. Yet, it has been suggested that usage of the Internet for sexual purposes might lead to psychological problems. In this study, undergraduate students from a public university in the U.S. (n = 320) and Peru (n = 251) completed questionnaires addressing their online sexual activity (OSA), psychological adjustment, and family environment and communication. Results indicated that Peruvians used the Internet significantly more than U.S. students to view sexually-explicit material (SEM), find sexual partners, and search for sex-related information. Men, irrespective of nationality, used the Internet to view SEM significantly more than women. Social support, religiosity, and erotophilia were found to moderate the relations between nationality and OSA. In absolute terms, both national groups, on average, engaged in OSA a relatively low number of hours each week. Further, no differences were found in maladjustment between those who engage in OSA and those who do not, suggesting that concerns over OSA are probably unwarranted.

  8. Double panel with skyhook active damping control units for control of sound radiation.

    PubMed

    Gardonio, Paolo; Alujević, Neven

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on decentralized velocity feedback control on a double panel consisting of an external aluminum panel and a honeycomb trim panel. The decentralized feedback loops are formed by a 3x3 array of coil-magnet electrodynamic actuators that react off the trim panel and a lightweight stiff frame structure located in the air gap between the two panels. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers are located on the opposite side of the trim panel in correspondence to the electrodynamic actuators. The grid structure is designed to provide an inertial reference to the actuators. In this way the velocity feedback control loops produce skyhook active damping on the double panel, which minimizes the vibrational response and sound radiation of the trim panel at low audio frequencies. Two configurations are considered where the grid structure is either weakly coupled or strongly coupled to the external panel. Both stability and control performance of the two configurations are analyzed experimentally. The study shows that the control configuration with the weakly coupled grid structure enables the implementation of larger stable feedback control gains, which lead to reductions of the sound radiated by the trim panel between 10 and 30 dB for the first seven resonance peaks.

  9. Selectivity of physiotherapist programs in the United States does not differ by institutional funding source or research activity level

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare selectivity characteristics among institution characteristics to determine differences by institutional funding source (public vs. private) or research activity level (research vs. non-research). Methods: This study included information provided by the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) and the Federation of State Boards of Physical Therapy. Data were extracted from all students who graduated in 2011 from accredited physical therapy programs in the United States. The public and private designations of the institutions were extracted directly from the classifications from the ‘CAPTE annual accreditation report,’ and high and low research activity was determined based on Carnegie classifications. The institutions were classified into four groups: public/research intensive, public/non-research intensive, private/research intensive, and private/non-research intensive. Descriptive and comparison analyses with post hoc testing were performed to determine whether there were statistically significant differences among the four groups. Results: Although there were statistically significant baseline grade point average differences among the four categorized groups, there were no significant differences in licensure pass rates or for any of the selectivity variables of interest. Conclusion: Selectivity characteristics did not differ by institutional funding source (public vs. private) or research activity level (research vs. non-research). This suggests that the concerns about reduced selectivity among physiotherapy programs, specifically the types that are experiencing the largest proliferation, appear less warranted. PMID:27079201

  10. International Heliophysical Year and Astronomy and Space Science Activities in Arab States: Concentration on United Arab Emirates and Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naimiy, Hamid M. K.; Al-Douri, Ala A. J.

    2008-12-01

    This paper summarizes International Heliophysical Year (IHY), astronomy and space sciences (ASS) activities in many Arab countries with the concentration on Iraq and UAE. The level and type of these activities differ in each country. -The paper shows also the current activities on topics related to IHY in different countries, following are suggested future Astronomy and Space Science (ASS) plans in some of these countries: -UAE Research Centre for Solar Physics, Astronomy and Space Sciences: A proposal under consideration for building a Solar Physics and Space Research Centre that may contain: Solar, radio and optical observatories, and Very Low Frequency (VLF) Receiver for remote sensing the Ionosphere on UAE region. The proposed research project will facilitate the establishment and conduct of VLF observations in the United Arab Emirate (UAE) as a part of Asia sector, thus providing a basis for comparison to facilitate global extrapolations and conclusions. -Iraqi National Astronomical Observatory (INAO): The Kurdistan Government/Universities planning to rebuilt INAO which has been destroyed during the two wars. Proposed suggestion is to build a 5-6 meters optical telescope and small solar telescope on the tope of Korek Mountain, which has excellent observing conditions.

  11. Phenolic substance characterization and chemical and cell-based antioxidant activities of 11 lentils grown in the northern United States.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2010-02-10

    Chemical and cellular antioxidant activities and phenolic profiles of 11 lentil cultivars grown in the cool northern parts of the United States were investigated. Individual phenolic compounds, including phenolic acids, flavan-3-ols, flavones, and anthocyanins, were further quantitatively investigated by HPLC. Cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) and peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PRSC) were evaluated by fluorescence microplate reader. Cultivar Morton exhibited the highest individual flavan-3-ols (catechin and epicatechin) and total flavonoids, as well as the highest antioxidant properties (PRSC and CAA) among all lentils tested. Five phenolic acids of the benzoic types and their derivates (gallic, protocatechuic, 2,3,4-trihydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and protocatechualdehyde) and four phenolic acids of the cinnamic type (chlorogenic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, and sinapic acid) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Two flavan-3-ols [(+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin] and one flavone (luteolin) were detected in all lentil cultivars. Among all phenolic compounds detected, sinapic acid was the predominant phenolic acid, and (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin were the predominant flavonoids. These results showed that different phenotype lentils possessed considerable variations in their individual phenolic compounds, as well as chemical and cellular antioxidant activities. Caffeic acid, catechin, epicatechin, and total flavonoids significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with peroxyl radical scavenging assay. Cellular antioxidant assay significantly correlated with chemical antioxidant assay ORAC. The results from this study could be very interesting for breeding programs to improve lentils for use as functional foods.

  12. Polymer Brushes Containing Sulfonated Sugar Repeat Units: Synthesis, Characterization and In Vitro Testing of Blood Coagulation Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, N.; Holt, D. J.; Jones, C.F.; Corum, L. E.; Grainger, D. W.

    2009-01-01

    A new polymer brush chemistry containing sulfonated carbohydrate repeat units has been synthesized from silicon substrates using ATRP methods and characterized both in bulk and using surface analysis. The polymer brush was designed to act as a mimic for the naturally occurring sulfonated glycosaminoglycan, heparin, commonly used for modifying blood-contacting surfaces both in vitro and in vivo. Surface analysis showed conversion of brush saccharide precursor chemistry to the desired sulfonated polymer product. The sulfonated polymer brush surface was further analyzed using three conventional in vitro tests for blood compatibility -- plasma recalcification times, complement activation, and thrombin generation. The sulfonated polymer brush films on silicon oxide wafers exhibited better assay performance in these blood component assays than the unsulfonated sugar functionalized polymer brush in all tests performed. PMID:19859552

  13. Current activities in standardization of high-temperature, low-cycle-fatigue testing techniques in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Ellis, J. Rodney; Swindeman, Robert W.

    1990-01-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard E606-80 is the most often used recommended testing practice for low-cycle-fatigue (LCF) testing in the United States. The standard was first adopted in 1977 for LCF testing at room temperature and was modified in 1980 to include high-temperature testing practices. Current activity within ASTM is aimed at extending the E606-80 recommended practices to LCF under thermomechanical conditions, LCF in high-pressure hydrogen, and LCF in metal-matrix composite materials. Interlaboratory testing programs conducted to generate a technical base for modifying E606-80 for the aforementioned LCF test types are discussed.

  14. Vocalization characteristics of North Atlantic right whale surface active groups in the calving habitat, southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Trygonis, Vasilis; Gerstein, Edmund; Moir, Jim; McCulloch, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    Passive acoustic surveys were conducted to assess the vocal behavior of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the designated critical calving habitat along the shallow coastal waters of southeastern United States. Underwater vocalizations were recorded using autonomous buoys deployed in close proximity to surface active groups (SAGs). Nine main vocalization types were identified with manual inspection of spectrograms, and standard acoustic descriptors were extracted. Classification trees were used to examine the distinguishing characteristics of calls and quantify their variability within the SAG vocal repertoire. The results show that descriptors of frequency, bandwidth, and spectral disorder are the most important parameters for partitioning the SAG repertoire, contrary to duration-related measures. The reported source levels and vocalization statistics provide sound production data vital to inform regional passive acoustic monitoring and conservation for this endangered species.

  15. Absence of lateral gastrocnemius activity and differential motor unit behavior in soleus and medial gastrocnemius during standing balance

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, Martin E.; Dakin, Christopher J.; Luu, Billy L.; Inglis, John Timothy

    2013-01-01

    In a standing position, the vertical projection of the center of mass passes in front of the ankle, which requires active plantar-flexor torque from the triceps surae to maintain balance. We recorded motor unit (MU) activity in the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius muscle and the soleus (SOL) in standing balance and voluntary isometric contractions to understand the effect of functional requirements and descending drive from different neural sources on motoneuron behavior. Single MU activity was recorded in seven subjects with wire electrodes in the triceps surae. Two 3-min standing balance trials and several ramp-and-hold contractions were performed. Lateral gastrocnemius MU activity was rarely observed in standing. The lowest thresholds for LG MUs in ramp contractions were 20–35 times higher than SOL and MG MUs (P < 0.001). Compared with MUs from the SOL, MG MUs were intermittently active (P < 0.001), had higher recruitment thresholds (P = 0.022), and greater firing rate variability (P < 0.001); this difference in firing rate variability was present in standing balance and isometric contractions. In SOL and MG MUs, both recruitment of new MUs (R2 = 0.59–0.79, P < 0.01) and MU firing rates (R2 = 0.05–0.40, P < 0.05) were associated with anterior-posterior and medio-lateral torque in standing. Our results suggest that the two heads of the gastrocnemius may operate in different ankle ranges with the larger MG being of primary importance when standing, likely due to its fascicle orientation. These differences in MU discharge behavior were independent of the type of descending neural drive, which points to a muscle-specific optimization of triceps surae motoneurons. PMID:24311748

  16. Absence of lateral gastrocnemius activity and differential motor unit behavior in soleus and medial gastrocnemius during standing balance.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Martin E; Dakin, Christopher J; Luu, Billy L; Inglis, John Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-15

    In a standing position, the vertical projection of the center of mass passes in front of the ankle, which requires active plantar-flexor torque from the triceps surae to maintain balance. We recorded motor unit (MU) activity in the medial (MG) and lateral (LG) gastrocnemius muscle and the soleus (SOL) in standing balance and voluntary isometric contractions to understand the effect of functional requirements and descending drive from different neural sources on motoneuron behavior. Single MU activity was recorded in seven subjects with wire electrodes in the triceps surae. Two 3-min standing balance trials and several ramp-and-hold contractions were performed. Lateral gastrocnemius MU activity was rarely observed in standing. The lowest thresholds for LG MUs in ramp contractions were 20-35 times higher than SOL and MG MUs (P < 0.001). Compared with MUs from the SOL, MG MUs were intermittently active (P < 0.001), had higher recruitment thresholds (P = 0.022), and greater firing rate variability (P < 0.001); this difference in firing rate variability was present in standing balance and isometric contractions. In SOL and MG MUs, both recruitment of new MUs (R(2) = 0.59-0.79, P < 0.01) and MU firing rates (R(2) = 0.05-0.40, P < 0.05) were associated with anterior-posterior and medio-lateral torque in standing. Our results suggest that the two heads of the gastrocnemius may operate in different ankle ranges with the larger MG being of primary importance when standing, likely due to its fascicle orientation. These differences in MU discharge behavior were independent of the type of descending neural drive, which points to a muscle-specific optimization of triceps surae motoneurons.

  17. Recovery of cellulase activity after ethanol stripping in a novel pilot-scale unit.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Pernille Anastasia; Christensen, Børge Holm; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-04-01

    Recycling of enzymes has a potential interest during cellulosic bioethanol production as purchasing enzymes is one of the largest expenses in the process. By recycling enzymes after distillation, loss of sugars and ethanol are avoided, but depending on the distillation temperature, there is a potential risk of enzyme degradation. Studies of the rate of enzyme denaturation based on estimation of the denaturation constant K D was performed using a novel distillation setup allowing stripping of ethanol at 50-65 °C. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale stripper, where the effect of temperature (55-65 °C) and exposure to gas-liquid and liquid-heat transmission interfaces were tested on a mesophilic and thermostable enzyme mixture in fiber beer and buffer. Lab-scale tests were included in addition to the pilot-scale experiments to study the effect of shear, ethanol concentration, and PEG on enzyme stability. When increasing the temperature (up to 65 °C) or ethanol content (up to 7.5 % w/v), the denaturation rate of the enzymes increased. Enzyme denaturation occurred slower when the experiments were performed in fiber beer compared to buffer only, which could be due to PEG or other stabilizing substances in fiber beer. However, at extreme conditions with high temperature (65 °C) and ethanol content (7.5 % w/v), PEG had no enzyme stabilizing effect. The novel distillation setup proved to be useful for maintaining enzyme activity during ethanol extraction.

  18. Validation of the AlamarBlue® Assay as a Fast Screening Method to Determine the Antimicrobial Activity of Botanical Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Garbeva, Paolina; Micol, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Plant compounds are a potential source of new antimicrobial molecules against a variety of infections. Plant extracts suppose complex phytochemical libraries that may be used for the first stages of the screening process for antimicrobials. However, their large variability and complexity require fast and inexpensive methods that allow a rapid and adequate screening for antimicrobial activity against a variety of bacteria and fungi. In this study, a multi-well plate assay using the AlamarBlue® fluorescent dye was applied to screen for antimicrobial activity of several botanical extracts and the data were correlated with microbial colony forming units (CFU). This correlation was performed for three pathogenic model microorganisms: Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria), Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) and for the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans. A total of ten plant extracts from different Mediterranean plants, including several Cistus and Hibiscus species, were successfully tested. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis was utilized for the characterization of the extracts in order to establish structure-activity correlations. The results show that extracts enriched in ellagitannins and flavonols are promising antibacterial agents against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In contrast, phenolic acids, anthocyanidins and flavonols may be related to the observed antifungal activity. PMID:28033417

  19. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  2. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  3. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)(1)-1 - Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Remuneration of members of the Armed Forces of... members of the Armed Forces of the United States for active service in combat zone or while hospitalized as a result of such service. Remuneration paid for active service as a member of the Armed Forces...

  4. The effect of cycled lighting in the intensive care unit on sleep, activity and physiological parameters: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Engwall, Marie; Fridh, Isabell; Jutengren, Göran; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Sterner, Anders; Lindahl, Berit

    2017-03-04

    Patients in intensive care suffer from severe illnesses or injuries and from symptoms related to care and treatments. Environmental factors, such as lighting at night, can disturb patients' circadian rhythms. The aim was to investigate whether patients displayed circadian rhythms and whether a cycled lighting intervention would impact it. In this pilot study (N=60), a cycled lighting intervention in a two-bed patient room was conducted. An ordinary hospital room functioned as the control. Patient activity, heart rate, mean arterial pressure and body temperature were recorded. All data were collected during the patients' final 24h in the intensive care unit. There was a significant difference between day and night patient activity within but not between conditions. Heart rates differed between day and night significantly for patients in the ordinary room but not in the intervention room or between conditions. Body temperature was lowest at night for all patients with no significant difference between conditions. Patients in both conditions had a natural circadian rhythm; and the cycled lighting intervention showed no significant impact. As the sample size was small, a larger repeated measures study should be conducted to determine if other types of lighting or environmental factors can impact patients' well-being.

  5. Increased resistance of contact lens related bacterial biofilms to antimicrobial activity of soft contact lens care solutions

    PubMed Central

    Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta B.; Imamura, Yoshifumi; Chandra, Jyotsna; Yu, Changping; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Pearlman, Eric; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine if clinical and reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus form biofilms on silicone hydrogel contact lenses, and ascertain antimicrobial activities of contact lens care solutions. METHODS Clinical and American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) reference strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated with lotrafilcon A lenses under conditions that facilitate biofilm formation. Biofilms were quantified by quantitative culturing (colony forming units, CFUs), and gross morphology and architecture were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy. Susceptibilities of the planktonic and biofilm growth phases of the bacteria to five common multipurpose contact lens care solutions and one hydrogen peroxide care solution were assessed. RESULTS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus reference and clinical strains formed biofilms on lotrafilcon A silicone hydrogel contact lenses, as dense networks of cells arranged in multiple layers with visible extracellular matrix. The biofilms were resistant to commonly used biguanide preserved multipurpose care solutions. P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms were susceptible to a hydrogen peroxide and a polyquaternium preserved care solution, whereas S. marcescens biofilm was resistant to a polyquaternium preserved care solution but susceptible to hydrogen peroxide disinfection. In contrast, the planktonic forms were always susceptible. CONCLUSIONS P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, and S. aureus form biofilms on lotrafilcon A contact lenses, which in contrast to planktonic cells, are resistant to the antimicrobial activity of several soft contact lens care products. PMID:19654521

  6. TNFα-Damaged-HUVECs Microparticles Modify Endothelial Progenitor Cell Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Carlos; Carmona, Andrés; Alique, Matilde; Carracedo, Julia; Ramirez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have an important role in the maintenance of vascular integrity and homeostasis. While there are many studies that explain EPCs mechanisms action, there are few studies that demonstrate how they interact with other emerging physiological elements such as Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs). EMPs are membranous structures with a size between 100 and 1000 nm that act as molecular information transporter in biological systems and are known as an important elements in develop different pathologies; moreover a lot of works explains that are novel biomarkers. To elucidate these interactions, we proposed an in vitro model of endothelial damage mediated by TNFalpha, in which damaged EMPs and EPCs are in contact to assess EPCs functional effects. We have observed that damaged EMPs can modulate several EPCs classic factors as colony forming units (CFUs), contribution to repair a physically damaged endothelium (wound healing), binding to mature endothelium, and co-adjuvants to the formation of new vessels in vitro (angiogenesis). All of these in a dose-dependent manner. Damaged EMPs at a concentration of 103 MPs/ml have an activating effect of these capabilities, while at concentrations of 105 MPs/ml these effects are attenuated or reduced. This in vitro model helps explain that in diseases where there is an imbalance between these two elements (EPCs and damaged EMPs), the key cellular elements in the regeneration and maintenance of vascular homeostasis (EPCs) are not fully functional, and could explain, at least in part, endothelial dysfunction associated in various pathologies. PMID:26733886

  7. Antifungal activity of a liposomal itraconazole formulation in experimental Aspergillus flavus keratitis with endophthalmitis.

    PubMed

    Leal, André Ferraz Goiana; Leite, Melyna Chaves; Medeiros, Caroline Sanuzi Quirino; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves; Magalhães, Nereide Stela Santos; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical application of a liposomal formulation of itraconazole for the treatment of experimental keratitis with endophthalmitis caused by Aspergillus flavus. The liposomes were obtained by the lipid film hydration method followed by sonication. Adult female Wistar rats (weighing 200-220 g) were immunosuppressed by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide 3 days before infection by exposure to the fungus A. flavus (10(7) spores/ml). Forty-eight hours later, the animals were treated with the liposomal formulation. For comparison, one group of animals (n = 6) was treated with the same drug not encapsulated. At the end of the experiment, the animals were evaluated for clinical signs and number of colony forming units (CFU/g), along with direct microscopic examination. The results indicated that the liposomal formulation of itraconazole has better antifungal activity than the unencapsulated drug in the treatment of fungal keratitis with endophthalmitis caused experimentally by A. flavus in Wistar rats.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of Eugenia caryophyllata extract and its major chemical constituent eugenol against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Park, Seok-Won; Chae, Sung-Won; Song, Jae-Jun; Kim, Ho Chul

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the antimicrobial activities of both Eugenia caryophyllata (Ec) extract and its major component eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by microdilution method. Pneumococcal biofilms were detected by crystal-violet microtiter plate assay, followed by colony-forming unit counts and visualized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The synergistic effect of eugenol and penicillin was determined by checker-board method. Both the eugenol and the Ec extract inhibited pneumococcal growth in a concentration-dependent manner. The MIC and MBC of eugenol were 0.06% and 0.12%, respectively. Eugenol at a concentration of 0.12% completely killed S. pneumoniae within 60 min of exposure. The kill rate of planktonic cells was most rapid during the first 15 min of contact with eugenol. The addition of eugenol or Ec extract inhibited in vitro biofilm formation. In already established biofilms, the inhibitory effect of eugenol or Ec extract was more significant in terms of cell viability than in terms of disruption of the biofilm matrix. SEM analysis revealed non-viable and disruptive action of eugenol on the cell membrane of bacteria of biofilms. It was found that eugenol and penicillin produced a synergistic effect against S. pneumoniae. In conclusion, eugenol and Ec extract efficiently inhibited S. pneumoniae in planktonic growth and within biofilms.

  9. Bactericidal activity of lemon juice and lemon derivatives against Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    de Castillo, M C; de Allori, C G; de Gutierrez, R C; de Saab, O A; de Fernandez, N P; de Ruiz, C S; Holgado, A P; de Nader, O M

    2000-10-01

    Food products can be possible vectors of the agent responsible for cholera epidemics, because some of these products allow Vibrio cholerae O1 to develop to concentrations above the dangerous level. This study deals with the behaviour of essential oils, natural and concentrated lemon juice and fresh and dehydrated lemon peel against V. cholerae O1 biotype Eltor serotype Inaba tox+. Our aim was to evaluate whether these products, used at different dilutions, exhibit bactericidal or bacteriostatic activity against the microorganism, when present at concentrations of 10(2), 10(4), 10(6) and 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) ml(-1), and after different exposure times. 10(8) CFU ml(-1) was considered an infectious dose. Concentrated lemon juice and essential oils inhibited V. cholerae completely at all studied dilutions and exposure times. Fresh lemon peel and dehydrated lemon peel partially inhibited growth of V. cholerae. Freshly squeezed lemon juice, diluted to 10(-2), showed complete inhibition of V. cholerae at a concentration of 10(8) CFU ml(-1) after 5 min of exposure time; a dilution of 2 x 10(-3) produced inhibition after 15 min and a dilution of 10(-3) after 30 min. It can be concluded that lemon, a natural product which is easily obtained, acts as a biocide against V. cholerae, and is, therefore, an efficient decontaminant, harmless to humans.

  10. Candida tropicalis Biofilms: Biomass, Metabolic Activity and Secreted Aspartyl Proteinase Production.

    PubMed

    Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sónia; Capoci, Isis Regina Grenier; Azeredo, Joana; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    According to epidemiological data, Candida tropicalis has been related to urinary tract infections and haematological malignancy. Several virulence factors seem to be responsible for C. tropicalis infections, for example: their ability to adhere and to form biofilms onto different indwelling medical devices; their capacity to adhere, invade and damage host human tissues due to enzymes production such as proteinases. The main aim of this work was to study the behaviour of C. tropicalis biofilms of different ages (24-120 h) formed in artificial urine (AU) and their ability to express aspartyl proteinase (SAPT) genes. The reference strain C. tropicalis ATCC 750 and two C. tropicalis isolates from urine were used. Biofilms were evaluated in terms of culturable cells by colony-forming units enumeration; total biofilm biomass was evaluated using the crystal violet staining method; metabolic activity was evaluated by XTT assay; and SAPT gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. All strains of C. tropicalis were able to form biofilms in AU, although with differences between strains. Candida tropicalis biofilms showed a decrease in terms of the number of culturable cells from 48 to 72 h. Generally, SAPT3 was highly expressed. C. tropicalis strains assayed were able to form biofilms in the presence of AU although in a strain- and time-dependent way, and SAPT genes are expressed during C. tropicalis biofilm formation.

  11. Antibacterial activity of Baccharis dracunculifolia in planktonic cultures and biofilms of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristiane A; Costa, Anna Carolina B Pereira; Liporoni, Priscila Christiane S; Rego, Marcos A; Jorge, Antonio Olavo C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is an important cariogenic microorganism, and alternative methods for its elimination are required. Different concentrations of Baccharis dracunculifolia essential oil (EO) were tested to determine its minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) in planktonic cultures, and this concentration was used in S. mutans biofilms. Additionally, we assessed the effect of a 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX) and saline solution in S. mutans biofilms. The biofilms were grown in discs of composite resin for 48h and exposed to B. dracunculifolia, CHX or saline solution for 5min. The viability of the biofilms was determined by counting the colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/ml) in agar, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The MIC of the B. dracunculifolia EO to planktonic growth of S. mutans was 6%. In biofilms of S. mutans clinical isolates, B. dracunculifolia EO (6%) and CHX resulted in reductions of 53.3-91.1% and 79.1-96.6%, respectively. For the biofilm formed by the S. mutans reference strain, the reductions achieved with B. dracunculifolia EO and CHX were, respectively, 39.3% and 88.1%. It was concluded that B. dracunculifolia EO showed antibacterial activity and was able to control this oral microorganism, which otherwise causes dental caries.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of a temporary sealant used in endodontic treatment: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Helena Baruffaldi; Gonçalves, Lucio Souza; de Uzeda, Milton

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study is aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial action of Coltosol® in direct contact with human saliva. Materials and Methods: Twelve different individuals were selected. Saliva samples were evaluated at four different time periods: Baseline 1 (T1-initial control), T2 (2 h), T4 (24 h after contact with a standardized sample of a coronary sealer) and baseline 2 (T3-final control). Seeded plates were incubated at 37°C in a bacterial incubator for a period of 48–72 h. After the incubation period, the colony forming units were counted, and the results compared. Results: Differences were statistically significant. There was an inhibition of bacterial growth after the first 2 h of contact and an increase in the number of bacteria after 24 h of direct contact between the material and the saliva. Coltosol® presented bacterial growth inhibition in direct contact with saliva. This inhibitory effect tended to decrease over time, as shown by the two periods when the material was in contact with different samples of saliva. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of the material is an important feature; however, other physical and chemical properties of the coronary temporary sealer should be considered. PMID:26430372

  13. Ensemble projections of wildfire activity and carbonaceous aerosol concentrations over the western United States in the mid-21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xu; Mickley, Loretta J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Kaplan, Jed O.

    2013-10-01

    We estimate future wildfire activity over the western United States during the mid-21st century (2046-2065), based on results from 15 climate models following the A1B scenario. We develop fire prediction models by regressing meteorological variables from the current and previous years together with fire indexes onto observed regional area burned. The regressions explain 0.25-0.60 of the variance in observed annual area burned during 1980-2004, depending on the ecoregion. We also parameterize daily area burned with temperature, precipitation, and relative humidity. This approach explains ˜0.5 of the variance in observed area burned over forest ecoregions but shows no predictive capability in the semi-arid regions of Nevada and California. By applying the meteorological fields from 15 climate models to our fire prediction models, we quantify the robustness of our wildfire projections at midcentury. We calculate increases of 24-124% in area burned using regressions and 63-169% with the parameterization. Our projections are most robust in the southwestern desert, where all GCMs predict significant (p < 0.05) meteorological changes. For forested ecoregions, more GCMs predict significant increases in future area burned with the parameterization than with the regressions, because the latter approach is sensitive to hydrological variables that show large inter-model variability in the climate projections. The parameterization predicts that the fire season lengthens by 23 days in the warmer and drier climate at midcentury. Using a chemical transport model, we find that wildfire emissions will increase summertime surface organic carbon aerosol over the western United States by 46-70% and black carbon by 20-27% at midcentury, relative to the present day. The pollution is most enhanced during extreme episodes: above the 84th percentile of concentrations, OC increases by ˜90% and BC by ˜50%, while visibility decreases from 130 km to 100 km in 32 Federal Class 1 areas in

  14. A Historical Perspective on Breast Cancer Activism in the United States: From Education and Support to Partnership in Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Kami; Price, Carole; Barlow, Janice; Miller, Karen; Hernick, Ann; Fonfa, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer remained a hidden disease among women in the United States until the 20th century. It was initially brought into the open with public revelations from individual women, which was followed by the development of support groups and ultimately the formation of political activist groups with various priorities. Those concerned with toxic environmental exposures as a potential cause of breast cancer organized, demonstrated, and lobbied for research funding and eventually became partners in the research that arose from their efforts. One representative example was the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Centers (BCERC) Project (2003–2010), supported by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The BCERC embedded a Community Outreach and Translational Core into its formal organizational infrastructure to ensure advocate involvement in the standing scientific subcommittees of BCERC, the first project funded by NIEHS and NCI to do so. The formal integration of advocates as partners in scientific studies focused on breast cancer is embedded in a rich history of action on the part of many courageous women. This article describes the historical evolution of breast cancer activism in the United States, which provided a critical foundation for the formation of BCERC. This description is followed by a discussion of BCERC as an example of the transdisciplinary research model, a paradigm that strives for inclusion of multiple stakeholders and increased interaction between scientists from a wide spectrum of disciplines, advocates, and lay audiences in order to more effectively conduct critical research and to translate and disseminate its findings. PMID:22132763

  15. Piscidin is Highly Active against Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii and NDM-1-Producing Klebsiella pneumonia in a Systemic Septicaemia Infection Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Chieh-Yu; Chen, Jian-Chyi; Chen, Te-Li; Wu, Jen-Leih; Hui, Cho-Fat; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of two synthetic antimicrobial peptides from an aquatic organism, tilapia piscidin 3 (TP3) and tilapia piscidin 4 (TP4), in vitro and in a murine sepsis model, as compared with ampicillin, tigecycline, and imipenem. Mice were infected with (NDM-1)-producing K. pneumonia and multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and subsequently treated with TP3, TP4, or antibiotics for different periods of time (up to 168 h). Mouse survival and bacterial colony forming units (CFU) in various organs were measured after each treatment. Toxicity was determined based on observation of behavior and measurement of biochemical parameters. TP3 and TP4 exhibited strong activity against K. pneumonia and A. baumannii in vitro. Administration of TP3 (150 μg/mouse) or TP4 (50 μg/mouse) 30 min after infection with K. pneumonia or A. baumannii significantly increased survival in mice. TP4 was more effective than tigecycline at reducing CFU counts in several organs. TP3 and TP4 were shown to be non-toxic, and did not affect mouse behavior. TP3 and TP4 are able at potentiate anti-Acinetobacter baumannii or anti-Klebsiella pneumonia drug activity, reduce bacterial load, and prevent drug resistance, indicating their potential for use in combating multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:25874924

  16. Impact of hydroquinone used as a redox effector model on potential denitrification, microbial activity and redox condition of a cultivable soil.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Elda B R

    2015-01-01

    In this microcosm study, we analyzed the effect produced by hydroquinone on the expression of soil biological denitrification, in relation to the redox state of the soil, both in terms of intensity factor (Eh') and capacity factor (amount of oxidized or reduced compounds). The supplementation of an Argiudoll soil with hydroquinone decreased the soil apparent reduction potential (Eh') and soil dehydrogenase activity (formazan production from tetrazolium chloride reduction; redox capacity factor), the relationship between both factors being highly significative, r=0.99 (p<0.001). The bacterial population (measured by colony forming units) increased, and the production of N2O was greater (p<0.001) at 200 and 400μg/g dry soil doses. Furthermore, there was an inverse relationship between soil dehydrogenase activity and the number of bacteria (r=-0.82; p<0.05), increased denitrification activity and changes in the CO2/N2O ratio value. These results suggest that hydroquinone at supplemented doses modified the soil redox state and the functional structure of the microbial population. Acetate supplementation on soil with hydroquinone, to ensure the availability of an energy source for microbial development, confirmed the tendency of the results obtained with the supplementation of hydroquinone alone. The differences observed at increased doses of hydroquinone might be explained by differences on the hydroquinone redox species between treatments.

  17. Antibacterial activity of calcium hydroxide combined with chitosan solutions and the outcomes on the bond strength of RealSeal sealer to radicular dentin

    PubMed Central

    Elsaka, Shaymaa Elsayed; Elnaghy, Amr Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] combined with chitosan solutions against Enterococcus faecalis-infected root canal dentin and the effect of this new intracanal medicament on the bond strength of RealSeal sealer to radicular dentin. An experimental intracanal medicament was prepared by mixing different concentrations of chitosan solution (25%, 50%, and 100%, W/V) to Ca(OH)2 powder. Antibacterial activity was evaluated and the total numbers of colony forming units were determined. Bonding ability of RealSeal sealer to radicular dentin was evaluated using push-out bond strength test. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's multiple comparison tests. We found that Ca(OH)2 combined with different concentrations of chitosan solutions showed better antibacterial activity than Ca(OH)2 mixed with saline, without significantly affecting the bond strength of RealSeal sealer to radicular dentin (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that Ca(OH)2 combined with chitosan is a promising intracanal medicament and may be effective in endodontic therapy. PMID:23554749

  18. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhavna; Vyas, Soham M; Shah, Nupur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as primary microorganisms which cause dental caries in humans. There has been an increased interest in the therapeutic properties of some medicinal plants and natural compounds which have demonstrated antibacterial activities. Grape is one of the plants of this group which contains tannin and polyphenolic compound. Aim To evaluate and compare antibacterial activity of grape seed extract at different concentrations with chlorhexidine gluconate against S. mutans. Materials and methods Grape seeds were extracted with ethanol/water ratio of 70:30 volume/volume. The extracts were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper until it becomes colorless. Streptococcus mutans strains were taken. To check the antimicrobial properties of grape seed extract at different concentration and chlorhexidine gluconate, they were added to S. mutans strain and incubated for 48 hours than colony-forming units/mL were checked. Results Grape seed extract at higher concentration were found to be more potent against S. mutans. Chlorhexidine gluconate was found to have most potent antibacterial action compared to all different concentrations of grape seed extract. Conclusion Grape seed extract as a natural antimicrobial compound has inhibitory effect against S. mutans. How to cite this article Swadas M, Dave B, Vyas SM, Shah N. Evaluation and Comparison of the Antibacterial Activity against Streptococcus mutans of Grape Seed Extract at Different Concentrations with Chlorhexidine Gluconate: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):181-185. PMID:27843246

  19. [Endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit: dependence of respiration of secretory cells on activity of ryanodine- and IP3 - sensitive Ca(2+)-channels].

    PubMed

    Velykopols'ka, O Iu; Man'ko, B O; Man'ko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Using Clark oxygen electrode, dependence of mitochondrial functions on Ca(2+)-release channels activity of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae salivary glands suspension was investigated. Cells were ATP-permeabilized in order to enable penetration of exogenous oxidative substrates. Activation of plasmalemmal P2X-receptors (as well as P2Y-receptors) per se does not modify the endogenous respiration of salivary gland suspension. That is, Ca(2+)-influx from extracellular medium does not influence functional activity of mitochondria, although they are located along the basal part of the plasma membrane. Activation of RyRs intensifies endogenous respiration and pyruvate-malate-stimulated respiration, but not succinate-stimulated respiration. Neither activation of IP3Rs (via P2Y-receptors activation), nor their inhibition alters endogenous respiration. Nevertheless, IP3Rs inhibition by 2-APB intensifies succinate-stimulated respiration. All abovementioned facts testify that Ca2+, released from stores via channels, alters functional activity of mitochondria, and undoubtedly confirm the existence of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit in Ch. plumosus larvae salivary glands secretory cells. In steady state of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit the spontaneous activity of IP3Rs is observed; released through IP3Rs, Ca2+ is accumulated in mitochondria via uniporter and modulates oxidative processes. Activation of RyRs induces the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to the active state, which is required to intensify cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. As expected, the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to inactivated state (i. e. inhibition of Ca(2+)-release channels at excessive [Ca2+]i) limits the duration of signal transduction, has protective nature and prevents apoptosis.

  20. Single-unit activity during natural vision: diversity, consistency, and spatial sensitivity among AF face patch neurons.

    PubMed

    McMahon, David B T; Russ, Brian E; Elnaiem, Heba D; Kurnikova, Anastasia I; Leopold, David A

    2015-04-08

    Several visual areas within the STS of the macaque brain respond strongly to faces and other biological stimuli. Determining the principles that govern neural responses in this region has proven challenging, due in part to the inherently complex stimulus domain of dynamic biological stimuli that are not captured by an easily parameterized stimulus set. Here we investigated neural responses in one fMRI-defined face patch in the anterior fundus (AF) of the STS while macaques freely view complex videos rich with natural social content. Longitudinal single-unit recordings allowed for the accumulation of each neuron's responses to repeated video presentations across sessions. We found that individual neurons, while diverse in their response patterns, were consistently and deterministically driven by the video content. We used principal component analysis to compute a family of eigenneurons, which summarized 24% of the shared population activity in the first two components. We found that the most prominent component of AF activity reflected an interaction between visible body region and scene layout. Close-up shots of faces elicited the strongest neural responses, whereas far away shots of faces or close-up shots of hindquarters elicited weak or inhibitory responses. Sensitivity to the apparent proximity of faces was also observed in gamma band local field potential. This category-selective sensitivity to spatial scale, together with the known exchange of anatomical projections of this area with regions involved in visuospatial analysis, suggests that the AF face patch may be specialized in aspects of face perception that pertain to the layout of a social scene.

  1. Influence of light curing unit and ceramic thickness on temperature rise during resin cement photo-activation.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Mastrofrancisco, Sarina; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different ceramic thickness on heat generation during resin cement photo-activation by QTH (quartz-tungsten-halogen), LED (light emitting diode), and PAC (plasma arc-curing) LCUs (light curing units). The resin cement used was Rely X ARC (3M-ESPE), and the ceramic was IPS Empress Esthetic (Ivoclar-Vivadent), of which 0.7-, 1.4- and 2.0-mm thick disks, 0.8 mm in diameter were made. Temperature increase was recorded with a type-K thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). An acrylic resin base was built to guide the thermocouple and support the 1.0-mm thick dentin disk. A 0.1-mm thick black adhesive paper matrix with a perforation 6 mm in diameter was placed on the dentin to contain the resin cement and support the ceramic disks of different thicknesses. Three LCUs were used: QTH, LED and PAC. Nine groups were formed (n=10) according to the interaction: 3 ceramic thicknesses, 1 resin cement and 3 photo-activation methods. Temperature increase data were submitted to Tukey's test (5%). For all ceramic thicknesses, a statistically significant difference in temperature increase was observed among the LCUs, with the highest mean value for the QTH LCU (p<0.05). For all the LCUs, a thickness of 0.7 mm produced the highest temperatures (1.4 and 2.0mm, p<0.05). There was no difference in temperature values between the latter two thicknesses (p>0.05). The interaction of higher energy density with smaller ceramic thickness showed higher temperature increase values.

  2. Para-chlorophenol containing synthetic wastewater treatment in an activated sludge unit: effects of hydraulic residence time.

    PubMed

    Kargi, Fikret; Konya, Isil

    2007-07-01

    Due to the toxic nature of chlorophenol compounds present in some chemical industry effluents, biological treatment of such wastewaters is usually realized with low treatment efficiencies. Para-chlorophenol (4-chlorophenol, 4-CP) containing synthetic wastewater was treated in an activated sludge unit at different hydraulic residence times (HRT) varying between 5 and 30 h while the feed COD (2500 mg l(-1)), 4-CP (500 mg l(-1)) and sludge age (SRT, 10 days) were constant. Effects of HRT variations on COD, 4-CP, toxicity removals and on settling characteristics of the sludge were investigated. Percent COD removals increased and the effluent COD concentrations decreased when HRT increased from 5 to 15 h and remained almost constant for larger HRT levels. Nearly, 91% COD and 99% 4-CP removals were obtained at HRT levels above 15 h. Because of the highly concentrated microbial population at HRT levels of above 15 h, low effluent (reactor) 4-CP concentrations and almost complete toxicity removals were obtained. High biomass concentrations obtained at HRT levels above 15 h were due to low 4-CP contents in the aeration tank yielding negligible inhibition effects and low maintenance requirements. The sludge volume index (SVI) decreased with increasing HRT up to 15 h due to high biomass concentrations at high HRT levels resulting in well settling sludge with low SVI values. Hydraulic residence times above 15 h resulted in more than 90% COD and complete 4-CP and toxicity removals along with well settling sludge.

  3. Condom acquisition and preferences within a sample of sexually active gay and bisexual men in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Wilkin, Aimee M; Clarke, Thomas L; Wooldredge, Rich; Brown, Monica; Davis, A Bernard

    2007-11-01

    Health departments, community-based organizations (CBOs), and AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in the United States and abroad distribute large quantities of free condoms to sexually active individuals; however, little is known about where individuals who use condoms actually acquire them. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was designed to identify factors associated with the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse among self-identifying gay and bisexual men who reported condom use. Data were collected using targeted intercept interviewing during North Carolina Pride Festival events in Fall 2006, using the North Carolina Condom Acquisition and Preferences Assessment (NC-CAPA). Of the 606 participants who completed the assessment, 285 met the inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 33 (+/-10.8) years. The sample was predominantly white (80%), 50% reported being single or not dating anyone special, and 38% reported the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse. In multivariable analysis, participants who reported using free condoms during most recent anal sex were more likely to report increased age; dating someone special or being partnered; and having multiple male sexual partners in the past 3 months. These participants were less likely to report ever having had a sexually transmitted disease. Despite being in the third decade of the HIV epidemic, little is known about condom acquisition among, and condom preferences of, gay and bisexual men who use condoms. Although more research is needed, our findings illustrate the importance of free condom distribution.

  4. Thiodisaccharides with galactofuranose or arabinofuranose as terminal units: synthesis and inhibitory activity of an exo beta-D-galactofuranosidase.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Evangelina; Marino, Carla; Uhrig, M Laura; Varela, Oscar

    2009-04-01

    Thiodisaccharides having beta-D-Galf or alpha-L-Araf units as non-reducing end have been synthesized by the SnCl(4)- or MoO(2)Cl(2)-promoted thioglycosylation of per-O-benzoyl-D-galactofuranose (1), its 1-O-acetyl analogue 4, or per-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranose (16) with 6-thioglucose or 6-thiogalactose derivatives. After convenient removal of the protecting groups, the free thiodisaccharides having the basic structure beta-D-Galf(1-->6)-6-thio-alpha-D-Glcp-OMe (5) or beta-D-Galf(1-->6)-6-thio-alpha-D-Galp-OMe (15) were obtained. The respective alpha-L-Araf analogues 18 and 20 were prepared similarly from 16. Alternatively, beta-D-Galf(1-->4)-4-thio-3-deoxy-alpha-L-Xylp-OiPr was synthesized by Michael addition to a sugar enone of 1-thio-beta-d-Galf derivative, generated in situ from the glycosyl isothiourea derivative of 1. The free S-linked disaccharides were evaluated as inhibitors of the beta-galactofuranosidase from Penicillium fellutanum, being 15 and 20 the more active inhibitors against this enzyme.

  5. Novel approach for computing photosynthetically active radiation for productivity modeling using remotely sensed images in the Great Plains, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singh, Ramesh K.; Liu, Shu-Guang; Tieszen, Larry L.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Verma, Shashi B.

    2012-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is a key indicator of ecosystem performance, and helps in many decision-making processes related to environment. We used the Eddy covariancelight use efficiency (EC-LUE) model for estimating GPP in the Great Plains, United States in order to evaluate the performance of this model. We developed a novel algorithm for computing the photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) based on net radiation. A strong correlation (R2=0.94,N=24) was found between daily PAR and Landsat-based mid-day instantaneous net radiation. Though the Moderate Resolution Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based instantaneous net radiation was in better agreement (R2=0.98,N=24) with the daily measured PAR, there was no statistical significant difference between Landsat based PAR and MODIS based PAR. The EC-LUE model validation also confirms the need to consider biological attributes (C3 versus C4 plants) for potential light use efficiency. A universal potential light use efficiency is unable to capture the spatial variation of GPP. It is necessary to use C3 versus C4 based land use/land cover map for using EC-LUE model for estimating spatiotemporal distribution of GPP.

  6. Update: influenza activity--United States and worldwide, 1999-2000 season, and composition of the 2000-01 influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    2000-05-05

    Influenza A (H3N2) viruses were the predominant viruses isolated in the United States and worldwide during 1999-2000. This was the third consecutive year that influenza A/Sydney/05/97-like (H3N2) viruses were the most prevalent viruses isolated in the United States. Influenza activity in the United States was similar to the previous two seasons, although mortality measurements attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) were unusually high. Overall, the 1999-2000 influenza vaccine was well matched to circulating influenza viruses. The 2000-01 influenza season will be the first for which influenza vaccination is recommended for all persons aged > or =50 years. This report summarizes surveillance for influenza in the United States and worldwide during the 1999-2000 influenza season, describes the composition of the 2000-01 influenza vaccine, and highlights changes in the recommendations for prevention and control of influenza.

  7. Endogenous chloride channels of insect sf9 cells. Evidence for coordinated activity of small elementary channel units

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, EH; Gabriei, SE; Stutts, MJ; Fullton, J; Price, EM; Boucher, RC

    1996-01-01

    The endogenous Cl- conductance of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells was studied 20-35 h after plating out of either uninfected cells or cells infected by a baculovirus vector carrying the cloned beta-galactosidase gene (beta-Gal cells). With the cation Tris+ in the pipette and Na+ in the bath, the reversal potential of whole-cell currents was governed by the prevailing Cl- equilibrium potential and could be fitted by the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation with similar permeabilities for uninfected and beta-Gal cells. In the frequency range 0.12 < f < 300 Hz, the power density spectrum of whole-cell Cl- currents could be fitted by three Lorentzians. Independent of membrane potential, >50% of the total variance of whole-cell current fluctuations was accounted for by the low frequency Lorentzian (fc = 0.40 +/- 0.03 Hz, n = 6). Single-Cl- channels showed complex gating kinetics with long lasting (seconds) openings interrupted by similar long closures. In the open state, channels exhibited fast burst-like closures. Since the patches normally contained more than a single channel, it was not possible to measure open and closed dwell-time distributions for comparing single-Cl- channel activity with the kinetic features of whole-cell currents. However, the power density spectrum of Cl- currents of cell-attached and excised outside-out patches contained both high and low frequency Lorentzian components, with the corner frequency of the slow component (fc = 0.40 +/- 0.02 Hz, n = 4) similar to that of whole-cell current fluctuations. Chloride channels exhibited multiple conductance states with similar Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz-type rectification. Single-channel permeabilities covered the range from approximately 0.6.10(-14) cm5/s to approximately 6.10(-14) cm3/s, corresponding to a limiting conductance (gamma 150/150) of approximately 3.5 pS and approximately 35 pS, respectively. All states reversed near the same membrane potential, and they exhibited similar halide ion selectivity, P1

  8. Sensory experiences in humans and single-unit activity in cats evoked by polymodal stimulation of the cornea

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, M Carmen; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2001-01-01

    The cornea of human subjects and of anaesthetised cats was stimulated with a jet of air of controlled flow, temperature and CO2 concentration delivered by a gas aesthesiometer. In humans, the intensity and magnitude of various components of the sensory experience (intensity of the sensation, degree of irritation, magnitude of burning and stinging pain, magnitude of the cold and warm components of the sensation) were measured using separate visual analog scales. In anaesthetised cats, the impulse response to the same stimuli was recorded from single mechanosensory, polymodal and cold-sensitive corneal fibres in the ciliary nerves. Intensity-response curves for mechanical stimulation showed that all parameters of the sensation experienced by humans increased with the intensity of the stimulus. Mechanical stimuli recruited mainly phasic mechanosensory and polymodal afferents in the cat. Acidic stimulation with gas mixtures of increasing CO2 concentration evoked irritation, burning and to a lesser extent stinging pain of a magnitude roughly proportional to the intensity of the stimulus in humans. CO2 primarily recruited polymodal afferents and weakly excited cold-sensitive fibres in the cat's cornea. Heat stimuli evoked in humans a sensation profile similar to CO2 but accompanied by a warmth component. In the cat's cornea, heat excited only polymodal fibres and silenced cold-sensitive corneal units. Cold stimuli applied to the human cornea elicited a sensation of cooling that became irritant at the lowest temperatures. Corneal cold-sensitive fibres of the cat were activated in a manner proportional to the temperature drop, while polymodal nociceptor fibres were recruited only by the lowest temperatures. Topical menthol (0.2 mm) applied to humans evoked and later eliminated cold sensations produced by cold stimuli while the irritation sensation caused by low temperature stimuli still persisted. Human subjects were able to identify masked mechanical, thermal and chemical

  9. Application of simultaneous active and reactive power modulation of superconducting magnetic energy storage unit to damp turbine-generator subsynchronous oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Chijui; Lee, Yuangshung )

    1993-03-01

    An active and reactive power (P-Q) simultaneous control scheme which is based on a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit is designed to damp out the subsynchronous resonant (SSR) oscillations of a turbine-generator unit. In order to suppress unstable torsional mode oscillations, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is employed to modulate the active and reactive power input/output of the SMES unit according to speed deviation of the generator shaft. The gains of the proposed PID controller are determined by pole assignment approach based on modal control theory. Eigenvalue analysis of the studied system shows that the PID controller is quite effective over a wide range of operating conditions. Dynamic simulations using the nonlinear system model are also performed to demonstrate the damping effect of the proposed control scheme under disturbance conditions.

  10. Validation of an in-office dental unit water monitoring technique.

    PubMed

    Karpay, R I; Plamondon, T J; Mills, S E; Dove, S B

    1998-02-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of HPC Samplers (Millipore Corp.) as compared with that of R2A agar and HPC agar when used to monitor dental unit water, or DUW, quality. Results were either a pass (200 colony-forming units per milliliter, or CFU/mL, or less) or a fail (greater than 200 CFU/mL). Of the 408 tests conducted, the results of the HPC Sampler agreed with R2A agar 377 times, for an accuracy rate of 92.6 percent. The authors recommend that clinicians consider using HPC Samplers, as they are a user-friendly, economical means of monitoring compliance of DUW quality.

  11. [Fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units in Teresina, Piauí].

    PubMed

    Mobin, Mitra; do Amparo Salmito, Maria

    2006-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the fungus microbiota in air conditioners in intensive care units (ICUs) within public and private hospitals in Teresina, Piauí, solid material was collected from ten different ICUs. Thirty-three species of Moniliaceae and Dematiaceae were isolated, which was the first report of these in Piauí. High frequencies of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem (60%), Aspergillus fumigatus Fres (50%), Trichoderma koningii Oudem (50%) and Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr. (40%) were recorded. The air conditioner cleanliness validity had expired in all the ICUs, and the quantity of colony-forming units exceeded the levels permitted by Law 176/00 from the Ministry of Health. It is important to provide individual protection equipment for professionals, adopt hospital infection control measures, raise the awareness of the presence of fungus infection, improve air circulation around the environment, periodically clean the air conditioners, and make health professionals alert to the importance of these fungi in the hospital environment.

  12. Nutrition Education in the Context of the United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition Activities and Publications, 1985-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engesveen, Kaia; Shrimpton, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) is a forum where United Nations (UN) agencies, bilateral partners, and nongovernmental agencies meet to harmonize and coordinate nutrition policy and programs. This report reviews the positions taken regarding nutrition education throughout SCN publications, annual sessions, and…

  13. Potential of berberine to enhance antimicrobial activity of commonly used antibiotics for dairy cow mastitis caused by multiple drug-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Yang, C; Li, Y; Liu, X; Wang, Y

    2015-08-19

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with antimicrobial activity against a variety of microorganisms. In this study, the antimicrobial properties of berberine against multi-drug resistant field isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis were investigated using berberine alone or in combination with a commonly used antibiotics in veterinary clinics, including penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin. The results indicated that the minimum inhibitory concentrations of berberine, penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin against field S. epidermidis isolates were 2-512, 0.8-213, 0.4-1024, and 0.4-256 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial activity against these multi-drug resistant isolates were observed when the berberine was combined with penicillin, lincomycin, or amoxicillin; no antagonistic effect of the combination was detected in any of the clinical isolates. These observations were further confirmed using a time-killing assay, in which a combination of 2 agents yielded a greater than 2.03-2.44 log10 decrease in colony-forming unit/mL compared with each agent alone. These findings suggest that berberine is a promising compound for preventing and treating multi-drug resistant S. epidermidis infected mastitis in dairy cows either alone or in combination with other commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin, lincomycin, and amoxicillin.

  14. A Bayesian Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Regression Model for the Characterization of Early Bactericidal Activity of Tuberculosis Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Divan Aristo; Schall, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Trials of the early bactericidal activity (EBA) of tuberculosis (TB) treatments assess the decline, during the first few days to weeks of treatment, in colony forming unit (CFU) count of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the sputum of patients with smear-microscopy-positive pulmonary TB. Profiles over time of CFU data have conventionally been modeled using linear, bilinear, or bi-exponential regression. We propose a new biphasic nonlinear regression model for CFU data that comprises linear and bilinear regression models as special cases and is more flexible than bi-exponential regression models. A Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects (NLME) regression model is fitted jointly to the data of all patients from a trial, and statistical inference about the mean EBA of TB treatments is based on the Bayesian NLME regression model. The posterior predictive distribution of relevant slope parameters of the Bayesian NLME regression model provides insight into the nature of the EBA of TB treatments; specifically, the posterior predictive distribution allows one to judge whether treatments are associated with monolinear or bilinear decline of log(CFU) count, and whether CFU count initially decreases fast, followed by a slower rate of decrease, or vice versa. PMID:25322214

  15. In Vivo Chemoprotective Activity of Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells against Damage Induced by 5-Fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Cerda, Erika Evangelina; Franco-Molina, Moisés Armides; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Prado-García, Heriberto; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Rodríguez-Salazar, María del Carmen; Caballero-Hernandez, Diana; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes Silvestre; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatments induce a number of side effects, such as leukopenia neutropenia, peripheral erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia, affecting the quality of life for cancer patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is wieldy used as myeloablative model in mice. The bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) or IMMUNEPOTENT CRP® (ICRP) is an immunomodulatory compound that has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the chemoprotection effect of ICRP on bone marrow cells in 5-FU treated mice, total bone marrow (BM) cell count, bone marrow colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), cell cycle, immunophenotypification, ROS/superoxide and Nrf2 by flow cytometry, and histological and hematological analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that ICRP increased BM cell count and CFU-GM number, arrested BM cells in G0/G1 phase, increased the percentage of leukocyte, granulocytic, and erythroid populations, reduced ROS/superoxide formation and Nrf2 activation, and also improved hematological levels and weight gain in 5-FU treated mice. These results suggest that ICRP has a chemoprotective effect against 5-FU in BM cells that can be used in cancer patients. PMID:27191003

  16. In Vivo Chemoprotective Activity of Bovine Dialyzable Leukocyte Extract in Mouse Bone Marrow Cells against Damage Induced by 5-Fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Cerda, Erika Evangelina; Franco-Molina, Moisés Armides; Mendoza-Gamboa, Edgar; Prado-García, Heriberto; Rivera-Morales, Lydia Guadalupe; Zapata-Benavides, Pablo; Rodríguez-Salazar, María Del Carmen; Caballero-Hernandez, Diana; Tamez-Guerra, Reyes Silvestre; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy treatments induce a number of side effects, such as leukopenia neutropenia, peripheral erythropenia, and thrombocytopenia, affecting the quality of life for cancer patients. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is wieldy used as myeloablative model in mice. The bovine dialyzable leukocyte extract (bDLE) or IMMUNEPOTENT CRP® (ICRP) is an immunomodulatory compound that has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. In order to investigate the chemoprotection effect of ICRP on bone marrow cells in 5-FU treated mice, total bone marrow (BM) cell count, bone marrow colony forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), cell cycle, immunophenotypification, ROS/superoxide and Nrf2 by flow cytometry, and histological and hematological analyses were performed. Our results demonstrated that ICRP increased BM cell count and CFU-GM number, arrested BM cells in G0/G1 phase, increased the percentage of leukocyte, granulocytic, and erythroid populations, reduced ROS/superoxide formation and Nrf2 activation, and also improved hematological levels and weight gain in 5-FU treated mice. These results suggest that ICRP has a chemoprotective effect against 5-FU in BM cells that can be used in cancer patients.

  17. The Non-innocent Phenalenyl Unit: An Electronic Nest to Modulate the Catalytic Activity in Hydroamination Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Arup; Sen, Tamal K.; Ghorai, Pradip Kr; Mandal, Swadhin K.

    2013-01-01

    The phenalenyl unit has played intriguing role in different fields of research spanning from chemistry, material chemistry to device physics acting as key electronic reservoir which has not only led to the best organic single component conductor but also created the spin memory device of next generation. Now we show the non-innocent behaviour of phenalenyl unit in modulating the catalytic behaviour in a homogeneous organic transformation. The present study establishes that the cationic state of phenalenyl unit can act as an organic Lewis acceptor unit to influence the catalytic outcome of intermolecular hydroamination reaction of carbodiimides. For the present study, we utilized organoaluminum complexes of phenalenyl ligands in which the phenalenyl unit maintains the closed shell electronic state. The DFT calculation reveals that the energy of LUMO of the catalyst is mainly controlled by phenalenyl ligands which in turn determines the outcome of the catalysis. PMID:24084653

  18. Sunflower/Girasol: Spanish/English Elementary School Science Activity Curriculum. Evaluation of the Educational Efficacy of the Plant and Water Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intercultural Center for Research in Education, Arlington, MA.

    The Sunflower/Girasol program is a Spanish/English bilingual science discovery program for Hispanic children in grades 2-6, designed to improve science instruction and educational opportunity for this group. The report describes the program's proposed activities and products, progress to date, and results of an evaluation of the first two units of…

  19. A Year of Hands-on Science: Exciting Theme Units with More Than 100 Activities, Projects, and Experiments To Make Science Come Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne; Novelli, Joan, Ed.

    This book contains 18 themed teaching units with 2 themes per chapter, organized seasonally around the traditional school year. Each theme includes natural connections and hands-on science activities that correspond to what children are already observing in their world. Each chapter begins with highlights of the month and a reproducible "Science…

  20. T & I--Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, and Heating--Heating Units. Kit No. 87. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Mike

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on air conditioning, refrigeration, and heating units are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational…

  1. 30 CFR 250.201 - What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit? 250.201 Section 250.201 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... or analyses that you otherwise must provide in your proposed plan or document under this subpart...

  2. 30 CFR 250.201 - What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit? 250.201 Section 250.201 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... or analyses that you otherwise must provide in your proposed plan or document under this subpart...

  3. 30 CFR 250.201 - What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What plans and information must I submit before I conduct any activities on my lease or unit? 250.201 Section 250.201 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF... or analyses that you otherwise must provide in your proposed plan or document under this subpart...

  4. Changes in the activity of units of the cat motor cortex with rapid conditioning and extinction of a compound eye blink movement.

    PubMed

    Aou, S; Woody, C D; Birt, D

    1992-02-01

    Patterns of spike activity were measured in the pericruciate cortex of conscious cats before and after development of a Pavlovian conditioned eye blink response. Unit activity was tested with presentations of a click conditioned stimulus (CS) and a hiss discriminative stimulus (DS) of similar intensity to the click. Unit discharge in response to the CS increased after conditioning, but not after backward conditioning when conditioned reflexes (CRs) were not performed. Rates of spontaneous, baseline discharge were not increased after conditioning with respect to rates of discharge measured in the naive state. It appeared that an increase in the ratio of CS-elicited discharge to background activity, together with an increase in the number of units responding to the CS after conditioning, supported discrimination of the CS from the DS and performance of the conditioned blink response. This is the first detailed characterization of patterns of a rapidly conditioned Pavlovian response. Activation of units by the CS preceded the onset of the CR, supporting the hypothesis that the activity played a role in initiating the conditioned eye blink movement. Extinction with retention of performance of the CR was associated with perseverance of the increased unit discharge in response to the CS. Extinction with substantially reduced performance of the CR was associated with diminution of the unit response to the CS below levels found with conditioning. Averages of patterns of spike activity elicited by the CS after conditioning showed components of discharge with onsets of 8-40 msec (alpha 1), 40-72 msec (alpha 2), 72-112 msec (beta), and greater than 112 msec (gamma), corresponding to each of four separate excitatory EMG components of the compound blink CR. Each component increased in magnitude after conditioning, relative to levels found in the naive state. The finding that long- as well as short-latency components of unit activation increased after conditioning supported the

  5. In Vivo Activity of the Benzothiazinones PBTZ169 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    González-Martínez, Norma Alejandra; Lozano-Garza, Hector Gerardo; Castro-Garza, Jorge; De Osio-Cortez, Alexandra; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Cavazos-Rocha, Norma; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Makarov, Vadim; Cole, Stewart T.; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Background Mycetoma is a neglected, chronic, and deforming infectious disease caused by fungi and actinomycetes. In Mexico, N. brasiliensis is the predominant etiologic agent. Therapeutic alternatives are necessary because the current drug regimens have several disadvantages. Benzothiazinones (BTZ) are a new class of candidate drugs that inhibit decaprenyl-phosphoribose-epimerase (DprE1), an essential enzyme involved in the cell wall biosynthesis of Corynebacterineae. Methodology/Principal findings In this study, the in vitro activity of the next generation BTZ, PBTZ169, was tested against thirty Nocardia brasiliensis isolates. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PBTZ169 were 0.0075 and 0.03 μg/mL, respectively. Because Nocardia is a potential intracellular bacterium, a THP-1 macrophage monolayer was infected with N. brasiliensis HUJEG-1 and then treated with PBTZ169, resulting in a decrease in the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) at a concentration of 0.25X the in vitro value. The in vivo activity was evaluated after infecting female BALB/c mice in the right hind food-pad. After 6 weeks, treatment was initiated with PBTZ169 and its activity was compared with the first generation compound, BTZ043. Both BTZ compounds were administered at 100 mg/kg twice daily by gavage, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), at 100 mg/kg sulfamethoxazole, was used as a positive control. After 22 weeks of therapy, only PBTZ169 and SXT displayed statistically significant activity. Conclusion These results indicate that DprE1 inhibitors may be useful for treating infections of Nocardia and may therefore be active against other actinomycetoma agents. We must test combinations of these compounds with other antimicrobial agents, such as linezolid, tedizolid or SXT, that have good to excellent in vivo activity, as well as new DprE1 inhibitors that can achieve higher plasma levels. PMID:26474057

  6. Bacterial Enteric Infections Among Older Adults in the United States: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 1996–2012

    PubMed Central

    Scallan, Elaine; Crim, Stacy M.; Runkle, Arthur; Henao, Olga L.; Mahon, Barbara E.; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing segment of the population—adults aged ≥65 years—is more susceptible than younger adults to certain enteric (including foodborne) infections and experience more severe disease. Materials and Methods Using data on laboratory-confirmed infections from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), we describe trends in the incidence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes, and nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in adults aged ≥65 years over time and by age group and sex. We used data from FoodNet and other sources to estimate the total number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States caused by these infections each year using a statistical model to adjust for underdiagnosis (taking into account medical care-seeking, stool sample submission, laboratory practices, and test sensitivity). Results From 1996 to 2012, 4 pathogens caused 21,405 laboratory-confirmed infections among older adults residing in the FoodNet surveillance area; 49.3% were hospitalized, and 2.6% died. The average annual rate of infection was highest for Salmonella (12.8/100,000) and Campylobacter (12.1/100,000). Salmonella and Listeria led as causes of death. Among older adults, rates of laboratory-confirmed infection and the percentage of patients who were hospitalized and who died generally increased with age. A notable exception was the rate of Campylobacter infections, which decreased with increasing age. Adjusting for underdiagnosis, we estimated that these pathogens caused about 226,000 illnesses (~600/100,000) annually among U.S. adults aged ≥65 years, resulting in ~9700 hospitalizations and ~500 deaths. Conclusion Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria, and Salmonella are major contributors to illness in older adults, highlighting the value of effective and targeted intervention. PMID:26067228

  7. Determination of ATP-activity as a useful tool for monitoring microbial load in aqueous humidifier samples.

    PubMed

    Liebers, Verena; Bachmann, Dieter; Franke, Gabriele; Freundt, Susanne; Stubel, Heike; Düser, Maria; Kendzia, Benjamin; Böckler, Margret; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf, Monika

    2015-03-01

    Air humidifier water tanks are potential sources of microbial contaminants. Aerosolization of these contaminants is associated with the development of airway and lung diseases; therefore, implementation of preventive strategies including monitoring of the microbial contamination is recommended. So far, culture-based methods that include measuring colony forming units (CFU) are widely used to monitor microbial load. However, these methods are time consuming and have considerable drawbacks. As a result, alternative methods are needed which provide not only clear and accurate results concerning microbial load in water samples, but are also rapid and easy to use in the field. This paper reports on a rapid test for ATP quantification as an alternative method for microbial monitoring, including its implementation, validation and application in the field. For this purpose, 186 water samples were characterized with different methods, which included ATP analysis, culture-based methods, endotoxin activity (common and rapid test), pyrogenic activity and number of particles. Half of the samples was measured directly in the field and the other half one day later in the laboratory. The results of both tests are highly correlated. Furthermore, to check how representative the result from one sample of a water source is, a second sample of the same water tank were collected and measured. Bioluminescence results of the undiluted samples covered a range between 20 and 25,000 relative light units (RLU) and correlated with the results obtained using the other methods. The highest correlation was found between bioluminescence and endotoxin activity (rs=0.79) as well as pyrogenic activity (rs=0.75). Overall, the results of this study indicate that ATP measurement using bioluminescence is a suitable tool to obtain rapid, reproducible and sensitive information on the microbial load of water samples, and is suitable to use in the field. However, to use ATP measurement as an indicator of

  8. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, J.E.; Schneider, M.; Keller, J.; Ruscetti, F.; Longo, D.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy.

  9. Structural analysis and anticoagulant activities of the novel sulfated fucan possessing a regular well-defined repeating unit from sea cucumber.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-04-13

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC-MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants.

  10. Structural Analysis and Anticoagulant Activities of the Novel Sulfated Fucan Possessing a Regular Well-Defined Repeating Unit from Sea Cucumber

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mingyi; Xu, Li; Zhao, Longyan; Xiao, Chuang; Gao, Na; Luo, Lan; Yang, Lian; Li, Zi; Chen, Lingyun; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Sulfated fucans, the complex polysaccharides, exhibit various biological activities. Herein, we purified two fucans from the sea cucumbers Holothuria edulis and Ludwigothurea grisea. Their structures were verified by means of HPGPC, FT-IR, GC–MS and NMR. As a result, a novel structural motif for this type of polymers is reported. The fucans have a unique structure composed of a central core of regular (1→2) and (1→3)-linked tetrasaccharide repeating units. Approximately 50% of the units from L. grisea (100% for H. edulis fucan) contain sides of oligosaccharides formed by nonsulfated fucose units linked to the O-4 position of the central core. Anticoagulant activity assays indicate that the sea cucumber fucans strongly inhibit human blood clotting through the intrinsic pathways of the coagulation cascade. Moreover, the mechanism of anticoagulant action of the fucans is selective inhibition of thrombin activity by heparin cofactor II. The distinctive tetrasaccharide repeating units contribute to the anticoagulant action. Additionally, unlike the fucans from marine alga, although the sea cucumber fucans have great molecular weights and affluent sulfates, they do not induce platelet aggregation. Overall, our results may be helpful in understanding the structure-function relationships of the well-defined polysaccharides from invertebrate as new types of safer anticoagulants. PMID:25871288

  11. Structural units important for activity of a novel-type phosphoserine phosphatase from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus TK-6 revealed by crystal structure analysis.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoko; Horita, Shoichiro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Arai, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Koji; Igarashi, Yasuo; Tanokura, Masaru; Ishii, Masaharu

    2013-04-19

    Novel-type serine-synthesizing enzymes, termed metal-independent phosphoserine phosphatases (iPSPs), were recently identified and characterized from Hydrogenobacter thermophilus, a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium belonging to the order Aquificales. iPSPs are cofactor-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase (dPGM)-like phosphatases that have significant amino acid sequence similarity to dPGMs but lack phosphoglycerate mutase activity. Genes coding dPGM-like phosphatases have been identified in a broad range of organisms; however, predicting the function of the corresponding proteins based on sequence information alone is difficult due to their diverse substrate preferences. Here, we determined the crystal structure of iPSP1 from H. thermophilus in the apo-form and in complex with its substrate L-phosphoserine to find structural units important for its phosphatase activity toward L-phosphoserine. Structural and biochemical characterization of iPSP1 revealed that the side chains of His(85) and C-terminal region characteristic of iPSP1 are responsible for the PSP activity. The importance of these structural units for PSP activity was confirmed by high PSP activity observed in two novel dPGM-like proteins from Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexus in which the two structural units were conserved. We anticipate that our present findings will facilitate understanding of the serine biosynthesis pathways of organisms that lack gene(s) encoding conventional PSPs, as the structural information revealed here will help to identify iPSP from sequence databases.

  12. Alternative Approaches to Organizing, Training, and Assessing Army and Marine Corps Units. Part 1. The Active Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    Review of simulator training concepts and technologies indicates a potential for further improving simulator training of reserve units, especially in...where they can take full advantage of the physical advantages that American technology provides. The USP is built around these concepts: "Exchange...While we recognize that new training techniques and technologies increase the quality of training for all units, regardless of its quality and all

  13. An analysis in vivo of intracanal bacterial load before and after chemo-mechanical preparation: A comparative analysis of two irrigants and two activation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Rico-Romano, Cristina; Zubizarreta-Macho, Álvaro; Baquero-Artigao, María-Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Background The goals of this randomized double-blind trial were to assess the antimicrobial activity in vivo of Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) vs. chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) used in combination either with EndoActivator® or IRRI S® files in patients with apical periodontitis. Material and Methods A total of 120 patients with apical periodontitis (in single or multiple root canals) were randomly assigned to the four irrigation protocols outlined below: Group A: 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + EndoActivator®; Group B: 5.25% NaOCl + IRRI S® files; Group C: 2% chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) + EndoActivator®; Group D: 2% CHX + IRRI S® files. Paper points were used to collect microbiological samples before (1A samples) and after (1B samples) irrigation. Viable colony-forming units (CFU) were quantified twice: (1) without speciation, and (2) only for Enterococcus Faecalis(EF). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows. Results No significant differences were observed between NaOCl and CHX in the reduction of CFU; in fact, reduction was < 93% for the two irrigants. Conversely, statistically significant differences were found between the two activation techniques (sonic and ultrasonic) in the reduction of Enterococcus Faecalis(EF). Thus, the effectiveness of ultrasonic activation was significantly higher (< 93%; p=0.012) as compared to sonic activation. Following the combination of the two irrigants with the two activation techniques (groups A, B, C and D), significant differences were observed between group A and B (p=0.025) in the reduction of EF populations, reaching up to 94%. Conclusions NaClO and CHX are effective in reducing intracanal bacterial load. Ultrasonic activation is the most effective activation technique in reducing EF populations. Key words:Chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite, ultrasonic irrigation, sonic irrigation, apical periodontitis, Enterococcus faecalis. PMID:26855714

  14. Weekly Moxifloxacin and Rifapentine Is More Active Than the Denver Regimen in Murine Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Ian M.; Williams, Kathy; Tyagi, Sandeep; Vernon, Andrew A.; Peloquin, Charles A.; Bishai, William R.; Grosset, Jacques H.; Nuermberger, Eric L.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Treatment of tuberculosis with an efficacious once-weekly regimen would be a significant achievement in improving patient adherence. Currently, the only recommended once-weekly continuation phase regimen of isoniazid plus rifapentine (10 mg/kg) is inferior to standard twice-weekly therapy with isoniazid plus rifampin and is, therefore, restricted to non–high-risk patients. The substitution of moxifloxacin, a new 8-methoxyfluoroquinolone, for isoniazid and an increase in the dose of rifapentine could augment the activity of once-weekly regimens. Methods: To test this hypothesis we evaluated the sterilizing activity of improved once-weekly rifapentine-based continuation phase regimens in a murine model that mimics the treatment of high-risk patients with tuberculosis. The bactericidal activity of standard daily therapy and standard intermittent therapy (“Denver” regimen) was also assessed to evaluate the effect of intermittent drug administration during the initial phase of therapy. Results: After 2 mo of treatment, lung colony-forming unit counts were 1 log10 lower in mice treated with standard daily therapy than with the Denver regimen. During the continuation phase, the sterilizing activity of once-weekly moxifloxacin plus rifapentine (15 mg/kg) was significantly greater than that of the predominantly twice-weekly Denver regimen of isoniazid plus rifampin. No significant difference in sterilizing activity was detected between once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine (15 mg/kg) and the Denver regimen. Conclusions: These results suggest that the efficacy of the once-weekly isoniazid plus rifapentine continuation phase regimen can be increased by substituting moxifloxacin for isoniazid and by increasing the dose of rifapentine to a clinically acceptable level of 15 mg/kg. PMID:16141439

  15. Enzyme-assisted processing increases antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of bilberry.

    PubMed

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Ammann, Sabine; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja; Buchert, Johanna

    2008-02-13

    The effects of nine cell wall-degrading enzymes on the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bilberry were studied. Antimicrobial activity was measured using the human pathogens Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus as test strains. Enzyme treatments liberated phenolics from the cell wall matrix, which clearly increased the antimicrobial activity of berry juices, press cakes, and berry mashes on the basis of plate counts. Antibacterial effects were stronger against Salmonella than against Staphylococcus bacteria. In general, the increase in activity measured as colony-forming units per milliliter was 3-5 logarithmic units against Salmonella and 1-2 units against Staphylococcus bacteria. Increase in antimicrobial activity was observed only in acidic conditions, which is also the natural environment in various berry products, such as juices. The activity profile of the pectinase preparation affected the chemistry of the phenolics due to the presence of deglycosylating activities in some preparations. The difference in phenolic profiles was reflected in the antimicrobial effects. Bilberry mashes treated with Pectinex Ultra SP-L, Pectinex 3 XL, and Pectinex BE XXL were most efficient against Salmonella bacteria, whereas mashes treated with Pectinex Smash, Pectinex BE 3-L, and Biopectinase CCM showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria. Due to the liberation of phenolics from the cell wall matrix the antioxidant activity measured as radical scavenging activity was also increased on average about 30% by the enzymatic treatments. The highest increase in phenolic compounds was about 40%. Highest increases in anthocyanins and in antioxidant activity were observed in berry mash treated with Pectinex Smash XXL enzyme, and the lowest increase was observed after treatment with Pectinex BE 3-L. Enzyme-assisted processing is traditionally used to improve berry and fruit juice yields. However, enzymatic treatments also

  16. Bactericidal activities of woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics coated with hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus”

    PubMed Central

    Kasuga, Eriko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Hidaka, Eiko; Oana, Kozue; Ogiwara, Naoko; Yamaki, Dai; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Honda, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacteria from the hospital environment, including linens and curtains, are often responsible for hospital-associated infections. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the bactericidal effects of fabrics coated with the hydroxyapatite-binding silver/titanium dioxide ceramic nanocomposite “Earth-plus”. Methods Bactericidal activities of woven and nonwoven fabrics coated with Earth-plus were investigated by the time-kill curve method using nine bacterial strains, including three Staphylococcus aureus, three Escherichia coli, and three Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Results The numbers of viable S. aureus and E. coli cells on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus decreased to below 2 log10 colony-forming units/mL in six hours and reached the detection limit in 18 hours. Viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa on both fabrics coated with Earth-plus could not be detected after 3–6 hours. Viable cells on woven fabrics showed a more rapid decline than those on nonwoven fabrics. Bacterial cell counts of the nine strains on fabrics without Earth-plus failed to decrease even after 18 hours. Conclusion Woven cotton and nonwoven polypropylene fabrics were shown to have excellent antibacterial potential. The woven fabric was more bactericidal than the nonwoven fabric. PMID:21931489

  17. The microbiological activity and toxicity of oil-polluted playa solonchaks and filled grounds within the Severnye Buzachi Oil Field (Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynybaeva, T. G.; Kostina, N. V.; Terekhov, A. M.; Kurakov, A. V.

    2008-10-01

    The number of colony-forming units of microorganisms, the viable biomass, and also the intensity of the microbiological processes (respiration, nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and cellulose decomposition) in playa solonchaks and sandy-loamy filled grounds in the territory of the Severnye Buzachi Oilfields (Kazakhstan) were much lower than in other soil types attesting to the limited capability of these substrates for selfpurification. Upon pollution by oil at concentrations of 100 600 mg/kg, the number of copiotrophic bacteria increased, whereas the actinomycetal and fungal populations were reduced and the biomass pool, the rates of CO2 emission, the potential nitrogen fixation, and denitrification became higher. The microbial communities of the playa solonchaks were weakly active and consumed few applied substrates. The biotesting with Artemia salina L. showed that some areas belonged to the lands of the 4th danger class, although the majority of the soil and substrate samples were not toxic. The germination of Lepidium sativum L. seeds was suppressed because of the salt toxicity, which is not related to the oil concentration (30 to 600 mg/kg).

  18. Essential Oil from Berries of Lebanese Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb Displays Similar Antibacterial Activity to Chlorhexidine but Higher Cytocompatibility with Human Oral Primary Cells.

    PubMed

    Azzimonti, Barbara; Cochis, Andrea; Beyrouthy, Marc El; Iriti, Marcello; Uberti, Francesca; Sorrentino, Rita; Landini, Manuela Miriam; Rimondini, Lia; Varoni, Elena Maria

    2015-05-21

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), one of the most effective drugs administered for periodontal treatment, presents collateral effects including toxicity when used for prolonged periods; here, we have evaluated the bactericidal potency and the cytocompatibility of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb essential oil (EO) in comparison with 0.05% CHX. The EO was extracted from berries by hydrodistillation and components identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Bacterial inhibition halo analysis, quantitative cell viability 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenyl amino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide assay (XTT), and colony forming unit (CFU) count were evaluated against the two biofilm formers Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Streptococcus mutans. Finally, cytocompatibility was assessed with human primary gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and mucosal keratinocytes (HK). The resulting EO was mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes. An inhibition halo test demonstrated that both bacteria were sensitive to the EO; XTT analysis and CFU counts confirmed that 10-fold-diluted EO determined a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in bacteria count and viability towards both biofilm and planktonic forms in a comparable manner to those obtained with CHX. Moreover, EO displayed higher cytocompatibility than CHX (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EO exhibited bactericidal activity similar to CHX, but a superior cytocompatibility, making it a promising antiseptic alternative to CHX.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of silica coated silicon nano-tubes (SCSNT) and silica coated silicon nano-particles (SCSNP) synthesized by gas phase condensation.

    PubMed

    Tank, Chiti; Raman, Sujatha; Karan, Sujoy; Gosavi, Suresh; Lalla, Niranjan P; Sathe, Vasant; Berndt, Richard; Gade, W N; Bhoraskar, S V; Mathe, Vikas L

    2013-06-01

    Silica-coated, silicon nanotubes (SCSNTs) and silica-coated, silicon nanoparticles (SCSNPs) have been synthesized by catalyst-free single-step gas phase condensation using the arc plasma process. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy showed that SCSNTs exhibited a wall thickness of less than 1 nm, with an average diameter of 14 nm and a length of several 100 nm. Both nano-structures had a high specific surface area. The present study has demonstrated cheaper, resistance-free and effective antibacterial activity in silica-coated silicon nano-structures, each for two Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was estimated, using the optical densitometric technique, and by determining colony-forming units. The MIC was found to range in the order of micrograms, which is comparable to the reported MIC of metal oxides for these bacteria. SCSNTs were found to be more effective in limiting the growth of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus over SCSNPs at 10 μg/ml (IC 50 = 100 μg/ml).

  20. RCRA Part A Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Part B Permit Application Hazardous Waste Storage Unit, Nevada Test Site, and Part B Permit Application - Explosives Ordnance Disposal Unit (EODU)

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Programs

    2010-06-17

    The Area 5 Hazardous Waste Storage Unit (HWSU) was established to support testing, research, and remediation activities at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a large-quantity generator of hazardous waste. The HWSU, located adjacent to the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS), is a prefabricated, rigid steel-framed, roofed shelter used to store hazardous nonradioactive waste generated on the NTS. No offsite generated wastes are managed at the HWSU. Waste managed at the HWSU includes the following categories: Flammables/Combustibles; Acid Corrosives; Alkali Corrosives; Oxidizers/Reactives; Toxics/Poisons; and Other Regulated Materials (ORMs). A list of the regulated waste codes accepted for storage at the HWSU is provided in Section B.2. Hazardous wastes stored at the HWSU are stored in U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) compliant containers, compatible with the stored waste. Waste transfer (between containers) is not allowed at the HWSU and containers remain closed at all times. Containers are stored on secondary containment pallets and the unit is inspected monthly. Table 1 provides the metric conversion factors used in this application. Table 2 provides a list of existing permits. Table 3 lists operational Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) units at the NTS and their respective regulatory status.

  1. In vitro and in vivo activity of 4-thio-uridylate against JY cells, a model for human acute lymphoid leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Berenyi, Erika; Benko, Ilona; Vamosi, Gyoergy; Geresi, Krisztina; Tarkanyi, Ilona; Szegedi, Istvan; Lukacs, Levente; Juhasz, Istvan; Kiss, Csongor; Fesues, Laszlo; and others

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} s{sup 4}UMP a naturally occurring thiolated nucleotide, effectively inhibited the proliferation of JY cells in vitro and in vivo. {yields} s{sup 4}UMP decreased the cell number and colony forming activity of leukemia cells in SCID mice. {yields} The effect of s{sup 4}UMP was undetectable on the bone marrow of healthy mice. {yields} The biochemical changes of the treated cells suggested that s{sup 4}UMP induced apoptosis. -- Abstract: We have previously reported the in vitro anti-proliferative effect of 4-thio-uridylate (s{sup 4}UMP) on OCM-1 uveal melanoma cells. Here, we assessed the efficacy of s{sup 4}UMP on JY cells. Treatment of JY cells with s{sup 4}UMP suppressed their colony forming activity and induced apoptosis; healthy human bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells were 14-fold less sensitive to the nucleotide. In vivo effectiveness of s{sup 4}UMP was determined using xenograft SCID mouse model. s{sup 4}UMP decreased the cell number and colony forming activity of the total cell content of the femur of SCID mice transplanted with JY cells without affecting the bone marrow of healthy mice. These results suggest that s{sup 4}UMP alone or in combination with other clinically approved anti-leukemic remedies should be further explored as a potential novel therapeutic agent.

  2. Lnk inhibits erythropoiesis and Epo-dependent JAK2 activation and downstream signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Tong, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2005-06-15

    Erythropoietin (Epo), along with its receptor EpoR, is the principal regulator of red cell development. Upon Epo addition, the EpoR signaling through the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) activates multiple pathways including Stat5, phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI-3K)/Akt, and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The adaptor protein Lnk is implicated in cytokine receptor signaling. Here, we showed that Lnk-deficient mice have elevated numbers of erythroid progenitors, and that splenic erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-e) progenitors are hypersensitive to Epo. Lnk(-/-) mice also exhibit superior recovery after erythropoietic stress. In addition, Lnk deficiency resulted in enhanced Epo-induced signaling pathways in splenic erythroid progenitors. Conversely, Lnk overexpression inhibits Epo-induced cell growth in 32D/EpoR cells. In primary culture of fetal liver cells, Lnk overexpression inhibits Epo-dependent erythroblast differentiation and induces apoptosis. Lnk blocks 3 major signaling pathways, Stat5, Akt, and MAPK, induced by Epo in primary erythroblasts. In addition, the Lnk Src homology 2 (SH2) domain is essential for its inhibitory function, whereas the conserved tyrosine near the C-terminus and the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Lnk are not critical. Furthermore, wild-type Lnk, but not the Lnk SH2 mutant, becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated following Epo administration and inhibits EpoR phosphorylation and JAK2 activation. Hence, Lnk, through its SH2 domain, negatively modulates EpoR signaling by attenuating JAK2 activation, and regulates Epo-mediated erythropoiesis.

  3. Inherent antibacterial activity of a peptide-based beta-hairpin hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Salick, Daphne A; Kretsinger, Juliana K; Pochan, Darrin J; Schneider, Joel P

    2007-11-28

    Among several important considerations for implantation of a biomaterial, a main concern is the introduction of infection. We have designed a hydrogel scaffold from the self-assembling peptide, MAX1, for tissue regeneration applications whose surface exhibits inherent antibacterial activity. In experiments where MAX1 gels are challenged with bacterial solutions ranging in concentrations from 2 x 10(3) colony forming units (CFUs)/dm2 to 2 x 10(9) CFUs/dm2, gel surfaces exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Results show that the hydrogel surface is active against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli) bacteria, all prevalent in hospital settings. Live-dead assays employing laser scanning confocal microscopy show that bacteria are killed when they engage the surface. In addition, the surface of MAX1 hydrogels was shown to cause inner and outer membrane disruption in experiments that monitor the release of beta-galactosidase from the cytoplasm of lactose permease-deficient E. coli ML-35. These data suggest a mechanism of antibacterial action that involves membrane disruption that leads to cell death upon cellular contact with the gel surface. Although the hydrogel surface exhibits bactericidal activity, co-culture experiments indicate hydrogel surfaces show selective toxicity to bacterial versus mammalian cells. Additionally, gel surfaces are nonhemolytic toward human erythrocytes, which maintain healthy morphologies when in contact with the surface. These material attributes make MAX1 gels attractive candidates for use in tissue regeneration, even in nonsterile environments.

  4. Antibacterial activity of honey against community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yasunori; Loughrey, Anne; Earle, J A Philip; Millar, B Cherie; Rao, Juluri R; Kearns, Angela; McConville, Ogie; Goldsmith, Colin E; Rooney, Paul J; Dooley, James S G; Lowery, Colm J; Snelling, William J; McMahon, Ann; McDowell, David; Moore, John E

    2008-05-01

    Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has now been described globally, as a clinically significant pathogen, particularly associated with skin and soft tissue infections, including abscesses, cellulitis and furunculosis. The recent emergence of CA-MRSA combined with its predominant presentation associated with skin and soft tissue infection, the previous literature indicating honey as an effective treatment of healthcare-associated HA-MRSA-related wound infection, as well as honey's ease of topical application, make the current study timely and of interest to healthcare practitioners involved with wound management. Although previous studies have examined the antimicrobial activity of honey against HA-MRSA, such data are limited regarding the activity of honey against this emerging type of MRSA. CA-MRSA (n=6 isolates), was examined for its susceptibility to natural honey (n=3 honey produced from bees in Northern Ireland and one commercial French honey). Results demonstrated that all honey was able to reduce the cultural count of all CA-MRSA from approximately 10(6) colony-forming units (cfus) (mean = 6.46 log10 cfu/g) to none detectable within 24h of co-culture of separate CA-MRSA organisms individually with all four-honey types examined. Subsequent non-selective enrichment of honey demonstrated that inoculated honey remained positive for CA-MRSA until 72h postinoculation, after which point no culturable organisms could be detected. This study demonstrated that, in vitro, these natural products had an antimicrobial activity against the CA-MRSA organisms tested. Further studies are now required to demonstrate if this antimicrobial activity has any clinical application.

  5. Inherent Antibacterial Activity of a Peptide-Based β-Hairpin Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Salick, Daphne A.; Kretsinger, Juliana K.; Pochan, Darrin J.; Schneider, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    Among several important considerations for implantation of a biomaterial, a main concern is the introduction of infection. We have designed a hydrogel scaffold from the self-assembling peptide, MAX1, for tissue regeneration applications whose surface exhibits inherent antibacterial activity. In experiments where MAX1 gels are challenged with bacterial solutions ranging in concentrations from 2 × 103 colony forming units (CFUs)/dm2 to 2 × 109 CFUs/dm2, gel surfaces exhibit broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Results show that the hydrogel surface is active against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes) and Gram-negative (Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli) bacteria, all prevalent in hospital settings. Live–dead assays employing laser scanning confocal microscopy show that bacteria are killed when they engage the surface. In addition, the surface of MAX1 hydrogels was shown to cause inner and outer membrane disruption in experiments that monitor the release of β-galactosidase from the cytoplasm of lactose permease-deficient E. coli ML-35. These data suggest a mechanism of antibacterial action that involves membrane disruption that leads to cell death upon cellular contact with the gel surface. Although the hydrogel surface exhibits bactericidal activity, co-culture experiments indicate hydrogel surfaces show selective toxicity to bacterial versus mammalian cells. Additionally, gel surfaces are nonhemolytic toward human erythrocytes, which maintain healthy morphologies when in contact with the surface. These material attributes make MAX1 gels attractive candidates for use in tissue regeneration, even in nonsterile environments. PMID:17985907

  6. Vertical and horizontal distributions of microbial abundances and enzymatic activities in propylene-glycol-affected soils.

    PubMed

    Biró, Borbála; Toscano, Giuseppe; Horváth, Nikoletta; Matics, Heléna; Domonkos, Mónika; Scotti, Riccardo; Rao, Maria A; Wejden, Bente; French, Helen K

    2014-01-01

    The natural microbial activity in the unsaturated soil is vital for protecting groundwater in areas where high loads of biodegradable contaminants are supplied to the surface, which usually is the case for airports using aircraft de-icing fluids (ADF) in the cold season. Horizontal and vertical distributions of microbial abundance were assessed along the western runway of Oslo Airport (Gardermoen, Norway) to monitor the effect of ADF dispersion with special reference to the component with the highest chemical oxygen demand (COD), propylene glycol (PG). Microbial abundance was evaluated by several biondicators: colony-forming units (CFU) of some physiological groups (aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs and microscopic fungi), most probable numbers (MPN) of PG degraders, selected catabolic enzymatic activities (fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolase, dehydrogenase, and β-glucosidase). High correlations were found between the enzymatic activities and microbial counts in vertical soil profiles. All microbial abundance indicators showed a steep drop in the first meter of soil depth. The vertical distribution of microbial abundance can be correlated by a decreasing exponential function of depth. The horizontal trend of microbial abundance (evaluated as total aerobic CFU, MPN of PG-degraders, and FDA hydrolase activity) assessed in the surface soil at an increasing distance from the runway is correlated negatively with the PG and COD loads, suggesting the relevance of other chemicals in the modulation of microbial growth. The possible role of potassium formate, component of runway de-icers, has been tested in the laboratory by using mixed cultures of Pseudomonas spp., obtained by enrichment with a selective PG medium from soil samples taken at the most contaminated area near the runway. The inhibitory effect of formate on the growth of PG degraders is proven by the reduction of biomass yield on PG in the presence of formate.

  7. Radioprotective and cytoprotective activity of Tinospora cordifolia stem enriched extract containing cordifolioside-A

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Arti; Bigoniya, Papiya; Singh, Chandra Shekhar; Patel, Narayan Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the radioprotective and cytoprotective potential of cordifolioside-A, a primary active constituent of n-butanol fraction of Tinospora Cordifolia (NBTC) against 4 Gy-γ radiation in mice and cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC stem ethanolic extract was confirmed by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) analysis. Radioprotective activity was evaluated at 80 and 120 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) dose of NBTC administered 15 days prior to whole body radiation exposure by observing survival rate, change in body weight, hematology, spleen colony forming unit (CFU), and micronucleus (MN) expression. Cytoprotective activity of NBTC was evaluated at 5, 10, and 15 mg/ml concentrations on Allium cepa root meristem growth against cyclophosphamide. Results: HPTLC analysis of standard cordifolioside A, and NBTC confirmed the presence of cordifolioside-A in NBTC with the retention factor value of 0.86. Administration of NBTC (120 mg/kg, i.p.) produced significant protection against radiation in terms of increased survival rate, body weight retention, hematological parameters, spleen CFU assay (P < 0.01), and decreased MN expression (P < 0.01). Cytoprotectivity was observed maximally at 10 mg/ml NBTC concentration with significant increase in root growth (P < 0.01), non-toxic mitotic index (MI) (65.9%) and lesser chromosomal aberrations (15.4%). NBTC at 10 mg/ml concentration showed very few C-anaphase compared to aberrations like fragmentation, C-anaphase, multipolarity and sticky chromosome in cyclophosphamide alone. Conclusion: The results suggest that enriched NBTC containing cordifolioside-A has a potential in vivo radioprotective effect as well as in vitro cytoprotective activity. PMID:23833365

  8. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  9. Evaluation of the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, D. O.; Collins, E. D.; King, L. J.; Knauer, J. B.

    1980-07-01

    This report discusses the Submerged Demineralizer System (SDS) flowsheet for decontamination of the high-activity-level water at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Nuclear Power Station was evaluated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a study that included filtration tests, ion exchange column tests, and ion exchange distribution tests. The contaminated waters, the SDS flowsheet, and the experiments made are described. The experimental results were used to predict the SDS performance and to indicate potential improvements.

  10. Look in the Mythic Mirror: 10-Week Middle School Curriculum Unit. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashburn, Jennifer; Ayers, Mary Jane; Born-Ozment, Susan; Karsten, Jayne; Maeda, Sheri

    This 10-week middle school curriculum unit for grades 6-8, integrating concepts, materials, and content from language arts, music, and visual arts, provides a set of specific instructional plans relative to the study of myths (often a content area in middle school grades across the country). All the sample lessons and examples in the curriculum…

  11. 10 CFR 50.13 - Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Requirement of License, Exceptions § 50.13 Attacks and... required to provide for design features or other measures for the specific purpose of protection...

  12. 10 CFR 50.13 - Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United States; and defense activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts by enemies of the United... LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Requirement of License, Exceptions § 50.13 Attacks and... required to provide for design features or other measures for the specific purpose of protection...

  13. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  14. Antibacterial Activity of Ti₃C₂Tx MXene.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Kashif; Helal, Mohamed; Ali, Adnan; Ren, Chang E; Gogotsi, Yury; Mahmoud, Khaled A

    2016-03-22

    MXenes are a family of atomically thin, two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and carbonitrides with many attractive properties. Two-dimensional Ti3C2Tx (MXene) has been recently explored for applications in water desalination/purification membranes. A major success indicator for any water treatment membrane is the resistance to biofouling. To validate this and to understand better the health and environmental impacts of the new 2D carbides, we investigated the antibacterial properties of single- and few-layer Ti3C2Tx MXene flakes in colloidal solution. The antibacterial properties of Ti3C2Tx were tested against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) by using bacterial growth curves based on optical densities (OD) and colonies growth on agar nutritive plates. Ti3C2Tx shows a higher antibacterial efficiency toward both Gram-negative E. coli and Gram-positive B. subtilis compared with graphene oxide (GO), which has been widely reported as an antibacterial agent. Concentration dependent antibacterial activity was observed and more than 98% bacterial cell viability loss was found at 200 μg/mL Ti3C2Tx for both bacterial cells within 4 h of exposure, as confirmed by colony forming unit (CFU) and regrowth curve. Antibacterial mechanism investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay indicated the damage to the cell membrane, which resulted in release of cytoplasmic materials from the bacterial cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) dependent and independent stress induction by Ti3C2Tx was investigated in two separate abiotic assays. MXenes are expected to be resistant to biofouling and offer bactericidal properties.

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on the cell-mediated cytotoxic activity of mouse splenocytes: a DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Erika; Fuke, Nobuo; Nakai, Yuji; Ishijima, Tomoko; Abe, Keiko; Yajima, Nobuhiro

    2013-11-14

    Lactic acid bacteria confer a variety of health benefits. Here, we investigate the mechanisms by which Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290) enhances cell-mediated cytotoxic activity. Female BALB/c mice aged 9 weeks were fed a diet containing KB290 (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units/g) or starch for 1 d. The resulting cytotoxic activity of splenocytes against YAC-1 cells was measured using flow cytometry and analysed for gene expression using DNA microarray technology. KB290 enhanced the cell-mediated cytotoxic activity of splenocytes. DNA microarray analysis identified 327 up-regulated and 347 down-regulated genes that characterised the KB290 diet group. The up-regulated genes were significantly enriched in Gene Ontology terms related to immunity, and, especially, a positive regulation of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity existed among these terms. Almost all the genes included in the term encoded major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules involved in the presentation of antigen to CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells. Marco and Signr1 specific to marginal zone macrophages (MZM), antigen-presenting cells, were also up-regulated. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the proportion of MZM was significantly increased by KB290 ingestion. Additionally, the over-represented Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways among the up-regulated genes were those for natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antigen processing and presentation. The results for the selected genes associated with NK cells and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. These results suggest that enhanced cytotoxic activity could be caused by the activation of NK cells and/or of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells stimulated via MHC class I presentation.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the synthetic peptide Lys-a1 against oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Bruno Rocha; de Freitas, Victor Aragão Abreu; Carneiro, Victor Alves; Arruda, Francisco Vassiliepe Sousa; Lorenzón, Esteban Nicolás; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Cilli, Eduardo Maffud; Cavada, Benildo Sousa; Teixeira, Edson Holanda

    2013-04-01

    The peptide LYS-[TRP(6)]-Hy-A1 (Lys-a1) is a synthetic derivative of the peptide Hy-A1, initially isolated from the frog species Hypsiboas albopunctatus. According to previous research, it is a molecule with broad antimicrobial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic peptide Lys-a1 (KIFGAIWPLALGALKNLIK-NH2) on the planktonic and biofilm growth of oral bacteria. The methods used to evaluate antimicrobial activity include the following: determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in microtiter plates for growth in suspension and quantification of biomass by crystal violet staining and counting of colony forming units for biofilm growth. The microorganisms Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were grown in Brain Heart Infusion broth at 37°C under atmospheric pressure with 10% CO2. The peptide was solubilized in 0.1% acetic acid (v/v) at various concentrations (500-1.9 μg mL(-1)). Chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% was used as the positive control, and BHI culture medium was used as the negative control. The tested peptide demonstrated a remarkable antimicrobial effect, inhibiting the planktonic and biofilm growth of all strains tested, even at low concentrations. Thus, the peptide Lys-a1 is an important source for potential antimicrobial agents, especially for the control and prevention of microbial biofilms, which is one of the most important factors in cariogenic processes.

  17. Bacteria-Activated Theranostic Nanoprobes against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Yan, Rong; Yi, Xuan; Li, Jingling; Rao, Jiaming; Guo, Zhengqing; Yang, Yanmei; Li, Weifeng; Li, Yong-Qiang; Chen, Chunying

    2017-03-30

    Despite numerous advanced imaging and sterilization techniques available nowadays, the sensitive in vivo diagnosis and complete elimination of drug-resistant bacterial infections remain big challenges. Here we report a strategy to design activatable theranostic nanoprobes against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. This probe is based on silica nanoparticles coated with vancomycin-modified polyelectrolyte-cypate complexes (SiO2-Cy-Van), which is activated by an interesting phenomenon of bacteria-responsive dissociation of the polyelectrolyte from silica nanoparticles. Due to the aggregation of hydrophobic cypate fluorophores on silica nanoparticles to induce ground-state quenching, the SiO2-Cy-Van nanoprobes are nonfluorescent in aqueous environments. We demonstrate that MRSA can effectively pull out the vancomycin-modified polyelectrolyte-cypate complexes from silica nanoparticles and draw them onto their own surface, changing the state of cypate from off (aggregation) to on (disaggregation) and leading to in vitro MRSA-activated near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) and photothermal elimination involving bacterial cell wall and membrane disruption. In vivo experiments show that this de novo-designed nanoprobe can selectively enable rapid (4 h postinjection) NIRF imaging with high sensitivity (10(5) colony-forming units) and efficient photothermal therapy (PTT) of MRSA infections in mice. Remarkably, the SiO2-Cy-Van nanoprobes can also afford a long-term tracking (16 days) of the development of MRSA infections, allowing real-time estimation of bacterial load in infected tissues and further providing a possible way to monitor the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment. The strategy of bacteria-activated polyelectrolyte dissociation from nanoparticles proposed in this work could also be used as a general method for the design and fabrication of bacteria-responsive functional nanomaterials that offer possibilities to combat drug

  18. In-vitro activity of taurolidine on single species and a multispecies population associated with periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Lilly; Schnyder, Simone; Nietzsche, Sandor; Sculean, Anton; Eick, Sigrun

    2015-04-01

    The antimicrobial activity of taurolidine was compared with minocycline against microbial species associated with periodontitis (four single strains and a 12-species mixture). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), killing as well as activities on established and forming single-species biofilms and a 12-species biofilm were determined. The MICs of taurolidine against single species were always 0.31 mg/ml, the MBCs were 0.64 mg/ml. The used mixed microbiota was less sensitive to taurolidine, MIC and the MBC was 2.5 mg/ml. The strains and the mixture were completely killed by 2.5 mg/ml taurolidine, whereas 256 μg/ml minocycline reduced the bacterial counts of the mixture by 5 log10 colony forming units (cfu). Coating the surface with 10 mg/ml taurolidine or 256 μg/ml minocycline prevented completely biofilm formation of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 but not of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Y4 and the mixture. On 4.5 d old biofilms, taurolidine acted concentration dependent with a reduction by 5 log10 cfu (P. gingivalis ATCC 33277) and 7 log10 cfu (A. actinomycetemcomitans Y4) when applying 10 mg/ml. Minocycline decreased the cfu counts by 1-2 log10 cfu independent of the used concentration. The reduction of the cfu counts in the 4.5 d old multi-species biofilms was about 3 log10 cfu after application of any minocycline concentration and after using 10 mg/ml taurolidine. Taurolidine is active against species associated with periodontitis, even within biofilms. Nevertheless a complete elimination of complex biofilms by taurolidine seems to be impossible and underlines the importance of a mechanical removal of biofilms prior to application of taurolidine.

  19. Antibacterial activity of Syzygium aromaticum seed: Studies on oxidative stress biomarkers and membrane permeability.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, T O; Mohammed, A O; Bello, S A; Yusuf, I I; Ibitoye, O B; Muritala, H F; Onajobi, I B

    2016-06-01

    Oxidative stress and membrane permeability as mode of antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Syzygium aromaticum seeds against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. The concentration of phytochemical constituents of Syzygium aromaticum was determined using gas chromatography. Syzygium aromaticum seeds contain eugenol acetate > β-carophyllene > eugenin > eugenol > methyl salicylate > β-humulene > rhamnatin > fernesol > α-copeane > β-ylangene > kaempferol > cinnamic acid > oleanolic acid > benzaldehyde > α-humulene > vanillin > α-cubebene > carvicol > benzoic acid. Syzygium aromaticum showed antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values as 0.06 and 0.10 mg/mL respectively. Time kill susceptibility by Syzygium aromaticum at MBC values showed significant decrease in the optical density and colony-forming unit (CFU) of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Superoxide anion radical content of the bacterial cells increased significantly following exposure to the extract. In a similar vein, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities increased significantly, while the level of reduced glutathione reduced, malondialdehyde increased significantly in bacterial cells exposed to the extract. The extract at MBC also enhanced the leakage of 260 nm absorbing materials and outer membrane permeability. It is evident from the data generated from this study that aqueous extract of Syzygium aromaticum seeds enhanced membrane permeability and oxidative stress in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States.

  1. Environmental Awareness Activities for Librarians and Teachers: 20 Interdisciplinary Units for Use in Grades 2-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Martha Seif

    This activity book was written for the purposes of: (1) increasing students' awareness of nature and environmental issues; (2) providing an interdisciplinary curriculum for environmental issues; (3) encouraging students to use a variety of current nonfiction sources to research activities; and (4) encouraging students to work together in small…

  2. Making Meaning of Everyday Practices: Parents' Attitudes toward Children's Extracurricular Activities in the United States and in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Izquierdo, Carolina; Fatigante, Marilena

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on children's engagement in extracurricular activities from the perspective of middle-class parents in Rome, Italy, and Los Angeles, California. Analysis of parents' accounts captured in interviews and ethnographic fieldwork reveals that both sets of parents perceive activities as important for children's success. Yet Roman…

  3. The Dynamic Interplay between Spatialization of Written Units in Writing Activity and Functions of Tools on the Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huh, Joo Hee

    2012-01-01

    I criticize the typewriting model and linear writing structure of Microsoft Word software for writing in the computer. I problematize bodily movement in writing that the error of the software disregards. In this research, writing activity is viewed as bodily, spatial and mediated activity under the premise of the unity of consciousness and…

  4. 50 Hz-Sinusoidal magnetic field induced effects on the bioelectric activity of single unit neurone cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azanza, María. J.; Calvo, Ana C.; del Moral, A.

    2001-05-01

    Neurones recruiting and synchronized bioelectric activity recorded from Helix aspersa brain ganglia, under exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields of 1-15 mT intensity, is reported. We show recruiting responses from single neurones and the synchronization of pairs of neurones activity. Experimental evidence and model theoretical explanation for the spreading of synchronization are presented.

  5. An optimized colony forming assay for low-dose-radiation cell survival measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu J.; Sutherland B.; Hu W.; Ding N.; Ye C.; Usikalu M.; Li S.; Hu B.; Zhou G.

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a simple and reliable method to quantify the cell survival of low-dose irradiations. Two crucial factors were considered, the same number of cells plated in each flask and an appropriate interval between cell plating and irradiation. For the former, we optimized cell harvest with trypsin, diluted cells in one container, and directly seeded cells on the bottom of flasks in a low density before irradiation. Reproducible plating efficiency was obtained. For the latter, we plated cells on the bottom of flasks and then monitored the processing of attachment, cell cycle variations, and the plating efficiency after exposure to 20 cGy of X-rays. The results showed that a period of 4.5 h to 7.5 h after plating was suitable for further treatment. In order to confirm the reliability and feasibility of our method, we also measured the survival curves of these M059K and M059J glioma cell lines by following the optimized protocol and obtained consistent results reported by others with cell sorting system. In conclusion, we successfully developed a reliable and simple way to measure the survival fractions of human cells exposed to low dose irradiation, which might be helpful for the studies on low-dose radiation biology.

  6. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form.

    PubMed

    Swierts, Thomas; Vermeij, Mark Ja

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral-turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship.

  7. Competitive interactions between corals and turf algae depend on coral colony form

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Mark JA

    2016-01-01

    Turf algae are becoming more abundant on coral reefs worldwide, but their effects on other benthic organisms remain poorly described. To describe the general characteristics of competitive interactions between corals and turf algae, we determined the occurrence and outcomes of coral–turf algal interactions among different coral growth forms (branching, upright, massive, encrusting, plating, and solitary) on a shallow reef in Vietnam. In total, the amount of turf algal interaction, i.e., the proportion of the coral boundary directly bordering turf algae, was quantified for 1,276 coral colonies belonging to 27 genera and the putative outcome of each interaction was noted. The amount of turf algal interaction and the outcome of these interactions differed predictably among the six growth forms. Encrusting corals interacted most often with turf algae, but also competed most successfully against turf algae. The opposite was observed for branching corals, which rarely interacted with turf algae and rarely won these competitive interactions. Including all other growth forms, a positive relationship was found between the amount of competitive interactions with neighboring turf algae and the percentage of such interaction won by the coral. This growth form dependent ability to outcompete turf algae was not only observed among coral species, but also among different growth forms in morphologically plastic coral genera (Acropora, Favia, Favites, Montastrea, Montipora, Porites) illustrating the general nature of this relationship. PMID:27190707

  8. Participating in Politics Resembles Physical Activity: General Action Patterns in International Archives, United States Archives, and Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M.; Albarracín, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity. PMID:21177515

  9. Participating in politics resembles physical activity: general action patterns in international archives, United States archives, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Kenji; Handley, Ian M; Albarracín, Dolores

    2011-02-01

    A series of studies examined whether political participation can emerge from general patterns of indiscriminate activity. In the first two studies, general action tendencies were measured by combining national and state-level indicators of high activity (e.g., impulsiveness, pace of life, and physical activity) from international and U.S. data. This action-tendency index positively correlated with a measure of political participation that consisted of voting behaviors and participation in political demonstrations. The following two experimental studies indicated that participants exposed to action words (e.g., go, move) had stronger intentions to vote in an upcoming election and volunteered more time to make phone calls on behalf of a university policy than participants exposed to inaction words did (e.g., relax, stop). These studies suggest that political participation can be predicted from general tendencies toward activity present at the national and state levels, as well as from verbal prompts suggestive of activity.

  10. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 associated with marine sponge Haliclona Grant against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Jacob Inbaneson, Samuel; Ravikumar, Sundaram

    2012-06-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease, leading to annual death of about one million people, and the Plasmodium falciparum develops resistance to well-established antimalarial drugs. The newest antiplasmodial drug from a marine microorganism helps in addressing this problem. In the present study, Haliclona Grant were collected and subjected for enumeration and isolation of associated bacteria. The count of bacterial isolates was maximum in November 2007 (18 × 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1), and the average count was maximum during the monsoon season (117 × 10(3) CFU g(-1)). Thirty-three morphologically different bacterial isolates were isolated from Haliclona Grant, and the extracellular ethyl acetate extracts were screened for antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The antiplasmodial activity of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 (11.98 μg[Symbol: see text]ml(-1)) is highly comparable with the positive control chloroquine (IC(50) 19.59 μg[Symbol: see text]ml(-1)), but the other 21 bacterial extracts showed an IC(50) value of more than 100 μg[Symbol: see text]ml(-1). Statistical analysis reveals that significant in vitro antiplasmodial activity (P < 0.05) was observed between the concentrations and time of exposure. The chemical injury to erythrocytes showed no morphological changes in erythrocytes by the ethyl acetate extract of bacterial isolates after 48 h of incubation. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity might be due to the presence of reducing sugars and alkaloids in the ethyl acetate extracts of bacterium RJAUTHB 14. The 16S rRNA gene partial sequence of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 is deposited in NCBI (GenBank accession no. GU269569). It is concluded from the present study that the ethyl acetate extracts of bacterium RJAUTHB 14 possess lead compounds for the development of antiplasmodial drugs.

  11. Antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm growing Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mengjun; Dong, Jiachen; Xia, Yiru; Shu, Rong

    2017-03-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential antibacterial activities of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) against planktonic and biofilm modes of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The effects on planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were evaluated by growth curve determination and MTT assay, respectively. Then, colony forming unit (CFU) counting, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and real-time PCR were performed to further investigate the actions of DHA and EPA on exponential phase-S. mutans. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to detect the influences on mature biofilms. The MICs of DHA and EPA against S. mutans were 100 μM and 50 μM, respectively; the MBC of both compounds was 100 μM. In the presence of 12.5 μM-100 μM DHA or EPA, the planktonic growth and biofilm metabolic activity were reduced in varying degrees. For exponential-phase S. mutans, the viable counts, the bacterial membranes and the biofilm-associated gene expression were damaged by 100 μM DHA or EPA treatment. For 1-day-old biofilms, the thickness was decreased and the proportion of membrane-damaged bacteria was increased in the presence of 100 μM DHA or EPA. These results indicated that, DHA and EPA possessed antibacterial activities against planktonic and biofilm growing S. mutans.

  12. Photodynamic Inactivation of Root Canal Bacteria by Light Activation through Human Dental Hard and Simulated Surrounding Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cieplik, Fabian; Pummer, Andreas; Leibl, Christoph; Regensburger, Johannes; Schmalz, Gottfried; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Maisch, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) may be a supportive antimicrobial approach for use in endodontics, but sufficient activation of photosensitizers (PS) in root canals is a critical point. Therefore, aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of PS absorbing blue (TMPyP) or red light (Methylene Blue; MB) for light activation through human dental hard and simulated surrounding tissue to inactivate root canal bacteria. Methods: A tooth model was fabricated with a human premolar and two molars in an acrylic resin bloc simulating the optical properties of a porcine jaw. The distal root canal of the first molar was enlarged to insert a glass tube (external diameter 2 mm) containing PS and stationary-phase Enterococcus faecalis. Both PS (10 μM) were irradiated for 120 s with BlueV (20 mW/cm2; λem = 400–460 nm) or PDT 1200L (37.8 mW/cm2; λem = 570–680 nm; both: Waldmann Medizintechnik), respectively. Irradiation parameters ensured identical numbers of photons absorbed by each PS. Three setups were chosen: irradiating the glass pipette only (G), the glass pipette inside the single tooth without (GT) and with (GTM) simulated surrounding tissues. Colony forming units (CFU) were evaluated. Transmission measurements of the buccal halves of hemisected mandibular first molars were performed by means of a photospectrometer. Results: PIB with both PS led to reduction by ≥ 5 log10 of E. faecalis CFU for each setup. From transmission measurements, a threshold wavelength λth for allowing an amount of light transmission for sufficient activation of PS was determined to be 430 nm. Conclusion: This study can be seen as proof of principle that light activation of given intra-canal PS from outside a tooth may be possible at wavelengths ≥ 430 nm, facilitating clinical application of PIB in endodontics. PMID:27379059

  13. Brief report: the influence of posttraumatic stress on unprotected sex among sexually active adolescent girls and boys involved in the child welfare system of the United States.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E

    2013-10-01

    While posttraumatic stress (PTS) has been positively associated with risky sexual behavior (RSB) among adult women, there is a paucity of research examining PTS in relation to RSB among adolescent girls and boys. This study aimed to replicate findings among adult women with sexually active adolescents (179 females and 106 males) involved in a national study of children in the United States child welfare system. After controlling for age and the complex study design, sexually active adolescent girls with clinically significant PTS symptoms were more than seven times more likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. In contrast, sexually active adolescent boys with clinically significant PTS symptoms were less likely than those without such symptoms to report unprotected intercourse. Research is needed to 1) understand the mechanisms linking PTS and RSB, 2) further explore gender differences reported here, and 3) inform RSB interventions in this high-risk population.

  14. Performing mathematics activities with non-standard units of measurement using robots controlled via speech-generating devices: three case studies.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kim D; Cook, Albert M

    2016-03-15

    Purpose To examine how using a Lego robot controlled via a speech-generating device (SGD) can contribute to how students with physical and communication impairments perform hands-on and communicative mathematics measurement activities. This study was a follow-up to a previous study. Method Three students with cerebral palsy used the robot to measure objects using non-standard units, such as straws, and then compared and ordered the objects using the resulting measurement. Their performance was assessed, and the manipulation and communication events were observed. Teachers and education assistants were interviewed regarding robot use. Results Similar benefits to the previous study were found in this study. Gaps in student procedural knowledge were identified such as knowing to place measurement units tip-to-tip, and students' reporting revealed gaps in conceptual understanding. However, performance improved with repeated practice. Stakeholders identified that some robot tasks took too long or were too difficult to perform. Conclusions Having access to both their SGD and a robot gave the students multiple ways to show their understanding of the measurement concepts. Though they could participate actively in the new mathematics activities, robot use is most appropriate in short tasks requiring reasonable operational skill. Implications for Rehabilitation Lego robots controlled via speech-generating devices (SGDs) can help students to engage in the mathematics pedagogy of performing hands-on activities while communicating about concepts. Students can "show what they know" using the Lego robots, and report and reflect on concepts using the SGD. Level 1 and Level 2 mathematics measurement activities have been adapted to be accomplished by the Lego robot. Other activities can likely be accomplished with similar robot adaptations (e.g., gripper, pen). It is not recommended to use the robot to measure items that are long, or perform measurements that require high

  15. Microbial Characterization of Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Hardware Surfaces after Five Years of Operation in the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Weir, Natalee E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Pyle, Barry H.

    2006-01-01

    A flex hose assembly containing aqueous coolant from the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consisting of a 2 foot section of Teflon hose and quick disconnects (QDs) and a Special Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) heat exchanger containing separate channels of IATCS coolant and iodinated water used to cool spacesuits and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUS) were returned for destructive analyses on Shuttle return to flight mission STS-114. The original aqueous IATCS coolant used in Node 1, the Laboratory Module, and the Airlock consisted of water, borate (pH buffer), phosphate (corrosion control), and silver sulfate (microbiological control) at a pH of 9.5 +/- 0.5. Chemical changes occurred after on-orbit implementation including a decrease to pH 8.4 due to the diffusion of carbon dioxide through the Teflon hoses, an increase in nickel ions due to general corrosion of heat exchanger braze coatings, a decrease in phosphate concentration due to precipitation of nickel phosphate, and the rapid disappearance of silver ions due to deposition on hardware surfaces. Also associated with the coolant chemistry changes was an increase in planktonic microorganisms from less than 100 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 ml to approximately 1 million CFU per 100 ml. Attachment and growth of microorganisms to the system surfaces (biofilm) was suspected due to the levels of planktonic microorganisms in the coolant. Biofilms can reduce coolant flow, reduce heat transfer, amplify degradation of system materials initiated by chemical corrosion, and enhance mineral scale formation.

  16. Residual Antimicrobial Activity of MTAD® in Human Dentin After Obturation with Gutta-Percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE at Different Time Intervals; An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Bahador, Abbas; Assadian, Hadi; Dehghan, Somayyeh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To eliminate microorganisms that are responsible for pulpal and periapical infections and to prevent reinfection of the root canal system an effective chemomechanical preparation by irrigants with sustained antimicrobial activity is beneficial. Hereby, we evaluated the residual antibacterial activity of MTAD after canal obturation at different time intervals. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 human single-canalled anterior teeth were selected. The root canals were instrumented to a standardized apical size. Among all, 90 teeth received final irrigation with MTAD and were divided into three groups according to their obturation materials; i.e. gutta-percha/AH26, Resilon/RealSeal SE and positive controls. All these groups were divided into three 1-, 3- and 6-week time interval subgroups. Thirty teeth as negative control had no final irrigation with MTAD, but were obturated with gutta-percha/AH26 or Resilon/RealSealSE. Dentin powder was prepared after 1, 3 and 6 weeks. Dentin powder was exposed to Enterococcus faecalis for 24h and then cultured. Colony Forming Unit (CFU) was counted. Results: Residual antimicrobial activity of MTAD in the teeth obturated with guttapercha/AH26 was significantly higher than the teeth obturated with Resilon/RealSeal SE (p<0.001). It also showed a time dependent decrease in MTAD antimicrobial activity for all groups. The highest antimicrobial activity of MTAD was found in the 1-week positive control and 1-week gutta-percha/AH26 specimens. The lowest antimicrobial activity of MTAD was found in 6-week Resilon/RealSeal SE samples and then the negative controls. Conclusion: MTAD had antimicrobial activity even at the sixth week, although it had a time-dependent decrease. Resilon/Epiphany SE significantly decreased antimicrobial activity of MTAD at all time points. PMID:24910674

  17. Amygdalar unit activity during three learning tasks: eyeblink classical conditioning, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and signaled avoidance conditioning.

    PubMed

    Rorick-Kehn, Linda M; Steinmetz, Joseph E

    2005-10-01

    Neural activity in central and basolateral amygdala nuclei (CeA and BLA, respectively) was recorded during delay eyeblink conditioning, Pavlovian fear conditioning, and signaled barpress avoidance. During paired training, the CeA exhibited robust learning-related excitatory activity during all 3 tasks. By contrast, the BLA exhibited minimal activity during eyeblink conditioning, while demonstrating pronounced increases in learning-related excitatory responsiveness during fear conditioning and barpress avoidance. In addition, the relative amount of amygdalar activation observed appeared to be related to the relative intensity of the unconditioned stimulus and somatic requirements of the task. Results suggest the CeA mediates the Pavlovian association between sensory stimuli and the BLA mediates the modulation of instrumental responding through the assignment of motivational value to the unconditioned stimulus.

  18. The importance of culturally meaningful activity for health benefits among older Korean immigrant living in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, May; Han, Areum; Chin, Seungtae

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that participation in culturally meaningful activity is beneficial for immigrants’ health and well-being, yet older Korean immigrants struggle with accepting new cultural perspectives, which can negatively affect their health and well-being. Using in-depth interviews, this study was designed to capture the value of culturally meaningful activities for health among older Korean immigrants. Three themes were identified: (a) improved psychological well-being, (b) enhanced positive emotions and feelings, and (c) social connections developed with others. The findings suggest that by engaging in various culturally meaningful activities, older Korean immigrants gain a sense of social, cultural, and psychological significance in life. This study also provided evidence that older Korean immigrants maintain and develop their cultural identity through culturally meaningful activities. PMID:26084272

  19. Pedestrian-oriented zoning is associated with reduced income and poverty disparities in adult active travel to work, United States.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Leider, Julien; Thrun, Emily; Nicholson, Lisa M; Slater, Sandy J

    2017-02-01

    Active travel to work can provide additional minutes of daily physical activity. While the literature points to the relationship between zoning, equity and socioeconomic status, and physical activity, no study has quantitatively explored these connections. This study examined whether zoning may help to moderate any income and poverty inequities in active travel and taking public transit to work. Research was conducted between May 2012 and June 2015. Zoning data were compiled for 3914 jurisdictions covering 45.45% of the U.S. population located in 471 of the most populous U.S. counties and 2 consolidated cities located in 48 states and the District of Columbia. (Sensitivity analyses also captured unincorporated areas which, with the municipalities, collectively covered ~72% of the U.S.

  20. Regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon saturated with inorganic ions by cavitation united with ion exchange method.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Gao, Hong; Li, Yansheng; Yang, Huixin

    2011-06-01

    Using ion exchange resin as transfer media, regenerate powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbed inorganic ions by cavitation to enhance the transfer; we studied how the regeneration time and the mass ratio of resin and PAC influence the regeneration rate respectively through re-adsorption. The result showed that the effective regeneration of PAC saturated with inorganic ions was above 90% using ion exchange resin as media and transfer carrier, the quantity of PAC did not reduced but activated in the process.

  1. Contemporary re-evaluation of the activity and spectrum of grepafloxacin tested against isolates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Kelley A; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Grepafloxacin potency and spectrum of activity were re-evaluated against contemporary pathogens collected from clinical infections in 2001-2002. A total of 995 isolates were tested for grepafloxacin by the reference agar dilution method and these results were compared to those of 25 other antimicrobial agents. Grepafloxacin activity remained comparable to that of ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae (MIC(90), 0.03-2 microg/ml; 0.0-7.7% resistance rates). For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, grepafloxacin was active against ciprofloxacin-susceptible (MIC(90), 2 microg/ml), but not against ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC(90), >8 microg/ml) isolates. Against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, grepafloxacin susceptibility rate was 91.4%, equal to that of levofloxacin. None of the fluoroquinolones showed reasonable activity against methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Gatifloxacin and grepafloxacin had the same MIC(90) against beta-hemolytic streptococci (0.25 microg/ml) and penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.25 microg/ml). Grepafloxacin and other fluoroquinolone activities were not influenced by penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae. Grepafloxacin was very active against Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(90), 0.03 microg/ml), Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC(90), 0.03 microg/ml) and Legionella spp. (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/ml). These results on recently isolated organisms indicate that grepafloxacin has a sustained potency and spectrum against most clinically important and indicated pathogens.

  2. Microbial community structure and activity in arsenic-, chromium- and copper-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Turpeinen, Riina; Kairesalo, Timo; Häggblom, Max M

    2004-01-01

    Microbial community structure, potential microbial activity and As resistance were affected by arsenic (As), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) contamination in soils of abandoned wood impregnating plants. Contaminated soils differed in the concentrations of soil acid-soluble and total water-soluble As, Cr and Cu, and in the concentration of bioavailable As analyzed with a bacterial sensor. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and 16S rRNA gene terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) profiles indicated that exposure to high metal contamination or subsequent effects of this exposure permanently changed microbial community structure. The total number of colony forming units (CFU) was not affected by metal contamination and the As(V)-resistant bacterial ratio to total heterotrophic plate counts was high (0.5-1.1) and relatively independent of the concentration of As. In contrast, the proportion of As(III)-resistant bacteria was dependent on the concentration of As in the soils and a significant positive relationship was found between the bioavailability of As and the proportion of As(III)-resistant bacteria. Dominant As-resistant isolates from contaminated soils were identified by their fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles as Acinetobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Serratia species. No differences were noted in glucose mineralization among contaminated and control soil samples within sites. Based on [(14)C]glucose mineralization the community was able to compensate for the reduced diversity. According to t-RFLP results, this was not due to a reversion towards the unexposed community, but mainly due to the appearance of new dominating species. This study, combining complementary culture-dependent and -independent methods, suggests that microbes are able to respond to soil metal contamination and maintain metabolic activity apparently through changes in microbial community structure and selection for resistance.

  3. [Initiation to military medical corps activity modalities: a teaching unit providing a new approach to recruiting reserve pharmacists].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P

    2004-07-01

    During the last ten Years, major reforms have been implemented in the French armies due to discontinuation of mandatory enlistment. For the medical corps, recruitment and training for reservists has ceased since the national school for reserve officers in Libourne was closed. During this same time, the number of foreign engagements of the French armies has revealed the need for available young reserve officers in the medical corps. Reserve training of students in medicine, pharmacy, odontology, or nursing has been considered and different possibilities considered. One option is to develop a teaching unit during the third Year of the curriculum allowing volunteer students to become junior officers. For pharmacy students, specific training on drug supply, nuclear, biological and chemical weapons and terrorism as well as clinical chemistry, toxicology, and hygiene are also organized.

  4. From Single Motor Unit Activity to Multiple Grip Forces: Mini‐review of Multi‐digit Grasping1

    PubMed Central

    Winges, Sara A.; Santello, Marco

    2007-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This paper is a mini review of kinetic and kinematic evidence on the control of the hand with emphasis on grasping. It is not meant to be an exhaustive review, rather it summarizes current research examining the mechanisms through which specific patterns of coordination are elicited and observed during reach to grasp movements and static grasping. These coordination patterns include the spatial and temporal covariation of the rotation at multiple joints during reach to grasp movements. A basic coordination between grip forces produced by multiple digits also occurs during whole hand grasping such that normal forces tend to be produced in a synchronous fashion across pairs of digits. Finally, we address current research that suggests that motor unit synchrony across hand muscles and muscle compartments might be one of the neural mechanisms underlying the control of grasping. PMID:18414593

  5. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environment health science. Awareness of the potential effects of low-level chemical exposures is rising. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in which samples were collected from 38 streams in 25 States to provide an overview of contaminants found in stream water across the Nation. Additionally, biological screening assays were used to help determine any potential ecological and human-health effects of these chemical mixtures and to prioritize target chemicals for future toxicological studies. This report describes the site locations and the sampling and analytical methods and quality-assurance procedures used in the study.

  6. REVISED FINAL REPORT – INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT SITES, NISKAYUNA, NEW YORK – DCN 0496-SR-06-1

    SciTech Connect

    Evan Harpenau

    2011-10-10

    The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) complex located on the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) site in Niskayuna, New York, was constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium (Figure A-1). SPRU operated as a laboratory scale research facility between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes. The oxidation and extraction processes were subsequently developed for large scale use by the Hanford and Savannah River sites (aRc 2008a). Decommissioning of the SPRU facilities began in October 1953 and continued through the 1990s.

  7. [Survey on sports practice and physical activity of primary school children living in the area of Bologna Local Health Unit in relation with some individual and environmental variables].

    PubMed

    Leoni, E; Beltrami, P; Poletti, G; Baldi, E; Sacchetti, R; Garulli, A; Masotti, A; Bianco, L; Ventura, F A M; Pandolfi, P; Guberti, E

    2008-01-01

    A randomized stratified sample of 522 children attending the third class of primary schools within the area of Bologna Local Health Unit was analysed for physical activity and sports practice. Information about the children's habits and availability of facilities for physical and sports activities were collected by means of structured questionnaires completed by children (507 respondents), parents (491), reference teachers for physical education (26) and class teachers (46) during the school year 2006-07. At the same time, the children's heights and weights were measured in order to calculate BMI values. Regular sports activity is practised by 80.1% of children (males: 82.4%, females: 77.6%), with significant diferences between genders only in children with at least one non-Italian parent (M>F, p < 0.05); the practice of sports is influenced by the area of residence (metropolitan > plain and hills, p < 0.05) and nationality (Italians > non-Italians, p < 0.01). Children with at least one actively sports practising parent are involved more frequently in sports activities (p < 0.001). In free time, sedentary activities are prevalent for both sports-practising children and not. However children not involved in regular sports activities tend to practise outdoor physical activities with a frequency significantly higher than children involved in sports (17.3% vs 10.4% of respondents). The percentage of completely sedentary children, who stated that they practise neither sports nor physical activity in their free time, is 7.3% (metropolitan area: 4.5%, hills: 8.7%, plain: 10.6%). The prevalence of overweight is 24.4%, of obesity 9.7%, with a better distribution of BMI values in the metropolitan area where there is the highest occurrence of positive conditions and behaviours: availability of sports facilities, the highest prevalence of sports practice, and the lowest prevalence of completely sedentary children.

  8. The Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase replication origin decision point follows activation of transcription and suppresses initiation of replication within transcription units.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takayo; Ramanathan, Sunita; Okuno, Yukiko; Kumagai, Chiharu; Shaikh, Seemab S; Gilbert, David M

    2006-02-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells select specific replication origin sites within the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus at a discrete point during G1 phase, the origin decision point (ODP). Origin selection is sensitive to transcription but not protein synthesis inhibitors, implicating a pretranslational role for transcription in origin specification. We have constructed a DNA array covering 121 kb surrounding the DHFR locus, to comprehensively investigate replication initiation and transcription in this region. When nuclei isolated within the first 3 h of G1 phase were stimulated to initiate replication in Xenopus egg extracts, replication initiated without any detectable preference for specific sites. At the ODP, initiation became suppressed from within the Msh3, DHFR, and 2BE2121 transcription units. Active transcription was mostly confined to these transcription units, and inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin resulted in the initiation of replication within transcription units, indicating that transcription is necessary to limit initiation events to the intergenic region. However, the resumption of DHFR transcription after mitosis took place prior to the ODP and so is not on its own sufficient to suppress initiation of replication. Together, these results demonstrate a remarkable flexibility in sequence selection for initiating replication and implicate transcription as one important component of origin specification at the ODP.

  9. The Chinese Hamster Dihydrofolate Reductase Replication Origin Decision Point Follows Activation of Transcription and Suppresses Initiation of Replication within Transcription Units

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takayo; Ramanathan, Sunita; Okuno, Yukiko; Kumagai, Chiharu; Shaikh, Seemab S.; Gilbert, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells select specific replication origin sites within the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) locus at a discrete point during G1 phase, the origin decision point (ODP). Origin selection is sensitive to transcription but not protein synthesis inhibitors, implicating a pretranslational role for transcription in origin specification. We have constructed a DNA array covering 121 kb surrounding the DHFR locus, to comprehensively investigate replication initiation and transcription in this region. When nuclei isolated within the first 3 h of G1 phase were stimulated to initiate replication in Xenopus egg extracts, replication initiated without any detectable preference for specific sites. At the ODP, initiation became suppressed from within the Msh3, DHFR, and 2BE2121 transcription units. Active transcription was mostly confined to these transcription units, and inhibition of transcription by alpha-amanitin resulted in the initiation of replication within transcription units, indicating that transcription is necessary to limit initiation events to the intergenic region. However, the resumption of DHFR transcription after mitosis took place prior to the ODP and so is not on its own sufficient to suppress initiation of replication. Together, these results demonstrate a remarkable flexibility in sequence selection for initiating replication and implicate transcription as one important component of origin specification at the ODP. PMID:16428457

  10. Effect of Different Obturation Materials on Residual Antimicrobial Activity of 2% Chlorhexidine in Dentin at Different Time Intervals: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Dehghan, Somayyeh; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Bahador, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE on residual antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (CHX) in human root dentin and suggest the best filling material when CHX is used as final irrigant. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and forty-four single-rooted human teeth were selected for this study. Canals were instrumented to the apical size #35. Smear layer was removed using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA and then 108 teeth were irrigated with 2% CHX and randomly divided into three groups of gutta percha/AH26, Resilon/RealSeal SE and positive controls. Each group was divided into three subgroups for different time intervals (one, three and six weeks). Thirty-six teeth, as negative controls, were irrigated with saline and obturated with gutta percha/AH26 and Resilon/RealSeal SE. Dentin powder was prepared at the afore-mentioned intervals. After exposure to Enterococcus faecalis for 24 hours, colony forming units (CFUs) were counted and residual antimicrobial activity was calculated. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal Wallis test and one-way ANOVA. The significance level was set at P<0.05. Results: The antimicrobial activity of CHX gradually decreased in a time-dependent manner but it maintained over 95% of its antimicrobial activity after six weeks. Moreover, Resilon/RealSeal SE significantly decreased the antimicrobial activity of CHX in comparison with gutta-percha/AH26 (P<0.05). Conclusion: After a final irrigation with CHX, gutta-percha/AH26 is a better choice for root canal obturation. PMID:27252755

  11. Parent-child leisure activities and cultural capital in the United Kingdom: The gendered effects of education and social class.

    PubMed

    Gracia, Pablo

    2015-07-01

    This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life.

  12. Interim Closure Activities at Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, R. F.

    2011-10-24

    This letter report documents interim activities that have been completed at CAU 114 to support ongoing access and generate information necessary to plan future closure activities. General housekeeping and cleanup of debris was conducted in the EMAD yard, cold bays, support areas of Building 3900, and postmortem cell tunnel area of the hot bay. All non-asbestos ceiling tiles and loose and broken non-friable asbestos floor tiles were removed from support galleries and office areas. Non-radiologically contaminated piping and equipment in the cold areas of the building and in the two 120-ton locomotives in the yard were tapped, characterized, drained, and verified free of contents.

  13. Antibacterial activity of plastics coated with silver-doped organic-inorganic hybrid coatings prepared by sol-gel processes.

    PubMed

    Marini, M; De Niederhausern, S; Iseppi, R; Bondi, M; Sabia, C; Toselli, M; Pilati, F

    2007-04-01

    Silver-doped organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared starting from tetraethoxysilane- and triethoxysilane-terminated poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polyethylene by the sol-gel process. They were applied as a thin layer (0.6-1.1 microm) to polyethylene (PE) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films and the antibacterial activity of the coated films was tested against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) bacteria. The effect of several factors (such as organic-inorganic ratio, type of catalyst, time of post-curing, silver ion concentration, etc.) was investigated. Measurements at different contact times showed a rapid decrease of the viable count for both tested strains. The highest antibacterial activity [more than 6 log reduction within 6 h starting from 106 colony-forming units (cfu) mL-1] was obtained for samples with an organic-inorganic weight ratio of 80:20 and 5 wt % silver salt with respect to the coating. For the coatings prepared by an acid-catalyzed process, a high level of permanence of the antibacterial activity of the coated films was demonstrated by repeatedly washing the samples in warm water or by immersion in physiological saline solution at 37 degrees C for 3 days. The release of silver ions per square meter of coating is very similar to that previously observed for polyamides filled with metallic silver nanoparticles; however, when compared on the basis of Ag content, the concentration of silver ions released from the coating is much higher than that released from 1 mm thick specimens of polyamide (PA) filled with silver nanoparticles. Transparency and good adhesion of the coating to PE and PVC plastic substrates without any previous surface treatment are further interesting features.

  14. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Allan; Rondini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA) assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU) at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA) method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay. PMID:28192483

  15. Are Functional and Activity Limitations Becoming More Prevalent among 55 to 69-Year-Olds in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Choi, HwaJung; Schoeni, Robert F.; Martin, Linda G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examines changes in functional and activity limitations 1998–2012 for individuals 55–69. Methods Logistic models are used to estimate trends in limitations in vision, hearing, physical and cognitive functioning, IADLs, and ADLs. Additional models assess the extent to which trends are associated with and differ by education, smoking, and BMI. Results Changes in prevalence of limitations in vision, hearing, cognitive functioning, and ADLs are not statistically significant. Limitations in physical functioning declined by 0.37% per year. IADL limitations increased by 1.33% per year, but most of the increase occurred between 2008 and 2010/2012, and are associated with economic hardship during the Great Recession. Increases in education are especially beneficially associated with trends in limitations, but reductions in smoking also appear to be advantageous for some outcomes. Increases in BMI are associated with trends in physical functioning, IADL, and ADL limitation. Discussion For Americans 55–69, functional and activity limitations were largely unchanged 1998–2012. Our results suggest that if educational attainment had not increased, most functional and activity limitations potentially could have worsened substantially. Future change in educational attainment is not expected to be so positive. Continued monitoring of trends in activity limitations might well include greater focus on the explanatory roles of environmental factors, including economic circumstances. PMID:27783638

  16. Labour Studies Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Eric; And Others

    The nine units highlight the history, activities, values, and aspirations of the Canadian labor force. The program's purpose is to help secondary school social studies students develop a more objective appreciation of labor and of labor's role in Canadian social history. The first unit, "Union Today," analyzes contemporary union activity…

  17. Incidence of Norovirus-Associated Medical Encounters among Active Duty United States Military Personnel and Their Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Rha, Brian; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Alcala, Ashley N.; Riddle, Mark S.; Porter, Chad K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Norovirus is a leading cause of gastroenteritis episodes and outbreaks in US military deployments, but estimates of endemic disease burden among military personnel in garrison are lacking. Methods Diagnostic codes from gastroenteritis-associated medical encounters of active duty military personnel and their beneficiaries from July 1998–June 2011 were obtained from the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center. Using time-series regression models, cause-unspecified encounters were modeled as a function of encounters for specific enteropathogens. Model residuals (representing unexplained encounters) were used to estimate norovirus-attributable medical encounters. Incidence rates were calculated using population data for both active duty and beneficiary populations. Results The estimated annual mean rate of norovirus-associated medically-attended visits among active duty personnel and their beneficiaries was 292 (95% CI: 258 to 326) and 93 (95% CI: 80 to 105) encounters per 10,000 persons, respectively. Rates were highest among beneficiaries <5 years of age with a median annual rate of 435 (range: 318 to 646) encounters per 10,000 children. Norovirus was estimated to cause 31% and 27% of all-cause gastroenteritis encounters in the active duty and beneficiary populations, respectively, with over 60% occurring between November and April. There was no evidence of any lag effect where norovirus disease occurred in one population before the other, or in one beneficiary age group before the others. Conclusions Norovirus is a major cause of medically-attended gastroenteritis among non-deployed US military active duty members as well as in their beneficiaries. PMID:27115602

  18. Recent Temporal Trends in Parent-Reported Physical Activity in Children in the United States, 2009 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Davis, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to provide recent temporal trends in parent-reported physical activity in children (6-11 years) between 2009 and 2014. Data from the 2009 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. The analytic sample included 3946 children. Parent proxy of child physical activity at each of the 3 2-year cycles was assessed. For the entire sample, there was a quadratic trend, with the number of days children engaged in at least 60 min/d of physical activity increasing in the period 2011 to 2012 (6.12 days) when compared with the period 2009 to 2010 (5.96 days) and then decreasing in the period 2013 to 2014 (5.83 days). A similar quadratic trend was evident for boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites (particularly boys), and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age percentile based on sex. A negative linear trend was observed for those above the poverty level and non-Hispanic whites (particularly girls). In conclusion, these findings provide suggestive evidence that over the past 6 years (1999-2014), parents report that children's physical activity has slightly decreased in the latest years, with this observation being most pronounced in boys, those above the poverty level, non-Hispanic whites, and those with less than the 85th body mass index-for-age and sex percentile. Encouragingly, however, across all evaluated subpopulations, most children (55%-82%), as determined by their parents, engaged in 60 min/d of physical activity (consistent with government recommendations).

  19. Environmental Assessment for DOE permission for off-loading activities to support the movement of Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies across the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), for the proposed granting of DOE permission of offloading activities to support the movement Millstone Unit 2 steam generator sub-assemblies (SGSAs) across the Savannah River Site (SRS). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact. On the basis of the floodplain/wetlands assessment in the EA, DOE has determined that there is no practicable alternative to the proposed activities and that the proposed action has been designed to minimize potential harm to or within the floodplain of the SRS boat ramp. No wetlands on SRS would be affected by the proposed action.

  20. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.