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Sample records for activity concentration values

  1. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  2. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) microbial activities in the soils. The critical mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  3. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  4. Jitter Values on Voluntary Active Periocular Muscles of Healthy Subjects with Conventional (37 mm) Concentric Needle Electrode

    PubMed Central

    BAYSAL KIRAÇ, Leyla; KOCASOY ORHAN, Elif; GÖNDERTEN, Saygın; BASLO, Mehmet Barış; ÖGE, Ali Emre

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to re-evaluate jitter values of healthy subjects in whom pairs of single-fiber-like potentials were recorded from voluntary activated periocular muscles using a disposable 37-mm concentric needle electrode (CNE) with 2-kHz low-cut filtering. Methods We reviewed the recordings of 129 subjects (85 women; 44 men; mean age, 43.8±15.3 years). The m. frontalis group included 116 subjects, and the m. orbicularis oculi group included 18 subjects. Jitter values were expressed as the mean consecutive difference (MCD) of 20 different pairs. Results The mean MCD (n=2680) was 22.5±9.7 μs (range, 5–121 μs), and the upper 95% confidence limit (CL) was 39 μs. The mean of 134 MCD values for each subject was 22.5±3.7 μs (range, 15–33 μs), and the upper 95% CL was 30 μs. The outer limit of the 18th highest MCD values out of 20 recordings for each subject was 31.3±6.5 μs (range, 18–53 μs), with an upper 95% CL of 43.3 μs. Conclusion Using a conventional 37-mm CNE with 2-kHz low-cut filtering may be a cost effective alternative to a single-fiber electrode in periocular muscles if strict criteria are used for acceptable signals. Jitter values of >44 μs that were calculated from single-fiber-like action potential pairs should alert the physician regarding the possibility of neuromuscular junction disorders and constitute an indication for a further diagnostic investigation. PMID:28360784

  5. Concentrations of aroma compounds and odor activity values of odorant series in different olive cultivars and their oils.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2013-06-05

    Olives from Picual, Arbequina, Manzanilla de Sevilla, and Local cultivars together with their corresponding oils were analyzed in terms of odor activity values (OAVs) to establish the relationship between the aromatic profile of both olives and oils. The OAVs for the different compounds were classified in nine odorant series: grass, leaf, wood, bitter, sweet, pungent, olive fruit, apple, and banana. The total intensities for every aromatic series were calculated as the sum of the OAVs of each compound associated with this series. As a result, olives had characteristic profiles. Picual cultivar had not a clear sensory characterization from the volatile compounds. Arbequina cultivar was mainly characterized by apple and bitter odorant series; Manzanilla de Sevilla by apple, bitter, and grass odorant series; and Local variety by banana and olive fruit. However, in the oils obtained from those olives, these differences disappeared, and all oils showed the same profile with pungent, bitter, and wood odorant series most strongly contributing.

  6. Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, L.; McFarlane, S.; Sivaraman, C.

    2014-06-01

    The ndrop_mfrsr value-added product (VAP) provides an estimate of the cloud droplet number concentration of overcast water clouds retrieved from cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (MFRSR) instrument and liquid water path (LWP) retrieved from the microwave radiometer (MWR). When cloud layer information is available from vertically pointing lidar and radars in the Active Remote Sensing of Clouds (ARSCL) product, the VAP also provides estimates of the adiabatic LWP and an adiabatic parameter (beta) that indicates how divergent the LWP is from the adiabatic case. quality control (QC) flags (qc_drop_number_conc), an uncertainty estimate (drop_number_conc_toterr), and a cloud layer type flag (cloud_base_type) are useful indicators of the quality and accuracy of any given value of the retrieval. Examples of these major input and output variables are given in sample plots in section 6.0.

  7. NMR-based approach to the analysis of radiopharmaceuticals: radiochemical purity, specific activity, and radioactive concentration values by proton and tritium NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schenk, David J; Dormer, Peter G; Hesk, David; Pollack, Scott R; Lavey, Carolee Flader

    2015-06-15

    Compounds containing tritium are widely used across the drug discovery and development landscape. These materials are widely utilized because they can be efficiently synthesized and produced at high specific activity. Results from internally calibrated (3)H and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy suggests that at least in some cases, this calibrated approach could supplement or potentially replace radio-high-performance liquid chromatography for radiochemical purity, dilution and scintillation counting for the measurement of radioactivity per volume, and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis for the determination of specific activity. In summary, the NMR-derived values agreed with those from the standard approaches to within 1% to 9% for solution count and specific activity. Additionally, the NMR-derived values for radiochemical purity deviated by less than 5%. A benefit of this method is that these values may be calculated at the same time that (3)H NMR analysis provides the location and distribution of tritium atoms within the molecule. Presented and discussed here is the application of this method, advantages and disadvantages of the approach, and a rationale for utilizing internally calibrated (1)H and (3)H NMR spectroscopy for specific activity, radioactive concentration, and radiochemical purity whenever acquiring (3)H NMR for tritium location.

  8. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, , and nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Spiehs, Mindy J; Brown-Brandl, Tami M; Berry, Elaine D; Wells, James E; Parker, David B; Miller, Daniel N; Jaderborg, Jeffrey P; DiCostanzo, Alfred

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on the concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and total in bedded pack material. Four bedded packs of each bedding material were maintained for two 42-d periods ( = 32; eight replicates/bedding material). Straight- and branched-chained fatty acids, aromatic compounds, and sulfide compounds were measured from the headspace above each bedded pack. Green cedar bedding had the highest concentration of odorous VOCs, and pine chip bedding had the lowest ( < 0.01). Calculated odor activity values were highest for green cedar bedding, followed by dry cedar, corn stover, and pine chip bedding. As the bedded packs aged, the concentration of odorous VOCs increased, particularly in the bedded packs containing green cedar chips and dry cedar chips. Total concentrations increased from Days 0 to 21 and then began to decline and were similar among all bedding materials ( < 0.10). Results of this study indicate that producers using a long-term bedded pack management in their facility may benefit from using pine chips because they do not appear to increase odor over time. Cedar-based bedding materials may be better suited for a scrape-and-haul system, where the bedded pack is removed after 1 or 2 wk. Total concentrations did not differ between any of the four bedding materials over time.

  9. The relationship between chemical concentration and odor activity value explains the inconsistency in making a comprehensive surrogate scent training tool representative of illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Rice, Somchai; Koziel, Jacek A

    2015-12-01

    This report highlights the importance of an individual chemical's odor impact in the olfactory identification of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin. There are small amounts of highly odorous compounds present in headspace of these drugs, with very low odor detection thresholds, that are more likely responsible for contributing to the overall odor of these drugs. Previous reports of the most abundant compounds in headspace can mislead researchers when dealing with whole odor of these drugs. Surrogate scent formulations, therefore, must match the odor impact of key compounds and not just the chemical abundance of compounds. The objective of this study was to compare odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from illicit drug samples of marijuana, cocaine, and heroin to surrogate smell formulations using simultaneous sensory (via human olfaction) and chemical analyses. Use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) allowed VOCs in drug headspace to be extracted and pre-concentrated on site, and analyzed by multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (MDGC-MS-O). Use of MDGC-MS-O allowed for further separation of odorous compounds and simultaneous detection by the human nose of the separate odor parts that make up the total aroma of these drugs. The compounds most abundant in headspace were not the most odor impactful when ranked by odor activity values (OAVs) (defined as ratio of concentration to odor detection threshold, ODT). There were no apparent correlations between concentrations and OAVs. A 1g marijuana surrogate lacked in odor active acids, aldehydes, ethers, hydrocarbons, N-containing, and S-containing VOCs and was overabundant in odor active alcohols and aromatics compared with real marijuana. A 1g cocaine surrogate was overabundant in odor active alcohols, aldehydes, aromatics, esters, ethers, halogenates, hydrocarbons, ketones and N-containing compounds compared with real. A 1g heroin surrogate should contain less odor active acids

  10. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  11. Droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Chitra Sivaraman, PNNL

    2015-08-06

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration (Nd) will increase and droplet size will decrease, for a given liquid water path. This will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation; however, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain.McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based onBoers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions. In order to provide data sets for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, the McComiskey et al. (2009) method was implemented as the Droplet Number Concentration (NDROP) value-added product (VAP).

  12. Characterisation of selected active agents regarding pKa values, solubility concentrations and pH profiles by SiriusT3.

    PubMed

    Schönherr, D; Wollatz, U; Haznar-Garbacz, D; Hanke, U; Box, K J; Taylor, R; Ruiz, R; Beato, S; Becker, D; Weitschies, W

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine pKa values and solubility properties of 34active agents using the SiriusT3 apparatus. The selected drug substances belong to the groups of ACE-inhibitors, β-blockers, antidiabetics and lipid lowering substances. Experimentally obtained pKa and intrinsic solubility values were compared to calculated values (program ACD/ChemSketch) and pKa values to published data as well. Solubility-pH profiles were generated to visualise the substance solubility over the gastrointestinal pH range. The relationship between the solubility characteristic of a substance, its bioavailability and categorisation according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) was examined as well. The results showed a good agreement between experimentally obtained, calculated and published pKa values. The measured and calculated intrinsic solubility values indicated several major deviations. All solubility-pH profiles showed the expected shape and appearance for acids, bases or zwitterionic substances. The obtained results for the pKa and solubility measurements of the examined active agents may help to predict their physicochemical behaviour in vivo, and to understand the bioavailability of the substances according to their BCS categorisation. The easy and reproducible determination of pKa and solubility values makes the SiriusT3 apparatus a useful tool in early stages of drug and formulation development.

  13. Use of wood-based materials in beef bedded manure packs: 2. Effect on odorous volatile organic compounds, odor activity value, Escherichia coli, and nutrient concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of three types of wood-based bedding materials (kiln-dried pine wood chips, dry cedar chips, and green cedar chips) and corn stover on concentration of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and total Escherichia coli in bedded pack materi...

  14. Fasting breath hydrogen concentration: normal values and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Perman, J A; Modler, S; Barr, R G; Rosenthal, P

    1984-12-01

    Excretion of hydrogen in breath commonly persists despite an overnight fast. Although elevation of hydrogen concentration above the fasting value after administration of a test sugar is evidence of malabsorption, the significance of the fasting value itself is unknown. We determined the normal limits of fasting breath hydrogen in healthy children and adults, and in patients with chronic diarrhea or recurrent abdominal pain. Fasting breath hydrogen in 221 healthy children and 9 healthy adults averaged 7.1 +/- 5.0 parts per million (mean +/- SD), exceeding 30 parts per million in less than 1%. No value exceed 42 parts per million. In 73 patients with recurrent abdominal pain and 76 patients with chronic diarrhea, fasting breath hydrogen was less than 42 parts per million in 97% and 83%, respectively. History and laboratory data were reviewed in the 15 patients where fasting breath hydrogen exceeded 42 parts per million. Seven had documented small bowel bacterial overgrowth and an additional 3 patients had radiographic evidence of intestinal stasis. Using test dinner meals, we prospectively evaluated the effect of previously ingested foods containing complex carbohydrates on fasting breath hydrogen. Dinner meals consisting of rice, wheat, or beans influenced fasting breath hydrogen values, but did not result in elevated fasting breath hydrogen in healthy individuals. Rice bread resulted in uniformly low fasting breath hydrogen values in healthy subjects (2.0 +/- 2.5 parts per million), but fasting breath hydrogen remained elevated in patients with bacterial overgrowth. Our studies indicate that conditions for measurement of the fasting breath hydrogen value may be standardized to improve discrimination between normal and abnormal values.

  15. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  16. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer

    Riihimaki, Laura

    2014-05-15

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration, Nd, will increase and droplet size decrease, for a given liquid water path (Twomey 1977), which will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation. However, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain. McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based on Boers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions.

  17. Dissolved Concentrations of PAHs and PCBs Are Often Over-predicted Using Sediment Concentrations and Literature Koc Values

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increasing amount of chemical and biological evidence that using sediment concentrations and commonly applied Koc values frequently overpredicts interstitial water concentrations of HOCs, and thereby overestimates uptake and/or effects of those chemicals on exposed or...

  18. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  19. Concentration and temperature effects on ovostatin activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarity, Debra M.

    1994-01-01

    Light scattering experiments performed at Mississippi State University using MSFC ovostatin preparations indicated that at low ovostatin concentrations, below 0.2 mg/ml, the protein was dissociating from a tetramer into dimers. Since the proposed mechanism of action involved the tetrameric form of the protein, we hypothesized that perhaps under the conditions of our assays at various O/T ratios the ovostatin was becoming dissociated into an inactive dimer. To examine this possibility we assayed the ovostatin activity as a function of ovostatin concentration and of temperature of the assay. Data are presented that show the results of these assays at 23 C, 30 C, 37 C and 42 C respectively. The data are highly suggestive that there is a decrease in ovostatin activity as the concentration of the protein falls below 0.06 mg/ml. This may not be of any physiological importance, however, since the concentration of ovostatin in the egg is about 0.5 mg/ml. Curiously, the dissociation of the tetramer into dimers does not show a significant temperature dependence as would be expected for an equilibrium reaction. Whether this is in fact the case, or whether the differences are so small as to not be discerned from the current data remains to be seen. Another aspect to consider is that in the egg the primary role of the ovostatin may or may not be as a protease inhibitor. Although the inhibition of collagenase by ovostatin may be an important aspect of embryogenesis, it is also possible that it functions as a binding protein for some substance. In this regard, all ovostatin preparations from MSFC have shown an approximately 88,000 MW protein associated with the ovostatin. The identity of this protein is not currently known and may be the subject of future studies.

  20. Derivation and implementation of an annual limit on intake and a derived air concentration value for uranium mill tailings.

    PubMed

    Reif, R H; Andrews, D W

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring workers and work areas at the Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites is complex because all radionuclides in the 238U and 235U decay chains may be present in an airborne uranium mill tailings matrix. Previous monitoring practices involved isotopic analysis of the air filter to determine the activity of each radionuclide of concern and comparing the results to the specified derived air concentration. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values have been derived here for the uranium mill tailings matrix to simplify the procedure for evaluation of air monitoring results and assessment of the need for individual monitoring. Implementation of the derived air concentration for uranium mill tailings involves analyzing air samples for long-lived gross alpha activity and comparing the activity concentration to the derived air concentration. Health physics decisions regarding assessment of airborne concentrations is more cost-effective because isotopic analysis of air samples is not necessary.

  1. Correlation between linezolid zone diameter and minimum inhibitory concentration values determined by regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimitriu, G; Poiata, Antonia; Tuchiluş, Cristina; Buiuc, D

    2006-01-01

    Linezolid is a new synthetic antibiotic belonging to the oxazolidinone class, available for the therapy of gram-positive infections, caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and penicillin-resistant pneumococci. The aim of the study was to determine the in vitro activity of linezolid against staphylococci strains and also to determine the relationship between the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and inhibition zone diameter by calculating the regression analysis. We tested one hundred S. aureus isolates, obtained from healthy persons (naso-pharyngeal swabs) during 2005 year. The antibiotic susceptibility of strains was determined by disk diffusion standardized method and by agar dilution method using a multipoint inoculator. The relationship between the diameter of the inhibition zone produced by a linezolid disc impregnated with a fixed amount (30 eg) was determined by regression performed with the least squares method, considering the log2 of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as the independent variable and the zone diameter as the dependent variable. The MIC values expressed in logarithmic form are plotted against inhibition zone diameter (arithmetic scale) of the same strain. The activity of linezolid against staphylococci was very good, with MIC 90 of 1 mg/l. All strains were fully sensitive. The regression line for linezolid passes through a continuous series of points that all are approximately located on the a straight line. For each of the MIC values the differences result no greater than 23 mm in diameter sizes were registered. Regression equation was y= -0.188x + 8.048. In conclusion, the regression line analysis calculated for linezolid, demonstrates a significant correlation between MIC values and the inhibition zone diameters obtained by a 30 mg disc.

  2. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  3. Pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentration reference values in swine from commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Carlos; Piñeiro, Matilde; Morales, Joaquín; Andrés, Marta; Lorenzo, Elia; Pozo, Mateo Del; Alava, María A; Lampreave, Fermín

    2009-01-01

    Pig-MAP (Major Acute-phase Protein) and haptoglobin concentrations were determined in pigs from commercial farms, and reference intervals obtained for different productive stages. Pig-MAP serum concentrations were lower in sows than in adult boars (mean values 0.81 vs. 1.23 mg/mL) and the opposite was observed for haptoglobin (1.47 vs. 0.94 mg/mL). No differences were found between parities, except for a minor decrease in haptoglobin concentration in the 4th parity. A linear correlation between pig-MAP and haptoglobin concentration was observed. In the period 4-12 weeks of life, pig-MAP mean concentrations were around 1mg/mL, being lower in the finishing period (0.7-0.8 mg/mL). Haptoglobin concentrations increased with time, from around 0.6 mg/mL at 4 weeks of age to 1.4 mg/mL at 12 weeks. Mean values of around 0.9 mg/mL were observed in the finishing period. A wider distribution of values was observed for haptoglobin than for pig-MAP concentrations. Differences between herds were observed, with the highest values obtained in a herd with signs of respiratory disease.

  4. Comparison of the chemical composition and nutritional value of Amaranthus cruentus flour and its protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Escudero, N L; de Arellano, M L; Luco, J M; Giménez, M S; Mucciarelli, S I

    2004-01-01

    Plants constitute an alternative source of proteins in the human diet, with advantages over animal proteins because of their low content of saturated fats and absence of cholesterol. Within the framework of a wider research project on the role of Amaranthus cruentus (Ac) in lipid metabolism, in this work the chemical composition and biological value of the Ac flour and its protein concentrate were compared. Proximate chemical composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, some antinutrient factors, and biological values were determined for Ac seed flour and its protein concentrate obtained by extraction at pH 11 and precipitation at pH 4.5. The flour protein content was 16.6 g% while that of the concentrate was 52.56 g%. The content of the soluble dietary fiber with a hypolipemic function was notably higher in the protein concentrate (12.90 g%) than in the seed flour (4.29 g%). The protein concentrate also exhibited a higher content of insoluble dietary fiber. The Ac flour and the concentrate contain 75.44 and 56.95% unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Squalene, which affects the biosynthesis of cholesterol, was detected both in the flour and the concentrate oils, with a higher content in the concentrate (9.53%) as compared to the flour (6.23%). Comparison of the amino acid composition with the FAO pattern protein indicated that the concentrate does not have limiting amino acids, while the flour has leucine, threonine, and valine. The content of lysine was high in both the flour and the concentrate, making these products particularly useful as a complement for cereal flour, which is deficient in this amino acid. The biological quality analysis demonstrated an improvement in the quality of the concentrate. The presence of saponins, phytic acid, and trypsin inhibitors in the concentrate, which favor the metabolism of lipids, suggests that consumption of the concentrate might reduce the risk of heart disease.

  5. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover,…

  6. Natural background concentrations and threshold values of chemical species for groundwater in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Y.; Lee, S.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze natural background concentrations and determine threshold values of chemical species (NO3-N, Cl, As, Pb, Cr) for groundwater using Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network (GQMN) data operated by Korea Ministry of Environment (ME). GQMN data are divided into two groups, A and B. Group A consists of samples collected in aquifers where anthropogenic inputs are forced to be excluded by aquifer typology. Group B consists of samples in aquifers where purely anthropogenic chemicals (e.g., pesticide, PAC) are introduced at the downgradient. Group A is used to derive nationwide natural background concentrations for groundwater in specific aquifer geology under concern, which represents a reference system. Group B is used for deriving site-specific background concentrations for groundwater. For both groups of data, the samples with anthropogenic inputs are forced to be excluded, thus background concentrations are derived based on a pre-selection method accordingly. We determine threshold values according to EU GroundWater Daughter Directive(GWDD 2006/11/EC). For As, Pb, and Cr and some other trace elements, survival analyses are used for estimating background concentrations due to non-detect data. The results show that high concentration values of NO3-N and Cr are related to high natural background concentrations due to rock-water interactions for Group A. In particular, NO3-N concentrations vary with depth, which are consistent with natural attenuation processes. For Group B, some anthropogenic chemical species such as BTEX are observed and site-specific background concentrations of those elements are non-zero, which is apparently not naturally occurred at all. Natural background concentrations and threshold values derived from Group A can be used for setting up reference values for managing groundwater quality on a level of either domestic or drinking water stands. Meanwhile results from Group B provide a useful guidance for managing groundwater quality in

  7. Hypothalamic melanin concentrating hormone neurons communicate the nutrient value of sugar

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Ana I; Sordillo, Aylesse; Dietrich, Marcelo O; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Tellez, Luis A; Vaynshteyn, Jake; Ferreira, Jozelia G; Ekstrand, Mats I; Horvath, Tamas L; de Araujo, Ivan E; Friedman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Sugars that contain glucose, such as sucrose, are generally preferred to artificial sweeteners owing to their post-ingestive rewarding effect, which elevates striatal dopamine (DA) release. While the post-ingestive rewarding effect, which artificial sweeteners do not have, signals the nutrient value of sugar and influences food preference, the neural circuitry that mediates the rewarding effect of glucose is unknown. In this study, we show that optogenetic activation of melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons during intake of the artificial sweetener sucralose increases striatal dopamine levels and inverts the normal preference for sucrose vs sucralose. Conversely, animals with ablation of MCH neurons no longer prefer sucrose to sucralose and show reduced striatal DA release upon sucrose ingestion. We further show that MCH neurons project to reward areas and are required for the post-ingestive rewarding effect of sucrose in sweet-blind Trpm5−/− mice. These studies identify an essential component of the neural pathways linking nutrient sensing and food reward. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01462.001 PMID:24381247

  8. Derivation and implementation of an annual limit on intake and a derived air concentration value for uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Reif, R.H.; Andrews, D.W.

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring workers and work areas at the Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project sites is complex because all radionuclides in the {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U decay chains may be present in an airborne uranium mill tillings matrix. Previous monitoring practices involved isotopic analysis of the air filter to determine the activity of each radionuclide of concern and comparing the results to the specified derived air concentration. The annual limit on intake and derived air concentration values have been derived here for the uranium mill tailings matrix to simplify the procedure for evaluation of air monitoring results and assessment of the need for individual monitoring. Implementation of the derived air concentration for uranium mill tailings involves analyzing air samples for long-lived gross alpha activity and comparing the activity concentration to the derived air concentration. Health physics decisions regarding assessment of airborne concentrations is more cost-effective because isotopic analysis of air samples is not necessary. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Terpenes increase the lipid dynamics in the Leishmania plasma membrane at concentrations similar to their IC50 values.

    PubMed

    Camargos, Heverton Silva; Moreira, Rodrigo Alves; Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Fernandes, Kelly Souza; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Alonso, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×10(6) parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+)-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4-9%) at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×10(9) parasites/mL), the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis.

  10. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  11. [Gas Concentration Measurement Based on the Integral Value of Absorptance Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-jun; Tao, Shao-hua; Yang, Bing-chu; Deng, Hong-gui

    2015-12-01

    The absorptance spectrum of a gas is the basis for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the gas by the law of the Lambert-Beer. The integral value of the absorptance spectrum is an important parameter to describe the characteristics of the gas absorption. Based on the measured absorptance spectrum of a gas, we collected the required data from the database of HIT-RAN, and chose one of the spectral lines and calculated the integral value of the absorptance spectrum in the frequency domain, and then substituted the integral value into Lambert-Beer's law to obtain the concentration of the detected gas. By calculating the integral value of the absorptance spectrum we can avoid the more complicated calculation of the spectral line function and a series of standard gases for calibration, so the gas concentration measurement will be simpler and faster. We studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus temperature. Since temperature variation would cause the corresponding variation in pressure, we studied the changing trends of the integral values of the absorptance spectrums versus both the pressure not changed with temperature and changed with the temperature variation. Based on the two cases, we found that the integral values of the absorptance spectrums both would firstly increase, then decrease, and finally stabilize with temperature increasing, but the ranges of specific changing trend were different in the two cases. In the experiments, we found that the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were much higher than 1% and still increased with temperature when we only considered the change of temperature and completely ignored the pressure affected by the temperature variation, and the relative errors of the integrated values of the absorptance spectrum were almost constant at about only 1% when we considered that the pressure were affected by the temperature variation. As the integral value

  12. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2012-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  13. Complex Spontaneous Flows and Concentration Banding in Active Polar Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.

    2008-11-01

    We study the dynamical properties of active polar liquid crystalline films. Like active nematic films, active polar films undergo a dynamical transition to spontaneously flowing steady states. Spontaneous flow in polar fluids is, however, always accompanied by strong concentration inhomogeneities or “banding” not seen in nematics. In addition, a spectacular property unique to polar active films is their ability to generate spontaneously oscillating and banded flows even at low activity. The oscillatory flows become increasingly complicated for strong polarity.

  14. Predictive value of determinations of zinc protoporphyrin for increased blood lead concentrations.

    PubMed

    Froom, P; Kristal-Boneh, E; Benbassat, J; Ashkanazi, R; Ribak, J

    1998-06-01

    Blood lead (PbB) and red cell zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations are widely used biomarkers for lead toxicity. It is uncertain, however, whether either or both are needed for monitoring lead exposure and how discordant PbB and ZPP values should be interpreted. We reviewed the results of PbB and ZPP determinations in 94 workers in a lead-battery plant over a 13-year period and retrieved all 807 sets of tests in which both PbB and ZPP were available, with a follow-up PbB value 6 months later. PbB exceeded 1.93 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) in 414 (51%), and 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL) in 105 (14%) of the blood samples. We derived the test properties of various ZPP concentrations for concurrent "toxic" PbB concentrations, defined as > or = 1.93 and 2.90 micromol/L (40 and 60 microg/dL). The results indicated that, given a population of lead-exposed workers with a 10% prevalence of PbB of > or = 2.90 micromol/L (60 microg/dL), a policy of testing PbB only in those with ZPP > 0.71 micromol/L (40 microg/dL) would obviate 42% of the PbB tests, but would miss about three cases with toxic PbB concentrations in every 200 workers at risk. A finding of increased ZPP concentrations with a concurrent "nontoxic" PbB was associated with an increased risk of a toxic PbB concentration 6 months later. We conclude that (a) screening by testing only ZPP does not safeguard exposed persons against lead toxicity, and (b) the frequency of PbB monitoring should be guided by estimates of the risk of future lead toxicity in individual workers.

  15. A highly concentrated diet increases biogas production and the agronomic value of young bull's manure.

    PubMed

    Mendonça Costa, Mônica Sarolli Silva de; Lucas, Jorge de; Mendonça Costa, Luiz Antonio de; Orrico, Ana Carolina Amorim

    2016-02-01

    The increasing demand for animal protein has driven significant changes in cattle breeding systems, mainly in feedlots, with the use of young bulls fed on diets richer in concentrate (C) than in forage (F). These changes are likely to affect animal manure, demanding re-evaluation of the biogas production per kg of TS and VS added, as well as of its agronomic value as a biofertilizer, after anaerobic digestion. Here, we determined the biogas production and agronomic value (i.e., the macronutrient concentration in the final biofertilizer) of the manure of young bulls fed on diets with more (80% C+20% F; 'HighC' diet) or less (65% C+35% F; 'LowC' diet) concentrate, evaluating the effects of temperature (25, 35, and 40°C) and the use of an inoculum, during anaerobic digestion. A total of 24 benchtop reactors were used, operating in a semi-continuous system, with a 40-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The manure from animals given the HighC diet had the greatest potential for biogas production, when digested with the use of an inoculum and at 35 or 40°C (0.6326 and 0.6207m(3)biogas/kg volatile solids, or VS, respectively). We observed the highest levels of the macronutrients N, P, and K in the biofertilizer from the manure of animals given HighC. Our results show that the manure of young bulls achieves its highest potential for biogas production and agronomic value when animals are fed diets richer in concentrate, and that biogas production increases if digestion is performed at higher temperatures, and with the use of an inoculum.

  16. Modeling extreme PM10 concentration in Malaysia using generalized extreme value distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Husna; Mansor, Nadiah; Salleh, Nur Hanim Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Extreme PM10 concentration from the Air Pollutant Index (API) at thirteen monitoring stations in Malaysia is modeled using the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. The data is blocked into monthly selection period. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test suggests a non-stationary model so two models are considered for the stations with trend. The likelihood ratio test is used to determine the best fitted model and the result shows that only two stations favor the non-stationary model (Model 2) while the other eleven stations favor stationary model (Model 1). The return level of PM10 concentration that is expected to exceed the maximum once within a selected period is obtained.

  17. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  18. The Interplay of Scientific Activity, Worldviews and Value Outlooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2009-06-01

    Scientific activity tends to reflect particular worldviews and their associated value outlooks; and scientific results sometimes have implications for worldviews and the presuppositions of value outlooks. Even so, scientific activity per se neither presupposes nor provides sound rational grounds to accept any worldview or value outlook. Moreover, in virtue of reflecting a suitable variety of worldviews and value outlooks, perhaps including some religious ones, science is better able to further its aim. An extended argument is made that, although the materialist worldview has de facto been widely associated with the development of modern science, the scope of scientific inquiry is improperly limited when constraints, derived from materialism, are generally placed upon admissible scientific theories. Some implications for science education are sketched in the conclusion.

  19. Methods for Analyzing the Economic Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, Paul; Jorgenson, Jennie; Miller, Mackay; Zhou, Ella; Wang, Caixia

    2015-07-20

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) provides multiple quantifiable benefits compared to CSP without storage or to solar photovoltaic (PV) technology, including higher energy value, ancillary services value, and capacity value. This report describes modeling approaches to quantifying these benefits that have emerged through state-level policymaking in the United States as well as the potential applicability of these methods in China. The technical potential for CSP-TES in China is significant, but deployment has not yet achieved the targets established by the Chinese government. According to the 12th Five Year Plan for Renewable Energy (2011-2015), CSP was expected to reach 1 GW by 2015 and 3 GW by 2020 in China, yet as of December 2014, deployment totaled only 13.8 MW. One barrier to more rapid deployment is the lack of an incentive specific to CSP, such as a feed-in tariff. The 13th Five Year Plan for Solar Generation (2016-2020), which is under development, presents an opportunity to establish a feed-in tariff specific to CSP. This report, produced under the auspices of the U.S.-China Renewable Energy Partnership, aims to support the development of Chinese incentives that advance CSP deployment goals.

  20. Personal values and political activism: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization.

  1. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  2. Prognostic and diagnostic value of plasma soluble ST2 concentrations in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Ednan K.; Volk, Jessica A.; Christiani, David C.; Harris, R. Scott; Matthay, Michael A.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Januzzi, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Soluble ST2 (sST2) is a biomarker of myocardial strain and inflammation. The characteristics of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) include inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction. We sought to determine whether plasma sST2 concentration is associated with outcome and response to conservative fluid management, and whether sST2 concentration discriminates ARDS from decompensated heart failure (HF). Design, Setting, and Patients We assayed plasma sST2 concentrations in 826 patients in the Fluid and Catheter Treatment Trial (FACTT), a multi-center randomized controlled trial of conservative fluid management in ARDS, as well as a cohort of patients with decompensated HF. We tested whether sST2 was associated with outcome, response to therapy, and diagnostic utility for ARDS vs. HF. Measurements and Main Results Non-survivors had higher day 0 (P<.0001) and day 3 (P<.0001) sST2 concentrations. After adjustment for severity of illness, higher sST2 concentration was associated with mortality, with odds ratio (ORadj) 1.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99 – 2.20, P=.06) at day 0, 2.94 (95% CI 2.00 – 4.33, P<.0001) at day 3, and 3.63 (95% CI 2.38 – 5.53, P<.0001) if sST2 increased between days. Cumulative fluid balance was more positive among patients with higher day 0 (median 5212 mL, interquartile range [IQR] 200 – 12284 vs. 2020 mL, −2034 – 7091; P<0.0001), and day 3 sST2 (median 7678 mL, IQR 2217 – 14278 vs. 1492 mL, −2384 – 6239; P<0.0001). sST2 showed excellent discriminative ability between the FACTT and HF populations (Area under ROC curve=0.98, P<0.0001). Conclusions Higher sST2 concentrations are associated with worse outcome in ARDS and may have value for discriminating ARDS from heart failure. PMID:23939353

  3. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Functional Beverage Concentrates Containing Herbal Medicine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Jung Hoan; Jeong, Sehyun; Kim, Min Hee; Yang, Su-Jin; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of functional beverage concentrates containing herbal medicine extracts (FBCH) using various antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenolic content of FBCH (81.45 mg/100 g) was higher than Ssanghwa tea (SHT, 37.56 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of FBCH showed 52.92% DPPH and 55.18% ABTS radical scavenging activities at 100 mg/mL, respectively. FBCH showed significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the SHT (DPPH, 23.43%; ABTS, 22.21%; reducing power optical density; 0.23, P<0.05). In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following FBCH treatment. These results suggest that the addition of herbal medicine extract contributes to the improved functionality of beverage concentrates.

  5. Background concentrations and reference values for heavy metals in soils of Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Mirelys Rodríguez; Montero, Alfredo; Ugarte, Olegario Muñiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; de Aguiar Accioly, Adriana Maria; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The potential threat of heavy metals to human health has led to many studies on permissible levels of these elements in soils. The objective of this study was to establish quality reference values (QRVs) for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, V, Ba, Sb, Ag, Co, and Mo in soils of Cuba. Geochemical associations between trace elements and Fe were also studied, aiming to provide an index for establishing background concentrations of metals in soils. Surface samples of 33 soil profiles from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence were collected. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES. The natural concentrations of metals in soils of Cuba followed the order Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Ba > V > Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Sb > Ag > Cd > Mo > Hg. The QRVs found for Cuban soils were as follows (mg kg(-1)): Ag (1), Ba (111), Cd (0.6), Co (25), Cr (153), Cu (83), Fe (54,055), Mn (1947), Ni (170), Pb (50), Sb (6), V (137), Zn (86), Mo (0.1), As (19), and Hg (0.1). The average natural levels of heavy metals are above the global average, especially for Ni and Cr. The chemical fractionation of soil samples presenting anomalous concentrations of metals showed that Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, and As have low bioavailability. This suggests that the risk of contamination of agricultural products via plant uptake is low. However, the final decision on the establishment of soil QRVs in Cuba depends on political, economic, and social issues and in-depth risk analyses considering all routes of exposure to these elements.

  6. The Prognostic Value of Hemoglobin Concentration in Postoperative Radiotherapy of 835 Patients With Laryngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, Tomasz Suwinski, Rafal; Idasiak, Adam

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration in patients with laryngeal cancer treated with postoperative radiotherapy (pRT). Methods and Materials: The records of 835 patients who underwent pRT between 1980 and 2003 were reviewed. Most patients (526 of 835 patients; 63%) were in advanced clinical stages (T3-T4) and 371 of 835 patients (44%) were node positive. Total laryngectomy had been performed in 676 of 835 patients (81%). Median Hb concentration before (Hb0) and after pRT (Hb1) was the same (13.3 g/dl). However, individual differences between Hb1 and Hb0 (dHb) varied within a broad range (-8.8; 5.0 g/dl). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify variables significantly associated with locoregional control (LRC), metastases-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with dHb greater than 0 had significantly improved 5-year LRC compared with those with dHb of 0 or less (80% vs. 72%, p = 0.01). Conversely, when categorized, neither Hb0 nor Hb1 had a significant influence on LRC. In multivariate analysis, dHb remained a prognostic factor for LRC (p = 0.01) among the other variables, which included overall radiation treatment time and nodal status. None of the Hb-related variables significantly influenced metastases-free or overall survival. Conclusion: Individual change in Hb concentration during the course of pRT (dHb) rather than Hb level before or after pRT appeared as an independent prognostic factor for LRC in this set of patients.

  7. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  8. Limiting factors in photosynthesis. V. Photochemical energy supply colimits photosynthesis at low values of intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Terry, N.

    1984-05-01

    Although there is now some agreement with the view that the supply of photochemical energy may influence photosynthetic rate (P) at high CO/sub 2/ pressures, it is less clear whether this limitation extends to P at low CO/sub 2/. This was investigated by measuring P per area as a function of the intercellular CO/sub 2/ concentration (C/sub i/) at different levels of photochemical energy supply. Changes in the latter were obtained experimentally by varying the level of irradiance to normal (Fe-sufficient) leaves of Beta vulgaris L. cv F58-554H1, and by varying photosynthetic electron transport capacity using leaves from Fe-deficient and Fe-sufficient plants. P and C/sub i/ were determined for attached sugar beet leaves using open flow gas exchange. The results suggest the P/area was colimited by the supply of photochemical energy at very low as well as high values of C/sub i/. Using the procedure developed by Perchorowicz et al., we investigated the effect or irradiance on ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activation. The ratio of initial extractable activity to total inducible RuBPCase activity increased from 0.25 to 0.90 as leaf irradiance increased from 100 to 1500 microeinsteins photosynthetically active radiation per square meter per second. These data suggest that colimitation by photochemical energy supply at low C/sub i/ may be mediated via effects on RuBPCase activation.

  9. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  10. Monitoring cell concentration and activity by multiple excitation fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Li, J K; Asali, E C; Humphrey, A E; Horvath, J J

    1991-01-01

    Four key cellular metabolic fluorophores--tryptophan, pyridoxine, NAD(P)H, and riboflavin--were monitored on-line by a multiple excitation fluorometric system (MEFS) and a modified SLM 8000C scanning spectrofluorometer in three model yeast fermentation systems--bakers' yeast growing on glucose, Candida utilis growing on ethanol, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 growing on glucose. The measured fluorescence signals were compared with cell concentration, protein concentration, and cellular activity. The results indicate that the behavior and fluorescence intensity of various fluorophores differ in the various fermentation systems. Tryptophan fluorescence is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in bakers' yeast and C. utilis fermentations. Pyridoxine fluoresce is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in the S. cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 fermentation. In bakers' yeast fermentations the pyridoxine fluorescence signal can be used to monitor cellular activity. The NAD(P)H fluorescence signal is a good indicator of cellular activity in the C. utilis fermentation. For this fermentation NAD(P)H fluorescence can be used to control ethanol feeding in a fed-batch process.

  11. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and δ13C values across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current between New Zealand and Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longinelli, Antonio; Giglio, Federico; Langone, Leonardo; Lenaz, Renzo; Ori, Carlo; Selmo, Enricomaria

    2007-02-01

    Measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentrations were repeatedly carried out on the vessel `Italica' of the Italian National Research Program in Antarctica, during cruises from Italy to Antarctica. Discrete air samples were also collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks during these cruises in order to carry out δ13C analyses on atmospheric CO2. The results acquired between New Zealand and Antarctica are reported here. The mean growth rate of the CO2 concentration from 1996 to 2003 in this area of the Southern Oceans is of about 1.8 ppmv yr-1, in good agreement with NOAA/CMDL measurements. The rates of increase from cruise to cruise are rather variable. From 1996-1997 to 1998-1999 cruise the yearly growth rate is 2.75 ppmv yr-1, close to the large growth rates measured in several areas and mainly related to the most severe El Niño event of the last years. The other yearly growth rates are of about 1.3 and 2 ppmv for the periods 1998-1999 to 2001-2002 and 2001-2002 to 2003-2004, respectively. The large difference between these two values is probably related to the uncertainty on the only two 2001-2002 discrete measurements of CO2 concentration in this area. The measured δ13C values show two completely different distributions and a large interannual variability. The 1998-1999, 2002-2003, and 2003-2004 results obtained between about 55°S and 65°S across the Antarctic Polar Front show a marked negativization of up to more than 2‰ when compared to the background values. The results are related to local source regions of CO2, as frequently found in the Southern Ocean by several authors; the negative δ13C values are tentatively related to the possible contribution of different causes. Among them, the southward negative gradient of δ13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon, the contribution from upwelling deep waters and from subsurface processes between the Northern SubAntarctic Front and the Polar Front, and, partly, the contribution of CO2 of biogenic origin, e.g. from

  12. Reinforcing value of interval and continuous physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jacob E; Epstein, Leonard H; Roemmich, James N

    2009-08-04

    During play children engage in short bouts of intense activity, much like interval training. This natural preference for interval-type activity may have important implications for prescribing the most motivating type of physical activity, but the motivation of children to be physically active in interval or continuous fashion has not yet been examined. In the present study, ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO2 peak were determined in boys (n=16) and girls (n=16) age 10+/-1.3 years. Children sampled interval and continuous constant-load physical activity protocols on a cycle ergometer at 20% VT on another day. The physical activity protocols were matched for energy expenditure. Children then completed an operant button pressing task using a progressive fixed ratio schedule to assess the relative reinforcing value (RRV) of interval versus continuous physical activity. The number of button presses performed to gain access in interval or continuous physical activity and output maximum (O(max)) were the primary outcome variables. Children performed more button presses (P<0.005) and had a greater O(max) (P<0.005) when working to gain access to interval compared to continuous physical activity at intensities >VT and activity was more reinforcing than continuous constant-load physical activity for children when exercising both >VT and activity at a high-rate during natural play because it is more reinforcing than longer, continuous activity.

  13. Effects of shearing, forage type and feed value, concentrate feed level, and protein concentration on the performance of housed finishing lambs.

    PubMed

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P

    2015-01-01

    The effects of high and medium feed value grass silage or maize silage (MS), each offered with a range of concentrate feed levels, and ad libitum concentrate on the performance of finishing lambs, which were either shorn or unshorn, were evaluated. Three silages were used: 1 medium feed value (MFV) and 1 high feed value (HFV) grass silage (DM digestibility [DMD] of 71.3% and 74.5%, respectively) and 1 MS (DM and starch concentrations of 30.9% and 35.3% DM, respectively). The 3 silages were offered ad libitum with daily allowances of 0.4, 0.8, or 1.2 kg concentrate per lamb. Two additional treatments were: 1) MS supplemented with 0.4 kg of a low CP (LP) concentrate and 2) concentrate offered ad libitum with 0.5 kg/d of HFV grass silage. These 11 dietary treatments were offered to 264 crossbred Suffolk lambs (initial BW = 39.0 kg), half of which were unshorn and half of which were shorn, for a 54-d finishing period, resulting in 22 treatments. Shearing increased forage DMI (P < 0.001) but did not alter (P > 0.05) carcass weight, carcass gain, or ADG, and there was no interaction with dietary treatment. Reducing CP concentration of the concentrate offered with MS did not alter (P > 0.05) feed intake or lamb performance. Increasing concentrate feed level increased feed DMI and lamb performance (P < 0.001). The linear response in ADG to increased concentrate supplementation was greater (P = 0.012) for MFV than HFV grass silage, and a corresponding difference in carcass gain approached significance (P = 0.075). The linear response was greater for grass silage than for MS for ADG (P < 0.01) and carcass gain (P = 0.019). The response in lamb performance from increased concentrate supplementation was linear for HFV grass silage and MS but quadratic (P < 0.05) for the MFV grass silage, reflecting the large response for this silage when concentrate supplement was increased from 0.4 to 0.8 kg. Relative to the MFV grass silage supplemented with 0.8 kg concentrate, the potential

  14. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  15. Clinical value of monitoring eosinophil activity in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Koller, D Y; Herouy, Y; Götz, M; Hagel, E; Urbanek, R; Eichler, I

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the use of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in monitoring disease activity in childhood asthma, serum ECP in 175 asthmatic children was assessed. Forty five patients with cystic fibrosis, 23 with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), and 87 healthy children were used as controls. Serum ECP concentrations (34.3 micrograms/l v 9.8 micrograms/l) were significantly higher in children with bronchial asthma than in healthy control subjects. In symptomatic patients with asthma serum ECP concentrations were increased compared with those from asymptomatic patients (40.2 micrograms/l v 14.4 micrograms/l), irrespective of treatment modalities (that is steroids, beta 2 agonists, or sodium cromoglycate). Moreover, atopy and infection appeared to be factors enhancing eosinophil activity in bronchial asthma as measured by serum ECP (58.4 micrograms/l v 36.8 micrograms/l and 68.8 micrograms/l v 42.2 micrograms/l, respectively). In a longitudinal trial, antiasthmatic treatment modalities (that is steroids) reduced serum ECP within four weeks (42.2 micrograms/l v 19.0 micrograms/l). In conclusion, the data indicate that (1) eosinophils also play a central part in childhood asthma; (2) serum concentrations of ECP in children with bronchial asthma are related to the disease severity and may thus be used for monitoring inflammation in childhood asthma; (3) eosinophil activity appears to be enhanced by atopy and infection; and (4) longitudinal measurements of serum ECP concentrations may be useful for optimising anti-inflammatory treatment in children with bronchial asthma. PMID:8554357

  16. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  17. Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops.

    PubMed

    Llope, W J

    2011-06-01

    The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been measured with portable survey meters as well as an NaI(Th) gamma spectrometer. The (40)K, U-nat, and (232)Th activity concentrations were determined using a full-spectrum analysis. The dose rates that would result from two different arrangements of decorative granite slabs as countertops were explored in simulations involving an adult anthropomorphic phantom.

  18. Intramuscular pressure and torque during isometric, concentric and eccentric muscular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styf, J.; Ballard, R.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Watenpaugh, D.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular pressures, electromyography (EMG) and torque generation during isometric, concentric and eccentric maximal isokinetic muscle activity were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers. Pressure and EMG activity were continuously and simultaneously measured side by side in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles. Ankle joint torque and position were monitored continuously by an isokinetic dynamometer during plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the foot. The increased force generation during eccentric muscular activity, compared with other muscular activity, was not accompanied by higher intramuscular pressure. Thus, this study demonstrated that eccentric muscular activity generated higher torque values for each increment of intramuscular pressure. Intramuscular pressures during antagonistic co-activation were significantly higher in the tibilis anterior muscle (42-46% of maximal agonistic activity) compared with the soleus muscle (12-29% of maximal agonistic activity) and was largely due to active recruitment of muscle fibers. In summary, eccentric muscular activity creates higher torque values with no additional increase of the intramuscular pressure compared with concentric and isometric muscular activity.

  19. CONCENTRATION AND DECONTAMINATION OF SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES BY BISMUTH PHOSPHATE CARRIER PRECIPITATION METHODS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-08-23

    A process is given for isolating plutonium present in the tetravalent state in an aqueous solution together with fission products. First, the plutonium and fission products are coprecipitated on a bismuth phosphate carrier. The precipitate obtained is dissolved, and the plutonium in the solution is oxidized to the hexavalent state (with ceric nitrate, potassium dichromate, Pb/ sub 3/O/sub 4/, sodium bismuthate and/or potassium dichromate). Thereafter a carrier for fission products is added (bismuth phosphate, lanthanum fluoride, ceric phosphate, bismuth oxalate, thorium iodate, or thorium oxalate), and the fission-product precipitation can be repeated with one other of these carriers. After removal of the fission-product-containing precipitate or precipitates. the plutonium in the supernatant is reduced to the tetravalent state (with sulfur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide. or sodium nitrate), and a carrier for tetravalent plutonium is added (lanthanum fluoride, lanthanum hydroxide, lanthanum phosphate, ceric phosphate, thorium iodate, thorium oxalate, bismuth oxalate, or niobium pentoxide). The plutonium-containing precipitate is then dissolved in a relatively small volume of liquid so as to obtain a concentrated solution. Prior to dissolution, the bismuth phosphate precipitates first formed can be metathesized with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and potassium carbonate and plutonium-containing lanthanum fluorides with alkali-metal hydroxide. In the solutions formed from a plutonium-containing lanthanum fluoride carrier the plutonium can be selectively precipitated with a peroxide after the pH was adjusted preferably to a value of between 1 and 2. Various combinations of second, third, and fourth carriers are discussed.

  20. Trigger values for investigation of hormonal activity in drinking water and its sources using CALUX bioassays.

    PubMed

    Brand, Walter; de Jongh, Cindy M; van der Linden, Sander C; Mennes, Wim; Puijker, Leo M; van Leeuwen, Cornelis J; van Wezel, Annemarie P; Schriks, Merijn; Heringa, Minne B

    2013-05-01

    To screen for hormonal activity in water samples, highly sensitive in vitro CALUX bioassays are available which allow detection of estrogenic (ERα), androgenic (AR), progestagenic (PR), and glucocorticoid (GR) activities. This paper presents trigger values for the ERα, AR, PR, and GR CALUX bioassays for agonistic hormonal activities in (drinking) water, which define a level above which human health risk cannot be waived a priori and additional examination of specific endocrine activity may be warranted. The trigger values are based on 1) acceptable or tolerable daily intake (ADI/TDI) values of specific compounds, 2) pharmacokinetic factors defining their bioavailability, 3) estimations of the bioavailability of unknown compounds with equivalent hormonal activity, 4) relative endocrine potencies, and 5) physiological, and drinking water allocation factors. As a result, trigger values of 3.8ng 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents (eq)/L, 11ng dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-eq/L, 21ng dexamethasone (DEX)-eq/L, and 333ng Org2058-eq/L were derived. Benchmark Quotient (BQ) values were derived by dividing hormonal activity in water samples by the derived trigger using the highest concentrations detected in a recent, limited screening of Dutch water samples, and were in the order of (value) AR (0.41)>ERα (0.13)>GR (0.06)>PR (0.04). The application of trigger values derived in the present study can help to judge measured agonistic hormonal activities in water samples using the CALUX bioassays and help to decide whether further examination of specific endocrine activity followed by a subsequent safety evaluation may be warranted, or whether concentrations of such activity are of low priority with respect to health concerns in the human population. For instance, at one specific drinking water production site ERα and AR (but no GR and PR) activities were detected in drinking water, however, these levels are at least a factor 83 smaller than the respective trigger values, and

  1. Determination of thorium concentrations and activity ratios in silicate rocks by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, R N; Marques, L S; Nicolai, S H A; Ribeiro, F B

    2004-01-01

    A detailed radiochemical procedure for alpha spectrometry measurements of thorium concentrations and of 230Th/232Th activity ratios in silicates is presented. The Th behaviour, during each step of the chemical process, was investigated by using a 234Th tracer, which is a gamma-ray emitter. The described chemical processing provides relatively high thorium yields, which varied between 56% and 88%, in the analysis of GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) Brazilian geological standards. Also, the application of the established radiochemical method allowed a determination of both Th concentrations and activity ratios with high reproducibility, on the order of 2%. The estimation of the concentration result accuracy is also about 2%, which was calculated by using published data obtained from neutron activation analysis as reference values.

  2. Electrochemical Evidence for Neuroglobin Activity on NO at Physiological Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Trashin, Stanislav; de Jong, Mats; Luyckx, Evi; Dewilde, Sylvia; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-09-02

    The true function of neuroglobin (Ngb) and, particularly, human Ngb (NGB) has been under debate since its discovery 15 years ago. It has been expected to play a role in oxygen binding/supply, but a variety of other functions have been put forward, including NO dioxygenase activity. However, in vitro studies that could unravel these potential roles have been hampered by the lack of an Ngb-specific reductase. In this work, we used electrochemical measurements to investigate the role of an intermittent internal disulfide bridge in determining NO oxidation kinetics at physiological NO concentrations. The use of a polarized electrode to efficiently interconvert the ferric (Fe(3+)) and ferrous (Fe(2+)) forms of an immobilized NGB showed that the disulfide bridge both defines the kinetics of NO dioxygenase activity and regulates appearance of the free ferrous deoxy-NGB, which is the redox active form of the protein in contrast to oxy-NGB. Our studies further identified a role for the distal histidine, interacting with the hexacoordinated iron atom of the heme, in oxidation kinetics. These findings may be relevant in vivo, for example, in blocking apoptosis by reduction of ferric cytochrome c, and gentle tuning of NO concentration in the tissues.

  3. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    PubMed

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ((227)Ac, (40)K, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed.

  4. Diagnostic value of creatine kinase activity in canine cerebrospinal fluid

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic value for various groups of neurological conditions or for different anatomical areas of the nervous system (NS). The age, breed, results of CSF analysis, and diagnosis of 578 canine patients presenting with various neurological conditions between January 2009 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected. The cases were divided according to anatomical areas of the nervous system, i.e., brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, and into groups according to the nature of the condition diagnosed: vascular, immune/inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, toxic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, neoplastic, and degenerative. Statistical analysis showed that CSF-CK alone cannot be used as a diagnostic tool and that total proteins in the CSF and red blood cells (RBCs) do not have a significant relationship with the CSF-CK activity. CSF-CK did not have a diagnostic value for different disease groups or anatomical areas of the nervous system. PMID:27708448

  5. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index and waist circumference in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Bae, Suhyun; Park, Soo-Jung; Yeum, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Beomhee; Kim, Young-Sang; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-04-01

    Blood mercury (methyl-mercury) from environmental exposure may be related to inflammation in our body. We investigated the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. On the basis of data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2008-2012), 11,159 subjects (5543 males and 5616 females) were analyzed cross-sectionally. Partial correlation, linear regression, and analysis of covariance (according to the mercury quartile) tests were performed to evaluate the relationship between blood mercury and BMI or waist circumference. In addition, we determined the cut-off values of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased BMI and waist circumference in both genders. Mean values of blood mercury concentration were 5.07 ± 0.07 μg/L in males and 3.59 ± 0.04 μg/L in females. After log transformation of blood mercury, significant (p < 0.001) correlation was found between blood mercury concentration and BMI or waist circumference. BMI and waist circumference showed a significant and gradual increase as mercury quartile increased in both genders. Blood mercury concentration was weakly but significantly (p < 0.001) associated with BMI and waist circumference. Cut-off values of blood mercury concentration correlated with increased BMI and waist circumference were around 3.95 μg/L in males and 3.40 μg/L in females.

  6. Chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) fruit juice by precipitation with ethanol or ferric chloride.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Veronika; Bárta, Jan

    2009-10-14

    Effects of protein precipitators, ethanol and ferric chloride, on yield, resolubility, chemical composition and nutritional value of protein concentrates isolated from industrial potato fruit juice (PFJ) were studied. Optimum precipitating concentrations of ethanol and ferric chloride in PFJ were 4 M (23.1% v/v) and 20 mM (2% w/v), resulting in yield of 69% and 86.5% of total protein, respectively. Contents of total glycoalkaloids and potassium in both protein concentrates were significantly lower (P < 0.05) as compared with contents in PFJ dry matter. Both protein concentrates exhibited high nutritional value; values of essential amino acid index (EAAI) were 81.7% and 82.7%, respectively. Fraction of patatin proteins (39-43 kDa) represented with EAAI value of 86.1% the nutritionally improving protein component. Lipid acyl hydrolase activity of patatin family was not negatively affected by cooled ethanol precipitation. It can be thus suggested that biological and enzymatic activities of this protein family are utilizable after this type of precipitation.

  7. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Monomucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-08-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2+ in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MeImpU and 2-MeImpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-linked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of internucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MeImpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  8. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Mononucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2- methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2(+) in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MelmpU and 2-MelmpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-Iinked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of intemucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MelmpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  9. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.

  10. Meteorological adjustment of yearly mean values for air pollutant concentration comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidik, S. M.; Neustadter, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Using multiple linear regression analysis, models which estimate mean concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide as a function of several meteorologic variables, two rough economic indicators, and a simple trend in time are studied. Meteorologic data were obtained and do not include inversion heights. The goodness of fit of the estimated models is partially reflected by the squared coefficient of multiple correlation which indicates that, at the various sampling stations, the models accounted for about 23 to 47 percent of the total variance of the observed TSP concentrations. If the resulting model equations are used in place of simple overall means of the observed concentrations, there is about a 20 percent improvement in either: (1) predicting mean concentrations for specified meteorological conditions; or (2) adjusting successive yearly averages to allow for comparisons devoid of meteorological effects. An application to source identification is presented using regression coefficients of wind velocity predictor variables.

  11. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  12. Long-term Validation of Cloud-droplet Number Concentration Value Added Product (NDROP VAP) Retrieved from Surface Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, K. S. S.; Riihimaki, L.; Comstock, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Sivaraman, C.; Shi, Y.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    A new cloud-droplet number concentration (NDROP) Value Added Product (VAP) has been produced at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site for the 13 years from January 1998 to January 2011. The droplet number concentration values are retrieved from surface radiometer measurements of cloud optical depth from the multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR) and liquid water path from the microwave radiometer (MWR). We validate the NDROP VAP with in situ aircraft measurements from the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer probe during the long-term aircraft field campaign, Routine ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO). The NDROP VAP considers entrainment effects rather than assuming an adiabatic cloud, which improves the values of the NDROP VAP by reducing the magnitude of cloud-droplet number concentration. The NDROP VAP captures the primary mode of in situ measured droplet number concentration, but produces too wide a distribution due to too frequent high cloud-droplet number concentrations. The large droplet number concentration error corresponds to errors in the MWR retrievals at low liquid water paths due to the limitations of the instrument. Modification of the NDROP VAP through the diagnosed liquid water path, which is constrained by the coordinated solution using cloud optical depth and cloud-droplet effective radius retrievals, alleviates this problem, leading to better agreement with in situ measurements.

  13. Nonionic surfactants enhancing bactericidal activity at their critical micelle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Majima, Toshiaki; Tadenuma, Hirohiko; Suekuni, Tomonari; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of benzalkonium chloride [also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC)] containing nonionic surfactants such as methyl ester ethoxylates (MEE) with the alkyl group C8-C14 and oxyethylene (EO) group of average adduct number 3-15 were measured against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Sample solutions containing MEE in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration exhibited a dramatic decrease in viable bacterial counts. MEE with an alkyl group of C12 and an oxyethylene group of lower adduct number exhibited little viable bacterial counts than those having higher EO adduct numbers. MEE with reduced EO adduct numbers increased fluorescence intensity in E. coli using the viability stain SYTO 9. Our results show that MEE molecules with low EO adduct numbers exhibited bactericidal activity by increasing the permeability of the E. coli cell membrane. Sample solution containing ADBAC and MEE molecules with lower EO adduct numbers also displayed higher zeta potentials. Moreover, ADBAC molecules incorporated into micelles of MEE with lower EO adduct numbers were adsorbed onto the surface of E. coli, which augmented bactericidal activity.

  14. Active Inference, epistemic value, and vicarious trial and error

    PubMed Central

    Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; Pio-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits—the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments with simulations that reproduce rodent spatial decisions in T-mazes. In this context, deliberation has been associated with vicarious trial and error (VTE) behavior (i.e., the fact that rodents sometimes stop at decision points as if deliberating between choice alternatives), whose neurophysiological correlates are “forward sweeps” of hippocampal place cells in the arms of the maze under consideration. Crucially, forward sweeps arise early in learning and disappear shortly after, marking a transition from deliberative to habitual choice. Our simulations show that this transition emerges as the optimal solution to the trade-off between policies that maximize reward or extrinsic value (habitual policies) and those that also consider the epistemic value of exploratory behavior (deliberative or epistemic policies)—the latter requiring VTE and the retrieval of episodic information via forward sweeps. We thus offer a novel perspective on the optimality principles that engender forward sweeps and VTE, and on their role on deliberate choice. PMID:27317193

  15. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. I - Regional values and crustal content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Parker, R. E.; Radocinski, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation is based on data which have been obtained with the aid of a gamma-ray spectrometer which had been installed on the Apollo 15 and 16 spacecraft to map the composition of the overflown lunar regolith to a maximum depth of about 1 m. Two additional techniques for the analysis of orbital gamma-ray data have been developed. These techniques have provided basic confirmation for the Th results reported previously and one of them, the energy band method, has yielded results for Th with a sensitivity greater than previous analyses, particularly at low concentrations. Significant variations of radioactivity exist in highland areas. The lowest concentrations of radioactivity mapped by Apollo are found near the western limb, contrasting with concentrations in the eastern limb which run roughly a factor of two higher. An inverse relation has been found between Th concentration and crustal thickness. It is suggested that Th, once uniformly distributed, has been extracted from a zone of constant depth over much of the moon, and concentrated in crustal blocks of varying thickness.

  16. Short-term effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Claros, J; Jiménez, E; Borrás, L; Aguado, D; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Serralta, J

    2010-01-01

    A continuously aerated SHARON (single reactor high activity ammonia removal over nitrite) system has been operated to achieve partial nitritation. Two sets of batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Activity of AOB raised as free ammonia concentration was increased reaching its maximum value at 4.5 mg NH3-N l(-1). The half saturation constant for free ammonia was determined (K(NH3)=0.32 mg NH3-N l(-1)). Activity decreased at TAN (total ammonium-nitrogen) concentration over 2,000 mg NH4-N l(-1). No free ammonia inhibition was detected. The effect of salinity was studied by adding different concentrations of different salts to the biomass. No significant differences were observed between the experiments carried out with a salt containing or not containing NH4. These results support that AOB are inhibited by salinity, not by free ammonia. A mathematical expression to represent this inhibition is proposed. To compare substrate affinity and salinity inhibitory effect on different AOB populations, similar experiments were carried out with biomass from a biological nutrient removal pilot plant. The AOB activity reached its maximum value at 0.008 mg NH3-N l(-1) and decreased at TAN concentration over 400 mg NH4-N l(-1). These differences can be explained by the different AOB predominating species: Nitrosomonas europaea and N. eutropha in the SHARON biomass and Nitrosomonas oligotropha in the pilot plant.

  17. Assessment of thrombogenicity of activated and non-activated prothrombin concentrates in a rat model.

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, S.; Fareed, J.; Walenga, J.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro clotting activity of rats injected with different preparations of prothrombin concentrates was measured. Animals rendered deficient in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors by early coumadin (warfarin) pretreatment, followed by injections of concentrate preparations were also evaluated. Findings indicate a dose-related response in abnormal coagulation changes demonstrable with each preparation and lack of protection of intravascular coagulation by coumadin anticoagulation. Furthermore, a role for in vivo factor VII activation of haemostasis following concentrate administration could not be elicited. PMID:3091059

  18. Activity patterns, blood lactate concentrations and ratings of perceived exertion during a professional singles tennis tournament

    PubMed Central

    Mendez‐Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez‐Fernandez, Jaime; Bishop, David; Fernandez‐Garcia, Benjamin; Terrados, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the game characteristics and physiological (ie, blood lactate concentration) and perceptual (ie, rating of perceived exertion, RPE) responses during actual tennis competition in professional performers. Methods Eight trained and internationally ranked (Association of Tennis Professionals rankings) male tennis players were studied during singles matches (best of three sets) played on an outdoor clay court surface during a professional, invitational tournament. Blood lactate concentrations (n = 53) and RPE (n = 113) were determined at selected changeovers during the game. The variables describing the characteristics of the matches, (a) duration of rallies (DRs); (b) rest time (RT); (c) effective playing time (EPT); and (d) shots per rally (SR), were determined from video recordings. Results The mean (SD) values for the match‐play activity variables were DR 7.5 (7.3) s, RT 16.2 (5.2) s, EPT 21.5 (4.9%), SR 2.7 (2.2) shots. Average blood lactate concentration and RPE values were 3.8 (2.0) mmol/l and 13 (2). Blood lactate concentrations and RPE values were significantly higher (p<0.01) in service games than in receiving games. Both blood lactate concentration and RPE values were significantly correlated with SR and DR (r = 0.80 to 0.28; p<0.001). Conclusions Blood lactate concentrations and RPE were found to be influenced by the characteristics of the match and the playing situation (ie, serving or returning). These specific situations might be used to alter the overload training stimulus during tennis on‐court practice. PMID:17237121

  19. Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates: Evidence that the Adaptive Value of Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates is Concentration Dependent.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Karen A; Widder, Edith A

    2017-03-01

    Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain why dinoflagellate bioluminescence deters copepod grazing: startle response, aposematic warning, and burglar alarm. These hypotheses propose dinoflagellate bioluminescence (A) startles predatory copepods, (B) warns potential predators of toxicity, and (C) draws the attention of higher order visual predators to the copepod's location. While the burglar alarm is the most commonly accepted hypothesis, it requires a high concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates to be effective, meaning the bioluminescence selective advantage at lower, more commonly observed, dinoflagellate concentrations may result from another function (e.g. startle response or aposematic warning). Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate copepod grazing (Acartia tonsa) on bioluminescent dinoflagellates (during bioluminescent and nonbioluminescent phases, corresponding to night and day, respectively) at different concentrations (10, 1000, and 3000 cells mL(-1) ), on toxic (Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense) and nontoxic (Lingulodinium polyedrum) bioluminescent dinoflagellates, and in the presence of nonluminescent diatoms (Thalassiosira eccentrica). Changes in copepod ingestion rates, clearance rates, and feeding preferences as a result of these experimental factors, particularly during the mixed trails with nonluminescent diatoms, indicate there is a concentration threshold at which the burglar alarm becomes effective and below which dinoflagellate bioluminescence functions as an aposematic warning.

  20. Simultaneous detection of pH value and glucose concentrations for wound monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, D A; Bannwarth, M B; Schulenburg, C; Faccio, G; Maniura-Weber, K; Rossi, R M; Scherer, L; Richter, M; Boesel, L F

    2017-01-15

    Aging population and longer life expectancy are the main reasons for an increasing number of patients with wound problems. Although the interest in wound care increases continuously, wound management still remains a challenge mainly due to the higher occurrence of chronic wounds, which require intensive care and constant monitoring. Here, we demonstrate a fluorescent sensing system to monitor the wound status and to distinguish between an autonomously healing and a chronic wound at an early stage. The system allows monitoring two of the most relevant fluctuating wound parameters during the healing process which are pH and glucose concentration. A fluorescent pH indicator dye, carboxynaphthofluorescein, and a metabolite-sensing enzymatic system, based on glucose oxidase and horseradish peroxidase, were immobilized on a biocompatible polysaccharide matrix to develop a functional hydrogel coating for wound monitoring. The changes in metabolite and enzyme concentration in artificial wound extract were converted into a fluorescent signal.

  1. Effect of Inducers, Incubation Time and Heme Concentration on IC(50) Value Variation in Anti-heme Crystallization Assay.

    PubMed

    Nhien, Nguyen Thanh Thuy; Huy, Nguyen Tien; Uyen, Dinh Thanh; Deharo, Eric; Hoa, Pham Thi Le; Hirayama, Kenji; Harada, Shigeharu; Kamei, Kaeko

    2011-12-01

    Heme detoxification through crystallization into hemozoin has been suggested as a good target for the development of screening assays for new antimalarials. However, comparisons among the data obtained from different experiments are difficult, and the IC(50) values (the concentrations of drug that are required to inhibit 50% of hemozoin formation) for the same drug vary widely. We studied the effects of changes in heme concentration (precursor of β-hematin), incubation time and three inducers (SDS, Tween 20 and linoleic acid) on the IC(50) of some antimalarials (chloroquine, quinine, amodiaquine, and clotrimazole). The results showed that increasing both inducer concentration and incubation time raised the IC(50) of selected antimalarials. Any change in those factors caused the IC(50) value to vary. Standardization of assay conditions is, therefore, necessary to increase reproducibility and reduce discrepancies in assay performance. Considering all of the variables, the best choice of inducers is in the order of SDS > Tween 20 > linoleic acid.

  2. Calculating Capstone depleted uranium aerosol concentrations from beta activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Alberth, David P

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the DU source term for the subsequent Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Values for the equilibrium fraction ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92. This paper describes the process used and adjustments necessary to calculate uranium mass from proportional counting measurements.

  3. Active-site concentrations of chemicals - are they a better predictor of effect than plasma/organ/tissue concentrations?

    PubMed

    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2010-03-01

    Active-site concentrations can be defined as the concentrations of unbound, pharmacologically active substances at the site of action. In contrast, the total concentrations of the drug in plasma/organ/tissue also include the protein- or tissue-bound molecules that are pharmacologically inactive. Plasma and whole tissue concentrations are used as predictors of effects and side effects because of their ease of sampling, while the concentrations of unbound drug in tissue are more difficult to measure. However, with the introduction of microdialysis and subsequently developed techniques, it has become possible to test the free drug hypothesis. The brain is an interesting organ in this regard because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier with its tight junctions and active efflux and influx transporters. We have proposed that research into brain drug delivery be divided into three main areas: the rate of delivery (PS, CL(in)), the extent of delivery (K(p,uu)) and the non-specific affinity of the drug to brain tissue, described by the volume of distribution of unbound drug in the brain (V(u,brain)). In this way, the concentration of unbound drug at the target site can be estimated from the total brain concentration and the plasma concentration after measuring the fraction of unbound drug. Results so far fully support the theory that active site concentrations are the best predictors when active transport is present. However, there is an urgent need to collect more relevant data for predicting active site concentrations in tissues with active transporters in their plasma membranes.

  4. Platelet activating factor raises intracellular calcium ion concentration in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Peritoneal cells from thioglycollate-stimulated mice were allowed to adhere to coverglasses for 2 h to give a dense monolayer of adherent cells greater than 95% of which were macrophages. After incubation with the tetra-acetoxymethyl ester of quin2, coverglasses were rinsed with Ca2+-free saline, oriented at a 45 degree angle in square cuvettes containing a magnetically driven stir bar, and analyzed for changes in quin2 fluorescence in a spectrofluorimeter. Such fluorescence, taken as an indication of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), increased as exogenous calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]o) was raised to 1 mM. At [Ca2+]o approximately equal to 10 microM, [Ca2+]i = 72 +/- 14 nM (n = 26); at [Ca2+]o = 1 mM, [Ca2+]i = 140-220 nM, levels not increased by N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine, a membrane-permeant chelator of heavy metals than can quench quin2. Addition of mouse alpha + beta fibroblast interferon, lipopolysaccharide, thrombin, collagen, vasopressin, ADP, compound 48/80, or U46619 did not change [Ca2+]i. However, addition of platelet activating factor (PAF) (2-20 ng/ml) raised [Ca2+]i by 480 nM within 1 min if [Ca2+]o = 1 mM. In the presence of 5 mM EGTA, PAF raised [Ca2+]i by 25 nM. This suggests that PAF causes influx of exogenous Ca2+, as well as releasing some Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with these results, when PAF was added to 1 mM Ca2+ in the presence of 100 microM Cd2+ or Mn2+ to block Ca2+ influx, [Ca2+]i increased by only intermediate amounts; at the times of such dampened peak response, [Ca2+]i could be raised within 1 min to normal PAF-stimulated levels by chelation of the exogenous heavy metals with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Normal PAF responses were observed in the presence of indomethacin. The lowest dose of PAF observed to raise [Ca2+]i was 0.1 ng/ml. Response of [Ca2+]i to 2-20 ng/ml PAF was transient, and second applications had no effect. The PAF response also was seen in

  5. Comparing median lethal concentration values using confidence interval overlap or ratio tests.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Matthew W; Park, Robert M; Bailer, A John

    2006-05-01

    Experimenters in toxicology often compare the concentration-response relationship between two distinct populations using the median lethal concentration (LC50). This comparison is sometimes done by calculating the 95% confidence interval for the LC50 for each population, concluding that no significant difference exists if the two confidence intervals overlap. A more appropriate test compares the ratio of the LC50s to 1 or the log(LC50 ratio) to 0. In this ratio test, we conclude that no difference exists in LC50s if the confidence interval for the ratio of the LC50s contains 1 or the confidence interval for the log(LC50 ratio) contains 0. A Monte Carlo simulation study was conducted to compare the confidence interval overlap test to the ratio test. The confidence interval overlap test performs substantially below the nominal alpha = 0.05 level, closer to p = 0.005; therefore, it has considerably less power for detecting true differences compared to the ratio test. The ratio-based method exhibited better type I error rates and superior power properties in comparison to the confidence interval overlap test. Thus, a ratio-based statistical procedure is preferred to using simple overlap of two independently derived confidence intervals.

  6. Estimation of ambient PM2.5 concentrations in Maryland and verification by measured values.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kenneth; Sherwell, John

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, Maryland had no available ambient Federal Reference Method data on particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM23), but did have annual ambient data for PM smaller than 10 microm (PM10) at 24 sites. The PM10 data were analyzed in conjunction with local annual and seasonal zip-code-level emission inventories and with speciated PM2.5 data from four nearby monitors in the IMPROVE network (located in the national parks, wildlife refuges, and wilderness areas) in an effort to estimate annual average and seasonal high PM2.5 concentrations at the 24 PM10 monitor sites operating from 1992 to 1996. All seasonal high concentrations were estimated to be below the 24-hr PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) at the sites operating in Maryland between 1992 and 1996. The estimates also indicated that 12 monitor sites might exceed the 3-year annual average PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3, but Maryland's air quality shows signs that it has been improving since 1992. The estimates also were compared with actual measurements after the PM2.5 monitor network was installed. The estimates were adequate for describing the chemical composition of the PM2.5, forecasting compliance status with the 24-hr and annual standards, and determining the spatial variations in PM2.5 across central Maryland.

  7. Correlation of toddlers' serum lipoprotein(a) concentration with parental values and grandparents' coronary heart disease: the STRIP baby study.

    PubMed

    Routi, T; Rönnemaa, T; Jokinen, E; Viikari, J; Niinikoski, H; Leino, A; Simell, O

    1996-04-01

    The correlation between lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentrations in children aged 7-24 months and their family members was determined and the association between the Lp(a) values of the children and a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) was assessed. The Lp(a) values of the children correlated strongly with midparent Lp(a) values as early as at 7 months of age (r = 0.54 to 0.59, p < 0.0001). This correlation was stronger than the correlation of serum total cholesterol and total cholesterol corrected for Lp(a)-cholesterol between children and parents. None of the parents had CHD. The median Lp(a) concentration of the parents with a family history of CHD was significantly higher than that of parents with no such history (111 vs 87 mg/1, p = 0.024). However, the children's Lp(a) levels were not associated with CHD in their grandparents. The genetic dependence of the Lp(a) concentration is already evident in infancy. The Lp(a) concentration in young parents, but not in their 24-month-old children, is associated with CHD in grandparents. This may be explained by a dilution of the genetic influence on Lp(a) over two generations.

  8. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.01), the quadratic effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.05), the linear effects of copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P<0.05). Additionally, the synergistic effects of temperature and copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  9. Comparisons of HELIOS Calculated Isotope Concentrations to Measured Values for Several Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W.S.; Perry, R.T.; Fearey, B.L.; Parish, T.A.

    1998-10-21

    Heavy metal and fission product noble gas concentrations in spent fuel from two different PWR'S were calculated using HELIOS and compared to measured results from the literature. It was found that for the U-235/U-238 and Pu-240/Pu-239 isotopic ratios, the HELIOS calculation agreed to within the experimental uncertainty. For the Xe-131/Xe-134 isotopic ratios, HELIOS tended to overestimate the result by up to 4%. Conversely for the Xe-132/Xe-134 ratios, HELIOS underestimated the result by a slight amount ({approximately}1%). This suggests that either the fission product yields for Xe-131 and Xe-132 should be slightly altered or that the absorption cross-section for Xe-131 should be slightly increased. More analysis is necessary to determine which of these two alternatives is more appropriate. This work has shown that the accuracy of HELIOS (within 2% for heavy metals and within 4% for fission noble gases) is sufficient for most analyses.

  10. [Carboxyhemoglobin concentration in carbon monoxide poisoning. Critical appraisal of the predictive value].

    PubMed

    Köthe, L; Radke, J

    2010-06-01

    In cases of unclear depression of conciousness, arrhythmia and symptoms of cardiac insufficiency inadvertent carbon monoxide intoxication should always be taken into consideration. Rapid diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide intoxication with mostly unspecific symptoms requires an immediate supply of high dose oxygen which enables a distinct reduction of mortality and long-term morbidity. Levels of carboxyhemoglobin, however, should not be used as a parameter to decide whether to supply normobaric or the more efficient hyperbaric oxygen. There is no sufficient coherence between carboxyhemoglobin blood levels and clinical symptoms. Increased carboxyhemoglobin concentrations help to diagnose acute carbon monoxide intoxication but do not allow conclusions to be drawn about possible long-term neuropsychiatric or cardiac consequences.

  11. Salivary Concentration of Progesterone and Cortisol Significantly Differs Across Individuals After Correcting for Blood Hormone Values

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Shoko; Brindle, Eleanor; Guyton, Amanda; O’Connor, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Between-individual variation of salivary progesterone (P4) and cortisol levels does not always closely reflect blood hormone concentrations. This may be partly a function of individual differences in salivary hormone excretion. We tested whether time of day at sampling and ethnicity contributed to individual variation in salivary hormones after adjusting for blood hormone levels. Forty-three Caucasian and 15 Japanese women (18–34 years) collected four sets of matched dried blood spot (DBS) and saliva specimens across a menstrual cycle (N = 232 specimen sets). Linear fixed-effects (LFE) models were used to estimate the effects of diurnal variation and ethnicity on salivary P4 and cortisol while adjusting for DBS levels. For each hormone, women with exclusively positive or negative residuals (unexplained variance) from the LFE models were categorized as high- or low-saliva-to-DBS hormone ratio (SDR; high or low salivary secretors), respectively. We found that salivary P4 (P < 0.05) was significantly higher in early morning compared to the afternoon, after controlling for DBS levels, ethnicity, and BMI. After further adjusting for this diurnal effect, significant individual variation in salivary P4 and cortisol remained: sixteen and nine women, respectively were categorized as low or high salivary secretors for both hormones (P < 0.001), suggesting systematic individual-specific variation of salivary hormonal concentration. We conclude that when saliva is used to quantify P4 or cortisol levels, time of day at sampling should be controlled. Even with this adjustment, salivary P4 and cortisol do not closely mirror between-individual variation of serum P4 and cortisol in a substantial proportion of individuals. PMID:22826025

  12. Estimating ROI activity concentration with photon-processing and photon-counting SPECT imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Recently a new class of imaging systems, referred to as photon-processing (PP) systems, are being developed that uses real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate multiple attributes per detected photon and store these attributes in a list format. PP systems could have a number of potential advantages compared to systems that bin photons based on attributes such as energy, projection angle, and position, referred to as photon-counting (PC) systems. For example, PP systems do not suffer from binning-related information loss and provide the potential to extract information from attributes such as energy deposited by the detected photon. To quantify the effects of this advantage on task performance, objective evaluation studies are required. We performed this study in the context of quantitative 2-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with the end task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a region of interest (ROI). We first theoretically outline the effect of null space on estimating the mean activity concentration, and argue that due to this effect, PP systems could have better estimation performance compared to PC systems with noise-free data. To evaluate the performance of PP and PC systems with noisy data, we developed a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based analytic method to estimate the activity concentration from PP systems. Using simulations, we studied the accuracy and precision of this technique in estimating the activity concentration. We used this framework to objectively compare PP and PC systems on the activity concentration estimation task. We investigated the effects of varying the size of the ROI and varying the number of bins for the attribute corresponding to the angular orientation of the detector in a continuously rotating SPECT system. The results indicate that in several cases, PP systems offer improved estimation performance compared to PC systems.

  13. Summary of: Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2013-02-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  14. Mathematical Modeling Activities as a Useful Tool for Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kursat

    2012-01-01

    Values education is crucial since it is one of the factors to reach success in education in broader sense and in mathematics education in particular sense. It is also important for educating next generations of societies. However, previous research showed that expected importance for values education was not given in Mathematics courses. In a few…

  15. Variations of Time-to-Incapacitation and Carboxyhemoglobin Values in Rats Exposed to Two Carbon Monoxide Concentrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    variance in ti at two CO concentrations that produce 5- and 35-min ti in rats were determined; blood carboxyhemoglobin ( COHb ) saturation at ti was measured... carboxyhemoglobin conceri- caveats should be applied when making judgments on tration the indicator of carbon monoxide toxicity? the basis of COHb analyses only. In...TIME-TO-INCAPACITATION (tc) VALUES AND CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN ( COHb ) LEVELS AT INCAPACITATION FOR RATS EXPOSED TO CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) Al Table 1. Data

  16. Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n = 191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2) = 0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types.

  17. Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near Active Seeps and Gas Hydrates: Sea of Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.

    2015-12-01

    A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for active gas venting and for gas hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several gas sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved gas concentrations were later measured using gas chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with gas hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near gas hydrate exposures and gas bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  18. Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziółkowska, A; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, K; Madry, R; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. The two peptides are secreted into the blood but circulating levels of these peptides have not been assessed in women with ovarian tumours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of active and total ghrelin and obestatin in patients with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer. The studies were conducted on 22 patients operated due to benign ovarian tumours, and 31 patients operated due to ovarian cancer. A control group consisted of 32 women, 24 to 65 years of age. Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group (active ghrelin: 90 +/- 4, 84 +/- 4 and 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, obestatin: 660 +/- 36; 630 +/- 30 and 538 +/- 31 ng/ml (x +/- SE), respectively). In contrast, total ghrelin concentrations in blood were similar in the studied groups. The alterations resulted in increased values of active to total ghrelin concentration ratio in the peripheral blood of patients with benign ovarian tumours or with ovarian cancer (0.79 +/- 0.02 and 0.93 +/- 0.05, respectively vs 0.58 +/- 0.02 in the control group). Due to the absence of any convincing proof for the presence of a functional GHS-R-1a receptor for ghrelin in human ovaries it did not seem probable that the observed elevated levels of active ghrelin and obestatin were directly linked to development of ovarian tumours.

  19. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulali, Feride E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Akkurt, İskender E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2014-10-06

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  20. Impacts of active urea secretion into pars recta on urine concentration and urea excretion rate

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T; Bankir, Lise

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a “urea-selective” improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney. PMID:24058732

  1. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  2. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  3. Relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against virulence factors and viability of a cariogenic biofilm: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Kim, H-J; Song, K-Y; Jeon, J-G

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread use of various concentrations of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries, the relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against cariogenic biofilms has not been much studied. Herein we investigated the relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against virulence factors and viability of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs. The 70-hour-old biofilms were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1,000 or 2,000 ppm F(-). The changes of virulence factors and viability of the biofilms were analyzed using biochemical methods and laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. At 1-2,000 ppm F(-), the activity of fluoride against acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans biofilms accurately followed a sigmoidal pattern of concentration dependence (R(2) = 0.94-0.99), with EC50 values ranging from 3.07 to 24.7 ppm F(-). Generally, the activity of fluoride against the virulence factors was concentration-dependently augmented in 10-100 ppm F(-) and did not increase further at concentrations higher than 100 ppm F(-). However, fluoride did not alter glucosyltransferase activity and viability of S. mutans biofilm cells in all concentrations tested. These results can provide a basis for the selection of appropriate fluoride concentrations that reduce the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms.

  4. The Interdependence of Leisure Activity and Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asker, Don

    Important contributors to significant changes occurring worldwide are: the emergence of a global economy; substantial political and social change; new transmigration; and enormous technological development. The effects of these changes on cultural values, both at small community and national levels, are far reaching. National boundaries are no…

  5. Variance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) concentrations in activated, concentrated platelets from healthy male donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of autologous blood concentrates, such as activated, concentrated platelets, in orthopaedic clinical applications has had mixed results. Research on this topic has focused on growth factors and cytokines, with little directed towards matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are involved in post-wound tissue remodeling. Methods In this study, the authors measured the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13), in activated platelets derived from blood of healthy, male volunteers (n = 92), 19 to 60 years old. The levels of the natural inhibitors of these proteases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 were also assessed. Results Notably, there was no significant change in concentration with age in four of six targets tested. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 demonstrated a statistically significant increase in concentration for subjects older than 30 years of age compared to those 30 years and younger (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 are global inhibitors of MMPs, including MMP-2 (Gelatinase A). MMP-2 targets native collagens, gelatin and elastin to remodel the extracellular matrix during wound healing. A decreased availability of pharmacologically active MMP-2 may diminish the effectiveness of the use of activated, concentrated platelets from older patients, and may also contribute to longer healing times in this population. PMID:24766991

  6. 25(OH) vitamin D serum values and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity (DA S28 ESR)

    PubMed Central

    Sahebari, Maryam; Mirfeizi, Zahra; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Goshyeshi, Ladan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is under investigation. This study was designed to evaluate the correlation between serum values of 25(OH) vitamin D [25(OH)D] and disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients according to Disease Activity Score 28 joints and ESR (DA S28 ESR). Methods: Ninety-nine patients according to ACR classification criteria for RA and 68 healthy controls were included in this study. The participants with known confounding risk factors affecting serum values of 25(OH)D were excluded. All patients were under treatment with supplementary calcium carbonate (1500mg), 25(OH)D (800U), and Hydroxychloroquine (6mg/kg). The control group was mostly recruited from patients’ relatives who lived with them to minimize the impact of diverse lifestyles on 25(OH)D status. Disease activity was assessed by DA S28 ESR. Serum concentrations of 25(OH)D were measured. Serum values of 25(OH)D less than 50 nmol/L were considered 25(OH)D deficiency. Results: The mean 25(OH)D serum values were 83.74±46.45 nmol/L in patients and 46.53±34.07 nmol/L in controls. After adjustment for age, sex and BMI, multivariate analysis showed no correlation between 25(OH)D serum levels and DAS in RA (P=0.29, rp=0.11). However, 25(OH)D serum values were significantly lower in patients with early diagnosed RA compared with the other patients (p=0.012). In the early diagnosed patients, 25(OH)D and anti-CCP serum values were negatively correlated (P=0.04, rs=-0.5). Conclusion: This study showed that there was no correlation between 25(OH)D serum values and DAS over a short duration of disease course. However, in early RA, 25(OH) D serum values were lower than the established RA. PMID:25202442

  7. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Bauer, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Bauer, L R

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates.

  9. Ecological optimization of a family of n-Müser engines for an arbitrary value of the solar concentration factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Moreno, M. A.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2017-03-01

    In a recent paper (Ramírez-Moreno, González-Hernández and Angulo-Brown, 2016) it was discussed the thermodynamic performance of a family of n-Müser engines under the so-called ecological optimization criterion for finite-time heat engines. In this reference it was shown that a 4-Müser engine accomplishes the best performance in comparison with any other n-Müser engine with n ≠ 4. However, this result was obtained for Müser engines operating under the condition of C =Cmax; that is, maximum solar concentration factor. In the present paper we show that the result previously described is also valid for arbitrary values of the concentration factor C.

  10. Concentration dependent differential activity of signalling molecules in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caenorhabditis elegans employs specific glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose (the ‘ascarosides’) for monitoring population density/ dauer formation and finding mates. A synergistic blend of three ascarosides, called ascr#2, ascr#3 and ascr#4 acts as a dauer pheromone at a high concentration na...

  11. Three-Dimensional Concentration Measurements around Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.; Webster, D. R.

    2006-11-01

    Many aquatic arthropods locate food, suitable habitats, and mates solely through information extracted by chemical signals in their environment. Chemical plumes detected by larger animals are influenced by turbulence that creates an intermittent and unpredictable chemical stimulus environment. To link the stimulus pattern to behavior, we have developed a measurement system to quantify the instantaneous odor concentration surrounding a freely tracking blue crab through three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF). A blue crab receives chemical stimulus at several locations, including the antennules near the mouth region and the distal tips of the legs and claws. Hence, three-dimensional measurements of the concentration field are required to link behavior to plume structure. During trials, crabs began their search 150 cm downstream of a source, and walking kinematics were recording simultaneously. The crabs were reversibly ``blindfolded'' during tracking to prevent aversive reactions to the intense laser light. Our experiments allow us to examine how hypothesized navigational cues, such as concentration bursts at the antennules and spatial asymmetry in concentration at the distributed chemosensory organs on the legs and claws, results in particular decisions during navigation.

  12. Low salt concentrations activate AMP-activated protein kinase in mouse macula densa cells.

    PubMed

    Cook, Natasha; Fraser, Scott A; Katerelos, Marina; Katsis, Frosa; Gleich, Kurt; Mount, Peter F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Levidiotis, Vicki; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2009-04-01

    The energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2 in the kidney and phosphorylates it on a regulatory site in vitro. To identify a potential role for AMPK in salt sensing at the macula densa, we have used the murine macula densa cell line MMDD1. In this cell line, AMPK was rapidly activated by isosmolar low-salt conditions. In contrast to the known salt-sensing pathway in the macula densa, AMPK activation occurred in the presence of either low sodium or low chloride and was unaffected by inhibition of NKCC2 with bumetanide. Assays using recombinant AMPK demonstrated activation of an upstream kinase by isosmolar low salt. The specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase inhibitor STO-609 failed to suppress AMPK activation, suggesting that it was not part of the signal pathway. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of the specific substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser(79), as well as increased NKCC2 phosphorylation at Ser(126). AMPK activation due to low salt concentrations was inhibited by an adenovirus construct encoding a kinase dead mutant of AMPK, leading to reduced ACC Ser(79) and NKCC2 Ser(126) phosphorylation. This work demonstrates that AMPK activation in macula densa-like cells occurs via isosmolar changes in sodium or chloride concentration, leading to phosphorylation of ACC and NKCC2. Phosphorylation of these substrates in vivo is predicted to increase intracellular chloride and so reduce the effect of salt restriction on tubuloglomerular feedback and renin secretion.

  13. Calculation Package: Derivation of Facility-Specific Derived Air Concentration (DAC) Values in Support of Spallation Neutron Source Operations

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David A

    2009-12-01

    Derived air concentration (DAC) values for 175 radionuclides* produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS), but not listed in Appendix A of 10 CFR 835 (01/01/2009 version), are presented. The proposed DAC values, ranging between 1 E-07 {micro}Ci/mL and 2 E-03 {micro}Ci/mL, were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and are intended to support an exemption request seeking regulatory relief from the 10 CFR 835, Appendix A, requirement to apply restrictive DACs of 2E-13 {micro}Ci/mL and 4E-11 {micro}Ci/mL and for non-listed alpha and non-alpha-emitting radionuclides, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of the influence of physical activity on the plasma concentrations of several trace metals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Tuya, I; Pinilla Gil, E; Maynar Mariño, M; García-Moncó Carra, R M; Sánchez Misiego, A

    1996-01-01

    Our study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the influence that the degree of physical activity may have on plasma concentrations of essential and toxic elements. Copper and zinc, elements of known importance in basic cellular processes, have been analysed as essential, and cadmium and lead as toxic for the body in abnormal doses. The study was performed on a total population of 50 healthy individuals, 34 of them professional sportsmen and the rest who undertook moderate physical activity (control group), all of them living in a polluted environment (Madrid, Spain). Sampling was conducted at the beginning of the season (October). Electro-analytical techniques of proved reliability and accuracy were used for the determination of the metals. The results were related to data obtained using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by use of biological reference materials. We found significantly higher zinc plasma concentrations in the sportsmen involved in anaerobic-type training (judo, fencing) compared to those undertaking aerobic activities (endurance, cycling) (P < 0.05). The values in both cases were higher than those found in the control group. Our study showed an increase of plasma copper concentrations in professional sportsmen, especially in those performing anaerobic activities, compared to those subjects undertaking moderate activity (control group) (P < 0.05). In summary, our results showed that there were no deficiencies of copper and zinc in the athletes studied at the beginning of the season. The levels were higher than those of the control population. As for the toxic metals, cadmium and lead, we observed lower levels in the athletes than in the control group (cadmium P < 0.005, lead P < 0.05). These results may indicate the existence of possible elimination systems for these metals in athletes, when they are training in a polluted environment.

  15. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  16. pA2 values for antagonists of platelet activating factor on aggregation of rabbit platelets.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, S. R.; Barnett, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    1. The relative potencies, and equilibrium dissociation constants, for nine antagonists of platelet activating factor (Paf) have been determined on rabbit platelets (in diluted platelet-rich plasma (PRP)) in experiments in which the aggregatory response to Paf was measured. 2. Log concentration-response (% maximum) curves to Paf were obtained in the absence (controls) and presence of different concentrations of each Paf antagonist drug. The antagonists shifted the Paf curves to a higher concentration range and the slopes of the Schild plots, constructed from these data, suggested that the drugs were competitive antagonists of Paf. The slopes of the Schild plots for CV-3988 and SRI 63-119 were greater than 1. 3. The pA2 values (pKB values in parentheses) were: WEB 2086 7.31 (7.63); SRI 63-119 6.95; L-652,731 6.71 (6.73); BN 52021 6.38 (6.47); SRI 63-072 6.36 (6.43); CV-3988 5.87; 48740 RP 4.97 (5.07); ketotifen 4.94 (4.95); thiazinamium 4.73 (4.76). 4. This study provides, for the first time, some functional response data for Paf antagonists (pKB values) which are in an appropriate form for use in classifying putative Paf receptors. The study also provides the comparative potencies of these Paf antagonists in inhibiting Paf-induced platelet aggregation. WEB 2086 was the most potent of the drugs examined. PMID:3293683

  17. Valued Life Activities, Smoking Cessation, and Mood in Post-Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Srour, John Fani; Arrighi, James A.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Borrelli, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Continued engagement in valued life activities is a protective factor for depression and has been linked to readiness to quit smoking in medical populations, but has never been examined among Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) patients. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships among valued life activities, mood, and smoking post-ACS. Methods Participants were 54 post-ACS patients who were smoking before ACS hospitalization. Data on mood, smoking status, engagement in valued activities, restriction of valued activities, and satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was collected 1-12 months post-ACS. Results Depressive symptoms were associated with both less valued activity engagement and greater valued activity restriction. Positive affect was associated with greater valued activity engagement and negative affect was associated with greater valued activity restriction. Satisfactory replacement of restricted activities was associated with greater positive affect, fewer depressive symptoms, and quitting smoking post-ACS. The majority of these relationships remained significant after controlling for relevant covariates, including physical functioning. Conclusions Valued activity restriction and engagement may contribute to depressed mood and failure to quit smoking in ACS patients. Psychotherapies that target greater engagement in valued life activities deserve further investigation in ACS patients. PMID:25471466

  18. Rapid Response Concentration-Controlled Desorption of Activated Carbon to Dampen Concentration Fluctuations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Z A E M A M I P O U R , D I E G O C E V A L L O S , A N D M A R K J . R O O D * Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of...such as granular activated carbon (GAC) have been used as biofilter packing material on which biofilm was grown to assist with buffering of the...efficiencies were attributed to the thickness of the biofilm on the GAC. GAC was also used in a separate vessel to dampen the fluctuations of the

  19. Effect of thermodynamic activity on skin permeation and skin concentration of triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroshi; Todo, Hiroaki; Sugibayashi, Kenji

    2010-04-01

    Effects of thermodynamic activity and the state (solution/suspension) of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) on skin permeation and concentration were physicochemically and kinetically analyzed. Permeation of TA through a silicone membrane, hairless rat skin (full-thickness skin or stripped skin) or a three-dimensional cultured human skin model (LSE-high) was determined and a permeability coefficient (P), partition coefficient (K) , diffusion coefficient (D) and steady-state flux (J) were calculated. The resulting J values proportionally increased with an increase in the TA activity in the drug solution and similar P, K and D values were obtained independent of the TA state (solution/suspension) in all membranes except for full-thickness hairless rat skin. On the other hand, the TA permeation through full-thickness hairless rat skin with the 1000 microg/ml suspension was higher than that expected judging by the thermodynamic acidity of TA. Higher D and P values were also obtained in the skin permeation of TA from the 1000 microg/ml suspension. Morphological observation of the skin surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed the presence of TA solids in the hair follicles after application of the TA suspension. These results suggest that dissolved TA may be permeated predominantly through the stratum corneum, but that solid TA may be passed through the hair follicles to enter the dermis. The present physicochemical and kinetic analysis provides useful information to develop topical steroid formulations.

  20. Assessing the Value of U.S. Army International Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    of U.S. Army International Activities Tajfel , Henri , Human Groups and Social Categories, Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1981. Taw...more recent treatment, see Fearon (1997, pp. 68–90). 3 For general discussions, see Tajfel (1981, p. 36), Hogg and Abrams (1998, pp. 31–63), and Goffman

  1. Active Inference, Epistemic Value, and Vicarious Trial and Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Cartoni, Emilio; Rigoli, Francesco; io-Lopez, Léo; Friston, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Balancing habitual and deliberate forms of choice entails a comparison of their respective merits--the former being faster but inflexible, and the latter slower but more versatile. Here, we show that arbitration between these two forms of control can be derived from first principles within an Active Inference scheme. We illustrate our arguments…

  2. The Role of Values in Promoting Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosma, Maria; Buchanan, David R.; Hondzinski, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of theory-based behavior-change programs to promote physical activity, obesity and diabetes rates continue to rise. Given the notable ineffective interventions, it is important to examine why these efforts have been largely unsuccessful and to consider potential alternatives. The purpose of this article is to consider the…

  3. Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays are discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost effective than active for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic trough arrays. The analysis produced several other conclusions of interest which are also discussed.

  4. Serum Malondialdehyde Concentration and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in a Longitudinal Study of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of oxidative damage and to quantify its level in gestational diabetes. Methods Thirty-six healthy women and thirty-six women with gestational diabetes were studied in the three trimesters of pregnancy regarding their levels of oxidative stress markers. These women were diagnosed with diabetes in the second trimester of pregnancy. Blood glucose levels after 100g glucose tolerance test were higher than 190, 165 or 145 mg/dl, 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose intake. Results The group of women with gestational diabetes had higher serum malondialdehyde levels, with significant differences between groups in the first and second trimester. The mean values of serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the diabetic women were significantly lower in the first trimester. In the group of women with gestational diabetes there was a negative linear correlation between serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in the second and third trimester. Conclusions In this observational and longitudinal study in pregnant women, the alterations attributable to oxidative stress were present before the biochemical detection of the HbA1c increase. Usual recommendations once GD is detected (adequate metabolic control, as well as any other normally proposed to these patients) lowered the concentration of malondialdehyde at the end of pregnancy to the same levels of the healthy controls. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity in women with gestational diabetes increased during the gestational period. PMID:27228087

  5. Mineral concentrations in hair of Belgian elementary school girls: reference values and relationship with food consumption frequencies.

    PubMed

    Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; Michels, Nathalie; Vyncke, Krishna; Sioen, Isabelle; De Vriendt, Tineke; Flórez, Maria R; Aramendía, Maite; Balcaen, Lieve; Resano, Martin; Vanhaecke, Frank; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-12-01

    Although evidence suggests that hair elements may reflect dietary habits and/or mineral intake, this topic remains controversial. This study therefore presents age-specific reference values for hair concentrations of Ca, Cu, Fe, Na, Mg, P and Zn using the LMS method of Cole, and investigates the relationship between dietary habits (i.e. food consumption frequencies) and hair mineral concentrations in 218 Belgian elementary school girls by reduced rank regression (RRR). Hair minerals were quantitatively determined via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted acid digestion of 6-cm long vertex posterior hair samples. The Children's Eating Habits Questionnaire-Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain information on food consumption frequency of 43 food items in the month preceding hair collection. The established reference ranges were in line with data for other childhood or adolescent populations. The retained RRR factors explained 40, 50, 45, 46, 44 and 48 % of the variation of Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, P and Zn concentrations in hair, respectively. Although this study demonstrated that a large proportion of hair mineral variation may be influenced by food consumption frequencies in elementary school girls, a number of food groups known to be rich sources of minerals did not show a relation with certain hair minerals. Future research should focus on mechanisms and processes involved in mineral incorporation and accumulation in scalp hair, in order to fully understand the importance and influence of diet on hair minerals.

  6. A Priori Method of Using Photon Activation Analysis to Determine Unknown Trace Element Concentrations in NIST Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Benson, Buck; Maschner, Herb

    2009-03-10

    Photon activation analysis detected elements in two NIST standards that did not have reported concentration values. A method is currently being developed to infer these concentrations by using scaling parameters and the appropriate known quantities within the NIST standard itself. Scaling parameters include: threshold, peak and endpoint energies; photo-nuclear cross sections for specific isotopes; Bremstrahlung spectrum; target thickness; and photon flux. Photo-nuclear cross sections and energies from the unknown elements must also be known. With these quantities, the same integral was performed for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the un-reported element based on the reported value. Since Rb and Mn were elements that were reported in the standards, and because they had well-identified peaks, they were used as the standards of inference to determine concentrations of the unreported elements of As, I, Nb, Y, and Zr. This method was tested by choosing other known elements within the standards and inferring a value based on the stated procedure. The reported value of Mn in the first NIST standard was 403{+-}15 ppm and the reported value of Ca in the second NIST standard was 87000 ppm (no reported uncertainty). The inferred concentrations were 370{+-}23 ppm and 80200{+-}8700 ppm respectively.

  7. Estimating the Performance and Economic Value of Multiple Concentrating Solar Power Technologies in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgenson, Jennie; Denholm, Paul; Mehos, Mark; Turchi, Craig

    2013-12-01

    Concentrating solar power with thermal energy storage (CSP-TES) is a unique source of renewable energy in that the solar thermal energy can be dispatched similarly to conventional thermal generation. However, CSP-TES plants are energy-limited, meaning that their response might be restricted by solar availability. Therefore, the use of this limited solar energy must be optimally scheduled toprovide the greatest value to the system. The timing of CSP-TES dispatch depends on a variety of factors, including electricity demand patterns, the penetration of variable generation sources, and the configuration of the CSP-TES plant itself. We use an established CSP-TES modeling framework in a commercially available production cost model to compare the dispatch and value of two CSP-TEStechnologies (molten salt towers and parabolic troughs) in a Colorado test system. In addition, we consider a range of configuration parameters, such as the solar multiple and thermal energy storage limit, to evaluate how the operational and capacity value varies with plant configuration.

  8. Effect of Phosphoric Acid Concentration on the Characteristics of Sugarcane Bagasse Activated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adib, M. R. M.; Suraya, W. M. S. W.; Rafidah, H.; Amirza, A. R. M.; Attahirah, M. H. M. N.; Hani, M. S. N. Q.; Adnan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    Impregnation method is one of the crucial steps involved in producing activated carbon using chemical activation process. Chemicals employed in this step is effective at decomposing the structure of material and forming micropores that helps in adsorption of contaminants. This paper explains thorough procedures that have been involved in producing sugarcane bagasse activated carbon (SBAC) by using 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% phosphoric acid (H3PO4) during the impregnation step. Concentration of H3PO4 used in the process of producing SBAC was optimized through several tests including bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter and the charactesristic of optimum SBAC produced has been compared with commercial activated carbon (CAC). Batch study has been carried out by using the SBAC produced from optimum condition to investigate the performance of SBAC in removal of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from textile wastewater. From characteristic study, SBAC with 30% H3PO4 has shown the optimum value of bulk density, ash content, iodine adsorption and pore size diameter of 0.3023 g cm-3, 4.35%, 974.96 mg/g and 0.21-0.41 µm, respectively. These values are comparable to the characteristics of CAC. Experimental result from the batch study has been concluded that the SBAC has a promising potential in removing turbidity and COD of 75.5% and 66.3%, respectively which was a slightly lower than CAC which were able to remove 82.8% of turbidity and 70% of COD. As a conclusion, the SBAC is comparable with CAC in terms of their characteristics and the capability of removing contaminants from textile wastewater. Therefore, it has a commercial value to be used as an alternative of low-cost material in producing CAC.

  9. Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1981-10-01

    Optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays is discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost-effective for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic-trough arrays.

  10. Russian Activities in Space Photovoltaic Power Modules with Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Vyacheslav M.; Rumyantsev, Valeri D.

    2004-01-01

    Space concentrator modules with point-and line-focus Fresnel lenses and with reflective parabolic troughs have been developed recently at Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute. PV receivers for these modules are based: on the single junction LPE and MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells characterized by AM0 efficiencies of 23.5 - 24% at 20 - 50 suns and 24 - 24.75 at 50 - 200 suns; on the mechanically stacked tandem AlGaAs/GaAs-GaSb cells with efficiency of 27 - 28 at 20 - 100 suns. MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs cells with internal Bragg reflector have shown a higher radiation resistance as compared to a traditional structure. Monolithic two-terminal tandems AlGaAs (top)-GaAs (bottom) for space application and GaSb (top) - InGaAsSb (bottom) for TRV application are under development as well.

  11. The value to the anaesthetist of monitoring cerebral activity.

    PubMed

    Langford, R M; Thomsen, C E

    1994-03-01

    The administration rate of general anaesthetic drugs is at present guided by clinical experience, and indirect indicators such as haemodynamic parameters. In the presence of muscle relaxants most of the clinical signs of inadequate anaesthesia are lost and accidental awareness may occur. A number of monitoring modalities, primarily based on analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), have been proposed for measurement of the anaesthetic depth. Moreover intraoperative cerebral monitoring may also provide the anaesthetist with early warning of cerebral ischaemia, or information on specific neurological pathways. To facilitate this, it is essential to combine analysis of the spontaneous EEG with recording of evoked potentials, to assess both cortical and subcortical activity/events. None of the reviewed methods, however promising, can alone meet all of the requirements for intraoperative monitoring of cerebral function. We suggest that the future direction should be to integrate several modalities in a single device, to provide valuable new information, upon which to base clinical management decisions.

  12. Extending neutron activation analysis to materials with high concentrations of neutron absorbing elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilian, Cornelia

    chemical element and the sample geometrical factor. Therefore, the remaining nuclear factor, considered as a product of nuclide composite nuclear characteristics and irradiation site characteristics, led to the introduction of a so-called epithermal neutron absorption cross-sections, sigmaabs,ep. This new nuclear parameter will allow the calculation of the epithermal self-shielding for all cylindrical samples activated in all types of irradiation sites. For the 13 cases studied, the epithermal self-shielding factor, Gep, was obtained from the experimental effective self-shielding factor, Geff, by extracting the thermal neutron self-shielding factor, calculated with the sigmoid formulation. A least-squares fit of the experimental Gep values as a function of the mass of element yielded sigmaabs,ep for each activated nuclide. In addition, for all nuclides commonly used in neutron activation analysis, sigmaabs,ep was calculated with the Martinho, Salgado and Goncalves sigmoid formulation, which uses the total cross-section values at the peaks of the resonances. A comparison of the calculated sigmaabs,ep with the 13 measured values reveals that the calculated values are accurate to about 20%. Finally, for all 76 nuclides commonly used in NAA, a spreadsheet program was written to use experimental or calculated sigmaabs,ep nuclear parameters to perform iterative self-shielding corrections of concentrations measured by neutron activation analysis. The user provides the parameters f and alpha of the neutron spectrum, the sample mass and dimensions, and the measured concentrations. In a typical case with 10% thermal self-shielding and 30% epithermal self-shielding, the corrected concentrations had uncertainties varying from 2% to 3%. Keywords. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, epithermal, thermal, self-shielding factors. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    PubMed

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p < 0.01); and in the up-right position were r = 0.7765, r(2) = 0.9153 (p < 0.01). The cut-off values of ARR and ADRR ≥ 100 presented highest specificity (99%) for the diagnosis of PA; however, quite acceptable specificity and sensitivity (> 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  14. Mercury alters the bacterial community structure and diversity in soil even at concentrations lower than the guideline values.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh Ramraj; Krishnan, Kannan; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of inorganic mercury (Hg) on bacterial community and diversity in different soils. Three soils-neutral, alkaline and acidic-were spiked with six different concentrations of Hg ranging from 0 to 200 mg kg(-1) and aged for 90 days. At the end of the ageing period, 18 samples from three different soils were investigated for bacterial community structure and soil physicochemical properties. Illumina MiSeq-based 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicon sequencing revealed the alteration in the bacterial community between un-spiked control soils and Hg-spiked soils. Among the bacterial groups, Actinobacteria (22.65%) were the most abundant phyla in all samples followed by Proteobacteria (21.95%), Bacteroidetes (4.15%), Firmicutes (2.9%) and Acidobacteria (2.04%). However, the largest group showing increased abundance with higher Hg doses was the unclassified group (45.86%), followed by Proteobacteria. Mercury had a considerable negative impact on key soil functional bacteria such as ammonium oxidizers and nitrifiers. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that among the measured soil properties, Hg had a major influence on bacterial community structure. Furthermore, nonlinear regression analysis confirmed that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial alpha diversity in lower organic carbon containing neutral and alkaline soils, whereas in acidic soil with higher organic carbon there was no significant correlation. EC20 values obtained by a nonlinear regression analysis indicated that Hg significantly decreased soil bacterial diversity in concentrations lower than several guideline values.

  15. Singular Value Decomposition Analysis of Cloud Fraction Cover and Sea Ice Concentration over the Arctic Region, 1982-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccolari, Mauro; Parmiggiani, Flavio

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the coupled spatial and temporal variability between seasonal data of Cloud Fraction Cover (CFC) and Sea Ice Concentration (SIC) in the Arctic Ocean for the 1982-2009 period were investigated by using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method.The spatial patterns of CFCs related to the first mode of co-variability, identify the maximum covariance, for all seasons, in the Barents Sea and in the Arctic Ocean Canada, while the SIC and 'found in the Chukchi Sea in autumn (in according to the maximum sea ice melting) and the Barents sea during both the winter and spring.CFC spatial patterns related to the first mode of co- variability, locate maximum covariance, for all seasons, in the Barents Sea and in the Canadian side of the Arctic Ocean, while for SIC is found in the Chukchi Sea during autumn (corresponding to the maximum sea ice melting) and in the Barents Sea during both the winter and spring.Finally, the correlation between the seasonal time series of expansion coefficients derived from the SVD analysis, for both CFC and SIC fields, with the seasonal time series of some relevant climate indices for the Arctic (NAO, AO, PDO and PNA). Statistically significant values for both fields were found during summer with the AO, and during autumn with the PNA.

  16. Normal values for thyroid ultrasonography, goiter prevalence and urinary iodine concentration in schoolchildren of the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Busnardo, B; Nacamulli, D; Frigato, F; Vianello-Dri, A; De Vido, D; Mian, C; Candiani, F; Tomasella, G; Zambonin, L; Piccolo, M; Girelli, M E

    2003-10-01

    Goiter prevalence in school-age children and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) are the main indicators of iodine deficiency in a population. In areas of mild iodine deficiency, where goiters are small, ultrasound is preferable to physical examination to estimate goiter prevalence. The World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted thyroid volume ultrasonography results from a survey of European schoolchildren as an international reference, but these values have recently been questioned. The aims of the study were: a) to determine regional normal echographic reference values of thyroid volume in children aged between 11 and 14 yr in the Veneto Region, in North-East Italy; b) to determine goiter prevalence by physical and ultrasonographic examination; c) to determine UIC in this section of the population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1730 schoolchildren, aged between 11 and 14, living in towns in low-lying areas, in the valleys of the pre-Alps and in the mountains between 600 and 1200 m. Thyroid volume was evaluated by inspection and palpation using the WHO criteria. In 560 children thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound. UIC was measured in 1368 children. On physical examination a grade I goiter was found in 7.5% of children. No goiter grade II or grade III was found. The regional thyroid volume reference values by ultrasonography were similar, or slightly lower (5-20%), to the corresponding WHO reference values. Mean UIC was 148 +/- 110 microg/l, with no difference between lowlands and uplands; UIC values less than 100 microg/l were found in about 30-35% of the children. UIC was higher in children using iodized salt than in non-users. No correlation was found between thyroid volume by ultrasonography and UIC. Thyroid volume was found to be bigger in upland children than in those in low-lying areas, probably because of low iodine intake in people living in the mountains in previous generations. This data show that Veneto is not a iodine

  17. Activity concentration of natural radionuclides and radon and thoron exhalation rates in rocks used as decorative wall coverings in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, many dwellings have decorative wall coverings made from granite, andesite, tuff, gabbro, and marble. However, information regarding activity concentrations and radon (Rn) and thoron (Rn) exhalation rates for such rocks is very scarce. Therefore, samples of the granite, andesite, tuff, and marble that are used as wall coverings in Japan were collected from mining companies, and their activity concentrations and Rn and Rn exhalation rates were measured. Dose estimations for inhabitants living in houses built with these materials were also carried out. The activity concentration of natural radionuclides in all the materials was lower than the critical values described by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) (10,000 Bq kg for K and 1,000 Bq kg for all other radionuclides of natural origin). The maximum values of Rn and Rn mass exhalation rates for the granite samples were 0.12 and 430 mBq kg s, and those for the area exhalation rates were 1.8 and 6300 mBq m s, respectively; these values are higher than those for other samples. The maximum value of effective doses to inhabitants was 0.68 mSv y, which is lower than the intervention exemption level (1 mSv y) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 82.

  18. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Alberto, G

    2011-02-01

    The activity of (210)Po and (210)Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759±277 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg(-1) dry weight), and 45±19 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that (210)Po and (210)Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210±75 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Po and 10±4 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of

  19. Evolution in the concentration of activities in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-03-01

    From a perusal of the proceedings of the SPIE Advanced Lithography Symposium, the progression of new concepts in lithographic technology can be seen. A new idea first appears in a few papers, and over time, there is an increase in the number of papers on the same topic. Eventually the method becomes commonplace, and the number of papers on the topic declines, as the idea becomes part of our industry's working knowledge. For example, one or two papers on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) appeared in the proceedings of the Optical Microlithography Conference in 1989 and 1990. By 1994, the total number of papers had increased to 35. Early lithographers focused on practical issues, such as adhesion promotion and resist edge bead. The introduction of simulation software brought on the next era of lithography. This was followed by a period of time in which RETs were developed and brought to maturity. The introduction of optical proximity corrections (OPC) initiated the next major era of lithography. The traditional path for scaling by using shorter wavelengths, decreasing k1 and increasing numerical aperture has given way to the current era of optical multiple patterning and lithography-design co-optimization. There has been sufficient activity in EUV lithography R and D to justify a separate EUV Lithography Conference as part of the annual Advanced Lithography Symposium. Each era builds on the cumulative knowledge gained previously. Over time, there have been parallel developments in optics, exposure tools, resist, metrology and mask technology, many of which were associated with changes in the wavelength of light used for leading-edge lithography.

  20. Classical Nuclear Hormone Receptor Activity as a Mediator of Complex Concentration Response Relationships for Endocrine Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cookman, Clifford J.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are frequently observed for endocrine active ligands that act via nuclear receptors. The curve of best fit for nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are often inverted U-shaped with effects at intermediate concentrations that are different from effects at higher or lower concentrations. Cytotoxicity is a major mode of action responsible for inverted U-shaped concentration response relationships. However, evidence suggests that ligand selectivity, activation of multiple molecular targets, concerted regulation of multiple opposing endpoints, and multiple ligand binding sites within nuclear receptors also contribute to nonmonotonic concentration response relationships of endocrine active ligands. This review reports the current understanding of mechanisms involved in classical nuclear receptor mediated nonmonotonic concentration response relationships with a focus on studies published between 2012 and 2014. PMID:25299165

  1. Stimulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (guanosine triphosphate) activity by low concentrations of circulating glucose in perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F J; Sánchez-Urrutia, L; Medina, J M; Sánchez-Medina, F; Mayor, F

    1975-01-01

    1. After nicotinic acid treatment, rat liver glycogen is depleted and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity increased, to about twice the initial value. 2. The increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity promoted by nicotinic acid is prevented by cycloheximide or actinomycin D, suggesting that this effect is produced by synthesis of the enzyme de novo. 3. Despite the enhancement of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity and glycogen depletion, which occurs 5h after the injection of nicotinic acid, the gluconeogenic capacity of liver is low and considerably less than the values found in rats starved for 48h. 4. When the livers of well-fed rats are perfused in the presence of low concentrations of glucose, the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase significantly increases compared with the control. 5. This increase is not related to the glycogen content, but seems to be also the result of synthesis of the enzyme de novo, since this effect is counteracted by previous treatment with cycloheximide or actinomycin D. 6. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity is not increased in the presence of low concentrations of circulating glucose when 40 mM-imidazole (an activator of phosphodiesterase) is added to the perfusion medium. 7. Addition of dibutyryl cyclic AMP to the perfusion medium results in an increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity, in spite of the presence of normal concentrations of circulating glucose. On the other hand, the concentration of cyclic AMP in the liver increases when that of glucose in the medium is low. 8. These results suggest that, in the absence of hormonal factors, the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase can be accomplished by glucose itself, inadequate concentrations of it resulting in the induction of the enzyme. The mediator in this regulation, as in hormonal regulation, seems to be cyclic AMP. PMID:173301

  2. Effects of aging on value-directed modulation of semantic network activity during verbal learning

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael S.; Rissman, Jesse; Suthana, Nanthia A.; Castel, Alan D.; Knowlton, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    While impairments in memory recall are apparent in aging, older adults show a remarkably preserved ability to selectively remember information deemed valuable. Here, we use fMRI to compare brain activation in healthy older and younger adults during encoding of high and low value words to determine whether there are differences in how older adults achieve value-directed memory selectivity. We find that memory selectivity in older adults is associated with value-related changes in activation during word presentation in left hemisphere regions that are involved in semantic processing, similar to young adults. However, highly selective young adults show a relatively greater increase in semantic network activity during encoding of high-value items, whereas highly selective older adults show relatively diminished activity during encoding of low-value items. Additionally, only younger adults showed value-related increases in activity in semantic and reward processing regions during presentation of the value cue preceding each to-be-remembered word. Young adults therefore respond to cue value more proactively than do older adults, yet the magnitude of value-related differences in cue period brain activity did not predict individual differences in memory selectivity. Thus, our data also show that age-related reductions in prestimulus activity do not always lead to inefficient performance. PMID:26244278

  3. Daily and seasonal variations in radon activity concentration in the soil air.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Bulko, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentration in the soil air in the area of Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics (FMPI) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, has been continuously monitored since 1994. Long-term measurements at a depth of 0.8 m and short-term measurements at a depth of 0.4 m show a high variability in radon activity concentrations in the soil. The analysis of the data confirms that regular daily changes in radon activity concentration in the soil air depend on the daily changes in atmospheric pressure. It was also found that the typical annual courses of the radon activity concentration in the soil air (with summer minima and winter maxima) were disturbed by mild winter and heavy summer precipitation. Influence of precipitation on the increase in the radon activity concentration in the soil air was observed at a depth of 0.4 m and subsequently at a depth of 0.8 m.

  4. Elevated blood active ghrelin and normal total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziolkowska, A; Nowinka, K; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin originate from the same peptide precursor, preproghrelin. Both peptides are secreted in the blood. We investigated serum active and total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in women with uterine myomatosis. Serum concentrations of active ghrelin in uterine leiomyoma were significantly higher compared to women in the control group (86 +/- 3 vs 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.02). On the other hand, serum concentrations of total ghrelin and obestatin in uterine leiomyoma did not differ from those in the control group. In the control group the ratio of active to total ghrelin concentrations amounted to 0.62, while in women with uterine myoma it was 0.95, pointing to a prevalence of the active form of ghrelin in women with uterine myoma. Also the ratio of active ghrelin concentration to obestatin concentration was higher in the latter group while the ratio of total circulating ghrelin to obestatin concentrations was similar in the two groups. The data may suggest a role of active ghrelin in the development of a myoma. Moreover, the results indicate that increased blood ratios of active to total ghrelin and to obestatin concentrations are not specific for cachexia.

  5. Activity-relevant similarity values for fingerprints and implications for similarity searching

    PubMed Central

    Jasial, Swarit; Hu, Ye; Vogt, Martin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A largely unsolved problem in chemoinformatics is the issue of how calculated compound similarity relates to activity similarity, which is central to many applications. In general, activity relationships are predicted from calculated similarity values. However, there is no solid scientific foundation to bridge between calculated molecular and observed activity similarity. Accordingly, the success rate of identifying new active compounds by similarity searching is limited. Although various attempts have been made to establish relationships between calculated fingerprint similarity values and biological activities, none of these has yielded generally applicable rules for similarity searching. In this study, we have addressed the question of molecular versus activity similarity in a more fundamental way. First, we have evaluated if activity-relevant similarity value ranges could in principle be identified for standard fingerprints and distinguished from similarity resulting from random compound comparisons. Then, we have analyzed if activity-relevant similarity values could be used to guide typical similarity search calculations aiming to identify active compounds in databases. It was found that activity-relevant similarity values can be identified as a characteristic feature of fingerprints. However, it was also shown that such values cannot be reliably used as thresholds for practical similarity search calculations. In addition, the analysis presented herein helped to rationalize differences in fingerprint search performance. PMID:27127620

  6. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  7. [The diagnostic value of the radioimmunological estimation of prostatic acid phosphatase. Comparative value of the measurement of enzyme activity (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Tellier, J L; Chatal, J F; Bourdin, S; Auvigne, J; Etienne, P; Faye, R

    1981-01-01

    Radioimmunological estimation of prostatic acid phosphatase was carried out in 72 reference subjects, 46 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy, 106 patients with untreated prostatic carcinoma and 25 patients with a carcinoma of some other origin. The mean concentration in non-acidified serum was 1.3 +/- 0.4 (M +/- SD) ng/ml for the reference group and 1.6 +/- 0.8 ng/ml for the benign hypertrophy group. The upper limit of discriminatory values for the diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma was fixed at 3 ng/ml. Taking this value, the overall percentage of positive results for carcinoma of the prostate was 61% (65/106). The number of cases with a value greater than 3 ng/ml was 3/18 (17%) for stage A, 8/27 (30%) for stage B, 7/13 (54%) for stage C and 47/48 (98%) for stage D. 8% (2/25) of carcinomas of another origin gave a positive result. The results of estimation using the radioimmunological technique were compared with those obtained by the measurement of enzyme activity using para nitro-phenyl phosphate as a substrate in 34 untreated prostatic carcinomas (all stages mixed together). When measurements by both techniques were carried out under the same ideal conditions using fresh sera as soon as possible after the blood was drawn, the result was abnormal in 10 cases out of 12 (83%) for the radioimmunological method and in 8 cases out of 12 (67%) for the measurement of enzyme activity. By contrast, under routine conditions, the positive percentage figures were 77% (17/22) for the radioimmunological technique and only 36% (8/22) for the measurement of enzyme activity. It would thus appear that radioimmunological measurement is more reliable than the measurement of enzyme activity.

  8. Effect of the active-ion concentration on the lasing dynamics of holmium fibre lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-12-09

    The lasing dynamics of fibre lasers with a core based on quartz glass doped with holmium ions to concentrations in the range of 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is investigated. It is shown that fibre lasers with a high concentration of active holmium ions generate pulses, but a decrease in the holmium concentration changes the lasing from pulsed to cw regime. At the same time, a decrease in the active-ion concentration and the corresponding increase in the fibre length in the cavity reduce the lasing efficiency. (lasers)

  9. Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on skeletal muscle substrates, enzyme activities and capillary supply.

    PubMed

    Tesch, P A; Thorsson, A; Colliander, E B

    1990-12-01

    This study compared the skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations in response to combined eccentric and concentric or concentric resistance training regimens. Twenty-six physically active males were assigned to either the combined eccentric and concentric group (n = 10), the concentric group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 6). The combined eccentric and concentric and the concentric groups performed four to five sets of maximal, voluntary bilateral quadriceps muscle actions at 1.05 rad s-1 using a speed-controlled dynamometer three times per week for 12 weeks. The concentric group performed 12 concentric actions per set, whereas the combined eccentric and concentric group performed six coupled eccentric and concentric actions per set. Bilateral percutaneous muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest pre- and post-training. Tissue samples were analysed for contents of adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate and creatine and for enzyme activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, myokinase, phosphofructokinase, hexokinase and Mg2(+)-ATPase using fluorometric techniques. Histochemical staining procedures were employed to determine capillary supply. The overall increase (P less than 0.05) in muscle strength was greater (P less than 0.05) for the combined eccentric and concentric group than for the concentric group. Enzyme or substrate contents and capillary supply were unaltered after either type of training. It is suggested that substantial increases in muscle strength may occur in response to resistance training without enhancing or compromising metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  10. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3).

  11. Validating proposed migration equation and parameters' values as a tool to reproduce and predict (137)Cs vertical migration activity in Spanish soils.

    PubMed

    Olondo, C; Legarda, F; Herranz, M; Idoeta, R

    2017-01-05

    This paper shows the procedure performed to validate the migration equation and the migration parameters' values presented in a previous paper (Legarda et al., 2011) regarding the migration of (137)Cs in Spanish mainland soils. In this paper, this model validation has been carried out checking experimentally obtained activity concentration values against those predicted by the model. This experimental data come from the measured vertical activity profiles of 8 new sampling points which are located in northern Spain. Before testing predicted values of the model, the uncertainty of those values has been assessed with the appropriate uncertainty analysis. Once establishing the uncertainty of the model, both activity concentration values, experimental versus model predicted ones, have been compared. Model validation has been performed analyzing its accuracy, studying it as a whole and also at different depth intervals. As a result, this model has been validated as a tool to predict (137)Cs behaviour in a Mediterranean environment.

  12. Evaluation of plasma antioxidant activity in rats given excess EGCg with reference to endogenous antioxidants concentrations and assay methods.

    PubMed

    Yokotani, Kaori; Umegaki, Keizo

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) intake to in vivo antioxidant activity is unclear, even with respect to plasma. In this study, we examined how administration of EGCg contributes to plasma antioxidant activity, relative to its concentration, endogenous antioxidants, and assay methods, namely oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Administration of EGCg (500 mg/kg) to rats increased plasma EGCg (4μmol/L as free form) and ascorbic acid (1.7-fold), as well as ORAC (1.2-fold) and FRAP (3-fold) values. The increase in plasma ascorbic acid following EGCg administration was accompanied by its relocation from the adrenal glands and lymphocytes into plasma, and was related to the increase in FRAP. Plasma deproteinization and assays in plasma model solutions revealed that protein levels significantly contributed to ORAC values, where <3 μmol/L EGCg in the presence of protein exhibited minimal antioxidant activity, as measured by both FRAP and ORAC. As the concentration of plasma ascorbic acid was not influenced by deproteinization, differences in FRAP values with and without deproteinization were estimated to determine the contribution of enhanced ascorbic acid attributable to EGCg administration. These results will help to understand the points that should be considered when evaluating EGCg antioxidant activity in plasma.

  13. [The effectiveness of ultralow doses and concentrations of biologically active compounds].

    PubMed

    Ashmarin, I P; Lelekova, T V; Sanzhieva, L Ts

    1992-01-01

    Numerous data of literature are analysed on the biological activity of ultra-low (10(-12)-10(-19) M) concentrations and corresponding doses of same bioregulators. Our own data are presented on the modulation of lymphatic vessel contractility by peptides (thyroliberin, defensin, and tuftsin) in concentrations ranging from 10(-13) to 10(-16) M. Hypothetic mechanisms of these phenomena are discussed.

  14. Probabilistic modeling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inhibition under the effects of water activity, pH, and potassium sorbate concentration.

    PubMed

    López-Malo, A; Guerrero, S; Alzamora, S M

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic microbial modeling using logistic regression was used to predict the boundary between growth and no growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at selected incubation periods (50 and 350 h) in the presence of growth-controlling factors such as water activity (a(w); 0.97, 0.95, and 0.93), pH (6.0, 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0), and potassium sorbate (0, 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000 ppm). The proposed model predicts the probability of growth under a set of conditions and calculates critical values of a(w), pH, and potassium sorbate concentration needed to inhibit yeast growth for different probabilities. The reduction of pH increased the number of combinations of a(w) and potassium sorbate concentration with probabilities to inhibit yeast growth higher than 0.95. With a probability of growth of 0.05 and using the logistic models, the critical pH values were higher for 50 h of incubation than those required for 350 h. With lower a(w) values and increasing potassium sorbate concentration the critical pH values increased. Logistic regression is a useful tool to evaluate the effects of the combined factors on microbial growth.

  15. Changes in HTO and OBT activity concentrations in the Perch Lake aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Farrow, F; Bredlaw, M; Stuart, M

    2016-12-01

    Perch Lake, a small shallow shield lake located on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, contains elevated levels of tritium due to inputs from a nearby nuclear waste management area. The releases have been going on for many years but tritium levels in Perch Lake have been gradually decreasing since about year 2000. Lake water, sediments, aquatic plants, clams and fish were collected during the summer and fall of 2003 and 2013 at three locations in the lake. HTO activity concentrations were measured in all samples and OBT activity concentrations were measured in sediments, plants, clams and fish. In 2003, 2013, HTO activity concentrations in lake water were roughly uniform in time and space, except close to the shoreline where concentrations were fluctuating according to stream water and groundwater tritium levels in streams entering the lake. HTO activity concentrations of biota were similar to concentrations in lake water at the site where they were collected. OBT activity concentrations in biota were not always correlating with the lake water HTO levels. OBT to HTO ratios were found to be less than 1 for aquatic plants, around 1 for clams and fish and above 1 for birds reared on the shore of the lake.

  16. Integrating values in the care giving activity from the professional point of view.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Antolín, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Nurses trained more and more on scientific evidence, often focus their actions based fundamentally on scientific fact, leaving aside other important knowledge that intervene in the care giving relation: communication, personal relationships, respect in the relationship, and knowing all the values implied in said relationship. It is about these values and on their importance within care upon which the author reflects in this article, until concluding on how we can integrate values to the care giving activity.

  17. Altered Biomarkers of Mucosal Immunity and Reduced Vaginal Lactobacillus Concentrations in Sexually Active Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Carpenter, Colleen; Fiedler, Tina; Kalyoussef, Sabah; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Viswanathan, Shankar; Kim, Mimi; Keller, Marla J.; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15–18 years). Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. Conclusions/Significance Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females. PMID:22808157

  18. Implementation and Evaluation of a Values Clarification Activity for a Large Undergraduate Human Sexuality Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Alyssa M.

    2016-01-01

    Values clarification is an important tool that helps individuals to clarify their beliefs about sexuality-related issues. This lesson plan provides instructions for a 1-hour values clarification activity for a large undergraduate human sexuality course that serves as an introduction to course content and tone, stimulates students' initial thinking…

  19. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  20. Adolescent Expectancy-Value Motivation, Achievement in Physical Education, and Physical Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xihe; Chen, Ang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation between adolescent expectancy-value motivation, achievements, and after-school physical activity participation. Adolescents (N = 854) from 12 middle schools completed an expectancy-value motivation questionnaire, pre and posttests in psychomotor skill and health-related fitness knowledge tests, and a three-day…

  1. Personal Values and Mission Statement: A Reflective Activity to Aid Moral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird-Magee, Tyler; Gayle, Barbra Mae; Preiss, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Personal values guide ethical decision-making behaviors. Business professors have traditionally addressed undergraduate ethics-based learning through a learn ethics approach using case studies, simulations, presentations, and other activities. Few offer a live ethics orientation requiring completion of a personal values self-assessment and…

  2. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  3. Activity of TDT 067 (terbinafine in Transfersome) against agents of onychomycosis, as determined by minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

    2011-05-01

    TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38-A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 μg/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC(50) values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted.

  4. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  5. On the calculation of activity concentrations and nuclide ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when nuclide ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for nuclide ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.

  6. [The influence of smoking on plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant concentrations in active smokers (preliminary report)].

    PubMed

    Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Sobczak, Andrzej; Król, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains many reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause oxidative stress. Crucial role in defending the organism against ROS play vitamins E and A. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of tobacco smoke on concentration of main ingredients of these vitamins alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol, as well as retinol. The study population consisted of 104 healthy males between the age of 34 and 45 years. Survey questionnaire and determination of plasma cotinine concentration were used to divide the group into smokers (62 males) and non-smokers (42 males). The arbitrary threshold value of plasma cotinine concentration was set to 15 ng/ml. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to estimate the plasma concentration of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, retinol and cotinine. Within the smoking part of the study population a significantly lower (by 12.5%) concentration of alpha-tocopherol, and non-significantly higher (by 15.7%) concentration of gamma-tocopherol was ascertained, when compared to the plasma concentration of those compounds in the non-smoking group. Practically no difference in concentration of retinol was found between the two studied groups. In order to determine the magnitude of interdependency between the extensiveness of exposure to tobacco smoke and the concentration of analyzed antioxidants, correlations between their plasma concentrations and plasma concentration of cotinine were investigated. A significant, moderate and negative correlation of alpha-tocopherol versus cotinin was determined, in the smoking group as well as in the entire study population (r = -0.291 and r = - 0,317, respectively). Other relationship: gamma-tocopherol versus cotinine and retinol versus cotinine did not show any correlation. The obtained results suggest that tobacco smoke weakens the organism's antioxidant barrier by decreasing the concentration of plasma alpha-tocopherol, while not influencing significantly the plasma

  7. Evaluation of metal concentration and antioxidant activity of three edible mushrooms from Mugla, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Semiz, Deniz Karsli; Solak, M Halil

    2010-05-01

    This study is designed for the determination of metal concentrations, antioxidant activity potentials and total phenolics of Amanita caesarea, Clitocybe geotropa and Leucoagaricus pudicus. Concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) and five minor elements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co) are determined. In the case of A. caesarea, Cr and Ni concentrations are found in a high level. Concentrations of the metals are found to be within safe limits for C. geotropa. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid test, L. pudicus showed the highest activity potential. In DPPH system, A. caesarea showed 79.4% scavenging ability. Additionally, reducing power and chelating capacity of the mushrooms increased with concentration. The strongest super-oxide anion scavenger was A. caesarea. In the case of total phenolics, L. pudicus found to have the highest content.

  8. Sulfate and organic matter concentration in relation to hydrogen sulfide generation at inert solid waste landfill site - Limit value for gypsum.

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    In order to suggest a limit value for gypsum (CaSO4) for the suppression of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation at an inert solid waste landfill site, the relationship between raw material (SO4 and organic matter) for H2S generation and generated H2S concentration, and the balance of raw material (SO4) and product (H2S) considering generation and outflow were investigated. SO4 concentration should be less than approximately 100mg-SO4/L in order to suppress H2S generation to below 2000ppm. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentration should be less than approximately 200mg-C/L assuming a high SO4 concentration. The limit value for SO4 in the ground is 60mg-SO4/kg with 0.011wt% as gypsum dihydrate, i.e., approximately 1/10 of the limit value in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision (560mg-SO4/kg-waste). The limit value for SO4 in inert waste as defined by the EU Council Decision is high and TOC is strictly excluded. The cumulative amount of SO4 outflow through the liquid phase is much larger than that through the gas phase. SO4 concentration in pore water decreases with time, reaching half the initial concentration around day 100. SO4 reduction by rainfall can be expected in the long term.

  9. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert G; Bartlett, Emily S; Rosner, Judah L; Wall, Michael E

    2008-07-04

    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and by measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between the MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo and marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor; and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS, implying that the two activators interact with RNA polymerase in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determine which regulon promoters are activated, as well as the extent of their activation.

  10. Rising fecal glucocorticoid concentrations track reproductive activity in the female giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Kersey, David C; Wildt, David E; Brown, Janine L; Snyder, Rebecca J; Huang, Yan; Monfort, Steven L

    2011-09-01

    To better understand the adaptive significance of adrenal glucocorticoid (GC) variation in the giant panda, we assessed patterns of fecal GC excretion over time as well as during estrus, parturient and non-parturient luteal phases, lactation and acyclicity in 17 adult females. Fecal estrogen and GC patterns were positively correlated (P<0.05) in four of five periestrual females (r = 0.57-0.92). Among all reproductive states, fecal GC was highest (P<0.05) during periestrus (non-parturient, 495.9 ± 100.7 ng/g [mean ± SE]; parturient, 654.1 ± 10 6.5 ng/g; P>0.05). Concentrations of GC metabolites were lower (P<0.05) during the later stage of the luteal phase in non-parturient (334.8 ± 24.8 ng/g) compared to parturient (470.4 ± 54.0 ng/g) females. Although fecal GC concentrations in cyclic, non-parturient females did not differ (P>0.05) across all seasons, there were seasonal variations (P<0.05) in females that were acyclic and non-lactational. However, the overall lack of difference (P>0.05) in GC values between reproductively cyclic and acyclic females did not support the hypothesis that ovarian acyclicity is due to increased adrenal activity (related or unrelated to physiological stress). Furthermore, GCs may play an important role in the normal endocrine milieu associated with sexual receptivity and late pregnancy. These data demonstrate that both reproductive status and seasonal factors are important modulators of adrenal function in this endangered species.

  11. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  12. Relation between dabigatran concentration, as assessed using the direct thrombin inhibitor assay, and activated clotting time/activated partial thromboplastin time in patients with atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Kenji; Kuwahara, Taishi; Takagi, Katsumasa; Takigawa, Masateru; Nakajima, Jun; Watari, Yuji; Nakashima, Emiko; Yamao, Kazuya; Fujino, Tadashi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Atsushi

    2015-06-15

    Dabigatran is a direct thrombin inhibitor that has been approved for preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. In this study, we aimed to assess the associations between the dabigatran concentration (calculated through plasma-diluted thrombin time, as assessed using the Hemoclot assay) and the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and activated clotting time (ACT). We recruited 137 patients with atrial fibrillation who were receiving a normal dose of dabigatran (300 mg/d) or a reduced dose of dabigatran (220 mg/d, usually administered to patients who were elderly, had moderate renal dysfunction, or who were also receiving verapamil). We then assessed the aPTT, ACT, and Hemoclot results of the patients and calculated the plasma dabigatran concentration. The mean plasma concentration of dabigatran was 127 ± 88 ng/ml, although no significant differences in dabigatran concentration, ACT, or aPTT were observed when we compared the 2 doses of dabigatran (300 or 220 mg/d). The dabigatran concentration was within the therapeutic levels in most patients, although a high value (>300 ng/ml) was observed in several patients, which indicated a high risk of bleeding. The dabigatran concentration was strongly and positively correlated with ACT and aPTT (r = 0.87, p <0.001; and r = 0.76, p <0.001; respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that verapamil use was independently associated with elevated dabigatran concentrations (p <0.001). Therefore, ACT and aPTT may be useful for bedside assessment of the anticoagulant activity of dabigatran, and verapamil use may be a risk factor for elevated dabigatran concentrations.

  13. Influence of Concentration and Activation on Hydrogen Peroxide Diffusion through Dental Tissues In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Carlos R. G.; Souza, Cristiane S.; Borges, Alessandra B.; Huhtala, Maria Filomena R. L.; Caneppele, Taciana M. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of physical and chemical activation on the diffusion time of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching agents through enamel and dentin. One hundred and twenty bovine cylindrical specimens were divided into six groups (n = 20): 20% HP; 20% HP with light activation; 20% HP with manganese gluconate; 35% HP; 35% HP with light activation; and 35% HP with manganese gluconate. The specimens were fixed over transparent epoxy wells with internal cavities to simulate a pulpal chamber. This chamber was filled with an enzymatic reagent to simulate pulpal fluid. The bleaching gels were applied on enamel surface and the image of the pulpal fluid was captured by a video camera to monitor the time of peroxide penetration in each specimen. ANOVA analysis showed that concentration and type of activation of bleaching gel significantly influenced the diffusion time of HP (P < 0.05). 35% HP showed the lowest diffusion times compared to the groups with 20% HP gel. The light activation of HP decreased significantly the diffusion time compared to chemical activation. The highest diffusion time was obtained with 20% HP chemically activated. The diffusion time of HP was dependent on activation and concentration of HP. The higher concentration of HP diffused through dental tissues more quickly. PMID:24163616

  14. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

  15. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

  16. Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation across Physical Education Classes: The Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gråstén, Arto; Watt, Anthony; Hagger, Martin; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to analyze the link between students' expectancy beliefs, subjective task values, out-of-school activity, and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) participation across secondary school physical education (PE) classes. The sample comprised 96 students (58 girls, 38 boys; Mage = 15.03, SD = 0.94) from…

  17. Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295μgL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater.

  18. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  19. Na-KATPase activity and intracellular ion concentrations in the lactating guinea pig mammary gland. Studies on Na-K activated adenosine triphosphatase, XXXVI.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, J H; de Pont, J J; Bonting, S L

    1975-01-01

    The intracellular sodium, potassium and chloride concentrations in slices of lactating guinea pig mammary gland have been determined by chemical analysis and the use of appropriate values for extracellular space. These ion concentrations after 1 hr incubation at 37 degrees C in a Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution are 45mM Na+, 138 mM K+ and 44 mM Cl-, which values are in agreement with those found in fresh mammary gland slices. Inhibition of the NaK activated ATPase cation pump system of the tissue by 10(-4)M ouabain, anoxia or cooling to 0 degrees C Causes a gain of Na+ and an equimolar loss of K+ without a significant change in chloride concentration. The effect of cooling (0 degrees C) is reversible by reincubation at 37 degrees C. Water content of the tissue (76.5% of wet weight) and extracellular space (40.5%) do not change under these conditions. The results permit the conclusion that the NaK activated ATPase system is responsible for the maintenance of the intracellular Na+ and K+ concentrations, but do not support the presence of a chloride pump.

  20. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by soil extracts and predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) to select relevant pesticides in polluted soils.

    PubMed

    Meza, Juan C Sanchez; Perez, Pedro Avila; Salin, Manuel Borja; Salazar, Victor F Pacheco; Lapoint, Tom

    2010-04-01

    The correlation of predicted environmental concentrations (PEC) with cholinesterase activity inhibition detected in soil extracts was determined. PEC was derived from organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CA) compounds applied to a flower crop area. Samples of surface soil (0 - 30 cm in depth) and subsurface soil (30 to 60 cm in depth) were taken from a flower crop area in which OP pesticides such as acephate ((RS)-N-[methoxy(methylthio)phosphinoyl]acetamide), dimethoate (2-dimethoxyphosphinothioylthio-N-methylacetamide) and methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate), and CA pesticides such as carbendazim (methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate), carbofuran (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate) and methomyl (S-methyl (EZ)-N-(methylcarbamoyloxy) thioacetimidate) were applied for two years. Weekly loads of these pesticides were registered to estimate the annual load of each compound. Physicochemical analysis and relative inhibition of cholinesterasic activity were measured for each soil sample. PEC values were estimated with Pesticide Analytical Model (PESTAN), a leach model, for each pesticide using soil sample data obtained from physicochemical analysis. From all pesticides tested, only acephate and methomyl showed a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between PEC values and inhibition cholinesterase activity of soil extracts. These results suggest that inhibition of cholinesterase activity observed in soil extracts is produced mainly by these two pesticides. Further studies could be developed to measure acephate and methomyl concentrations to reduce their environmental impact.

  1. Tracking the progress of congress mashing with osmolyte concentrations and malt extract values in North American barley cultivars ... osmolyte concentrations, malt extract values and ASBC measures of malt quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test three hypotheses: (1) that barley malt osmolyte concentration (OC) would increase more rapidly during mashing than malt extract (ME), (2) OC would better discriminate between differing barley malts during mashing than ME, and (3) that OC after mashing would better co...

  2. Investigations on the activity concentrations of 238U, 226RA, 228RA, 210PB and 40K in Jordan phosphogypsum and fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Al-Jundi, J; Al-Ahmad, N; Shehadeh, H; Afaneh, F; Maghrabi, M; Gerstmann, U; Höllriegl, V; Oeh, U

    2008-01-01

    The activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides ((238)U, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Pb and (40)K) in Jordanian phosphate ore, fertilizer material and phosphogypsum piles were investigated. The results show the partitioning of radionuclides in fertilizer products and phosphogypsum piles. The outcome of this study will enrich the Jordanian radiological map database, and will be useful for an estimation of the radiological impact of this industrial complex on the immediate environment. The activity concentration of (210)Pb was found to vary from 95 +/- 8 to 129 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 111 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) in fertilizer samples, and from 364 +/- 8 to 428 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 391 +/- 30 Bq kg(-1) in phosphogypsum samples; while in phosphate wet rock samples, it was found to vary between 621 +/- 9 and 637 +/- 10 Bq kg(-1), with a mean value of 628 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1). The activity concentration of (226)Ra in fertilizer samples (between 31 +/- 4 and 42 +/- 5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 37 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much smaller than the activity concentration of (226)Ra in phosphogypsum samples (between 302 +/- 8 and 442 +/- 8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 376 +/- 62 Bq kg(-1)). In contrast, the activity concentration of (238)U in fertilizer samples (between 1011 +/- 13 and 1061 +/- 14 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 1033 +/- 22 Bq kg(-1)) was found to be much higher than the activity concentration of (238)U in phosphogypsum samples (between 14 +/- 5 and 37 +/- 7 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 22 +/- 11 Bq kg(-1)). This indicates that (210)Pb and (226)Ra show similar behaviour, and are concentrated in phosphogypsum piles. In addition, both isotopes enhanced the activity concentration in phosphogypsum piles, while (238)U enhanced the activity concentration in the fertilizer. Due to the radioactivity released from the phosphate rock processing plants into the environment, the highest collective dose commitment for the lungs

  3. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: a measure of engagement in personally valued activities.

    PubMed

    Eakman, Aaron M; Carlson, Mike E; Clark, Florence A

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement.

  4. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation.

  5. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average.

  6. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago. PMID:25583135

  7. Effect of carbonic anhydrase on silicate weathering and carbonate formation at present day CO2 concentrations compared to primordial values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Leilei; Lian, Bin; Hao, Jianchao; Liu, Congqiang; Wang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    It is widely recognized that carbonic anhydrase (CA) participates in silicate weathering and carbonate formation. Nevertheless, it is still not known if the magnitude of the effect produced by CA on surface rock evolution changes or not. In this work, CA gene expression from Bacillus mucilaginosus and the effects of recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation under different conditions are explored. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to explore the correlation between CA gene expression and sufficiency or deficiency in calcium and CO2 concentration. The results show that the expression of CA genes is negatively correlated with both CO2 concentration and ease of obtaining soluble calcium. A pure form of the protein of interest (CA) is obtained by cloning, heterologous expression, and purification. The results from tests of the recombination protein on wollastonite dissolution and carbonate formation at different levels of CO2 concentration show that the magnitudes of the effects of CA and CO2 concentration are negatively correlated. These results suggest that the effects of microbial CA in relation to silicate weathering and carbonate formation may have increased importance at the modern atmospheric CO2 concentration compared to 3 billion years ago.

  8. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  9. Contraceptive steroid concentrations in women with early active schistosomiasis: lack of effect of antischistosomal drugs.

    PubMed

    el-Raghy, I; Back, D J; Osman, F; Orme, M L; Fathalla, M

    1986-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive steroids (OCS) ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and levonorgestrel (LNG) have been determined in women with early active schistosomiasis and compared to those obtained in healthy volunteers. Steroid concentrations following a single dose of Ovral (500 micrograms LNG, 50 micrograms EE2) or during a multiple dose regimen were unaffected by the disease. There was no significant effect of the antischistosomal drugs praziquantel (40 mg X kg-1) or metrifonate (10 mg X kg-1 X 3 at 2-week intervals) on plasma steroid concentrations. In regular users of OCS, significantly higher concentrations of LNG were observed than in women who received only a single dose. We conclude that there is no pharmacokinetic reason for withholding OCS from patients with early active schistosomiasis who are also receiving either praziquantel or metrifonate.

  10. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The global atmospheric CO(2) concentration is currently (2012) 393.1 μmol mol(-1), an increase of approximately 42 % over pre-industrial levels. In order to understand the responses of metabolic enzymes to elevated CO(2) concentrations, an experiment was conducted using the Free Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE )system. Two conventional japonica rice varieties (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) grown in North China, Songjing 9 and Daohuaxiang 2, were used in this study. The activities of ADPG pyrophosphorylase, soluble and granule-bound starch synthases, and soluble and granule-bound starch branching enzymes were measured in rice grains, and the effects of elevated CO(2) on the amylose and protein contents of the grains were analyzed. The results showed that elevated CO(2) levels significantly increased the activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase at day 8, 24, and 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 56.67 % for Songjing 9 and 21.31 % for Daohuaxiang 2. Similarly, the activities of starch synthesis enzymes increased significantly from the day 24 after flower to the day 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 36.81 % for Songjing 9 and 66.67 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in soluble starch synthase (SSS), and 25.00 % for Songjing 9 and 36.44 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), respectively. The elevated CO(2) concentration significantly increased the activity of soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE) at day 16, 32, and 40 after flower, and also significantly increased the activity of granule-bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE) at day 8, 32, and 40 after flower. The elevated CO(2) concentration increased the peak values of enzyme activity, and the timing of the activity peaks for SSS and GBSBE were earlier in Songjing 9 than in Daohuaxiang 2. There were obvious differences in developmental stages between the two varieties of rice, which indicated that the elevated CO(2) concentration increased enzyme activity expression and starch synthesis, affecting the

  11. Changes in the activities of starch metabolism enzymes in rice grains in response to elevated CO2 concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Li-Yong; Lin, Er-Da; Zhao, Hong-Liang; Feng, Yong-Xiang

    2016-05-01

    The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is currently (2012) 393.1 μmol mol-1, an increase of approximately 42 % over pre-industrial levels. In order to understand the responses of metabolic enzymes to elevated CO2 concentrations, an experiment was conducted using the Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE )system. Two conventional japonica rice varieties ( Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) grown in North China, Songjing 9 and Daohuaxiang 2, were used in this study. The activities of ADPG pyrophosphorylase, soluble and granule-bound starch synthases, and soluble and granule-bound starch branching enzymes were measured in rice grains, and the effects of elevated CO2 on the amylose and protein contents of the grains were analyzed. The results showed that elevated CO2 levels significantly increased the activity of ADPG pyrophosphorylase at day 8, 24, and 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 56.67 % for Songjing 9 and 21.31 % for Daohuaxiang 2. Similarly, the activities of starch synthesis enzymes increased significantly from the day 24 after flower to the day 40 after flower, with maximum increases of 36.81 % for Songjing 9 and 66.67 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in soluble starch synthase (SSS), and 25.00 % for Songjing 9 and 36.44 % for Daohuaxiang 2 in granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS), respectively. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased the activity of soluble starch branching enzyme (SSBE) at day 16, 32, and 40 after flower, and also significantly increased the activity of granule-bound starch branching enzyme (GBSBE) at day 8, 32, and 40 after flower. The elevated CO2 concentration increased the peak values of enzyme activity, and the timing of the activity peaks for SSS and GBSBE were earlier in Songjing 9 than in Daohuaxiang 2. There were obvious differences in developmental stages between the two varieties of rice, which indicated that the elevated CO2 concentration increased enzyme activity expression and starch synthesis, affecting the final contents

  12. An indole-containing dauer pheromone component with unusual dauer inhibitory activity at higher concentrations.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-07-16

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer pheromone, which consists of a number of derivatives of the 3,6-dideoxysugar ascarylose, is the primary cue for entry into the stress-resistant, "nonaging" dauer larval stage. Here, using activity-guided fractionation and NMR-based structure elucidation, a structurally novel, indole-3-carboxyl-modified ascaroside is identified that promotes dauer formation at low nanomolar concentrations but inhibits dauer formation at higher concentrations.

  13. Characteristics of Zinc Phosphate Coating Activated by Different Concentrations of Nickel Acetate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Khalid; Zuhailawati, H.; Rahmat, Azmi; Azizan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Activation pretreatment with nickel acetate solution at various concentrations was performed prior to the phosphating step to enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrates. The activation solution was studied over various concentrations: 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The effects of these concentrations on surface characteristics and microstructural evolution of the coated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in a 3.5 pct NaCl solution. Significant increases in the nucleation sites and surface coverage of zinc phosphate coating were observed as the concentration of activation solution reached 50 g/L. The electrochemical analysis revealed that the activation treatment with 50 g/L nickel acetate solution significantly improved the protection ability of the zinc phosphate coating. The corrosion current density of activated phosphate coating with 50 g/L was reduced by 64.64 and 13.22 pct, compared to the coatings obtained with activation solutions of 10 and 100 g/L, respectively.

  14. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  15. Inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ferric ions on the activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yoshishige; Inoue, Chihiro; Suto, Koichi; Chida, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of high concentrations of ferric ions on the biochemical activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied using intact cells. The specific oxidation rate of ferrous ions decreased with increasing ferric ion concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed typical competitive inhibition kinetics, because the slopes varied with the ferric ion concentration. A linear relationship between the slope and the square of the ferric ion concentration revealed that the iron-oxidizing enzyme system of A. ferrooxidans was competitively inhibited by about two molecules of ferric ion. The kinetic equation based on this inhibition model agreed with the experimental observation at a high ferric ion concentration where the bacterium is usually exposed in bioleaching and biooxidation plants.

  16. Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1 year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

  17. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  18. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  19. Influence of microwave irradiation on boron concentrate activation with an emphasis on surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Liu, Yajing; Xue, Xiangxin; Duan, Peining

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we employed microwave irradiation for activating boron concentrate, an abundant but low-grade boron mineral resource in China. The boron concentrate was pretreated by microwave irradiation based on TG-DTG-DSC analysis, and the influence of each parameter on processing efficiency was characterized using chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, FTIR and particle distribution analysis. Subsequently, the surface properties of boron concentrate and the mechanism of microwave irradiation was analyzed. Our results indicate that microwave irradiation decreased the processing temperature and shortened the roasting time by accelerating dehydroxylation and oxidation reactions in the boron concentrate, reducing the particle diameter and damaging the microstructure of the minerals, and it increased the B2O3 activity of boron from 64.68% to 86.73%, greater than the optimal conventional treatment. Compared with the simple thermal field, microwave roasting obviously increased ability of the boron concentrate to absorb OH- in the leachant and promoted boron leaching by expanding the contact area of the mineral exposed to leachant, boosting the amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ on mineral surfaces, and increasing the hydrophilicity of the boron concentrate respectively. It enhanced the γSVLW and γSV- of boron concentrate from 29.15 mJ/m2 and 5.07 mJ/m2 to 37.07 mJ/m2 and 12.41 mJ/m2.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Urine Sodium Concentration in Hyponatremia Due to Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Versus Hypovolemia

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Background We are often left with the differential diagnosis of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) versus hypovolemic hyponatremia. It is difficult to tell who will respond to isotonic saline infusion and who will not, if the urine sodium value is not completely suppressed (>10 mEq/L). Aim To examine the diagnostic accuracy of the urine sodium value. Design A retrospective observation. Methods The diagnostic accuracy of the urine sodium value was compared to that of a complete work-up and hospital course, including a response to saline infusion in patients with a final diagnosis of SIADH or hypovolemic hyponatremia. We also examined the diagnostic value of urine sodium-to-BUN ratio which should improve separation between SIADH and hypovolemia since the urine sodium and BUN move in opposite directions in these two conditions. Results The urine sodium value of 50 mEq/L was the most accurate in separating SIADH from hypovolemic hyponatremia: sensitivity 0.89, specificity 0.69, and accuracy 0.82. The diagnostic utility for SIADH versus hypovolemia, as quantified by the areas under the ROC curves, was not statistically different between urine sodium alone (0.89, 95% CI 0.77–0.96) and urine sodium-to-BUN ratio (0.93, 95% CI 0.83–0.98); p-value 0.33. Conclusions When the underlying cause is inconclusive between SIADH and hypovolemia, and when only basic laboratory results are available at the time of initial evaluation, the urine sodium alone will be adequate to guide initial fluid management. In contrast to traditional teaching, elevated urine sodium levels up to 50 mEq/L demonstrated clinically meaningful responses to isotonic saline infusion. PMID:21218377

  1. Adapting a Particle Model for Computing Sulfur Dioxide Concentrations in Mount Rainier Area and Comparing Them to Measured Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givati, Reuven

    In this work the SO_2 concentrations measured in the Mt. Rainier area during PREVENT Pacific Northwest Regional Visibility Experiment Using Natural Tracers, June to September 1990), were analyzed with the aid of the MATHEW/ADPIC models (a diagnostic wind model and a particle model) developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Some changes were made in the models to adapt them to the specific conditions of this experiment. The models were run on a large domain in western Washington, and the SO_2 concentrations were evaluated at two specific points, Tahoma Woods and Paradise in the Nisqually Valley, the only points near Mt. Rainier where SO_2 concentrations were measured during PREVENT. The changes that were made were: including loss rates of SO_2 by oxidation, using different heights of the top of the boundary layer at different locations, enabling limited area of influence of specific meteorological stations when interpolating the wind fields, and including the possibility of reflection of the air "particles", from the top of the mixed layer. Because of the paucity of the meteorological measurements near the sampling points, an estimation was made about the wind behavior in the valley, based on the phenomena of wind channeling, mountain and valley winds, and historical wind measurements near Mt. Rainier. The models were run for several non-rainy days of PREVENT having large SO_2 concentrations, or that were interesting for other reasons. The agreement between the measured and modeled SO_2 concentrations at Tahoma Woods during the daytime periods, was quite good. Out of 14 days, for which the emissions of the previous night were taken into account, for 12 days (86%) the ratio of the modeled to the measured SO_2 concentrations, at Tahoma Woods during the daytime periods, was in the interval 0.45-2.00. The agreement between the modeled and measured SO_2 concentrations at Tahoma Woods during the nights, and at Paradise, during the day and the night, were not

  2. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN HOMOLOGUE CONCENTRATIONS OF PCDD/FS AND TOXIC EQUIVALENCY VALUES IN LABORATORY-, PACKAGE BOILER-, AND FIELD-SCALE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxic equivalency (TEQ) values of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted with a model based on the homologue concentrations measured from a laboratory-scale reactor (124 data points), a package boiler (61 data points), and ...

  3. Effects of Active Recovery on Lactate Concentration, Heart Rate and RPE in Climbing

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Nick; Bird, Ellis L.; Coleman, Ian; Hodgson, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The performance advantage of active rather than passive recovery during subsequent trials for repeated high intensity short-term exercise is well documented. Research findings suggest that shorter periods of active recovery, than traditionally employed, can be prescribed and still retain performance benefits over passive recoveries in successive exercise trials. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of a short duration active recovery for repeat climbing trials. Ten recreational climbers volunteered for the study. In this randomly assigned crossover study each climber completed five two-minute climbing trails before a two minute active or passive recovery. This was followed by a one and a half minute passive refocusing period for all climbers before the subsequent climbing trial. Heart rate was monitored continuously, RPE immediately post climbing and fingertip capillary blood samples collected during each refocusing phase. There was a non-significant difference between active and passive recoveries for heart rate during climbing. After the active phase climbers had higher heart rates than when following the passive recovery protocol, however, by the end of the refocusing phase the active recovery protocol led to lower heart rates than for the entirely passive recovery. There was a significant difference between active and passive recovery conditions in lactate concentration (F(1,9) = 18.79, p = 0.002) and RPE (F(1,9) = 6.51, p = 0.031). Lactate concentration and RPE were lower across all five climbing trials for the active recovery protocol. After active recovery climbers started the next trial with a lower arterial lactate concentration than for a passive recovery and indicated lower RPE scores at the end of each climb. The refocusing period following active recovery allowed climbers heart rates to return to a lower level at the start of the next climb than for the passive recovery condition. Key Points The three and half minute recovery strategy

  4. Preparation of Standard Reference Material 2383 (Baby Food Composite) and use of an interlaboratory comparison exercise for value assignment of its nutrient concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Gill, L M; Margolis, S A; Wise, S A; Elkins, E

    1999-01-01

    The preparation of the recently released Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2383 Baby Food Composite and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations are reported. SRM 2383 can be used as a control material when assigning values to in-house control materials and when validating analytical methods for measuring proximates, vitamins, and minerals in baby food and similar matrixes. The SRM was prepared as a commercial baby food would be prepared, with the same ingredients. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2383 provides assigned values for concentrations of proximates, vitamins, and minerals for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. These assigned values were based on measurements by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and/or collaborating laboratories. Assignment of analyte concentrations based solely on analyses by collaborating laboratories is described in this paper. Certified values are provided for retinol, tocopherols, and several carotenoids including total beta-carotene; the certification of and methodology used for measurement of these analytes is discussed in a companion paper (this issue, page 288). Reference values are provided for solids, ash, fat, nitrogen, protein, carbohydrate, calories, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, niacin, biotin, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, iron, zinc, copper, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Reference values for additional carotenoids are reported in the companion paper (this issue, page 288). Information values are provided for iodine, selenium, molybdenum, vitamin D, vitamin B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, choline, inositol, sugars, total dietary fiber, and 3 classes of fats.

  5. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility value and…

  6. Ultrafiltration of skimmed goat milk increases its nutritional value by concentrating nonfat solids such as proteins, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez-Martínez, Rafael; Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Ruiz-López, María Dolores; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    Goat milk has been reported to possess good nutritional and health-promoting properties. Usually, it must be concentrated before fermented products can be obtained. The aim of this study was to compare physicochemical and nutritional variables among raw (RM), skimmed (SM), and ultrafiltration-concentrated skimmed (UFM) goat milk. The density, acidity, ash, protein, casein, whey protein, Ca, P, Mg, and Zn values were significantly higher in UFM than in RM or SM. Dry extract and fat levels were significantly higher in UFM than in SM, and Mg content was significantly higher in UFM than in RM. Ultrafiltration also increased the solubility of Ca and Mg, changing their distribution in the milk. The higher concentrations of minerals and proteins, especially caseins, increase the nutritional value of UFM, which may therefore be more appropriate for goat milk yogurt manufacturing in comparison to RM or SM.

  7. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children’s Sport Activity

    PubMed Central

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed. PMID:28344676

  8. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children's Sport Activity.

    PubMed

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-03-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes' acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children's sportive activity and adolescents' acceptance of their parents' socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire - 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents' socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents' willingness to accept their parents' sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.

  9. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides obtained from Chlorella pyrenoidosa via different ethanol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Zheng; Huang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    An ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa polysaccharides (CPP) was carried out using different concentrations of ethanol for precipitation, and named as CPP60, CPP70 and CPP85, respectively. The monosaccharide composition of each polysaccharide (CPP) was determined using gas chromatography (GC) and the antioxidant activity of each was investigated via the reducing power and scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anion radicals, respectively. All of the polysaccharides examined possessed antioxidant activity in vitro. CPP70 exhibited stronger scavenging activity against superoxide, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, when compared with CPP60 and CPP85. This suggests that polysaccharides from C. pyrenoidosa precipitated by a final ethanol concentration of 70%, have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceuticals.

  10. Detecting kinase activities from single cell lysate using concentration-enhanced mobility shift assay.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Lih Feng; Sarkar, Aniruddh; Kolitz, Sarah; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Han, Jongyoon

    2014-08-05

    Electrokinetic preconcentration coupled with mobility shift assays can give rise to very high detection sensitivities. We describe a microfluidic device that utilizes this principle to detect cellular kinase activities by simultaneously concentrating and separating substrate peptides with different phosphorylation states. This platform is capable of reliably measuring kinase activities of single adherent cells cultured in nanoliter volume microwells. We also describe a novel method utilizing spacer peptides that significantly increase separation resolution while maintaining high concentration factors in this device. Thus, multiplexed kinase measurements can be implemented with single cell sensitivity. Multiple kinase activity profiling from single cell lysate could potentially allow us to study heterogeneous activation of signaling pathways that can lead to multiple cell fates.

  11. Estimating and Predicting Metal Concentration Using Online Turbidity Values and Water Quality Models in Two Rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Zhuang, Wei; Qian, Yu; Xia, Bisheng; Yang, Yang; Qian, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity (T) has been widely used to detect the occurrence of pollutants in surface water. Using data collected from January 2013 to June 2014 at eleven sites along two rivers feeding the Taihu Basin, China, the relationship between the concentration of five metals (aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), lead (Pb)) and turbidity was investigated. Metal concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The linear regression of metal concentration and turbidity provided a good fit, with R2 = 0.86–0.93 for 72 data sets collected in the industrial river and R2 = 0.60–0.85 for 60 data sets collected in the cleaner river. All the regression presented good linear relationship, leading to the conclusion that the occurrence of the five metals are directly related to suspended solids, and these metal concentration could be approximated using these regression equations. Thus, the linear regression equations were applied to estimate the metal concentration using online turbidity data from January 1 to June 30 in 2014. In the prediction, the WASP 7.5.2 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) model was introduced to interpret the transport and fates of total suspended solids; in addition, metal concentration downstream of the two rivers was predicted. All the relative errors between the estimated and measured metal concentration were within 30%, and those between the predicted and measured values were within 40%. The estimation and prediction process of metals’ concentration indicated that exploring the relationship between metals and turbidity values might be one effective technique for efficient estimation and prediction of metal concentration to facilitate better long-term monitoring with high temporal and spatial density. PMID:27028017

  12. Characterization of concentration gradients of a morphogenetically active retinoid in the chick limb bud

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick wing bud concentration gradients of the morphogenetically active retinoid TTNPB, (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro- 5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-prope nyl] benzoic acid, a synthetic vitamin A compound. Upon local application of TTNPB the normal 234 digit pattern is duplicated in a way that correlates with the geometry of the underlying TTNPB gradient; low doses of TTNPB lead to a shallow gradient and an additional digit 2, whereas higher doses result in a steep, far-reaching gradient and patterns with additional digits 3 and 4. The experimentally measured TTNPB distribution along the anteroposterior axis, can be modeled by a local source and a dispersed sink. This model correctly predicts the site of specification of digit 2, and provides an empirical estimate of the diffusion coefficient (D) of retinoids in embryonic limb tissue. The numerical value of approximately 10(-7) cm2s-1 for D suggests that retinoids are not freely diffusible in the limb rudiment, but interact with the previously identified cellular retinoic acid binding protein. In addition, D affords an estimate of the time required to establish a diffusion gradient as 3 to 4 h. This time span is in a range compatible with the time scale of pattern specification in developing vertebrate limbs. Our studies support the view that diffusion of morphogenetic substances is a plausible mechanism of pattern formation in secondary embryonic fields. PMID:3667700

  13. Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentrations in Adults without Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Martin-Borras, Carme; de-la-Cal-dela-Fuente, Aventina; Sauras-Llera, Ines; Sanchez-Perez, Alvaro; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Methods A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women). Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs)/hour/week) and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days. Results Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute) and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week). Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = −0.100; p<0.001) and METs/hour/week (r = −0.162; p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week) respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile), maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = −0.03; p = 0.046 and β = −0.06; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders. PMID:24498413

  14. Effects of anesthesia and surgery on serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in yellow perch (Perca flavescens), walleye pike (Sander vitreus), and koi (Cyprinus carpio).

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta S; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Patterson, Tamatha A; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2010-05-15

    OBJECTIVE-To evaluate serial blood gas values and lactate concentrations in 3 fish species undergoing surgery and to compare blood lactate concentrations between fish that survived and those that died during the short-term postoperative period. DESIGN-Prospective cohort study. Animals-10 yellow perch, 5 walleye pike, and 8 koi. PROCEDURES-Blood samples were collected from each fish at 3 time points: before anesthesia, during anesthesia, and immediately after surgery. Blood gas values and blood lactate concentrations were measured. Fish were monitored for 2 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS-All walleye and koi survived, but 2 perch died. Blood pH significantly decreased in perch from before to during anesthesia, but increased back to preanesthesia baseline values after surgery. Blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in perch from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery, and also from during anesthesia to immediately after surgery, whereas blood Pco(2) decreased significantly in koi from before to during anesthesia. Blood Po(2) increased significantly in both perch and koi from before to during anesthesia, and also in koi from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. For all 3 species, blood lactate concentrations increased significantly from before anesthesia to immediately after surgery. Blood lactate concentration (mean +/- SD) immediately after surgery for the 8 surviving perch was 6.06 +/- 1.47 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than blood lactate concentrations in the 2 nonsurviving perch (10.58 and 10.72 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-High blood lactate concentrations following surgery in fish may be predictive of a poor short-term postoperative survival rate.

  15. Effects of allopurinol on uric acid concentrations, xanthine oxidoreductase activity and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Falkenstein, E; Radke, W J; Klandorf, H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of allopurinol (AL) on xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity and uric acid (UA) levels in chickens. Thirty 5-week-old broilers were divided into three groups and fed 0 (control), 25 (AL25) or 50 (AL50) mg AL per kg of body mass for 5 weeks. Chicks were weighed twice weekly and leukocyte oxidative activity (LOA) and plasma purine levels were determined weekly in five birds per group. Chicks were sacrificed after 2 or 5 weeks, and samples from tissues were taken for analysis of XOR activity. Plasma UA concentrations were lower (P<0.001) and xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were greater (P<0.001) in AL25 and AL50 birds compared to controls, whereas no differences (P=0.904) were detected in allantoin concentrations. By week 5, body mass was reduced (P<0.001) to 84.0 and 65.1% of that in controls for AL25 and AL50 broilers, respectively, and LOA was 4.1 times greater (P<0.05) in AL25 compared to control birds. Liver XOR activity was increased by 1.1 and 1.2 times in AL25 and AL50 birds, but there was no change (P>0.05) in XOR activity in the pancreas and intestine. These results suggest that AL effect on XOR activity is tissue dependent.

  16. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  17. Spatial variability of dissolved phosphorous concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Chang, J.; Ho, T.; Gong, G.

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) have been determined at about 25 sampling stations in the East China Sea since 2003. The stations are mainly distributed from the Changjiang river mouth to northern Taiwan and east to the shelf break. In addition to the Changjiang discharge, we have found a specific nutrient source around a coastal site (122° 2’30’’ E, 28° 40’ N). Elevated DIP and nitrate concentrations have been constantly observed around the sampling station for 8 years, where the surface DIP concentrations are generally around 0.3 µM. The nutrient source may either originate from ground water discharge or coastal upwelling, where lower temperature has been observed in the water column around the station. In general, APA has been negatively correlated with DIP concentrations in the studies sites, with lowest APA around the high DIP station and the Changjiang river mouth.

  18. 76 FR 48882 - Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium Concentrations in Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium... Collection 1028-NEW, Uranium concentrations in private wells in south-east New Hampshire, in the subject line... telephone (970) 226-9165; or schusterr@usgs.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract...

  19. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  20. How Do People With COPD Value Different Activities? An Adapted Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research.

    PubMed

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Greenfield, Sheila M; Greenfield, Charlotte; Jolly, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term condition where activities of daily living (ADLs) may be very restricted; people with COPD need to prioritize what is important to them. We conducted a meta-ethnography to understand which ADLs are valued and why, systematically searching for articles including experiences of ADLs and organizing themes from the articles into five linked concepts: (a) caring for the body, (b) caring for the personal environment, (c) moving between spaces, (d) interacting with others, and (e) selfhood across time. In addition, we identified three key aspects of personal integrity: effectiveness, connectedness, and control. We found that ADLs were valued if they increased integrity; however, this process was also informed by gendered roles and social values. People whose sense of control depended on effectiveness often found accepting help very difficult to bear; therefore, redefining control as situational and relational may help enjoyment of activities that are possible.

  1. Measuring Staff Perceptions of University Identity and Activities: The Mission and Values Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.; Velcoff, Jessica

    2006-01-01

    Higher education institutions need to ascertain whether their stakeholders understand the school's mission, vision, and values. In the present study, the psychometric properties of a mission identity and activity measure were investigated with two staff samples. Using a principal component factor analysis (varimax rotation), respondents in Sample…

  2. Different cortical activation patterns during voluntary eccentric and concentric muscle contractions: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Won

    2011-01-01

    Concentric and eccentric muscle contractions have distinct differences in their neuromuscular and neurophysiologic characteristics. However, although many evidences regarding the features of these types of muscle contraction have emerged, there have been few neuroimaging studies to compare the two types of contractions. Therefore, we investigated whether cortical activity associated with eccentric contraction of the wrist extensors differed from that of concentric contraction, using functional MRI (fMRI). Fifteen right-handed healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. During 4 repeating blocks of eccentric and concentric muscle contraction paradigms, the brain was scanned with fMRI. The differences in the BOLD signal intensities during the performance of eccentric and concentric exercise were compared in the predetermined regions of interest. Our findings revealed that many cortical areas associated with motor performance were activated, including the primary motor area, the inferior parietal lobe, the pre-supplementary area (pre-SMA), the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal area, and the cerebellum. In addition, lower signal intensities were seen in the right primary motor cortex and right cerebellum during eccentric contractions compared with concentric contractions, whereas higher signal intensities were detected in other cortical areas during eccentric contractions. In the study, we demonstrated that eccentric and concentric muscle contractions induced quite different patterns of cortical activity respectively. These findings might be attributed to different strategy of neuro-motor processing and a higher level of cognitive demand for the performance of motor task with a higher degree of difficulty such as that required during eccentric contractions in comparison of concentric contractions.

  3. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode.

  4. Influence of various concentrations of selenic acid (IV) on the activity of soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nowak, J; Kaklewski, K; Klódka, D

    2002-05-27

    The aim of this experiment was the assessment of the influence of various concentrations of H2SeO3 (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM) on the activity of soil enzymes over 112 days. The lab experiment was performed using soil samples (dust-silt black soil of 1.92% organic C content, pH 7.7), 60% maximal water capacity. The soil samples were treated with a selenic acid water solution at the concentrations mentioned above. As a reference, natural soil was used (without the selenic acid). The activity of the following enzymes was tested: beta-glucosidase, nitrate reductase, urease, dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatases. The soil was sampled at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112. The results of the study have shown that the selenic acid had no effect on the activity of the beta-glucosidase in soil. In the course of the whole experiment, the applied selenic acid inhibited activity of the nitrate reductase up to 70% at 5 mM, and the activity of dehydrogenase was also decreased--by up to 85% at 5 mM, similarly to urease (with the exception of days 14 and 28), and acid phosphatase (until day 56). The activity of alkaline phosphatase was increased by the lowest concentration of selenic acid and decreased by the highest, which was found in the course of the whole experiment. The 5-mM concentration of selenic acid inhibited the activity of all the enzymes tested in this experiment.

  5. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  6. Determination of an Optimal Threshold Value for Muscle Activity Detection in EMG Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Özgünen, Kerem Tuncay; Çelik, Umut; Kurdak, Sanlı Sadi

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly agreed that one needs to use a threshold value in the detection of muscle activity timing in electromyographic (EMG) signal analysis. However, the algorithm for threshold determination lacks an agreement between the investigators. In this study we aimed to determine a proper threshold value in an incremental cycling exercise for accurate EMG signal analysis. Nine healthy recreationally active male subjects cycled until exhaustion. EMG recordings were performed on four low extremity muscle groups; gastrocnemius lateralis (GL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), soleus (SOL) and vastus medialis (VM). We have analyzed our data using three different threshold levels: 25%, 35% and 45% of the mean RMS EMG value. We compared the appropriateness of these threshold values using two criteria: (1) significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts and (2) proximity of the regression line of the actual and estimated number of bursts to the line of identity. It had been possible to find a significant correlation between the actual and estimated number of bursts with the 25, 35 and 45% threshold values for the GL muscle. Correlation analyses for the VM muscle had shown that the number of bursts estimated with the 35% threshold value was found to be significantly correlated with the actual number of bursts. For the GM muscle, it had been possible to predict the burst number by using either the 35% or 45% threshold value and for the SOL muscle the 25% threshold value was found as the best predictor for actual number of burst estimation. Detailed analyses of the actual and estimated number of bursts had shown that success of threshold estimation may differ among muscle groups. Evaluation of our data had clearly shown that it is important to select proper threshold values for correct EMG signal analyses. Using a single threshold value for different exercise intensities and different muscle groups may cause misleading results. Key points α priori

  7. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and δ13C values during 2011-2012 voyage: Mediterranean, Atlantic Ocean, southern Indian Ocean and New Zealand to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longinelli, A.; Langone, L.; Ori, C.; Giglio, F.; Selmo, E.; Sgavetti, M.

    2013-10-01

    During the 2011-2012 hemispheric voyage of the M/V Italica from Italy to the Atlantic Ocean, southern Indian Ocean, New Zealand and Antarctica, atmospheric CO2 concentrations were continuously recorded and 52 air samples collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks for the measurement of the δ13C of atmospheric CO2. In the case of CO2 concentrations, new data include the following: 1) in the Adriatic, between Ravenna and Otranto, CO2 was never measured in order to avoid the expected heavy contribution from industrial plants; the 2011 measurements fully confirm this contribution; 2) in the Atlantic, along the Moroccan coast, high values of up to 415 ppmv were recorded, apparently due to considerable industrial development in Morocco; 3) minor CO2 concentrations were also recorded along other sections of the African coast north of the Equator, whereas relatively low constant values were recorded south of the Equator; 4) in the southern Indian Ocean, CO2 concentrations were measured almost along a parallel, yielding homogeneous values not much higher than the mean values recorded at NOAA stations in nearby areas. With only one exception, the δ13C values were systematically less negative than -9‰ (VPDB), the mean values for the three oceanic sections being the following: Atlantic Ocean -8.64 ± 0.20‰; Indian Ocean -8.54 ± 0.06‰; New Zealand to Antarctica -8.49 ± 0.02‰. A small but progressive increase in δ13C values with increasing latitude was in good agreement with the expected trend. The homogeneity of such values between New Zealand and Antarctica was remarkable, as these samples had been collected in particularly rough oceanic conditions with high winds. In spite of these particular environmental conditions these values were very close to those of samples collected in the same area in 2009 and 2010 in conditions of calm sea and low wind. This similarity contrasts sharply with the theory and models of air-sea gas exchange.

  8. Determination of certain trace impurities in uranium concentrates by activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rassoul, A A; Wahba, S S; Abdel-Aziz, A

    1966-03-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous determination of chromium, iron, cobalt and zinc in samples of uranium concentrates, oxides and metallic uranium by neutron-activation analysis. The method involves adequate decontamination of gross fission product activities by adsorption on silica gel, removal of uranium by solvent extraction, separation of most carrier-free rare-earth activities by coprecipitation with aluminium chloride, and, finally, fractional separation of the elements concerned by ion-exchange chromatography. The method can assay ppm of such elements in limited quantities of samples by scintillation gamma-ray spectrometric analysis with a reproducibility of 10-15%.

  9. Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide Activate the Antioxidant Defense System in Human Sperm Cells.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Barinova, K V; Turovetskii, V B; Muronetz, V I; Schmalhausen, E V

    2015-09-01

    The effect of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (10-100 µM) on sperm motility and on the activity of the sperm enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) was investigated. Incubation of semen samples with 10 and 100 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of spermatozoa with progressive motility by 20 and 18%, respectively, and enhanced the activity of GAPDS in the sperm cells by 27 and 20% compared to a semen sample incubated without additions. It was also found that incubation with 10 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in sperm cells by 50% on average compared to that in the control samples. It is supposed that low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide activate the pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in NADPH synthesis and the reduction of the oxidized glutathione by glutathione reductase yielding GSH. The formed GSH reduces the oxidized cysteine residues of the GAPDS active site, increasing the activity of the enzyme, which in turn enhances the content of sperm cells with progressive motility. Thus, the increase in motile spermatozoa in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can serve as an indicator of normal functioning of the antioxidant defense system in sperm cells.

  10. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  11. Effects of silage from maize crops differing in maturity at harvest, grass silage feed value and concentrate feed level on performance of finishing lambs.

    PubMed

    Keady, T W J; Hanrahan, J P

    2013-07-01

    The effects of (i) medium and high feed value (MFV and HFV) maize silages and (ii) MFV and HFV grass silages, each in combination with a range of concentrate feed levels, on the performance of finishing lambs were evaluated using 280 Suffolk-X lambs (initial live weight 36.1 kg). The MFV and HFV maize silages represented crops with dry matter (DM) concentrations of 185 and 250 g/kg, respectively, at harvest, and had starch and metabolisable energy (ME) concentrations of 33 and 277 g/kg DM and 9.6 and 11.0 MJ/kg, respectively. HFV and MFV grass silages had DM and ME concentrations of 216 and 294 g/kg and 11.0 and 11.5 MJ/kg DM, respectively. A total of 13 treatments were involved. The four silages were offered ad libitum with daily concentrate supplements of 0.2, 0.5 or 0.8 kg per lamb. A final treatment consisted of concentrate offered ad libitum with 0.5 kg of the HFV grass silage daily. Increasing the feed value of grass silage increased (P < 0.001) forage intake, daily carcass and live weight gains, final live weight and carcass weight. Increasing maize silage feed value tended to increase (P = 0.07) daily carcass gain. Increasing concentrate feed level increased total food and ME intakes, and live weight and carcass gains. There was a significant interaction between silage feed value and the response to concentrate feed level. Relative to the HFV grass silage, the positive linear response to increasing concentrate feed level was greater with lambs offered the MFV grass silage for daily live weight gain (P < 0.001), daily carcass gain (P < 0.01) and final carcass weight (P < 0.01). Relative to the HFV maize silage, there was a greater response to increasing concentrate feed level from lambs offered the MFV maize silage in terms of daily carcass gain (P < 0.05) and daily live weight gain (P = 0.06). Forage type had no significant effect on the response to increased concentrate feed level. Relative to the MFV grass silage supplemented with 0.2 kg concentrate, the

  12. [Concentration of calcium ions in the saliva and the value of the pH of the saliva in female and male smokers].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Rogowska, Wanda

    2009-01-01

    Dental decay is a pathological process of extrasomatic origin which leads to demineralization and proteolytic degradation of hard surfaces of a tooth susceptible to this disease. Saliva composition, including calcium ion concentration and its pH value, is of importance in the development of the carious process. Tobacco smoke contains toxic compounds which negatively influence oral health. The aim of the study was evaluation of the selected saliva components: protein concentration, Ca2+ concentration, pH value both in male and female smokers. The investigated group included 65 patients reporting for the treatment to the Department of Conservative Dentistry of Medical University in Lublin. In the investigated group male smokers constituted 15.38%, female smokers--20.00%, male nicotine abstinents 21.54% and female nicotine abstinent 43.08%. The study included both survey examinations of patients and biochemical examinations of the saliva. Mixed, non-stimulated saliva was used as a material for biochemical examinations. Ca2+ concentration and pH of the saliva were assayed with the use of Rapidlab 348 analyzer. Protein in the saliva was assayed with calorimetric method according to Lowry. Saliva was collected from smokers 10-120 minutes after smoking of several cigarettes. It was stated that Ca2+ and protein concentration as well as pH of the saliva were not correlated with sex and cigarette smoking or non-smoking.

  13. Optimal range of triglyceride values to estimate serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009.

    PubMed

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the validity of Friedewald's formula and to propose a range of triglyceride values over which the formula can be used without significant error. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,929 subjects (946 males and 983 females) aged 20 yr and older using data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Estimated total number was considered to be 10,633,655 (5,846,384 males and 4,787,271 females). Calculated and directly-measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were highly correlated (r = 0.96); however, significant differences were observed between the directly-measured and calculated LDL-C concentrations. Subjects in the underestimated group (10.5%) had higher dysmetabolic profiles than those in the overestimated group (11.4%). Although serum triglyceride level showed the greatest independent association with differences between the calculated and directly-measured LDL-C concentrations, no statistically significant differences were noted when triglyceride concentration was between 36 and 298 mg/dL (93.2%). In conclusion, Friedewald's formula accurately estimates directly-measured serum LDL-C concentration in Korean adults. However, the formula can be applied to subjects with serum triglyceride concentrations from 36 to 298 mg/dL without significant error.

  14. Auxiliary diagnostic value of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 of whole blood in active tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Li, Hang; Bao, Hong; Jin, Yufen; Liu, Xiaoju; Wu, Xueqiong; Yu, Ting

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the expression level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in peripheral blood and its auxiliary diagnostic value in active tuberculosis. A chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method was used to detect the levels of IFN-γ and MCP-1 in peripheral blood. Then the receiver operating characteristic curve were drawn to determine the threshold of IFN-γ and MCP-1 for diagnosis of active tuberculosis and to evaluate their diagnostic performance. The specific IFN-γ and MCP-1 levels in the active tuberculosis group were significantly higher than those in the non-tuberculous pulmonary disease group (P < 0.01) and those in the healthy control group (P < 0.01). The IFN-γ levels in the healthy control group and the non-tuberculous respiratory disease group showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05), but the MCP-1 levels in the non-tuberculous respiratory disease group were significantly higher than those of the healthy control group (P < 0.05). The specific IFN-γ and MCP-1 level cut off values were 256 pg/ml and 389 pg/ml as an active tuberculosis diagnostic standard. The sensitivities of IFN-γ and MCP-1 were 57.3% and 92.8%, respectively; specificities were 80% and 80.7%, respectively; the positive predictive values were 76.9% and 84.9%, respectively; negative predictive values were 61.7% and 78.7%, respectively; and accuracy rates were 76.9% and 84.9%, respectively. Compared with the detection of IFN-γ, we observed a better diagnostic performance of MCP-1 in peripheral blood in active tuberculosis. MCP-1 may become one of the active tuberculosis auxiliary diagnostic targets. PMID:26309608

  15. Platelet activation of platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat and apheresis methods.

    PubMed

    Ali, Soleimany Ferizhandy

    2011-02-01

    Preparation for storage may cause platelet activation. The quality of platelet concentrates plays an important role in transfusion therapy. Platelet concentrates are produced by different centrifugation methods; buffy coat (buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates-BC) and plateletpheresis (apheresis-derived platelet concentrates-APC). Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: platelet, WBC and RBC counts pH, volume, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and Annexin V. The present paper compares the quality of both platelet preparations in vitro. In this experimental study, 30 platelet concentrates were harvested with the Haemonetics MCS plus and 30 units via the buffy coat (BC) method. The percentages of Annexin V expression, PF4 levels, platelet, WBC and RBC counts, pH and volume were measure immediately after collection and after 3 days of storage. During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed, no significant pH or RBC, difference in comparison with apheresis preparations (p>0.05). During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed a significant increase in the PF4 and Annexin V expression, compared to the apheresis preparations on day three (p<0.05). The kinetics of PF4 and Annexin V levels are influenced by the method used to prepare platelets for storage. The different levels of PF4 and Annexin V in BCs and APCs clearly demonstrates a progressive activation of BC platelets exceeding that of APC. However, in vivo studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  16. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  17. The hemostatic profile of recombinant activated factor VII. Can low concentrations stop bleeding in off-label indications?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High concentrations of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can stop bleeding in hemophilic patients. However the rFVIIa dose needed for stopping haemhorrage in off-label indications is unknown. Since thrombin is the main hemostatic agent, this study investigated the effect of rFVIIa and tissue factor (TF) on thrombin generation (TG) in vitro. Methods Lag time (LT), time to peak (TTP), peak TG (PTG), and area under the curve after 35 min (AUCo-35 min) with the calibrated automated thrombography was used to evaluate TG. TG was assayed in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) samples from 29 healthy volunteers under basal conditions and after platelet stimulation with 5.0 μg/ml, 2.6 μg/ml, 0.5 μg/ml, 0.25 μg/ml, and 0.125 μg/ml rFVIIa alone and in normal platelet-poor plasma (PPP) samples from 22 healthy volunteers, rFVIIa in combination with various concentrations of TF (5.0, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.5 pM). Results In PRP activated by rFVIIa, there was a statistically significant increase in TG compared to basal values. A significant TF dose-dependent shortening of LT and increased PTG and AUCo→35 min were obtained in PPP. The addition of rFVIIa increased the effect of TF in shorting the LT and increasing the AUCo→35 min with no effect on PTG but were independent of rFVIIa concentration. Conclusion Low concentrations of rFVIIa were sufficient to form enough thrombin in normal PRP or in PPP when combined with TF, and suggest low concentrations for normalizing hemostasis in off-label indications. PMID:20444280

  18. Limiting concentrations of activated mononucleotides necessary for poly(C)-directed elongation of oligoguanylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Chang, S.; Alberas, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Selected imidazolide-activated nucleotides have been subjected to hydrolysis under conditions similar to those that favor their template-directed oligomerization. Rate constants of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), kh, have been determined in the presence/absence of magnesium ion as a function of temperature and polycytidylate [poly(C)] concentration. Using the rate constant of hydrolysis of 2-MeImpG and the rate constant of elongation, i.e., the reaction of an oligoguanylate with 2-MeImpG in the presence of poly(C) acting as template, the limiting concentration of 2-MeImpG necessary for oligonucleotide elongation to compete with hydrolysis can be calculated. The limiting concentration is defined as the initial concentration of monomer that results in its equal consumption by hydrolysis and by elongation. These limiting concentrations of 2-MeImpG are found to be 1.7 mM at 37 degrees C and 0.36 mM at 1 degrees C. Boundary conditions in the form of limiting concentration of activated nucleotide may be used to evaluate a prebiotic model for chemical synthesis of biopolymers. For instance, the limiting concentration of monomer can be used as a basis of comparison among catalytic, but nonenzymatic, RNA-type systems. We also determined the rate constant of dimerization of 2-MeImpG, k2 = 0.45 +/- 0.06 M-1 h-1 in the absence of poly(C), and 0.45 +/- 0.06 less than or equal to k2 less than or equal to 0.97 +/- 0.13 M-1 h-1 in its presence at 37 degrees C and pH 7.95.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Very High Concentrations of Active Intracellular Phosphorylated Emtricitabine in Neonates (ANRS 12109 Trial, Step 2)▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Pruvost, Alain; Ekouévi, Didier K.; Urien, Saïk; Arrivé, Elise; Kone, Mamourou; Nerrienet, Eric; Nyati, Mandisa; Gray, Glenda; Kruy, Leang Sim; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate neonatal emtricitabine (FTC) plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics. The study was designed as a phase I/II prospective trial in two sequential steps evaluating the combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and FTC for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of TDF (300 mg) and FTC (200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. Based on the data obtained in the first part of the Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Africa and Asia (TEmAA) Study, single doses of 2 mg/kg of FTC and 13 mg/kg of TDF were given to the neonates within 12 h after birth. A total of 540 FTC plasma concentrations and 44 active intracellular phosphorylated metabolite FTC-TP concentrations were taken from the 36 enrolled women and their neonates. Concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and analyzed by a population approach. The proposed dose obtained by simulations based on plasma drug concentrations was confirmed. However, median FTC-TP exposures were, respectively, 5.9 and 6.8 times higher in the fetus and the neonate than in the adult. High FTC-TP concentrations were observed in the four children who had serious adverse events (SAEs), but the link between FTC-TP concentrations and SAEs in children was not formally identified. The exposure to the active form of FTC was high in neonates despite plasma drug concentrations equivalent to those in adults. Our results are similar to those obtained with zidovudine or lamivudine. PMID:21464241

  20. Effect of active-ion concentration on holmium fibre laser efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-08-03

    We have measured the fraction of holmium ions that relax nonradiatively to the ground level as a result of interaction at a metastable level in optical fibres with a silica-based core doped with holmium ions to 2 x 10{sup 19} - 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The percentage of such ions has been shown to depend on the absolute active-ion concentration. The fibres have been used to make a number of 2.05-{mu}m lasers, and their slope efficiency has been measured. The laser efficiency decreases with increasing holmium concentration in the fibres (lasers)

  1. Isoproturon degradation as affected by the growth of two algal species at different concentrations and pH values.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, F I; Helling, C S

    2001-11-01

    Metabolism of [14C-u-phenyl]isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] by two soil and freshwater microorganisms, green alga Chlorella kesslerei and cyanobacterium Anabaena inaequalis, was studied as a function of pH, pesticide concentration, and incubation time. Metabolized isoproturon, in the media, ranged from 0% (Chlorella at pH 5.5 after 1 d) to 22% (Anabaena at pH 5.5 after 10 d). Twenty-five percent faster degradation of isoproturon by Anabaena occurred at pH 5.5 versus pH 7.5, when measured over 10 d. Increased 14C incorporation into tissue, with time and at lower pH, was due mainly to bioaccumulation of [14C]isoproturon and/or its metabolites in the cells. Metabolic degradation resulted in four identifiable (by TLC) metabolites. Based on this, a degradation pathway is proposed, involving mono- and di-N-demethylation, hydroxylation of the isopropyl moiety, and hydrolysis to 4-isopropylaniline. Similarity in the metabolites produced suggests that the enzyme systems responsible for metabolizing isoproturon are almost identical in both photosynthetic micro-algae.

  2. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  3. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  4. Concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins facilitate osteogenesis through activation of the JNK-ATF4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro; Jack, Ralph W

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated fractions of low molecular weight whey proteins (1-30 kDa), that is concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins (CBP), have been found to enhance bone formation in both in vivo and clinical studies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we found that CBP promoted osteoblastic differentiation in normal human osteoblasts, and determined the involvement of the c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway. We observed that alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization were significantly induced by CBP treatment. In addition, mRNA expression of ATF4 was intensely elevated in CBP-treated osteoblasts, indicating that the late-phase events of differentiation were promoted. We found that CBP activated the phosphorylation of JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, pathway analyses using the various signaling pathway-specific inhibitors revealed that JNK activation, but not ERK activation, is essential for CBP-induced mineralization and ATF4 expression. Our results indicate that the JNK-mediated ATF4 pathway is required for CBP-promotive osteogenesis.

  5. Reinforcement value and substitutability of sucrose and wheel running: implications for activity anorexia.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David; Duncan, Ian D

    2006-09-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior was allocated to sucrose and more reinforcements were obtained from that alternative. Allocation of behavior to wheel running decreased, but obtained wheel-running reinforcement did not change. Overall, the results suggested that food-deprived rats were sensitive to qualitative changes in food supply (sucrose concentration) while continuing to defend a level of physical activity (wheel running). In the second study, 15 female Long Evans rats were exposed to concurrent variable ratio schedules of sucrose and wheel-running, wheel-running and wheel-running, and sucrose and sucrose reinforcement. For each pair of reinforcers, substitutability was assessed by the effect of income-compensated price changes on consumption of the two reinforcers. Results showed that, as expected, sucrose substituted for sucrose and wheel running substituted for wheel running. Wheel running, however, did not substitute for sucrose; but sucrose partially substituted for wheel running. We address the implications of the interrelationships of sucrose and wheel running for an understanding of activity anorexia.

  6. Activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Fasae, K P

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of ⁴⁰K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ± 416.9 to 5089.3 ± 111.3 Bq kg⁻¹, 9.9 ± 7.3 to 450.6 ± 14.3 Bq kg⁻¹ for ²²⁶Ra, while for ²³²Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ± 2.8 Bq kg⁻¹. The activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F & C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except ⁴⁰K.

  7. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  8. Estimation of Na-24 activity concentration in BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajijul Hoq, M.; Malek Soner, M. A.; Salam, M. A.; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S. M.

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) TRIGA Research Reactor is a unique nuclear installation of the country generally implemented for a wide variety of research applications and serves as an excellent source of neutron. During reactor operation it is necessary to measure and control the activity concentration of the pool water for fuel element failure detection and for the determination of contamination. The present study deals with the estimation of activity concentration for Na-24 present in water coolant produced as a result of 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. Several governing equations have been employed to estimate the Na-24 activity concentrations theoretically at different reactor power levels including maximum reactor power of 2.4 MW. From the obtained result it is ensured that the estimated Na-24 activity of 8.83 × 10-3 μCi /cm3 is not significant enough for any radiological hazard. Thus for ensuring radiological safety issues of the research reactor the assessment performed under the present study has an implication.

  9. Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

  10. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.

  11. The value of HCG serum concentrations after trigger in predicting pregnancy and live birth rates in IVF-ICSI.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianjun; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Bin; Wang, Junxia; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Ningyuan; Hu, Yali; Sun, Haixiang

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if an association existed between serum human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) level at 12 h after trigger and IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm (ICSI) treatment outcomes. Women undergoing initial IVF-ICSI and embryo transfer treatment using the long luteal phase gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol between April 2012 and March 2013 for tubal factor were included (n = 699). In the clinical pregnancy group, HCG after trigger was significantly elevated (276.0 ± 5.1 versus 198.5 ± 6.1 mIU/mL; P < 0.001). The optimal cut-off value proposed by the receiver operating characteristic analysis (area under curve = 0.730) for HCG was 201.2 mIU/ml. Compared with the lower HCG group, the clinical pregnancy rate in the higher HCG group was increased in obese and non-obese patients (77.8% versus 57.3%, P < 0.05; 85.6% versus 53.0%, P < 0.01, respectively). Adjusted for age and body mass index, an increase of HCG was associated with a better IVF-ICSI treatment outcome (OR 4.39, 95% CI 2.99 to 6.45). Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher across increasing quartiles of HCG. An elevated level of serum HCG at 12 h after trigger was associated with a better IVF-ICSI outcome.

  12. Platelet Activation by Low Concentrations of Intact Oxidized LDL Particles Involves the PAF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Xi; Salomon, Robert G.; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial depolarization aids platelet activation. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) contains the medium length oxidatively truncated phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl-lysoPAF (HAz-LPAF) that disrupts mitochondrial function in nucleated cells, so oxLDL may augment platelet activation. Methods and Results Flow cytometry showed intact oxLDL particles synergized with sub-threshold amounts of soluble agonists to increase intracellular Ca++, and initiate platelet aggregation and surface expression of activated gpIIb/IIIa and P-selectin. oxLDL also induced aggregation and increased intracellular Ca++ in FURA2-labeled cells by itself at low, although not higher, concentrations. HAz-LPAF, alone and in combination with sub-stimulatory amounts of thrombin, rapidly increased cytoplasmic Ca++ and initiated aggregation. HAz-LPAF depolarized mitochondria in intact platelets, but this required concentrations beyond those that directly activated platelets. An unexpectedly large series of chemically pure truncated phospholipids generated by oxidative fragmentation of arachidonoyl-, docosahexaneoyl-, or linoleoyl alkyl phospholipids were platelet agonists. The PAF receptor, thought to effectively recognize only phospholipids with very short sn-2 residues, was essential for platelet activation because PAF receptor agonists blocked signaling by all these medium length phospholipids and oxLDL. Conclusions Intact oxLDL particles activate platelets through the PAF receptor, and the PAF receptor responds to a far wider range of oxidized phospholipids in oxLDL than anticipated. PMID:19112165

  13. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  14. Evaluation of activated carbon respirator filter effectiveness by concentration mapping of dimethyl methylphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been used extensively in personal protective equipment (PPE) to adsorb toxic substances for the purpose of protecting the user from exposure. The ability to evaluate localized carbon utilization in multiple PPE designs would help engineers develop more effective PPE. Therefore, a method to map dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common PPE testing agent, concentrations throughout AC filters was developed and tested on DMMP-exposed filters, some purposefully occluded to simulate defective filters. DMMP concentrations were highest at the point of entry and dispersed outward in a radial pattern from that site, decreasing with distance from the point of exposure. Occluded filters were detected by observing DMMP adsorption inconsistent with unblocked filters and showed high concentrations of DMMP localized in unblocked areas of the filter. The DMMP mapping technique detailed in this study provides a tool for testing AC utilization inside DMMP-exposed PPE.

  15. Potential environmental factors that influence the nitrogen concentration and δ(15)N values in the moss Hypnum cupressiforme collected inside and outside canopy drip lines.

    PubMed

    Skudnik, Mitja; Jeran, Zvonka; Batič, Franc; Simončič, Primož; Kastelec, Damijana

    2015-03-01

    Samples of the moss Hypnum cupressiforme were collected at 103 locations in forests of Slovenia. At each location, samples were taken at two types of sites: under tree canopies and in adjacent forest openings. The results show that the moss collected in the forest openings reflects the surrounding land-use characteristics and, consequently, the main N emission sources. For moss sampled under canopies, the characteristics of the forest at the moss-sampling locations are more important than the main emission sources outside the forest. A regression model was used to provide the nitrogen (N) concentration in moss from the forest openings in relation to the N concentration in moss under canopies and other environmental variables. The spatial distribution of the locations of the N concentrations and δ(15)N values in moss collected in the forest openings and under the canopies in relation to main N deposition sources is discussed.

  16. Correlations between homologue concentrations of PCDD/Fs and toxic equivalency values in laboratory-, package boiler-, and field-scale incinerators.

    PubMed

    Iino, Fukuya; Takasuga, Takumi; Touati, Abderrahmane; Gullett, Brian K

    2003-01-01

    The toxic equivalency (TEQ) values of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are predicted with a model based on the homologue concentrations measured from a laboratory-scale reactor (124 data points), a package boiler (61 data points), and operating municipal waste incinerators (114 data points). Regardless of the three scales and types of equipment, the different temperature profiles, sampling emissions and/or solids (fly ash), and the various chemical and physical properties of the fuels, all the PCDF plots showed highly linear correlations (R(2)>0.99). The fitting lines of the reactor and the boiler data were almost linear with slope of unity, whereas the slope of the municipal waste incinerator data was 0.86, which is caused by higher predicted values for samples with high measured TEQ. The strong correlation also implies that each of the 10 toxic PCDF congeners has a constant concentration relative to its respective total homologue concentration despite a wide range of facility types and combustion conditions. The PCDD plots showed significant scatter and poor linearity, which implies that the relative concentration of PCDD TEQ congeners is more sensitive to variations in reaction conditions than that of the PCDF congeners.

  17. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  18. Effect of different cooking methods on nutritional value and antioxidant activity of cultivated mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Roncero-Ramos, Irene; Mendiola-Lanao, Mónica; Pérez-Clavijo, Margarita; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina

    2017-05-01

    Influence of culinary treatments (boiling, microwaving, grilling, and deep frying) on proximate composition and antioxidant capacity of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Pleurotus eryngii) was studied. Proximate composition was affected by the cooking method and the mushrooms species. Frying induced more severe losses in protein, ash, and carbohydrates content but increased the fat and energy. Boiling improved the total glucans content by enhancing the β-glucans fraction. A significant decrease was detected in the antioxidant activity especially after boiling and frying, while grilled and microwaved mushrooms reached higher values of antioxidant activity. Maillard reaction products could be partially responsible, as supported by the absorbance values measured at 420 nm. Since cooking techniques clearly influence the nutritional attributes of mushrooms, the proper selection of treatments is a key factor to prevent/reduce nutritional losses. Microwaving and grilling were established as the best processes to maintain the nutritional profile of mushrooms.

  19. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  20. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.

  1. NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI is neuroprotective at femtomolar concentrations through inhibition of microglia over-activation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Gao, Xi; Pei, Zhong; Wu, Xuefei; Block, Michelle; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report that diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, shows potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects at femtomolar concentrations (10(-13) to 10(-14) M) in primary midbrain cultures. Mechanistic studies revealed that DPI-elicited effects were mediated by the inhibition of LPS-induced microglial ROS production and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFa, and the production of nitric oxide. Further studies showed that 10(-14) M DPI significantly reduced LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that femtomolar concentrations of DPI exert potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the inhibition of ERK-regulated PHOX activity.

  2. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings.

    PubMed

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S

    2001-09-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations insidc the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m(-3). The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 microSv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr(-1) limit.

  3. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity and porphyrin concentrations in peripheral red blood cells in hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, A V; Eklöf, M; Tenhunen, R

    1985-03-01

    The activity of coproporphyrinogen oxidase and the concentrations of coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin (measured by HPLC) in peripheral red blood cells were established in 2 families with different types of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia. 2 males and 4 females were members of a family with an X-chromosome-linked and pyridoxine-responsive HSA, and 3 females were members of another family where the mode of inheritance is not clear and where pyridoxine did not produce a haematological response. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity was normal in 8 of 9 patients and slightly decreased only in 1 patient. All patients had normal red cell coproporphyrin concentrations, but red cell protoporphyrin concentration was decreased in 4 patients. These findings indicate that in vivo haem synthesis was not impaired at the step of coproporphyrinogen oxidase, hence enzymatic defects in earlier steps of haem synthesis are more evident. Earlier suggestions of impaired haem synthesis at this level, based on observed increased concentrations of coproporphyrin in peripheral red blood cells might be explained by the use of unspecific methods.

  4. Comparison of equi-minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane on bispectral index values during both wash in and wash out phases: A prospective randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Shri, Iti; Sakia, Prashant; Govil, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: At equal minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), volatile agents may produce different bispectral index (BIS) values especially at low BIS levels when the effect is volatile agent specific. The present study was performed to compare the BIS values produced by sevoflurane and isoflurane at equal MAC and thereby assessing which is a better hypnotic agent. Methods: Sixty American Society of Anaesthesiologists I and II patients undergoing elective mastoidectomy were divided into groups receiving either isoflurane or sevoflurane, and at equi-MAC. BIS value was measured during both wash in and wash out phase, keeping other parameters same. Statistical analysis was performed using the Friedman two-way analysis and Mann-Whitney U-test. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: BIS value was significantly lower with sevoflurane at all MAC values as compared to isoflurane, except in the beginning and at MAC awake. However, both the drugs proved to be cardiostable. Conclusion: At equi-MAC sevoflurane produces lower BIS values during wash in as well as wash out phase as compared to isoflurane, reflecting probably an agent specific effect and a deficiency in BIS algorithm for certain agents and their interplay. PMID:25788739

  5. Assessment of spatial variability of major-ion concentrations and del oxygen-18 values in surface snow, Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Schuster, P.F.; Reddy, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    One hundred samples were collected from the surface of the Upper Fremont Glacier at equally spaced intervals defined by an 8100m2 snow grid to asesss the significance of lateral variability in major-ion concentrations and del oxygen-18 values. Comparison of the observed variability of each chemical constituent to the variability expected by measurement error indicated substantial lateral variability with the surface-snow layer. Results of the nested ANOVA indicate most of the variance for every constituent is in the values grouped at the two smaller geographic scales (between 506m2 and within 506m2 sections). The variance data from the snow grid were used to develop equations to evaluate the significance of both positive and negative concentration/value peaks of nitrate and del oxygen-18 with depth, in a 160m ice core. Values of del oxygen-18 in the section from 110-150m below the surface consistently vary outside the expected limits and possibly represents cooler temperatures during the Little Ice Age from about 1810 to 1725 A.D. -from Authors

  6. The use of statistical methods for censored data to evaluate the activity concentration of Pb-210 in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Mingote, Raquel M; Nogueira, Regina A

    2016-10-01

    A survey of (210)Pb activity concentration, one of the major internal natural radiation sources to man, has been carried in the most common species of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown and consumed in Brazil. The representative bean types chosen, Carioca beans and black type sown in the Brazilian Midwestern and Southern regions, have been collected in this study and (210)Pb determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry after separation with chromatographic extraction using Sr-resin. Available values in data set of radioactivity in Brazil (GEORAD) on the (210)Pb activity concentration in black beans grown in Southeastern region have been added to the results of this study with the purpose of to amplify the population considered. Concerning the multiple detection limits and due to the high level of censored observations, a robust semi-parametric statistical method called regression on order statistics (ROS) has been employed to provide a reference value of the (210)Pb in Brazilian beans, which amounted to 41 mBq kg(-1) fresh wt. The results suggest that the (210)Pb activity concentration in carioca beans is lower than in black beans. Also evaluated was the (210)Pb activity concentration in vegetable component of a typical diet, which displays lower values than those shown in the literature for food consumed in Europe.

  7. [Resistance activities of the association of pharmacists in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp].

    PubMed

    Nowak, B

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the Resistance was mainly focused on helping prisoners in the concentration camp. The underground organizations of independence existed due to the local population. That help was very effective-it rescued many people against starving and rebuilt the faith in the human. It was not only food but medicines, dressings, vaccines serums. The huge part in that help took pharmacists working in local countries and cities. This publication is strictly connected with these brave people.

  8. Low concentration of arsenite exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Xujun; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Wenlan; Timmins, Graham S.; Liu Kejian

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated arsenic exposure with many types of human cancers. Arsenic has also been shown to act as a co-carcinogen even at low concentrations. However, the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is unknown. Recent studies indicate that arsenic can interfere with DNA-repair processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a zinc-finger DNA-repair protein, which can promptly sense DNA strand breaks and initiate DNA-repair pathways. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of arsenic could inhibit PAPR-1 activity and so exacerbate levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA strand breaks. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite and/or UVR, and then DNA strand breaks were assessed by comet assay. Low concentrations of arsenite ({<=} 2 {mu}M) alone did not induce significant DNA strand breaks, but greatly enhanced the DNA strand breaks induced by UVR. Further studies showed that 2 {mu}M arsenite effectively inhibited PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation of arsenite-treated cells restored PARP-1 activity and significantly diminished the exacerbating effect of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA strand breaks. Importantly, neither arsenite treatment, nor zinc supplementation changed UVR-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suggesting that their effects upon UVR-induced DNA strand breaks are not through a direct free radical mechanism. Combination treatments of arsenite with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide or PARP-1 siRNA demonstrate that PARP-1 is the target of arsenite. Together, these findings show that arsenite at low concentration exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity, which may represent an important mechanism underlying the co-carcinogenicity of arsenic.

  9. The Role of Electrode Microstructure on Activation and Concentration Polarizations in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    December 1999 Abstract Activation and concentration polarization effects in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells ( SOFC ) were examined. The anode and...and Chemical Properties’, Schlol Solid state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells Ringberg, Germany, March 8-13, 1998. ( SOFC ) consist of a cathode...mail address: anil.virkar@m.cc.utah.edu (AV Virkar) development of the SOFC ; the electrolyte-supported 0167-2738/00/$ - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier

  10. Quantifying the 3D Odorant Concentration Field Used by Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Blue crabs and other aquatic organisms locate food and mates by tracking turbulent odorant plumes. The odorant concentration fluctuates unpredictably due to turbulent transport, and many characteristics of the fluctuation pattern have been hypothesized as useful cues for orienting to the odorant source. To make a direct linkage between tracking behavior and the odorant concentration signal, we developed a measurement system based the laser induced fluorescence technique to quantify the instantaneous 3D concentration field surrounding actively tracking blue crabs. The data suggest a correlation between upstream walking speed and the concentration of the odorant signal arriving at the antennule chemosensors, which are located near the mouth region. More specifically, we note an increase in upstream walking speed when high concentration bursts arrive at the antennules location. We also test hypotheses regarding the ability of blue crabs to steer relative to the plume centerline based on the signal contrast between the chemosensors located on their leg appendages. These chemosensors are located much closer to the substrate compared to the antennules and are separated by the width of the blue crab. In this case, it appears that blue crabs use the bilateral signal comparison to track along the edge of the plume.

  11. Corticosterone targets distinct steps of synaptic transmission via concentration specific activation of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreejata; Sikdar, Sujit K

    2014-02-01

    Hippocampal neurons are affected by chronic stress and have a high density of cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (MR and GR). Detailed studies on the genomic effects of the stress hormone corticosterone at physiologically relevant concentrations on different steps in synaptic transmission are limited. In this study, we tried to delineate how activation of MR and GR by different concentrations of corticosterone affects synaptic transmission at various levels. The effect of 3-h corticosterone (25, 50, and 100 nM) treatment on depolarization-mediated calcium influx, vesicular release and properties of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were studied in cultured hippocampal neurons. Activation of MR with 25 nM corticosterone treatment resulted in enhanced depolarization-mediated calcium influx via a transcription-dependent process and increased frequency of mEPSCs with larger amplitude. On the other hand, activation of GR upon 100 nM corticosterone treatment resulted in increase in the rate of vesicular release via the genomic actions of GR. Furthermore, GR activation led to significant increase in the frequency of mEPSCs with larger amplitude and faster decay. Our studies indicate that differential activation of the dual receptor system of MR and GR by corticosterone targets the steps in synaptic transmission differently.

  12. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  13. Are δ13C values of n-alkanes affected by atmospheric CO2 concentrations? Results from a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandquist, D. R.; Williams, D. G.; Shuman, B. N.; Kim, S.; Chen, J.; Macdonald, C.

    2015-12-01

    Compound-specific carbon isotope (δ13C) analyses of leaf waxes (i.e., n-alkanes) can be linked to large-scale shifts in vegetation, such as dominant taxa, functional types, life-forms and photosynthetic pathways that are usually coupled with environmental changes in climate. However using these δ13C values to interpret finer-scale ecosystem properties, including climate attributes such as CO2 concentrations, is difficult owing to uncertainty in the magnitude of internal biosynthetic fractionations that determine the δ13C of waxes relative to that of bulk leaf material. We investigated the composition, abundance and δ13C of n-alkanes in the aboveground biomass of a C4 grass and a C3 grass exposed to experimentally controlled CO2 at ambient [490ppm] and elevated [630ppm] levels within natural grassland in Wyoming. The δ13C values of bulk tissues were predictably different based on the C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways, but the difference between bulk tissue and n-alkanes (ɛlipid), for both C29 and C31, was consistently greater in the C4 grass. The magnitudes of these ɛlipid values were large (- 7‰ to -15‰) relative to those found in most other studies. CO2 concentration of the growing environment also had a significant effect on n-alkane δ13C values, with consistently higher values of ~ 2‰ under elevated CO2 found in both species and in both a wet and a dry year. These results underscore the importance of recognizing potential abiotic effects on leaf wax δ13C values, in addition to the biotic drivers their variation, when interpreting climate from leaf-wax biomarkers of terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Kepler, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available.

  15. Captopril and lisinopril only inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity at millimolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuntze, Luciana B; Antonio, Raquel C; Izidoro-Toledo, Tatiane C; Meschiari, Cesar A; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2014-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) shares structural similarities with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors have been described to inhibit MMP-2, but this inhibitory potential was not shown using a highly purified MMP-2. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of captopril and lisinopril regarding MMP-2 activity. The first objective was to test the potential of captopril to change the pH of the buffer solution. The second objective was to test the direct inhibitory effect of captopril and lisinopril on plasma MMP-2 and on recombinant human MMP-2 (rhMMP-2). The in vitro activity assays included gelatin zymography and a fluorimetric assay. Captopril solubilization significantly decreased the pH of the 50 mM Tris buffer solution at the following concentrations: 2 mM (p < 0.05), 4 mM and 8 mM (p < 0.01), while only the 8 mM lisinopril induced a drop in pH (p < 0.05). Thus, only 200 mM buffer solutions were used. Zymography results of plasma MMP-2 and rhMMP-2 showed that inhibition only happened at captopril concentrations ≥ 4 and 1 mM, respectively (p < 0.05), while only the higher concentration of lisinopril (8 mM) inhibited plasma MMP-2 (p < 0.05). In the fluorimetric assay, captopril led to significant inhibition of the rhMMP-2 activity at concentrations ≥2 mM (p < 0.01), whereas aminophenylmercuric acetate-activated rhMMP-2 was inhibited by 0.5 mM captopril (p < 0.01). The captopril and lisinopril concentrations found to inhibit MMP-2 are 3 orders of magnitude higher than those present in vivo after drug administration. We also discuss possible pitfalls for gelatinase inhibitory assays (besides the obvious pH problem already cited). In conclusion, this study's data show that captopril and lisinopril did not inhibit MMP-2 directly at the concentrations reached in vivo.

  16. Activation energies of metal atomization and nitrate and sulfate decomposition in concentrated matrices (10 -1 M).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bihan, A.; Le Garrec, H.; Cabon, J. Y.; Guern, Y.

    1998-08-01

    This paper reports on activation energies measured during copper and manganese atomization in a graphite furnace in the presence of large amounts of nitrate and sulfate matrices. It also deals with activation energies corresponding to the decomposition of these matrices and to the atomization of their metal, i.e. Na, Ca or Mg. These results were obtained from Arrhenius-type calculations carried out on specific and non-specific absorbance values. Atomization was achieved under a very high gas flow which allowed us to get to the source function. Some of the calculated energies were compared to reaction energies deduced from tables of thermodynamic data.

  17. Study of the adsorption of Cd and Zn onto an activated carbon: Influence of pH, cation concentration, and adsorbent concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, A.; Marzal, P.; Gabaldon, C.; Ferrer, J.

    1999-06-01

    The single adsorption of Cd and Zn from aqueous solutions has been investigated on Scharlau Ca 346 granular activated carbon in a wide range of experimental conditions: pH, metal concentration, and carbon concentration. The results showed the efficiency of the activated carbon as sorbent for both metals. Metal removals increase on raising the pH and carbon concentration, and decrease on raising the initial metal concentration. The adsorption processes have been modeled using the surface complex formation (SCF) Triple Layer Model (TLM). The adsorbent TLM parameters were determined. Modeling has been performed assuming a single surface bidentate species or an overall surface species with fractional stoichiometry. The bidentate stoichiometry successfully predicted cadmium and zinc removals in all the experimental conditions. The Freundlich isotherm has been also checked.

  18. Circulating extracellular proteasome in the cerebrospinal fluid: a study on concentration and proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Oliver; Anlasik, Timur; Wiedemann, Jonas; Thomassen, Jan; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Hagel, Vincent; Keyvani, Kathy; Schwieger, Isabel; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Sure, Ulrich; Sixt, Stephan Urs

    2012-03-01

    Alterations of the intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are found in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system, as well as in its malignancies. Inhibitory substrates of the proteasomes represent promising approaches to control autoimmune inflammations and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Extracellular circulating proteasomes are positively correlated to outcome prognosis in hematogenic neoplasias and the outcome in critically ill patients. Previously, we reported raised levels of proteolytic active 20S proteasomes in the extracellular alveolar space in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For the cerebrospinal fluid, we assumed that extracellular circulating proteasomes with enzymatic activity can be found, too. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of twenty-six patients (14 females, 12 males), who underwent diagnostic spinal myelography, were analyzed for leukocyte cell count, total protein content, lactate and interleukine-6 (Il-6) concentrations. CSF samples were analyzed for concentration and enzymatic activity of extracellular 20S proteasomes (fluorescenic substrate cleavage; femtokatal). Blood samples were analyzed with respect to concentration of extracellular circulating proteasomes. Choroidal plexus was harvested at autopsies and examined with immunoelectron microscopy (EM) for identification of possible transportation mechanisms. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (18.0.3). In all patients, extracellular proteasome was found in the CSF. The mean concentration was 24.6 ng/ml. Enzymatic activity of the 20S subunits of proteasomes was positively identified by the fluorescenic subtrate cleavage at a mean of 8.5 fkat/ml. Concentrations of extracellular proteasomes in the CSF, total protein content and Il-6 were uncorrelated. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed merging vesicles of proteasomes with the outer cell membrane suggestive of an exozytic transport mechanism. For the first time

  19. Potassium permeability activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration in the pancreatic beta-cell.

    PubMed Central

    Atwater, I; Dawson, C M; Ribalet, B; Rojas, E

    1979-01-01

    1. Membrane potentials and input resistance were measured in beta-cells from mouse pancreatic islets of Langerhans in a study designed to assess the role of a K permeability specifically blocked by quinine or quinidine and activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+])i-activated PK). 2. Addition of 100 microM-quinine to the perifusion medium resulted in a 10--30 mV depolarization of the membrane and an increase in the input resistance of ca. 4.10(7) omega. 3. In the absence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine induced electrical activity. 4. In the presence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine abolished the burst pattern of electrical activity and very much reduced the graded response of spike frequency normally seen with different concentrations of glucose. 5. Addition of mitochondrial inhibitors, KCN, NaN3, DNP, CCCP, FCCP, to the perifusion medium containing glucose rapidly hyperpolarized the beta-cell membrane, inducing a concomitant decrease in input resistance. 6. In the presence of glucose, these mitochondrial inhibitors reversibly blocked electrical activity; upon removal of the inhibitor, recovery of electrical activity followed a biphasic pattern. 7. The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors were partially reversed by 100 microM-quinine. 8. It is proposed that the membrane potential of the beta-cell in the absence of glucose is predominantly controlled by the [Ca2+]i-activated PK. It is further suggested that this permeability to K controls the level for glucose stimulation and leads to the generation of the burst pattern. PMID:381636

  20. Predeliberation activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum and the prediction of subsequent value judgment

    PubMed Central

    Maoz, Uri; Rutishauser, Ueli; Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Lee, Daeyeol; Koch, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Rational, value-based decision-making mandates selecting the option with highest subjective expected value after appropriate deliberation. We examined activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum of monkeys deciding between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed ones. We previously found neurons that modulated their activity in this task according to the animal's choice, while it deliberated (choice neurons). Here we found neurons whose spiking activities were predictive of the spatial location of the selected target (spatial-bias neurons) or the size of the chosen reward (reward-bias neurons) before the onset of the cue presenting the decision-alternatives, and thus before rational deliberation could begin. Their predictive power increased as the values the animals associated with the two decision alternatives became more similar. The ventral striatum (VS) preferentially contained spatial-bias neurons; the caudate nucleus (CD) preferentially contained choice neurons. In contrast, the DLPFC contained significant numbers of all three neuron types, but choice neurons were not preferentially also bias neurons of either kind there, nor were spatial-bias neurons preferentially also choice neurons, and vice versa. We suggest a simple winner-take-all (WTA) circuit model to account for the dissociation of choice and bias neurons. The model reproduced our results and made additional predictions that were borne out empirically. Our data are compatible with the hypothesis that the DLPFC and striatum harbor dissociated neural populations that represent choices and predeliberation biases that are combined after cue onset; the bias neurons have a weaker effect on the ultimate decision than the choice neurons, so their influence is progressively apparent for trials where the values associated with the decision alternatives are increasingly similar. PMID:24324396

  1. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Prather, Aric A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-04-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems.

  2. Yeast AMP-activated Protein Kinase Monitors Glucose Concentration Changes and Absolute Glucose Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bendrioua, Loubna; Smedh, Maria; Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Jirstrand, Mats; Goksör, Mattias; Adiels, Caroline B.; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a signaling system can provide insight into its dynamic properties. We employed the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the transcriptional repressor Mig1 as readout to characterize Snf1-Mig1 dynamics in single yeast cells. Mig1 binds to promoters of target genes and mediates glucose repression. Mig1 is predominantly located in the nucleus when glucose is abundant. Upon glucose depletion, Mig1 is phosphorylated by the yeast AMP-activated kinase Snf1 and exported into the cytoplasm. We used a three-channel microfluidic device to establish a high degree of control over the glucose concentration exposed to cells. Following regimes of glucose up- and downshifts, we observed a very rapid response reaching a new steady state within less than 1 min, different glucose threshold concentrations depending on glucose up- or downshifts, a graded profile with increased cell-to-cell variation at threshold glucose concentrations, and biphasic behavior with a transient translocation of Mig1 upon the shift from high to intermediate glucose concentrations. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data demonstrate that Mig1 shuttles constantly between the nucleus and cytoplasm, although with different rates, depending on the presence of glucose. Taken together, our data suggest that the Snf1-Mig1 system has the ability to monitor glucose concentration changes as well as absolute glucose levels. The sensitivity over a wide range of glucose levels and different glucose concentration-dependent response profiles are likely determined by the close integration of signaling with the metabolism and may provide for a highly flexible and fast adaptation to an altered nutritional status. PMID:24627493

  3. Effect of altitude training on serum creatine kinase activity and serum cortisol concentration in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Drake, S D; Hesson, J L; Nelson, J A; Kearney, J T; Dallam, G M; Williams, L L

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluated the effect of a 5-week training program at 1860 m on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and serum cortisol concentration in national-caliber triathletes for the purpose of monitoring the response to training in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Subjects included 16 junior-level female (n = 8) and male (n = 8) triathletes who were training for the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships. After an initial acclimatization period, training intensity and/or volume were increased progressively during the 5-week altitude training camp. Resting venous blood samples were drawn at 0700 hours following a 12-h overnight fast and were analyzed for serum CK activity and serum cortisol concentration. Subjects were evaluated before [7-10 days pre-altitude (SL 1)] and after [7-10 days post-altitude (SL 2)] the 5-week training camp at 1860 m. At altitude, subjects were evaluated within 24-36 h after arrival (ALT 1), 7 days after arrival (ALT 2), 18 days after arrival (ALT 3), and 24-36 h prior to leaving the altitude training camp (ALT 4). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences over time from SL 1 to SL 2. Compared to SL 1, serum CK activity increased approximately threefold (P < 0.05) within the initial 24-36 h at altitude (ALT 1), and increased by an additional 70% (P < 0.05) after the 1st week of altitude training (ALT 2). Serum CK activity remained significantly elevated over the duration of the experimental period compared to pre-altitude baseline levels. Serum cortisol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the 5-week altitude training period (ALT 4) relative to SL 1, ALT 1 and ALT 3. These data suggest that: (1) the initial increase in serum CK activity observed in the first 24-36 h at altitude was due primarily to acute altitude exposure and was independent of increased training intensity and/or training volume, (2) the subsequent increases in serum CK activity observed over

  4. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclides in Turkish medicinal herbs, their ingestion doses and cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmaksız, Aydın; Ağuş, Yusuf

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-two medicinal herb samples, each representing a distinct species, were collected from Turkish markets and measured by the gamma spectrometric method. The activity concentration of 226Ra in medicinal herbs was found in the range of minimum detectable activity (MDA) and 15.1 ± 2.2 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from MDA values to 3.5 ± 0.8 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 40K varied between 50.0 ± 16.8 and 1311.5 ± 57.3 Bqkg-1. All 137Cs activity concentrations of medicinal herbs were found to have lower than MDA values. The bone surface dose, lower large intestine and colon doses were found to be 182.9, 18.8 and 18.7 µSvy-1, respectively. The highest committed effective dose originated from the annual ingestion of 1 kg medicinal herb was calculated notably low as 9.0 µSv. The cancer risk of ingestion of medicinal herbs was found to be small enough to be neglected. The selected Turkish medicinal herbs are considered safe for human consumption.

  5. Neural Activity in the Ventral Pallidum Encodes Variation in the Incentive Value of a Reward Cue

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Paul J.; Ferguson, Lindsay M.; Robinson, Terry E.; Aldridge, J. Wayne

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable individual variation in the extent to which reward cues are attributed with incentive salience. For example, a food-predictive conditioned stimulus (CS; an illuminated lever) becomes attractive, eliciting approach toward it only in some rats (“sign trackers,” STs), whereas others (“goal trackers,” GTs) approach the food cup during the CS period. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual differences in Pavlovian approach responses are represented in neural firing patterns in the major output structure of the mesolimbic system, the ventral pallidum (VP). Single-unit in vivo electrophysiology was used to record neural activity in the caudal VP during the performance of ST and GT conditioned responses. All rats showed neural responses to both cue onset and reward delivery but, during the CS period, STs showed greater neural activity than GTs both in terms of the percentage of responsive neurons and the magnitude of the change in neural activity. Furthermore, neural activity was positively correlated with the degree of attraction to the cue. Given that the CS had equal predictive value in STs and GTs, we conclude that neural activity in the VP largely reflects the degree to which the CS was attributed with incentive salience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cues associated with reward can acquire motivational properties (i.e., incentive salience) that cause them to have a powerful influence on desire and motivated behavior. There are individual differences in sensitivity to reward-paired cues, with some individuals attaching greater motivational value to cues than others. Here, we investigated the neural activity associated with these individual differences in incentive salience. We found that cue-evoked neural firing in the ventral pallidum (VP) reflected the strength of incentive motivation, with the greatest neural responses occurring in individuals that demonstrated the strongest attraction to the cue. This suggests that the VP

  6. Thorotrast: analysis of the time evolution of its α activity concentration, in the 70 years following the chemical purification of Thorium.

    PubMed

    Bianconi, A; Corradini, M; Leali, M; Lodi Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Zurlo, N

    2013-09-01

    We simulate the α-activity of the Thorium series elements present in the contrast medium named Thorotrast, used until 1960 and cause of certified deaths until today. Assuming, as active components at t=0, (232)Th and (228)Th in the same relative concentration they have in nature, α-activity oscillates for some decades before reaching a stationary value that in absence of biological depletion would be AST =24000Bq/g. Our Montecarlo code generates the nuclear decays of the Thorium series with and without in-vivo biological depletion, arriving to three kinds of results for the activity: 1) Theoretical activity concentration (no biological depletion). Our result is fitted by: A(t)=A(ST).{[1-exp(-t/10)]+[exp(-t/tB)(1-0.8exp(-t/tA))]}, with t in years, tA=1.07.10(-2) years, and tB=2.38 years. 2) Weak biological depletion (228Ra/232 Th equilibrium activity ratio 0.6, 224Ra/228Ra e.a.r 0.9, 10% excretion for 220Rn). The ratio of the activity concentration to the theoretical activity concentration is fitted by: A weak (t)/A(t)=0.61+0.29 exp[-(t/15)2] (t in years). 3) Strong biological depletion (228Ra/232Th e.a.r 0.4, 224Ra/228Ra e.a.r. 0.8, 10% excretion for 220Rn). The ratio of the activity concentration to the theoretical activity concentration is fitted by A(strong)(t)/A(t)=0.44+0.4 exp[-(t/13)2](t in years). We also report fluctuation calculation for two cases where standard statistical behavior is not expected.

  7. Neuronal activity in primate orbitofrontal cortex reflects the value of time.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Matthew R; Olson, Carl R

    2005-10-01

    Neurons in monkey orbitofrontal cortex (OF) are known to respond to reward-predicting cues with a strength that depends on the value of the predicted reward as determined 1) by intrinsic attributes including size and quality and 2) by extrinsic factors including the monkey's state of satiation and awareness of what other rewards are currently available. We pose here the question whether another extrinsic factor critical to determining reward value-the delay expected to elapse before delivery-influences neuronal activity in OF. To answer this question, we recorded from OF neurons while monkeys performed a memory-guided saccade task in which a cue presented early in each trial predicted whether the delay before the monkey could respond and receive a reward of fixed size would be short or long. OF neurons tended to fire more strongly in response to a cue predicting a short delay. The tendency to fire more strongly in anticipation of a short delay was correlated across neurons with the tendency to fire more strongly before a large reward. We conclude that neuronal activity in OF represents the time-discounted value of the expected reward.

  8. Fumonisin concentration and ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of corn, masa, and tortilla chips.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth A; Norred, William P; Meredith, Filmore I; Riley, Ronald T; Stephen Saunders, D

    2006-07-01

    Nixtamalization removes fumonisins from corn and reduces their amounts in masa and tortilla products. Fumonisin concentrations and potential toxicity could be underestimated, however, if unknown but biologically active fumonisins are present. Therefore, the relative amounts of fumonisins in extracts of fumonisin-contaminated corn and its masa and tortilla chip nixtamalization products were determined with an in vitro ceramide synthase inhibition bioassay using increased sphinganine (Sa) and sphinganine to sphingosine ratio (Sa/So) as endpoints. African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells ATCC CCL-81) were grown in 1-ml wells and exposed to 4 microl of the concentrated extracts for 48 h. The corn extract inhibited ceramide synthase as Sa (mean = 132 pmol/well) and Sa/So (mean = 2.24) were high compared to vehicle controls (Sa = 9 pmol/well; Sa/So = 0.10). Inhibitory activity (mean Sa = 14-24 pmol/well; mean Sa/So = 0.17-0.28) of the masa and tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 80% compared to the corn extract. Results were corroborated in a second experiment in which Sa and Sa/So of the wells treated with masa or tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 89% compared to those treated with the corn extract. Masa and tortilla chip FB1 concentrations (4-7 ppm) were reduced about 80-90% compared to the corn (30 ppm) when the materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, nixtamalization reduced both the measured amount of FB1 and the ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of masa and tortilla chips extracts. The results further suggest that the masa and tortilla chip extracts did not contain significant amounts of unknown fumonisins having ceramide synthase inhibitory activity.

  9. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.

  10. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE PAGES

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; ...

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  11. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  12. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption.

  13. Muscle conduction velocity, strength, neural activity, and morphological changes after eccentric and concentric training.

    PubMed

    Cadore, E L; González-Izal, M; Pallarés, J G; Rodriguez-Falces, J; Häkkinen, K; Kraemer, W J; Pinto, R S; Izquierdo, M

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the effects of concentric and eccentric training on neuromuscular adaptations in young subjects. Twenty-two men and women were assigned to one of two groups: concentric (CON, n = 11) and eccentric (ECC, n = 11) training. Training consisted of 6 weeks of isokinetic exercise, performed twice weekly, starting with two sets of eight repetitions, and progressing to five sets of 10 repetitions. Subjects were tested in strength variables [concentric, eccentric, and isometric peak torque (PT), and rate of force development (RFD)], muscle conduction velocity (CV), neuromuscular activity, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle thickness, and echo intensity as determined by ultrasonography. There were similar increases in the concentric and eccentric PTs in both the CON and ECC groups (P < 0.01), but only the ECC group showed an increase in isometric PT (P < 0.001). Similarly, both groups exhibited increased VL muscle thickness, CV, and RFD, and reduced VL echo intensity (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were observed among the relative changes in the neuromuscular outcomes and training variables (e.g., total work, average PT) (r = 0.68-0.75, P < 0.05). The results showed that both training types similarly improved dynamic PT, CV, RFD, and muscle thickness and quality during the early weeks of training.

  14. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  15. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Marisa P.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas. PMID:28036043

  16. Effect of two dietary concentrate levels on tenderness, calpain and calpastatin activities, and carcass merit in Waguli and Brahman steers.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, R M; Goll, D E; Marchello, J A; Duff, G C; Thompson, V F; Mares, S W; Ahmad, H A

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare carcass characteristics of a newly introduced breed, the Waguli (Wagyu x Tuli), with the carcass characteristics of the Brahman breed. Brahman cattle are used extensively in the Southwest of the United States because of their tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, Brahman carcasses are discounted according to the height of their humps because of meat tenderness issues. The Waguli was developed in an attempt to obtain a breed that retained the heat tolerance of the Brahman but had meat quality attributes similar to the Wagyu. Twenty-four animals were used. Six steers from each breed were fed a 94% concentrate diet and 6 steers from each breed were fed an 86% concentrate diet. Eight steers, 2 from each group, were harvested after 128 d, after 142 d, and after 156 d on feed. Waguli steers had larger LM, greater backfat thickness, greater marbling scores, and greater quality grades than the Brahman steers (P < 0.05). The Japanese Wagyu breed is well known for its highly marbled and tender meat, and these traits are also present in the Waguli. The Waguli had significantly lower Warner-Bratzler shear force values than the Brahman steers after 7 and 10 d of postmortem aging (P < 0.05); this difference decreased after 14 d postmortem (P = 0.2), when tenderness of the slower aging Brahman had increased to acceptable levels. Toughness of the Brahman has been associated with high levels of calpastatin in Brahman muscle, and the Waguli LM had significantly less calpastatin activity (P = 0.02) at 0 h postmortem than the Brahman LM. At 0-h postmortem, the total LM calpain activity did not differ between the Brahman and Waguli (P = 0.57). Neither diet nor days on feed had any significant effect on the 0-h postmortem calpain or at 0-h postmortem calpastatin activity, nor an effect on Warner-Bratzler shear-force values. In conclusion, LM muscle from the Waguli steers had a high degree of marbling, lower shear force values

  17. Vapor pressure, speciation, and chemical activities in highly concentrated sodium borate solutions at 277 and 317{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.

    1995-05-01

    The system H{sub 2}O - B{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Na{sub 2}O has been studied experimentally at 277 and 317{degrees}C. The activities of water and boric acid have been determined at mole ratios Na/B from 0 to 1.5, and total dissolved solids 3 to 8 weight percent. The activity of boric acid has been fitted to within experimental error using a speciation model with eight complex species. This model is consistent with the model previously published by Mesmer et al. The electrolyte properties of the liquid are modeled using the Pitzer-Simonson model of very concentrated electrolyte solutions. The calculated values of water activity agree with experiment, and the activity of NaOH and pOH have also been calculated. The potassium borate system also was briefly studied at 317{degrees}C, and is adequately described by a model with five complex species. The potassium borate liquid is more alkaline at K/B = 1 than a sodium borate liquid at the same mole ratio, but pOH in the two systems is the same at lower mole ratios.

  18. Evaluation of phytochemical content, nutritional value and antioxidant activity of Phanji - Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy leaf

    PubMed Central

    Borkar, Sneha D.; Naik, Raghavendra; Shukla, Vinay J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rivea hypocrateriformis (Desr.) Choisy is known to be the source plant of Phanji, a classically delineated leafy vegetable which is till date used by some hill dwelling Kandha tribes of Odisha. Though it is in use since a long time, it is not yet evaluated for its nutritive value. Aim: The leaves of R. hypocrateriformis were evaluated for its nutritive value and antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: The in vitro antioxidant properties of the leaf of R. hypocrateriformis were screened through 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and total antioxidant capacity. Phytochemicals, crude protein, fat, carbohydrate, energy value, and mineral content of the leaves of the plant were evaluated with standard procedures. Results: In phytochemical analysis, tannin, alkaloids, flavonoids, and carbohydrates were present in leaf powder of R. hypocrateriformis. Energy content was found to be highest (331.54 kcals/100 g). Carbohydrate, fat, protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, and zinc were present in 57.63%, 2.66%, 19.27%, 0.99%, 0.34%, 0.32%, and 0.011%, respectively. The IC50 values of the extract and ascorbic acid were found to be 254 ± 5.29 μg/ml and 11.67 ± 0.58 μg/ml, respectively. Percentage scavenging of DPPH radical was found to rise with increasing concentration of the crude extract. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be 111.30 ± 0.003 mcg. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the leaves of R. hypocrateriformis contain secondary metabolites such as tannin and possess mild antioxidant properties. Nutritional analysis indicates the presence of energy in highest amount, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, calcium, phosphorous, zinc, and magnesium. PMID:27313417

  19. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  20. [Electrical activity of the heart cells and myocardial contractility during a change in extracellular sodium concentration].

    PubMed

    Kobrin, V I; Alabovskiĭ, V V; Alipov, N N; Oleĭnikov, O D

    1988-09-01

    The transmembrane potentials of the cells of the ventricle contractile myocardium of the rat and frog isolated hearts were studied as well as the strength of the ventricle contraction under the effect of a decrease (to 30 mM) or increase (up to 200 mM) in the sodium chloride concentration in the perfusate. The decrease led to a fibrillation of ventricles, 80-85% of contractile cells generating a high-frequency activity, 12-15% preserving the same AP and 3-5% having completely lost the excitability. The increase only affects the transmembrane potentials of ischemized myocardium. The decrease in the sodium concentration led to an augmentation of the contraction strength through the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism.

  1. A long-term metabolic study to assess the nutritional value of and immunological tolerance to two soy-protein concentrates in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Beer, W H; Murray, E; Oh, S H; Pedersen, H E; Wolfe, R R; Young, V R

    1989-11-01

    Seventeen healthy young adult men participated in a long-term metabolic study (11 wk) to evaluate the tolerance to and protein nutritional value of two commercially produced soy-protein concentrates. Danpro-S (nine subjects) and Danprotex-H 40 (eight subjects) (Aarhus Oliefabrik A/S, Aarhus, Denmark). Each test protein (0.8 g.kg-1.d-1) served as the sole source of dietary nitrogen. Subjects remained healthy, no problems of clinical or metabolic significance appeared, body weight remained constant, and body composition indices (lean body mass by H2(18)O dilution and creatinine excretion) and basal metabolic rate did not change. N balances fluctuated around body N equilibrium. Immunological studies confirmed the absence of any allergic responses in these subjects. It is concluded that these protein concentrates can be consumed as the sole source of dietary protein for protein nutritional maintenance and with excellent tolerance.

  2. [Diagnostic value of determination of the blood concentrations of serotonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with tick-borne encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Sumlivaia, O N; Vorob'eva, N N; Karakulova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows the informative value of changes in the serum levels of serotonin and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in 44 patients in the acute period of tickborne encephalitis. Group 1 included 35 patients with non-paralytic neuroinfection; Group 2 comprised 9 patients with paralytic neuroinfection. The serum level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein increased and that of serotonin decreased in relation to the form and severity of the disease at its height. The elevated level of the former and the low concentration of the latter may serve as an early predictor of the development of a severe paralytic form. Investigating their serum concentrations should be included into an examination plan for patients with acute tick-borne encephalitis.

  3. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    PubMed Central

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-01-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  4. Chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities of eight mulberry cultivars from China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Linghong; Wu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Maomao; Zhao, Weiguo; Li, Fang; Zou, Ye; Yang, Liuqing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mulberry (Morus, Moraceae) is widely distributed in the temperate, subtropical, or tropical regions of the world, while there are no conclusive reports on the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant properties of mulberry cultivars from China. Objective: To investigate chemical properties and to determine proximate nutritive compounds of the eight mulberry cultivars. Materials and Methods: Chemical properties (including moisture, ash, total dry matter, total soluble solids, pH, and total titratable acidity) of the eight mulberry cultivars were investigated. Proximate nutritive compounds (including crude protein, crude fat, mineral elements, total anthocyanins, total polyphenols, total flavonoids, and total sugars) were also determined. Results: The results indicated that the moisture contents were 70.0-87.4%, the crude protein contents 1.62-5.54%, and the crude fat contents from 1.23-2.23%. The major fatty acids in mulberry fruits were linoleic acid (C18:2) and palmitic acid (C16:0), 26.40-74.77% and 9.29-22.26%, respectively. Mulberry fruit is also a good source of minerals and the potassium content (521.37-1718.60 mg/100g DW) is especially higher than that of other elements. Compared with other species, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. had relatively high total polyphenols content (189.67-246.00 mg GAE/100mg) and anthocyanins content (114.67-193.00 mg/100mg). There was a good linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total polyphenols content. Conclusion: Significant differences of the chemical composition, nutritional value, and antioxidant activities among the mulberry cultivars were observed, the Morus atropurpurea Roxb. showed considerable high nutritional value and antioxidant activity which could be developed for functional food that benefits human health. PMID:23060696

  5. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  6. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  7. Evaluation of activity-based costing versus resource-based relative value costing.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Mark F; Smith, Tommy H

    2004-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and relative value units costing (RVU) are two approaches that a practice manager can use to determine the cost of physician services. Each costing approach has features that provide distinction as well as differentiation in the cost estimates that are estimated. This paper will provide cost estimates under each approach along with cost estimates under a hybrid approach that merges features from each costing approach known as the ABC-RVU costing technique. A comparison of the results will be provided.

  8. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG compared with pigs fed no pectin. The villi and the crypts were shorter in pigs fed pectin-containing diets, but the villous height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. Pectin significantly decreased the area of mucins in the crypts of the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectin-containing diet would probably be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria, although this cannot be separated from the impact on ADFI. The lectin-binding pattern of the intestinal mucosa was unaffected by diet. The activity of lactase and maltase was increased in pigs fed diets with high fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the

  9. Application of an artificial neural network for evaluation of activity concentration exemption limits in NORM industry.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Hannah; Peyrés, Virginia; Crespo, Teresa; Mejuto, Marcos; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2016-12-27

    NORM emits many different gamma energies that have to be analysed by an expert. Alternatively, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used. These mathematical software tools can generalize "knowledge" gained from training datasets, applying it to new problems. No expert knowledge of gamma-ray spectrometry is needed by the end-user. In this work an ANN was created that is able to decide from the raw gamma-ray spectrum if the activity concentrations in a sample are above or below the exemption limits.

  10. Effect of Salinity and Alkalinity on Luciobarbus capito Gill Na+/K+-ATPase Enzyme Activity, Plasma Ion Concentration, and Osmotic Pressure

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the individual and combined effects of salinity and alkalinity on gill Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme activity, plasma ion concentration, and osmotic pressure in Luciobarbus capito. Increasing salinity concentrations (5, 8, 11, and 14 g/L) were associated with an initial increase and then decrease in L. capito gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Activity was affected by the difference between internal and external Na+ ion concentrations and osmotic pressure (P < 0.05). Both plasma ion (Na+, K+, and Cl−) concentration and osmotic pressure increased significantly (P < 0.05). An increase in alkalinity (15, 30, 45, and 60 mM) caused a significant increase in plasma K+ and urea nitrogen concentrations (P < 0.05) but had no effect on either plasma osmotic pressure or gill filament ATPase activity. In the two-factor experiment, the saline-alkaline interaction caused a significant increase in plasma ion (Na+, Cl−, and urea nitrogen) and osmotic pressure (P < 0.05). Variance analysis revealed that salinity, alkalinity, and their interaction significantly affected osmotic pressure, with salinity being most affected, followed by alkalinity, and their interaction. Gill filament ATPase activity increased at first and then decreased; peak values were observed in the orthogonal experiment group at a salinity of 8 g/L and alkalinity of 30 mM. PMID:27981049

  11. Effect of iron concentration on the expression and activity of catalase-peroxidases in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Sundaram, C A S Sivagami; Sritharan, Manjula

    2005-02-01

    Mycobacterial catalases are known to exist in different isoforms. We studied the influence of iron concentration on the expression and activity of the different isoforms in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii and M. vaccae by growing them under iron-sufficient (4 microg Fe/mL) and iron-deficient (0.02 microg Fe/ml) conditions. Upon iron deprivation, significant differences were observed in the catalase/peroxidase activities in both quantitative spectrophotometric assays and in the activity staining in native gels. Notable feature was that the peroxidase activity showed a significant decrease upon iron deprivation in all the mycobacteria, except M. vaccae. Peroxidase activity in all the mycobacteria, irrespective of the iron status was susceptible to heat inactivation. However, the isoforms of catalase showed differences in their heat stability, indicating possible structural differences in these proteins. For example, M. bovis BCG expressed a heat labile catalase under iron-sufficient conditions, while a heat stable catalase band of similar mobility was expressed under iron-deprivation conditions. The study clearly indicates that iron plays an important role in the regulation of expression of the different isoforms of the catalase-peroxidases.

  12. Concentric zones of active RhoA and Cdc42 around single cell wounds

    PubMed Central

    Benink, Hélène A.; Bement, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Rho GTPases control many cytoskeleton-dependent processes, but how they regulate spatially distinct features of cytoskeletal function within a single cell is poorly understood. Here, we studied active RhoA and Cdc42 in wounded Xenopus oocytes, which assemble and close a dynamic ring of actin filaments (F-actin) and myosin-2 around wound sites. RhoA and Cdc42 are rapidly activated around wound sites in a calcium-dependent manner and segregate into distinct, concentric zones around the wound, with active Cdc42 in the approximate middle of the F-actin array and active RhoA on the interior of the array. These zones form before F-actin accumulation, and then move in concert with the closing array. Microtubules and F-actin are required for normal zone organization and dynamics, as is crosstalk between RhoA and Cdc42. Each of the zones makes distinct contributions to the organization and function of the actomyosin wound array. We propose that similar rho activity zones control related processes such as cytokinesis. PMID:15684032

  13. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J. S.; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B.; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E.; Adams, Andrew C.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ. PMID:26092201

  14. Effect of Direct-Current Electric Field on Enzymatic Activity and the Concentration of Laccase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxing; Zhang, Huiling; Ren, Dajun; Li, Qian; Zhang, Shuqin; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of direct-current electric field on the extracellular enzymatic activity, concentration and other experimental parameters of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The results showed that laccase could significantly contribute to the change of pH at the end of graphite electrode. In addition, it increased the electrical conductivity of the water. In the experiment, the optimum pH and catalytic pH range for laccase activity were 3.0 and pH 2.5-4.0. The application of 6 V direct current showed significant effects on the laccase enzyme activity. The activity of laccase was enhanced in the anodic region, but at the same time was strongly inhibited at the cathode. The electric charge characteristics of laccase were changed when exposed to electric field, and some laccases molecules moved to the anode, which produced a slight migration phenomenon. This study is the basis of combination of laccase and electrical technology, at the same time, providing a new direction of enhancing laccase activity. Compared to immobilization, using electric field is simple, no chemical additives, and great potential.

  15. Effect of bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism on concentrations in milk of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Otero, J A; García-Mateos, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Álvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2016-07-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is involved in the secretion of several drugs into milk. The bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism increases the secretion into milk of the fluoroquinolone danofloxacin in Holstein cows. Danofloxacin and enrofloxacin are the fluoroquinolones most widely used in veterinary medicine. Both enrofloxacin (ENRO) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) reach milk at relatively high concentrations. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the bovine Y581S ABCG2 polymorphism on in vitro transport as well as on concentrations in plasma and in milk of ENRO and CIPRO. Experiments using cells overexpressing bovine ABCG2 showed the effects of ABCG2 on the transport of CIPRO, demonstrating more efficient in vitro transport of this antimicrobial by the S581 variant as compared with the Y581 variant. Animal studies administering 2.5mg/kg of ENRO subcutaneously to Y/Y 581 and Y/S 581 cows revealed that concentrations in plasma of ENRO and CIPRO were significantly lower in Y/S animals. Regardless of the genotype, the antimicrobial profile in milk after the administration of ENRO was predominantly of CIPRO. With respect to the genotype effects on the amounts of drugs present in milk, AUC0-24 values were more than 1.2 times higher in Y/S cows for ENRO and 2.2 times for CIPRO, indicating a greater capacity of Y581S to transfer these drugs into milk. These results emphasize the clinical relevance of this polymorphism as a factor affecting the concentrations in plasma and in milk of drugs of importance in veterinary medicine.

  16. Multistability of complex-valued neural networks with discontinuous activation functions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinling; Gong, Weiqiang; Huang, Tingwen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, based on the geometrical properties of the discontinuous activation functions and the Brouwer's fixed point theory, the multistability issue is tackled for the complex-valued neural networks with discontinuous activation functions and time-varying delays. To address the network with discontinuous functions, Filippov solution of the system is defined. Through rigorous analysis, several sufficient criteria are obtained to assure the existence of 25(n) equilibrium points. Among them, 9(n) points are locally stable and 16(n)-9(n) equilibrium points are unstable. Furthermore, to enlarge the attraction basins of the 9(n) equilibrium points, some mild conditions are imposed. Finally, one numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  17. Characteristics of Value and Professional Orientation of the Technical University Students as Ideal Views on the Activity Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khinkanina, Alla L.; Serova, Olga E.

    2016-01-01

    The results of the empirical investigation of the characteristics of value and professional orientation of the students taking studies in social and computer engineering related fields are presented. The types of value structure uncovered depend on the students' attitudes to the values significant for the professional evolution (active mode of…

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Whey Protein Concentrate Activated with Lycopene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Assis, Odílio Benedito Garrido; Alvarenga, Gabriela Lara

    2016-03-01

    The production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated with lycopene as a functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential uses in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0% and 2% in w/w) and lycopene (0%, 6%, and 12% in w/w) was used. Color, light transmission, film transparency, moisture, density, solubility, water vapor permeability, and antioxidant activity of the resulting materials were evaluated. Results indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. Inclusion of 2% w/w of MMT in the polymeric matrix significantly improved barrier property against water vapor. Lycopene, besides its good red coloring ability, provided to the films antioxidant activity and UV-vis light protection. These findings open a new perspective for the use of materials for bioactive packaging applications.

  19. Barley chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity is not affected by CO sub 2 -concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Forde, B.; Wallsgrove, R. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been reported that when photorespiration is suppressed by raising the concentration of CO{sub 2}, the expression of the chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) gene in pea leaves is reduced (Plant Cell, 1, 241). We have examined this effect in barley (Hordeum vulgare), and confirm that plants grown continuously in 0.8% CO{sub 2}, or transferred to such conditions after growth in air, appear to have a reduced GS2 mRNA abundance. However, we were unable to detect any significant difference in the extractable GS2 activity, or any change in amount of GS2 protein (judged by Western blots). Whatever controls are operating on gS2 mRNA expression in response to changes is external CO{sub 2}, they do not affect the activity or amount of the enzyme in barley.

  20. Approaches to the Development of Human Health Toxicity Values for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the Environment.

    PubMed

    Sorell, Tamara L

    2016-01-01

    Management of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in the environment is challenging because these substances represent a large and diverse group of compounds. Advanced wastewater treatment technologies that can remove API tend to be costly. Because of the potential resources required to address API in the environment, there is a need to establish environmental benchmarks that can serve as targets for treatment and release. To date, there are several different approaches that have been taken to derive human health toxicity values for API. These methods include traditional risk assessment approaches that calculate "safe" doses using experimental data and uncertainty (safety) factors; point of departure (POD), which starts from a therapeutic human dose and applies uncertainty factors; and threshold of toxicological concern (TTC), a generic approach that establishes threshold values across broad classes of chemicals based on chemical structure. To evaluate the use of these approaches, each of these methods was applied to three API commonly encountered in the environment: acetaminophen, caffeine, and chlorpromazine. The results indicate that the various methods of estimating toxicity values produce highly varying doses. Associated doses are well below typical intakes, or toxicity thresholds cannot be derived due to a lack of information. No uniform approach can be applied to establishing thresholds for multiple substances. Rather, an individualized approach will need to be applied to each target API.

  1. A novel method for measuring aromatase activity in tissue samples by determining estradiol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Rascle, J B; Colombel, S; Al Khansa, I; Freyberger, A; Bars, R

    2011-07-01

    Increasing scrutiny of endocrine disrupters has led to changes to European pesticide and biocide legislation and to the introduction of the Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program by the US EPA. One element of endocrine disrupter identification is to determine its effects on aromatase, but most available assays are limited as they depend on tritiated water production to indicate enzyme activity. Whilst acceptable for determining aromatase effects using a cell-free approach, this method is unreliable for cell or tissue-based investigations as other cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme activities can similarly produce tritiated water and consequently confound interpretation of the aromatase data. To address this lack of specificity an assay directly measuring the final estrogen product by incubating rat tissue protein with testosterone and measuring the resultant estradiol concentration was developed. Using this approach we demonstrated marked increases in enzyme activity in pregnant rat ovary samples and dose-related inhibitions when incubating non-pregnant rat ovary samples with known aromatase inhibitors. Hepatic aromatase activity was investigated using our method and by tritiated water production with microsomes from rats dosed with the antiandrogen 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethane. Additional cytochrome P-450s were also measured. Treatment-related increased tritiated water production and general hepatic enzyme activity were recorded but estradiol was not increased, indicating that the increased tritiated water was due to general enzyme activity and not aromatase activity. A simple and specific method has been developed that can detect aromatase inhibition and induction, which when applied to tissue samples, provides a means of generating relevant animal data concerning chemical effects on the aromatase enzyme.

  2. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and {sup 210}Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  3. Optimisation of concentrating solar cell systems with passive and active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, J.

    1983-10-01

    Design considerations for concentrator solar cell arrays for space applications are reviewed, noting the restrictions on total mass that govern system selections. Consideration is given to systems with parabolic mirrors and Si and GaAs solar cells. Passive and active cooling systems for the arrays are discussed, as is the addition of a heat engine with a turbogenerator to utilize part of the waste heat of the cooling cycle. Attention is given to systems orbiting at 0.5, 1, and 3.5 AU from the sun. Flat panels are found to be more suitable for missions near the sun for Si solar cells, while GaAs cells with concentration are preferred to flat panel systems at all distances from the sun. Nuclear turboelectric systems are better than concentrator Si arrays at large distances from the sun, in terms of specific masses of the systems. The addition of a system to use waste heat is judged unfavorable from specific mass factors.

  4. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-02

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments.

  5. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  6. Electrical activation of Na/K pumps can increase ionic concentration gradient and membrane resting potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Dando, Robin

    2006-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated by our group that our specifically designed synchronization modulation electric field can dynamically entrain the Na/K ATPase molecules, effectively accelerating the pumping action of these molecules. The ATPase molecules are first synchronized by the field, and subsequently their pumping rates are gradually modulated in a stepwise pattern to progressively higher and higher levels. Here, we present results obtained on application of the field to intact twitch skeletal muscle fibers. The ionic concentration gradient across the cell membrane was monitored, with the membrane potential extrapolated using a slow fluorescent probe with a confocal microimaging technique. The applied synchronization-modulation electric field is able to slowly but consistently increase the ionic concentration gradient across the membrane and, hence, hyperpolarize the membrane potential. All of these results were fully eliminated if ouabain was applied to the bathing solution, indicating a correlation with the action of the Na/K pump molecules. These results in combination with our previous results into the entrainment of the pump molecules show that the synchronization-modulation electric field-induced activation of the Na/K pump functions can effectively increase the ionic concentration gradient and the membrane potential.

  7. Students' perceived value of physiology course activities in a Sudanese medical faculty.

    PubMed

    Kaddam, Lamis; Elnimeiri, Mustafa Khidir Mustafa

    2012-12-01

    The physiology course in our department consists of lectures, laboratory sessions, and tutorials, all of which are teacher centered, as well as student-led seminars. The overall aim of this project was to investigate student perceptions of the value of varying academic activities on their learning of physiology. A faculty-based descriptive study was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences of Alneelain University (Khartoum, Sudan). Questionnaires (150 total) were distributed to students from the Schools of Medicine, Dentistry, and Physiotherapy; 127 questionnaires were completed and returned. The results showed that 108 students (85%) believed that their absence from different academic activities could affect their performance. Students perceived lectures as the most valuable academic activity (90.7%), whereas seminars presented by students were perceived as the least important activity (18.5%). There was a significant correlation between lectures attendance and their performance in examinations (P = 0.008). Ninety percent of the students thought that teacher involvement in tutorials was essential and that lectures were useful to understand certain topics. These results showed that in our course, students perceived teacher involvement as a key component of the educational process.

  8. Reliability and validity of the valued activity inventory for adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Li, Zhongze; Balan, Stefan; Bartels, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Valued Activity Inventory for Adults With Cancer (VAI-AC), a self-report instrument that measures activity limitations. Participants included 50 older adults undergoing chemotherapy who completed the VAI-AC and measures of physical and mental function, symptom intensity, and mood 3 days before and the day of chemotherapy. Test-retest reliability was assessed by determining the average number of items for which the importance of an activity was rated consistently and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the first and second VAI-AC scores. Convergent validity was assessed by correlating the VAI-AC scores with the other measures. Participants consistently rated the importance of 90% of the items. The 72-hour test-retest reliability ICC was 0.67. Participants with fewer activity limitations indicated better physical function (r = 0.58, p < .001), better mental function (r = 0.55, p < .001), lower symptom intensity (r = -0.57, p < .001), and fewer depressive symptoms (r = -0.68, p < .001). The VAI-AC demonstrated evidence of test-retest reliability and convergent validity in this convenience sample of older adults undergoing chemotherapy for cancer.

  9. Detection of enteric viruses in activated sludge by feasible concentration methods.

    PubMed

    Prado, Tatiana; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are responsible to cause several diseases, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis, and can be present in high amounts in sewage sludge. This study compared virus recovery efficiency of two feasible concentration methods used for detecting human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus species A (RV-A), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in sewage sludge from an activated sludge process. Twelve sewage sludge samples were collected bi-monthly from January to July, 2011. Ultracentrifugation was compared with a simplified protocol based on beef extract elution for recovering enteric viruses. Viruses were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR assays and virus recovery efficiency and limits of detection were determined. Methods showed mean recovery rates lower than 7.5%, presenting critical limits of detection (higher than 10(2) - 10(3) genome copies - GC L(-1) for all viruses analyzed). Nevertheless, HAdV were detected in 90% of the analyzed sewage sludge samples (range: 1.8 × 10(4) to 1.1 × 10(5) GC L(-1)), followed by RV-A and NoV (both in 50%) and HAV (8%). Results suggesting that activated sludge is contaminated with high viral loads and HAdV are widely disseminated in these samples. The low virus recovery rates achieved, especially for HAV, indicate that other feasible concentration methods could be developed to improve virus recovery efficiency in these environmental matrices.

  10. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-06

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  11. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in macrofungi from Galicia (NW Spain): Influence of environmental and genetic factors.

    PubMed

    García, M A; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J

    2015-05-01

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) is an artificial radionuclide that can be captured from the soil through the mycelium of fungi. However, in Spain there are few data on its presence in edible mushrooms. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined using 54 samples of wild and cultivated mushrooms and 18 samples of soil, all of them collected in Galicia (NW Spain) during 2010. Samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentration of (137)Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2Bqkg(-1) dry weight (dw) and about 24.9Bqkg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake of (137)Cs, highlighting Hydnum repandum as the greatest accumulator of all wild species (1016.4Bqkg(-1) dw), while cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6Bqkg(-1) fw). Accumulation was also favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium was distributed in contaminated soil horizons. The mean levels detected in soils were 14Bqkg(-1) fw. Although some species behaved as bioexclusors of radiocaesium, the transfer factors (TF) suggest that mushrooms preferentially bioaccumulate (137)Cs. No sample reached the limit of 600Bqkg(-1) fw (about 6000Bqkg(-1) dw) indicated in the European legislation. In conclusion, the consumption of mushrooms harvested from the investigated areas poses no toxicological risk to human health due to radiocaesium.

  12. Application of PAH concentration profiles in lake sediments as indicators for smelting activity.

    PubMed

    Warner, Wiebke; Ruppert, Hans; Licha, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    The ability of lake sediment cores to store long-term anthropogenic pollution establishes them as natural archives. In this study, we focus on the influence of copper shale mining and smelting in the Mansfeld area of Germany, using the depth profiles of two sediment cores from Lake Süßer See. The sediment cores provide a detailed chronological deposition history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in the studied area. Theisen sludge, a fine-grained residue from copper shale smelting, reaches the lake via deflation by wind or through riverine input; it is assumed to be the main source of pollution. To achieve the comparability of absolute contaminant concentrations, we calculated the influx of contaminants based on the sedimentation rate. Compared to the natural background concentrations, PAHs are significantly more enriched than heavy metals. They are therefore more sensitive and selective for source apportionment. We suggest two diagnostic ratios of PAHs to distinguish between Theisen sludge and its leachate: the ratio fluoranthene to pyrene ~2 and the ratio of PAH with logKOW<5.7 to PAH with a logKOW>5.7 converging to an even lower value than 2.3 (the characteristic of Theisen sludge) to identify the particulate input in lake environments.

  13. Perceptions of breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) levels among a sample of bar patrons with BrAC values of 0.08% or higher.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ryan J; Chaney, Beth H; Cremeens-Matthews, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen

    2016-09-01

    Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) is a commonly used measure of alcohol intoxication. Because of the potential negative consequences of excessive alcohol consumption, it is important to examine how accurately intoxicated individuals can estimate their BrAC values, especially individuals over the legal BrAC driving threshold (i.e., 0.08%). To better understand perceptions of BrAC values among intoxicated individuals, this field study examined actual BrAC values and BrAC range estimates (0.08% and above, 0.02-0.07%, less than 0.02%) among a sample of bar patrons (N = 454) with BrAC levels at 0.08% or higher. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between actual BrAC values and perceived BrAC levels. We also examined whether the following demographic and drinking variables were associated with underestimating BrAC in this sample: gender, age, race, college student status, plans to get home, and hazardous drinking. Results indicated that the majority (60.4%) of participants underestimated their BrAC (i.e., less than 0.08%) and lower BrAC values correlated with underestimating BrAC ranges (p < .001, 95% CI[0.2, 0.6]). Further, females (p = .001, 95% CI[1.3, 3.3]) and participants under 21 (p = .039, 95% CI = 1.0, 2.6) were significantly more likely to estimate their BrAC to be less than 0.08%, which is concerning given that young (less than 21) intoxicated females are a group at high risk for sexual assault on college campuses. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Use of near-infrared for quantitative measurement of viscosity and concentration of active ingredient in pharmaceutical gel.

    PubMed

    Donoso, M; Ghaly, E S

    2006-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is gaining worldwide interest as an analytical tool for quality control of raw materials, intermediate products, and final dosage forms. This technique can be used without sample preparation, therefore, avoiding the need for reagents and solvents. Quantitative NIR analyses involve calibration by sophisticated mathematical techniques that have been used extensively since the advent of microcomputing and chemometrics. The main objective of this investigation was to use transmission near-Infrared spectroscopy to measure the potency of an active ingredient in a topical gel preparation. A second objective was to evaluate the effect of gel viscosity on the NIR reflectance spectra. Four gel formulations with different ibuprofen concentrations were used for quantitative determination of the active ingredient, and five gel formulations with different viscosity values were used for the evaluation of the effect of viscosity change on the near-infrared reflectance spectra. The laboratory ibuprofen quantitative determination was compared to near-infrared transmission data using linear, quadratic, cubic and partial least square techniques to determine the relationship between ultraviolet (UV) determination and near-infrared spectra. For viscosity, the laboratory data were compared to near-infrared diffuse reflectance data using the same techniques used to determine the relationship between Brookfield viscometer determination and near-infrared spectra. The results demonstrated that an increase in ibuprofen concentration and viscosity produced an increase in near-infrared absorbance. Series of model equations were developed from the calibration of laboratory vs. the near-infrared data for each formulation. The near-infrared spectroscopy method is an alternative method that does not require sample pretreatment for quantitative measurement of active ingredient and viscosity of pharmaceutical gel.

  15. Strong nonlinear focusing of light in nonlinearly controlled electromagnetic active metamaterial field concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Yu G.; Boardman, A. D.; Grimalsky, V. V.; Ivchenko, V. M.; Kalinich, N.

    2014-05-01

    The idea of nonlinear ‘transformation optics-inspired’ [1-6] electromagnetic cylindrical field concentrators has been taken up in a preliminary manner in a number of conference reports [7-9]. Such a concentrator includes both external linear region with a dielectric constant increased towards the centre and internal region with nonlinearity characterized by constant coefficients. Then, in the process of farther investigations we realized the following factors considered neither in [7-9] nor in the recent paper [10]: saturation of nonlinearity, nonlinear losses, linear gain, numerical convergence, when nonlinear effect becomes very strong and formation of ‘hotspots’ starts. It is clearly demonstrated here that such a strongly nonlinear process starts when the nonlinear amplitude of any incident beam(s) exceeds some ‘threshold’ value. Moreover, it is shown that the formation of hotspots may start as the result of any of the following processes: an increase of the input amplitude, increasing the linear amplification in the central nonlinear region, decreasing the nonlinear losses, a decrease in the saturation of the nonlinearity. Therefore, a tendency to a formation of ‘hotspots’ is a rather universal feature of the strongly nonlinear behaviour of the ‘nonlinear resonator’ system, while at the same time the system is not sensitive to the ‘prehistory’ of approaching nonlinear threshold intensity (amplitude). The new proposed method includes a full-wave nonlinear solution analysis (in the nonlinear region), a new form of complex geometric optics (in the linear inhomogeneous external cylinder), and new boundary conditions, matching both solutions. The observed nonlinear phenomena will have a positive impact upon socially and environmentally important devices of the future. Although a graded-index concentrator is used here, it is a direct outcome of transformation optics. Numerical evaluations show that for known materials these nonlinear effects

  16. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential pathogens is inhibited (MIC90). A previous study showed that most hospitalized COPD patients had sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations had better clinical outcomes. Low amoxicillin concentrations can be caused by beta-lactamase activity in the lungs. This study investigated whether patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations activity in sputum than patients with a concentration ≥MIC90. Methods In total, 23 patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were included. Sputum and serum samples were collected at day 3 of treatment to determine beta-lactamase activity in sputum and amoxicillin concentrations in both sputum and serum. Results We found no difference in beta-lactamase activity between patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations activity and sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations were activity did not differ between those with sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations

  17. Extremely high radon activity concentration in two adits of the abandoned uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary (Sudety Mts., Poland).

    PubMed

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    Measurements of radon activity concentration were conducted for a period of 6 months, from April to September 2011, in the air of two adits constituting part of the disused uranium mine 'Podgórze' in Kowary. Adits no. 19 and 19a in Kowary had been chosen owing to the occurrence within them of the highest documented radon concentrations in Poland, With levels higher than a million Bq m(-3). The main goal of this study was to characterize the level of (222)Rn activity concentration registered in selected workings of this underground space, investigate (222)Rn changes and their characteristics over selected periods of time (an hour, a day, a month, six months) and determine the effective doses, which provided the basis for estimating the risk of exposure to increased ionizing radiation for employees and visitors to the mine. The highest values of (222)Rn activity concentration inside the adits occurred at the time when visitors, guides and other members of the staff were present there. The recorded values of radon activity concentration, regardless of the time and the month when the measurement was performed, remained at an average level of 350-400 kBq m(-3). These values were far above the limit of 1.5 kBq·m(-3) recommended by international guidelines. The maximum values ranged from 800 to more than 1000 kBq·m(-3). Radon activity concentration changes occurred only in periods determined by 7-h cycles of connecting and disconnecting the mechanical ventilation. For about 7 h after activating the ventilation system, between 7 a. m. and 2 p. m., and after closing the adit, between 7 p. m. and 2 a. m., (222)Rn activity concentrations decreased to levels even as low as 100 kBq·m-3. However, as early as 3-4 h after disconnecting the ventilation system, there was a sharp rise in the values of (222)Rn activity concentration, to the level higher than 800 kBq·m-3. The risk of receiving a radiation dose higher than the national standard of 1 mSv/year by members of

  18. Multifunctional Concentric FRET-Quantum Dot Probes for Tracking and Imaging of Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Massey, Melissa; Li, Jia Jun; Algar, W Russ

    2017-01-01

    Proteolysis has many important roles in physiological regulation. It is involved in numerous cell signaling processes and the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers. Methods of visualizing and assaying proteolytic activity are therefore in demand. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes offer several advantages in this respect. FRET supports end-point or real-time measurements, does not require washing or separation steps, and can be implemented in various assay or imaging formats. In this chapter, we describe methodology for preparing self-assembled concentric FRET (cFRET) probes for multiplexed tracking and imaging of proteolytic activity. The cFRET probe comprises a green-emitting semiconductor quantum dot (QD) conjugated with multiple copies of two different peptide substrates for two target proteases. The peptide substrates are labeled with different fluorescent dyes, Alexa Fluor 555 and Alexa Fluor 647, and FRET occurs between the QD and both dyes, as well as between the two dyes. This design enables a single QD probe to track the activity of two proteases simultaneously. Fundamental cFRET theory is presented, and procedures for using the cFRET probe for quantitative measurement of the activity of two model proteases are given, including calibration, fluorescence plate reader or microscope imaging assays, and data analysis. Sufficient detail is provided for other researchers to adapt this method to their specific requirements and proteolytic systems of interest.

  19. Clonidine-stimulated growth hormone concentrations (cut-off values) measured by immunochemiluminescent assay (ICMA) in children and adolescents with short stature

    PubMed Central

    de Fátima Borges, Maria; Teixeira, Flávia Carolina Cândida; Feltrin, Aline Karin; Ribeiro, Karina Alvarenga; Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Ferreira, Beatriz Pires; Silva, Adriana Paula; Palhares, Heloísa Marcelina Cunha

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish cut-off values for growth hormone concentrations using clonidine as a secretagogue and an immunochemiluminescent assay as the method of measurement and to analyze the response time as well as the influence of gender, nutritional status and pubertal stage. METHODS: A total of 225 tests were performed in 3 patient groups, categorized as group 1 (normal), group 2 (idiopathic short stature) and group 3 (growth hormone deficiency). Among the 199 disease-free individuals, 138 were prepubertal, and 61 were pubertal. Clonidine (0.1 mg/m2) was orally administered, and the growth hormone level was measured by immunochemiluminescent assay. The growth hormone peak and the difference between the growth hormone peak and the baseline level were then analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test or the Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's post hoc test. Cut-off values were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS: Group 1 and group 2 had no difference in growth hormone peak, gender, body mass index standard deviation score, or pubertal stage. Group 3 exhibited a significantly lower growth hormone peak than the other groups did. The receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that growth hormone concentrations ≥ 3.0 ng/mL defined responsiveness to clonidine. In total, 3.02% of individuals in group 1 and group 2 were considered false positive, i.e., these children lacked growth hormone deficiency and had a peak below 3.0 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: Clonidine-stimulated growth hormone concentrations ≥3 ng/mL, as measured by immunochemiluminescent assay, suggest responsiveness to the stimulus regardless of gender, body mass index standard deviation score or pubertal stage. PMID:27166774

  20. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  1. Application of an optimized flow cytometry-based quantification of Platelet Activation (PACT): Monitoring platelet activation in platelet concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Roest, Mark; Henskens, Yvonne M. C.; de Laat, Bas; Huskens, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that flow cytometry is a reliable test to quantify platelet function in stored platelet concentrates (PC). It is thought that flow cytometry is laborious and hence expensive. We have optimized the flow cytometry-based quantification of agonist induced platelet activation (PACT) to a labor, time and more cost-efficient test. Currently the quality of PCs is only monitored by visual inspection, because available assays are unreliable or too laborious for use in a clinical transfusion laboratory. Therefore, the PACT was applied to monitor PC activation during storage. Study design and methods The optimized PACT was used to monitor 5 PCs during 10 days of storage. In brief, optimized PACT uses a ready-to-use reaction mix, which is stable at -20°C. When needed, a test strip is thawed and platelet activation is initiated by mixing PC with PACT. PACT was based on the following agonists: adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen-related peptide (CRP) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP-6). Platelet activation was measured as P-selectin expression. Light transmission aggregometry (LTA) was performed as a reference. Results Both PACT and LTA showed platelet function decline during 10-day storage after stimulation with ADP and collagen/CRP; furthermore, PACT showed decreasing TRAP-induced activation. Major differences between the two tests are that PACT is able to measure the status of platelets in the absence of agonists, and it can differentiate between the number of activated platelets and the amount of activation, whereas LTA only measures aggregation in response to an agonist. Also, PACT is more time-efficient compared to LTA and allows high-throughput analysis. Conclusion PACT is an optimized platelet function test that can be used to monitor the activation of PCs. PACT has the same accuracy as LTA with regard to monitoring PCs, but it is superior to both LTA and conventional flow cytometry based tests with regard to labor

  2. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial diversity in activated sludge at different COD/N ratios and dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Joanna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio (chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N) in wastewater and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency, and total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge in constantly aerated sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was determined. At DO of 0.5 and 1.5 mg O2/L during the aeration phase, the efficiency of ammonia oxidation exceeded 90%, with nitrates as the main product. Nitrification and denitrification achieved under the same operating conditions suggested the simultaneous course of these processes. The most effective nitrogen elimination (above 50%) was obtained at the COD/N ratio of 6.8 and DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. Total bacterial diversity was similar in all experimental series, however, for both COD/N ratios of 6.8 and 0.7, higher values were observed at DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. The diversity and abundance of AOB were higher in the reactors with the COD/N ratio of 0.7 in comparison with the reactors with the COD/N of 6.8. For both COD/N ratios applied, the AOB population was not affected by oxygen concentration. Amplicons with sequences indicating membership of the genus Nitrosospira were the determinants of variable technological conditions.

  3. Effect of dietary organic microminerals on starter pig performance, tissue mineral concentrations, and liver and plasma enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Martin, R E; Mahan, D C; Hill, G M; Link, J E; Jolliff, J S

    2011-04-01

    Weanling pigs (n = 160) were used to evaluate dietary essential microminerals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn) on performance, tissue minerals, and liver and plasma enzymatic activities during a 35-d postweaning period. A randomized complete block design with 5 treatments and 8 replicates was used in this study. Organic microminerals were added to complex nursery diets at 0 (basal), 50, 100, or 150% of the requirements of microminerals listed by the 1998 NRC. A fifth treatment contained inorganic microminerals at 100% NRC and served as the positive control. Pigs were bled at intervals with hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), glutathione peroxidase, and ceruloplasmin activities determined. Six pigs at weaning and 1 pig per pen at d 35 were killed, and the liver, heart, loin, kidney, pancreas, and the frontal lobe of the brain were collected for micromineral analysis. The liver was frozen in liquid N for determination of enzymatic activities. The analyzed innate microminerals in the basal diet met the NRC requirement for Cu and Mn but not Fe, Se, and Zn. Performance was not affected from 0 to 10 d postweaning, but when microminerals were added to diets, ADG, ADFI, and G:F improved (P < 0.01) from 10 to 35 d and for the overall 35-d period. Pigs fed the basal diet exhibited parakeratosis-like skin lesions, whereas those fed the supplemental microminerals did not. This skin condition was corrected after a diet with the added microminerals was fed. When the basal diet was fed, Hb and Hct declined, but supplemental microminerals increased Hb and Hct values. Liver catalase activity increased (P < 0.01) when microminerals were fed. The Mn superoxide dismutase activity tended to decline quadratically (P = 0.06) when supplemental microminerals were fed above that of the basal diet. Liver plasma glutathione peroxidase activities were greater (P < 0.01) when dietary organic and inorganic micromineral were fed. Liver concentrations of microminerals increased linearly (P < 0.01) as

  4. Singular Value Decomposition of Optically-Mapped Cardiac Rotors and Fibrillatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, A.; Biton, Y.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.; Yandrapalli, S.; Pandit, S. V.; Berenfeld, O.

    2015-01-01

    Our progress of understanding how cellular and structural factors contribute to the arrhythmia is hampered in part because of controversies whether a fibrillating heart is driven by a single, several, or multiple number of sources, and whether they are focal or reentrant, and how to localize them. Here we demonstrate how a novel usage of the neutral singular value decomposition (SVD) method enables the extraction of the governing spatial and temporal modes of excitation from a rotor and fibrillatory waves. Those modes highlight patterns and regions of organization in the midst of the otherwise seemingly-randomly propagating excitation waves. We apply the method to experimental models of cardiac fibrillation in rabbit hearts. We show that the SVD analysis is able to enhance the classification of the heart electrical patterns into regions harboring drivers in the form of fast reentrant activity and other regions of by-standing activity. This enhancement is accomplished without any prior assumptions regarding the spatial, temporal or spectral properties of those drivers. The analysis corroborates that the dominant mode has the highest activation rate and further reveals a new feature: A transfer of modes from the driving to the passive regions resulting in a partial reaction of the passive region to the driving region. PMID:26668401

  5. Singular value decomposition of optically-mapped cardiac rotors and fibrillatory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovitch, A.; Biton, Y.; Braunstein, D.; Friedman, M.; Aviram, I.; Yandrapalli, S.; Pandit, S. V.; Berenfeld, O.

    2015-03-01

    Our progress of understanding how cellular and structural factors contribute to arrhythmia is hampered in part because of controversies as to whether a fibrillating heart is driven by a single, several, or multiple number of sources, whether they are focal or reentrant and how to localize them. Here we demonstrate how a novel usage of the neutral singular value decomposition (SVD) method enables the extraction of the governing spatial and temporal modes of excitation from a rotor and fibrillatory waves. Those modes highlight patterns and regions of organization in the midst of the otherwise seemingly random propagating excitation waves. We apply the method to experimental models of cardiac fibrillation in rabbit hearts. We show that SVD analysis is able to enhance the classification of the heart electrical patterns into regions harboring drivers in the form of fast reentrant activity and other regions of by-standing activity. This enhancement is accomplished without any prior assumptions regarding the spatial, temporal or spectral properties of those drivers. The analysis corroborates that the dominant mode has the highest activation rate and further reveals a new feature: a transfer of modes from the driving to passive regions resulting in a partial reaction of the passive region to the driving region.

  6. Influence of Estimated Training Status on Anti and Pro-Oxidant Activity, Nitrite Concentration, and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Jacomini, André M.; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; da Silva, Roberta F.; Monteiro, Henrique L.; Llesuy, Susana; De Angelis, Kátia; Amaral, Sandra L.; Zago, Anderson S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the association between anti and pro-oxidant activity, nitrite concentration, and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged and older women with different levels of estimated training status (TS). The sample consisted of 155 females (50–84 years) who were submitted to a physical examination to evaluate estimated TS through the “Functional Fitness Battery Test,” BP measurements, and plasma blood samples to evaluate pro-oxidant and antioxidant activity and nitrite concentrations. Participants were separated by age into a middle-aged group (<65 years) and an older (≥65 years) group and then subdivided in each group according to TS. Blood biochemistry was similar between groups. On the other hand, protein oxidation was lower in participants with higher TS, independent of age. Older females with higher TS presented higher nitrite concentrations, lower lipoperoxidation, and lower values of BP compared with those with lower TS. Lower GPx activity was observed in participants with higher TS compared with middle-aged with lower TS. Thus, our results suggest that good levels of TS may be associated with lower oxidative stress and higher nitrite concentration and may contribute to maintain normal or reduced blood pressure values. PMID:28326041

  7. Sub-lethal concentrations of activated complement increase rat lymphocyte glutamine utilization and oxidation while lethal concentrations cause death by a mechanism involving ATP depletion.

    PubMed

    Bacurau, R F P; O'Toole, C E; Newsholme, P; Costa Rosa, L F B P

    2002-09-01

    Nucleated cells are more resistant to complement-mediated cell death than anucleated cells such as erythrocytes. There are few reports concerning the metabolic response of nucleated cells subjected to sub-lethal complement attack. It is possible that the rate of utilization of specific metabolic fuels by the cell is increased to enhance cell defence. We have measured the maximum activity of hexokinase, citrate synthase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutaminase in rat mesenteric lymphocytes exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of activated complement (present in zymosan-activated serum, ZAS). These enzymes were carefully selected as they indicate changes of flux in glycolysis, TCA cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and glutaminolysis, respectively. The only enzyme activity to change on exposure of lymphocytes to ZAS was glutaminase, which was enhanced approximately by two-fold. Although rates of both glutamine and glucose utilization were enhanced by exposure to ZAS, only the rate of oxidation of glutamine was increased. Complement kills anucleated cells by simple osmotic lysis. However, it is likely that some nucleated cells will display characteristics of an ordered death mechanism and we have demonstrated that the concentration of lymphocyte ATP is dramatically decreased by activated complement. Nevertheless, the extent of cell death could be significantly reduced by the addition of inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). We conclude that glutamine metabolism is not only important for lymphocyte proliferative responses but is also important for cell defence from sub-lethal concentrations of activated complement. The rapid rate of complement-induced lymphocyte death reported here is suggested to be a consequence of over-activation of the nuclear enzyme PARP and ATP depletion.

  8. Response of soil microbial activity and biodiversity in soils polluted with different concentrations of cypermethrin insecticide.

    PubMed

    Tejada, Manuel; García, Carlos; Hernández, Teresa; Gómez, Isidoro

    2015-07-01

    We performed a laboratory study into the effect of cypermethrin insecticide applied to different concentrations on biological properties in two soils [Typic Xerofluvent (soil A) and Xerollic Calciorthid (soil B)]. Two kg of each soil were polluted with cypermethrin at a rate of 60, 300, 600, and 1,200 g ha(-1) (C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments). A nonpolluted soil was used as a control (C0 treatment). For all treatments and each experimental soil, soil dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities and soil microbial community were analysed by phospholipid fatty acids, which were measured at six incubation times (3, 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days). The behavior of the enzymatic activities and microbial population were dependent on the dose of insecticide applied to the soil. Compared with the C0 treatment, in soil A, the maximum inhibition of the enzymatic activities was at 15, 30, 45, and 90 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. However, in soil B, the maximum inhibition occurred at 7, 15, 30, and 45 days for the C1, C2, C3, and C4 treatments, respectively. These results suggest that the cypermethrin insecticide caused a negative effect on soil enzymatic activities and microbial diversity. This negative impact was greater when a greater dose of insecticide was used; this impact was also greater in soil with lower organic matter content. For both soils, and from these respective days onward, the enzymatic activities and microbial populations progressively increased by the end of the experimental period. This is possibly due to the fact that the insecticide or its breakdown products and killed microbial cells, subsequently killed by the insecticide, are being used as a source of energy or as a carbon source for the surviving microorganisms for cell proliferation.

  9. Effects of AMPK activation on lipolysis in primary rat adipocytes: studies at different glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Szkudelski, Tomasz; Szkudelska, Katarzyna

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue plays a key role in energy homeostasis. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important intracellular energy sensor. Effects of activation of AMPK by aminomidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) on lipolysis in the rat adipocytes were determined in the presence of 3 or 12 mM glucose. Response to epinephrine or dibutyryl-cAMP was higher in the presence of 12 mM glucose. AICAR decreased lipolysis, also when glucose was replaced by alanine or succinate and without decrease in cAMP levels. AICAR attenuated epinephrine-induced decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, reduced glucose uptake and lactate release. These results indicate that short-term activation of AMPK by AICAR in the rat adipocytes inhibits lipolysis, due to changes in the final, followed by protein kinase A (PKA), steps of the lipolytic cascade and improves intracellular energy status. Similar effects of AICAR were observed in the presence of 3 and 12 mM glucose, which indicates that the AMPK system is operative at high glucose concentrations.

  10. Metabolic activity of sperm cells: correlation with sperm cell concentration, viability and motility in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Gil, Sílvia; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Taberner, Ester; Piles, Miriam; Sabés, Manel; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2016-10-01

    The resazurin reduction test (RRT) is a useful technique to assess the metabolic rate of sperm cells. RRT depends on the ability of metabolically active cells to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the fluorescent resorufin. The aim of this study was to develop a vital fluorometric method to evaluate metabolic activity of rabbit sperm cells. Twenty-five rabbit males were included in the study. Viability and morphology, motility and metabolic activity were evaluated using an eosin-nigrosin staining, a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and the RRT, respectively. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between RRT and semen parameters. After evaluation, a concentration of 10 × 106 sperm cells/ml was selected for further experiments with RRT. No significant correlation was found between the RRT results and the motility parameters. However, after RRT a significant positive correlation between relative fluorescence units and the percentage of alive spermatozoa (r = 0.62; P = 0.001) and a negative one with the percentage of sperm cells with acrosomic abnormalities (r = -0.45; P < 0.05) were detected. The vital assessment of metabolic rate of sperm cells by RRT could provide more information about semen quality than other routine semen analysis, correlating with sperm viability and acrosome status information.

  11. The effect of triton concentration on the activity of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Huang, Jianzhong; Jiang, Xinhe; Seefeld, Mark; McQueney, Michael; Macarron, Ricardo

    2003-12-01

    Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) catalyzes the consecutive condensation of 8 molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate with farnesyl pyrophosphate to yield C55-undecaprenyl pyrophosphate, which is required for bacterial cell wall synthesis. UPPS is found in both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and based on the differences between bacterial variants of UPPS and their human counterpart, dolicopyrophosphate synthase, it was identified as an attractive antibacterial target. An assay, which monitors the release of Pi by coupling the UPPS catalyzed reaction with inorganic pyrophosphatase, was employed to conduct an HTS campaign using an inhouse collection of compounds. A direct assay measuring the incorporation of 14C-IPP (isopentenyl pyrophosphate) was used as a secondary assay to evaluate the high-throughput screening (HTS) hits. From the HTS campaign, a few classes of UPPS inhibitors were identified. During the process of hit evaluation by the direct assay, the authors observed that Triton, an essential factor for the enzyme activity and accurate formation of the natural product, dramatically altered the inhibitory activity of a particular class of compounds. Above its critical micellar concentration (CMC), Triton abolished the inhibitory activity of these compounds. Further research will be required to establish the biophysical phenomenon that causes this effect. Meanwhile, it can be speculated that Triton (and other detergents) above CMC may hinder the identification in screening compounds of certain classes of hits.

  12. Which platelet function test best reflects the in vivo plasma concentrations of ticagrelor and its active metabolite? The HARMONIC study.

    PubMed

    Koziński, Marek; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Adamski, Piotr; Sikora, Joanna; Sikora, Adam; Karczmarska-Wódzka, Aleksandra; Marszałł, Michał Piotr; Boinska, Joanna; Laskowska, Ewa; Obońska, Ewa; Fabiszak, Tomasz; Kubica, Jacek

    2016-11-30

    Aim of this study was assessment of the relationship between concentrations of ticagrelor and its active metabolite (AR-C124910XX) and results of selected platelet function tests. In a single-centre, cohort study, patients with myocardial infarction underwent blood sampling following a 180 mg ticagrelor loading dose intake (predose, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12, 24 hours postdose) to perform pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assessments. Platelet reactivity was evaluated using the VASP-assay, the VerifyNow device and the Multiplate analyzer. Analysis of 36 patients revealed high negative correlations between ticagrelor concentrations and platelet reactivity evaluated with all three platelet function tests (the VASP-assay: RS=-0.722; p<0.0001; the VerifyNow device: RS=-0.715; p<0.0001; the Multiplate analyzer: RS=-0.722; p<0.0001), with no significant differences between correlation coefficients. Similar results were found for AR-C124910XX. Platelet reactivity values assessed with all three methods generally correlated well with each other; however, a significantly higher correlation (p<0.02) was demonstrated between the VerifyNow and Multiplate tests (RS=0.707; p<0.0001) than in other assay combinations (the VASP-assay and the VerifyNow device: RS=0.595; p<0.0001; the VASP-assay and the Multiplate analyzer: RS=0.588; p<0.0001). With respect to the recognition of high platelet reactivity, we found higher measurement concordance between the VerifyNow and Multiplate tests compared with other assay combinations, while for low platelet reactivity, only results of the VerifyNow and Multiplate assay were related to each other. Platelet reactivity measurements performed with the VASP, VerifyNow and Multiplate tests show comparably strong negative correlations with ticagrelor and AR-C124910XX concentrations.

  13. Measurement of activity concentrations of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th for assessment of radiation hazards from soils of the southwestern region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Oladele Samuel

    2009-08-01

    Activity concentrations of the selected radionuclides (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were measured in surface soil samples collected from 38 cities in the southwest region of Nigeria by means of gamma spectroscopy with a high-purity germanium detector. Measured activity concentration values of (40)K varied from 34.9 +/- 4.4 to 1,358.6 +/- 28.5 Bq kg(-1) (given on a dry mass (DM) basis) with a mean value of 286.5 +/- 308.5 Bq kg(-1); that of (226)Ra varied from 9.3 +/- 3.7 to 198.1 +/- 13.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 54.5 Bq kg(-1) and a standard deviation of 38.7 Bq kg(-1), while that of (232)Th varied from 5.4 +/- 1.1 to 502.0 +/- 16.5 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 91.1 Bq kg(-1) and standard deviation of 100.9 Bq kg(-1). The mean activity concentration values obtained for (226)Ra and (232)Th are greater than the world average values reported by the United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation for areas of normal background radiation. Radiological indices were estimated for the radiation/health hazards of the natural radioactivity of all soil samples. Estimated absorbed dose rates in air varied from 12.42 +/- 2.25 to 451.33 +/- 19.06 nGy h(-1), annual outdoor effective dose rates from 0.015 +/- 0.003 to 0.554 +/- 0.023 mSv year(-1), internal hazard index from 0.10 +/- 0.03 to 3.02 +/- 0.16, external hazard index from 0.07 +/- 0.01 to 2.60 +/- 0.11, representative level index from 0.19 +/- 0.03 to 6.84 +/- 0.29, activity index from 0.09 +/- 0.02 to 3.42 +/- 0.15, and radium equivalent activity from 26.95 +/- 5.04 to 963.15 +/- 41.87 Bq kg(-1). Only the mean value of the representative level index exceeds the limit for areas of normal background radiation. All other indices show mean values that are lower than the recommended limits.

  14. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; ...

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA weremore » more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.« less

  15. Pseudocatalytic Antiaggregation Activity of Antibodies: Immunoglobulins can Influence α-Synuclein Aggregation at Substoichiometric Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Leonid; Morgan, Dave; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2016-04-01

    Protein aggregation is involved in a variety of diseases. Alteration of the aggregation pathway, either to produce less toxic structures or to increase aggregate clearance, is a promising therapeutic route. Both active and passive immunization has been used for this purpose. However, the mechanism of action of antibodies on protein aggregates is not completely clear especially given poor ability of antibodies to cross blood-brain barrier. Here, we have shown that antibodies can interfere with protein aggregation at substoichiometric concentrations (as low as 1:1000 antibody to protein ratio). This is an indication that antibodies interact with aggregation intermediates in chaperone-like manner altering the aggregation pathways at very low antibody levels. This observation supports earlier suggestions that antibodies can inhibit aggregation by interaction with low abundance aggregation intermediates.

  16. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoclusters: Aqueous, Concentrated, Stable, and Catalytically Active Colloids toward Green Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tokudome, Yasuaki; Morimoto, Tsuyoshi; Tarutani, Naoki; Vaz, Pedro D; Nunes, Carla D; Prevot, Vanessa; Stenning, Gavin B G; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-05-24

    Increasing attention has been dedicated to the development of nanomaterials rendering green and sustainable processes, which occur in benign aqueous reaction media. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of another family of green nanomaterials, layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoclusters, which are concentrated (98.7 g/L in aqueous solvent), stably dispersed (transparent sol for >2 weeks), and catalytically active colloids of nano LDHs (isotropic shape with the size of 7.8 nm as determined by small-angle X-ray scattering). LDH nanoclusters are available as colloidal building blocks to give access to meso- and macroporous LDH materials. Proof-of-concept applications revealed that the LDH nanocluster works as a solid basic catalyst and is separable from solvents of catalytic reactions, confirming the nature of nanocatalysts. The present work closely investigates the unique physical and chemical features of this colloid, the formation mechanism, and the ability to act as basic nanocatalysts in benign aqueous reaction systems.

  17. Concentration Effects of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Degradation Products on Oxygen Reduction Activity for Three Platinum Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Christ, J. M.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Richards, R.; Dinh, H. N.

    2014-10-04

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) along with cyclic voltammetry (CV) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), were used to investigate the impact of two model compounds representing degradation products of Nafion and 3M perfluorinated sulfonic acid membranes on the electrochemical surface area (ECA) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of polycrystalline Pt, nano-structured thin film (NSTF) Pt (3M), and Pt/Vulcan carbon (Pt/Vu) (TKK) electrodes. ORR kinetic currents (measured at 0.9 V and transport corrected) were found to decrease linearly with the log of concentration for both model compounds on all Pt surfaces studied. Ultimately, model compound adsorption effects on ECA were more abstruse due to competitive organic anion adsorption on Pt surfaces superimposing with the hydrogen underpotential deposition (HUPD) region.

  18. Management practices that concentrate visitor activities: Camping impact management at Isle Royale National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; Farrell, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    This study assessed campsite conditions and the effectiveness of campsite impact management strategies at Isle Royale National Park, USA. Protocols for assessing indicators of vegetation and soil conditions were developed and applied to 156 campsites and 88 shelters within 36 backcountry campgrounds. The average site was 68 m2 and 83% of sites lost vegetation over areas less than 47 m2. Results reveal that management actions to spatially concentrate camping activities and reduce camping disturbance have been highly successful. Comparisons of disturbed area/overnight stay among other protected areas reinforces this assertion. These reductions in area of camping disturbance are attributed to a designated site camping policy, limitation on site numbers, construction of sites in sloping terrain, use of facilities, and an ongoing program of campsite maintenance. Such actions are most appropriate in higher use backcountry and wilderness settings.

  19. 137Cs activity concentration in wild boar meat may still exceed the permitted levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachubik, J.

    2012-04-01

    The radiocaesium activity concentration may still remain high in natural products such as game meat, wild mushrooms, and forest berries even more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident. The results of regular control studies of game meat conducted in Poland showed wild boars as the most contaminated game animals. It is well documented that some mushrooms, readily consumed by animals, show high ability to accumulate caesium radioisotopes. Bay bolete, one of the most wide-spread mushroom species in Poland, reveals a unique radiocaesium accumulation feature. Moreover, deer truffle, containing also particularly high levels of radiocaesium, could be another radionu-clide source for wild boars. Furthermore, animals consuming deer truffles could digest contaminated soil components. Among 94 wild boar meat samples analysed in 2008-2009, two exceeded the permitted level. Hence, some precautions should be taken in the population with an elevated intake of wild boar meat. Moreover, since each hunted wild boar is examined for the presence of Trichinella larvae, regular measurements of radiocaesium concentrations in these animals may be advisable for enhancing consumer safety.

  20. A complex-valued nonlinear neural adaptive filter with a gradient adaptive amplitude of the activation function.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Andrew I; Mandic, Danilo P

    2003-03-01

    A complex-valued nonlinear gradient descent (CNGD) learning algorithm for a simple finite impulse response (FIR) nonlinear neural adaptive filter with an adaptive amplitude of the complex activation function is proposed. This way the amplitude of the complex-valued analytic nonlinear activation function of a neuron in the learning algorithm is made gradient adaptive to give the complex-valued adaptive amplitude nonlinear gradient descent (CAANGD). Such an algorithm is beneficial when dealing with signals that have rich dynamical behavior. Simulations on the prediction of complex-valued coloured and nonlinear input signals show the gradient adaptive amplitude, CAANGD, outperforming the standard CNGD algorithm.

  1. Determination of plasma lactic acid concentration and specific activity using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bleiberg, B; Steinberg, J J; Katz, S D; Wexler, J; LeJemtel, T

    1991-08-23

    Assessment of lactate metabolism is of particular interest during exercise and in disease states such as diabetes, shock, and absorptive abnormalities of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. We describe an analytical method that introduces radio-active tracers and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously analyze concentrations and specific activities (SAs) of plasma lactate. The HPLC conditions included separation on a reversed-phase column (octadecylsilane) and an isocratic buffer (30% acetonitrile in water). [3H]Acetate served as an internal standard. Lactate and acetate were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether following a pH adjustment to less than 1.0 and back-extracted into a hydrophilic phase with sodium carbonate (2 mM, pH greater than 10.0). Lactate is detected in the ultraviolet range (242 and 320 nm) by derivatization with alpha-bromoacetophenone. Control plasma samples were studied after an overnight fast for precision and analytical recovery. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.18-6.0 mM (r = 0.92). The precision was 3% and the analytical recovery was 87%. The detection limit of the method was 36 pmol. Determination of lactate metabolism was performed in a patient with chronic congestive heart failure who was administered primed-continuous L-[U-14C]lactate (10 microCi bolus and 0.3 microCi/min continuously) during a 60-min rest period. Mean arterial lactate concentration and SA were 1.69 +/- 0.2 mM and 253.8 +/- 22 dpm/mumol, respectively. Systemic lactate turnover was 25.65 mumol/kg per min. Lactic acid systemic turnover, organ uptake and release rates can be accurately determined by isocratic HPLC.

  2. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B.; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M.; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2017-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups, where orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying DA action on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using whole cell patch clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration dependent, bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high concentrations (100 μM) of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors, whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours. PMID:26036709

  3. Concentration-dependent activation of dopamine receptors differentially modulates GABA release onto orexin neurons.

    PubMed

    Linehan, Victoria; Trask, Robert B; Briggs, Chantalle; Rowe, Todd M; Hirasawa, Michiru

    2015-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) and orexin neurons play important roles in reward and food intake. There are anatomical and functional connections between these two cell groups: orexin peptides stimulate DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area and DA inhibits orexin neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the action of DA on orexin neurons remain incompletely understood. Therefore, the effect of DA on inhibitory transmission to orexin neurons was investigated in rat brain slices using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. We found that DA modulated the frequency of spontaneous and miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in a concentration-dependent bidirectional manner. Low (1 μM) and high (100 μM) concentrations of DA decreased and increased IPSC frequency, respectively. These effects did not accompany a change in mIPSC amplitude and persisted in the presence of G-protein signaling inhibitor GDPβS in the pipette, suggesting that DA acts presynaptically. The decrease in mIPSC frequency was mediated by D2 receptors whereas the increase required co-activation of D1 and D2 receptors and subsequent activation of phospholipase C. In summary, our results suggest that DA has complex effects on GABAergic transmission to orexin neurons, involving cooperation of multiple receptor subtypes. The direction of dopaminergic influence on orexin neurons is dependent on the level of DA in the hypothalamus. At low levels DA disinhibits orexin neurons whereas at high levels it facilitates GABA release, which may act as negative feedback to curb the excitatory orexinergic output to DA neurons. These mechanisms may have implications for consummatory and motivated behaviours.

  4. Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was

  5. Black Carbon, Metal Concentrations and Lead Isotopes Ratios in Aerosols as Tracers of Human and Natural Activities in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric brown clouds (ABC) observed as widespread layers of brownish haze are regional scale plumes of air pollutants with a hot spot of emission located in East Asia. ABC are mainly composed of aerosol particles such as Black Carbon (BC) emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning and fossil fuels combustion. The atmospheric lifetime of BC ranges from a few days in wet season up to one month in dry season. The use of stable lead isotopes and 21 elements as tracers of air pollution was applied to identify and characterized the main sources of anthropogenic activities in Asian region. Aerosol samples from Haiphong (North Vietnam) were collected by a high volume sampler for a period of one year from October 2012 to October 2013. Vietnam's 207Pb/206Pb ratios were almost identical to those found for China. Ratios of 207Pb/206Pb ranged from 0.837 to 0.871 which agrees with values previously reported for the last 10 years in China (0.841 - 0.879). No significant variation in isotope ratio was observed during the sampling period, which suggests that there was no large seasonal variation in the isotope ratios of airborne lead. Trajectory analysis showed that almost two third of the air masses originated from East Northeast which implies that China was a major source of lead in atmosphere. Enrichment factor calculations indicated a large influence of coal activity (EF(Al) As = 1982 ± 796, EF(Al) Cd = 972 ± 659, EF(Al) Sb = 1358 ± 930) but the difference between combustion and mining exploitation could not be evidenced. Significant correlations were found between two others groups of elements: As, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Al, Fe K, Co. Wind dilution was effective on metals concentration variation. During the cold and dry season (winter) ambient concentrations were high and variable, during the warm and wet season (summer) concentrations were stable and low. Taken together, these factors also identified industrial and lithogenic activities in the region.

  6. Plant/soil concentration ratios of 226Ra for contrasting sites around an active U mine-mill.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W

    1988-12-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra were determined in native vegetation and underlying substrate (soil and tailings) at various sites around a conventional open-pit, acid leach U production operation in Wyoming. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for 226Ra were estimated for various sites, including weathered tailings; a tailings impoundment shoreline; downwind from exposed tailings; a mine overburden reclamation area; and several background locations. Radium-226 concentrations for vegetation and substrate and CR values from the perturbed sites were elevated above background. The highest vegetation concentration (1.3 Bq g-1) was found in a grass which had invaded exposed, weathered tailings. Levels of 226Ra in soil and vegetation and CR values decreased with distance from the tailings impoundment edge. CR values varied significantly among sites, but few differences were found between plant species groups. The observed CR values ranged from 0.07 at the background and reclamation areas to 0.4 downwind from the tailings area. Average CR values for plants growing on exposed tailings and within one meter from the impoundment edge were 0.15 and 0.3, respectively. CR values of 226Ra for plants on tailings substrates were comparatively low in contrast to other radionuclides in the U chain. We speculate that in the case of sulfuric acid leached tailings-derived material, 226Ra is sequestered as sulfate, which is highly insoluble relative to the sulfates of the other elements (e.g., U and Th) resulting in reduced availability for plant uptake.

  7. SGLT1 activity in lung alveolar cells of diabetic rats modulates airway surface liquid glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tales Lyra; Candeia-Medeiros, Návylla; Cavalcante-Araújo, Polliane M.; Melo, Igor Santana; Fávaro-Pípi, Elaine; Fátima, Luciana Alves; Rocha, Antônio Augusto; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Campos, Ruy R.; Sabino-Silva, Robinson

    2016-01-01

    High glucose concentration in the airway surface liquid (ASL) is an important feature of diabetes that predisposes to respiratory infections. We investigated the role of alveolar epithelial SGLT1 activity on ASL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation. Non-diabetic and diabetic rats were intranasally treated with saline, isoproterenol (to increase SGLT1 activity) or phlorizin (to decrease SGLT1 activity); 2 hours later, glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation (methicillin-resistant Sthaphylococcus aureus, MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa) were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); and alveolar SGLT1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. BAL glucose concentration and bacterial proliferation increased in diabetic animals: isoproterenol stimulated SGLT1 migration to luminal membrane, and reduced (50%) the BAL glucose concentration; whereas phlorizin increased the BAL glucose concentration (100%). These regulations were accompanied by parallel changes of in vitro MRSA and P. aeruginosa proliferation in BAL (r = 0.9651 and r = 0.9613, respectively, Pearson correlation). The same regulations were observed in in vivo P. aeruginosa proliferation. In summary, the results indicate a relationship among SGLT1 activity, ASL glucose concentration and pulmonary bacterial proliferation. Besides, the study highlights that, in situations of pulmonary infection risk, such as in diabetic subjects, increased SGLT1 activity may prevent bacterial proliferation whereas decreased SGLT1 activity can exacerbate it. PMID:26902517

  8. Prognostic value of admission blood glucose concentration and diabetes diagnosis on survival after acute myocardial infarction: results from 4702 index cases in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Squire, Ian B; Nelson, Christopher P; Ng, Leong L; Jones, David R; Woods, Kent L; Lambert, Paul C

    2010-04-01

    The diagnosis of diabetes and admission blood glucose concentration are associated with adverse outcome after acute coronary syndromes. We compared the relative association with survival after ST elevation AMI (acute myocardial infarction) of admission blood glucose concentration and of diabetes diagnosis. We carried out a retrospective cohort study in 4702 consecutive patients with STEMI (ST elevation AMI) occurring from 1 April 1993 to 31 December 2005, assessed for mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Patients were classified according to antecedent diabetes and by blood glucose concentration at admission (quartile 1, <7 mmol/l; quartile 2, 7–8.2 mmol/l;quartile 3, 8.3–10.9 mmol/l; quartile 4, 11 mmol/l). Multivariable models were constructed for determinants of mortality, including year of STEMI and demographic variables, entering blood glucose concentration and antecedent diabetes individually and together. All-cause 30-day and 1-year mortality were 22.8% and 31.3% for patients with antecedent diabetes, compared with 16.3% and 23.0% respectively for those without. For glucose quartiles 1, 2, 3 and 4, crude 30-day mortality was 9.0%, 10.6%, 17.9% and 31.0%. Adjusted 30-day mortality risk was similar in quartile 2, higher by >80% in quartile 3 and by >150% in quartile 4, compared with glucose quartile 1. Antecedent diabetes was associated with an increase in mortality [unadjusted odds ratio (OR)1.52 (95% CI 1.24, 1.86)]. On multivariable analysis (excluding glucose quartile), this reduced to 1.24 (0.98, 1.58) and changed to a small, statistically non-significant reduction in risk when glucose quartile was added to the analysis [adjusted OR 0.87 (0.67, 1.13)]. Inclusion of antecedent diabetes in multivariable models did not add to the predictive value for mortality of glucose quartile(P=0.368). Similar relationships were observed for 1 year mortality. In patients with STEMI, blood glucose concentration shows graded association with risk of 30-day and 1-year

  9. Yield, size, nutritional value, and antioxidant activity of oyster mushrooms grown on perilla stalks.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Mengxue; Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Ziwen

    2017-02-01

    Perilla is an edible medical plant with rapidly increasing acreage in China. In this study, we investigated the potential of perilla stalks (PSs) as an alternative substrate for the cultivation of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). P. ostreatus was cultivated on cottonseed hulls (CSH) alone or mixed with PSs in different ratios. The production parameters, physical characteristics, nutritional values, and antioxidant activity of mushrooms cultivated on different substrate mixtures were determined. The addition of PSs to CSH significantly improved the growth rate, yield, biological efficiency, and proximate composition and shortened the cultivation cycle. Cultivation on PSs alone increased the amino acid content in P. ostreatus fruiting bodies and the antioxidant activity of mushroom extracts. The PS75 (25% CSH + 75% PS) substrate was deduced to be the most effective substrate on the basis of yield and biological efficiency obtained in a large area where perilla had been planted. The results demonstrate that mixtures of PS with CSHs could be used as novel, practical, and easily accessible alternative substrates for P. ostreatus cultivation.

  10. Production of bioelectricity, bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bioinspired nanomaterials by electrochemically active biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kalathil, Shafeer; Khan, Mohammad Mansoob; Lee, Jintae; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2013-11-01

    Microorganisms naturally form biofilms on solid surfaces for their mutual benefits including protection from environmental stresses caused by contaminants, nutritional depletion or imbalances. The biofilms are normally dangerous to human health due to their inherited robustness. On the other hand, a recent study suggested that electrochemically active biofilms (EABs) generated by electrically active microorganisms have properties that can be used to catalyze or control the electrochemical reactions in a range of fields, such as bioenergy production, bioremediation, chemical/biological synthesis, bio-corrosion mitigation and biosensor development. EABs have attracted considerable attraction in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs), such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, where they act as living bioanode or biocathode catalysts. Recently, it was reported that EABs can be used to synthesize metal nanoparticles and metal nanocomposites. The EAB-mediated synthesis of metal and metal-semiconductor nanocomposites is expected to provide a new avenue for the greener synthesis of nanomaterials with high efficiency and speed than other synthetic methods. This review covers the general introduction of EABs, as well as the applications of EABs in BESs, and the production of bio-hydrogen, high value chemicals and bio-inspired nanomaterials.

  11. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  12. Soil-gas radon concentration monitoring in an active granite quarry from Central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Luís.; Barbosa, Susana; Pereira, Alcides; Aumento, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This study was carried out in an active quarry located nearby the town of Nelas (Central Portugal), with the primary objective of assessing the effect of regular explosions on soil-gas radon concentrations. Here, a late-orogenic Hercynian porphyritic biotite granite occurs and is exploited for the production of high quality aggregates for different building purposes. This granite is part of the Beiras batholiths, being a geochemically moderately evolved rock, slightly peraluminous, and widely known by the frequent occurrence of associated uranium mineralizations. In fact, more than 4000t of U3O8 was produced from 60 mines of the Beiras region in the last century, over a wide area of more than 10.000 km2, and thousands of anomalies related with the local accumulation of uranium in fault filling materials, metasedimentary enclaves and doleritic veins were recognized during prospecting works. The heterogeneity of uranium distribution in this rock is reflected at the test site; indeed, a gamma ray survey shows that some of the faults that occur in the quarry are slightly mineralized. A total of 7 radon monitoring stations were implemented in the quarry, at a typical depth comprised between 1 and 2 meters, in holes drilled for the purpose. Aware RM-70 pancake GM detectors were used, sensitive to alpha, beta and gamma/X-rays above 10 keV, connected to palmtop computers for data registration (1 minute interval) and power supplied by batteries. Monitoring was carried out during 6 months, in Spring/Summer conditions and the exact time of each explosion was registered manually. Several problems of data loss and power supply affected the stations during the experiment, leading to discontinuities in the records. Still the available data showed important differences in the soil-gas radon concentrations between stations, which can be explained by the heterogeneity of uranium distribution in the rock and increased local permeability. Furthermore, all stations showed a clear daily

  13. Functional imaging of interstitial brachytherapy in pancreatic carcinoma xenografts using spectral CT: how does iodine concentration correlate with standardized uptake value of 18FDG-PET-CT?

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shudong; Shi, Xiaofeng; Chen, Yerong; Huang, Wei; Song, Qi; Lin, Xiaozhu; Liu, Yu; Chen, Kemin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to investigate the correlation between iodine concentration (IC) for the quantitative analysis of spectral CT and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 18 fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–CT (18FDG PET–CT) as an indicator of therapeutic response to interstitial brachytherapy in transplanted human pancreatic carcinomas in BALB/c-nu mice. Methods: Xenograft models were created by subcutaneous injection of SW1990 human pancreatic cancer cell suspensions into immunodeficient BALB/c-nu mice. 30 mice bearing SW1990 human pancreatic cancer cell xenografts were randomly separated into two groups: experimental (n = 15; 1.0 mCi) and control (n = 15, 0 mCi). After 2 weeks of treatment, spectral CT and 18FDG micro-PET–CT scan were performed. IC values and SUVmax in the lesions were measured. IC normalized to the muscle tissue is indicated as nIC. The relationships between the nIC and SUVmax of the transplantation tumours were analysed. Results: 2 weeks after treatment, the nIC in three-phase scans and SUVmax of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The nIC values of the three-phase scans have certain positive correlation with the SUVmax values (r = 0.69, p < 0.05; r = 0.73 and p < 0.05; r = 0.80, p < 0.05 in the 10-, 25- and 60-s phase, respectively). Conclusion: Spectral CT could serve as a valuable imaging modality, as our results suggest that nIC correlates with SUVmax of 18FDG PET–CT for evaluating the therapeutic effect of 125I interstitial brachytherapy in a pancreatic carcinoma xenograft. Advances in knowledge: Spectral CT offers opportunities to assess the therapeutic response of pancreatic cancer. This study supports the conclusion that nIC values in spectral CT could also serve as a valuable functional imaging parameter for early monitoring and evaluation of the therapeutic response of 125I interstitial brachytherapy mouse models

  14. Determination and validation of an aquatic Maximum Acceptable Concentration-Environmental Quality Standard (MAC-EQS) value for the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Gante, Cristiano; Loureiro, João; Lopes, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of the present study was to determine and validate an aquatic Maximum Acceptable Concentration-Environmental Quality Standard (MAC-EQS) value for the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Assessment factors were applied to short-term toxicity data using the lowest EC50 and after the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) method. Both ways of EQS generation were applied to a freshwater toxicity dataset for AZX based on available data, and to marine toxicity datasets for AZX and Ortiva(®) (a commercial formulation of AZX) obtained by the present study. A high interspecific variability in AZX sensitivity was observed in all datasets, being the copepoda Eudiaptomus graciloides (LC50,48h = 38 μg L(-1)) and the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis (LC50,96h = 13 μg L(-1)) the most sensitive freshwater and marine species, respectively. MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 (≤0.38 μg L(-1)) were more protective than those derived using the SSD method (≤3.2 μg L(-1)). After comparing the MAC-EQS values estimated in the present study to the smallest AA-EQS available, which protect against the occurrence of prolonged exposure of AZX, the MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 were considered overprotective and a MAC-EQS of 1.8 μg L(-1) was validated and recommended for AZX for the water column. This value was derived from marine toxicity data, which highlights the importance of testing marine organisms. Moreover, Ortiva affects the most sensitive marine species to a greater extent than AZX, and marine species are more sensitive than freshwater species to AZX. A risk characterization ratio higher than one allowed to conclude that AZX might pose a high risk to the aquatic environment. Also, in a wider conclusion, before new pesticides are approved, we suggest to improve the Tier 1 prospective Ecological Risk Assessment by increasing the number of short-term data, and apply the SSD approach, in order to ensure the safety of

  15. Transients in global Ca2+ concentration induced by electrical activity in a giant nerve terminal

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Erwin; Taschenberger, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Giant nerve terminals offer a unique opportunity to learn about dynamic changes in intracellular global Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) because this quantity can be measured precisely with indicator dyes and the composition of the intra-terminal ionic milieu can be controlled. We review here recent literature on [Ca2+]i signalling in the calyx of Held and discuss what these measurements can tell us about endogenous Ca2+ buffers and Ca2+ extrusion mechanisms. We conclude that in spite of the favourable experimental conditions, some unresolved questions still remain regarding absolute values for the Ca2+-binding ratio, the affinity of the basic fixed buffer and the Ca2+ affinities of the major endogenous Ca2+ binding proteins. Uncertainties about some of these presynaptic properties, including the roles of Mg2+ and ATP (as a Mg2+ buffer), however, extend to the point that mechanisms controlling the decay of [Ca2+]i signals in unperturbed terminals may have to be reconsidered. PMID:23529127

  16. Adsorption of low concentration phosphine in yellow phosphorus off-gas by impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Ning, Ping; Shi, Yan; Jiang, Ming

    2009-11-15

    In order to utilize high concentration CO comprehensively, impregnated activated carbon sorbent and the catalytic oxidation reaction for PH(3) were investigated in this study. Carbon was impregnated with HCl, KNO(3), or hexanediol. The activated carbon modified by 7% (mass fraction) HCl could enhance the adsorption purification ability significantly. Raising the reaction temperature or increasing the oxygen content of the gas can improve the purification efficiency. The structure of the materials after modification was determined using nitrogen adsorption. The modification decreased the volume of pores smaller than 2 nm in diameter with the most noticeable change occurring in the micropores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm in diameter. Decreases in micropore volume accounted for 87% of the total pore volume change. After the adsorption, the surface areas decreased 28%, 29% of which was due to decreased micropore surface. HCl significantly increased the performance of carbon as a PH(3) adsorbent when HCl impregnation was applied whereas the effects of other materials used in this study were much less pronounced. HCl present in the small pores probably acted as a catalyst for oxygen activation that caused PH(3) oxidation. As a result of this process, H(3)PO(4) and P(4)O(10) were formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the small pores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that CO from industrial off-gas can be purified and used as the raw material for a broader range of products.

  17. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of the Values Tracker: A Two-Item Measure of Engagement in Valued Activities in Those With Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Pielech, Melissa; Bailey, Robert W; McEntee, Mindy L; Ashworth, Julie; Levell, Jayne; Sowden, Gail; Vowles, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    Engagement in valued activities is an important outcome, particularly in treatments that aim to enhance quality of life in those with chronic conditions. The present study describes the initial evaluation of the Values Tracker (VT), a two-item measure of values engagement, in 302 treatment-seeking adults with chronic pain. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the utility of the VT in the statistical prediction of pain-related functioning, after controlling for demographic variables, pain intensity, and pain-related distress. Across analyses, pain intensity accounted for significant variance (range ΔR2 = .06-.09) with pain-related distress adding additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .07-.19). The VT accounted for additional unique variance (range ΔR2 = .02-.17) for all variables with the exception of physical disability. These findings provide initial support for the utility of the VT in those with chronic pain. Given the VT's brevity, it may be particularly useful for tracking changes in engagement in values across sessions.

  19. Association of circulating active and total ghrelin concentrations with dry matter intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Hales, K E; Lents, C A; Freetly, H C

    2014-12-01

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that when acylated is thought to stimulate appetite. Circulating ghrelin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of DMI in cattle. The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating ghrelin concentrations with DMI and other production traits. Steers and heifers were fed a finishing diet, and individual intake was recorded for 84 d. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture following the DMI and ADG measurement period. Plasma active ghrelin and total ghrelin were quantified using commercial RIA. Active ghrelin was not correlated to DMI (P=0.36), but when DMI was modeled using a multivariate analysis including plasma metabolites and sex, active ghrelin was shown to be positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 6.2% of the variation accounted for by the regression model (R2=0.33). Total ghrelin was negatively correlated to DMI (P<0.01), but was not significant in a multivariate regression analysis (P=0.13). The ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with DMI (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.2% of the variation in the model (R2=0.35). Active ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.05), while total ghrelin was negatively associated with ADG (P<0.01), and the ratio of active:total ghrelin was positively associated with ADG (P<0.01). Active ghrelin was not associated with G:F (P=0.88), but total ghrelin concentrations were negatively associated with G:F (P<0.01) and accounted for 10.24% of the variation (R2=0.25). Heifers consumed less feed than steers (P<0.01), tended to have greater active ghrelin concentrations (P=0.06), and had greater total ghrelin concentrations than steers (P=0.04). Total ghrelin concentrations were not different between sire breeds (P=0.80), but active ghrelin concentrations and the ratio of active:total ghrelin differed between breeds (P<0.01), indicating that genetics have an effect on the amount and form of circulating ghrelin

  20. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  1. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders.

    PubMed

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Flint, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 µg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  2. Influence of cadmium concentration and length of exposure on metabolic rate and gill Na+/K+ ATPase activity of golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas).

    PubMed

    Peles, John D; Pistole, David H; Moffe, Mickey

    2012-06-01

    Although metabolic rate is considered to be useful as a general indicator of the biological effects of exposure to metals, it is seldom measured in conjunction with specific physiological, biochemical or cellular parameters. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of cadmium (Cd) exposure on metabolic rate and gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in golden shiners (Notemigonus crysoleucas). Shiners were exposed to six levels of Cd (ranging from control to the maximum sublethal concentration) for 24- and 96-h periods. After 24-h, metabolic rate and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity of individual fish were strongly correlated. Shiners exposed to the four highest Cd concentrations (500, 800, 1100, and 1400 μg L(-1)) for 24-h exhibited a shock response that was characterized by mean values for metabolic rate and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity that were significantly lower compared to the control. Although results for 96-h exposures reflect a repair/recovery phase, there was no significant correlation between metabolic rate and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity. Metabolic rate of shiners was significantly elevated (65-100%) at all concentrations compared to the control after 96-h, whereas Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity did not differ from the control. Elevated metabolic rate after 96-h likely reflects the influence of a variety of energetically demanding processes associated with repair and recovery.

  3. Maternal attitudes and values to youth sexuality-related activities in Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, I P; Ilika, A I

    2003-09-01

    This descriptive study assessed maternal attitudes to youth-related activities in Delta State. Using an adapted questionnaire, 300 women with adolescent children were chosen through a multistage sampling technique and relevant data obtained regarding their socio-economic status, perceptions and values as well as their knowledge of basic reproductive health concerns. Most of the women interviewed (95%), believed it was very important that young people completed secondary education and another 72% said they would normally set rules in their homes regarding what young people should read or watch. Sixty-seven percent of those studied, discussed sexuality issues regularly with their adolescent children, though only 46.4% of them were comfortable discussing these issue and about 50% admitted having enough information in such discussions. Another 76% of the women would approve of their children receiving reproductive health information and service including contraceptive condoms. The mothers studied believed that guided reproductive health information and services should be routinely provided for young people. The findings strongly suggest that the mothers who are important stakeholders in Adolescent Health would most likely be supportive of youth programmes. Most of the findings differ from those of other studies, and a qualitative study would be carried out to identify the reasons for these interesting findings.

  4. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that over time become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this manuscript proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of Expectancy Value Theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically-driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. PMID:23106844

  5. Theory-driven intervention for changing personality: expectancy value theory, behavioral activation, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Magidson, Jessica F; Roberts, Brent W; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C W

    2014-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-up approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that, over time, become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this article proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of expectancy value theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance-dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits.

  6. Identification of gentian violet concentration that does not stain oral mucosa, possesses anti-candidal activity and is well tolerated.

    PubMed

    Jurevic, R J; Traboulsi, R S; Mukherjee, P K; Salata, R A; Ghannoum, M A

    2011-05-01

    Gentian violet (GV) is recommended for initial treatment of oral candidiasis in HIV-infected patients in resource-limited settings. Currently GV is not used because of its staining effects. In this study, we investigated the staining capacity of three different concentrations of GV to determine a concentration that does not cause staining. The selected concentration that did not cause staining was evaluated for its physical stability and antifungal activity. Fifteen healthy participants were randomized to rinse twice daily for 14 days with one of three GV concentrations: 0.1%, 0.0085%, or 0.00165%. Oral examination and intra-oral photographs were performed at baseline and at the end of therapy. Participants responded to a questionnaire to assess adverse events. Antifungal activity was evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute methodology. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% did not stain the oral mucosa and was well tolerated. GV at a concentration of 0.00165% was stable and possessed antifungal activity when stored at certain temperatures for different time periods. Gentian violet solution at the concentration of 0.00165% does not stain the oral mucosa, is stable and possesses potent antifungal activity.

  7. Geobacter sp. SD-1 with enhanced electrochemical activity in high-salt concentration solutions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dan; Call, Douglas; Wang, Aijie; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-12-01

    An isolate, designated strain SD-1, was obtained from a biofilm dominated by Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell. The electrochemical activity of strain SD-1 was compared with type strains, G. sulfurreducens PCA and Geobacter metallireducens GS-15, and a mixed culture in microbial electrolysis cells. SD-1 produced a maximum current density of 290 ± 29 A m−3 in a high-concentration phosphate buffer solution (PBS-H, 200 mM). This current density was significantly higher than that produced by the mixed culture (189 ± 44 A m−3) or the type strains (< 70 A m−3). In a highly saline water (SW; 50 mM PBS and 650 mM NaCl), current by SD-1 (158 ± 4 A m−3) was reduced by 28% compared with 50 mM PBS (220 ± 4 A m−3), but it was still higher than that of the mixed culture (147 ± 19 A m−3), and strains PCA and GS-15 did not produce any current. Electrochemical tests showed that the improved performance of SD-1 was due to its lower charge transfer resistance and more negative potentials produced at higher current densities. These results show that the electrochemical activity of SD-1 was significantly different than other Geobacter strains and mixed cultures in terms of its salt tolerance.

  8. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Gębka, Karolina; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015. The concentration of mercury was determined by AMA-254 analyzer. Hg concentration was higher in the places of military activities, as compared to other areas. Ten times increased concentration of Hg was determined in soil sample collected in area of active gun range compared to the reference station. The significant higher concentration of mercury was detected in stations where chemical warfare agents were found.

  9. The Comparative Analysis of Antioxidant and Biological Activity for the Dendropanax morbifera LEV. Leaves Extracted by Different Ethanol Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masaya; Ra, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2016-01-01

    The different concentrations of ethanol (20-100%) and distilled water extract for Dendropanax morbifera LEV. leaves were evaluated to induce antioxidant and biological activity employed by variety of assays. The 20%, 80%, and 100% ethanol extract demonstrated the relatively higher activity, whereas distilled water, 40%, and 60% ethanol extracts exhibited the lower antioxidant and biological activity. Especially, 80% ethanol extract showed the remarkably higher radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total phenol and flavonoid content, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity, and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Also, 100% ethanol extract exhibited relatively greater activity, but there did not show significant radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, there were 50% and 30% promotion effect for ADH activity assay and 80% and 40% promotion effect for ALDH activity assay in 80% and 100% ethanol extract, respectively. In addition, in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all extracts except for distilled water extract inhibited Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, Escherichia coli. For Pichia jadinii, whole extracts effectively inhibited yeast multiplication at concentration of 125 μg/mL for 100% ethanol extract and 250 μg/mL for the rest of extract. These result indicated that D. morbifera LEV. leaves extracted by 80% ethanol would be the ideal extracting solution to maximize inherent antioxidant and biological activity agent.

  10. Determination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavanoid contents in Bougainvillea glabra bracts at various methanol concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.

  11. A dynamic model to estimate the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as consequences of a nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Keum, Dong-Kwon; Jun, In; Kim, Byeong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Choi, Yong-Ho

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes a dynamic compartment model (K-BIOTA-DYN-M) to assess the activity concentration and whole body dose rate of marine biota as a result of a nuclear accident. The model considers the transport of radioactivity between the marine biota through the food chain, and applies the first order kinetic model for the sedimentation of radionuclides from seawater onto sediment. A set of ordinary differential equations representing the model are simultaneously solved to calculate the activity concentration of the biota and the sediment, and subsequently the dose rates, given the seawater activity concentration. The model was applied to investigate the long-term effect of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the marine biota using (131)I, (134)Cs, and, (137)Cs activity concentrations of seawater measured for up to about 2.5 years after the accident at two locations in the port of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) which was the most highly contaminated area. The predicted results showed that the accumulated dose for 3 months after the accident was about 4-4.5Gy, indicating the possibility of occurrence of an acute radiation effect in the early phase after the Fukushima accident; however, the total dose rate for most organisms studied was usually below the UNSCEAR (United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation)'s bench mark level for chronic exposure except for the initial phase of the accident, suggesting a very limited radiological effect on the marine biota at the population level. The predicted Cs sediment activity by the first-order kinetic model for the sedimentation was in a good agreement with the measured activity concentration. By varying the ecological parameter values, the present model was able to predict the very scattered (137)Cs activity concentrations of fishes measured in the port of FDNPS. Conclusively, the present dynamic model can be usefully applied to estimate the activity concentration and whole

  12. Effects of housing systems and the diet supplements on the slaughter value and concentration of mineral elements in the loin muscle of lambs.

    PubMed

    Gabryszuk, M; Kuźnicka, E; Horbańczuk, K; Oprządek, J

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maintenance system as well as the effect of Se, Zn, and vitamin E supplementation of ram-lambs on the slaughter value and concentration of mineral elements in the loin muscle of lambs. The experiment was conducted on 72 Polish Merino ram-lambs divided into three groups: group C, indoor with no supplement, 19 lambs; S, indoor with supplement, 23 lambs; G, outdoor with no supplement, 30 lambs. From birth all the lambs were maintained indoor with their dams and then weaned at the age of 8 weeks. The rams from group C and S were placed in individual straw-bedded pens and fattened individually with concentrate mixture offered ad libitum until the age of 16 weeks. The lambs from group G were grazed every day from May to July (2 months). During the fattening period each lamb from the supplemented group S was administered per os 1 mL 0.1% Na2SeO4 (Se, 0.42 mg), 3 mL 10% ZnSO4 (Zn, 68 mg), and 1 mL premix protect vitamin E (0.1 g α-tocopherol, 5 mg lysine, 5 mg methionine) daily. A comparison of half carcasses across the groups has shown no difference between the control group and the one with supplements, while the weight of half carcasses in the grazing group was smaller in comparison with groups C and S (p<0.001). The meat content in the pelvic limb showed no differences across all groups under study. The pelvic limb of grazing lambs contained less fat compared to the control and supplemented groups (p<0.001). The concentrations of Se and Zn in the blood plasma of ram-lambs from the supplemented group were significantly higher than for the control and grazing lambs. Inorganic Se and Zn supplementation with vitamin E to the diet of lambs increased Se and Zn levels in loin muscle (p<0.001) to 0.46 μg/g and 32.9 μg/g in fresh tissue, respectively.

  13. Activity levels of tamoxifen metabolites at the estrogen receptor and the impact of genetic polymorphisms of phase I and II enzymes on their concentration levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    Mürdter, T E; Schroth, W; Bacchus-Gerybadze, L; Winter, S; Heinkele, G; Simon, W; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Eichelbaum, M; Schwab, M; Brauch, H

    2011-05-01

    The therapeutic effect of tamoxifen depends on active metabolites, e.g., cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) mediated formation of endoxifen. To test for additional relationships, 236 breast cancer patients were genotyped for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, UGT1A4, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15; also, plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and 22 of its metabolites, including the (E)-, (Z)-, 3-, and 4'-hydroxymetabolites as well as their glucuronides, were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The activity levels of the metabolites were measured using an estrogen response element reporter assay; the strongest estrogen receptor inhibition was found for (Z)-endoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen (inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) 3 and 7 nmol/l, respectively). CYP2D6 genotypes explained 39 and 9% of the variability of steady-state concentrations of (Z)-endoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen, respectively. Among the poor metabolizers, 93% had (Z)-endoxifen levels below IC90 values, underscoring the role of CYP2D6 deficiency in compromised tamoxifen bioactivation. For other enzymes tested, carriers of reduced-function CYP2C9 (*2, *3) alleles had lower plasma concentrations of active metabolites (P < 0.004), pointing to the role of additional pathways.

  14. A comparison of barley malt osmolyte concentrations and standard malt quality measurements as indicators of barley malt amylolytic enzyme activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt osmolyte concentrations (OC) would correlate better with malt a-amylase, ß-amylase, and limit dextrinase activities than do the standard malt quality measurements (malt extract [ME], diastatic power [DP], ASBC a-amylase activity, solub...

  15. Anaemia, Serum Iron Concentrations and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Laying Hens Infected Naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Machado, A C; Boiago, M M; do Carmo, G M; Bottari, N B; Araujo, D N; Giuriatti, J; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C; Casagrande, R A; Wisser, C S; Stefani, L M; Alves, M S; Da Silva, A S

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anaemia, serum iron concentrations and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) activity in laying hens infected naturally by Salmonella Gallinarum and having severe hepatic lesions. Liver and serum samples were collected from 27 laying hens (20 infected and seven uninfected). The δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations were evaluated. There were significant decreases in δ-ALA-D activity, haematocrit and serum iron concentrations (P <0.01) in birds infected by S. Gallinarum when compared with uninfected birds. There was a positive correlation (P <0.001) between serum iron concentration, haematocrit (r(2) = 0.82) and δ-ALA-D activity (r(2) = 0.75). A positive correlation was also observed between δ-ALA-D activity and haematocrit (r(2) = 0.78; P <0.01). Liver samples showed moderate focal coagulative necrosis associated with infiltration of lymphoplasmacytic cells, macrophages and heterophils. The anaemia in the infected hens may be related to reduction in δ-ALA-D activity and serum iron concentrations, since both are important for haemopoiesis.

  16. Phosphate glass core/silica clad fibres with a high concentration of active rare-earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, O. N.; Galagan, B. I.; Denker, B. I.; Sverchkov, S. E.; Semjonov, S. L.

    2016-12-01

    We report a study of silica-clad composite optical fibres having a phosphate glass core doped with active rare-earth elements. The phosphate glass core allows a high concentration of active rare-earth ions to be obtained, and the silica cladding ensures high mechanical strength and facilitates fusion splicing of such fibres to silica fibres. Owing to the high concentration of active rare-earth ions, this type of fibre is potentially attractive for applications where a small cavity length and high lasing efficiency are needed.

  17. Limiting values of radionuclide intake and air concentration and dose conversion factors for inhalation, submersion, and ingestion: Federal guidance report No. 11

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Wolbarst, A.B.; Richardson, A.C.B.

    1988-09-01

    Radiation protection programs for workers are based, in the United States, on a hierarchy of limitations stemming from Federal guidance approved by the President. This guidance, which consists of principles, policies, and numerical primary guides, is used by Federal agencies as the basis for developing and implementing their own regulatory standards. The primary guides are usually expressed in terms of limiting doses to workers. The protection of workers against taking radioactive materials into the body, however, is accomplished largely through the use of regulations based on derived guides expressed in terms of quantities or concentrations of radionuclides. The values of these derived guides are chosen so as to assure that workers in work environments that conform to them are unlikely to receive radiation doses that exceed the primary guides. The purpose of the present report is to set forth derived guides that are consistent with current Federal radiation protection guidance. They are intended to serve as the basis for regulations setting upper bounds on the inhalation and ingestion of, and submersion in, radioactive materials in the workplace. The report also includes tables of exposure-to-dose conversion factors, for general use in assessing average individual committed doses in any population that is adequately characterized by Reference Man. 38 refs.

  18. Effect of the concentration of inherent mineral elements on the adsorption capacity of coconut shell-based activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Afrane, G; Achaw, Osei-Wusu

    2008-09-01

    Coconut shells of West Africa Tall, a local variety of the coconut species Cocos nucifera L., were taken from five different geographical locations in Ghana and examined for the presence and concentration levels of some selected mineral elements using atomic absorption spectrometer. Activated carbons were subsequently made from the shells by the physical method. The iodine adsorption characteristics of the activated carbons measured showed a definite relationship to the concentration levels of potassium and other mineral elements in the precursor shell. Samples with lower total minerals content recorded higher iodine numbers. It was observed that the origin of the shells was related to the concentration levels of the analyzed mineral elements in the shells, which in turn affected the adsorption capacity of the activated carbons. The results of this study have important implications for the sourcing of coconuts whose shells are used in the manufacture of activated carbons.

  19. The experience matters more than you think: People value intrinsic incentives more inside than outside an activity.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Kaitlin; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-12-01

    We document a shift in the value assigned to intrinsic incentives: people value these incentives more inside an activity than outside the activity (i.e., during vs. before or after pursuit). For example, people care more about the level of interest of their present work task than of past or future work tasks. We document this shift across a variety of activities (exercising, visiting a museum, and lab tasks) and using various measures, including rated importance of intrinsic incentives inside and outside pursuit, actual and planned persistence on activities that offer these incentives, and regret when choosers outside pursuit forgo intrinsic incentives that pursuers later seek. This shift in valuation occurs because intrinsic incentives improve the experience during action pursuit, and therefore, this shift is unique to intrinsic incentives. Extrinsic incentives, by contrast, are valued similarly inside and outside pursuit.

  20. The effects of cerium doping concentration on the properties and photocatalytic activity of bimetallic Mo/Ce catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaedini, Ghazaleh; Tasirin, Siti Masrinda; Aminayi, Payam

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the characterization and photocatalytic activity of MoO3 nanoparticles doped with various doping concentrations of cerium have been investigated. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the prepared catalysts confirmed that MoO3 particles have been successfully doped by cerium. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was performed to visualize the surface morphology of the obtained catalysts. The XRD patterns suggested that the crystallinity of the sample with the lowest doping concentration of 15 mol % was higher in comparison with samples of higher doping concentrations. The volume-averaged crystal sizes of the obtained catalysts were calculated to be 25, 28, and 32 nm for 15, 35, and 60 mol % samples, respectively. The photocatalytic activity along with the reaction kinetics of Ce-doped MoO3 nanoparticles have also been investigated through the dye degradation of methyl orange. The synthesized Ce-doped MoO3 particles with the lowest dopant concentration of 15 mol % exhibited the highest photocatalytic activity for methyl orange dye degradation. It was observed that photo-degradation activity decreased with an increase in the doping concentration of cerium. The predicted rate constants for samples with 15, 35, and 60 mol % doping concentrations were found to be 0.0432, 0.035, and 0.029 min-1, respectively.

  1. Ethanol-Induced ADH Activity in Zebrafish: Differential Concentration-Dependent Effects on High- Versus Low-Affinity ADH Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Facciol, Amanda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Zebrafish express enzymes that metabolize ethanol in a manner comparable to that of mammals, including humans. We previously demonstrated that acute ethanol exposure increases alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity in an inverted U-shaped dose-dependent manner. It was hypothesized that the biphasic dose-response was due to the increased activity of a high-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to low concentrations of ethanol and increased activity of a low-affinity ADH isoform following exposure to higher concentrations of ethanol. To test this hypothesis, we exposed zebrafish to different concentrations of ethanol (0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0% v/v) for 30 min and measured the total ADH activity in the zebrafish liver. However, we also repeated this enzyme activity assay using a low concentration of the substrate (ethanol) to determine the activity of high-affinity ADH isoforms. We found that total ADH activity in response to ethanol induces an inverted U-shaped dose-response similar to our previous study. Using a lower substrate level in our enzyme assay targeting high-affinity isozymes, we found a similar dose-response. However, the difference in activity between the high and low substrate assays (high substrate activity - low substrate activity), which provide an index of activity for low-affinity ADH isoforms, revealed no significant effect of ethanol exposure. Our results suggest that the inverted U-shaped dose-response for total ADH activity in response to ethanol is driven primarily by high-affinity isoforms of ADH.

  2. Activity concentration, transfer factors and resultant radiological risk of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil and some vegetables consumed in Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solehah, A. R.; Yasir, M. S.; Samat, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined in vegetable crops consumed by Malaysian people in Sungai Besar, Selangor. Sample of vegetables and the soil where the crops were cultivated and collected at five different location. The activity concentrations in Bq/kg of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured by the gamma-ray spectroscopy using the high purity germanium detector. The range activity concentration in soil is between 51.81 and 71.84 Bq/kg, 64.18 and 78.00 Bq/kg, and 210.49 and 244.29 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in vegetables were found to be in the range of 2.06 to 5.44 Bq/kg, Not Detectable to 0.61 Bq/kg, and 101.00 to 1223.09 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentration in both soil and vegetables were all less than lower limit stated by UNSCEAR. The Transfer Factors range value for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied from 0.02 to 0.06, 0.003 to 0.008, and 1.79 to 5.19 respectively. Radium equivalent for soil range from 165.57 to 194.84 Bq/kg. It was within the international accepted value (370 Bq/kg). Absorb dose rate for soil range between 73.5 to 86.40 nGyh-1, in safe range from limit of international accepted value (55nGyh-1). Effective dose rate is found to be in range of 0.09 to 0.11 mSvy-1 for soil which is less than 2.4 mSv/y. External and Internal Hazard indices of soil was all below 1, within agreement of other researcher and UNSCEAR. The estimation of the consequent radiological risk due to the presence of those radionuclides is significantly low.

  3. Effects of T-82, a new quinoline derivative, on cholinesterase activity and extracellular acetylcholine concentration in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Isoma, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masago; Ohta, Megumi; Ogawa, Yoichiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kohda, Tadayuki; Kamei, Junzo

    2002-02-01

    The effects of T-82 (2-[2-(1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-9-methoxy-1H-pyrrolo [3,4-b]quinolin-1-one hemifumarate), a new quinoline derivative, on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and acetylcholine (ACh) release were compared with those of the well-known cholinesterase inhibitors tacrine and E2020. T-82, tacrine and E2020 all concentration-dependently inhibited AChE in rat brain homogenate (IC50 = 109.4, 84.2 and 11.8 nM, respectively). In addition, although tacrine strongly inhibited butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), T-82 and E2020 showed only weak activity on BuChE in human plasma. In ex vivo experiments, intraperitoneal administration of T-82 at a dose of 30 mg/kg inhibited AChE activity in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and parietal cortex of rats. The effect of T-82 on the extracellular ACh concentration in rat brain was measured using in vivo microdialysis. T-82 at doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p. increased the extracellular ACh concentration in the hippocampus and striatum in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that T-82 activates the central cholinergic system by selectively inhibiting AChE activity, while weakly affecting peripheral BuChE activity, and that T-82 increases the extracellular ACh concentration in the brain, which is followed by inhibited AChE activity.

  4. Inter and intraindividual variations in plasma cholinesterase activity and substance concentration in employees of an organophosphorus insecticide factory.

    PubMed Central

    Brock, A

    1991-01-01

    During a period of 10 months, inter and intraindividual variations in plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity were studied in 331 employees of an organophosphorus insecticide factory, and in 193 healthy volunteers without occupational exposure to known ChE inhibitors. Repeated (n = 6) measurements of ChE activity and ChE substance concentration were performed in 410 subjects. The study showed substantial intraindividual variations of ChE activity and ChE substance concentration (up to 40%) in the employees and in the reference group. When effects due to sex, ChE-1 phenotype, body weight, and height were considered, one subgroup of employees of the organophosphorus insecticide factory showed a significantly lower average ChE activity than other subgroups; as ChE substance concentrations were found to be proportionally decreased, it was concluded that the low ChE activity was unrelated to occupational exposure. A combined determination of ChE activity and ChE substance concentration is recommended as a rational diagnostic tool when an unexpected decrease of plasma ChE activity is registered in people joining organophosphorus insecticide health surveillance programmes. PMID:1878314

  5. Maximal enzyme activities, and myoglobin and glutathione concentrations in heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda; Insectivora: Soricidae).

    PubMed

    Stewart, J M; Woods, A K; Blakely, J A

    2005-07-01

    We measured the enzymes of glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, beta-oxidation and electron transport in the heart, liver and skeletal muscle of the Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda. Additionally, we measured the amount of myoglobin in skeletal and heart muscle as well as the concentration of glutathione in heart. The picture that emerges is of an aerobically well-endowed animal with constrained anaerobic capacity as indicated by small activities of glycolytic enzymes and creatine kinase. Lipid metabolism and amino acid transamination, as well as gluconeogenesis, are predominant in processing carbon resources and probably reflect the large contribution lipid and protein make to the diet of this carnivore. The citrate synthase activity is the largest of any reported value for vertebrate heart (250 U/g). The additional, very active cytochrome c oxidase activity (220 U/g) and large myoglobin concentrations (8 mg/g) in heart are clearly the underpinnings of the rapid metabolic rates reported for small insectivores. The potential for generation of reactive oxygen species must be great since the total glutathione concentration (165 mumol/g) is 300-fold greater in shrew hearts than in hearts of rats.

  6. Concentration and Separation of Active Proteins from Potato Industry Waste Based on Low-Temperature Evaporation and Ethanol Precipitation

    PubMed Central

    Ahokas, Mikko; Järvinen, Juho; Toivanen, Juho; Tanskanen, Juha P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. Potato fruit juice, a residue of starch industry, contains up to 2.5% [w/w] of proteins that are potentially valuable raw-materials of food, cosmetic, and pharma industries. The recovery of protein from the potato fruit juice is limited by the lack of industrially feasible concentration and separation technologies. The present research thus aimed at development of such process for the separation of active protease inhibitors from potato fruit juice. Methods. Low temperature mechanical vapor recompression evaporation was applied for concentration of potato fruit juice followed by ethanol precipitation for recovery of active proteins. The effects of precipitation temperature and precipitative agents were investigated employing response surface modeling methodology. Results. Concentration of potato fruit juice by evaporation was successful without loss of trypsin inhibition activity. Precipitation using 6.5 M ethanol at low temperature (0–+4°C) was found suitable for the recovery of active protease inhibitors from the concentrate. Piloting at starch industry yielded 50% of total proteins, with a high quantity of active protease inhibitors and a minor inclusion of other proteins. Conclusion. Concentration by low-temperature evaporation, followed by ethanol precipitation of protease inhibitors at optimized temperature, is an attractive option for valorization of potato fruit juice. PMID:28299232

  7. The Educational Value of High Risk Activities in the Physical Education Program: A Social Philosophical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Robert E. C.

    A growing number of schools and institutions in North America have begun offering training in high risk activities such as high element rope courses, rock climbing, white water kayaking and canoeing, and scuba diving in conjunction with their regular physical education activity programs. High risk activities are those activities which occur in or…

  8. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, M.; Mantero, J.; Mosqueda, F.; Hurtado, S.; Manjón, G.; Vaca, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H2SO4, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the 238U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased. A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning

  9. Time Evolution of Activity Concentration of Natural Emitters in a Scenario Affected By Previous Phosphogypsum Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Mantero, J.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.

    2008-08-07

    The estuary formed by the confluence of Tinto and Odiel river-mouths is located in the South of Spain, close to Huelva town. This estuary has been deeply studied through the years because it has a double particularity. On one hand, since the beginning of the 1960s, the estuary has been affected by direct and indirect phosphogypsum (pg.) releases from two phosphoric acid and fertilizers factories that are working in the area. On the other hand, the pyrite mining operations upstream the Odiel and Tinto rivers has caused historically the formation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, through oxidation of the natural sulphur deposits, the acidification of the waters and the consequent mobilisation of heavy metals from the mining area to the Huelva estuary. As a consequence, enhancement contamination levels in natural emitters from the {sup 238}U series were found in the surroundings of the factories in the previous years to 1998. However, in 1998 the management policy of waste releases drastically changed in the area, and direct discharges to Tinto and Odiel River had to be ceased.A thorough study of the affected zone is being carried out. Riverbed sediments and water samples have been analyzed from four different sampling campaigns in the estuary during the years 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2005. Different radioanalytical techniques have been employed to obtain the activity concentrations of U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po. Furthermore, the results for the rates of de-contamination of the area are presented. This data will be discussed in order to establish the present status of the contamination in the area, and moreover, to predict the time-evolution of the self-cleaning.

  10. Active Teaching Methods: Personal Experience of Integrating Spiritual and Moral Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasim, Tengku Sarina Aini Tengku; Yusoff, Yusmini Md

    2014-01-01

    Islamic education has always recognized spiritual and moral values as significant elements in developing a "balanced" human being. One way of demonstrating spiritual and moral concepts is through effective teaching methods that integrate and forefront these values. This article offers an investigation of how the authors' teaching…

  11. Prefrontal and Striatal Activity Related to Values of Objects and Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Hwang, Jaewon; Lee, Daeyeol

    2012-01-01

    The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values (DVs) associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and DVs of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute DVs of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations. PMID:22822390

  12. Comparison of Reference Values in Whole Blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J Mice Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Suzuki, M. F.; Júnior, C. R. B.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2011-08-01

    The Br, Ca, Cl, K, Na and S concentrations in whole blood of DMDmdx/J and C57BL/6J mice were determined using Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Reference values obtained from twenty one whole blood samples of these strains were analyzed in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (São Paulo, Brasil). These data contribute for applications in veterinary medicine related to biochemistry analyses using whole blood as well as to evaluate the performance of treatments in muscular dystrophy.

  13. Potency of Full- Length MGF to Induce Maximal Activation of the IGF-I R Is Similar to Recombinant Human IGF-I at High Equimolar Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Joseph A. M. J. L.; Hofland, Leo J.; Strasburger, Christian J.; van den Dungen, Elisabeth S. R.; Thevis, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Aims To compare full-length mechano growth factor (full-length MGF) with human recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and human recombinant insulin (HI) in their ability to activate the human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), the human insulin receptor (IR-A) and the human insulin receptor-B (IR-B), respectively. In addition, we tested the stimulatory activity of human MGF and its stabilized analog Goldspink-MGF on the IGF-IR. Methods The effects of full-length MGF, IGF-I, human mechano growth factor (MGF), Goldspink-MGF and HI were compared using kinase specific receptor activation (KIRA) bioassays specific for IGF-I, IR-A or IR-B, respectively. These assays quantify activity by measuring auto-phosphorylation of the receptor upon ligand binding. Results IGF-IR: At high equimolar concentrations maximal IGF-IR stimulating effects generated by full-length MGF were similar to that of IGF-I (89-fold vs. 77-fold, respectively). However, EC50 values of IGF-I and full-length MGF for the IGF-I receptor were 0.86 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.07) and 7.83 nmol/L (95% CI: 4.87–12.58), respectively. No IGF-IR activation was observed by human MGF and Goldspink-MGF, respectively. IR-A/IR-B: At high equimolar concentrations similar maximal IR-A stimulating effects were observed for full -length MGF and HI, but maximal IR-B stimulation achieved by full -length MGF was stronger than that by HI (292-fold vs. 98-fold). EC50 values of HI and full-length MGF for the IR-A were 1.13 nmol/L (95% CI 0.69–1.84) and 73.11 nmol/L (42.87–124.69), respectively; for IR-B these values were 1.28 nmol/L (95% CI 0.64–2.57) and 35.10 nmol/L (95% 17.52–70.33), respectively. Conclusions Full-length MGF directly stimulates the IGF-IR. Despite a higher EC50 concentration, at high equimolar concentrations full-length MGF showed a similar maximal potency to activate the IGF-IR as compared to IGF-I. Further research is needed to understand the actions of full-length MGF in vivo and to define the

  14. Low Concentration of Silver Nanoparticles Not Only Enhances the Activity of Horseradish Peroxidase but Alter the Structure Also

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zoheb; Adnan, Rohana; Ansari, Mohd Saquib

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out using reduction method. The reduction mechanistic approach of silver ions was found to be a basic clue for the formation of the Ag-NPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR and TEM analysis. We had designed some experiments in support of our hypothesis, “low concentrations of novel nanoparticles (silver and gold) increases the activity of plant peroxidases and alter their structure also”, we had used Ag-NPs and HRP as models. The immobilization/interaction experiment had demonstrated the specific concentration range of the Ag-NPs and within this range, an increase in HRP activity was reported. At 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, 50% increase in the activity yield was found. The U.V-vis spectra had demonstrated the increase in the absorbance of HRP within the reported concentration range (0.06–0.12 mM). Above and below this concentration range there was a decrease in the activity of HRP. The results that we had found from the fluorescence spectra were also in favor of our hypothesis. There was a maximum increase in ellipticity and α-helix contents in the presence of 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Finally, incubation of a plant peroxidase, HRP with Ag-NPs, within the reported concentration range not only enhances the activity but also alter the structure. PMID:22848490

  15. Impacts of tundra fire on active layer condition and estimation of true resistivity value of soil in Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, K.; Sawada, Y.; Narita, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2007-12-01

    In Seward Peninsula, southwest Alaska, large tundra fires were occurred in 1997 and 2002, and a discontinuous permafrost area burned widely near the Kougarok River. After fires, a vegetation condition was destroyed and a ground surface thermal condition was changed. Then, field observations were conducted at burned and unburned sites in summer 2005, 2006 and 2007, in order to clarify impacts of the tundra fire on thermal and water conditions of active layer. From pit surveys, ground temperatures at burned sites showed 4-5 °C higher values than those at unburned sites. Soil water contents at burned sites showed relative high values in 2005, but low in 2006. Active layer thicknesses were significantly different between burned and unburned sites, about 60cm and 40cm, respectively. There is no significant increasing of the thickness between 2005 and 2006, however, the thickness in 2007 at north-facing sites increased to 80cm at the burned site and 50cm at the unburned site, respectively. Apparent electrical resistivity values up to 1m deep were obtained from electrical soundings in 2006, and values at burned sites were lower than those at unburned sites due to the thick active layer whose resistivity value is relatively low. As an apparent resistivity value is generally produced from the combination of a true resistivity value and a thickness of a layer, a simple calculation was carried out in order to estimate a true resistivity value of unfrozen mineral soil in the active layer. The calculated results showed that the true resistivity at burned sites was higher than that at unburned sites, which was seemed to correspond to a relative low water condition. This result is in agreement with the measured result of water content in 2006. Using this method, the apparent resistivity may show a soil water condition.

  16. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity: effects on liking and relative reinforcing value of TV and physical activity in overweight and obese children.

    PubMed

    Goldfield, Gary S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of making access to television (TV) viewing contingent on physical activity on the liking and reinforcing value of TV and attitudes towards physical activity in overweight and obese children. Secondary data analysis from a randomized controlled trial designed to increase physical activity and reduce TV viewing in 30, 8-12 years old overweight or obese children by making access to TV contingent on physical activity (intervention) or free access to TV (control). Liking of TV and physical activity was measured by a 100 point visual analog scale, while the relative reinforcing value of TV in relation to physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire based on behavioural choice paradigm that provided children an opportunity to work (button presses) to gain access to TV or physical activity according to a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement. Enjoyment, Adequacy, Predilection and Motivation for physical activity was assessed by self-report questionnaire. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity showed a trend that approached statistical significance towards increased enjoyment of physical activity and did not adversely affect change in the liking or the relative reinforcing value of TV viewing. Making access to TV contingent on physical activity had no adverse effects on the liking or reinforcing value of TV and even showed a suggestive effect of increased enjoyment of physical activity. Thus, given this intervention markedly increased physical activity and reduced TV viewing in overweight and obese children, long-term evaluations of this interventions to assess sustainability of these behavioral changes and associated health benefits are warranted.

  17. Sustainable development of tyre char-based activated carbons with different textural properties for value-added applications.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Pejman; Yeung, Kit Ying; Guo, Jiaxin; Wang, Huaimin; McKay, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims at the sustainable development of activated carbons for value-added applications from the waste tyre pyrolysis product, tyre char, in order to make pyrolysis economically favorable. Two activation process parameters, activation temperature (900, 925, 950 and 975 °C) and residence time (2, 4 and 6 h) with steam as the activating agent have been investigated. The textural properties of the produced tyre char activated carbons have been characterized by nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments at -196 °C. The activation process has resulted in the production of mesoporous activated carbons confirmed by the existence of hysteresis loops in the N2 adsorption-desorption curves and the pore size distribution curves obtained from BJH method. The BET surface area, total pore volume and mesopore volume of the activated carbons from tyre char have been improved to 732 m(2)/g, 0.91 cm(3)/g and 0.89 cm(3)/g, respectively. It has been observed that the BET surface area, mesopore volume and total pore volume increased linearly with burnoff during activation in the range of experimental parameters studied. Thus, yield-normalized surface area, defined as the surface area of the activated carbon per gram of the precursor, has been introduced to optimize the activation conditions. Accordingly, the optimized activation conditions have been demonstrated as an activation temperature of 975 °C and an activation time of 4 h.

  18. Investigation of the effects of summer melt on the calculation of sea ice concentration using active and passive microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Burns, Barbara A.; Onstott, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of ice surface melt on microwave signatures and errors in the calculation of sea ice concentration are examined, using active and passive microwave data sets from the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment aircraft flights in the Fram Strait region. Consideration is given to the possibility of using SAR to supplement passive microwave data to unambiguously discriminate between open water areas and ponded floes. Coincident active multichannel microwave radiometer and SAR measurements of individual floes are used to describe the effects of surface melt on sea ice concentration calculations.

  19. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV.

  20. Enhancing protease activity assay in droplet-based microfluidics using a biomolecule concentrator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hung; Sarkar, Aniruddh; Song, Yong-Ak; Miller, Miles A; Kim, Sung Jae; Griffith, Linda G; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Han, Jongyoon

    2011-07-13

    We introduce an integrated microfluidic device consisting of a biomolecule concentrator and a microdroplet generator, which enhances the limited sensitivity of low-abundance enzyme assays by concentrating biomolecules before encapsulating them into droplet microreactors. We used this platform to detect ultralow levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) from diluted cellular supernatant and showed that it significantly (~10-fold) reduced the time required to complete the assay and the sample volume used.

  1. Water-soluble antioxidants improve the antioxidant and anticancer activity of low concentrations of curcumin in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wanming, Da; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Qing; Kang, Jiuhong

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin (Cur) is a promising antioxidant and anticancer drug, but several recent studies indicate that Cur exerts its anticancer activity through promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. In the present study, concentration-dependent regulation of Cur on cell proliferation, viability and ROS generation, and effect of water-soluble antioxidants ascorbic acid (ASA), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH) on the antioxidant and anticancer activity of Cur were investigated in human myeloid leukemia cells (HL-60 cells). We found that although Cur concentration- and time-dependently decreased the proliferation and viability of cells, its effect on ROS generation (as indicated by the level of malondialdehyde, MDA) varied with its concentrations. I.e., low concentrations of Cur diminished the ROS generation, while high Cur promoted it. Combined with the opposite effect of 50 microM H2O2 on low or high Cur-induced MDA alteration, cell proliferation arrest and cell death, these results proved that low Cur exerted its anticancer activity through diminishing ROS generation in HL-60 cells, while high Cur through promoting ROS generation. Further studies showed that all water-soluble antioxidants ASA, NAC and GSH significantly enhanced both the antioxidant and the anticancer activity of low Cur. Considering that the extra accumulation of ROS is harmful to normal cells, the data presented here indicate that instead of using high doses, combining low doses of Cur with water-soluble antioxidants is a better strategy for us to improve the anticancer activity of Cur.

  2. The effects of allopurinol, uric acid, and inosine administration on xanthine oxidoreductase activity and uric acid concentrations in broilers.

    PubMed

    Settle, T; Carro, M D; Falkenstein, E; Radke, W; Klandorf, H

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the effects of uric acid (UA) and inosine administration on xanthine oxidoreductase activity in broilers. In experiment one, 25 broilers were assigned to 5 treatment groups: control, AL (25 mg of allopurinol/kg of body mass), AR (AL for 2 wk followed by allopurinol withdrawal over wk 3), UAF (AL plus 6.25 g of UA sodium salt/kg of feed), and UAI (AL plus 120 mg of UA sodium salt injected daily). The UA administration had no effect on plasma concentration of UA (P > 0.05), and all allopurinol-treated birds had lower (P < 0.05) UA levels than controls. The UA concentrations were restored in both plasma and kidney of AR birds at wk 3, but liver UA concentrations remained lower. Whereas xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity in the liver (LXOR) was reduced (P < 0.05) by allopurinol treatment, XOR activity in the kidney (KXOR) was not affected (P = 0.05). In experiment two, 3 groups of 5 birds each were fed 0 (control), 0.6 M inosine/kg of feed (INO), or INO plus 50 mg of allopurinol/kg of body mass (INOAL). The INOAL birds showed lower total LXOR activity, but KXOR activity was not affected. Both INO and INOAL birds had higher plasma and kidney UA concentrations than controls. The results suggest that regulation of UA production is tissue dependent.

  3. Display life of beef packaged with an antioxidant active film as a function of the concentration of oregano extract.

    PubMed

    Camo, Javier; Lorés, Alberto; Djenane, Djamel; Beltrán, José Antonio; Roncalés, Pedro

    2011-05-01

    Fresh beef steaks were packaged with a new antioxidant active system containing increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) of an oregano extract. Control samples were packaged without the active film. Additional samples were sprayed with the extract and packaged as the control samples. Packages were filled with a 80%O(2)/20%CO(2) atmosphere and displayed under illumination (14 h) at 1 ± 1 °C for 28 days. Metmyoglobin formation, lipid oxidation (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE a*) and sensory colour, discoloration, off-odour and oregano smell were determined. Active packaging significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced oxidative stability of beef steaks, depending on the oregano concentration of the active film. The display life of beef samples demonstrated that at least 1% oregano was needed for obtaining a significant increase of display life from 14 to 23 days. A concentration of 4% gave rise to unacceptable oregano smell. As a consequence, most suitable oregano extract concentrations for optimum active packaging in this system should be within the range 1-2%.

  4. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in parmelioid lichens within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Terumi; Ohmura, Yoshihito; Kashiwadani, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Kenso; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Iijima, Kazuki

    2015-08-01

    Radiocaesium activity concentrations ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) were measured in parmelioid lichens collected within the Fukushima Prefecture approximately 2 y after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. A total of 44 samples consisting of nine species were collected at 16 points within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The activity concentration of (134)Cs ranged from 4.6 to 1000 kBq kg(-1) and for (137)Cs ranged from 7.6 to 1740 kBq kg(-1). A significant positive correlation was found between the (137)Cs activity concentration in lichens and the (137)Cs deposition density on soil (n = 44), based on the calculated Spearman's rank correlation coefficients as r = 0.90 (P < 0.01). The two dominant species, Flavoparmelia caperata (n = 12) and Parmotrema clavuliferum (n = 11), showed strong positive correlations, for which the r values were calculated as 0.92 (P < 0.01) and 0.90 (P < 0.01) respectively. Therefore, Flavoparmelia caperata and Parmotrema clavuliferum are suggested as biomonitoring species for levels of radiocaesium fallout within the Fukushima Prefecture.

  5. Effect of grape pomace concentrate and vitamin E on digestibility of polyphenols and antioxidant activity in chickens.

    PubMed

    Brenes, A; Viveros, A; Goñi, I; Centeno, C; Sáyago-Ayerdy, S G; Arija, I; Saura-Calixto, F

    2008-02-01

    Grape pomace provides a rich source of polyphenols that have the capacity to act as powerful antioxidants. An experiment was conducted to study the effect of inclusion of grape pomace concentrate (GPC) at levels of 15, 30, and 60 g/kg and alpha-tocopheryl acetate (200 mg/kg) in broiler chicks (21 to 42 d of age) on performance; digestive organ sizes; protein; fat; hydrolyzable polyphenol and condensed tannin digestibilities; the anti-oxidant activity of diet, serum, ileal content, and excreta; and the susceptibility to oxidation of breast meat during refrigerated storage. The inclusion of GPC did not affect the performance; the apparent ileal digestibility of CP; the relative abdominal fat, liver, pancreas, and spleen weight; and the relative intestinal length. Fat digestibility was reduced in birds fed control and GPC diets compared with birds fed vitamin E. Ileal and fecal digestibility of hydrolyzable polyphenols and condensed tannins reached values in a range of 56 to 73% and 14 to 47%, respectively. The GPC diets reduced ileal and fecal digestibility of hydrolyzable polyphenols. Antioxidant activity in GPC diet, ileal content, and excreta [2, 2-azinobis (3-ethilenzotiazolin)-6-sulfonate method] and GPC diet (ferric antioxidant power method) exhibited higher scavenging free radical capacity than control and vitamin E diets. The lipid oxidation in breast meat was lower in the birds fed the supplemented vitamin E diet than the control diet after 1, 4, and 7 d of refrigerated storage. Oxidative stability in breast meat at 1, 4, and 7 d of storage was equivalent in GPC diets compared with the vitamin E diet. In conclusion, the inclusion of GPC (up to 60 g/kg) did not impair chicken growth performance, digestive organ sizes, and protein digestibility. Hydrolyzable polyphenols were more bioavailable than condensed tannins. Antioxidant activity in diet, excreta, ileal content, and breast muscle were increased in GPC diets. The GPC supplementation was equally as

  6. Influence of age and composition of shelterbelts plants on enzyme activity and auxine - phytophormone IAA concentrations in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciech Szajdak, Lech; Gaca, Wioletta; Meysner, Teresa; Styła, Katarzyna; Maryganova, Victoria

    2010-05-01

    The investigations were carried out in Dezydery Chlapowski Agroecological Landscape Park in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowlands, 16° 45 E and 52° 01 N). The soil samples were taken from two shelterbelts differing the age and the composition of trees. First 200-years-old shelterbelt is consisting mainly by Robinia pseudacacia and small admixture of Quercus robur and Larix deciduas. It has 2 kilometers of length and 36 meters of width. The second one new shelterbelt (many species) was created in 1993 and consists of several species of plants such as: Quercus pertraea and Quercus robur, Larix decidua, Pinus silvestris, Sorbus aucuparia, Sorbus intermedia and Tilia cordata. Its length is 340 meters and its width is 17.5 meters. All shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields were introduced on Hapludalfs soils (according to FAO classification). In soil under two shelterbelts and adjoining cultivated fields the activity of the following enzymes nitrate reductase, urease, xanthine oxidase, phenol oxidase, peroxidase activity were measured. In addition, the concentrations of iron ions, indole-3-acetic acids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium and nitrates were determined. In soils under shelterbelts compared to adjoining cultivated fields higher content of organic matter was observed, because the accumulation of soil organic matter under shelterbelts is suggested to be the main mechanism of long-term withdrawal of various chemical elements from cycling in the agroecosystems. However, many chemical, biochemical, physical and biological processes control conversions of organic compounds in soils and finally these processes depend on the organic matter content and particularly on humic substances. Due to a very good developed root system of trees in shelterbelts than cultivated plants, they transpire more than 34% water than cultivated fields and intensively take up nutrients and finally improve quality of ground

  7. Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate concentration on the photocatalytic activity and dielectric properties of intercalated sodium dodecyl sulfate into Zn–Cd–Al layered double hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Abdullah Ahmed Ali; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS were synthesized with different SDS concentrations. • Photocatalytic activity of samples was improved by increasing SDS concentration. • Dielectric response of LDH can be described by anomalous low frequency dispersion. • The dc conductivity values were calculated for Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS samples. • ESR spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. - Abstract: Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been successfully intercalated into Zn–Cd–Al–LDH precursor with different SDS concentrations (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1 mol L{sup −1}) using the coprecipitation method at (Zn{sup 2+} + Cd{sup 2+})/Al{sup 3+} molar ratio of 13 and pH 8. The structural, morphological, texture and composition properties of the synthesized (Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS) nanostructure were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), respectively. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was developed by increasing the concentration of intercalated SDS. The absorbance spectra have been used to detect an anion in the LDH interlayer before and after the intercalation process, which confirmed the presence of the dodecyl sulfate (DS{sup −}) anion into LDH gallery after intercalation. The anomalous low frequency dispersion (ALFD) has been used to describe the dielectric response of Zn–Cd–Al–LDH–DS nanostructure using the second type of universal power law. At low frequency, the polarization effect of electrodes caused the rising in dielectric constant and loss values. An important result of the dielectric measurements is the calculated dc conductivity values, which are new in dielectric spectroscopy of LDH materials. An important result of the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra exhibited the successful intercalation of DS molecule into LDH gallery. The g-factor value was affected by

  8. Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 MSK1 regulates glucocorticoid response element promoter activity in a glucocorticoid concentration-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Beck, Ilse M; Clarisse, Dorien; Bougarne, Nadia; Okret, Sam; Haegeman, Guy; De Bosscher, Karolien

    2013-09-05

    The glucocorticoid receptor is a nuclear receptor, and can be activated by glucocorticoid ligands. Mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK1), when activated by p38 and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), plays a major role in chromatin relaxation via phosphorylation of histone H3 S10. The glucocorticoid receptor can target MSK1 as part of its anti-inflammatory mechanism. Here, we studied the converse mechanism, i.e. the impact of MSK1 on glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transactivation. Upstream MSK1-activating kinases concentration-dependently enhanced glucocorticoid response element (GRE)-regulated promoter activity. Correspondingly, MSK1 inhibition, via H89, or combined p38 and ERK MAPK inhibition, via SB203580 and U0126, diminished maximally stimulated GRE-regulated promoter activity using high concentrations of glucocorticoids. Concomitantly, the combination of these agents does not seem to alter site-specific phosphorylations of murine glucocorticoid receptor S212 or S220. Paradoxically, we reveal that a sub-maximally activated GRE-mediated promoter activity, by using lower concentrations of glucocorticoids, is consistently enhanced by H89 or a combination of SB203580 and U0126, irrespective of the GRE promoter context. Furthermore, we show that the glucocorticoid-induced nucleocytoplasmic translocation of MSK1 occurs in a glucocorticoid concentration-dependent manner. The observed glucocorticoid concentration-dependent effect of MSK1 or MAPK inhibition on glucocorticoid receptor transactivation warrants further research into the applicability of combined glucocorticoid and kinase inhibitor strategies for anti-inflammatory purposes.

  9. Effect of pH and HNO2 concentration on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in a partial nitritation reactor.

    PubMed

    Claros, J; Jiménez, E; Aguado, D; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Serralta, J

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) are very sensitive to environmental conditions and wastewater treatment plant operational parameters. One of the most important factors affecting their activity is pH. Its effect is associated with: NH3/NH4(+) and HNO2/NO2(-) chemical equilibriums and biological reaction rates. The aim of this study was to quantify and model the effect of pH and free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration on the activity of AOB present in a lab-scale partial nitritation reactor. For this purpose, two sets of batch experiments were carried out using biomass from this reactor. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed that Nitrosomona eutropha and Nitrosomona europaea species were dominant in the partial nitritation reactor (>94%). The experimental results showed that FNA inhibits the AOB activity. This inhibition was properly modelled by the non-competitive inhibition function and the half inhibition constant value was determined as 1.32 mg HNO2-N L(-1). The optimal pH for these AOB was found to be in the range 7.4-7.8. The pH inhibitory effect was stronger at high pH values than at low pH values. Therefore, an asymmetric inhibition function was proposed to represent the pH effect on these bacteria. A combination of two sigmoidal functions was able to reproduce the experimental results obtained.

  10. Possibility of influence of midazolam sedation on the diagnosis of brain death: concentrations of active metabolites after cessation of midazolam.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kiyotaka; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Kurokawa, Akira; Onda, Miho; Shimizu, Makiko; Fukuoka, Masamichi; Hirano, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2003-09-01

    Midazolam and its active metabolites have a depressant effect on respiration and consciousness level, and therefore their effects should be considered in all patients for whom brain death testing is contemplated. The concentrations of midazolam and its active metabolites were measured in critically ill patients on a ventilator during and after continuous intravenous infusion of midazolam. Three days after cessation of midazolam infusion, the concentrations of midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam decreased to below the therapeutic range (100-1000 ng/ml) in all patients, although the concentrations of 1-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide remained extremely high in a patient who showed deteriorating renal function. The concentrations of 1-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (19,497-29,761 ng/ml) were measured in this patient. When it is impossible to confirm factors consistent with irreversible brain death, such as the lack of cerebral blood flow, until 3 days after cessation of midazolam infusion, monitoring of the concentration of these substances should be carried out in all patients in whom suspicion exists prior to the evaluation of brain death. It is particularly imperative that monitoring of the 1-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide concentration be carried out in patients with poor renal function.

  11. Effects of surfactant and Zn (II) at various concentrations on microbial activity and ethylbenzene removal in biotricking filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Yang, Chunping; Cheng, Yan; Huang, Jian; He, Huijun; Zeng, Guangming; Lu, Li

    2013-11-01

    The effects of Tween-20, a non-ionic surfactant, and Zn (II) on microbial activity and removal performance for ethylbenzene in a biotrickling filter (BTF) were evaluated. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the surfactant and Zn (II) at various concentrations for their toxicity to microorganisms, and results indicated that Tween-20 was beneficial to microbial activity at all the tested concentration, while Zn (II) affected adversely when the concentration overpassed 5.0mgL(-1). Then effects of the two additives on removal efficiency of ethylbenzene were evaluated in a BTF at an empty-bed retention time of 30s and an ethylbenzene concentration of 1100mgm(-3). Results showed that the optimal concentrations of Tween-20 and Zn (II) were about 12 and 1.0mgL(-1), respectively. Compared to the results when neither of the two additives was added, Tween-20 improved ethylbenzene removal efficiency from 67% to 86% at the optimal condition, while on that basis, Zn (II) just increased the removal efficiency from 86% to 90%. The promoting effects of the two additives on recovering microbial activity and removing excessive biomass were also observed in this article.

  12. The Prognostic Values of Leukocyte Rho Kinase Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng-I.; Lin, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Tzu-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chang, Wen-Neng; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Yuen, Chun-Man; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. It has been reported that leukocyte ROCK activity is elevated in patients after ischemic stroke, but it is unclear whether leukocyte ROCK activity is associated with clinical outcomes following acute stroke events. The objective of this study is to investigate if leukocyte ROCK activity can predict the outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods. We enrolled 110 patients of acute ischemic stroke and measured the leukocyte ROCK activity and plasma level of inflammatory cytokines to correlate the clinical outcomes of these patients. Results. The leukocyte ROCK activity at 48 hours after admission in acute ischemic stroke patients was higher as compared to a risk-matched population. The leukocyte ROCK activity significantly correlated with National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) difference between admission and 90 days after stroke event. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed lower stroke-free survival during follow-up period in patients with high leukocyte ROCK activity or plasma hsCRP level. Leukocyte ROCK activity independently predicted the recurrent stroke in patients with atherosclerotic stroke. Conclusions. This study shows elevated leukocyte ROCK activity in patients with ischemic stroke as compared to risk-matched subjects and is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. PMID:24716192

  13. Antibacterial activities of persimmon extracts relate with their hydrogen peroxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hidetoshi; Takasaki, Makiko; Tajima, Noriko; Fukamachi, Haruka; Igarashi, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Persimmon, a deciduous tree of the family Ebenaceae, is found throughout East Asia and contains high levels of tannins. This class of natural compounds exhibit favorable toxicity profiles along with bactericidal activity without the emergence of resistant bacteria, suggesting potential medical applications. Consistent with these observations, persimmon leaves show antibacterial activity. However, the mechanism of persimmon antibacterial activity remains unknown. In the present work, we demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of persimmon reflects the generation of reactive oxygen from tannins. The identification and quantification of reactive oxygen generated from persimmon and the level of antibacterial activity were determined.

  14. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on nitrogenase activity in legumes: an interplay of concentration and exposure time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Praveen; Burman, Uday; Santra, P.

    2015-07-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO) on nitrogenase activity in legumes. In the first experiment, nodulated roots of cluster bean, moth bean, green gram and cowpea were dipped in Hoagland solution containing 1.5 and 10 μg mL-1 of nano-ZnO for 24 h. Nitrogenase activity in cluster bean, green gram and cowpea roots increased after dipping in solution containing 1.5 μg mL-1 nano-ZnO, but decreased in roots dipped in solution containing 10 μg mL-1 nano-ZnO. However, in moth bean roots, nitrogenase activity decreased after dipping in solution containing either concentration of nano-ZnO. In the second experiment, nodulated roots of green gram were dipped in Hoagland solution containing 1, 4, 6, 8 and 10 μg mL-1 nano-ZnO for 6-30 h before estimating nitrogenase activity. Results showed that an interactive effect of nano-ZnO concentration and exposure time influenced nitrogenase activity. The possible reasons behind this effect have been discussed. A model [ A = 3.44 + 0.46 t - 0.01 t 2 - 0.002 tc 2 ( R 2 = 0.81)] involving linear and power components was developed to simulate the response of nitrogenase activity in green gram roots to the concentration and exposure time of nano-ZnO.

  15. The effect of on-hill active recovery performed between runs on blood lactate concentration and fatigue in alpine ski racers.

    PubMed

    White, Gillian E; Wells, Greg D

    2015-03-01

    Alpine skiing is a high-intensity intermittent sport that results in lactate accumulation and muscle acidosis, which has been shown to contribute to peripheral neuromuscular fatigue. Active recovery influences the removal of lactate from the muscle and blood by maintaining blood flow to fatigued muscles and enhancing aerobic utilization of lactate by nonfatigued tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of on-hill active recovery on blood lactate concentration in alpine skiers. Fourteen highly trained alpine skiers (7 women, 7 men) completed 8 training runs in a 45-gate slalom or a 25-gate giant slalom corridor at 2,600 m above sea level. Skiers were randomized to active (ACT) or static recovery (CON) performed at the top of each run. Blood lactate concentration and perceived fatigue were recorded at the top and bottom of each run. Performance was measured by time to complete each training run and rate of incomplete runs. A significant time (p < 0.01) and interaction (p = 0.001) effect was observed for blood lactate concentration measured at the top, with ACT being associated with significantly lower values. A significant time effect (p < 0.001) was observed for blood lactate concentration measured at the bottom. Training run completion time was longer (p ≤ 0.05), and higher rate of incomplete runs were observed in the CON group, despite no between-group differences in rating of perceived fatigue. On-hill active recovery performed between runs promotes blood lactate clearance in alpine skiers and is associated with delayed fatigue as indicated by faster training runs and fewer incomplete runs.

  16. Migration of concentrated radionuclide solutions in water-saturated soil investigation of a hypothetical high activity waste solution discharge accident

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzer, K.; Katscher, W.; Thelen, J.

    1983-01-01

    For the case of postulated leakage from a tank containing a high activity nuclear waste solution, as planned for the German reprocessing plant at Gorleben, the migration of radionuclides in the groundwater current has been examined. As the nuclide migration velocity is strongly influenced by sorption processes, which for a given soil are concentration dependent, adsorption and desorption coefficients for strontium, cesium, ruthenium, and cerium were measured over a wide concentration range in sandy subsoil taken from the Gorleben site. Using the results from the adsorption experiments and neglecting the fact that the sorption coefficients in the case of desorption turn out to be significantly higher, migration velocities and concentration profiles for strontium, cesium, ruthenium, and cerium were calculated with the MOFIS code. The results show significant delay and concentration decrease of the radionuclides with strontium being the ''critical'' element.

  17. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (<30 km) of the earthquake-damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg−1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg−1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution. PMID:27048779

  18. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and superoxide dismutase activities were measured before and after a 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program. [Results] After the 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program, the exercise group had significantly lower plasma MDA concentrations than the control group. In addition, the exercise group had significantly higher plasma SOD activity than the control group. [Conclusions] Hatha yoga exercise improves flexibility, muscle tone and strength, balance, and joint function. Our findings indicate that regular and continuous yoga exercise effectively improved body composition, decrease plasma MDA concentration, and increase plasma SOD activity in female patients with shoulder pain. PMID:26311934

  19. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-06

    The radioactive fission product (90)Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing (90)Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (<30 km) of the earthquake-damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure (90)Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. (137)Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with (90)Sr. The (90)Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg(-1) while the (137)Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg(-1). The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of (134)Cs. However, (90)Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of (90)Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between (90)Sr and (137)Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background (90)Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  20. Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, R. C.

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. 234U/238U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M=6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  1. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (<30 km) of the earthquake-damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg‑1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg‑1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  2. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  3. A New Generation of Leaders for Eastern Europe: Values and Attitudes for Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education has a crucial role in developing active citizenship within students. Even though active citizenship skills and competencies have been identified as essential life skills for Europe there is very little progress to date in establishing measures or indicators as to how this might be accomplished. This study provides the first data…

  4. Puerto Rican adolescents' disclosure and lying to parents about peer and risky activities: associations with teens' perceptions of Latino values.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G

    2012-08-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M=15.58 years, SD=1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to parents about their risky prudential (unhealthy or unsafe) and peer activities. Lying was infrequent, although greater for risky than for peer issues. In general, path analyses demonstrated that teens' greater adherence to Latino family values and trust in parents were associated with more disclosure and less lying to mothers. However, these findings were moderated by the type of issue considered and perceptions of parents' Latino family values.

  5. Ultraviolet irradiation of platelet concentrate abrogates lymphocyte activation without affecting platelet function in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, R.A.; Duffy, B.F.; Rodey, G.G.

    1985-11-01

    We studied the effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on platelet concentrates. Samples irradiated at 310 mm for 30 minutes at a dose of 1782 J per m2 showed no loss of platelet function in vitro as determined by adenosine diphosphate, collagen, or ristocetin-induced aggregation. Lymphocytes isolated from irradiated units were unable to act as responders or stimulators in a mixed-lymphocyte reaction. These data suggest that UV radiation of platelet concentrates may result in a cell suspension that is unable to evoke an immunological response.

  6. Response to "A Step in the Right Direction: Commentary on Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudor-Locke, Catrine; McClain, James J.; Hart, Teresa L.; Sisson, Susan B.; Washington, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    As researchers and science writers, the authors are always pleased when anyone takes enough interest in their work, but this time it was especially pleasing to have inspired Beets to comment on it (Beets, 2010)! The focus of his commentary is "Expected Values for Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity in Youth" (Tudor-Locke, McClain, Hart, Sisson,…

  7. Who I Am: The Meaning of Early Adolescents' Most Valued Activities and Relationships, and Implications for Self-Concept Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; Guerin, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Self-concept research in early adolescence typically measures young people's self-perceptions of competence in specific, adult-defined domains. However, studies have rarely explored young people's own views of valued self-concept factors and their meanings. For two major self domains, the active and the social self, this mixed-methods study…

  8. Puerto Rican Adolescents' Disclosure and Lying to Parents about Peer and Risky Activities: Associations with Teens' Perceptions of Latino Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalobos, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure and lying to mothers and fathers about different activities, as defined within social domain theory, were examined as a function of Latino family values in 109 Puerto Rican lower socioeconomic status middle adolescents (M = 15.58 years, SD = 1.18) living in the United States. Questionnaires revealed that teens sometimes disclosed to…

  9. Teachers' Understanding of Students' Attitudes and Values toward Physical Activity in Physical Education Dropout Rates and Adolescent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Structured interviews were used to explore 10th grade teachers' understanding of students' attitudes and values toward physical education and physical activity as a variable in students' probability of dropping physical education and adolescent obesity. When asked how school-based physical education could help combat the problem of students…

  10. Comparison of predicted ground-level airborne radionuclide concentrations to measured values resulting from operation of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, W.V.

    1993-05-01

    A comparison study of measured and predicted downwind radionuclide concentrations from the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) was performed. The radionuclide emissions consist primarily of the radioisotopes 11C, 13N, and 150. The gases, vented to the outside environment by a stack located at the facility, potentially increase the radiation exposure at the facility boundary. Emission rate, meteorological, and radiation monitoring station data were collected between September 26, 1992 and October 3, 1992. The meteorological and emission data were input to the Clean Air Act Assessment Package-1988 (CAP88-PC) computer code. The downwind radionuclide air concentrations predicted by the code were compared to the air concentrations measured by the monitoring stations. The code was found to slightly over-predict downwind concentrations during unstable atmospheric conditions. For stable atmospheric conditions, the code was not useful for predicting downwind air concentrations. This is thought to be due to an underestimation of horizontal dispersion.

  11. Can we define an asymptotic value for the ice active surface site density for heterogeneous ice nucleation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeier, Dennis; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Wex, Heike; Ignatius, Karoliina; Stratmann, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The immersion freezing behavior of droplets containing size-segregated, monodisperse feldspar particles was investigated. For all particle sizes investigated, a leveling off of the frozen droplet fraction was observed reaching a plateau within the heterogeneous freezing temperature regime (T >- 38°C). The frozen fraction in the plateau region was proportional to the particle surface area. Based on these findings, an asymptotic value for ice active surface site density ns, which we named ns⋆, could be determined for the investigated feldspar sample. The comparison of these results with those of other studies not only elucidates the general feasibility of determining such an asymptotic value but also shows that the value of ns⋆ strongly depends on the method of the particle surface area determination. However, such an asymptotic value might be an important input parameter for atmospheric modeling applications. At least it shows that care should be taken when ns is extrapolated to lower or higher temperature.

  12. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during two consecutive fiscal years. (b) A CDC's 504 loan portfolio must be diversified by business sector....

  13. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during two consecutive fiscal years. (b) A CDC's 504 loan portfolio must be diversified by business sector....

  14. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during two consecutive fiscal years. (b) A CDC's 504 loan portfolio must be diversified by business sector....

  15. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during two consecutive fiscal years. (b) A CDC's 504 loan portfolio must be diversified by business sector....

  16. 13 CFR 120.828 - Minimum level of 504 loan activity and restrictions on portfolio concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Requirements for Cdc... concentrations. (a) A CDC is required to receive SBA approval of at least four 504 loan approvals during two consecutive fiscal years. (b) A CDC's 504 loan portfolio must be diversified by business sector....

  17. Antiretroviral concentrations in breast-feeding infants of mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirochnick, Mark; Thomas, Timothy; Capparelli, Edmund; Zeh, Clement; Holland, Diane; Masaba, Rose; Odhiambo, Prisca; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Weidle, Paul J; Thigpen, Michael C

    2009-03-01

    There are limited data describing the concentrations of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine in nursing infants as a result of transfer via breast milk. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study is a phase IIb open-label trial of prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum maternal treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine from 34 weeks of gestation to 6 months postpartum. In a pharmacokinetic substudy, maternal plasma, breast milk, and infant dried blood spots were collected for drug assay on the day of delivery and at 2, 6, 14, and 24 weeks after delivery. Sixty-seven mother-infant pairs were enrolled. The median concentrations in breast milk of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine during the study period were 14 ng/ml, 1,214 ng/ml, and 4,546 ng/ml, respectively. Zidovudine was not detectable in any infant plasma samples obtained after the day of delivery, while the median concentrations in infant plasma samples from postpartum weeks 2, 6, and 14 were 67 ng/ml, 32 ng/ml, and 24 ng/ml for lamivudine and 987 ng/ml, 1,032 ng/ml, and 734 ng/ml for nevirapine, respectively. Therefore, lamivudine and nevirapine, but not zidovudine, are transferred to infants via breast milk in biologically significant concentrations. The extent and effect of infant drug exposure via breast milk must be well understood in order to evaluate the benefits and risks of maternal antiretroviral use during lactation.

  18. Effect of Various Concentrations of Antibiotics on Osteogenic Cell Viability and Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    ciprofloxacin , colistinmethanesulfonate, and gentamicin; their cell number and ALPwere significantly less than control at drug concentrations200 mg/ ml...taxime sodium sulfate (C7912), ciprofloxacin (17850), colistin methanesulfonate sodium (C1511), doxycycline hyclate (D9891), gentamicin sulfate...doxycycline, nafcillin, penicillin, ciprofloxacin , colistinmethanesulfo- nate, and gentamicin reduced both cell number and ALP (Fig. 1). For antibiotics

  19. Relationship between plasma oxipurinol concentrations and xanthine oxidase activity in volunteers dosed with allopurinol.

    PubMed Central

    Day, R O; Miners, J; Birkett, D J; Graham, G G; Whitehead, A

    1988-01-01

    1. 1-methyl xanthine (1-MX) is metabolized exclusively to 1-methyl uric acid (1-MU) by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. 2. The ratio of 1-MU to 1-MX in the urine, following a dose of 50 mg of 1-MX infused intravenously over 20 min, was used to measure the inhibition of xanthine oxidase induced by different doses of allopurinol. 3. Normal volunteers (n = 8) were given allopurinol 50, 100, 300 and 600 mg daily for 1 week each, in random order and 1 week separated each treatment. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase was assessed twice, on the last 2 days of each treatment week. 4. Steady-state oxipurinol concentrations increased linearly with increasing dose of allopurinol. 5. There was a hyperbolic relationship between the 1-MU/1-MX ratio and plasma oxipurinol concentrations, with an initial steep decline in the ratio which plateaued when plasma oxipurinol was around 4-6 mg l-1. This reduction in the ratio was quickly reversible upon cessation of allopurinol. 6. The 50% and 90% effective inhibitory oxipurinol concentrations, in relation to the 1-MU-/1-MX ratio were 1.4 +/- 0.46 and 4.08 +/- 2.03 mg l-1 respectively. 7. The concentration of oxipurinol required for almost complete inhibition of the enzyme was substantially less than those often observed in clinical practice. PMID:3190993

  20. Tritium activity concentrations and residence times of groundwater collected in Rokkasho, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2015-11-01

    Tritium ((3)H) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from four surface wells (4-10 m deep), four shallow wells (24-26.5 m deep) and a 150-m-deep well in the Futamata River catchment area, which is adjacent to the large-scale commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho, Japan. The (3)H concentrations in most of the surface- and shallow-well samples (<0.03-0.57 Bq l(-1)) were similar to those in precipitation (annual mean: 0.31-0.79 Bq l(-1)), suggesting that the residence time of the water in those wells was 0-15 y. The (3)H concentrations in the samples from a 26-m-deep well and the 150-m-deep well were lower than those in the other wells, indicating that groundwater with a long residence time exists in deep aquifers and the estuary area of the catchment. It is not clear whether (3)H released during test operation of the plant with actual spent nuclear fuel affected the (3)H concentrations observed in this study.