Science.gov

Sample records for activity concentrations ranged

  1. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1984-01-01

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  2. A new and simple method for delivering clamped nitric oxide concentrations in the physiological range: application to activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled nitric oxide receptors.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Charmaine; Wykes, Victoria; Bellamy, Tomas C; Garthwaite, John

    2003-12-01

    The signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO) could engage multiple pathways to influence cellular function. Unraveling their relative biological importance has been difficult because it has not been possible to administer NO under the steady-state conditions that are normally axiomatic for analyzing ligand-receptor interactions and downstream signal transduction. To address this problem, we devised a chemical method for generating constant NO concentrations, derived from balancing NO release from a NONOate donor with NO consumption by a sink. On theoretical grounds, 2-4-carboxyphenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (CPTIO) was selected as the sink. The mixture additionally contained urate to convert an unwanted product of the reaction (NO2) into nitrite ions. The method enabled NO concentrations covering the physiological range (0-100 nM) to be formed within approximately 1 s. Moreover, the concentrations were sufficiently stable over at least several minutes to be useful for biological purposes. When applied to the activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled NO receptors, the method gave an EC50 of 1.7 nM NO for the protein purified from bovine lung, which is lower than estimated previously using a biological NO sink (red blood cells). The corresponding values for the alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 isoforms were 0.9 nM and 0.5 nM, respectively. The slopes of the concentration-response curves were more shallow than before (Hill coefficient of 1 rather than 2), questioning the need to consider the binding of more than one NO molecule for receptor activation. The discrepancies are ascribable to limitations of the earlier method. Other biological problems can readily be addressed by adaptations of the new method.

  3. Plasma membrane of Beta vulgaris storage root shows high water channel activity regulated by cytoplasmic pH and a dual range of calcium concentrations.

    PubMed

    Alleva, Karina; Niemietz, Christa M; Sutka, Moira; Maurel, Christophe; Parisi, Mario; Tyerman, Stephen D; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2006-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles isolated by two-phase partitioning from the storage root of Beta vulgaris show atypically high water permeability that is equivalent only to those reported for active aquaporins in tonoplast or animal red cells (Pf=542 microm s(-1)). The values were determined from the shrinking kinetics measured by stopped-flow light scattering. This high Pf was only partially inhibited by mercury (HgCl2) but showed low activation energy (Ea) consistent with water permeation through water channels. To study short-term regulation of water transport that could be the result of channel gating, the effects of pH, divalent cations, and protection against dephosphorylation were tested. The high Pf observed at pH 8.3 was dramatically reduced by medium acidification. Moreover, intra-vesicular acidification (corresponding to the cytoplasmic face of the membrane) shut down the aquaporins. De-phosphorylation was discounted as a regulatory mechanism in this preparation. On the other hand, among divalent cations, only calcium showed a clear effect on aquaporin activity, with two distinct ranges of sensitivity to free Ca2+ concentration (pCa 8 and pCa 4). Since the normal cytoplasmic free Ca2+ sits between these ranges it allows for the possibility of changes in Ca2+ to finely up- or down-regulate water channel activity. The calcium effect is predominantly on the cytoplasmic face, and inhibition corresponds to an increase in the activation energy for water transport. In conclusion, these findings establish both cytoplasmic pH and Ca2+ as important regulatory factors involved in aquaporin gating.

  4. Wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1981-11-16

    A wide-range radioactive-gas-concentration detector and monitor capable of measuring radioactive-gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude is described. The device is designed to have an ionization chamber sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel-plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel-plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization-chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  5. Range indices of geomagnetic activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart, W.F.; Green, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    The simplest index of geomagnetic activity is the range in nT from maximum to minimum value of the field in a given time interval. The hourly range R was recommended by IAGA for use at observatories at latitudes greater than 65??, but was superceded by AE. The most used geomagnetic index K is based on the range of activity in a 3 h interval corrected for the regular daily variation. In order to take advantage of real time data processing, now available at many observatories, it is proposed to introduce a 1 h range index and also a 3 h range index. Both will be computed hourly, i.e. each will have a series of 24 per day, the 3 h values overlapping. The new data will be available as the range (R) of activity in nT and also as a logarithmic index (I) of the range. The exponent relating index to range in nT is based closely on the scale used for computing K values. The new ranges and range indices are available, from June 1987, to users in real time and can be accessed by telephone connection or computer network. Their first year of production is regarded as a trial period during which their value to the scientific and commercial communities will be assessed, together with their potential as indicators of regional and global disturbances' and in which trials will be conducted into ways of eliminating excessive bias at quiet times due to the rate of change of the daily variation field. ?? 1988.

  6. Effect of supplementing different concentrations of organic trace minerals on performance, antioxidant activity, and bone mineralization in Vanaraja chickens developed for free range farming.

    PubMed

    Rao, Savaram Venkata Rama; Prakash, Bhukya; Kumari, Kanya; Raju, Mantena Venkata Laxmi Narasimha; Panda, Arun Kumar

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the performance, antioxidation activity, and bone mineral content in Vanaraja chickens fed diet supplemented with organic trace minerals (oTM) at reduced levels. A total of 360 day-old chicks were selected and distributed randomly into 60 battery brooder pens. A maize-soybean meal-based control diet was supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (iTM), i.e., Mn, Zn, Fe, and Cu at 50, 45, 40, and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively, and varying concentration of oTM, i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, I, Se, and Cr at 45, 50, 7.5, 40, 2, 0.30, and 0.25 mg/kg (diet II); 33.75, 37.50, 5.63, 30.0, 1.50, 0.23, and 0.19 mg/kg (diet III); 22.5, 25.0, 3.75, 20.0, 1.0, 0.15, and 0.13 mg/kg (diet IV); 18.0, 20.0, 3.0, 16.0, 0.80, 0.12, and 0.10 mg/kg (diet V); and 13.5, 15.0, 2.25, 12.0, 0.60, 0.09, and 0.08 mg/kg (diet VI), respectively. Each diet was allotted randomly to ten replicates and fed ad libitum from 1 to 42 days of age. The body weight at 14, 28, and 42 days was not affected by reducing the supplementation of oTM concentration in the diets. Similarly, feed intake at 14 days of age was not affected but reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the group fed diet IV (50% oTM) compared to that in the other groups. The higher feed conversion ratio and increased concentration of Ca, P, and trace minerals in tibia were evident in the group fed oTM-supplemented diets compared to the diet containing iTM. Activities of glutathione peroxidase and ferric reducing ability in plasma did not differ in the groups fed on lower concentration of oTM compared to those fed on diet I (control diet). Therefore, it is concluded that the dietary supplementation of trace minerals can be reduced greatly when supplemented as organic form without affecting growth and antioxidant status in Vanaraja chickens.

  7. Estimation of the Arctic aerosols from local and long-range transport using relationships between ²¹⁰Pb and ²¹²Pb atmospheric activity concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Chen, Jing; Ungar, Kurt; Cooke, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In this study, the aerosol activity concentrations of (210)Pb at 28 Canadian radiological monitoring stations from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. The results show that the ratio of (210)Pb winter average concentration to summer average concentration increases with increasing latitude. This could be used to evaluate the transport of pollutants to the Arctic region such as the Arctic haze from Eurasia through long-range atmospheric transport during winter. Based on 12 years of monitoring results from the Yellowknife station that includes both (210)Pb and (212)Pb concentrations, the study confirms that the seasonal distribution of (210)Pb to (212)Pb activity concentration ratios has a significant peak in winter and a relatively low value in summer, which can be used as an indicator of the air mass flow to the Arctic. The period dominated by long-range aerosol transport and Arctic haze was estimated by fitting a Gaussian distribution function to the peak values of this ratio in winter. A peak width parameter of full width at half maximum (FWHM) allows a year by year estimate of the period of influence by long-range transport of aerosols, and this varied between 67 and 88 days in this study. The fitted Gaussian peak also shows that the season of the continental influenced air mass in Yellowknife usually starts in mid-to-late November and ends in mid-to-late April. Thus, the (210)Pb to (212)Pb ratio distributions may enable the determination of periods dominated by long-range aerosol transport and the scale of the Arctic haze at different latitudes.

  8. Development of a wide-range tritium-concentration detector

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, F.; Zhe, L.; Shicheng, L.; Jiangfeng, S.; Deli, L.

    2015-03-15

    According to the requirements of the tritium related systems of the TBM (Test Blanket Module) for monitoring the on-line tritium concentration, a wide-range tritium-concentration detector has been developed to measure the tritium concentration in the range of 10{sup 4} Bq/ml - 5*10{sup 8} Bq/ml. This detector is combined with a low-memory helium ionization chamber. The weak current signal collected in the ionization chamber is converted to the voltage signal by an I-V converter. The minimum weak current which the detector could be measured is 10{sup -14} A. The performance of the background current and the current response linearity of the prototype have been tested. The test result indicates that the linear response of the current signal of the prototype without connecting the ionization chamber is good. The linear correlation coefficient is R{sup 2} = 0.998.

  9. Range-resolved gas concentration measurements using tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytkine, A.; Lau, B.; Lim, A.; Jäger, W.; Tulip, J.

    2008-02-01

    A method for range-resolved gas sensing using path-integrated optical systems is presented. The method involves dividing an absorption path into several measurement segments and extracting the gas concentration in each segment from two path-integrated measurements. We implemented the method with tunable lasers (a 1389-nm VCSEL and a 10.9-μm pulsed quantum cascade laser) and a group of retro reflectors (RRs) distributed along absorption paths. Using a rotating mirror with the VCSEL configuration, we could scan a group of seven tape RRs spaced by 10 cm in ˜ 9 ms to extract an H2O concentration profile. Reduced H2O concentrations were recorded in the segments purged with dry air. Hollow corner cube RRs were used in the quantum cascade laser configuration at distances up to 1.1 km from the laser. Two RRs placed at 66 m and 125 m from the laser allowed us to determine H2O concentrations in both segments. The RRs returns were separated due to the different round trip travel time of the 200-ns laser pulse. Novel instruments for range-resolved remote sensing in the atmosphere can be developed for a variety of applications, including monitoring the fluxes of atmospheric pollutants and controlling air quality in populated areas.

  10. Continuous concentric lamellar block copolymer nanofibers with long range order.

    PubMed

    Ma, Minglin; Titievsky, Kirill; Thomas, Edwin L; Rutledge, Gregory C

    2009-04-01

    Fibers with long-range ordered internal structures have applications in various areas such as photonic band gap fibers, optical waveguides, wearable power, sensors, and sustained drug release. Up to now, such fibers have been formed by melt extrusion or drawing from a macroscopic preformed rod and were typically limited to diameters >10 microm with internal features >1 microm (Abouraddy, A. F.; et al. Nat. Mater. 2007, 6, 336). We describe a new class of continuous fibers and fibrous membranes with long-range ordered concentric lamellar structure that have fiber diameters and feature sizes 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than those made by conventional methods. These fibers are created through confined self-assembly of block copolymers within core-shell electrospun filaments. In contrast to the copolymer in bulk or thin films, the domains of the concentric lamellar structure are shown here to vary quantitatively with (radial) position and to exhibit a novel dislocation that accommodates variations in fiber diameter robustly, permitting for the first time the realization of long-range order in technologically meaningful, continuous fibers with approximately 300 nm diameter and 50 nm radial period.

  11. Short-range interactions of concentrated proline in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Busch, Sebastian; Lorenz, Christian D; Taylor, Jonathan; Pardo, Luis Carlos; McLain, Sylvia E

    2014-12-11

    Molecular interactions for proline in a highly concentrated aqueous solution (up to 1:5 proline:water molecular ratio) have been investigated using a variety of experimental and computational techniques. Rather than the solution containing either small crystallites or large aggregates of proline, three-dimensional structural analysis reveals the presence of proline-proline dimers. These dimers appear to be formed by cyclic electrostatic interactions between CO2(-) and NH2(+) groups on neighboring proline molecules, which causes the ring motifs of proline to be roughly parallel to one another. In addition, water appears to aggregate around the electrostatic groups of the proline-proline dimers where it may in fact bridge these groups on different molecules. The observed short-range interactions for proline in solution may explain its function as a hydrotrope in vivo in which this observed dimerization might allow proline molecules to generate small pockets of a hydrophobic environment that can associate with nonpolar motifs of other molecules in solution. The results presented here emphasize the need for careful three-dimensional analysis to assess the short-range order of highly concentrated solutions.

  12. Active Dendrites Enhance Neuronal Dynamic Range

    PubMed Central

    Gollo, Leonardo L.; Kinouchi, Osame; Copelli, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Since the first experimental evidences of active conductances in dendrites, most neurons have been shown to exhibit dendritic excitability through the expression of a variety of voltage-gated ion channels. However, despite experimental and theoretical efforts undertaken in the past decades, the role of this excitability for some kind of dendritic computation has remained elusive. Here we show that, owing to very general properties of excitable media, the average output of a model of an active dendritic tree is a highly non-linear function of its afferent rate, attaining extremely large dynamic ranges (above 50 dB). Moreover, the model yields double-sigmoid response functions as experimentally observed in retinal ganglion cells. We claim that enhancement of dynamic range is the primary functional role of active dendritic conductances. We predict that neurons with larger dendritic trees should have larger dynamic range and that blocking of active conductances should lead to a decrease in dynamic range. PMID:19521531

  13. Thyroid hormone concentrations in captive and free-ranging West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus).

    PubMed

    Ortiz, R M; MacKenzie, D S; Worthy, G A

    2000-12-01

    Because thyroid hormones play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, the low metabolic rates reported for manatees suggest that thyroid hormone concentrations in these animals may also be reduced. However, thyroid hormone concentrations have yet to be examined in manatees. The effects of captivity, diet and water salinity on plasma total triiodothyronine (tT(3)), total thyroxine (tT(4)) and free thyroxine (fT(4)) concentrations were assessed in adult West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus). Free-ranging manatees exhibited significantly greater tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations than captive adults, regardless of diet, indicating that some aspect of a captive existence results in reduced T(4) concentrations. To determine whether this reduction might be related to feeding, captive adults fed on a mixed vegetable diet were switched to a strictly sea grass diet, resulting in decreased food consumption and a decrease in body mass. However, tT(4) and fT(4) concentrations were significantly elevated over initial values for 19 days. This may indicate that during periods of reduced food consumption manatees activate thyroid-hormone-promoted lipolysis to meet water and energetic requirements. Alterations in water salinity for captive animals did not induce significant changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. In spite of lower metabolic rates, thyroid hormone concentrations in captive manatees were comparable with those for other terrestrial and marine mammals, suggesting that the low metabolic rate in manatees is not attributable to reduced circulating thyroid hormone concentrations.

  14. Long-range dismount activity classification: LODAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garagic, Denis; Peskoe, Jacob; Liu, Fang; Cuevas, Manuel; Freeman, Andrew M.; Rhodes, Bradley J.

    2014-06-01

    Continuous classification of dismount types (including gender, age, ethnicity) and their activities (such as walking, running) evolving over space and time is challenging. Limited sensor resolution (often exacerbated as a function of platform standoff distance) and clutter from shadows in dense target environments, unfavorable environmental conditions, and the normal properties of real data all contribute to the challenge. The unique and innovative aspect of our approach is a synthesis of multimodal signal processing with incremental non-parametric, hierarchical Bayesian machine learning methods to create a new kind of target classification architecture. This architecture is designed from the ground up to optimally exploit correlations among the multiple sensing modalities (multimodal data fusion) and rapidly and continuously learns (online self-tuning) patterns of distinct classes of dismounts given little a priori information. This increases classification performance in the presence of challenges posed by anti-access/area denial (A2/AD) sensing. To fuse multimodal features, Long-range Dismount Activity Classification (LODAC) develops a novel statistical information theoretic approach for multimodal data fusion that jointly models multimodal data (i.e., a probabilistic model for cross-modal signal generation) and discovers the critical cross-modal correlations by identifying components (features) with maximal mutual information (MI) which is efficiently estimated using non-parametric entropy models. LODAC develops a generic probabilistic pattern learning and classification framework based on a new class of hierarchical Bayesian learning algorithms for efficiently discovering recurring patterns (classes of dismounts) in multiple simultaneous time series (sensor modalities) at multiple levels of feature granularity.

  15. Trypanosoma rangeli: differential expression of ecto-phosphatase activities in response to inorganic phosphate starvation.

    PubMed

    Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos-Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Rocha-Ferreira, Juliana; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we showed that living cells of Trypanosoma rangeli express different ecto-phosphatase activities in response to different inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in the culture medium. The ecto-phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at low-Pi concentration was inhibited by the increase of the pH, while the ecto-phosphatase of the cells grown at high Pi concentration was not modulated by the change of the pH of the medium. Okadaic acid inhibited only the ecto-phosphatase activity from cells grown at low-Pi concentration but not the ecto-phosphatase activity from cells grown at high-Pi concentration. Accordingly, phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at low Pi concentration was able to hydrolyze P-serine and P-threonine at high rate but not P-tyrosine. The phosphatase activity from T. rangeli grown at high-Pi concentration was able to hydrolyze P-serine, P-threonine and P-tyrosine with the same rate. The addition of anterior midgut homogenate of Rhodnius prolixus on the epimastigotes suspension inhibited the enzyme activity of T. rangeli grown at low-Pi concentration. On the other hand, anterior midgut homogenate had no effect in the ecto-phosphatase of T. rangeli maintained at high-Pi concentration. Altogether, the results described here indicate that ecto-phosphatase activities hydrolyzing phosphorylated compounds present in the extracellular medium of T. rangeli are regulated by the external Pi concentration.

  16. EPA Region 6 Laboratory Method Specific Analytical Capabilities with Sample Concentration Range

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 6 Environmental Services Branch (ESB) Laboratory is capable of analyzing a wide range of samples with concentrations ranging for low part-per trillion (ppt) to low percent () levels, depending on the sample matrix.

  17. Lunar Meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 and the Iron Concentration of the Lunar Highlands Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Rockow, Kaylynn M.

    1996-01-01

    Lunar meteorite Queen Alexandra Range 93069 is a clast-rich, glassy-matrix regolith breccia of ferroan, highly aluminous bulk composition. It is similar in composition to other feldspathic lunar meteorites but differs in having higher concentrations of siderophile elements and incompatible trace elements. Based on electron microprobe analyses of the fusion crust, glassy matrix, and clasts, and instrumental neutron activation analysis of breccia fragments, QUE 93069 is dominated by nonmare components of ferroan, noritic- anorthosite bulk composition. Thin section QUE 93069,31 also contains a large, impact-melted, partially devitrified clast of magnesian, anorthositic-norite composition. The enrichment in Fe, Sc, and Cr and lower Mg/Fe ratio of lunar meteorites Yamato 791197 and Yamato 82192/3 compared to other feldspathic lunar meteorites can be attributed to a small proportion (5-10%) of low-Ti mare basalt. It is likely that the non- mare components of Yamato 82192/3 are similar to and occur in similar abundance to those of Yamato 86032, with which it is paired. There is a significant difference between the average FeO concentration of the lunar highlands surface as inferred from the feldspathic lunar meteorites (mean: approx. 5.0%; range: 4.3-6.1 %) and a recent estimate based on data from the Clementine mission (3.6%).

  18. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  19. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOEpatents

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  20. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-28

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ∼52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level.

  1. 45 CFR 1614.3 - Range of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Range of activities. 1614.3 Section 1614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PRIVATE ATTORNEY INVOLVEMENT § 1614.3 Range of activities. (a) Activities undertaken by the recipient to meet the...

  2. 45 CFR 1614.3 - Range of activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Range of activities. 1614.3 Section 1614.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION PRIVATE ATTORNEY INVOLVEMENT § 1614.3 Range of activities. (a) Activities undertaken by the recipient to meet the...

  3. Concentration and temperature effects on ovostatin activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moriarity, Debra M.

    1994-01-01

    Light scattering experiments performed at Mississippi State University using MSFC ovostatin preparations indicated that at low ovostatin concentrations, below 0.2 mg/ml, the protein was dissociating from a tetramer into dimers. Since the proposed mechanism of action involved the tetrameric form of the protein, we hypothesized that perhaps under the conditions of our assays at various O/T ratios the ovostatin was becoming dissociated into an inactive dimer. To examine this possibility we assayed the ovostatin activity as a function of ovostatin concentration and of temperature of the assay. Data are presented that show the results of these assays at 23 C, 30 C, 37 C and 42 C respectively. The data are highly suggestive that there is a decrease in ovostatin activity as the concentration of the protein falls below 0.06 mg/ml. This may not be of any physiological importance, however, since the concentration of ovostatin in the egg is about 0.5 mg/ml. Curiously, the dissociation of the tetramer into dimers does not show a significant temperature dependence as would be expected for an equilibrium reaction. Whether this is in fact the case, or whether the differences are so small as to not be discerned from the current data remains to be seen. Another aspect to consider is that in the egg the primary role of the ovostatin may or may not be as a protease inhibitor. Although the inhibition of collagenase by ovostatin may be an important aspect of embryogenesis, it is also possible that it functions as a binding protein for some substance. In this regard, all ovostatin preparations from MSFC have shown an approximately 88,000 MW protein associated with the ovostatin. The identity of this protein is not currently known and may be the subject of future studies.

  4. Plutonium solution in concentration range from 8 to 17 G/liter

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, R.E.

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for a fundamental criticality study of low concentrations of plutonium solutions. Examples of the occurrence of such solutions, which are characteristic of waste, are cited. Due to the prevalence of decontaminating and decommissioning activities, low concentration solutions are expected to become an important concern. Technical deficiencies in previous calculations are also discussed as a reason for performing low concentration criticality studies. 3 refs.

  5. Wide Range Concentration Control of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Generated Ozone for Soil Sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Takayama, Masahiro; Strycewska, Henryka Danuta; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Gyoutoku, Yutaka; Tachibana, Masahiro

    We have developed ozone (O3) generation system suitable to soil sterilization. Wide range concentration control of O3 is required for the sterilization treatment depending on the soil property and plant growth. The dielectric barrier discharges using electrode such as Pyramid type is studied. Surface discharges are also applied to generate high concentration for quick sterilization of the agricultural soil. The treated soil properties under ozone sterilization were evaluated using pH and electrical conductivity. It is shown that ozone distribution in the soil is controlled mostly by the conditions such as concentration and flow rate as well as soil conditions of moisture and compositions.

  6. Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat Ron Alford RONALD.ALFORD.CTR@NRL.NAVY.MIL ASEE Postdoctoral Fellow; Naval Research...planning and recognition, as well as its im- plementation in a beyond visual range air combat simulator. We found that it yields better behavior recognition...SUBTITLE Active Behavior Recognition in Beyond Visual Range Air Combat 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  7. Active Laser Ranging Along with Lasercom: Field Emulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.; Birnbaum, K.; Hemmati, H.

    2011-01-01

    In summary, this work has: (1) Demonstrated the real-time active laser ranging using a method applicable to interplanetary distances (2) Sub-millimeter ranging accuracy has been achieved with the systems built from off-the-shelf commercial components, demonstrating the robustness of the scheme (3) The experimental results indicate that active laser ranging can be implemented for interplanetary distances to meet the goal of 1mm ranging accuracy, including the effects of the Earth's atmosphere (4) Paves the way for advances in the study of fundamental physics and solar system dynamics.

  8. Structure and ionic conductivity of block copolymer electrolytes over a wide salt concentration range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintapalli, Mahati; Le, Thao; Venkatesan, Naveen; Thelen, Jacob; Rojas, Adriana; Balsara, Nitash

    Block copolymer electrolytes are promising materials for safe, long-lasting lithium batteries because of their favorable mechanical and ion transport properties. The morphology, phase behavior, and ionic conductivity of a block copolymer electrolyte, SEO mixed with LiTFSI was studied over a wide, previously unexplored salt concentration range using small angle X-ray scattering, differential scanning calorimetry and ac impedance spectroscopy, respectively. SEO exhibits a maximum in ionic conductivity at twice the salt concentration that PEO, the homopolymer analog of the ion-containing block, does. This finding is contrary to prior studies that examined a more limited range of salt concentrations. In SEO, the phase behavior of the PEO block and LiTFSI closely resembles the phase behavior of homopolymer PEO and LiTFSI. The grain size of the block copolymer morphology was found to decrease with increasing salt concentration, and the ionic conductivity of SEO correlates with decreasing grain size. Structural effects impact the ionic conductivity-salt concentration relationship in block copolymer electrolytes. SEO: polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide); also PS-PEO LiTFSI: lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl imide

  9. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  10. Global mercury and selenium concentrations in skin from free-ranging sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Savery, Laura C; Evers, David C; Wise, Sandra S; Falank, Carolyne; Wise, James; Gianios, Christy; Kerr, Iain; Payne, Roger; Thompson, W Douglas; Perkins, Christopher; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Cairong; Benedict, Lucille; Wise, John Pierce

    2013-04-15

    Pollution of the ocean by mercury (Hg) is a global concern. Hg persists, bioaccumulates and is toxic putting high trophic consumers at risk. The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus), is a sentinel of ocean health due to its wide distribution, longevity and high trophic level. Our aim was to survey Hg concentrations worldwide in the skin of free-ranging sperm whales considering region, gender and age. Samples were collected from 343 whales in 17 regions during the voyage of the research vessel, Odyssey, between 1999 and 2005. Skin was analyzed for total Hg and detected in all but three samples with a global mean of 2.5±0.1 μg g(-1) ranging from 0.1 to 16.0 μg g(-1). The Mediterranean Sea had the highest regional mean with 6.1 μg g(-1) followed by Australia with 3.5 μg g(-1). Considering gender, females and males did not have significantly different global Hg concentrations. The variation among regions for females was significantly different with highest levels in the Mediterranean and lowest in Sri Lanka; however, males were not significantly different among regions. Considering age in males, adults and subadults did not have significantly different Hg concentrations, and were not significantly different among regions. The toxic effects of these Hg concentrations are uncertain. Selenium (Se), an essential element, antagonizes Hg at equimolar amounts. We measured total Se concentrations and found detectable levels in all samples with a global mean of 33.1±1.1 μg g(-1) ranging from 2.5 to 179 μg g(-1). Se concentrations were found to be several fold higher than Hg concentrations with the average Se:Hg molar ratio being 59:1 and no correlation between the two elements. It is possible Hg is being detoxified in the skin by another mechanism. These data provide the first global analysis of Hg and Se concentrations in a free-ranging cetacean.

  11. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-01

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  12. Fast range estimation based on active range-gated imaging for coastal surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Qingshan; Cao, Yinan; Wang, Xinwei; Tong, Youwan; Zhou, Yan; Liu, Yuliang

    2012-11-01

    Coastal surveillance is very important because it is useful for search and rescue, illegal immigration, or harbor security and so on. Furthermore, range estimation is critical for precisely detecting the target. Range-gated laser imaging sensor is suitable for high accuracy range especially in night and no moonlight. Generally, before detecting the target, it is necessary to change delay time till the target is captured. There are two operating mode for range-gated imaging sensor, one is passive imaging mode, and the other is gate viewing mode. Firstly, the sensor is passive mode, only capturing scenes by ICCD, once the object appears in the range of monitoring area, we can obtain the course range of the target according to the imaging geometry/projecting transform. Then, the sensor is gate viewing mode, applying micro second laser pulses and sensor gate width, we can get the range of targets by at least two continuous images with trapezoid-shaped range intensity profile. This technique enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. Based on the first step, we can calculate the rough value and quickly fix delay time which the target is detected. This technique has overcome the depth resolution limitation for 3D active imaging and enables super-resolution depth mapping with a reduction of imaging data processing. By the two steps, we can quickly obtain the distance between the object and sensor.

  13. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  14. Blood lead concentrations in free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from South Africa.

    PubMed

    Warner, Jonathan K; Combrink, Xander; Myburgh, Jan G; Downs, Colleen T

    2016-07-01

    Generally crocodilians have received little attention with regard to the effects of lead toxicity despite their trophic status as apex, generalist predators that utilize both aquatic and terrestrial habitats, thereby exposing them to a potentially wide range of environmental contaminants. During July-October 2010 we collected whole blood from 34 sub-adult and adult free-ranging Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) from three separate populations in northeastern South Africa in order to analyze their blood lead concentrations (BPb). Concentrations ranged from below detectability (<3 μg/dL, n = 8) to 960 μg/dL for an adult male at the Lake St Lucia Estuary. Blood lead concentrations averaged 8.15 μg/dL (SD = 7.47) for females and 98.10 μg/dL (SD = 217.42) for males. Eighteen individuals (53 %) had elevated BPbs (≥10 μg/dL). We assessed 12 general linear models using Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) and found no significant statistical effects among the parameters of sex, crocodile size and population sampled. On average, crocodiles had higher BPbs at Lake St Lucia than at Ndumo Game Reserve or Kosi Bay, which we attribute to lead sinker ingestion during normal gastrolith acquisition. No clinical effects of lead toxicosis were observed in these crocodiles, even though the highest concentration (960 μg/dL) we report represents the most elevated BPb recorded to date for a free-ranging vertebrate. Although we suggest adult Nile crocodiles are likely tolerant of elevated Pb body burdens, experimental studies on other crocodilian species suggest the BPb levels reported here may have harmful or fatal effects to egg development and hatchling health. In light of recent Nile crocodile nesting declines in South Africa we urge further BPb monitoring and ecotoxicology research on reproductive females and embryos.

  15. Global assessment of cadmium concentrations in the skin of free-ranging sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Savery, Laura C; Chen, Tânia Li; Wise, James T F; Wise, Sandra S; Gianios, Christy; Buonagurio, John; Perkins, Christopher; Falank, Carolyne; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhu, Cairong; Wise, John Pierce

    2015-12-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential, toxic metal found accumulated in the organs of stranded cetaceans. Currently, there is no baseline cadmium concentration reported in a free-ranging, pelagic cetacean. The aim was to determine cadmium concentrations in the skin of free-ranging sperm whales (n=340) collected from 16 regions around the world during the voyage of the Odyssey (2000-2005) considering region, gender, and age in males. Cadmium was detected in 81% of skin biopsies with a mean of 0.3±0.04μg/g ww (0.02 to 12.4μg/g ww). These concentrations were higher than reported in literature in toothed whale skin (0.002-0.1μg/g ww). Concentrations by region were significantly different (p<0.0001) with the highest mean in Maldives and the Sea of Cortez (0.8 and 0.6μg/g ww, respectively). There was no significant difference in cadmium concentration by gender (p=0.42). Cadmium is known to have a long biological half-life, and cadmium concentrations in males were significantly higher in adults with a mean of 0.3μg/g ww compared to subadults with 0.2μg/g ww (p=0.03). Selenium, an element that binds to cadmium inhibiting its toxicity, had a moderately positive correlation with cadmium (r=0.41). Mercury, a toxic metal that positively correlates with cadmium in cetacean tissue, had a weakly positive relationship (r=0.20). The regional baselines reported in this study may be used to develop residue criteria for prediction of toxicological risk in sperm whale skin. Additionally, this study shows the extent of cadmium exposure in a pelagic cetacean that has global distribution.

  16. Automatic Echographic Detection of Halloysite Clay Nanotubes in a Low Concentration Range

    PubMed Central

    Conversano, Francesco; Pisani, Paola; Casciaro, Ernesto; Di Paola, Marco; Leporatti, Stefano; Franchini, Roberto; Quarta, Alessandra; Gigli, Giuseppe; Casciaro, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this work was to investigate the automatic echographic detection of an experimental drug delivery agent, halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs), by employing an innovative method based on advanced spectral analysis of the corresponding “raw” radiofrequency backscatter signals. Different HNT concentrations in a low range (5.5–66 × 1010 part/mL, equivalent to 0.25–3.00 mg/mL) were dispersed in custom-designed tissue-mimicking phantoms and imaged through a clinically-available echographic device at a conventional ultrasound diagnostic frequency (10 MHz). The most effective response (sensitivity = 60%, specificity = 95%), was found at a concentration of 33 × 1010 part/mL (1.5 mg/mL), representing a kind of best compromise between the need of enough particles to introduce detectable spectral modifications in the backscattered signal and the necessity to avoid the losses of spectral peculiarity associated to higher HNT concentrations. Based on theoretical considerations and quantitative comparisons with literature-available results, this concentration could also represent an optimal concentration level for the automatic echographic detection of different solid nanoparticles when employing a similar ultrasound frequency. Future dedicated studies will assess the actual clinical usefulness of the proposed approach and the potential of HNTs for effective theranostic applications. PMID:28335194

  17. Haptoglobin concentrations in free-range and temporarily captive juvenile steller sea lions.

    PubMed

    Thomton, Jamie D; Mellish, Jo-Ann E

    2007-04-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute-phase protein synthesized in the liver that circulates at elevated concentrations in response to tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection, and trauma. As part of a larger study, sera Hp concentrations were measured in temporarily captive (n = 21) and free-range (n = 38) western stock juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) sampled from 2003 to 2006. Baseline Hp concentration at time of capture was 133.3 +/- 17.4 mg/dl. Temporarily captive animals exhibited a 3.2-fold increase in Hp concentrations during the first 4 wk of captivity, followed by a return to entry levels by week 5. Haptoglobin levels were not influenced by age, season, or parasite load. There was a significant positive correlation between Hp concentrations and white blood cell count (P < 0.001) and globulin levels (P < 0.001) and a negative correlation to red blood cell count and hematocrit (P < 0.001 for both). There was no correlation between Hp levels and platelet count (P = 0.095) or hemoglobin (P = 0.457). Routine blubber biopsies collected under gas anesthesia did not produce a measurable Hp response. One animal with a large abscess had an Hp spike of 1,006.0 mg/dl that returned to entry levels after treatment. In conclusion, serum Hp levels correlate to the stable clinical health status observed during captivity, with moderate Hp response during capture and initial acclimation to captivity and acute response to inflammation and infection.

  18. Multi-scale variability and long-range memory in indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Reik V.; Potirakis, Stelios; Barbosa, Susana

    2014-05-01

    The presence or absence of long-range correlations in the variations of indoor Radon concentrations has recently attracted considerable interest. As a radioactive gas naturally emitted from the ground in certain geological settings, understanding environmental factors controlling Radon concentrations and their dynamics is important for estimating its effect on human health and the efficiency of possible measures for reducing the corresponding exposition. In this work, we re-analyze two high-resolution records of indoor Radon concentrations from Coimbra, Portugal, each of which spans several months of continuous measurements. In order to evaluate the presence of long-range correlations and fractal scaling, we utilize a multiplicity of complementary methods, including power spectral analysis, ARFIMA modeling, classical and multi-fractal detrended fluctuation analysis, and two different estimators of the signals' fractal dimensions. Power spectra and fluctuation functions reveal some complex behavior with qualitatively different properties on different time-scales: white noise in the high-frequency part, indications of some long-range correlated process dominating time scales of several hours to days, and pronounced low-frequency variability associated with tidal and/or meteorological forcing. In order to further decompose these different scales of variability, we apply two different approaches. On the one hand, applying multi-resolution analysis based on the discrete wavelet transform allows separately studying contributions on different time scales and characterize their specific correlation and scaling properties. On the other hand, singular system analysis (SSA) provides a reconstruction of the essential modes of variability. Specifically, by considering only the first leading SSA modes, we achieve an efficient de-noising of our environmental signals, highlighting the low-frequency variations together with some distinct scaling on sub-daily time-scales resembling

  19. Molecular diffusion measurement in lipid bilayers over wide concentration ranges: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lin; Har, Jia Yi; Sankaran, Jagadish; Hong, Yimian; Kannan, Balakrishnan; Wohland, Thorsten

    2008-04-04

    Molecular diffusion in biological membranes is a determining factor in cell signaling and cell function. In the past few decades, three main fluorescence spectroscopy techniques have emerged that are capable of measuring molecular diffusion in artificial and biological membranes at very different concentration ranges and spatial resolutions. The widely used methods of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and single-particle tracking (SPT) can determine absolute diffusion coefficients at high (>100 microm(-2)) and very low surface concentrations (single-molecule level), respectively. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), on the other hand, is well-suited for the intermediate concentration range of about 0.1-100 microm(-2). However, FCS in general requires calibration with a standard dye of known diffusion coefficient, and yields only relative measurements with respect to the calibration. A variant of FCS, z-scan FCS, is calibration-free for membrane measurements, but requires several experiments at different well-controlled focusing positions. A recently established FCS method, electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device-based total internal reflection FCS (TIR-FCS), referred to here as imaging TIR-FCS (ITIR-FCS), is also independent of calibration standards, but to our knowledge no direct comparison between these different methods has been made. Herein, we seek to establish a comparison between FRAP, SPT, FCS, and ITIR-FCS by measuring the lateral diffusion coefficients in two model systems, namely, supported lipid bilayers and giant unilamellar vesicles.

  20. Photoactive bile salts with critical micellar concentration in the micromolar range.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Mendoza, Miguel; Marin, M Luisa; Miranda, Miguel A

    2016-05-14

    The aggregation behavior of bile salts is strongly dependent on the number of hydroxyl groups. Thus, cholic acid (CA), with three hydroxyls, starts forming aggregates at 15 mM, while deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic or ursodeoxycholic acids, with two hydroxyls, start aggregating at 5-10 mM; for lithocholic acid, with only one hydroxyl group, aggregation is observed at lower concentration (2-3 mM). Here, the singular self-assembling properties of dansyl and naproxen derivatives of CA (3β-Dns-CA and 3β-NPX-CA, respectively) have been demonstrated on the basis of their photoactive properties. Thus, the emission spectra of 3β-Dns-CA registered at increasing concentrations (25-140 μM) showed a remarkable non-linear enhancement in the emission intensity accompanied by a hypsochromic shift of the maximum and up to a three-fold increase in the singlet lifetime. The inflection point at around 50-70 μM pointed to the formation of unprecedented assemblies at such low concentrations. In the case of 3β-NPX-CA, when the NPX relative triplet lifetime was plotted against concentration, a marked increase (up to two-fold) was observed at 40-70 μM, indicating the formation of new 3β-NPX-CA assemblies at ca. 50 μM. Additional evidence supporting the formation of new 3β-Dns-CA or 3β-NPX-CA assemblies at 40-70 μM was obtained from singlet excited state quenching experiments using iodide. Moreover, to address the potential formation of hybrid assemblies, 1 : 1 mixtures of 3β-Dns-CA and 3β-NPX-CA (2-60 μM, total concentration) were subjected to steady-state fluorescence experiments, and their behavior was compared to that of the pure photoactive derivatives. A lower increase in the emission was observed for 3β-NPX-CA in the mixture, while a huge increase was experienced by 3β-Dns-CA in the same concentration range (up to 60 μM total). A partial intermolecular energy transfer from NPX to Dns, consistent with their reported singlet energies, was revealed, pointing to the

  1. MRI profiles over very wide concentration ranges: Application to swelling of a bentonite clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvinskikh, S. V.; Szutkowski, K.; Furó, I.

    2009-06-01

    In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly mobile water is detected, similarly to that in biological and medical samples. However, the spin relaxation properties of water in these materials and/or low water concentration may make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Despite these limitations, one can combine MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and use independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, to obtain true images of both water and material content. We present procedures for obtaining such true density maps and demonstrate their use for studying the swelling of bentonite clay by water. A constant time imaging protocol provides 1D mapping of the clay distribution in regions with clay concentration above 10 vol%. T1 relaxation time imaging is employed to monitor the clay content down to 10 -3 vol%. Data provided by those two approaches are in good agreement in the overlapping range of concentrations. Covering five orders of magnitude of clay concentration, swelling of sodium-exchanged bentonite clays from pre-compacted pellets into a gel phase is followed in detail.

  2. MRI profiles over very wide concentration ranges: application to swelling of a bentonite clay.

    PubMed

    Dvinskikh, S V; Szutkowski, K; Furó, I

    2009-06-01

    In MRI investigation of soils, clays, and rocks, mainly mobile water is detected, similarly to that in biological and medical samples. However, the spin relaxation properties of water in these materials and/or low water concentration may make it difficult to use standard MRI approaches. Despite these limitations, one can combine MRI techniques developed for solid and liquid states and use independent information on relaxation properties of water, interacting with the material of interest, to obtain true images of both water and material content. We present procedures for obtaining such true density maps and demonstrate their use for studying the swelling of bentonite clay by water. A constant time imaging protocol provides 1D mapping of the clay distribution in regions with clay concentration above 10 vol%. T(1) relaxation time imaging is employed to monitor the clay content down to 10(-3) vol%. Data provided by those two approaches are in good agreement in the overlapping range of concentrations. Covering five orders of magnitude of clay concentration, swelling of sodium-exchanged bentonite clays from pre-compacted pellets into a gel phase is followed in detail.

  3. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  4. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  5. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  6. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  7. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers.

  8. Tumor-Specific D-Dimer Concentration Ranges and Influencing Factors: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Dansheng; Yuan, Feng; Pei, Feng; Zhang, Huifeng; Yu, Anming; Wang, Kun; Chen, Hu; Chen, Liang; Wu, Xianglei; Tong, Xianli; Wang, Yefu

    2016-01-01

    D-dimer level in cancer patients is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis. Most cancer patients have “abnormal” D-dimer levels based on the current normal reference range. To investigate tumor-specific D-dimer reference range, we compared D-dimer levels for nine different tumour types with healthy controls by using simultaneous quantile regression and constructing a median, 5th percentile, and 95th percentile model of normal tumour D-dimer concentration. Associations with tumour primary site, stage, pathological type, and treatment were also explored. Additionally, 190 patients were tracked to reveal the relevance of initial D-dimer levels to cancer prognosis. D-dimer ranges (median, 5th, 95th) in various cancers (mg/L) were: liver 1.12, 0.27, 5.25; pancreatic 0.96, 0.23, 4.81; breast 0.44, 0.2, 2.17; gastric 0.65, 0.22, 5.03; colorectal 0.73, 0.22, 4.45; lung 0.7, 0.25, 4.0; gynaecological 0.61, 0.22, 3.98; oesophageal 0.23, 0.7, 3.45; and head and neck 0.22, 0.44, 2.19. All were significantly higher than that of healthy controls (0.18, 0.07, 0.57). D-dimer peaked 1–2 days postoperatively but had decreased to the normal range by 1 week. Additionally, cancer patients with high initial D-dimer were shown a tendency of poor prognosis in survival rate. In conclusion, D-dimer levels in cancer depend on patient age, tumour primary site, and tumour stage. Thrombosis prevention is necessary if D-dimer has not decreased to the tumor-specific baseline a week after surgery. PMID:27835633

  9. Correction for solute/solvent interaction extends accurate freezing point depression theory to high concentration range.

    PubMed

    Fullerton, G D; Keener, C R; Cameron, I L

    1994-12-01

    The authors describe empirical corrections to ideally dilute expressions for freezing point depression of aqueous solutions to arrive at new expressions accurate up to three molal concentration. The method assumes non-ideality is due primarily to solute/solvent interactions such that the correct free water mass Mwc is the mass of water in solution Mw minus I.M(s) where M(s) is the mass of solute and I an empirical solute/solvent interaction coefficient. The interaction coefficient is easily derived from the constant in the linear regression fit to the experimental plot of Mw/M(s) as a function of 1/delta T (inverse freezing point depression). The I-value, when substituted into the new thermodynamic expressions derived from the assumption of equivalent activity of water in solution and ice, provides accurate predictions of freezing point depression (+/- 0.05 degrees C) up to 2.5 molal concentration for all the test molecules evaluated; glucose, sucrose, glycerol and ethylene glycol. The concentration limit is the approximate monolayer water coverage limit for the solutes which suggests that direct solute/solute interactions are negligible below this limit. This is contrary to the view of many authors due to the common practice of including hydration forces (a soft potential added to the hard core atomic potential) in the interaction potential between solute particles. When this is recognized the two viewpoints are in fundamental agreement.

  10. High-speed compressive range imaging based on active illumination.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yangyang; Yuan, Xin; Pang, Shuo

    2016-10-03

    We report a compressive imaging method based on active illumination, which reconstructs a 3D scene at a frame rate beyond the acquisition speed limit of the camera. We have built an imaging prototype that projects temporally varying illumination pattern and demonstrated a joint reconstruction algorithm that iteratively retrieves both the range and high-temporal-frequency information from the 2D low-frame rate measurement. The reflectance and depth-map videos have been reconstructed at 1000 frames per second (fps) from the measurement captured at 200 fps. The range resolution is in agreement with the resolution calculated from the triangulation methods based on the same system geometry. We expect such an imaging method could become a simple solution to a wide range of applications, including industrial metrology, 3D printing, and vehicle navigations.

  11. Detectability of active triangulation range finder: a solar irradiance approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng

    2016-06-27

    Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate.

  12. Northeast Basin and Range province active tectonics: An alternative view

    SciTech Connect

    Westaway, R. )

    1989-09-01

    Slip rates and slip vector azimuths on major active oblique normal faults are used to investigate whether circulation associated with the Yellowstone upwelling plume is driving tectonic deformation in the northeast Basin and Range province. Observed deformation is consistent with this suggestion; the plume is sheared to the southwest by motion of the North American plate. Testable predictions are made for structure and evolution of the region.

  13. Long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Rongguo; Yan, Guozheng; Zhang, Wenqiang; Wang, Long

    2008-11-01

    The long-range scaling behaviours of human colonic pressure activities under normal physiological conditions are studied by using the method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). The DFA is an effective period representation with a single quantitative scaling exponent α to accurately quantify long-range correlations naturally presented in a complex non-stationary time series. The method shows that the colonic activities of the healthy subjects exhibit long-range power-law correlations; however such correlations either will be destroyed if we randomly shuffle the original data or will cease to be of a power-law form if we chop some high-amplitude spikes off. These facts indicate that the colonic tissue or enteric nervous system (ENS) with a good functional motility has a good memory to its past behaviours and generates well-organized colonic spikes; however such good memory becomes too long to be remembered for the colonic activity of the slow transit constipation (STC) patient and colonic dysmotility occurs.

  14. Paper-based microfluidic biofuel cell operating under glucose concentrations within physiological range.

    PubMed

    González-Guerrero, Maria José; Del Campo, F Javier; Esquivel, Juan Pablo; Leech, Dónal; Sabaté, Neus

    2017-04-15

    This work addresses the development of a compact paper-based enzymatic microfluidic glucose/O2 fuel cell that can operate using a very limited sample volume (≈35µl) and explores the energy generated by glucose at concentrations typically found in blood samples at physiological conditions (pH 7.4). Carbon paper electrodes combined with a paper sample absorption substrate all contained within a plastic microfluidic casing are used to construct the paper-based fuel cell. The anode catalysts consist of glucose dehydrogenase and [Os(4,4'-dimethoxy-2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly-vinylimidazole)10Cl](+) as mediator, while the cathode catalysts were bilirubin oxidase and [Os(2,2'-bipyridine)2(poly-vinylimidazole)10Cl](+) as mediator. The fuel cell delivered a linear power output response to glucose over the range of 2.5-30mM, with power densities ranging from 20 to 90µWcm(-2). The quantification of the available electrical power as well as the energy density extracted from small synthetic samples allows planning potential uses of this energy to power different sensors and analysis devices in a wide variety of in-vitro applications.

  15. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  16. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in captive and free-ranging, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Waters, W Ray; Nonnecke, Brian J; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Yabsley, Michael J; Schmitt, Stephen M; Cosgrove, Melinda K; Palmer, Mitchell V; Thacker, Tyler C; Olsen, Steven C; Horst, Ronald L; Reinhardt, Timothy A

    2009-05-01

    Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined for free-ranging and captive white-tailed deer (WTD). Effects of gender, season, and age on 25(OH)D concentrations were determined as well as comparisons to concentrations in serum from captive reindeer and elk. Seasonal variations in 25(OH)D concentrations were detected for both captive and free-ranging WTD with greatest concentrations detected in August/September (approximately 25 ng/mL) and lowest concentrations in February (approximately 5 - 10 ng/mL). Free-ranging WTD < 1 year of age had lower 25(OH)D concentrations (approximately 6 ng/mL) than did free-ranging WTD > 1 year of age (approximately12 ng/mL). For captive WTD fawns, 25(OH)D concentrations increased from 1 to 9 days of age (exceeding 100 ng/mL) and then steadily declined to approximately 10 ng/mL by 3 months of age. In general, differences in 25(OH)D concentrations based on gender were not detected. 25(OH)D concentrations in captive WTD did not differ from that of captive reindeer; yet, 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in WTD than in captive elk. Additional research is necessary to determine if low serum 25(OH)D concentrations during the winter or pre-weaning period are associated with increased rates of infectious and metabolic disease.

  17. Fecal 20-oxo-pregnane concentrations in free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) treated with porcine zona pellucida vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, M J; Ganswindt, A; Münscher, S; Bertschinger, H J

    2012-07-01

    Because of overpopulation of African elephants in South Africa and the consequent threat to biodiversity, the need for a method of population control has become evident. In this regard, the potential use of the porcine zona pellucida (pZP) vaccine as an effective means for population control is explored. While potential effects of pZP treatment on social behavior of African elephants have been investigated, no examination of the influence of pZP vaccination on the endocrine correlates in treated females has been undertaken. In this study, ovarian activity of free-ranging, pZP-treated African elephant females was monitored noninvasively for 1 yr at Thornybush Private Nature Reserve, South Africa, by measuring fecal 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations via enzyme immunoassay. A total of 719 fecal samples from 19 individuals were collected over the study period, averaging 38 samples collected per individual (minimum, maximum: 16, 52). Simultaneously, behavioral observations were made to record the occurrence of estrous behavior for comparison. Each elephant under study showed 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations rising above baseline at some period during the study indicating luteal activity. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations were 1.61 ± 0.46 μg/g (mean ± SD). Within sampled females, 42.9% exhibited estrous cycles within the range reported for captive African elephants, 14.3% had irregular cycles, and 42.9% did not appear to be cycling. Average estrous cycle duration was 14.72 ± 0.85 wk. Estrous behavior coincided with the onset of the luteal phase and a subsequent rise in 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations. Average 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on levels positively correlated with rainfall. No association between average individual 5α-pregnan-3β-ol-20-on concentrations or cyclicity status with age or parity were detected. Earlier determination of efficacy was established via fecal hormone analysis with no pregnancies determined 22 mo post

  18. Long-Range Solar Activity Predictions: A Reprieve from Cycle #24's Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richon, K.; Schatten, K.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the field of long-range solar activity predictions and provide an outlook into future solar activity. Orbital predictions for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) depend strongly on exospheric densities. Solar activity forecasting is important in this regard, as the solar ultra-violet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the exosphere in which satellites orbit. Rather than concentrate on statistical, or numerical methods, we utilize a class of techniques (precursor methods) which is founded in physical theory. The geomagnetic precursor method was originally developed by the Russian geophysicist, Ohl, using geomagnetic observations to predict future solar activity. It was later extended to solar observations, and placed within the context of physical theory, namely the workings of the Sun s Babcock dynamo. We later expanded the prediction methods with a SOlar Dynamo Amplitude (SODA) index. The SODA index is a measure of the buried solar magnetic flux, using toroidal and poloidal field components. It allows one to predict future solar activity during any phase of the solar cycle, whereas previously, one was restricted to making predictions only at solar minimum. We are encouraged that solar cycle #23's behavior fell closely along our predicted curve, peaking near 192, comparable to the Schatten, Myers and Sofia (1996) forecast of 182+/-30. Cycle #23 extends from 1996 through approximately 2006 or 2007, with cycle #24 starting thereafter. We discuss the current forecast of solar cycle #24, (2006-2016), with a predicted smoothed F10.7 radio flux of 142+/-28 (1-sigma errors). This, we believe, represents a reprieve, in terms of reduced fuel costs, etc., for new satellites to be launched or old satellites (requiring reboosting) which have been placed in LEO. By monitoring the Sun s most deeply rooted magnetic fields; long-range solar activity can be predicted. Although a degree of uncertainty

  19. Dynamic simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions with screened long-range hydrodynamic interactions: Algorithm and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Tadashi; Chow, Edmond; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic interactions exert a critical effect on the dynamics of macromolecules. As the concentration of macromolecules increases, by analogy to the behavior of semidilute polymer solutions or the flow in porous media, one might expect hydrodynamic screening to occur. Hydrodynamic screening would have implications both for the understanding of macromolecular dynamics as well as practical implications for the simulation of concentrated macromolecular solutions, e.g., in cells. Stokesian dynamics (SD) is one of the most accurate methods for simulating the motions of N particles suspended in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number, in that it considers both far-field and near-field hydrodynamic interactions. This algorithm traditionally involves an O(N3) operation to compute Brownian forces at each time step, although asymptotically faster but more complex SD methods are now available. Motivated by the idea of hydrodynamic screening, the far-field part of the hydrodynamic matrix in SD may be approximated by a diagonal matrix, which is equivalent to assuming that long range hydrodynamic interactions are completely screened. This approximation allows sparse matrix methods to be used, which can reduce the apparent computational scaling to O(N). Previously there were several simulation studies using this approximation for monodisperse suspensions. Here, we employ newly designed preconditioned iterative methods for both the computation of Brownian forces and the solution of linear systems, and consider the validity of this approximation in polydisperse suspensions. We evaluate the accuracy of the diagonal approximation method using an intracellular-like suspension. The diffusivities of particles obtained with this approximation are close to those with the original method. However, this approximation underestimates intermolecular correlated motions, which is a trade-off between accuracy and computing efficiency. The new method makes it possible to perform large-scale and

  20. Profiling patterns of fecal 20-oxopregnane concentrations during ovarian cycles in free-ranging southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum).

    PubMed

    van der Goot, Annemieke Catharina; Martin, Graeme Bruce; Millar, Robert Peter; Paris, Monique Christina Johanna; Ganswindt, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Unlike their wild counterparts, many white rhinoceros females in captivity fail to reproduce successfully such that current captive populations are not self-sustaining. The causes of the problem are poorly understood. Variation in cycle length and long periods of acyclicity are characteristics of the majority of these non-reproducing females in captivity but it is unknown whether these characteristics are a feature of reproductively successful free-ranging females. This study therefore aimed to monitor cyclic activity in a wild population of southern white rhinoceros at Lapalala Wilderness, South Africa, by measuring the concentrations of immunoreactive fecal progestagen metabolites (fPM). Five adult females were tracked twice per week for 20 months and if located a fresh fecal sample was collected. Reproductive events and group structural dynamics were also recorded and subsequently correlated with the fPM data. The baseline concentration of fPM was 0.69±0.20μg/g DW while concentrations during pregnancy were 30-400-fold higher. The females exhibited estrous cycle lengths of 30.6±7.7 days and, based on fPM data, gestation length in one female was 502±3 days. Year-round monitoring showed no clear evidence of seasonality in ovarian activity. During cyclic luteal activity females were often seen in the presence of a dominant bull. One female stopped cycling after removal of the local dominant bull and luteal activity only returned after a new bull was introduced. This suggests that white rhinoceros females in the wild might need external stimuli from a male to ovulate. These findings indicate that the irregular cyclicity reported for white rhinoceros housed in zoos and animal parks may result from conditions in captivity and account for reduced fertility.

  1. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  2. Research on range-gated laser active imaging seeker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Mu; Wang, PengHui; Tan, DongJie

    2013-09-01

    Compared with other imaging methods such as millimeter wave imaging, infrared imaging and visible light imaging, laser imaging provides both a 2-D array of reflected intensity data as well as 2-D array of range data, which is the most important data for use in autonomous target acquisition .In terms of application, it can be widely used in military fields such as radar, guidance and fuse. In this paper, we present a laser active imaging seeker system based on range-gated laser transmitter and sensor technology .The seeker system presented here consist of two important part, one is laser image system, which uses a negative lens to diverge the light from a pulse laser to flood illuminate a target, return light is collected by a camera lens, each laser pulse triggers the camera delay and shutter. The other is stabilization gimbals, which is designed to be a rotatable structure both in azimuth and elevation angles. The laser image system consists of transmitter and receiver. The transmitter is based on diode pumped solid-state lasers that are passively Q-switched at 532nm wavelength. A visible wavelength was chosen because the receiver uses a Gen III image intensifier tube with a spectral sensitivity limited to wavelengths less than 900nm.The receiver is image intensifier tube's micro channel plate coupled into high sensitivity charge coupled device camera. The image has been taken at range over one kilometer and can be taken at much longer range in better weather. Image frame frequency can be changed according to requirement of guidance with modifiable range gate, The instantaneous field of views of the system was found to be 2×2 deg. Since completion of system integration, the seeker system has gone through a series of tests both in the lab and in the outdoor field. Two different kinds of buildings have been chosen as target, which is located at range from 200m up to 1000m.To simulate dynamic process of range change between missile and target, the seeker system has

  3. Effects of ethylenediurea on snap bean at a range of ozone concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.E.; Pursley, W.A.; Heagle, A.S.

    1994-09-01

    Ethylenediurea (EDU) [N-[2-(2-Oxo-1-imidazolidinyl) ethyl]-N{prime}-phenylurea] often protects plants from visible foliar injury due ozone{sub 3}. A few studies have indicated that EDU can suppress plant growth and yield. Because of the potential value of EDU as a research and assessment tool, controlled field experiments with snap bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. ({open_quotes}BBL-290{close_quotes}) were performed to test the effectiveness of different EDU application rates used in open-top chambers in each of two experiments [charcoal-filtered (CF) air, nonfiltered (NF) air, and nominal O{sub 3} additions of 0.025 and 0.05 or 0.03 and 0.06 {mu}LL{sup -1}O{sub 3} to NF air]. Ethylenediurea was added biweekly to the potting medium . The EDU treatment concentration were 0, 14, 28, 56, and 120 and 0, 8, 16, and 32 mg EDU (active) L{sup -1} of potting medium in experiments one and two, respectively. Ethylenediurea provided some protection against O{sub 3}-induced foliar injury and growth suppression in both experiments. Measurements of net carbon exchange rate (NCER) and carbohydrate status of the tissues reflected the protective effects of EDU. In the first experiment EDU caused visible foliar injury at some growth stages and suppressed growth. In the second experiment, visible foliar injury was not caused by EDU at any concentration, but pod biomass (yield) was suppressed by EDU in CF chambers. The differences may have been due to environmental conditions (i.e., hot and dry during the first experiment and cooler during the second). Ethylenediurea also affected biomass partitioning in the plants grown in CF air (relative biomass was increased in leaves and decreased in pods). The results indicate that although EDU does protect or partially protect snap bean against O{sub 3} injury, it may also affect physiology and growth. 27 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Lafferty, Diana J R; Laudenslager, Mark L; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges.

  5. Sex, Diet, and the Social Environment: Factors Influencing Hair Cortisol Concentration in Free-Ranging Black Bears (Ursus americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Lafferty, Diana J. R.; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Mowat, Garth; Heard, Doug; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, measures of glucocorticoid levels (e.g., cortisol), key components of the neuroendocrine stress axis, are being used to measure past hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity to index psychological and physiological stress exhibited by wildlife for assessing individual and population-level well-being. However, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect HPA activity in animals. Using American black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 116) as an ecological model and hair cortisol concentration (HCC) as an integrative measure of past HPA activity, we evaluated the influence of diet, sex and the social environment on black bear HCC in a free-ranging population that spanned adjoining ecoregions with differing densities of potential conspecific and heterospecific competitors. HCC varied by sex, with female HCC ranging from 0.6 to 10.7 pg/mg (median = 4.5 ± 1.2 mean absolute deviation [MAD]) and male HCC ranging from 0.5 to 35.1 pg/mg (median = 6.2 ± 2.6 MAD). We also observed a three-way interaction among sex, δ14C and ecoregion, which may indicate that some differences in HCC between female and male black bears results from variability in the nutritional needs of larger-bodied males relative to smaller-bodied females, slight differences in food resources use between ecoregions as well as sex-based differences regarding the social environment. Once we understand what drives sex-specific differences in HCC, HCC may aid our understanding of the physiological responses by bears and other wildlife to diverse environmental challenges. PMID:26529405

  6. Determination of odour threshold concentration ranges for some disinfectants and disinfection by-products for an Australian panel.

    PubMed

    McDonald, S; Lethorn, A; Loi, C; Joll, C; Driessen, H; Heitz, A

    2009-01-01

    Taste-and-odour complaints are a leading cause of consumer dissatisfaction with drinking water. The aim of this study was to determine odour threshold concentration ranges and descriptors, using a Western Australian odour panel, for chlorine, bromine, chlorine added to bromide ions, the four major regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and combined THMs. An odour panel was established and trained to determine odour threshold concentration ranges for odorous compounds typically found in drinking water at 25 degrees C, using modified flavour profile analysis (FPA) techniques. Bromine and chlorine had the same odour threshold concentration ranges and were both described as having a chlorinous odour by a majority of panellists, but the odour threshold concentration range of bromine expressed in free chlorine equivalents was lower that that of chlorine. It is likely that the free chlorine equivalent residuals measured in many parts of distribution systems in Western Australia are comprised of some portion of bromine and that bromine has the potential to cause chlorinous odours at a lower free chlorine equivalent concentration than chlorine itself. In fact, bromine is the likely cause of any chlorinous odours in Western Australian distributed waters when the free chlorine equivalent concentration is between 0.04 and 0.1 mg L(-1). Odour threshold concentrations for the four individual THMs ranged from 0.06-0.16 mg L(-1), and the odour threshold concentration range was 0.10 + or - 0.09 mg L(-1) when the four THMs were combined (in equal mass concentrations). These concentrations are below the maximum guideline value for total THM concentration in Australia so odours from these compounds may possibly be observed in distributed waters. However, while the presence of THMs may contribute to any sweet/fragrant/floral and chemical/hydrocarbon odours in local drinking waters, the THMs are unlikely to contribute to chlorinous odours.

  7. [The effectiveness of ultralow doses and concentrations of biologically active compounds].

    PubMed

    Ashmarin, I P; Lelekova, T V; Sanzhieva, L Ts

    1992-01-01

    Numerous data of literature are analysed on the biological activity of ultra-low (10(-12)-10(-19) M) concentrations and corresponding doses of same bioregulators. Our own data are presented on the modulation of lymphatic vessel contractility by peptides (thyroliberin, defensin, and tuftsin) in concentrations ranging from 10(-13) to 10(-16) M. Hypothetic mechanisms of these phenomena are discussed.

  8. Complex Spontaneous Flows and Concentration Banding in Active Polar Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giomi, Luca; Marchetti, M. Cristina; Liverpool, Tanniemola B.

    2008-11-01

    We study the dynamical properties of active polar liquid crystalline films. Like active nematic films, active polar films undergo a dynamical transition to spontaneously flowing steady states. Spontaneous flow in polar fluids is, however, always accompanied by strong concentration inhomogeneities or “banding” not seen in nematics. In addition, a spectacular property unique to polar active films is their ability to generate spontaneously oscillating and banded flows even at low activity. The oscillatory flows become increasingly complicated for strong polarity.

  9. Experiences from long range passive and active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grönwall, Christina; Gustafsson, David; Steinvall, Ove; Tolt, Gustav

    2015-10-01

    We present algorithm evaluations for ATR of small sea vessels. The targets are at km distance from the sensors, which means that the algorithms have to deal with images affected by turbulence and mirage phenomena. We evaluate previously developed algorithms for registration of 3D-generating laser radar data. The evaluations indicate that some robustness to turbulence and mirage induced uncertainties can be handled by our probabilistic-based registration method. We also assess methods for target classification and target recognition on these new 3D data. An algorithm for detecting moving vessels in infrared image sequences is presented; it is based on optical flow estimation. Detection of moving target with an unknown spectral signature in a maritime environment is a challenging problem due to camera motion, background clutter, turbulence and the presence of mirage. First, the optical flow caused by the camera motion is eliminated by estimating the global flow in the image. Second, connected regions containing significant motions that differ from camera motion is extracted. It is assumed that motion caused by a moving vessel is more temporally stable than motion caused by mirage or turbulence. Furthermore, it is assumed that the motion caused by the vessel is more homogenous with respect to both magnitude and orientation, than motion caused by mirage and turbulence. Sufficiently large connected regions with a flow of acceptable magnitude and orientation are considered target regions. The method is evaluated on newly collected sequences of SWIR and MWIR images, with varying targets, target ranges and background clutter. Finally we discuss a concept for combining passive and active imaging in an ATR process. The main steps are passive imaging for target detection, active imaging for target/background segmentation and a fusion of passive and active imaging for target recognition.

  10. Metabolic Potential and Activity in Fluids of the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory, California, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, T.; Som, S.; Schrenk, M.; McCollom, T.; Cardace, D.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic potential and activity associated with hydrogen and carbon monoxide were characterized in fluids sampled from the the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO). CROMO consists of two clusters of science-dedicated wells drilled to varying depths up to 35m in the actively serpentinizing, Jurassic-age Coast Range Ophiolite of Northern California, along with a suite of pre-existing monitoring wells at the same site. Consistent with the fluid chemistry observed in other serpentinizing systems, CROMO fluids are highly alkaline, with pH up to 12.5, high in methane, with concentrations up 1600 micromolar, and low in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), with concentrations of 10's to 100's of micromolar. CROMO is conspicuous for fluid H2 concentrations that are consistently sub-micromolar, orders of magnitude lower than is typical of other systems. However, higher H2 concentrations (10's -100's of micromolar) at an earlier stage of fluid chemical evolution are predicted by, or consistent with: thermodynamic models for fluid chemistry based on parent rock composition equivalent to local peridotite and with water:rock ratio constrained by observed pH; the presence of magnetite at several wt% in CROMO drill cores; and concentrations of formate and carbon monoxide that would require elevated H2 if formed in equilibrium with H2 and DIC. Calculated Gibbs energy changes for reaction of H2 and CO in each of several metabolisms, across the range of fluid composition encompassed by the CROMO wells, range from bioenergetically feasible (capable of driving ATP synthesis) to thermodynamically unfavorable. Active consumption relative to killed controls was observed for both CO and H2 during incubation of fluids from the pre-existing monitoring wells; in incubations of freshly cored solids, consumption was only observed in one sample set (corresponding to the lowest pH) out of three. The specific metabolisms by which H2 and CO are consumed remain to be determined.

  11. Ultra-wide detectable concentration range of GMR biosensors using Fe3O4 microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Qiang; Zong, Weihua; Zhang, Yongcheng; Li, Shandong

    2016-11-01

    Exchange-biased GMR sensors were employed for biodetection using a DC in-plane measuring method and a magnetic label of Fe3O4 microspheres. It was revealed that an ultra-wide concentration span covering five orders from 10 ng/mL to 1000 μg/mL was achieved in a home-made biodetection device. The concentration x dependence of output voltage difference |ΔV| between with and without magnetic labels, exhibits nonlinear futures, which undergoes two functions depending on the concentration region. For the low concentration region from 10 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL, a logarithmic relation of |ΔV|=26.3lgx+91.4 fits well, while for the high concentration region, a negative exponential function of |ΔV|=3113(1-e-x/250) describes the |ΔV|~x relation better. For the former, the "coffee ring" effect, formed during the solvent evaporation, was considered as the main reason for the nonlinear relation. While for the latter with high concentration, the overlap among the particles and the enhanced interaction of the magnetic dipole were responsible for the nonlinear |ΔV|~x relationship. Moreover, the calculated detectable concentration limit is agreed well with the experimental data.

  12. Expanding range of pulsed range sensors with active projection from spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xun, Xiaodong; Su, Wei; Cohn, Robert W.; Hassebrook, Laurence G.; Lau, Daniel L.

    2006-05-01

    LIDAR-based systems measure the time-of-flight of a laser source onto the scene and back to the sensor, building a wide field of view 3D raster image, but as a scanning process, there are problems associated with motion inside the scene over the duration of the scan. By illuminating the entire scene simultaneously using a broad laser pulse, a 2D camera equipped with a high speed shutter can measure the time-of-flight over the entire field of view (FOV), thereby, recording an instantaneous snap-shot of the entire scene. However, spreading the laser reduces the range. So what is required is a programmable system that can track multiple regions of interest by varying the field of regard to (1) a single direction, (2) the entire FOV, or (3) intermediate views of interest as required by the evolving scene environment. In this project, the investigators intend to add this variable illumination capability to existing instantaneous ranging hardware by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator (SLM) beam steering system that adaptively varies the (single or multi) beam intensity profiles and pointing directions. For autonomous satellite rendezvous, docking, and inspection, the system can perform long-range sensing with a narrow FOV while being able to expand the FOV as the target object approaches the sensor. To this end in a previous paper, we analyzed the performance of a commercially available TOF sensor (3DVSystems' Zmini) in terms of the depth sensitivity versus target range and albedo. In this paper, we will analyze the laser system specifications versus range of field-of-view when beam steering is performed by means of a Boulder Nonlinear Systems' phase-only liquid crystal SLM. Experimental results show that the adjustable laser beam FOV extensively compensate the reflected image grayscale from objects at long range, and prove the feasibility of expanding range with the projection from the SLM.

  13. Effect of the active-ion concentration on the lasing dynamics of holmium fibre lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-12-09

    The lasing dynamics of fibre lasers with a core based on quartz glass doped with holmium ions to concentrations in the range of 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} is investigated. It is shown that fibre lasers with a high concentration of active holmium ions generate pulses, but a decrease in the holmium concentration changes the lasing from pulsed to cw regime. At the same time, a decrease in the active-ion concentration and the corresponding increase in the fibre length in the cavity reduce the lasing efficiency. (lasers)

  14. Identification and Characterization of an Ecto-Pyrophosphatase Activity in Intact Epimastigotes of Trypanosoma rangeli

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Lisvane Paes; Majerowicz, David; Daflon-Yunes, Nathalia; Soares-de-Medeiros, Lia Carolina Almeida; Miranda, Kildare; Gondim, Katia Calp; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed the molecular and biochemical characterization of an ecto-enzyme present in Trypanosoma rangeli that is involved with the hydrolysis of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate. PCR analysis identified a putative proton-pyrophosphatase (H+-PPase) in the epimastigote forms of T. rangeli. This protein was recognized with Western blot and flow cytometry analysis using an antibody against the H+-PPase of Arabidopsis thaliana. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed that this protein is located in the plasma membrane of T. rangeli. Biochemical assays revealed that the optimum pH for the ecto-PPase activity was 7.5, as previously demonstrated for other organisms. Sodium fluoride (NaF) and aminomethylenediphosphonate (AMDP) were able to inhibit approximately 75% and 90% of the ecto-PPase activity, respectively. This ecto-PPase activity was stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by MgCl2. In the presence of MgCl2, this activity was inhibited by millimolar concentrations of CaCl2. The ecto-PPase activity of T. rangeli decreased with increasing cell proliferation in vitro, thereby suggesting a role for this enzyme in the acquisition of inorganic phosphate (Pi). Moreover, this activity was modulated by the extracellular concentration of Pi and increased approximately two-fold when the cells were maintained in culture medium depleted of Pi. All of these results confirmed the occurrence of an ecto-PPase located in the plasma membrane of T. rangeli that possibly plays an important role in phosphate metabolism of this protozoan. PMID:25203926

  15. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  16. Enhancement of concentration range of chromatographically detectable components with array detector mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Enke, Christie

    2013-02-19

    Methods and instruments for high dynamic range analysis of sample components are described. A sample is subjected to time-dependent separation, ionized, and the ions dispersed with a constant integration time across an array of detectors according to the ions m/z values. Each of the detectors in the array has a dynamically adjustable gain or a logarithmic response function, producing an instrument capable of detecting a ratio of responses or 4 or more orders of magnitude.

  17. Ozone uptake by citrus trees exposed to a range of ozone concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fares, Silvano; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Ormeno, Elena; Gentner, Drew R.; McKay, Megan; Loreto, Francesco; Karlik, John; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2010-09-01

    The Citrus genus includes a large number of species and varieties widely cultivated in the Central Valley of California and in many other countries having similar Mediterranean climates. In the summer, orchards in California experience high levels of tropospheric ozone, formed by reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with oxides of nitrogen (NO x). Citrus trees may improve air quality in the orchard environment by taking up ozone through stomatal and non-stomatal mechanisms, but they may ultimately be detrimental to regional air quality by emitting biogenic VOC (BVOC) that oxidize to form ozone and secondary organic aerosol downwind of the site of emission. BVOC also play a key role in removing ozone through gas-phase chemical reactions in the intercellular spaces of the leaves and in ambient air outside the plants. Ozone is known to oxidize leaf tissues after entering stomata, resulting in decreased carbon assimilation and crop yield. To characterize ozone deposition and BVOC emissions for lemon ( Citrus limon), mandarin ( Citrus reticulata), and orange ( Citrus sinensis), we designed branch enclosures that allowed direct measurement of fluxes under different physiological conditions in a controlled greenhouse environment. Average ozone uptake was up to 11 nmol s -1 m -2 of leaf. At low concentrations of ozone (40 ppb), measured ozone deposition was higher than expected ozone deposition modeled on the basis of stomatal aperture and ozone concentration. Our results were in better agreement with modeled values when we included non-stomatal ozone loss by reaction with gas-phase BVOC emitted from the citrus plants. At high ozone concentrations (160 ppb), the measured ozone deposition was lower than modeled, and we speculate that this indicates ozone accumulation in the leaf mesophyll.

  18. Athletic Activity and Hormone Concentrations in High School Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wojtys, Edward M.; Jannausch, Mary L.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Sowers, MaryFran R.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Physical activity may affect the concentrations of circulating endogenous hormones in female athletes. Understanding the relationship between athletic and physical activity and circulating female hormone concentrations is critical. Objective: To test the hypotheses that (1) the estradiol-progesterone profile of high school adolescent girls participating in training, conditioning, and competition would differ from that of physically inactive, age-matched adolescent girls throughout a 3-month period; and (2) athletic training and conditioning would alter body composition (muscle, bone), leading to an increasingly greater lean–body-mass to fat–body-mass ratio with accompanying hormonal changes. Design: Cohort study. Settings: Laboratory and participants' homes. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 106 adolescent girls, ages 14–18 years, who had experienced at least 3 menstrual cycles in their lifetime. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were prospectively monitored throughout a 13-week period, with weekly physical activity assessments and 15 urine samples for estrogen, luteinizing hormone, creatinine, and progesterone concentrations. Each girl underwent body-composition measurements before and after the study period. Results: Seventy-four of the 98 girls (76%) who completed the study classified themselves as athletes. Body mass index, body mass, and fat measures remained stable, and 17 teenagers had no complete menstrual cycle during the observation period. Mean concentrations of log(estrogen/creatinine) were slightly greater in nonathletes who had cycles of <24 or >35 days. Mean log(progesterone/creatinine) concentrations in nonathletes were less in the first half and greater in the second half of the cycle, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: A moderate level of athletic or physical activity did not influence urine concentrations of estrogen, progesterone, or luteinizing hormones. However, none of the

  19. Hydrocarbon concentrations and patterns in free-ranging sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kate A; Nichol, Linda M; Ross, Peter S

    2011-10-01

    With oil pollution recognized as a major threat to British Columbia's recovering sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population, it is important to distinguish acute from chronic exposures to oil constituent groups in this marine mammal. Concentrations and patterns of alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in blood samples from 29 live-captured sea otters in two coastal areas of British Columbia, as well as in representative samples of their invertebrate prey. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sea otters were similar between areas and among age and sex classes, suggesting that metabolism dominates the fate of these compounds in sea otters. Biomagnification factors derived from PAH ratios in otter:prey supported this notion. Although some higher alkylated three- and four-ring PAHs appeared to biomagnify, the majority of PAHs did not. The apparent retention of alkyl PAHs was reflected in the composition of estimated sea otter body burdens, which provided an alternative way of evaluating hydrocarbon exposure. Alkyl PAHs made up 86 ± 9% of estimated body burdens (4,340 ± 2,950 µg), with no differences between males and females (p = 0.18). The importance of measuring both parent and alkyl PAHs is underscored by their divergent dynamics in sea otters, with ready depuration of parent PAHs (metabolized or excreted) by sea otters on the one hand and biomagnification of alkyl PAHs on the other.

  20. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project; energy resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1998-01-01

    Oil, natural gas, and coal (energy resources) have been produced from rocks in the Front Range of Colorado and Wyoming for more than a century, and significant quantities of oil and gas continue to be developed in the study area of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project (fig. 1). As an infrastructure resource, energy resources helped to fuel past development of (1) urban areas in the Front Range as well as (2) some of the manufacturing and mining upon which the urban centers were built and thrived. At present, much of the oil and gas extracted from rocks beneath the Front Range urban corridor is used locally; the people living in the urban area provide a need and viable marketplace for these commodities.

  1. Enhanced SO2 Concentrations Observed over Northern India: Role of Long-range Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, C.; Lal, S.; Naja, M.; Chand, Duli; Venkataramani, S.; Joshi, H.; Pant, P.

    2013-01-17

    Volcanic emissions and coal burning are among the major sources of SO2 over the continental environment. In this study, we show episodes of long-range transport of volcanic SO2 from Africa to Northern India using satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which far exceeded background values (<0.3 DU) retrieved from observations across different locations over North India during 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were much higher on November 6 over most of the IGP and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10 higher than background levels at some places. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Backward trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption over the Afar region of Ethiopia during November 4-6, 2008. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume into the IGP. As most of the local aerosols over IGP region are below 3 km, a well separated layer at 4-5 km is observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region.

  2. Antioxidant Activities of Functional Beverage Concentrates Containing Herbal Medicine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Joo; Kim, Mi-Ok; Kim, Jung Hoan; Jeong, Sehyun; Kim, Min Hee; Yang, Su-Jin; Lee, Jongsung; Lee, Hae-Jeung

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant activity of functional beverage concentrates containing herbal medicine extracts (FBCH) using various antioxidant assays, such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power assay. The total polyphenolic content of FBCH (81.45 mg/100 g) was higher than Ssanghwa tea (SHT, 37.56 mg/100 g). The antioxidant activities of FBCH showed 52.92% DPPH and 55.18% ABTS radical scavenging activities at 100 mg/mL, respectively. FBCH showed significantly higher antioxidant activities compared to the SHT (DPPH, 23.43%; ABTS, 22.21%; reducing power optical density; 0.23, P<0.05). In addition, intracellular reactive oxygen species generation significantly decreased in a concentration-dependent manner following FBCH treatment. These results suggest that the addition of herbal medicine extract contributes to the improved functionality of beverage concentrates.

  3. A colorimetric method for the determination of carboxyhaemoglobin over a wide range of concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Trinder, P.; Harper, F. E.

    1962-01-01

    A colorimetric technique for the determination of carboxyhaemoglobin in blood is described. Carbon monoxide released from blood in a standard Conway unit reacts with palladous chloride/arsenomolybdate solution to produce a blue colour. Using 0·5 to 2 ml. of blood, the method will estimate carboxyhaemoglobin accurately at levels from 0·1% to 100% of total haemoglobin and in the presence of other abnormal pigments. A number of methods are available for the determination of carboxyhaemoglobin; none is accurate below a concentration of 1·5 g. carboxyhaemoglobin per 100 ml. but for most clinical purposes this is not important. For forensic purposes and occasionally in clinical use, an accurate determination of carboxyhaemoglobin below 750 mg. per 100 ml. may be required and no really satisfactory method is at present available. Some time ago when it was important to know whether a person who was found dead in a burning house had died before or after the fire had started, we became interested in developing a method which would determine accurately carboxyhaemoglobin at levels of 750 mg. per 100 ml. PMID:13922505

  4. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  5. Immune Function and HPA Axis Activity in Free-Ranging Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Higham, James P.; Heistermann, Michael; Coe, Christopher L.; Prendergast, Brian J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and immune system play an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis. Dysregulation of either system resulting, for example, from psychosocial or reproductive stress increases susceptibility to disease and mortality risk, especially in aging individuals. In a study of free-ranging rhesus macaques, we examined how female age, reproductive state, social rank, and body condition influence (i) aspects of cytokine biology (plasma concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6 and IL-8), and (ii) HPA axis activity (plasma and fecal glucocorticoid levels). We also assessed individual differences in cytokine and hormone concentrations over time to determine their consistency and to investigate relations between these two indicators of physiological regulation and demand. Female monkeys showed marked increases in HPA axis activity during pregnancy and lactation, and increased circulating levels of IL-1ra with advancing age. Inter-individual differences in IL-1ra and IL-8 were consistent over successive years, suggesting that both are stable, trait-like characteristics. Furthermore, the concentrations of fecal glucocorticoid hormones in non-pregnant, non-lactating females were correlated with their plasma cortisol and IL-8 concentrations. Some individuals showed permanently elevated cytokine levels or HPA axis activity, or a combination of the two, suggesting chronic stress or disease. Our results enhance our understanding of within- and between-individual variation in cytokine levels and their relationship with glucocorticoid hormones in free-ranging primates. These findings can provide the basis for future research on stress and allostatic load in primates. PMID:21635909

  6. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  7. Measurement of radon concentration for assessment of the radiological hazard in the Chakwal coalmines of the Salt Range, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Arif; Tufail, M

    2011-09-01

    Radon and its progeny are prevalent everywhere on the lithosphere especially in the mining environment. Coal exists in the Salt Range that passes through Pakistan. The aim of the present study was to measure radon concentration and assess the associated radiological hazard in the coalmines developed in that portion of the Salt Range which passes through the district of Chakwal in Pakistan. Among the various coalmines in the coalfield, five were selected for radon survey. A passive integrated technique consisting of SSNTDs (solid state nuclear track detectors) was employed for the measurement of radon concentration in these coalmines. Box type dosimeters containing CN-85 detectors were placed for three months at six locations in every selected coalmine. After removing the dosimeters, the CN-85 detectors were etched in alkaline solution to enlarge the alpha tracks in the detectors and counted under an optical microscope. The track densities were converted to radon concentration. The average concentration of radon in the coalmines varied in the range 50-114  Bq m(-3). Radon exhalation rates from the samples of coal and shale collected from the coalmines were determined to be respectively 934 (830-1010) and 1302 (1020-1580)  mBq m(-2) h(-1). The radiation dose and corresponding health risk for the mine workers were also estimated.

  8. Emergent ultra-long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active-inactive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser

    2016-04-01

    Particle-particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra-long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials.

  9. Monitoring cell concentration and activity by multiple excitation fluorometry.

    PubMed

    Li, J K; Asali, E C; Humphrey, A E; Horvath, J J

    1991-01-01

    Four key cellular metabolic fluorophores--tryptophan, pyridoxine, NAD(P)H, and riboflavin--were monitored on-line by a multiple excitation fluorometric system (MEFS) and a modified SLM 8000C scanning spectrofluorometer in three model yeast fermentation systems--bakers' yeast growing on glucose, Candida utilis growing on ethanol, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 growing on glucose. The measured fluorescence signals were compared with cell concentration, protein concentration, and cellular activity. The results indicate that the behavior and fluorescence intensity of various fluorophores differ in the various fermentation systems. Tryptophan fluorescence is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in bakers' yeast and C. utilis fermentations. Pyridoxine fluoresce is the best signal for the monitoring of cell concentration in the S. cerevisiae RTY110/pRB58 fermentation. In bakers' yeast fermentations the pyridoxine fluorescence signal can be used to monitor cellular activity. The NAD(P)H fluorescence signal is a good indicator of cellular activity in the C. utilis fermentation. For this fermentation NAD(P)H fluorescence can be used to control ethanol feeding in a fed-batch process.

  10. Sensory processing and world modeling for an active ranging device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Tsai-Hong; Wu, Angela Y.

    1991-01-01

    In this project, we studied world modeling and sensory processing for laser range data. World Model data representation and operation were defined. Sensory processing algorithms for point processing and linear feature detection were designed and implemented. The interface between world modeling and sensory processing in the Servo and Primitive levels was investigated and implemented. In the primitive level, linear features detectors for edges were also implemented, analyzed and compared. The existing world model representations is surveyed. Also presented is the design and implementation of the Y-frame model, a hierarchical world model. The interfaces between the world model module and the sensory processing module are discussed as well as the linear feature detectors that were designed and implemented.

  11. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges... 0.25 to 0.35 2 2 .03 Total 7 8 Effective Date Note: At 75 FR 35601, June 22, 2010, table C-1...

  12. Sensitive and selective analysis of a wide concentration range of IGFBP7 using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor.

    PubMed

    Jang, Dae-Ho; Choi, Youngbo; Choi, Yong-Soo; Kim, Sun-Mi; Kwak, Hojung; Shin, Se-Hyun; Hong, Surin

    2014-11-01

    A sensitive method for selectively detecting insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) over a wide range of concentrations based on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing techniques is described. IGFBP7 has been shown to regulate cell proliferation, cell adhesion, cellular senescence, apoptosis, and angiogenesis in several different cancer cell lines. Since the concentration of IGFBP7 can vary widely in the body, determining the precise concentration of IGFBP7 over a wide range of concentrations is important, since it serves as an inducible biomarker for both disease diagnosis and subsequent therapy. The SPR sensing method is based on the selective interaction of IGFBP7 with specific anti-IGFBP7 proteins on a gold thin film, which was covalently bound to the Fc-binding domain of protein G on a mixed self-assembled monolayer composed of DSNHS (S2(CH2)11COO(CH2)2COO-(N-hydroxysuccinimide)) and mercaptoundecanol, and effect of this on changes in the SPR profiles. The limit of detection (LOD) of the SPR biosensor was determined to be 10 ng/ml, which is a reasonable LOD value for biomedical applications. The response is essentially linear in the concentration range of 10-300 ng/ml. The SPR biosensor also shows specificity for IGFBP7 compared to that for biologically relevant interleukin (IL) derivatives including IL4, IL23, IL29, and IFG1. These molecules are also present along with IGFBP7 in the cell culture medium and have the potential to interfere with the analysis. Finally, the level secretion of IGFBP7 from cancer cells detected by the SPR biosensor showed a good correlation with a commercial kit using an IGFBP7 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The findings reported herein indicate that the SPR biosensor for IGFBP7 would be applicable in a wide variety of biomedical fields.

  13. A general treatment for the conductivity of electrolytes in the whole concentration range in aqueous and nonaqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Villullas, H Mercedes; Gonzalez, Ernesto R

    2005-05-12

    Despite the great importance of ion transport, most of the widely accepted models and theories are valid only in the not very practical limit of low concentrations. Aiming to extend the range of applicability to moderate concentrations, a number of modified models and equations (some approximate, some fundamented on different assumptions, and some just empirical) have been reported. In this work, a general treatment for the electrical conductivity of ionic solutions has been developed, considering the electrical conductivity as a transport phenomenon governed by dissipation and feedback. A general expression for the dependence of the specific conductivity on the solution viscosity (and indirectly on concentration), from which the whole conductivity curve can be obtained, has been derived. The validity of this general approach is demonstrated with experimental results taken from the literature for aqueous and nonaqueous solutions of electrolytes.

  14. The initial magnetic susceptibility of polydisperse ferrofluids: A comparison between experiment and theory over a wide range of concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyova, Anna Y.; Goldina, Olga A.; Ivanov, Alexey O.; Lebedev, Aleksandr V.; Elfimova, Ekaterina A.

    2016-08-01

    Temperature dependencies of the static initial magnetic susceptibility for ferrofluids at various concentrations are studied using experiment and statistical-mechanical theories. Magnetic susceptibility measurements are carried out for twelve samples of magnetite-based fluids stabilized with oleic acid over a wide range of temperatures (210 K ≲T ≲ 390 K); all samples have the same granulometric composition but different volume ferroparticle concentrations (0.2 ≲ φ ≲ 0.5). Experimental results are analyzed using three theories: the second-order modified mean-field theory (MMF2) [A. O. Ivanov and O. B. Kuznetsova, Phys. Rev. E 64, 41405 (2001)]; its correction for polydisperse ferrofluids arising from Mayer-type cluster expansion and taking into account the first terms of the polydisperse second virial coefficient [A. O. Ivanov and E. A. Elfimova, J. Magn. Magn. Mater 374, 327 (2015)]; and a new theory based on MMF2 combined with the first terms of the polydisperse second and third virial contributions to susceptibility. It turns out that the applicability of each theory depends on the experimental sample density. If twelve ferrofluid samples are split into three groups of strong, moderate, and low concentrated fluids, the temperature dependences of the initial magnetic susceptibility in each group are very precisely described by one of the three theories mentioned above. The determination of a universal formula predicting a ferrofluid susceptibility over a broad range of concentrations and temperatures remains as a challenge.

  15. The active titration method for measuring local hydroxyl radical concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprengnether, Michele; Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a method for measuring ambient OH by monitoring its rate of reaction with a chemical species. Our technique involves the local, instantaneous release of a mixture of saturated cyclic hydrocarbons (titrants) and perfluorocarbons (dispersants). These species must not normally be present in ambient air above the part per trillion concentration. We then track the mixture downwind using a real-time portable ECD tracer instrument. We collect air samples in canisters every few minutes for roughly one hour. We then return to the laboratory and analyze our air samples to determine the ratios of the titrant to dispersant concentrations. The trends in these ratios give us the ambient OH concentration from the relation: dlnR/dt = -k(OH). A successful measurement of OH requires that the trends in these ratios be measureable. We must not perturb ambient OH concentrations. The titrant to dispersant ratio must be spatially invariant. Finally, heterogeneous reactions of our titrant and dispersant species must be negligible relative to the titrant reaction with OH. We have conducted laboratory studies of our ability to measure the titrant to dispersant ratios as a function of concentration down to the few part per trillion concentration. We have subsequently used these results in a gaussian puff model to estimate our expected uncertainty in a field measurement of OH. Our results indicate that under a range of atmospheric conditions we expect to be able to measure OH with a sensitivity of 3x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). In our most optimistic scenarios, we obtain a sensitivity of 1x10(exp 5) cm(exp -3). These sensitivity values reflect our anticipated ability to measure the ratio trends. However, because we are also using a rate constant to obtain our (OH) from this ratio trend, our accuracy cannot be better than that of the rate constant, which we expect to be about 20 percent.

  16. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  17. Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops.

    PubMed

    Llope, W J

    2011-06-01

    The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been measured with portable survey meters as well as an NaI(Th) gamma spectrometer. The (40)K, U-nat, and (232)Th activity concentrations were determined using a full-spectrum analysis. The dose rates that would result from two different arrangements of decorative granite slabs as countertops were explored in simulations involving an adult anthropomorphic phantom.

  18. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  19. Obesity effect on male active joint range of motion.

    PubMed

    Park, Woojin; Ramachandran, Jaiganesh; Weisman, Paul; Jung, Eui S

    2010-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity, how obesity affects human physical capabilities is not well documented. As an effort toward addressing this, the current study investigated the obesity effect on joint range of motion (RoM) based on data collected from 20 obese and 20 non-obese males. In total, 30 inter-segmental motions occurring at the shoulder, elbow, knee and ankle joints and lumbar and cervical spine areas were examined. The obesity effect was found to be non-uniform across the joint motions. Obesity significantly reduced RoM for nine of the 30 motions: shoulder extensions and adductions, lumbar spine extension and lateral flexions and knee flexions. The largest significant RoM reduction was 38.9% for the left shoulder adduction. The smallest was 11.1% for the right knee flexion. The obesity-associated RoM reductions appear to be mainly due to the mechanical interposition and obstruction of inter-segmental motions caused by excess fat in the obese body. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Currently, obesity is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is expected to increase continually in the near future. This study empirically characterised the obesity effects on joint RoM to provide better understanding of the physical capabilities of the obese. The study findings will facilitate designing man-artefact systems that accommodate obese individuals.

  20. Distribution of Microbial Arsenic Reduction, Oxidation and Extrusion Genes along a Wide Range of Environmental Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Lorena V.; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Chong, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carles; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V) to As (III) in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V) as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III) oxidation gene aioA and the As (III) transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx)-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations. PMID:24205341

  1. Distribution of microbial arsenic reduction, oxidation and extrusion genes along a wide range of environmental arsenic concentrations.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Lorena V; Casamayor, Emilio O; Chong, Guillermo; Pedrós-Alió, Carles; Demergasso, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    The presence of the arsenic oxidation, reduction, and extrusion genes arsC, arrA, aioA, and acr3 was explored in a range of natural environments in northern Chile, with arsenic concentrations spanning six orders of magnitude. A combination of primers from the literature and newly designed primers were used to explore the presence of the arsC gene, coding for the reduction of As (V) to As (III) in one of the most common detoxification mechanisms. Enterobacterial related arsC genes appeared only in the environments with the lowest As concentration, while Firmicutes-like genes were present throughout the range of As concentrations. The arrA gene, involved in anaerobic respiration using As (V) as electron acceptor, was found in all the systems studied. The As (III) oxidation gene aioA and the As (III) transport gene acr3 were tracked with two primer sets each and they were also found to be spread through the As concentration gradient. Sediment samples had a higher number of arsenic related genes than water samples. Considering the results of the bacterial community composition available for these samples, the higher microbial phylogenetic diversity of microbes inhabiting the sediments may explain the increased number of genetic resources found to cope with arsenic. Overall, the environmental distribution of arsenic related genes suggests that the occurrence of different ArsC families provides different degrees of protection against arsenic as previously described in laboratory strains, and that the glutaredoxin (Grx)-linked arsenate reductases related to Enterobacteria do not confer enough arsenic resistance to live above certain levels of As concentrations.

  2. Assessing the link between chlorophyll concentration and absorption line height at 676 nm over a broad range of water types.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, Schuyler C; Twardowski, Michael S

    2016-10-31

    The relationship between absorption at 676 nm normalized to chlorophyll-a, i.e., specific absorption aph*(676), and various optical and environmental properties is examined in extensive data sets from Case I and Case II waters found globally to assess drivers of variability such as pigment packaging. A better understanding of this variability could lead to more accurate estimates of chlorophyll concentrations from in situ optical measurements that may be made autonomously. Values of aph*(676) ranged from 0.00006 to 0.0944 m2/mg Chl a across all sites studied, but converged on median and mean values (n = 563) of 0.0108 and 0.0139 m2/mg Chl a respectively, with no apparent relationship with various optical properties, latitude, coastal or open ocean environment, depth, temperature, salinity, photoadaptation, ecosystem health, or albedo. Relative consistency in aph* across such diverse water types and the full range in chlorophyll concentration suggests a single aph* may be used to estimate chlorophyll concentration from absorption measurements with better accuracy than currently thought.

  3. Alteration of natural (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface by gas transport and water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Guillon, Sophie; Sun, Yunwei; Purtschert, Roland; Raghoo, Lauren; Pili, Eric; Carrigan, Charles R

    2016-05-01

    High (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas is proposed as a key evidence for the detection of underground nuclear explosion by the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. However, such a detection is challenged by the natural background of (37)Ar in the subsurface, mainly due to Ca activation by cosmic rays. A better understanding and improved capability to predict (37)Ar activity concentration in the subsurface and its spatial and temporal variability is thus required. A numerical model integrating (37)Ar production and transport in the subsurface is developed, including variable soil water content and water infiltration at the surface. A parameterized equation for (37)Ar production in the first 15 m below the surface is studied, taking into account the major production reactions and the moderation effect of soil water content. Using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification, a realistic and comprehensive probability distribution of natural (37)Ar activity concentrations in soil gas is proposed, including the effects of water infiltration. Site location and soil composition are identified as the parameters allowing for a most effective reduction of the possible range of (37)Ar activity concentrations. The influence of soil water content on (37)Ar production is shown to be negligible to first order, while (37)Ar activity concentration in soil gas and its temporal variability appear to be strongly influenced by transient water infiltration events. These results will be used as a basis for practical CTBTO concepts of operation during an OSI.

  4. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  5. Electrochemical Evidence for Neuroglobin Activity on NO at Physiological Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Trashin, Stanislav; de Jong, Mats; Luyckx, Evi; Dewilde, Sylvia; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-09-02

    The true function of neuroglobin (Ngb) and, particularly, human Ngb (NGB) has been under debate since its discovery 15 years ago. It has been expected to play a role in oxygen binding/supply, but a variety of other functions have been put forward, including NO dioxygenase activity. However, in vitro studies that could unravel these potential roles have been hampered by the lack of an Ngb-specific reductase. In this work, we used electrochemical measurements to investigate the role of an intermittent internal disulfide bridge in determining NO oxidation kinetics at physiological NO concentrations. The use of a polarized electrode to efficiently interconvert the ferric (Fe(3+)) and ferrous (Fe(2+)) forms of an immobilized NGB showed that the disulfide bridge both defines the kinetics of NO dioxygenase activity and regulates appearance of the free ferrous deoxy-NGB, which is the redox active form of the protein in contrast to oxy-NGB. Our studies further identified a role for the distal histidine, interacting with the hexacoordinated iron atom of the heme, in oxidation kinetics. These findings may be relevant in vivo, for example, in blocking apoptosis by reduction of ferric cytochrome c, and gentle tuning of NO concentration in the tissues.

  6. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the "Bay of Cadiz" Natural Park (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Ligero, R A; Vidal, J; Meléndez, M J; Hamani, M; Casas-Ruiz, M

    2009-03-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as (137)Cs, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range=0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders.

  7. Contributions of long-range and regional atmospheric transport on pesticide concentrations along a transect crossing a mountain divide.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Karen S; Hageman, Kimberly J

    2013-02-05

    Twenty-one halogenated legacy and current-use pesticides and pesticide degradation products were measured in pine needles along a coast-to-coast transect that crossed the Southern Alps of New Zealand. Concentration profiles of nine pesticides were used to determine the influence of geographic sources on the atmospheric pesticide burden at the mountain sites. Pesticide concentration profiles were calculated for each source and mountain site by normalizing concentrations (adjusted for temperature at the site and air-needle partitioning) to the sum of all pesticide concentrations at the site. Each mountain site profile was compared to varying mixtures of the potential source profiles to determine the percent contribution of each source. The highest elevation mountain sites were primarily influenced by long-range, synoptic-scale northwesterly winds. Westerly upslope winds had little influence on any of the mountain sites. Easterly upslope winds from the Canterbury Plains, an agricultural region, strongly influenced the mountain sites within close proximity and had progressively less influence with distance.

  8. Detection of lead ions in picomolar concentration range using underpotential deposition on silver nanoparticles-deposited glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramanian, R; Sangaranarayanan, M V

    2011-09-30

    The efficacy of silver-deposited glassy carbon electrode for the determination of lead ions at the sub-nanomolar concentration ranges is investigated. The silver nanoparticles are electrodeposited on glassy carbon electrode using chronoamperometry and the electrode surface is characterized using SEM. Lead ions are detected in the region of underpotential deposition. The analysis is performed in square wave mode in the stripping voltammetry without the removal of oxygen. The detection limit of 10 pM has been obtained with a constant potential of -0.7 V during the electrodeposition step for a period of 50s. The interference of surfactants in the detection of lead ions is also studied.

  9. Quantitation of Teriflunomide in Human Serum/Plasma Across a 40,000-Fold Concentration Range by LC/MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rule, Geoffrey S; Rockwood, Alan L; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L

    2016-01-01

    Leflunomide is a prodrug used primarily for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The active metabolite, teriflunomide (A77 1726), inhibits the enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase and thereby reduces the synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleotides. Teriflunomide is also administered directly and finds use in treating multiple sclerosis. Therapeutic concentrations are generally in the tens of μg/mL serum or plasma and, due to adverse effects and the time required to reach steady state, therapeutic drug monitoring is beneficial. The drug is also a potential teratogen. A method was developed and validated to quantify the drug teriflunomide over a 40,000-fold concentration range of 5 ng/mL to 200 μg/mL in serum or plasma. This is accomplished by dividing the quantitative range into two separate but overlapping regions; a high curve and a low curve range. Samples are evaluated first against the high curve after a 100-fold dilution of the sample extract. Samples falling below the upper curve region are evaluated again without dilution and quantified, if possible, against the low curve calibration standards. Appropriate choice of a concentration for the deuterated internal standard (D4-teriflunomide) allows for a single, identical, extraction procedure to be performed for both curve regions but with the dilution performed for high curve samples. The method is rugged and reliable with good accuracy and precision statistics.

  10. Smart thorium and uranium determination exploiting renewable solid-phase extraction applied to environmental samples in a wide concentration range.

    PubMed

    Avivar, Jessica; Ferrer, Laura; Casas, Montserrat; Cerdà, Víctor

    2011-07-01

    A smart fully automated system is proposed for determination of thorium and uranium in a wide concentration range, reaching environmental levels. The hyphenation of lab-on-valve (LOV) and multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA), coupled to a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell, allows the spectrophotometric determination of thorium and uranium in different types of environmental sample matrices achieving high selectivity and sensitivity levels. Online separation and preconcentration of thorium and uranium is carried out by means of Uranium and TEtraValents Actinides resin. The potential of the LOV-MSFIA makes possible the full automation of the system by the in-line regeneration of the column and its combination with a smart methodology is a step forward in automation. After elution, thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) are spectrophotometrically detected after reaction with arsenazo-III. We propose a rapid, inexpensive, and fully automated method to determine thorium(IV) and uranium(VI) in a wide concentration range (0-1,200 and 0-2,000 μg L(-1) Th and U, respectively). Limits of detection reached are 5.9 ηg L(-1) of uranium and 60 ηg L(-1) of thorium. Different water sample matrices (seawater, well water, freshwater, tap water, and mineral water), and a channel sediment reference material which contained thorium and uranium were satisfactorily analyzed with the proposed method.

  11. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Monomucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-08-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2+ in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MeImpU and 2-MeImpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-linked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of internucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MeImpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  12. Dimerization in Highly Concentrated Solutions of Phosphoimidazolide Activated Mononucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    1997-01-01

    Phosphoimidazolide activated ribomononucleotides (*pN) are useful substrates for the non-enzymatic synthesis of polynucleotides. However, dilute neutral aqueous solutions of *pN typically yield small amounts of dimers and traces of polymers; most of *pN hydrolyzes to yield nucleoside 5'-monophosphate. Here we report the self-condensation of nucleoside 5'-phosphate 2- methylimidazolide (2-MeImpN with N = cytidine, uridine or guanosine) in the presence of Mg2(+) in concentrated solutions, such as might have been found in an evaporating lagoon on prebiotic Earth. The product distribution indicates that oligomerization is favored at the expense of hydrolysis. At 1.0 M, 2-MelmpU and 2-MelmpC produce about 65% of oligomers including 4% of the 3',5'-Iinked dimer. Examination of the product distribution of the three isomeric dimers in a self-condensation allows identification of reaction pathways that lead to dimer formation. Condensations in a concentrated mixture of all three nucleotides (U,C,G mixtures) is made possible by the enhanced solubility of 2-MeImpG in such mixtures. Although percent yield of intemucleotide linked dimers is enhanced as a function of initial monomer concentration, pyrophosphate dimer yields remain practically unchanged at about 20% for 2-MelmpU, 16% for 2-MeImpC and 25% of the total pyrophosphate in the U,C,G mixtures. The efficiency by which oligomers are produced in these concentrated solutions makes the evaporating lagoon scenario a potentially interesting medium for the prebiotic synthesis of dimers and short RNAs.

  13. Metal concentration and antioxidant activity of edible mushrooms from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Kocak, Mehmet Sefa; Uren, Mehmet Cemil

    2015-05-15

    This study presents information on the antioxidant activity and heavy metal concentrations of Polyporus sulphureus, Macrolepiota procera, Lycoperdon perlatum and Gomphus clavatus mushrooms collected from the province of Mugla in the South-Aegean Region of Turkey. Antioxidant activities of mushroom samples were evaluated by four complementary tests. All tests showed L. perlatum and G. clavatus to possess extremely high antioxidant potential. Antioxidant activity of the samples was strongly correlated with total phenolic-flavonoid content. In terms of heavy metal content, L. perlatum exceeded the legal limits for daily intake of Pb, Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni and Co contents (0.461, 738.00, 14.52, 1.27, 1.65, 0.417 mg/day, respectively) by a 60-kg consumer. Co contents of M. procera (0.026 mg/day) and P. sulphureus (0.030 mg/day) and Cd contents of G. clavatus (0.071 mg/day) were also above the legal limits. According to these results, L. perlatum should not be consumed, despite the potentially beneficial antioxidant activity. Additionally, M. procera and G. clavatus should not be consumed daily due to their high levels of Cd and Co.

  14. Organochlorine contaminant concentrations in multiple tissues of free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Beckmen, Kimberlee B; Keogh, Mandy J; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Ylitalo, Gina M; Fadely, Brian S; Pitcher, Kenneth W

    2016-01-15

    The relationships of selected organochlorine (OC) contaminants between blubber, blood, feces, and milk of young, free-ranging Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) were examined. Both between and within each tissue there was considerable individual variation. In spite of the variation, similar patterns were observed across the tissues for most of the selected PCB congeners. In all four tissues, the major PCB congeners were PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, and PCB153. The most prominent congener, both as a weight (ng/g lipid) and as a percentage of summed PCBs (∑PCBs), was PCB 153. Comparisons between paired tissues showed that ∑DDTs in blubber samples were related to concentrations in blood, feces, and milk. The ∑PCBs in blubber were related to concentrations in milk and fecal samples, though the relationship with feces was weak. Our findings show milk samples, in particular, are useful for assessing OCs in young sea lions. Blubber concentrations of PCB101, PCB118, and PCB138 were an order of magnitude higher than those in milk, supporting the biomagnification of these PCB congeners in SSL tissues. The findings indicate alternative tissues may be used as indicators of relative contaminant exposure in lieu of surgical blubber biopsy.

  15. Diagnosing pregnancy in free-ranging dugongs using fecal progesterone metabolite concentrations and body morphometrics: a population application.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Elizabeth A; Lanyon, Janet M; Brown, Janine L; Blyde, David; Keeley, Tamara

    2012-05-15

    Assessing reproductive status and monitoring reproductive rates is important in the effective management of vulnerable marine mammal species such as the dugong (Dugong dugon). Knowledge of the reproductive physiology of this species is limited, and determining reproductive parameters (e.g., sexual maturation, pregnancy, and reproductive senescence) has been restricted by a lack of non-lethal methods for assessing reproductive status in free-ranging individuals. The aim of this study was to develop a method to identify pregnant individuals in a wild dugong population. Using an enzymeimmunoassay, we quantified concentrations of fecal progesterone metabolites (fP) in 322 dugongs, including confirmed pregnant females (n=10), presumed non-pregnant adult females (n=25), juvenile females (n=24), subadult females (n=41), adult females of unknown pregnancy state (n=63), and males of all sizes (n=159). External body morphometrics of each dugong were measured, and confirmation of pregnancy in adult female dugongs was determined by ultrasonography or observation of subsequent neonates. Concentrations of fP were different between sexes and reproductive size classes (P<0.001), and ∼30-fold higher in confirmed pregnant dugongs (2017-7760 ng/g) compared to presumed non-pregnant females (30-221 ng/g), juvenile females (29-195 ng/g), and males (24-261 ng/g) (P<0.001). Body measures of maximum and anal girths, and teat length were all greater in confirmed pregnant females than presumed non-pregnant females (all P<0.05). We evaluated a Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) to provide a model for predicting pregnant and non-pregnant dugongs. Cross-validated results showed that the DFA correctly classified 100% of pregnant and non-pregnant females using fP concentrations, body length, fineness ratio (an index of body shape), and teat length (a female reproductive trait). Using the DFA model, we classified the pregnancy status of all female dugongs and identified a total of 30 females

  16. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  17. Activation of Lumbar Spinal Wide-Dynamic Range Neurons by a Sanshool Derivative

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Carolyn M.; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Simons, Christopher T.; Slack, Jay; McCluskey, T. Scott; Furrer, Stefan; Carstens, E.

    2009-01-01

    The enigmatic sensation of tingle involves the activation of primary sensory neurons by hydroxy-α-sanshool, a tingly agent in Szechuan peppers, by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels. Central mechanisms mediating tingle sensation are unknown. We investigated whether a stable derivative of sanshool—isobutylalkenyl amide (IBA)—excites wide-dynamic range (WDR) spinal neurons that participate in transmission of chemesthetic information from the skin. In anesthetized rats, the majority of WDR and low-threshold units responded to intradermal injection of IBA in a dose-related manner over a >5-min time course and exhibited tachyphylaxis at higher concentrations (1 and 10%). Almost all WDR and low-threshold units additionally responded to the pungent agents mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) and/or capsaicin, prompting reclassification of the low-threshold cells as WDR. The results are discussed in terms of the functional role of WDR neurons in mediating tingle sensation. PMID:19164099

  18. Activation of lumbar spinal wide-dynamic range neurons by a sanshool derivative.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Carolyn M; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Simons, Christopher T; Slack, Jay; McCluskey, T Scott; Furrer, Stefan; Carstens, E

    2009-04-01

    The enigmatic sensation of tingle involves the activation of primary sensory neurons by hydroxy-alpha-sanshool, a tingly agent in Szechuan peppers, by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels. Central mechanisms mediating tingle sensation are unknown. We investigated whether a stable derivative of sanshool-isobutylalkenyl amide (IBA)-excites wide-dynamic range (WDR) spinal neurons that participate in transmission of chemesthetic information from the skin. In anesthetized rats, the majority of WDR and low-threshold units responded to intradermal injection of IBA in a dose-related manner over a >5-min time course and exhibited tachyphylaxis at higher concentrations (1 and 10%). Almost all WDR and low-threshold units additionally responded to the pungent agents mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) and/or capsaicin, prompting reclassification of the low-threshold cells as WDR. The results are discussed in terms of the functional role of WDR neurons in mediating tingle sensation.

  19. Photosynthetic capacity is negatively correlated with the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds across a range of different species

    PubMed Central

    Sumbele, Sally; Fotelli, Mariangela N.; Nikolopoulos, Dimosthenis; Tooulakou, Georgia; Liakoura, Vally; Liakopoulos, Georgios; Bresta, Panagiota; Dotsika, Elissavet; Adams, Mark A.; Karabourniotis, George

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Phenolic compounds are the most commonly studied of all secondary metabolites because of their significant protective–defensive roles and their significant concentration in plant tissues. However, there has been little study on relationships between gas exchange parameters and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds (total phenolics (TP) and condensed tannins (CT)) across a range of species. Therefore, we addressed the question: is there any correlation between photosynthetic capacity (Amax) and TP and CT across species from different ecosystems in different continents? Methodology A plethora of functional and structural parameters were measured in 49 plant species following different growth strategies from five sampling sites located in Greece and Australia. The relationships between several leaf traits were analysed by means of regression and principal component analysis. Principal results The results revealed a negative relationship between TP and CT and Amax among the different plant species, growth strategies and sampling sites, irrespective of expression (with respect to mass, area or nitrogen content). Principal component analysis showed that high concentrations of TP and CT are associated with thick, dense leaves with low nitrogen. This leaf type is characterized by low growth, Amax and transpiration rates, and is common in environments with low water and nutrient availability, high temperatures and high light intensities. Therefore, the high TP and CT in such leaves are compatible with the protective and defensive functions ascribed to them. Conclusions Our results indicate a functional integration between carbon gain and the concentration of leaf phenolic compounds that reflects the trade-off between growth and defence/protection demands, depending on the growth strategy adopted by each species. PMID:23050073

  20. Calculating Capstone depleted uranium aerosol concentrations from beta activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Alberth, David P

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the DU source term for the subsequent Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Values for the equilibrium fraction ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92. This paper describes the process used and adjustments necessary to calculate uranium mass from proportional counting measurements.

  1. Nonionic surfactants enhancing bactericidal activity at their critical micelle concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tobe, Seiichi; Majima, Toshiaki; Tadenuma, Hirohiko; Suekuni, Tomonari; Sakai, Kenichi; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Bactericidal activities of benzalkonium chloride [also known as alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC)] containing nonionic surfactants such as methyl ester ethoxylates (MEE) with the alkyl group C8-C14 and oxyethylene (EO) group of average adduct number 3-15 were measured against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Sample solutions containing MEE in the vicinity of the critical micelle concentration exhibited a dramatic decrease in viable bacterial counts. MEE with an alkyl group of C12 and an oxyethylene group of lower adduct number exhibited little viable bacterial counts than those having higher EO adduct numbers. MEE with reduced EO adduct numbers increased fluorescence intensity in E. coli using the viability stain SYTO 9. Our results show that MEE molecules with low EO adduct numbers exhibited bactericidal activity by increasing the permeability of the E. coli cell membrane. Sample solution containing ADBAC and MEE molecules with lower EO adduct numbers also displayed higher zeta potentials. Moreover, ADBAC molecules incorporated into micelles of MEE with lower EO adduct numbers were adsorbed onto the surface of E. coli, which augmented bactericidal activity.

  2. Assessment of thrombogenicity of activated and non-activated prothrombin concentrates in a rat model.

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, S.; Fareed, J.; Walenga, J.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro clotting activity of rats injected with different preparations of prothrombin concentrates was measured. Animals rendered deficient in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors by early coumadin (warfarin) pretreatment, followed by injections of concentrate preparations were also evaluated. Findings indicate a dose-related response in abnormal coagulation changes demonstrable with each preparation and lack of protection of intravascular coagulation by coumadin anticoagulation. Furthermore, a role for in vivo factor VII activation of haemostasis following concentrate administration could not be elicited. PMID:3091059

  3. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were <1.4 ppm for flight measurement altitudes >6 km.

  4. Blood concentrations of some persistent organohalogens in free-ranging spotted seals (Phoca largha) from Bristol Bay, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Neale, Jennifer C C; Small, Robert J; Schmelzer, Kara R; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2007-10-01

    In recent years, the relatively high levels of organochlorine contaminants and increasing levels of brominated flame retardants found in tissues of marine mammals have raised concerns that exposure to these marine pollutants may compromise individual health. In this pilot study, levels of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls, 3 polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and the DDT metabolite p,p'-diphenyldichloroethylene were analyzed in whole blood of 7 free-ranging spotted seals (Phoca largha) from Bristol Bay, Alaska, sampled during 2000 and 2001. Blood concentrations of analytes were generally low (<1 ppb wet weight). Open-ocean foraging and feeding on a lower trophic level may contribute to the relatively lower levels of organohalogens found in this species as compared to the closely related harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, occurring in Bristol Bay.

  5. An exonuclease I-based label-free fluorometric aptasensor for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) detection with a wide concentration range.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanli; Chen, Yanxia; Li, Huanhuan; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan; Wang, Gufeng

    2015-01-15

    A novel aptamer-based label-free assay for sensitive and selective detection of ATP was developed. This assay employs a new aptamer/fluorescent probe system that shows resistance to exonuclease I (Exo I) digestion upon binding to ATP molecules. In the absence of ATP, the complex between the ATP-binding aptamer (ATP-aptamer) and a DNA binding dye, berberine, is digested upon the addition of exonuclease I, leading to the release of berberine into solution and consequently, quenched berberine fluorescence. In the presence of ATP, the ATP-binding aptamer folds into a G-quadruplex structure that is resistant to Exo I digestion. Accordingly, berberine is protected in the G-quadruplex structure and high fluorescence intensity is observed. As such, based on the fluorescence signal change, a label-free fluorescence assay for ATP was developed. Factors affecting the analysis of ATP including the concentration of ATP-binding aptamer, reaction time, temperature and the concentration of Exo I were comprehensively investigated. Under optimal conditions, the fluorescence intensity of the sensing system displayed a response for ATP in a wide range up to 17.5 mM with a detection limit of 140 nM.

  6. Regulation of the Nucleosome Repeat Length In Vivo by the DNA Sequence, Protein Concentrations and Long-Range Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Beshnova, Daria A.; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Vainshtein, Yevhen; Teif, Vladimir B.

    2014-01-01

    The nucleosome repeat length (NRL) is an integral chromatin property important for its biological functions. Recent experiments revealed several conflicting trends of the NRL dependence on the concentrations of histones and other architectural chromatin proteins, both in vitro and in vivo, but a systematic theoretical description of NRL as a function of DNA sequence and epigenetic determinants is currently lacking. To address this problem, we have performed an integrative biophysical and bioinformatics analysis in species ranging from yeast to frog to mouse where NRL was studied as a function of various parameters. We show that in simple eukaryotes such as yeast, a lower limit for the NRL value exists, determined by internucleosome interactions and remodeler action. For higher eukaryotes, also the upper limit exists since NRL is an increasing but saturating function of the linker histone concentration. Counterintuitively, smaller H1 variants or non-histone architectural proteins can initiate larger effects on the NRL due to entropic reasons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that different regimes of the NRL dependence on histone concentrations exist depending on whether DNA sequence-specific effects dominate over boundary effects or vice versa. We consider several classes of genomic regions with apparently different regimes of the NRL variation. As one extreme, our analysis reveals that the period of oscillations of the nucleosome density around bound RNA polymerase coincides with the period of oscillations of positioning sites of the corresponding DNA sequence. At another extreme, we show that although mouse major satellite repeats intrinsically encode well-defined nucleosome preferences, they have no unique nucleosome arrangement and can undergo a switch between two distinct types of nucleosome positioning. PMID:24992723

  7. Sediment yield from the tectonically active semiarid Western Transverse Ranges of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Mertes, L.A.K.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment yields from the world's rivers are generally highest from steep drainage basins with weak lithology, active tectonics, or severe land-use impacts. Here, we evaluate sediment yields from the Western Transverse Ranges of California in an attempt to explain why they are two- to tenfold greater than the surrounding areas of California. We found that suspended-sediment yields across the gauged basins of the Western Transverse Range during 1969-1999 varied by approximately an order of magnitude (740-5300 t/km2/yr). Similarly, fine-sediment concentrations for normalized discharge rates varied by almost two orders of magnitude (e.g., 1.3-110 g/L for the mean annual flood) for 11 previously unmonitored drainages of the Santa Ynez Mountains. Areas with high sediment yields consistently have weakly consolidated bedrock (Quaternary-Pliocene marine formations) and are associated with the highest rates of tectonic uplift of the region (>5 mm/yr). These regions are important to the sediment discharge budgets, because ???50% of the total suspended-sediment discharge from the Western Transverse Range is estimated to be generated within these regions, even though they represent only ???10% of the total watershed area. Previous estimates of suspended-sediment discharge from the Ventura River have likely been underestimated by ???50% because the gauging station is located immediately upstream of a high sediment yield region. We also found a significant and positive correlation between sediment yield and the percentage of a watershed with grassland and agricultural land use. These results suggest that there is adequate variation within the lithology, tectonics, and land use of the broader Western Transverse Range geologic province to induce large variations in sediment yield at the local scale. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  8. Frugivory is associated with low measures of plasma oxidative stress and high antioxidant concentration in free-ranging bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneeberger, Karin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Voigt, Christian C.

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative stress—an imbalance between reactive pro- and neutralising antioxidants—damages cell structures and impairs fitness-relevant traits such as longevity and reproduction. Theory predicts that feeding on diets with high antioxidant content such as fruits should reduce oxidative stress; however, there is no support of this idea in free-ranging mammals. Bats cover a large variety of ecological niches, and therefore, we asked if measures of oxidative stress are lower in species with fruit diets. We measured reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) representing total pro-oxidants produced and antioxidants in the plasma of 33 Neotropical bat species. Species with a fruit diet showed the lowest level of ROM and the highest concentration of antioxidants, followed by omnivorous and animalivorous species. Potentially, frugivorous species ingest more antioxidants with food and thus are able to neutralise more pro-oxidants than species not feeding on fruits, resulting in an overall lower level of oxidative stress. We therefore showed for the first time that measures of oxidative stress vary according to diets in free-ranging mammals.

  9. 78 FR 33809 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Roper Corporation; Subzone 26G (Kitchen Ranges...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... Production Activity; Roper Corporation; Subzone 26G (Kitchen Ranges); Lafayette, Georgia Roper Corporation... currently has authority to produce various types of kitchen ranges using certain imported components. The... choose the duty rates during customs entry procedures that apply to gas and electric kitchen ranges...

  10. Study of the adsorption of Cd and Zn onto an activated carbon: Influence of pH, cation concentration, and adsorbent concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, A.; Marzal, P.; Gabaldon, C.; Ferrer, J.

    1999-06-01

    The single adsorption of Cd and Zn from aqueous solutions has been investigated on Scharlau Ca 346 granular activated carbon in a wide range of experimental conditions: pH, metal concentration, and carbon concentration. The results showed the efficiency of the activated carbon as sorbent for both metals. Metal removals increase on raising the pH and carbon concentration, and decrease on raising the initial metal concentration. The adsorption processes have been modeled using the surface complex formation (SCF) Triple Layer Model (TLM). The adsorbent TLM parameters were determined. Modeling has been performed assuming a single surface bidentate species or an overall surface species with fractional stoichiometry. The bidentate stoichiometry successfully predicted cadmium and zinc removals in all the experimental conditions. The Freundlich isotherm has been also checked.

  11. Active-site concentrations of chemicals - are they a better predictor of effect than plasma/organ/tissue concentrations?

    PubMed

    Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2010-03-01

    Active-site concentrations can be defined as the concentrations of unbound, pharmacologically active substances at the site of action. In contrast, the total concentrations of the drug in plasma/organ/tissue also include the protein- or tissue-bound molecules that are pharmacologically inactive. Plasma and whole tissue concentrations are used as predictors of effects and side effects because of their ease of sampling, while the concentrations of unbound drug in tissue are more difficult to measure. However, with the introduction of microdialysis and subsequently developed techniques, it has become possible to test the free drug hypothesis. The brain is an interesting organ in this regard because of the presence of the blood-brain barrier with its tight junctions and active efflux and influx transporters. We have proposed that research into brain drug delivery be divided into three main areas: the rate of delivery (PS, CL(in)), the extent of delivery (K(p,uu)) and the non-specific affinity of the drug to brain tissue, described by the volume of distribution of unbound drug in the brain (V(u,brain)). In this way, the concentration of unbound drug at the target site can be estimated from the total brain concentration and the plasma concentration after measuring the fraction of unbound drug. Results so far fully support the theory that active site concentrations are the best predictors when active transport is present. However, there is an urgent need to collect more relevant data for predicting active site concentrations in tissues with active transporters in their plasma membranes.

  12. Radon activity concentrations and effective doses in ancient Egyptian tombs of the Valley of the Kings.

    PubMed

    Hafez, A F; Hussein, A S

    2001-09-01

    Radon concentrations and equilibrium factors were measured in three pharaonic tombs during the year 1998. The tombs, which are open to the public are located in a limestone wadi on the West Bank of the River Nile at Luxor, 650 km south of Cairo. The radon activity concentration and equilibrium factor were measured monthly by two-integral nuclear track detectors (bare and diffusion detectors). Seasonal variation of radon concentrations, with summer maximum and winter minimum were observed in all tombs investigated. The yearly mean radon activity concentrations insidc the tombs ranged from 540 to 3115 Bq m(-3). The mean equilibrium factor over a year was found to be 0.25 and 0.32 inside and at the entrance, respectively. Estimated annual effective doses to tour guides ranged from 0.33 to 1.90 mSv, visitors receive doses from 0.65 to 3.80 microSv per visit. The effective dose to tomb workers did not exceed the 20 mSv yr(-1) limit.

  13. Platelet activating factor raises intracellular calcium ion concentration in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Peritoneal cells from thioglycollate-stimulated mice were allowed to adhere to coverglasses for 2 h to give a dense monolayer of adherent cells greater than 95% of which were macrophages. After incubation with the tetra-acetoxymethyl ester of quin2, coverglasses were rinsed with Ca2+-free saline, oriented at a 45 degree angle in square cuvettes containing a magnetically driven stir bar, and analyzed for changes in quin2 fluorescence in a spectrofluorimeter. Such fluorescence, taken as an indication of intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i), increased as exogenous calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]o) was raised to 1 mM. At [Ca2+]o approximately equal to 10 microM, [Ca2+]i = 72 +/- 14 nM (n = 26); at [Ca2+]o = 1 mM, [Ca2+]i = 140-220 nM, levels not increased by N, N, N', N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine, a membrane-permeant chelator of heavy metals than can quench quin2. Addition of mouse alpha + beta fibroblast interferon, lipopolysaccharide, thrombin, collagen, vasopressin, ADP, compound 48/80, or U46619 did not change [Ca2+]i. However, addition of platelet activating factor (PAF) (2-20 ng/ml) raised [Ca2+]i by 480 nM within 1 min if [Ca2+]o = 1 mM. In the presence of 5 mM EGTA, PAF raised [Ca2+]i by 25 nM. This suggests that PAF causes influx of exogenous Ca2+, as well as releasing some Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Consistent with these results, when PAF was added to 1 mM Ca2+ in the presence of 100 microM Cd2+ or Mn2+ to block Ca2+ influx, [Ca2+]i increased by only intermediate amounts; at the times of such dampened peak response, [Ca2+]i could be raised within 1 min to normal PAF-stimulated levels by chelation of the exogenous heavy metals with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. Normal PAF responses were observed in the presence of indomethacin. The lowest dose of PAF observed to raise [Ca2+]i was 0.1 ng/ml. Response of [Ca2+]i to 2-20 ng/ml PAF was transient, and second applications had no effect. The PAF response also was seen in

  14. Coupling and optimisation of online nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry for process monitoring to cover the broad range of process concentration.

    PubMed

    Blanazs, Alexander; Bristow, Tony W T; Coombes, Steven R; Corry, Tom; Nunn, Mike; Ray, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Real time online monitoring of chemical processes can be carried out by a number of analytical techniques, including optical and vibrational spectroscopies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). As each technique has unique advantages and challenges, combinations are an attractive option. The combination of a 500-MHz (1) H NMR and a small footprint mass spectrometer to monitor a batch reaction at process concentration was investigated. The mass spectrometer was coupled into the flow path of an online reaction monitoring NMR. Reaction mixture was pumped from a 100-ml vessel to an NMR flow tube before returning to the vessel. Small aliquots were diverted into a sampling make-up flow using an active flow splitter and passed to the mass spectrometer. Advantages of the combination were observed. (1) H NMR was ideal for quantitation of high level components, whereas MS showed a greater capability for detecting those at low level. In preliminary experiments MS produced a limited linear relationship with concentration (0.02% to 2% relative concentration, 0.01 mg/ml-1.25 mg/ml), because of signal saturation at the higher concentrations. NMR was unable to detect components below 0.1% relative to concentration maximum. Optimisation of sample transfer to the MS extended the linearity to 10% relative to the concentration maximum. Therefore, the combination of online NMR and MS allows both qualitative and quantitative analysis of reaction components over the full process range. The application of the combination was demonstrated by monitoring a batch chemical reaction and this is described. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

  16. A Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Trypanosoma rangeli modulated by exogenous inorganic phosphate.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-de-Souza, André L; Dick, Claudia Fernanda; Dos Santos, André Luiz Araújo; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2008-08-01

    In this work, we characterized a Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity present in live Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes. This enzyme showed capacity to hydrolyze the artificial substrate for phosphatases, p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP). At saturating concentration of p-NPP, half-maximal p-NPP hydrolysis was obtained with 0.23mM Mg(2+). Ca(2+) had no effect on the basal phosphatase activity, could not substitute Mg(2+) as an activator and in contrast inhibited the p-NPP hydrolysis stimulated by Mg(2+). The dependence on p-NPP concentration showed a normal Michaelis-Menten kinetics for this phosphatase activity with values of V(max) of 8.94+/-0.36 nmol p-NP x h(-1) x 10(-7) cells and apparent K(m) of 1.04+/-0.16 mM p-NPP. Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity was stimulated by the alkaline pH range. Experiments using inhibitors, such as, sodium fluoride, sodium orthovanadate and ammonium molybdate, inhibited the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. Inorganic phosphate (Pi), a product of phosphatases, inhibited reversibly in 50% this activity. Okadaic acid and microcystin-LR, specific phosphoserine/threonine phosphatase inhibitors, inhibited significantly the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity. In addition, this phosphatase activity was able to recognize as substrates only o-phosphoserine and o-phosphothreonine, while o-phosphotyrosine was not a good substrate for this phosphatase. Epimastigote forms of T. rangeli exhibit a typical growth curve, achieving the stationary phase around fifth or sixth day and the Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity decreased around 10-fold with the cell growth progression. Cells maintained at Pi-deprived medium (2 mM Pi) present Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-phosphatase activity approximately threefold higher than that maintained at Pi-supplemented medium (50 mM Pi).

  17. The effects of a single game of rugby on active cervical range of motion.

    PubMed

    Lark, Sally D; McCarthy, Peter W

    2009-03-01

    The cumulative effect of playing rugby over many years decreases active cervical range of motion, especially in the forwards. This in itself should influence long-term neck care; however, it leaves the important question of how noticeable the acute effects of active cervical range of motion are following a single game. The active cervical range of motion was measured in 21 elite rugby players (mean age 24.4 +/- 4.3 years; average professional career of 7 +/- 3.4 years) before and after a single game of rugby at the start of the season. The active cervical range of motion was recorded in flexion, extension, left and right side flexion, plus left and right rotation using a cervical range of motion device. The results show generally decreased active cervical range of motion from before to after a game independent of position played. Rugby backs had significantly (P < 0.05) reduced active cervical range of motion in flexion, while forwards were affected in extension and left lateral flexion (P < 0.05). These results highlight that a single game of rugby can reduce functional capacity of the neck (active cervical range of motion), and the affected neck movement appears to be related to the role of positional play. The authors suggest that neck training and muscle damage repair should be an important part of a rugby player's post-game recovery to limit the reduction in functional capacity.

  18. Real-time sensing of soil nitrate concentration in the parts per million range while the soil is in motion.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roger W; Rathke, Samuel J; Laird, David A; McClelland, John F

    2013-09-01

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) is a term used to describe non-nitrogen gas (non-N2) forms of nitrogen (N) in the biosphere. It causes major pollution problems when it occurs in excess, and it has many sources, including fertilizers used in production agriculture. Currently there is no on-the-go soil nitrate sensor that could guide the application of the optimal amount of fertilizer, which often varies significantly within a field. We report for the first time nitrate-in-soil measurements performed on moving soil samples at concentration levels relevant for fertilizer application. An infrared emission technique called transient infrared spectroscopy (TIRS) was tested on soil samples spiked with different nitrate concentrations in the parts-per-million range and moving at a velocity of 2.6 m/s (5.8 miles per hour) in the laboratory. The TIRS Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were modeled by partial least squares and produced a standard error of cross-validation (SECV) of 6.3 parts per million (ppm) N and an R(2) of 0.938 for 512-scan spectra. These results are compared to those using fewer TIRS scans and to those from photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements on stationary samples. TIRS 128-, 32-, and 8-scan spectra yielded SECVs of 11.2, 11.4, and 18.4 ppm N and R(2) values of 0.800, 0.831, and 0.583, respectively. The PAS and DRIFTS measurements produced SECVs of 12.4 and 9.0 ppm N and R(2) values of 0.766 and 0.876, respectively.

  19. Effect of the surface heterogeneity of the stationary phase on the range of concentration for linear chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-02-01

    The range of sample sizes within which linear chromatographic behavior is achieved in a column depends on the surface heterogeneity of the RPLC adsorbents. Two widely different commercial adsorbents were tested, the end-capped XTerra-C{sub 18} and the non-end-capped Resolve-C{sub 18}. Adsorption isotherm data of caffeine were acquired by frontal analysis. These data were modeled and used to calculate the adsorption energy distribution (AED). This double analysis informs on the degree of surface heterogeneity. The best adsorption isotherm models are the bi-Langmuir and the tetra-Langmuir isotherms for XTerra and Resolve, respectively. Their respective AEDs are bimodal and quadrimodal distributions. This interpretation of the results and the actual presence of a low density of high-energy adsorption sites on Resolve-C{sub 18} were validated by measuring the dependence of the peak retention times on the size of caffeine samples (20-{micro}L volume, concentrations 10, 1, 0.1, 1 x 10{sup -2}, 1 x 10{sup -3}, 1 x 10{sup -4}, and 1 x 10{sup -5} g/L). The experimental chromatograms agree closely with the band profiles calculated from the best isotherms. On Resolve-C{sub 18}, the retention time decreases by 40% when the sample concentration is increased from 1 x 10{sup -5} to 10 g/L. The decrease is only 10% for Xterra-C{sub 18} under the same conditions. The upper limit for linear behavior is 1 x 10{sup -4} g/L for the former adsorbent and 0.01 g/L for the latter. The presence of a few high-energy adsorption sites on Resolve-C{sub 18}, with an adsorption energy 20 kJ/mol larger than that of the low-energy sites while the same difference on Xterra is only 5 kJ/mol, explains this difference. The existence of adsorption sites with a very high energy for certain compounds affects the reproducibility of their retention times and a rapid loss of efficiency in a sample size range within which linear behavior is incorrectly anticipated.

  20. Leaf traits and photosynthetic responses of Betula pendula saplings to a range of ground-level ozone concentrations at a range of nitrogen loads.

    PubMed

    Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Sharps, Katrina; Mills, Gina; Calatayud, Vicent

    2017-04-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations and atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition rates have increased strongly since the 1950s. Rising ground-level O3 concentrations and atmospheric N deposition both affect plant physiology and growth, however, impacts have often been studied in isolation rather than in combination. In addition, studies are often limited to a control treatment and one or two elevated levels of ozone and/or nitrogen supply. In the current study, three-year old Betula pendula saplings were exposed to seven different O3 profiles (24h mean O3 concentration of 36-68ppb in 2013, with peaks up to an average of 105ppb) in precision-controlled hemispherical glasshouses (solardomes) and four different N loads (10, 30, 50 or 70kgNha(-1)y(-1)) in 2012 and 2013. Here we report on the effects of enhanced O3 concentrations and N load on leaf traits and gas exchange in leaves of varying age and developmental stage in 2013. The response of leaf traits to O3 (but not N) vary with leaf developmental stage. For example, elevated O3 did not affect the chlorophyll content of the youngest fully expanded leaf, but it reduced the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic parameters in aging leaves, relatively more so later than earlier in the growing season. Elevated O3 enhanced the N content of senesced leaves prior to leaf fall, potentially affecting subsequent N cycling in the soil. Enhanced N generally stimulated the chlorophyll content and photosynthetic capacity. Whilst elevated O3 reduced the light-saturated rate of photosynthesis (Asat) in aging leaves, it did not affect stomatal conductance (gs). This suggests that photosynthesis and gs are not closely coupled at elevated O3 under-light saturating conditions. We did not observe any interactions between O3 and N regarding photosynthetic parameters (Vc,max, Jmax, Asat), chlorophyll content, gs, N content in senesced leaves and leaf number. Hence, the sensitivity of these leaf traits to O3 in young silver birch trees is

  1. Platelet Activation by Low Concentrations of Intact Oxidized LDL Particles Involves the PAF Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Xi; Salomon, Robert G.; McIntyre, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mitochondrial depolarization aids platelet activation. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) contains the medium length oxidatively truncated phospholipid hexadecyl azelaoyl-lysoPAF (HAz-LPAF) that disrupts mitochondrial function in nucleated cells, so oxLDL may augment platelet activation. Methods and Results Flow cytometry showed intact oxLDL particles synergized with sub-threshold amounts of soluble agonists to increase intracellular Ca++, and initiate platelet aggregation and surface expression of activated gpIIb/IIIa and P-selectin. oxLDL also induced aggregation and increased intracellular Ca++ in FURA2-labeled cells by itself at low, although not higher, concentrations. HAz-LPAF, alone and in combination with sub-stimulatory amounts of thrombin, rapidly increased cytoplasmic Ca++ and initiated aggregation. HAz-LPAF depolarized mitochondria in intact platelets, but this required concentrations beyond those that directly activated platelets. An unexpectedly large series of chemically pure truncated phospholipids generated by oxidative fragmentation of arachidonoyl-, docosahexaneoyl-, or linoleoyl alkyl phospholipids were platelet agonists. The PAF receptor, thought to effectively recognize only phospholipids with very short sn-2 residues, was essential for platelet activation because PAF receptor agonists blocked signaling by all these medium length phospholipids and oxLDL. Conclusions Intact oxLDL particles activate platelets through the PAF receptor, and the PAF receptor responds to a far wider range of oxidized phospholipids in oxLDL than anticipated. PMID:19112165

  2. Measurements of 222Rn activity concentration in domestic water sources in Penang, northern peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, B G; Jaafar, M S; Azhar, A R; Akpa, T C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of (222)Rn activity concentration were carried out in 39 samples collected from the domestic and drinking water sources used in the island and mainland of Penang, northern peninsular, Malaysia. The measured activity concentrations ranged from 7.49 to 26.25 Bq l(-1), 0.49 to 9.72 Bq l(-1) and 0.58 to 2.54 Bq l(-1) in the raw, treated and bottled water samples collected, respectively. This indicated relatively high radon concentrations compared with that from other parts of the world, which still falls below the WHO recommended treatment level of 100 Bq l(-1). From this data, the age-dependent associated committed effective doses due to the ingestion of (222)Rn as a consequence of direct consumption of drinking water were calculated. The committed effective doses from (222)Rn resulting from 1 y's consumption of these water were estimated to range from 0.003 to 0.048, 0.001 to 0.018 and 0.002 to 0.023 mSv y(-1), for age groups 0-1, 2-16 and >16 y, respectively.

  3. Estimating concentrations of fine-grained and total suspended sediment from close-range remote sensing imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Spicer, Kurt R.; Christianson, Tami; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    data range among sensors. Of greatest interest to many programs is a hysteresis in the relationship between turbidity and SSC, attributed to temporal variation of particle size distribution (Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). This phenomenon causes increased uncertainty in regression-estimated values of SSC, due to changes in nephelometric reflectance off the varying grain sizes in suspension (Uhrich et al., 2014). Here, we assess the feasibility and application of close-range remote sensing to quantify SSC and particle size distribution of a disturbed, and highly-turbid, river system. We use a consumer-grade digital camera to acquire imagery of the river surface and a depth-integrating sampler to collect concurrent suspended-sediment samples. We then develop two empirical linear regression models to relate image spectral information to concentrations of fine sediment (clay to silt) and total suspended sediment. Before presenting our regression model development, we briefly summarize each data-acquisition method.

  4. The relation of seismic activity and radon concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Kulali, Feride E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Akkurt, İskender E-mail: iskender@fef.sdu.edu.tr; Vogiannis, Efstratios

    2014-10-06

    Radon, which is the largest source of natural ionizing radiation, reaches to surface as gas or dissolved form in the ground water. Emanation of radon can has a profile is disposed to increasing or decreasing depending on the effects of meteorological events or crust movements. In this work, the radon concentration in soil gas, which is transported from soil to AlphaGUARD, is continuously measured in Mytilene (Greece). A graph of radon concentration is prepared for comparison with simultaneous earthquake data. As a consequence of comparison, we determined that the radon concentration indicates anomalies before the earthquakes.

  5. Field Demonstrations of Active Laser Ranging with Sub-mm Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yijiang; Birnbaum, Kevin M.; Hemmati, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Precision ranging between planets will provide valuable information for scientific studies of the solar system and fundamental physics. Current passive ranging techniques using retro-reflectors are limited to the Earth-Moon distance due to the 1/R? losses. We report on a laboratory realization and field implementation of active laser ranging in real-time with two terminals, emulating interplanetary distance. Sub-millimeter accuracy is demonstrated.

  6. Low Concentration of Silver Nanoparticles Not Only Enhances the Activity of Horseradish Peroxidase but Alter the Structure Also

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Zoheb; Adnan, Rohana; Ansari, Mohd Saquib

    2012-01-01

    Chemical synthesis of Ag-NPs was carried out using reduction method. The reduction mechanistic approach of silver ions was found to be a basic clue for the formation of the Ag-NPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR and TEM analysis. We had designed some experiments in support of our hypothesis, “low concentrations of novel nanoparticles (silver and gold) increases the activity of plant peroxidases and alter their structure also”, we had used Ag-NPs and HRP as models. The immobilization/interaction experiment had demonstrated the specific concentration range of the Ag-NPs and within this range, an increase in HRP activity was reported. At 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, 50% increase in the activity yield was found. The U.V-vis spectra had demonstrated the increase in the absorbance of HRP within the reported concentration range (0.06–0.12 mM). Above and below this concentration range there was a decrease in the activity of HRP. The results that we had found from the fluorescence spectra were also in favor of our hypothesis. There was a maximum increase in ellipticity and α-helix contents in the presence of 0.08 mM concentration of Ag-NPs, demonstrated by circular dichroism (CD) spectra. Finally, incubation of a plant peroxidase, HRP with Ag-NPs, within the reported concentration range not only enhances the activity but also alter the structure. PMID:22848490

  7. Transsulfuration is an active pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in Trypanosoma rangeli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions such as protein biosynthesis, methylation, and polyamine and glutathione syntheses. In trypanosomatids, glutathione is conjugated with spermidine to form the specific antioxidant thiol trypanothione (T[SH]2) that plays a central role in maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis and providing defence against oxidative stress. Methods We cloned and characterised genes coding for a cystathionine β-synthase (CβS) and cysteine synthase (CS), key enzymes of the transsulfuration and assimilatory pathways, respectively, from the hemoflagellate protozoan parasite Trypanosoma rangeli. Results Our results show that T. rangeli CβS (TrCβS), similar to its homologs in T. cruzi, contains the catalytic domain essential for enzymatic activity. Unlike the enzymes in bacteria, plants, and other parasites, T. rangeli CS lacks two of the four lysine residues (Lys26 and Lys184) required for activity. Enzymatic studies using T. rangeli extracts confirmed the absence of CS activity but confirmed the expression of an active CβS. Moreover, CβS biochemical assays revealed that the T. rangeli CβS enzyme also has serine sulfhydrylase activity. Conclusion These findings demonstrate that the RTS pathway is active in T. rangeli, suggesting that this may be the only pathway for cysteine biosynthesis in this parasite. In this sense, the RTS pathway appears to have an important functional role during the insect stage of the life cycle of this protozoan parasite. PMID:24761813

  8. Relationships between 222Rn dissolved in ground water supplies and indoor 222Rn concentrations in some Colorado front range houses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Folger, P.F.; Nyberg, P.; Wanty, R.B.; Poeter, E.

    1994-01-01

    Indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 37 houses with alpha track detectors placed in water-use rooms near water sources (bathrooms, laundry rooms, and kitchens) and in non-water-use living rooms, dining rooms, and bedrooms away from water sources. Results show that relative contributions of 222Rn to indoor air from water use are insignificant when soil-gas concentrations are high but become increasingly important as the ratio of 222Rn-in-water:222Rn-in-soil gas increases. High soil-gas 222Rn concentrations may mask 222Rn contributions from water even when waterborne 222Rn concentrations are as high as 750 kBq m-3. Ground water in Precambrian Pikes Peak granite averages 340 kBq m-3222Rn, vs. 170 kBq m-3 in Precambrian migmatite, but average 222Rn concentrations in soil gas are also lower in migmatite. Because the ratio of 222Rn-in- water:222Rn-in-soil gas may be consistently higher for houses in migmatite than in Pikes Peak granite, indoor air in houses built on migmatite may have a greater relative contribution from water use even though average 222Rn concentrations in the water are lower. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in air on 15-min intervals also indicates that additions to indoor concentrations from water use are significant and measurable only when soil-gas concentrations are low and concentrations in water are high. When soil-gas concentrations were mitigated to less than 150 Bq m-3 in one house, water contributes 20-40% of the annual indoor 222Rn concentration in the laundry room (222Rn concentration in water of 670 kBq m-3). Conversely, when the mitigation system is inactive, diurnal fluctuations and other variations in the soil-gas 222Rn contribution swamp the variability due to water use in the house. Measurable variations in indoor concentrations from water use were not detected in one house despite a low soil-gas contribution of approximately 150 Bq m-3 because waterborne 222Rn concentrations also are low (80 kBq m-3). This

  9. Relationships between 222Rn dissolved in ground water supplies and indoor 222Rn concentrations in some Colorado front range houses.

    PubMed

    Folger, P F; Nyberg, P; Wanty, R B; Poeter, E

    1994-09-01

    Indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 37 houses with alpha track detectors placed in water-use rooms near water sources (bathrooms, laundry rooms, and kitchens) and in non-water-use living rooms, dining rooms, and bedrooms away from water sources. Results show that relative contributions of 222Rn to indoor air from water use are insignificant when soil-gas concentrations are high but become increasingly important as the ratio of 222Rn-in-water: 222Rn-in-soil gas increases. High soil-gas 222Rn concentrations may mask 222Rn contributions from water even when waterborne 222Rn concentrations are as high as 750 kBq m-3. Ground water in Precambrian Pikes Peak granite averages 340 kBq m-3 222Rn, vs. 170 kBq m-3 in Precambrian migmatite, but average 222Rn concentrations in soil gas are also lower in migmatite. Because the ratio of 222Rn-in-water: 222Rn-in-soil gas may be consistently higher for houses in migmatite than in Pikes Peak granite, indoor air in houses built on migmatite may have a greater relative contribution from water use even though average 222Rn concentrations in the water are lower. Continuous monitoring of 222Rn concentrations in air on 15-min intervals also indicates that additions to indoor concentrations from water use are significant and measurable only when soil-gas concentrations are low and concentrations in water are high. When soil-gas concentrations were mitigated to less than 150 Bq m-3 in one house, water contributes 20-40% of the annual indoor 222Rn concentration in the laundry room (222Rn concentration in water of 670 kBq m-3). Conversely, when the mitigation system is inactive, diurnal fluctuations and other variations in the soil-gas 222Rn contribution swamp the variability due to water use in the house. Measurable variations in indoor concentrations from water use were not detected in one house despite a low soil-gas contribution of approximately 150 Bq m-3 because waterborne 222Rn concentrations also are low (80 kBq m-3). This

  10. Measured In Situ Atmospheric Ambient Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal, AL, April-May 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan Gurton, Stephanie Cunningham, and...Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan...Redstone Arsenal , AL Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

  11. Chlorophyll-a concentration estimation with three bio-optical algorithms: correction for the low concentration range for the Yiam Reservoir, Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bio-optical algorithms have been applied to monitor water quality in surface water systems. Empirical algorithms, such as Ritchie (2008), Gons (2008), and Gilerson (2010), have been applied to estimate the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations. However, the performance of each algorithm severely degr...

  12. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  13. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  14. Variance of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) concentrations in activated, concentrated platelets from healthy male donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of autologous blood concentrates, such as activated, concentrated platelets, in orthopaedic clinical applications has had mixed results. Research on this topic has focused on growth factors and cytokines, with little directed towards matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are involved in post-wound tissue remodeling. Methods In this study, the authors measured the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13), in activated platelets derived from blood of healthy, male volunteers (n = 92), 19 to 60 years old. The levels of the natural inhibitors of these proteases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 were also assessed. Results Notably, there was no significant change in concentration with age in four of six targets tested. However, TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 demonstrated a statistically significant increase in concentration for subjects older than 30 years of age compared to those 30 years and younger (P = 0.04 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion TIMP-2 and TIMP-4 are global inhibitors of MMPs, including MMP-2 (Gelatinase A). MMP-2 targets native collagens, gelatin and elastin to remodel the extracellular matrix during wound healing. A decreased availability of pharmacologically active MMP-2 may diminish the effectiveness of the use of activated, concentrated platelets from older patients, and may also contribute to longer healing times in this population. PMID:24766991

  15. Relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against virulence factors and viability of a cariogenic biofilm: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pandit, S; Kim, H-J; Song, K-Y; Jeon, J-G

    2013-01-01

    Despite widespread use of various concentrations of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries, the relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against cariogenic biofilms has not been much studied. Herein we investigated the relationship between fluoride concentration and activity against virulence factors and viability of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs. The 70-hour-old biofilms were exposed to 0, 1, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1,000 or 2,000 ppm F(-). The changes of virulence factors and viability of the biofilms were analyzed using biochemical methods and laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopy. At 1-2,000 ppm F(-), the activity of fluoride against acid production, acid tolerance, and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans biofilms accurately followed a sigmoidal pattern of concentration dependence (R(2) = 0.94-0.99), with EC50 values ranging from 3.07 to 24.7 ppm F(-). Generally, the activity of fluoride against the virulence factors was concentration-dependently augmented in 10-100 ppm F(-) and did not increase further at concentrations higher than 100 ppm F(-). However, fluoride did not alter glucosyltransferase activity and viability of S. mutans biofilm cells in all concentrations tested. These results can provide a basis for the selection of appropriate fluoride concentrations that reduce the physiological ability of cariogenic biofilms.

  16. Concentration dependent differential activity of signalling molecules in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caenorhabditis elegans employs specific glycosides of the dideoxysugar ascarylose (the ‘ascarosides’) for monitoring population density/ dauer formation and finding mates. A synergistic blend of three ascarosides, called ascr#2, ascr#3 and ascr#4 acts as a dauer pheromone at a high concentration na...

  17. Three-Dimensional Concentration Measurements around Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.; Webster, D. R.

    2006-11-01

    Many aquatic arthropods locate food, suitable habitats, and mates solely through information extracted by chemical signals in their environment. Chemical plumes detected by larger animals are influenced by turbulence that creates an intermittent and unpredictable chemical stimulus environment. To link the stimulus pattern to behavior, we have developed a measurement system to quantify the instantaneous odor concentration surrounding a freely tracking blue crab through three-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence (3DLIF). A blue crab receives chemical stimulus at several locations, including the antennules near the mouth region and the distal tips of the legs and claws. Hence, three-dimensional measurements of the concentration field are required to link behavior to plume structure. During trials, crabs began their search 150 cm downstream of a source, and walking kinematics were recording simultaneously. The crabs were reversibly ``blindfolded'' during tracking to prevent aversive reactions to the intense laser light. Our experiments allow us to examine how hypothesized navigational cues, such as concentration bursts at the antennules and spatial asymmetry in concentration at the distributed chemosensory organs on the legs and claws, results in particular decisions during navigation.

  18. The effect of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on the performance of the mangrove Avicennia germinans over a range of salinities.

    PubMed

    Reef, Ruth; Winter, Klaus; Morales, Jorge; Adame, Maria Fernanda; Reef, Dana L; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2015-07-01

    By increasing water use efficiency and carbon assimilation, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations could potentially improve plant productivity and growth at high salinities. To assess the effect of elevated CO2 on the salinity response of a woody halophyte, we grew seedlings of the mangrove Avicennia germinans under a combination of five salinity treatments [from 5 to 65 parts per thousand (ppt)] and three CO2 concentrations (280, 400 and 800 ppm). We measured survivorship, growth rate, photosynthetic gas exchange, root architecture and foliar nutrient and ion concentrations. The salinity optima for growth shifted higher with increasing concentrations of CO2 , from 0 ppt at 280 ppm to 35 ppt at 800 ppm. At optimal salinity conditions, carbon assimilation rates were significantly higher under elevated CO2 concentrations. However, at salinities above the salinity optima, salinity had an expected negative effect on mangrove growth and carbon assimilation, which was not alleviated by elevated CO2 , despite a significant improvement in photosynthetic water use efficiency. This is likely due to non-stomatal limitations to growth at high salinities, as indicated by our measurements of foliar ion concentrations that show a displacement of K(+) by Na(+) at elevated salinities that is not affected by CO2 . The observed shift in the optimal salinity for growth with increasing CO2 concentrations changes the fundamental niche of this species and could have significant effects on future mangrove distribution patterns and interspecific interactions.

  19. Low salt concentrations activate AMP-activated protein kinase in mouse macula densa cells.

    PubMed

    Cook, Natasha; Fraser, Scott A; Katerelos, Marina; Katsis, Frosa; Gleich, Kurt; Mount, Peter F; Steinberg, Gregory R; Levidiotis, Vicki; Kemp, Bruce E; Power, David A

    2009-04-01

    The energy-sensing kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is associated with the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter NKCC2 in the kidney and phosphorylates it on a regulatory site in vitro. To identify a potential role for AMPK in salt sensing at the macula densa, we have used the murine macula densa cell line MMDD1. In this cell line, AMPK was rapidly activated by isosmolar low-salt conditions. In contrast to the known salt-sensing pathway in the macula densa, AMPK activation occurred in the presence of either low sodium or low chloride and was unaffected by inhibition of NKCC2 with bumetanide. Assays using recombinant AMPK demonstrated activation of an upstream kinase by isosmolar low salt. The specific calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase inhibitor STO-609 failed to suppress AMPK activation, suggesting that it was not part of the signal pathway. AMPK activation was associated with increased phosphorylation of the specific substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) at Ser(79), as well as increased NKCC2 phosphorylation at Ser(126). AMPK activation due to low salt concentrations was inhibited by an adenovirus construct encoding a kinase dead mutant of AMPK, leading to reduced ACC Ser(79) and NKCC2 Ser(126) phosphorylation. This work demonstrates that AMPK activation in macula densa-like cells occurs via isosmolar changes in sodium or chloride concentration, leading to phosphorylation of ACC and NKCC2. Phosphorylation of these substrates in vivo is predicted to increase intracellular chloride and so reduce the effect of salt restriction on tubuloglomerular feedback and renin secretion.

  20. Lessons learned from a review of post-accident sampling systems, high range effluent monitors and high concentration particulate iodine samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.; Knox, W.H.; White, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Post-accident sampling systems (PASS), high range gaseous effluent monitors and sampling systems for particulates and iodine in high concentrations have been reviewed at twenty-one licensee sites in Region I of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission which includes fifteen BWR's and fourteen PWR's. Although most of the installed PASS met the criteria, the highest operational readiness was found in on-line systems that were also used for routine sampling and analysis. The detectors used in the gaseous effluent monitors included external ion chambers, GM tubes, organic scintillators and Cd-Te solid state crystals. Although all were found acceptable, each had its own inherent limitations in the conversion of detector output to the time varying concentration of a post-accident mixture of noble gases. None of the installed particulate and iodine samplers fully met all of the criteria. Their principal limitations included a lack of documentation showing that they could obtain a representative sample and that many of them would collect of an excessive amount of activity at the design criteria. 10 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. A wide range of activity duration cutoffs provided unbiased estimates of exposure to computer use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Che-Hsu; Johnson, Peter W; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2008-12-01

    Integrative computer usage monitors have become widely used in epidemiologic studies to investigate the exposure-response relationship of computer-related musculoskeletal disorders. These software programs typically estimate the exposure duration of computer use by summing precisely recorded durations of input device activities and durations of inactivity periods shorter than a predetermined activity duration cutoff value, usually 30 or 60 sec. The goal of this study was to systematically compare the validity of a wide range of cutoff values. Computer use activity of 20 office workers was observed for 4 consecutive hours using both a video camera and a usage monitor. Video recordings from the camera were analyzed using specific observational criteria to determine computer use duration. This observed duration then served as the reference and was compared with 238 estimates of computer use duration calculated from the usage monitor data using activity duration cutoffs ranging from 3 to 240 sec in 1-sec increments. Estimates calculated with cutoffs ranging from 28 to 60 sec were highly correlated with the observed duration (Spearman's correlation 0.87 to 0.92) and had nearly ideal linear relationships with the observed duration (slopes and r-squares close to one, and intercepts close to zero). For the same range of cutoff values, when the observed and estimated durations were compared for dichotomous exposure classification across participants, minimal exposure misclassification was observed. It is concluded that activity duration cutoffs ranging from 28 to 60 sec provided unbiased estimates of computer use duration.

  2. Network feedback regulates motor output across a range of modulatory neuron activity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Robert M; Blitz, Dawn M

    2016-06-01

    Modulatory projection neurons alter network neuron synaptic and intrinsic properties to elicit multiple different outputs. Sensory and other inputs elicit a range of modulatory neuron activity that is further shaped by network feedback, yet little is known regarding how the impact of network feedback on modulatory neurons regulates network output across a physiological range of modulatory neuron activity. Identified network neurons, a fully described connectome, and a well-characterized, identified modulatory projection neuron enabled us to address this issue in the crab (Cancer borealis) stomatogastric nervous system. The modulatory neuron modulatory commissural neuron 1 (MCN1) activates and modulates two networks that generate rhythms via different cellular mechanisms and at distinct frequencies. MCN1 is activated at rates of 5-35 Hz in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, network feedback elicits MCN1 activity time-locked to motor activity. We asked how network activation, rhythm speed, and neuron activity levels are regulated by the presence or absence of network feedback across a physiological range of MCN1 activity rates. There were both similarities and differences in responses of the two networks to MCN1 activity. Many parameters in both networks were sensitive to network feedback effects on MCN1 activity. However, for most parameters, MCN1 activity rate did not determine the extent to which network output was altered by the addition of network feedback. These data demonstrate that the influence of network feedback on modulatory neuron activity is an important determinant of network output and feedback can be effective in shaping network output regardless of the extent of network modulation.

  3. Rapid Response Concentration-Controlled Desorption of Activated Carbon to Dampen Concentration Fluctuations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Z A E M A M I P O U R , D I E G O C E V A L L O S , A N D M A R K J . R O O D * Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of...such as granular activated carbon (GAC) have been used as biofilter packing material on which biofilm was grown to assist with buffering of the...efficiencies were attributed to the thickness of the biofilm on the GAC. GAC was also used in a separate vessel to dampen the fluctuations of the

  4. Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1980-01-01

    The optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays are discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost effective than active for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic trough arrays. The analysis produced several other conclusions of interest which are also discussed.

  5. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  6. The impact of military activities on the concentration of mercury in soils of military training grounds and marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Gębka, Karolina; Bełdowski, Jacek; Bełdowska, Magdalena

    2016-11-01

    Military activities have been conducted on land and at sea. Both during conflicts and in peace time, some regions served as a military training ground which included firing positions and bunkers. Mercury fulminate has been used in ammunition primers and detonators. Certain amount of ammunition was dumped into the Baltic Sea after the Second World War. Because of corroded containers, mercury can be released into the marine environment. The soil and sediment samples were taken from military training grounds, southern Baltic in 2014 and 2015. The concentration of mercury was determined by AMA-254 analyzer. Hg concentration was higher in the places of military activities, as compared to other areas. Ten times increased concentration of Hg was determined in soil sample collected in area of active gun range compared to the reference station. The significant higher concentration of mercury was detected in stations where chemical warfare agents were found.

  7. Doppler and range determination for deep space vehicles using active optical transponders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinman, Peter W.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes two types of laser system employing active transponders that could accurately determine Doppler and range to deep space vehicles from earth-orbiting satellites. The first is a noncoherent optical system in which the Doppler effect on an intensity-modulating subcarrier is measured. The second is a coherent optical system in which the Doppler effect of the optical carrier itself is measured. Doppler and range measurement errors are mathematically modeled and, for three example systems, numerically evaluated.

  8. Metabolic changes in summer active and anuric hibernating free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Stenvinkel, Peter; Fröbert, Ole; Anderstam, Björn; Palm, Fredrik; Eriksson, Monica; Bragfors-Helin, Ann-Christin; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Larsson, Tobias; Friebe, Andrea; Zedrosser, Andreas; Josefsson, Johan; Svensson, My; Sahdo, Berolla; Bankir, Lise; Johnson, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The brown bear (Ursus arctos) hibernates for 5 to 6 months each winter and during this time ingests no food or water and remains anuric and inactive. Despite these extreme conditions, bears do not develop azotemia and preserve their muscle and bone strength. To date most renal studies have been limited to small numbers of bears, often in captive environments. Sixteen free-ranging bears were darted and had blood drawn both during hibernation in winter and summer. Samples were collected for measurement of creatinine and urea, markers of inflammation, the calcium-phosphate axis, and nutritional parameters including amino acids. In winter the bear serum creatinine increased 2.5 fold despite a 2-fold decrease in urea, indicating a remarkable ability to recycle urea nitrogen during hibernation. During hibernation serum calcium remained constant despite a decrease in serum phosphate and a rise in FGF23 levels. Despite prolonged inactivity and reduced renal function, inflammation does not ensue and bears seem to have enhanced antioxidant defense mechanisms during hibernation. Nutrition parameters showed high fat stores, preserved amino acids and mild hyperglycemia during hibernation. While total, essential, non-essential and branched chain amino acids concentrations do not change during hibernation anorexia, changes in individual amino acids ornithine, citrulline and arginine indicate an active, although reduced urea cycle and nitrogen recycling to proteins. Serum uric acid and serum fructose levels were elevated in summer and changes between seasons were positively correlated. Further studies to understand how bears can prevent the development of uremia despite minimal renal function during hibernation could provide new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of human kidney disease.

  9. Factors affecting 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in mussels and implications for environmental bio-monitoring programmes.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Alberto, G

    2011-02-01

    The activity of (210)Po and (210)Pb was determined in mussels of the same size (3.5-4.0 cm shell length) sampled monthly over a 17-month period at the Atlantic coast of Portugal. Average radionuclide concentration values in mussels were 759±277 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Po (range 460-1470 Bq kg(-1) dry weight), and 45±19 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb (range 23-96 Bq kg(-1) dry weight). Environmental parameters and mussel biometric parameters were monitored during the same period. Although there was no seasonal variation of radionuclide concentrations in sea water during the study period, the concentration of radionuclide activity in mussels varied seasonally displaying peaks of high concentrations in winter and low concentrations in summer. Analysis of radionuclide data in relation to the physiological Condition Index of mussels revealed that (210)Po and (210)Pb activities in the mussel (average activity per individual) remained nearly constant during the investigation period, while mussel body weight fluctuated due to fat storage/expenditure in the soft tissues. Similar variation of radionuclide concentrations was observed in mussels transplanted from the sea coast into the Tejo Estuary. However, under estuarine environmental conditions and with higher food availability throughout the year, transplanted mussel Condition Index was higher than in coastal mussels and average radionuclide concentrations were 210±75 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Po and 10±4 Bq kg(-1) (dry weight) for (210)Pb, therefore lower than in coastal mussels with similar shell length. It is concluded that the apparent seasonal fluctuation and inter-site difference of radionuclide concentrations were mostly caused by mussel body weight fluctuation and not by radionuclide body burden fluctuation. This interpretation can be extended to the apparent seasonal fluctuation in concentrations of lipophilic and lipophobic contaminants in mussels, and provides an explanation for occasional high concentrations of

  10. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  11. Evaluating the performance of close-range 3D active vision systems for industrial design applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldin, J.-Angelo; Gaiani, Marco

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, active three-dimensional (3D) active vision systems or range cameras for short have come out of research laboratories to find niche markets in application fields as diverse as industrial design, automotive manufacturing, geomatics, space exploration and cultural heritage to name a few. Many publications address different issues link to 3D sensing and processing but currently these technologies pose a number of challenges to many recent users, i.e., "what are they, how good are they and how do they compare?". The need to understand, test and integrate those range cameras with other technologies, e.g. photogrammetry, CAD, etc. is driven by the quest for optimal resolution, accuracy, speed and cost. Before investing, users want to be certain that a given range camera satisfy their operational requirements. The understanding of the basic theory and best practices associated with those cameras are in fact fundamental to fulfilling the requirements listed above in an optimal way. This paper addresses the evaluation of active 3D range cameras as part of a study to better understand and select one or a number of them to fulfill the needs of industrial design applications. In particular, object material and surface features effect, calibration and performance evaluation are discussed. Results are given for six different range cameras for close range applications.

  12. The Impact of Oil and Natural Gas Activity on Ozone Formation in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Hills, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Schroeder, J.; Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Campos, T. L.; Stell, M. H.; Heikes, B.; Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Cohen, R. C.; Flocke, F. M.; Pfister, G.; Knote, C. J.; Emmons, L. K.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) was a ground-based and airborne field study designed to characterize and understand air quality in the Colorado Front Range, where National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) ozone levels are frequently exceeded during summertime. A primary goal of the study was to determine the factors controlling surface ozone in the Front Range. As part of the project, measurements of many trace gases were observed on board the NSF/NCAR C-130 by a suite of instrumentation, including the NCAR Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA), which made measurements of a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs are crucial for characterizing emissions and photochemical processing in the Front Range, as well as the air transported into the region. During recent years, oil and natural gas (O&NG) activity in the Front Range has been growing rapidly. Ratios of observed aromatic hydrocarbons, butanes and pentanes demonstrate distinct fingerprinting that can be used to distinguish both between different types of O&NG activities and between O&NG extraction regions in the FRAPPE study region and beyond. Using the observed hydrocarbon data along with other trace gas observations, we will compare contributions of O&NG emissions to OH reactivities in different regions in the Front Range, and present box model results demonstrating the impact of O&NG activities on ozone formation.

  13. Yeast AMP-activated Protein Kinase Monitors Glucose Concentration Changes and Absolute Glucose Levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bendrioua, Loubna; Smedh, Maria; Almquist, Joachim; Cvijovic, Marija; Jirstrand, Mats; Goksör, Mattias; Adiels, Caroline B.; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the time-dependent behavior of a signaling system can provide insight into its dynamic properties. We employed the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the transcriptional repressor Mig1 as readout to characterize Snf1-Mig1 dynamics in single yeast cells. Mig1 binds to promoters of target genes and mediates glucose repression. Mig1 is predominantly located in the nucleus when glucose is abundant. Upon glucose depletion, Mig1 is phosphorylated by the yeast AMP-activated kinase Snf1 and exported into the cytoplasm. We used a three-channel microfluidic device to establish a high degree of control over the glucose concentration exposed to cells. Following regimes of glucose up- and downshifts, we observed a very rapid response reaching a new steady state within less than 1 min, different glucose threshold concentrations depending on glucose up- or downshifts, a graded profile with increased cell-to-cell variation at threshold glucose concentrations, and biphasic behavior with a transient translocation of Mig1 upon the shift from high to intermediate glucose concentrations. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching data demonstrate that Mig1 shuttles constantly between the nucleus and cytoplasm, although with different rates, depending on the presence of glucose. Taken together, our data suggest that the Snf1-Mig1 system has the ability to monitor glucose concentration changes as well as absolute glucose levels. The sensitivity over a wide range of glucose levels and different glucose concentration-dependent response profiles are likely determined by the close integration of signaling with the metabolism and may provide for a highly flexible and fast adaptation to an altered nutritional status. PMID:24627493

  14. Response of oxidative enzyme activities to nitrogen deposition affects soil concentrations of dissolved organic carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldrop, M.P.; Zak, D.R.

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that atmospheric nitrate (NO3- ) deposition can alter soil carbon (C) storage by directly affecting the activity of lignin-degrading soil fungi. In a laboratory experiment, we studied the direct influence of increasing soil NO 3- concentration on microbial C cycling in three different ecosystems: black oak-white oak (BOWO), sugar maple-red oak (SMRO), and sugar maple-basswood (SMBW). These ecosystems span a broad range of litter biochemistry and recalcitrance; the BOWO ecosystem contains the highest litter lignin content, SMRO had intermediate lignin content, and SMBW leaf litter has the lowest lignin content. We hypothesized that increasing soil solution NO 3- would reduce lignolytic activity in the BOWO ecosystem, due to a high abundance of white-rot fungi and lignin-rich leaf litter. Due to the low lignin content of litter in the SMBW, we further reasoned that the NO3- repression of lignolytic activity would be less dramatic due to a lower relative abundance of white-rot basidiomycetes; the response in the SMRO ecosystem should be intermediate. We increased soil solution NO3- concentrations in a 73-day laboratory incubation and measured microbial respiration and soil solution dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and phenolics concentrations. At the end of the incubation, we measured the activity of ??-glucosidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, phenol oxidase, and peroxidase, which are extracellular enzymes involved with cellulose and lignin degradation. We quantified the fungal biomass, and we also used fungal ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) to gain insight into fungal community composition. In the BOWO ecosystem, increasing NO 3- significantly decreased oxidative enzyme activities (-30% to -54%) and increased DOC (+32% upper limit) and phenolic (+77% upper limit) concentrations. In the SMRO ecosystem, we observed a significant decrease in phenol oxidase activity (-73% lower limit) and an increase in soluble phenolic concentrations

  15. Active and passive cooling for concentrating photovoltaic arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.

    1981-10-01

    Optimization, based on minimum energy cost, of active and passive cooling designs for point-focus Fresnel lens photovoltaic arrays and line-focus, parabolic-trough photovoltaic arrays is discussed, and the two types of cooling are compared. Passive cooling is more cost-effective for Fresnel lens arrays while the reverse is true for parabolic-trough arrays.

  16. Russian Activities in Space Photovoltaic Power Modules with Concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, Vyacheslav M.; Rumyantsev, Valeri D.

    2004-01-01

    Space concentrator modules with point-and line-focus Fresnel lenses and with reflective parabolic troughs have been developed recently at Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute. PV receivers for these modules are based: on the single junction LPE and MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs solar cells characterized by AM0 efficiencies of 23.5 - 24% at 20 - 50 suns and 24 - 24.75 at 50 - 200 suns; on the mechanically stacked tandem AlGaAs/GaAs-GaSb cells with efficiency of 27 - 28 at 20 - 100 suns. MOCVD AlGaAs/GaAs cells with internal Bragg reflector have shown a higher radiation resistance as compared to a traditional structure. Monolithic two-terminal tandems AlGaAs (top)-GaAs (bottom) for space application and GaSb (top) - InGaAsSb (bottom) for TRV application are under development as well.

  17. Activity concentrations of environmental samples collected in Fukushima Prefecture immediately after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Masahiro; Tokonami, Shinji; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Monzen, Satoru; Osanai, Minoru; Akata, Naofumi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Omori, Yasutaka; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sahoo, Sarata K.; Kovács, Tibor; Yamada, Masatoshi; Nakata, Akifumi; Yoshida, Mitsuaki; Yoshino, Hironori; Mariya, Yasushi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples such as surface soils, plants and water were evaluated by high purity germanium detector measurements. The contribution rate of short half-life radionuclides such as 132I to the exposure dose to residents was discussed from the measured values. The highest values of the 131I/137Cs activity ratio ranged from 49 to 70 in the environmental samples collected at Iwaki City which is located to the south of the F1-NPS. On the other hand, the 132I/131I activity ratio in the same environmental samples had the lowest values, ranging from 0.01 to 0.02. By assuming that the 132I/131I activity ratio in the atmosphere was equal to the ratio in the environmental samples, the percent contribution to the thyroid equivalent dose by 132I was estimated to be less than 2%. Moreover, the contribution to the thyroid exposure by 132I might be negligible if 132I contamination was restricted to Iwaki City. PMID:23887080

  18. Estimating chlorophyll-a concentration in inland, estuarine and coastal waters: from close range to satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitelson, A. A.; Gurlin, D.; Moses, W. J.; Rundquist, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this work was to test the performance of a recently developed three-band model and its special case, a two-band model, for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive case 2 waters. We specifically focused on (a) determining the ability of the models to estimate chl-a concentration below 20 mg m-3, typical for estuarine and coastal waters, and (b) assessing the potential of MODIS and MERIS to estimate chl-a concentrations, using red and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Reflectance data were collected in inland, estuarine, and coastal waters by hyperspectral radiometers just beneath the water surface, hyperspectral imaging sensor AISA on board an aircraft, and satellite sensors MODIS and MERIS. Algorithms established using proximal sensing were applied to aircraft and satellite data. The algorithms yielded high accuracy in estimating chl-a concentrations from AISA and MERIS data. The results illustrated the potential of the NIR-Red models to estimate chl-a concentration in turbid productive waters with a high accuracy. Nevertheless, challenges still remain in calibrating the models for their universal application to satellite data. The in situ data collection technique needs to be adapted to maximize the number of stations that can be assessed with a single satellite image. The spatial heterogeneity of the water within a satellite pixel area around each station needs to be accounted for. So are any changes in the bio-physical and bio-optical characteristics of the water at each station during the time elapsed between the satellite overpass and the in situ data collection. Accurate and reliable atmospheric correction of the satellite data is still a major challenge for turbid productive waters. Provided these factors can be effectively accounted for, robustly calibrated algorithms can be developed for real-time estimation of chl-a concentration, which will greatly benefit scientists and natural resource managers in

  19. Emergent ultra–long-range interactions between active particles in hybrid active–inactive systems

    PubMed Central

    Steimel, Joshua P.; Aragones, Juan L.; Hu, Helen; Qureshi, Naser; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Particle–particle interactions determine the state of a system. Control over the range of such interactions as well as their magnitude has been an active area of research for decades due to the fundamental challenges it poses in science and technology. Very recently, effective interactions between active particles have gathered much attention as they can lead to out-of-equilibrium cooperative states such as flocking. Inspired by nature, where active living cells coexist with lifeless objects and structures, here we study the effective interactions that appear in systems composed of active and passive mixtures of colloids. Our systems are 2D colloidal monolayers composed primarily of passive (inactive) colloids, and a very small fraction of active (spinning) ferromagnetic colloids. We find an emergent ultra–long-range attractive interaction induced by the activity of the spinning particles and mediated by the elasticity of the passive medium. Interestingly, the appearance of such interaction depends on the spinning protocol and has a minimum actuation timescale below which no attraction is observed. Overall, these results clearly show that, in the presence of elastic components, active particles can interact across very long distances without any chemical modification of the environment. Such a mechanism might potentially be important for some biological systems and can be harnessed for newer developments in synthetic active soft materials. PMID:27071096

  20. A Highly Linear and Wide Input Range Four-Quadrant CMOS Analog Multiplier Using Active Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhangcai; Jiang, Minglu; Inoue, Yasuaki

    Analog multipliers are one of the most important building blocks in analog signal processing circuits. The performance with high linearity and wide input range is usually required for analog four-quadrant multipliers in most applications. Therefore, a highly linear and wide input range four-quadrant CMOS analog multiplier using active feedback is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a novel configuration of four-quadrant multiplier cell is presented. Its input dynamic range and linearity are improved significantly by adding two resistors compared with the conventional structure. Then based on the proposed multiplier cell configuration, a four-quadrant CMOS analog multiplier with active feedback technique is implemented by two operational amplifiers. Because of both the proposed multiplier cell and active feedback technique, the proposed multiplier achieves a much wider input range with higher linearity than conventional structures. The proposed multiplier was fabricated by a 0.6µm CMOS process. Experimental results show that the input range of the proposed multiplier can be up to 5.6Vpp with 0.159% linearity error on VX and 4.8Vpp with 0.51% linearity error on VY for ±2.5V power supply voltages, respectively.

  1. Intermediate-range sweat chloride concentration and Pseudomonas bronchitis. A cystic fibrosis variant with preservation of exocrine pancreatic function.

    PubMed

    Stern, R C; Boat, T F; Abramowsky, C R; Matthews, L W; Wood, R E; Doershuk, C F

    1978-06-23

    We studied the clinical and laboratory characteristics of seven patients with sweat chloride concentration consistently between 40 and 60 mEq/liter. Each has chronic Pseudomonas bronchitis, and all lack digestive symptoms. Laboratory findings indicate the preservation of exocrine pancreatic function. The patients include two of five children in one family and two of four in another. In a third family, one of five siblings has an intermediate sweat chloride concentration, but another has a typical fibrosis value (105 mEq/liter). One patient died of respiratory failure; results of an autopsy showed bronchiolectasis typical of cystic fibrosis, but minimal pancreatic changes. The data suggest a genetic basis for this variant of cystic fibrosis. These patients may be homozygous for a portion of a closely linked multigene cystic fibrosis locus or may have modifier genes that ameliorate the pancreatic and sweat lesions.

  2. Effect of Direct-Current Electric Field on Enzymatic Activity and the Concentration of Laccase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunxing; Zhang, Huiling; Ren, Dajun; Li, Qian; Zhang, Shuqin; Feng, Tao

    2015-09-01

    This work investigates the effect of direct-current electric field on the extracellular enzymatic activity, concentration and other experimental parameters of laccase from Trametes versicolor. The results showed that laccase could significantly contribute to the change of pH at the end of graphite electrode. In addition, it increased the electrical conductivity of the water. In the experiment, the optimum pH and catalytic pH range for laccase activity were 3.0 and pH 2.5-4.0. The application of 6 V direct current showed significant effects on the laccase enzyme activity. The activity of laccase was enhanced in the anodic region, but at the same time was strongly inhibited at the cathode. The electric charge characteristics of laccase were changed when exposed to electric field, and some laccases molecules moved to the anode, which produced a slight migration phenomenon. This study is the basis of combination of laccase and electrical technology, at the same time, providing a new direction of enhancing laccase activity. Compared to immobilization, using electric field is simple, no chemical additives, and great potential.

  3. On the real performance of SWIR range-gated active imaging in scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christnacher, Frank; Schertzer, Stéphane; Metzger, Nicolas; Bacher, Emmanuel; Poyet, Jean-Michel

    2016-10-01

    Range-gated active imaging is a well-known technique used for night vision or for vision enhancement in scattering environments. The elimination of the backscattering effects leads to a significant increase in the vision range in scattering environments. Surprisingly, even if a lot of authors estimate that active imaging brings a gain in range when used in scattering environments, there are no studies which systematically investigate and quantify the real gain provided by range gating in comparison with classical imaging systems and in different controlled obscurant densities. In this paper, we thoroughly examined the performance enhancement of laser range gating in comparison with a color camera representing the human vision. On the one hand, we studied the influence of different types of obscurants and showed that the type of obscurant leads to very different results. On the other hand, we examined the influence of different technical parameters on the laser side and on the camera side. The influence of range gating and of the gate shape was studied. These experiments led us to conclude that it is necessary to combine a short laser pulse with a short camera integration time to acquire contrasted images in dense scattering media.

  4. 78 FR 59649 - Subzone 26G, Authorization of Production Activity, Roper Corporation, (Kitchen Ranges), Lafayette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 26G, Authorization of Production Activity, Roper Corporation, (Kitchen Ranges), Lafayette, Georgia On May 21, 2013, Roper Corporation submitted a notification of...

  5. In-situ measurement of dust devil activity at La Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We document observations of dust devil vortices using a linear array of 10 miniature pressure- and sunlight-logging stations in summer 2013 at La Jornada Experimental Range in the southwestern USA. These data provide a census of vortex and dust-devil activity at this site. The simultaneous spatial...

  6. Influence of the Ag concentration on the medium-range order in a CuZrAlAg bulk metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Gammer, C.; Escher, B.; Ebner, C.; Minor, A. M.; Karnthaler, H. P.; Eckert, J.; Pauly, S.; Rentenberger, C.

    2017-01-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy of bulk metallic glasses of CuZrAl(Ag) demonstrates that medium-range order is sensitive to minor compositional changes. By analyzing nanodiffraction patterns medium-range order is detected with crystal-like motifs based on the B2 CuZr structure and its distorted structures resembling the martensitic ones. This result demonstrates some structural homology between the metallic glass and its high temperature crystalline phase. The amount of medium-range order seems slightly affected with increasing Ag concentration (0, 2, 5 at.%) but the structural motifs of the medium-range ordered clusters become more diverse at the highest Ag concentration. The decrease of dominant clusters is consistent with the destabilization of the B2 structure measured by calorimetry and accounts for the increased glass-forming ability. PMID:28322304

  7. Influence of the Ag concentration on the medium-range order in a CuZrAlAg bulk metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammer, C.; Escher, B.; Ebner, C.; Minor, A. M.; Karnthaler, H. P.; Eckert, J.; Pauly, S.; Rentenberger, C.

    2017-03-01

    Fluctuation electron microscopy of bulk metallic glasses of CuZrAl(Ag) demonstrates that medium-range order is sensitive to minor compositional changes. By analyzing nanodiffraction patterns medium-range order is detected with crystal-like motifs based on the B2 CuZr structure and its distorted structures resembling the martensitic ones. This result demonstrates some structural homology between the metallic glass and its high temperature crystalline phase. The amount of medium-range order seems slightly affected with increasing Ag concentration (0, 2, 5 at.%) but the structural motifs of the medium-range ordered clusters become more diverse at the highest Ag concentration. The decrease of dominant clusters is consistent with the destabilization of the B2 structure measured by calorimetry and accounts for the increased glass-forming ability.

  8. Differential range and activity of various forms of the Hedgehog protein

    PubMed Central

    Dawber, Rebecca J; Hebbes, Stephen; Herpers, Bram; Docquier, France; van den Heuvel, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins act as extracellular messengers to control and coordinate growth and differentiation. The mechanism by which Hh protein travels across a field of cells, and results in a range of specific effects relating to the distance from the source, has been the subject of much debate. It has been suggested that the range and activity of the pathway can be linked to modifications of the Hh protein, specifically the addition of lipid groups at N- and C-terminal sites. Results Here we have addressed the potency of different forms of Hh protein by expressing these in Drosophila, where we are able to precisely establish pathway activity and range in naïve but responsive tissues. As expected, a construct that can produce all forms of Hh recapitulates endogenous signaling potencies. In comparison, expression of a form that lacks the cholesterol moiety (HhN) leads to an extended range, but the product is less effective at inducing maximal Hh responses. Expression of a point mutant that lacks the N-terminal palmitate binding site shows that the palmitoylation of Hh is absolutely required for activity in this system. Conclusion We conclude that the addition of the cholesterol moiety limits the range of the protein and is required for maximal activity, while addition of palmitate is required for all activity. These findings have implications for understanding how Hedgehog proteins move, and thus their potential at influencing distant sites, and concomitantly, how modifications of the signaling protein can affect the efficacy of the response in exposed cells. PMID:16197551

  9. Baseline reference range for trace metal concentrations in whole blood of wild and managed West Indian Manatees (Trichechus manatus) in Florida and Belize

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takeuchi, Noel Y.; Walsh, Michael T; Bonde, Robert K.; Powell, James A.; Bass, Dean A.; Gaspard, Joseph C.; Barber, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is exposed to a number of anthropogenic influences, including metals, as they inhabit shallow waters with close proximity to shore. While maintaining homeostasis of many metals is crucial for health, there is currently no baseline reference range that can be used to make clinical and environmental decisions for this endangered species. In this study, whole blood samples from 151 manatees were collected during health assessments performed in Florida and Belize from 2008 through 2011. Whole blood samples (n = 37) from managed care facilities in Florida and Belize from 2009 through 2011 were also used in this study. The concentrations of 17 metals in whole blood were determined, and the data were used to derive a baseline reference range. Impacts of capture location, age, and sex on whole blood metal concentrations were examined. Location and age were related to copper concentrations as values were significantly higher in habitats near urban areas and in calves. Copper may also be a husbandry concern as concentrations were significantly higher in managed manatees (1.17 ± 0.04 ppm) than wild manatees (0.73 ± 0.02 ppm). Zinc (11.20 ± 0.30 ppm) was of special interest as normal concentrations were two to five times higher than other marine mammal species. Arsenic concentrations were higher in Belize (0.43 ± 0.07 ppm), with Placencia Lagoon having twice the concentration of Belize City and Southern Lagoon. Selenium concentrations were lower (0.18 ± 0.09 ppm) than in other marine mammal species. The lowest selenium concentrations were observed in rehabilitating and managed manatees which may warrant additional monitoring in managed care facilities. The established preliminary baseline reference range can be used by clinicians, biologists, and managers to monitor the health of West Indian manatees.

  10. Free zinc ions outside a narrow concentration range are toxic to a variety of cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bozym, Rebecca A; Chimienti, Fabrice; Giblin, Leonard J; Gross, Gunter W; Korichneva, Irina; Li, Yuan; Libert, Sarah; Maret, Wolfgang; Parviz, Maryam; Frederickson, Christopher J; Thompson, Richard B

    2010-06-01

    The zinc(II) ion has recently been implicated in a number of novel functions and pathologies in loci as diverse as the brain, retina, small intestine, prostate, heart, pancreas, and immune system. Zinc ions are a required nutrient but elevated concentrations are known to kill cells in vitro. Paradoxical observations regarding zinc's effects have appeared frequently in the literature, and often their physiological relevance is unclear. We found that for PC-12, HeLa and HT-29 cell lines as well as primary cultures of cardiac myocytes and neurons in vitro in differing media, approximately 5 nmol/L free zinc (pZn = 8.3, where pZn is defined as--log(10) [free Zn(2+)]) produced apparently healthy cells, but 20-fold higher or (in one case) lower concentrations were usually harmful as judged by multiple criteria. These results indicate that (1) the free zinc ion levels of media should be controlled with a metal ion buffer; (2) adding zinc or strong zinc ligands to an insufficiently buffered medium may lead to unpredictably low or high free zinc levels that are often harmful to cells; and (3) it is generally desirable to measure free zinc ion levels due to the presence of contaminating zinc in many biochemicals and unknown buffering capacity of many media.

  11. Longitudinal studies of cardiac troponin-I concentrations in serum from male Sprague Dawley rats: baseline reference ranges and effects of handling and placebo dosing on biological variability.

    PubMed

    Schultze, A Eric; Carpenter, Kent H; Wians, Frank H; Agee, Sara J; Minyard, Jennifer; Lu, Quynh Anh; Todd, John; Konrad, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Serum cardiac troponin-I has been validated as a biomarker for cardiotoxicity in numerous animal models; however, baseline reference ranges for cTnI concentration in a healthy population of laboratory rats, as well as an investigation of biological cTnI variability in rats with respect to time, handling, and placebo dosing methods, have not been reported. In this study, we used an ultrasensitive cTnI immunoassay to quantify hourly concentrations of cTnI in live rats handled under standard laboratory conditions using 15 microL of serum per determination. The baseline reference range (mean 4.94 pg/mL, range 1-15 pg/mL, 99% confidence interval [CI]) of cTnI concentration in rats was consistent with previously reported reference ranges for cTnI in humans (1-12 pg/mL) and with preliminary studies in dogs (1-4 pg/mL) and monkeys (4-5 pg/mL) using the same cTnI assay method. In addition, cTnI concentrations in individual rat serum samples show minimal biological variability over a twenty-four-hour interval when compared to a meaningful reference change value of 193% to 206%. Furthermore, measurements of cTnI concentration were consistent within the reference limits in individual rats over long periods and under three different standard laboratory handling conditions. Thus, using this new method, rats can be followed longitudinally at hourly intervals, and a doubling of cTnI concentration would be significant above biological variability. This is a new paradigm for preclinical testing, which allows transient changes in cTnI concentration to be accurately quantified. This understanding of baseline and biological variability in rats will be fundamental for designing and analyzing future studies that assess potential cardiotoxicity in drug development.

  12. Detection of enteric viruses in activated sludge by feasible concentration methods.

    PubMed

    Prado, Tatiana; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Human enteric viruses are responsible to cause several diseases, including gastroenteritis and hepatitis, and can be present in high amounts in sewage sludge. This study compared virus recovery efficiency of two feasible concentration methods used for detecting human adenovirus (HAdV), rotavirus species A (RV-A), norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in sewage sludge from an activated sludge process. Twelve sewage sludge samples were collected bi-monthly from January to July, 2011. Ultracentrifugation was compared with a simplified protocol based on beef extract elution for recovering enteric viruses. Viruses were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR assays and virus recovery efficiency and limits of detection were determined. Methods showed mean recovery rates lower than 7.5%, presenting critical limits of detection (higher than 10(2) - 10(3) genome copies - GC L(-1) for all viruses analyzed). Nevertheless, HAdV were detected in 90% of the analyzed sewage sludge samples (range: 1.8 × 10(4) to 1.1 × 10(5) GC L(-1)), followed by RV-A and NoV (both in 50%) and HAV (8%). Results suggesting that activated sludge is contaminated with high viral loads and HAdV are widely disseminated in these samples. The low virus recovery rates achieved, especially for HAV, indicate that other feasible concentration methods could be developed to improve virus recovery efficiency in these environmental matrices.

  13. A High Sensitivity and Wide Dynamic Range Fiber-Optic Sensor for Low-Concentration VOC Gas Detection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a volatile organic compound (VOC) gas sensing system with high sensitivity and a wide dynamic range that is based on the principle of the heterodyne frequency modulation method. According to this method, the time period of the sensing signal shift when Nile Red containing a VOC-sensitive membrane of a fiber-optic sensing element comes into contact with a VOC. This sensing membrane produces strong, fast and reversible signals when exposed to VOC gases. The response and recovery times of the proposed sensing system were less than 35 s, and good reproducibility and accuracy were obtained. PMID:25490592

  14. Adsorption of low concentration phosphine in yellow phosphorus off-gas by impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Ning, Ping; Shi, Yan; Jiang, Ming

    2009-11-15

    In order to utilize high concentration CO comprehensively, impregnated activated carbon sorbent and the catalytic oxidation reaction for PH(3) were investigated in this study. Carbon was impregnated with HCl, KNO(3), or hexanediol. The activated carbon modified by 7% (mass fraction) HCl could enhance the adsorption purification ability significantly. Raising the reaction temperature or increasing the oxygen content of the gas can improve the purification efficiency. The structure of the materials after modification was determined using nitrogen adsorption. The modification decreased the volume of pores smaller than 2 nm in diameter with the most noticeable change occurring in the micropores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm in diameter. Decreases in micropore volume accounted for 87% of the total pore volume change. After the adsorption, the surface areas decreased 28%, 29% of which was due to decreased micropore surface. HCl significantly increased the performance of carbon as a PH(3) adsorbent when HCl impregnation was applied whereas the effects of other materials used in this study were much less pronounced. HCl present in the small pores probably acted as a catalyst for oxygen activation that caused PH(3) oxidation. As a result of this process, H(3)PO(4) and P(4)O(10) were formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the small pores ranging from 0.3 nm to 1.5 nm. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that CO from industrial off-gas can be purified and used as the raw material for a broader range of products.

  15. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  16. Evolution in the concentration of activities in lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, Harry J.

    2016-03-01

    From a perusal of the proceedings of the SPIE Advanced Lithography Symposium, the progression of new concepts in lithographic technology can be seen. A new idea first appears in a few papers, and over time, there is an increase in the number of papers on the same topic. Eventually the method becomes commonplace, and the number of papers on the topic declines, as the idea becomes part of our industry's working knowledge. For example, one or two papers on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) appeared in the proceedings of the Optical Microlithography Conference in 1989 and 1990. By 1994, the total number of papers had increased to 35. Early lithographers focused on practical issues, such as adhesion promotion and resist edge bead. The introduction of simulation software brought on the next era of lithography. This was followed by a period of time in which RETs were developed and brought to maturity. The introduction of optical proximity corrections (OPC) initiated the next major era of lithography. The traditional path for scaling by using shorter wavelengths, decreasing k1 and increasing numerical aperture has given way to the current era of optical multiple patterning and lithography-design co-optimization. There has been sufficient activity in EUV lithography R and D to justify a separate EUV Lithography Conference as part of the annual Advanced Lithography Symposium. Each era builds on the cumulative knowledge gained previously. Over time, there have been parallel developments in optics, exposure tools, resist, metrology and mask technology, many of which were associated with changes in the wavelength of light used for leading-edge lithography.

  17. Classical Nuclear Hormone Receptor Activity as a Mediator of Complex Concentration Response Relationships for Endocrine Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Cookman, Clifford J.; Belcher, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are frequently observed for endocrine active ligands that act via nuclear receptors. The curve of best fit for nonmonotonic concentration response relationships are often inverted U-shaped with effects at intermediate concentrations that are different from effects at higher or lower concentrations. Cytotoxicity is a major mode of action responsible for inverted U-shaped concentration response relationships. However, evidence suggests that ligand selectivity, activation of multiple molecular targets, concerted regulation of multiple opposing endpoints, and multiple ligand binding sites within nuclear receptors also contribute to nonmonotonic concentration response relationships of endocrine active ligands. This review reports the current understanding of mechanisms involved in classical nuclear receptor mediated nonmonotonic concentration response relationships with a focus on studies published between 2012 and 2014. PMID:25299165

  18. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility. The objective for this two year study was to measure milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that w...

  19. First parity evaluation of peak milk yield for range cows developed in the same ecophysiological system but receiving different concentrations of harvested feed inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Can range livestock producers reduce harvested feed inputs, during heifer development, and maintain production goals? To address this, we conducted a two year study measuring milk production (kg/d) and milk constituent concentrations (g/d) for 16 primiparous beef cows each year that were born from d...

  20. Feasibility of proton-activated implantable markers for proton range verification using PET

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Gillin, Michael; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Titt, Uwe; Paganetti, Harald; Kerr, Matthew; Mawlawi, Osama

    2014-01-01

    Proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) currently relies on proton activation of tissue, the products of which decay with a short half-life and necessitate an on-site PET scanner. Tissue activation is, however, negligible near the distal dose fall-off region of the proton beam range due to their high interaction energy thresholds. Therefore Monte Carlo simulation is often supplemented for comparison with measurement; however, this also may be associated with systematic and statistical uncertainties. Therefore, we sought to test the feasibility of using long-lived proton-activated external materials that are inserted or infused into the target volume for more accurate proton beam range verification that could be performed at an off-site PET scanner. We irradiated samples of ≥98% 18O-enriched water, natural Cu foils, and ≥97% 68Zn-enriched foils as candidate materials, along with samples of tissue-equivalent materials including 16O water, heptane (C7H16), and polycarbonate (C16H14O3)n, at 4 depths (ranging from 100% to 3% of center of modulation (COM) dose) along the distal fall-off of a modulated 160-MeV proton beam. Samples were irradiated either directly or after being embedded in Plastic Water® or balsa wood. We then measured the activity of the samples using PET imaging for 20 or 30 min after various delay times. Measured activities of candidate materials were up to 100 times greater than those of the tissue-equivalent materials at the 4 distal dose fall-off depths. The differences between candidate materials and tissue-equivalent materials became more apparent after longer delays between irradiation and PET imaging, due to the longer half-lives of the candidate materials. Furthermore, the activation of the candidate materials closely mimicked the distal dose fall-off with offsets of 1 to 2 mm. Also, signals from the foils were clearly visible compared to the background from the activated Plastic Water® and balsa wood

  1. Feasibility of proton-activated implantable markers for proton range verification using PET.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey; Gillin, Michael; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Titt, Uwe; Paganetti, Harald; Kerr, Matthew; Mawlawi, Osama

    2013-11-07

    Proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) currently relies on proton activation of tissue, the products of which decay with a short half-life and necessitate an on-site PET scanner. Tissue activation is, however, negligible near the distal dose fall-off region of the proton beam range due to their high interaction energy thresholds. Therefore Monte Carlo simulation is often supplemented for comparison with measurement; however, this also may be associated with systematic and statistical uncertainties. Therefore, we sought to test the feasibility of using long-lived proton-activated external materials that are inserted or infused into the target volume for more accurate proton beam range verification that could be performed at an off-site PET scanner. We irradiated samples of ≥98% (18)O-enriched water, natural Cu foils, and >97% (68)Zn-enriched foils as candidate materials, along with samples of tissue-equivalent materials including (16)O water, heptane (C7H16), and polycarbonate (C16H14O3)n, at four depths (ranging from 100% to 3% of center of modulation (COM) dose) along the distal fall-off of a modulated 160 MeV proton beam. Samples were irradiated either directly or after being embedded in Plastic Water® or balsa wood. We then measured the activity of the samples using PET imaging for 20 or 30 min after various delay times. Measured activities of candidate materials were up to 100 times greater than those of the tissue-equivalent materials at the four distal dose fall-off depths. The differences between candidate materials and tissue-equivalent materials became more apparent after longer delays between irradiation and PET imaging, due to the longer half-lives of the candidate materials. Furthermore, the activation of the candidate materials closely mimicked the distal dose fall-off with offsets of 1 to 2 mm. Also, signals from the foils were clearly visible compared to the background from the activated Plastic Water

  2. Determination of plasma lactic acid concentration and specific activity using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bleiberg, B; Steinberg, J J; Katz, S D; Wexler, J; LeJemtel, T

    1991-08-23

    Assessment of lactate metabolism is of particular interest during exercise and in disease states such as diabetes, shock, and absorptive abnormalities of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. We describe an analytical method that introduces radio-active tracers and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously analyze concentrations and specific activities (SAs) of plasma lactate. The HPLC conditions included separation on a reversed-phase column (octadecylsilane) and an isocratic buffer (30% acetonitrile in water). [3H]Acetate served as an internal standard. Lactate and acetate were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether following a pH adjustment to less than 1.0 and back-extracted into a hydrophilic phase with sodium carbonate (2 mM, pH greater than 10.0). Lactate is detected in the ultraviolet range (242 and 320 nm) by derivatization with alpha-bromoacetophenone. Control plasma samples were studied after an overnight fast for precision and analytical recovery. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.18-6.0 mM (r = 0.92). The precision was 3% and the analytical recovery was 87%. The detection limit of the method was 36 pmol. Determination of lactate metabolism was performed in a patient with chronic congestive heart failure who was administered primed-continuous L-[U-14C]lactate (10 microCi bolus and 0.3 microCi/min continuously) during a 60-min rest period. Mean arterial lactate concentration and SA were 1.69 +/- 0.2 mM and 253.8 +/- 22 dpm/mumol, respectively. Systemic lactate turnover was 25.65 mumol/kg per min. Lactic acid systemic turnover, organ uptake and release rates can be accurately determined by isocratic HPLC.

  3. Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705) against a Broad Range of Paramyxoviruses In Vitro and against Human Metapneumovirus in Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Jochmans, D.; van Nieuwkoop, S.; Smits, S. L.; Neyts, J.; Fouchier, R. A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The clinical impact of infections with respiratory viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae argues for the development of antiviral therapies with broad-spectrum activity. Favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus families and is presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. Here we demonstrate in vitro activity of T-705 against the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian metapneumovirus. In addition, we demonstrate activity against HMPV in hamsters. T-705 treatment inhibited replication of all paramyxoviruses tested in vitro, with 90% effective concentration (EC90) values of 8 to 40 μM. Treatment of HMPV-challenged hamsters with T-705 at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in 100% protection from infection of the lungs. In all treated and challenged animals, viral RNA remained detectable in the respiratory tract. The observation that T-705 treatment had a significant effect on infectious viral titers, with a limited effect on viral genome titers, is in agreement with its proposed mode of action of viral mutagenesis. However, next-generation sequencing of viral genomes isolated from treated and challenged hamsters did not reveal (hyper)mutation. Polymerase activity assays revealed a specific effect of T-705 on the activity of the HMPV polymerase. With the reported antiviral activity of T-705 against a broad range of RNA virus families, this small molecule is a promising broad-range antiviral drug candidate for limiting the viral burden of paramyxoviruses and for evaluation for treatment of infections with (re)emerging viruses, such as the henipaviruses. PMID:27185803

  4. Antiviral Activity of Favipiravir (T-705) against a Broad Range of Paramyxoviruses In Vitro and against Human Metapneumovirus in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, D; van Nieuwkoop, S; Smits, S L; Neyts, J; Fouchier, R A M; van den Hoogen, B G

    2016-08-01

    The clinical impact of infections with respiratory viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae argues for the development of antiviral therapies with broad-spectrum activity. Favipiravir (T-705) has demonstrated potent antiviral activity against multiple RNA virus families and is presently in clinical evaluation for the treatment of influenza. Here we demonstrate in vitro activity of T-705 against the paramyxoviruses human metapneumovirus (HMPV), respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, measles virus, Newcastle disease virus, and avian metapneumovirus. In addition, we demonstrate activity against HMPV in hamsters. T-705 treatment inhibited replication of all paramyxoviruses tested in vitro, with 90% effective concentration (EC90) values of 8 to 40 μM. Treatment of HMPV-challenged hamsters with T-705 at 200 mg/kg of body weight/day resulted in 100% protection from infection of the lungs. In all treated and challenged animals, viral RNA remained detectable in the respiratory tract. The observation that T-705 treatment had a significant effect on infectious viral titers, with a limited effect on viral genome titers, is in agreement with its proposed mode of action of viral mutagenesis. However, next-generation sequencing of viral genomes isolated from treated and challenged hamsters did not reveal (hyper)mutation. Polymerase activity assays revealed a specific effect of T-705 on the activity of the HMPV polymerase. With the reported antiviral activity of T-705 against a broad range of RNA virus families, this small molecule is a promising broad-range antiviral drug candidate for limiting the viral burden of paramyxoviruses and for evaluation for treatment of infections with (re)emerging viruses, such as the henipaviruses.

  5. Small high-speed dynamic target at close range laser active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jun; Wang, Du-yue; Zhang, Zheng; Zhang, Yue; Dai, Qin

    2016-11-01

    In the shooting range measuring, all-weather, high speed, unattended, the new concepts such as the remote control is gradually applied. In this paper, a new type of low cost range measurement system, using FPGA + MCU as electronic control system of laser active illumination and high-speed CMOS camera, data to the rear zone by using optical fiber communications, transmission and realizes the remote control of unmanned, due to the low cost of front-end equipment, can be used as consumables replacement at any time, combined with distributed layout principle, can maximum limit close to the measured with mutilate ability goal, thus to achieve the goal of small high-speed dynamic imaging from close range.

  6. Influence of medium range transport of particles from nucleation burst on particle number concentration within the urban airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Morawska, L.; Ristovski, Z. D.; Wainwright, D.

    2012-06-01

    An elevated particle number concentration (PNC) observed during nucleation events could play a significant contribution to the total particle load and therefore to the air pollution in the urban environments. Therefore, a field measurement study of PNC was commenced to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of PNC within the urban airshed of Brisbane, Australia. PNC was monitored at urban (QUT), roadside (WOO) and semi-urban (ROC) areas around the Brisbane region during 2009. During the morning traffic peak period, the highest relative fraction of PNC reached about 5% at QUT and WOO on weekdays. PNC peaks were observed around noon, which correlated with the highest solar radiation levels at all three stations, thus suggesting that high PNC levels were likely to be associated with new particle formation caused by photochemical reactions. Wind rose plots showed relatively higher PNC for the NE direction, which was associated with industrial pollution, accounting for 12%, 9% and 14% of overall PNC at QUT, WOO and ROC, respectively. Although there was no significant correlation between PNC at each station, the variation of PNC was well correlated among three stations during regional nucleation events. In addition, PNC at ROC was significantly influenced by upwind urban pollution during the nucleation burst events, with the average enrichment factor of 15.4. This study provides an insight into the influence of regional nucleation events on PNC in the Brisbane region and it the first study to quantify the effect of urban pollution on semi-urban PNC through the nucleation events.

  7. Ranging, Activity and Habitat Use by Tigers in the Mangrove Forests of the Sundarban.

    PubMed

    Naha, Dipanjan; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Qureshi, Qamar; Roy, Manjari; Sankar, Kalyansundaram; Gopal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarban of India and Bangladesh (about 6000 km²) are the only mangrove forests inhabited by a sizeable population of tigers. The adjoining area also supports one of the highest human densities and experiences severe human-tiger conflicts. We used GPS-Satellite and VHF radio-collars on 6 (3 males and 3 female) tigers to study their ranging patterns and habitat preference. The average home range (95% Fixed Kernel) for resident females was 56.4 (SE 5.69) and for males it was 110 (SE 49) km². Tigers crossed an average of 5 water channels > 30 meters per day with a mean width of 54 meters, whereas channels larger than 400 meters were rarely crossed. Tigers spent over 58% of their time within Phoenix habitat but compositional analysis showed a habitat preference of the order Avicennia-Sonneratia > Phoenix > Ceriops > Barren > Water. Average daily distance moved was 4.6 km (range 0.1-23). Activity of tigers peaked between 05:00 hours and 10:00 hours showing some overlap with human activity. Territory boundaries were demarcated by large channels which tigers intensively patrolled. Extra caution should be taken while fishing or honey collection during early morning in Avicennia-Sonneratia and Phoenix habitat types along wide channels to reduce human-tiger conflict. Considering home-range core areas as exclusive, tiger density was estimated at 4.6 (SE range 3.6 to 6.7) tigers/100 km2 giving a total population of 76 (SE range 59-110) tigers in the Indian Sundarban. Reluctance of tigers to cross wide water channels combined with increasing commercial boat traffic and sea level rise due to climate change pose a real threat of fragmenting the Sundarban tiger population.

  8. Ranging, Activity and Habitat Use by Tigers in the Mangrove Forests of the Sundarban

    PubMed Central

    Naha, Dipanjan; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Qureshi, Qamar; Roy, Manjari; Sankar, Kalyansundaram; Gopal, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The Sundarban of India and Bangladesh (about 6000 km²) are the only mangrove forests inhabited by a sizeable population of tigers. The adjoining area also supports one of the highest human densities and experiences severe human-tiger conflicts. We used GPS-Satellite and VHF radio-collars on 6 (3 males and 3 female) tigers to study their ranging patterns and habitat preference. The average home range (95% Fixed Kernel) for resident females was 56.4 (SE 5.69) and for males it was 110 (SE 49) km². Tigers crossed an average of 5 water channels > 30 meters per day with a mean width of 54 meters, whereas channels larger than 400 meters were rarely crossed. Tigers spent over 58% of their time within Phoenix habitat but compositional analysis showed a habitat preference of the order Avicennia-Sonneratia > Phoenix > Ceriops > Barren > Water. Average daily distance moved was 4.6 km (range 0.1–23). Activity of tigers peaked between 05:00 hours and 10:00 hours showing some overlap with human activity. Territory boundaries were demarcated by large channels which tigers intensively patrolled. Extra caution should be taken while fishing or honey collection during early morning in Avicennia-Sonneratia and Phoenix habitat types along wide channels to reduce human-tiger conflict. Considering home-range core areas as exclusive, tiger density was estimated at 4.6 (SE range 3.6 to 6.7) tigers/100 km2 giving a total population of 76 (SE range 59–110) tigers in the Indian Sundarban. Reluctance of tigers to cross wide water channels combined with increasing commercial boat traffic and sea level rise due to climate change pose a real threat of fragmenting the Sundarban tiger population. PMID:27049644

  9. Simple model for active nematics: quasi-long-range order and giant fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Chaté, Hugues; Ginelli, Francesco; Montagne, Raúl

    2006-05-12

    We propose a simple microscopic model for active nematic particles similar in spirit to the Vicsek model for self-propelled polar particles. In two dimensions, we show that this model exhibits a Kosterlitz-Thouless-like transition to quasi-long-range orientational order and that in this nonequilibrium context, the ordered phase is characterized by giant density fluctuations, in agreement with the predictions of Ramaswamy et al.

  10. In-situ measurement of dust devil activity at La Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Neakrase, Lynn D.; Anderson, John D.

    2015-12-01

    We document observations of dust devil vortices using a linear array of 10 miniature pressure- and sunlight-logging stations in summer 2013 at La Jornada Experimental Range in the southwestern USA. These data provide a census of vortex and dust-devil activity at this site. The simultaneous spatially-distributed measurements resolve the horizontal pressure structure of several dust devil encounters, and the data can be fit well with an analytic model, giving independent measures of vortex size and intensity.

  11. Daily and seasonal variations in radon activity concentration in the soil air.

    PubMed

    Műllerová, Monika; Holý, Karol; Bulko, Martin

    2014-07-01

    Radon activity concentration in the soil air in the area of Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics (FMPI) in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, has been continuously monitored since 1994. Long-term measurements at a depth of 0.8 m and short-term measurements at a depth of 0.4 m show a high variability in radon activity concentrations in the soil. The analysis of the data confirms that regular daily changes in radon activity concentration in the soil air depend on the daily changes in atmospheric pressure. It was also found that the typical annual courses of the radon activity concentration in the soil air (with summer minima and winter maxima) were disturbed by mild winter and heavy summer precipitation. Influence of precipitation on the increase in the radon activity concentration in the soil air was observed at a depth of 0.4 m and subsequently at a depth of 0.8 m.

  12. ACTIVE MEDIA: Photoprocesses in laser-active media operating in the 400 nm range. II. Photochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Rimma T.; Kopylova, T. N.; Degtyarenko, K. M.; Sergeev, A. K.; Nesterenko, S. N.; Mayer, G. V.; Afanas'ev, N. B.; Vereskun, V. N.

    1996-09-01

    The quantum yield of phototransformations, the relative yields of photoproducts, and the half-life of active media based on 2-4(pyridyl)-5-(4-methophenyl) oxazole (4PyPO) and of the substituted derivatives of dipyrazolinylbenzene (PDPDP) were investigated as a function of the concentration of the solution, the length of the active medium, and the parameters of the pump pulses generated by an XeCl laser. The results obtained are interpreted with the help of the data on the lasing efficiency and on the induced-absorption spectra.

  13. The ESCRT machinery regulates the secretion and long-range activity of Hedgehog.

    PubMed

    Matusek, Tamás; Wendler, Franz; Polès, Sophie; Pizette, Sandrine; D'Angelo, Gisela; Fürthauer, Maximilian; Thérond, Pascal P

    2014-12-04

    The conserved family of Hedgehog (Hh) proteins acts as short- and long-range secreted morphogens, controlling tissue patterning and differentiation during embryonic development. Mature Hh carries hydrophobic palmitic acid and cholesterol modifications essential for its extracellular spreading. Various extracellular transportation mechanisms for Hh have been suggested, but the pathways actually used for Hh secretion and transport in vivo remain unclear. Here we show that Hh secretion in Drosophila wing imaginal discs is dependent on the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT). In vivo the reduction of ESCRT activity in cells producing Hh leads to a retention of Hh at the external cell surface. Furthermore, we show that ESCRT activity in Hh-producing cells is required for long-range signalling. We also provide evidence that pools of Hh and ESCRT proteins are secreted together into the extracellular space in vivo and can subsequently be detected together at the surface of receiving cells. These findings uncover a new function for ESCRT proteins in controlling morphogen activity and reveal a new mechanism for the transport of secreted Hh across the tissue by extracellular vesicles, which is necessary for long-range target induction.

  14. Influence of medium range transport of particles from nucleation burst on particle number concentration within the urban airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, H. C.; Morawska, L.; Ristovski, Z. D.; Wainwright, D.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated particle number concentration (PNC) observed during nucleation events could make a significant contribution to the total particle load and thus air pollution in urban environments. Therefore, a field measurement study of PNC was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of PNC within the urban airshed of Brisbane, Australia. PNC was monitored at urban (QUT), roadside (WOO) and semi-urban (ROC) areas around the Brisbane region during 2009. The results showed that morning traffic exhaust emissions were the main contributor to high PNCs at QUT and WOO which contributed 5.5% and 5.1 5 during the week, respectively, with a less significant contribution on weekends. PNC peaks were observed around noon, which correlated with the highest solar radiation levels at all three stations, thus suggesting that high PNC levels were likely to be associated with new particle formation caused by photochemical reactions. Wind rose plots showed relatively higher PNC for the NE direction, which was associated with industrial pollution, accounting for 12%, 9% and 14% of overall PNC at QUT, WOO and ROC, respectively. Although there was no significant correlation between PNC at each station, the variation of PNC was well correlated among three stations during regional nucleation events. In addition, PNC at ROC was significantly influenced by upwind urban pollution during the nucleation burst events, with the average enrichment factor of 15.4. This study provides an insight into the influence of regional nucleation events on PNC in the Brisbane region and is the first study to quantify the effect of urban pollution on semi-urban PNC through the nucleation events.

  15. Elevated blood active ghrelin and normal total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in uterine leiomyoma.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziolkowska, A; Nowinka, K; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin originate from the same peptide precursor, preproghrelin. Both peptides are secreted in the blood. We investigated serum active and total ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in women with uterine myomatosis. Serum concentrations of active ghrelin in uterine leiomyoma were significantly higher compared to women in the control group (86 +/- 3 vs 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively; p < 0.02). On the other hand, serum concentrations of total ghrelin and obestatin in uterine leiomyoma did not differ from those in the control group. In the control group the ratio of active to total ghrelin concentrations amounted to 0.62, while in women with uterine myoma it was 0.95, pointing to a prevalence of the active form of ghrelin in women with uterine myoma. Also the ratio of active ghrelin concentration to obestatin concentration was higher in the latter group while the ratio of total circulating ghrelin to obestatin concentrations was similar in the two groups. The data may suggest a role of active ghrelin in the development of a myoma. Moreover, the results indicate that increased blood ratios of active to total ghrelin and to obestatin concentrations are not specific for cachexia.

  16. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  17. Reference ranges for urinary concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids, which can be used as markers for steroid misuse, in a Caucasian population of athletes.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Delbeke, Frans T

    2010-02-01

    The detection of misuse with naturally occurring steroids is a great challenge for doping control laboratories. Intake of natural anabolic steroids alters the steroid profile. Thus, screening for exogenous use of these steroids can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile, and evaluate their concentrations and ratios against reference ranges. Elevated values of the steroid profile constitute an atypical finding after which a confirmatory IRMS procedure is needed to unequivocally establish the exogenous origin of a natural steroid. However, the large inter-individual differences in urinary steroid concentrations and the recent availability of a whole range of natural steroids (e.g. dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione) which each exert a different effect on the monitored parameters in doping control complicate the interpretation of the current steroid profile. The screening of an extended steroid profile can provide additional parameters to support the atypical findings and can give specific information upon the steroids which have been administered. The natural concentrations of 29 endogenous steroids and 11 ratios in a predominantly Caucasian population of athletes were determined. The upper reference values at 97.5%, 99% and 99.9% levels were assessed for male (n=2027) and female (n=1004) populations. Monitoring minor metabolites and evaluation of concentration ratios with respect to their natural abundances could improve the interpretation of the steroid profile in doping analysis.

  18. Design of Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase mutants with improved trans-sialidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Nyffenegger, Christian; Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2017-01-01

    A sialidase (EC 3.2.1.18) from the non-pathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli, TrSA, has been shown to exert trans-sialidase activity after mutation of five specific amino acids in the active site (M96V, A98P, S120Y, G249Y, Q284P) to form the so-called TrSA5mut enzyme. By computational and hypothesis driven approaches additional mutations enhancing the trans-sialidase activity have been suggested. In the present work, we made a systematic combination of these mutations leading to seven new variants of the T. rangeli sialidase, having 6–16 targeted amino acid mutations. The resulting enzyme variants were analyzed via kinetics for their ability to carry out trans-sialidase reaction using CGMP and D-lactose as substrates. The sialidase variants with 15 and 16 mutations, respectively, exhibited significantly improved trans-sialidase activity for D-lactose sialylation. Our results corroborate, that computational studies of trans-glycosylation can be a valuable input in the design of novel trans-glycosidases, but also highlight the importance of experimental validation in order to assess the performance. In conclusion, two of the seven mutants displayed a dramatic switch in specificity from hydrolysis towards trans-sialylation and constitute the most potent trans-sialidase mutants of TrSA described in literature to date. PMID:28158299

  19. Denudation of Actively Growing Mountain Ranges in the Foreland of NE Tibet Inferred From in- Situ Produced Cosmogenic Be-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Tao, M.; Li, X.

    2007-12-01

    At the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau ranges bounded by active thrust faults offer the unique opportunity to study the competing effects of uplift and erosion during the early stages of mountain building. Owing to along- strike variations in relief, slope, and lithology, these ranges are an ideal target for studying the influence of topography, lithology, and active faulting on denudation. Here we report spatially-averaged erosion rates for catchments situated along two of these ranges based on Be-10 concentrations of quartz in stream sediments. The Yumu Shan and the western Long Shou Shan are about 60 km long and their overall shape as well as the presence of wind gaps illustrates their vertical-lateral growth during Plio-Quaternary thrust faulting (Hetzel et al. 2004a). Erosion rates determined so far for 20 small catchments are variable and range from 20 to 550 mm/kyr. The observed variability results from at least three factors: (1) the erosion rate in catchments exposing the same lithology is positively correlated with relief and mean slope, (2) weakly consolidated Cretaceous sediments generally erode faster than low-grade Paleozoic bedrock, and (3) the erosion rate seems to decrease from the centre of the fault-bounded ranges towards their propagating tips. As rates of thrust faulting and rock uplift in the region (600-1200 mm/kyr; Hetzel et al., 2004a, b) exceed the denudation rates, the active growth of mountains and the lateral growth of Tibet has not yet come to rest. References Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Niedermann, S., Strecker, M.R., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Gao, B. (2004a). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova 16, 157-162. Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Stokes, S., Niedermann, S., Ivy-Ochs, S., Gao, B., Strecker, M.R., Kubik, P.W. (2004b). Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the

  20. Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in apparently healthy, free-ranging southern giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffe).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Ball, Ray L; Grobler, Douw; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E; Citino, Scott B; Bush, Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    This pilot project began establishing a nutritional profile for free-ranging giraffe. The results will be used as a tool to begin assessing the nutritional status of captive giraffe. In October 2004 serum samples were collected opportunistically from seven adult and 17 sub-adult giraffe being anesthetized for different studies. Seventeen animals were from Double Drift Game Reserve and seven animals were from Kariega Private Game Reserve. The serum samples were analyzed for circulating concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins, and minerals. Information from 15 serum samples collected from anesthetized giraffe in Kruger National Park during April and August 2003 was included in the calcium and phosphorus concentration data. No significant differences were identified between genders. Significant differences between locations were identified for concentrations of certain amino acids, fatty acids, and lipoproteins. Differences between locations are likely due to different nutrient concentrations of foods and possibly the result of different animal densities forcing different food choices among locations. This pilot project may expand to include changes in circulating nutrient concentrations for free-ranging giraffe as is influenced by other locations, seasonal food availability, and different giraffe subspecies. Zoo Biol 0:1-13, 2007. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Activity Patterns of Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Revealed by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michelle A.; Whisson, Desley A.; Holland, Greg J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting) and active (grooming, feeding and moving) behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA]) for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species. PMID:24224050

  2. Assessment of concentrations of trace elements in ground water and soil at the Small-Arms Firing Range, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ground-water samples were collected from four shallow water-table aquifer observation wells beneath the Small-Arms Firing Range study area at Shaw Air Force Base. Water-chemistry analyses indicated that total lead concentrations in shallow ground water beneath the study area do not exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level established for lead in drinking water (0.05 milligrams per liter). All other trace element total concentrations in ground water beneath the study area were at or below the detection limit of the analytical methodology.

  3. Tectonic activity revealed by morphostructural analysis: Development of the Sierra de la Candelaria range, northwestern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcelona, H.; Peri, G.; Tobal, J.; Sagripanti, L.; Favetto, A.

    2014-12-01

    The tectonically active broken foreland of NW Argentina is a recent analog of the eastern margin of the Puna plateau during Mio-Pliocene times and likely of other broken forelands worldwide. In order to evaluate active tectonism in the broken foreland of the NW Argentine Andes, we examined the complex geomorphology in the vicinity of the basement-cored Sierra de la Candelaria range at ˜26°S and deciphered multiple episodes of crustal deformation spanning the Pliocene to the Quaternary. Digital elevation models, satellite images and geological data within a GIS environment allowed us to analyze the terrain, drainage networks, river dynamics and structure, as well as to obtain detailed geomorphological mapping, active tectonic indices, longitudinal river profiles and structural sections. Three morphostructural segments were defined based on the structural features, the differential vertical dissection pattern over the basement, the faulted Pliocene to recent deposits, the stepwise propagation of anticlines and the distortion over the fluvial system. By combining the several lines of evidence, we concluded that the Sierra de la Candelaria range was subjected to a multi-stage development. The first stage uplifted the central segment concomitant with the formation of the surrounding ranges and with the main partition phase of the foreland. After a significant time lapse, the mountain range was subjected to southward thick-skinned growth and northward growth via stepwise thin-skinned deformation and exerted control over the dynamics of the Río Rosario. Taking into account the surrounding basins and ranges of the Sierra de la Candelaria, the southern Santa Bárbara System is characterized by partially isolated intramontane basins (Choromoro and Rosario) limited by shielded ranges that caused moisture block and shows continuous deformation. These features were related to early stages of a broken foreland evolution model and modern analogs were found at the northern

  4. Ultra-long-range hydroacoustic observations of submarine volcanic activity at Monowai, Kermadec Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, D.; Watts, A. B.; Grevemeyer, I.; Rodgers, M.; Paulatto, M.

    2016-02-01

    Monowai is an active submarine volcanic center in the Kermadec Arc, Southwest Pacific Ocean. During May 2011, it erupted over a period of 5 days, with explosive activity directly linked to the generation of seismoacoustic T phases. We show, using cross-correlation and time-difference-of-arrival techniques, that the eruption is detected as far as Ascension Island, equatorial South Atlantic Ocean, where a bottom moored hydrophone array is operated as part of the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Hydroacoustic phases from the volcanic center must therefore have propagated through the Sound Fixing and Ranging channel in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, a source-receiver distance of ~15,800 km. We believe this to be the furthest documented range of a naturally occurring underwater signal above 1 Hz. Our findings, which are consistent with observations at regional broadband stations and long-range, acoustic parabolic equation modeling, have implications for submarine volcano monitoring.

  5. Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on skeletal muscle substrates, enzyme activities and capillary supply.

    PubMed

    Tesch, P A; Thorsson, A; Colliander, E B

    1990-12-01

    This study compared the skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations in response to combined eccentric and concentric or concentric resistance training regimens. Twenty-six physically active males were assigned to either the combined eccentric and concentric group (n = 10), the concentric group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 6). The combined eccentric and concentric and the concentric groups performed four to five sets of maximal, voluntary bilateral quadriceps muscle actions at 1.05 rad s-1 using a speed-controlled dynamometer three times per week for 12 weeks. The concentric group performed 12 concentric actions per set, whereas the combined eccentric and concentric group performed six coupled eccentric and concentric actions per set. Bilateral percutaneous muscle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis at rest pre- and post-training. Tissue samples were analysed for contents of adenosine triphosphate, creatine phosphate and creatine and for enzyme activities of citrate synthase, lactate dehydrogenase, myokinase, phosphofructokinase, hexokinase and Mg2(+)-ATPase using fluorometric techniques. Histochemical staining procedures were employed to determine capillary supply. The overall increase (P less than 0.05) in muscle strength was greater (P less than 0.05) for the combined eccentric and concentric group than for the concentric group. Enzyme or substrate contents and capillary supply were unaltered after either type of training. It is suggested that substantial increases in muscle strength may occur in response to resistance training without enhancing or compromising metabolic function of skeletal muscle.

  6. Migration of concentrated radionuclide solutions in water-saturated soil investigation of a hypothetical high activity waste solution discharge accident

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarzer, K.; Katscher, W.; Thelen, J.

    1983-01-01

    For the case of postulated leakage from a tank containing a high activity nuclear waste solution, as planned for the German reprocessing plant at Gorleben, the migration of radionuclides in the groundwater current has been examined. As the nuclide migration velocity is strongly influenced by sorption processes, which for a given soil are concentration dependent, adsorption and desorption coefficients for strontium, cesium, ruthenium, and cerium were measured over a wide concentration range in sandy subsoil taken from the Gorleben site. Using the results from the adsorption experiments and neglecting the fact that the sorption coefficients in the case of desorption turn out to be significantly higher, migration velocities and concentration profiles for strontium, cesium, ruthenium, and cerium were calculated with the MOFIS code. The results show significant delay and concentration decrease of the radionuclides with strontium being the ''critical'' element.

  7. Automated, long-range, night/day, active-SWIR face recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoff, Brian E.; Martin, Robert B.; Sluch, Mikhail; Kafka, Kristopher M.; Dolby, Andrew; Ice, Robert

    2014-06-01

    Covert, long-range, night/day identification of stationary human subjects using face recognition has been previously demonstrated using the active-SWIR Tactical Imager for Night/Day Extended-Range Surveillance (TINDERS) system. TINDERS uses an invisible, eye-safe, SWIR laser illuminator to produce high-quality facial imagery under conditions ranging from bright sunlight to total darkness. The recent addition of automation software to TINDERS has enabled the autonomous identification of moving subjects at distances greater than 100 m. Unlike typical cooperative, short range face recognition scenarios, where positive identification requires only a single face image, the SWIR wavelength, long distance, and uncontrolled conditions mean that positive identification requires fusing the face matching results from multiple captured images of a single subject. Automation software is required to initially detect a person, lock on and track the person as they move, and select video frames containing high-quality frontal face images for processing. Fusion algorithms are required to combine the matching results from multiple frames to produce a high-confidence match. These automation functions will be described, and results showing automated identification of moving subjects, night and day, at multiple distances will be presented.

  8. An Adaptive Reconfigurable Active Voltage Doubler/Rectifier for Extended-Range Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present an adaptive reconfigurable active voltage doubler (VD)/rectifier (REC) (VD/REC) in standard CMOS, which can adaptively change its topology to either a VD or a REC by sensing the output voltage, leading to more robust inductive power transmission over an extended range. Both active VD and REC modes provide much lower dropout voltage and far better power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to their passive counterparts by adopting offset-controlled high-speed comparators that drive the rectifying switches at proper times in the high-frequency band. We have fabricated the active VD/REC in a 0.5-µm 3-metal 2-poly CMOS process, occupying 0.585 mm2 of chip area. In an exemplar setup, VD/REC extended the power transmission range by 33% (from 6 to 8 cm) in relative coil distance and 41.5% (from 53° to 75°) in relative coil orientation compared to using the REC alone. While providing 3.1-V dc output across a 500-Ω load from 2.15- (VD) and 3.7-V (REC) peak ac inputs at 13.56 MHz, VD/REC achieved measured PCEs of 70% and 77%, respectively. PMID:24633369

  9. The activity concentrations of 222Rn and corresponding health risk in groundwater samples from basement and sandstone aquifer; the correlation to physicochemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurabu, Wedad Ali; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Heryansyah, Arien

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity concentrations of 222Rn and to assess the corresponding health risk in groundwater samples obtained in Juban District, Ad Dali' Governorate, Yemen. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The activity concentrations of 222Rn ranged from 1.0±0.2 Bq l-1 to 896.0±0.8 Bq l-1. 57% of the groundwater samples were above the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value for Rn in water. Induced coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentrations of uranium in groundwater samples. The measured concentration of U ranged from 0.33±0.01 μg l-1 to 24.6±0.6 μg l-1. The results were comparable to internationally recommended values. The highest concentration of U and 222Rn were found to be in the basement aquifer, while the lowest concentrations of both radionuclides were in the sandstone aquifer. High concentrations of Rn are found along fault zones. The relationship between the activity concentration of 222Rn, concentration of U and physicochemical parameters were investigated. The results showed a very strong relationship between activity concentrations of 222Rn with concentrations of U and the salinity of water.

  10. Concentration measurements of ozone in the 1200-300ppbv range: an intercomparison between the BNM ultraviolet standard and infrared methods.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Valentin, Alain; Henry, Annie; Hurtmans, Daniel; Camy-Peyret, Claude

    2004-12-01

    Simultaneous ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) measurements of ozone concentration in air in the 1200-300 ppbv range have been performed using the ultraviolet absorption in the Hartley band at 0.2537 microm and the infrared absorption of a doublet at 9.507 microm in the nu(3) vibration-rotation band. Infrared concentration measurements were achieved using the tunable diode laser spectrometer of LPMA in Paris with interferometric control of the emitted wavelength while the UV concentration measurements were performed with the 49PS Megatec ozone generator of the Bureau National de Metrologie (BNM). The simultaneous recording of spectra of a reference cell filled with pure distilled ozone and of a low concentration mixture inside a long absorbing path Herriott cell allows to carry out infrared concentration measurements with an accuracy of the same order as the ultraviolet ones and provides the instrumental parameters of the spectrometer corresponding to each concentration measurement, which reduces systematic errors. Within the respective absolute uncertainties proper to the two techniques, no systematic discrepancy was evidenced between the IR and the UV measurements. The ozone ultraviolet absorption coefficient value determined by Hearn (308.3 +/- 4 cm(-1)atm(-1)) and used by the BNM and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is confirmed by the present work.

  11. Concentration measurements of ozone in the 1200-300 ppbv range: an intercomparison between the BNM ultraviolet standard and infrared methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Valentin, Alain; Henry, Annie; Hurtmans, Daniel; Camy-Peyret, Claude

    2004-12-01

    Simultaneous ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) measurements of ozone concentration in air in the 1200-300 ppbv range have been performed using the ultraviolet absorption in the Hartley band at 0.2537 μm and the infrared absorption of a doublet at 9.507 μm in the ν3 vibration-rotation band. Infrared concentration measurements were achieved using the tunable diode laser spectrometer of LPMA in Paris with interferometric control of the emitted wavelength while the UV concentration measurements were performed with the 49PS Megatec ozone generator of the Bureau National de Métrologie (BNM). The simultaneous recording of spectra of a reference cell filled with pure distilled ozone and of a low concentration mixture inside a long absorbing path Herriott cell allows to carry out infrared concentration measurements with an accuracy of the same order as the ultraviolet ones and provides the instrumental parameters of the spectrometer corresponding to each concentration measurement, which reduces systematic errors. Within the respective absolute uncertainties proper to the two techniques, no systematic discrepancy was evidenced between the IR and the UV measurements. The ozone ultraviolet absorption coefficient value determined by Hearn (308.3±4 cm -1 atm -1) and used by the BNM and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is confirmed by the present work.

  12. Conductivity anisotropy in Y1-yPryBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals in a wide range of praseodymium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, Ruslan V.; Khadzhai, Georgij Ya.; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropies of different conductivity mechanisms in Y1-yPryBa2Cu3O7-δ single crystals in a wide range of praseodymium concentrations are reported, assuming a transition from the metallic conductivity to the semiconductor-like regime, in conjunction with the fluctuation conductivity within the 3D Aslamazov-Larkin model. The Tc anisotropy grows with increasing y, with a most drastic rise when approaching the non-superconducting composition. As the praseodymium concentration increases, the ideal resistance anisotropy passes through a maximum at y ≈ 0.19. The temperature dependence of the semiconductor-like resistance anisotropy exhibits a maximum associated with variable-range jumps along the c-axis. The temperature dependence of the fluctuation conductivity anisotropy passes through a maximum due to a significant anisotropy of the coherence length.

  13. Variability of atmospheric krypton-85 activity concentrations observed close to the ITCZ in the southern hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, A; Schlosser, C; Ross, J O; Sartorius, H; Schmid, S

    2014-01-01

    Krypton-85 activity concentrations in surface air have been measured at Darwin, which is located in northern Australia and is influenced by seasonal monsoonal activity. Measurements between August 2007 and May 2010 covered three wet seasons. The mean activity concentration of krypton-85 measured during this period was 1.31±0.02Bqm(-3). A linear model fitted to the average monthly data, using month and monsoon as predictors, shows that krypton-85 activity concentration measured during the sampling period has declined by 0.01Bqm(-3) per year. Although there is no statistically significant difference in mean activity concentration of krypton-85 between wet and dry season, the model implies that activity concentration is higher by about 0.015Bqm(-3) during months influenced by the monsoon when a north westerly flow prevails. Backward dispersion runs using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model Hysplit4 highlight possible source regions during an active monsoon located deep in the northern hemisphere, and include reprocessing facilities in Japan and India. However, the contribution of these facilities to krypton-85 activity concentrations in Darwin would be less than 0.003Bqm(-3).

  14. Tracing chlorine sources of thermal and mineral springs along and across the Cascade Range using halogen concentrations and chlorine isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Jeffrey T.; Barnes, Jaime D.; Hurwitz, Shaul; Leeman, William P.

    2015-09-01

    In order to provide constraints on the sources of chlorine in spring waters associated with arc volcanism, the major/minor element concentrations and stable isotope compositions of chlorine, oxygen, and hydrogen were measured in 28 thermal and mineral springs along the Cascade Range in northwestern USA. Chloride concentrations in the springs range from 64 to 19,000 mg/L and δ37Cl values range from + 0.2 ‰ to + 1.9 ‰ (average = + 1.0 ± 0.4 ‰), with no systematic variation along or across the arc, nor correlations with their presumed underlying basement lithologies. Additionally, nine geochemically well-characterized lavas from across the Mt. St. Helens/Mt. Adams region of the Cascade Range (Leeman et al., 2004, 2005) were analyzed for their halogen concentrations and Cl isotope compositions. In the arc lavas, Cl and Br concentrations from the volcanic front are higher than in lavas from the forearc and backarc. F and I concentrations progressively decrease from forearc to backarc, similar to the trend documented for B in most arcs. δ37Cl values of the lavas range from -0.1 to + 0.8 ‰ (average = + 0.4 ± 0.3 ‰). Our results suggest that the predominantly positive δ37Cl values observed in the springs are consistent with water interaction with underlying 37Cl-enriched basalt and/or altered oceanic crust, thereby making thermal spring waters a reasonable proxy for the Cl isotope compositions of associated volcanic rocks in the Cascades. However, waters with δ37Cl values > + 1.0 ‰ also suggest additional contributions of chlorine degassed from cooling magmas due to subsurface vapor-liquid HCl fractionation in which Cl is lost to the aqueous fluid phase and 37Cl is concentrated in the ascending magmatic HCl vapor. Future work is necessary to better constrain Cl isotope behavior during volcanic degassing and fluid-rock interaction in order to improve volatile flux estimates through subduction zones.

  15. Spontaneous activity in the piriform cortex extends the dynamic range of cortical odor coding.

    PubMed

    Tantirigama, Malinda L S; Huang, Helena H-Y; Bekkers, John M

    2017-02-28

    Neurons in the neocortex exhibit spontaneous spiking activity in the absence of external stimuli, but the origin and functions of this activity remain uncertain. Here, we show that spontaneous spiking is also prominent in a sensory paleocortex, the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex of mice. In the absence of applied odors, piriform neurons exhibit spontaneous firing at mean rates that vary systematically among neuronal classes. This activity requires the participation of NMDA receptors and is entirely driven by bottom-up spontaneous input from the olfactory bulb. Odor stimulation produces two types of spatially dispersed, odor-distinctive patterns of responses in piriform cortex layer 2 principal cells: Approximately 15% of cells are excited by odor, and another approximately 15% have their spontaneous activity suppressed. Our results show that, by allowing odor-evoked suppression as well as excitation, the responsiveness of piriform neurons is at least twofold less sparse than currently believed. Hence, by enabling bidirectional changes in spiking around an elevated baseline, spontaneous activity in the piriform cortex extends the dynamic range of odor representation and enriches the coding space for the representation of complex olfactory stimuli.

  16. Display life of beef packaged with an antioxidant active film as a function of the concentration of oregano extract.

    PubMed

    Camo, Javier; Lorés, Alberto; Djenane, Djamel; Beltrán, José Antonio; Roncalés, Pedro

    2011-05-01

    Fresh beef steaks were packaged with a new antioxidant active system containing increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) of an oregano extract. Control samples were packaged without the active film. Additional samples were sprayed with the extract and packaged as the control samples. Packages were filled with a 80%O(2)/20%CO(2) atmosphere and displayed under illumination (14 h) at 1 ± 1 °C for 28 days. Metmyoglobin formation, lipid oxidation (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE a*) and sensory colour, discoloration, off-odour and oregano smell were determined. Active packaging significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced oxidative stability of beef steaks, depending on the oregano concentration of the active film. The display life of beef samples demonstrated that at least 1% oregano was needed for obtaining a significant increase of display life from 14 to 23 days. A concentration of 4% gave rise to unacceptable oregano smell. As a consequence, most suitable oregano extract concentrations for optimum active packaging in this system should be within the range 1-2%.

  17. Magnesium as Novel Material for Active Plasmonics in the Visible Wavelength Range.

    PubMed

    Sterl, Florian; Strohfeldt, Nikolai; Walter, Ramon; Griessen, Ronald; Tittl, Andreas; Giessen, Harald

    2015-12-09

    Investigating new materials plays an important role for advancing the field of nanoplasmonics. In this work, we fabricate nanodisks from magnesium and demonstrate tuning of their plasmon resonance throughout the whole visible wavelength range by changing the disk diameter. Furthermore, we employ a catalytic palladium cap layer to transform the metallic Mg particles into dielectric MgH2 particles when exposed to hydrogen gas. We prove that this transition can be reversed in the presence of oxygen. This yields plasmonic nanostructures with an extinction spectrum that can be repeatedly switched on or off or kept at any intermediate state, offering new perspectives for active plasmonic metamaterials.

  18. Atmospheric mercury concentrations at two sites in the Kyushu Islands, Japan, and evidence of long-range transport from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takami, Akinori

    2015-09-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric gaseous mercury at Fukuoka and Minamata in the Kyushu Islands, western Japan, was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013 to investigate the influence of long-range transport of mercury in the Asian region. Speciation data at Fukuoka indicated that approximately 99% of the atmospheric mercury was in the gaseous elemental form. The average concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Fukuoka was slightly higher than that of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at Minamata. Synchronous pollution events of higher concentrations of both GEM at Fukuoka and TGM at Minamata were frequently observed from late fall to early spring. We infer that these events occurred due to long-range transport of mercury rather than local, domestic emission sources because the two sites are far apart (about 150 km), and local sources would be unlikely to synchronously influence concentrations at both sites over such a long distance. The results of backward trajectory analyses indicated that these events occurred when air masses came from the Asian continent. In addition, the pollution events were often the result of cold fronts or migratory anticyclones that passed over the Kyushu Islands, often accompanied by descending cool and heavy air currents. Thus, these results indicate that, under specific climate conditions, higher concentrations of atmospheric mercury are transported to the Kyushu Islands from the Asian continent, and are evident in ground-based observations there.

  19. Miniaturization of cytotoxicity tests for concentration range-finding studies prior to conducting the pH 6.7 Syrian hamster embryo cell-transformation assay.

    PubMed

    Plöttner, Sabine; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Brüning, Thomas

    2013-08-15

    The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell-transformation assay (SHE assay) is a promising alternative method to animal testing for the identification of potential carcinogens in vitro. Prior to conducting the SHE assay the appropriate concentration range for each test chemical must be established, with a maximum concentration causing approximately 50% cytotoxicity. Concentration range-finding is done in separate experiments, which are similar to the final SHE assay but with less replicates and more concentrations. Here we present an alternative for the cytotoxicity testing by miniaturization of the test procedure by use of 24-well plates and surpluses from feeder-cell preparations as target cells. In addition, we integrated the photometry-based neutral red (NR) assay. For validation of the assay, incubations with dimethyl sulf-oxide, p-phenylenediamine-2HCl, aniline, o-toluidine-HCl, 2,4-diaminotoluene, and 2-naphthylamine were carried out in the miniaturized approach and compared with the standard procedure in terms of calculating the relative plating efficiencies (RPEs). To directly compare both methods, concentrations that produced 50% cytotoxicity (IC50) were calculated. Excellent associations were observed between the number of colonies and NR uptake. For all test substances a concentration-dependent, concomitant decrease of NR uptake in the miniaturized approach and RPEs in the standard test was observed after a 7-day incubation. The results from both test setups showed a comparable order of magnitude and the IC50 values differed by a factor <2 (1.4-1.9), depending on the substance in question. Overall, the miniaturized approach should be considered an improved alternative for cytotoxicity testing in the SHE assay, as it saves valuable SHE cells and speeds-up the time, to obtain test results more rapidly.

  20. Synthesis of zinc oxide nanostructures catalytically active in the optical range without irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasumov, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    A technique for synthesizing catalytically active zinc oxide-based nanostructures is described. The synthesis product represents a blue-gray powder. When it is introduced into a water solution of methyl orange the latter bleaches out both under daylight and in the dark. The activity of the material is measured by the Kubelka-Munk formula in the wavelength range 0.3-1.8 μm. As follows from X-ray phase analysis data, the synthesized material is a composite consisting of hexagonal structures with the parameters ZnO [ a: 3.2491, c: 5.2046] and Zn [ a: 2.6639, c: 4.9397]. A mechanism underlying the formation of a ZnO-Zn nanocomposite is suggested.

  1. Paralleling power MOSFETs in their active region: Extended range of passively forced current sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1989-01-01

    A simple passive circuit that improves current balance in parallelled power MOSFETs that are not precisely matched and that are operated in their active region from a common gate drive are exhibited. A nonlinear circuit consisting of diodes and resistors generates the differential gate potential required to correct for unbalance while maintaining low losses over a range of current. Also application of a thin tape wound magnetic core to effect dynamic current balance is reviewed, and a simple theory is presented showing that for operation in the active region the branch currents tend to revert to their normal unbalanced values even if the core is not driven into saturation. Results of several comparative experiments are given.

  2. Near infrared laser illuminator for very long-range flash active imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Yves; Metzger, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    For very long-range flash active imaging applications, a powerful and narrow beam divergence pulsed laser illuminator is needed. Conventional high fill factor 1-centimeter diode bars are not well suited to produce a homogeneous and narrow beam divergence in an easy way. In the present paper, a concept based on a QCW mini-bars laser diode stack, focusing lenses and beam homogenisation is presented. With fifteen 1.5 mm conductively cooled fast axis collimated mini-bars, a peak power of 803 Watt at a wavelength of 810 nm is achieved with a maximum duty cycle of 2 percent. After collimation, the laser beam on the scene shows very homogeneous rectangular illumination geometry with a ratio of 4:3 well adapted for active imaging purposes. The beam divergence is reduced to 3.35 × 2.53 mrd with a two lenses objective of focal length f = 573 mm and f-number f# = 4.8.

  3. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  4. Possibility of influence of midazolam sedation on the diagnosis of brain death: concentrations of active metabolites after cessation of midazolam.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kiyotaka; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Kurokawa, Akira; Onda, Miho; Shimizu, Makiko; Fukuoka, Masamichi; Hirano, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro

    2003-09-01

    Midazolam and its active metabolites have a depressant effect on respiration and consciousness level, and therefore their effects should be considered in all patients for whom brain death testing is contemplated. The concentrations of midazolam and its active metabolites were measured in critically ill patients on a ventilator during and after continuous intravenous infusion of midazolam. Three days after cessation of midazolam infusion, the concentrations of midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam decreased to below the therapeutic range (100-1000 ng/ml) in all patients, although the concentrations of 1-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide remained extremely high in a patient who showed deteriorating renal function. The concentrations of 1-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide (19,497-29,761 ng/ml) were measured in this patient. When it is impossible to confirm factors consistent with irreversible brain death, such as the lack of cerebral blood flow, until 3 days after cessation of midazolam infusion, monitoring of the concentration of these substances should be carried out in all patients in whom suspicion exists prior to the evaluation of brain death. It is particularly imperative that monitoring of the 1-hydroxymidazolam glucuronide concentration be carried out in patients with poor renal function.

  5. Locked and loading megathrust linked to active subduction beneath the Indo-Burman Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckler, Michael S.; Mondal, Dhiman Ranjan; Akhter, Syed Humayun; Seeber, Leonardo; Feng, Lujia; Gale, Jonathan; Hill, Emma M.; Howe, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The Indo-Burman mountain ranges mark the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, north of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone. Whether subduction still occurs along this subaerial section of the plate boundary, with 46 mm yr-1 of highly oblique motion, is contentious. About 21 mm yr-1 of shear motion is taken up along the Sagaing Fault, on the eastern margin of the deformation zone. It has been suggested that the remainder of the relative motion is taken up largely or entirely by horizontal strike-slip faulting and that subduction has stopped. Here we present GPS measurements of plate motions in Bangladesh, combined with measurements from Myanmar and northeast India, taking advantage of a more than 300 km subaerial accretionary prism spanning the Indo-Burman Ranges to the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. They reveal 13-17 mm yr-1 of plate convergence on an active, shallowly dipping and locked megathrust fault. Most of the strike-slip motion occurs on a few steep faults, consistent with patterns of strain partitioning in subduction zones. Our results strongly suggest that subduction in this region is active, despite the highly oblique plate motion and thick sediments. We suggest that the presence of a locked megathrust plate boundary represents an underappreciated hazard in one of the most densely populated regions of the world.

  6. Changes in HTO and OBT activity concentrations in the Perch Lake aquatic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Farrow, F; Bredlaw, M; Stuart, M

    2016-12-01

    Perch Lake, a small shallow shield lake located on the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site, contains elevated levels of tritium due to inputs from a nearby nuclear waste management area. The releases have been going on for many years but tritium levels in Perch Lake have been gradually decreasing since about year 2000. Lake water, sediments, aquatic plants, clams and fish were collected during the summer and fall of 2003 and 2013 at three locations in the lake. HTO activity concentrations were measured in all samples and OBT activity concentrations were measured in sediments, plants, clams and fish. In 2003, 2013, HTO activity concentrations in lake water were roughly uniform in time and space, except close to the shoreline where concentrations were fluctuating according to stream water and groundwater tritium levels in streams entering the lake. HTO activity concentrations of biota were similar to concentrations in lake water at the site where they were collected. OBT activity concentrations in biota were not always correlating with the lake water HTO levels. OBT to HTO ratios were found to be less than 1 for aquatic plants, around 1 for clams and fish and above 1 for birds reared on the shore of the lake.

  7. Optimal range of triglyceride values to estimate serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009.

    PubMed

    Hwang, You-Cheol; Ahn, Hong-Yup; Jeong, In-Kyung; Ahn, Kyu Jeung; Chung, Ho Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the validity of Friedewald's formula and to propose a range of triglyceride values over which the formula can be used without significant error. This was a cross-sectional analysis of 1,929 subjects (946 males and 983 females) aged 20 yr and older using data of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2009. Estimated total number was considered to be 10,633,655 (5,846,384 males and 4,787,271 females). Calculated and directly-measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values were highly correlated (r = 0.96); however, significant differences were observed between the directly-measured and calculated LDL-C concentrations. Subjects in the underestimated group (10.5%) had higher dysmetabolic profiles than those in the overestimated group (11.4%). Although serum triglyceride level showed the greatest independent association with differences between the calculated and directly-measured LDL-C concentrations, no statistically significant differences were noted when triglyceride concentration was between 36 and 298 mg/dL (93.2%). In conclusion, Friedewald's formula accurately estimates directly-measured serum LDL-C concentration in Korean adults. However, the formula can be applied to subjects with serum triglyceride concentrations from 36 to 298 mg/dL without significant error.

  8. Comparative Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Different Antimicrobial Peptides against a Range of Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ebbensgaard, Anna; Mordhorst, Hanne; Overgaard, Michael Toft; Nielsen, Claus Gyrup; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hansen, Egon Bech

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of a Selected Set of Antimicrobial Peptides The rapid emergence of resistance to classical antibiotics has increased the interest in novel antimicrobial compounds. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an attractive alternative to classical antibiotics and a number of different studies have reported antimicrobial activity data of various AMPs, but there is only limited comparative data available. The mode of action for many AMPs is largely unknown even though several models have suggested that the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) play a crucial role in the attraction and attachment of the AMP to the bacterial membrane in Gram-negative bacteria. We compared the potency of Cap18, Cap11, Cap11-1-18m2, Cecropin P1, Cecropin B, Bac2A, Bac2A-NH2, Sub5-NH2, Indolicidin, Melittin, Myxinidin, Myxinidin-NH2, Pyrrhocoricin, Apidaecin and Metalnikowin I towards Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas salmonicida, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni, Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia ruckeri by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations. Additional characteristics such as cytotoxicity, thermo and protease stability were measured and compared among the different peptides. Further, the antimicrobial activity of a selection of cationic AMPs was investigated in various E. coli LPS mutants. Cap18 Shows a High Broad Spectrum Antimicrobial Activity Of all the tested AMPs, Cap18 showed the most efficient antimicrobial activity, in particular against Gram-negative bacteria. In addition, Cap18 is highly thermostable and showed no cytotoxic effect in a hemolytic assay, measured at the concentration used. However, Cap18 is, as most of the tested AMPs, sensitive to proteolytic digestion in vitro. Thus, Cap18 is an excellent candidate for further development into practical use; however, modifications that should reduce the protease sensitivity would be needed. In addition, our

  9. Altered Biomarkers of Mucosal Immunity and Reduced Vaginal Lactobacillus Concentrations in Sexually Active Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Carpenter, Colleen; Fiedler, Tina; Kalyoussef, Sabah; McAndrew, Thomas C.; Viswanathan, Shankar; Kim, Mimi; Keller, Marla J.; Fredricks, David N.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. Methodology/Principal Findings Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15–18 years). Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. Conclusions/Significance Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females. PMID:22808157

  10. Relationship between active cervical range of motion and flexion-relaxation ratio in asymptomatic computer workers.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; Park, Se-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Ra

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of neck and shoulder pain is present in the working population, especially sedentary workers. Recent findings have indicated that the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio in the cervical erector spinae (CES) muscles might be a significant criteria of neuromuscular impairment and function. Additionally, the active cervical range of motion (ROM) is frequently used for discriminating between individuals with pain and those who are asymptomatic. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio in a sample of regular visual display terminal (VDT) workers. In total, 20 asymptomatic male VDT workers were recruited. Active cervical ROM was measured by a cervical ROM (CROM) instrument. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect myoelectrical signals from the CES muscles, and the FR ratio was calculated for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio. The values obtained for the FR ratio in the right CES muscles correlated significantly with the active cervical ROM measured in flexion (r=0.73, p<0.01), left lateral flexion (r=0.64, p<0.01), and left rotation (r=0.60, p<0.01). Flexion (r=0.74, p<0.01) and right lateral flexion (r=0.61, p<0.01) positively correlated with the left FR ratio. Extension and right rotation showed either a very weak or no correlation with the mean value of the right and left FR ratio. Our findings suggested that the cervical FR ratio had a positive correlation with cervical movements, and that changes of the activation patterns in CES demonstrated as cervical FR ratio are associated with reduction of the cervical range of motion including flexion and lateral flexion. In addition, muscular dysfunction of the CES could occur in regular computer workers prior to occurrence of pain; this means that the FR ratio could be used to evaluate the potential

  11. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  12. Allosteric Nanobodies Reveal the Dynamic Range and Diverse Mechanisms of GPCR Activation

    PubMed Central

    Staus, Dean P; Strachan, Ryan T; Manglik, Aashish; Pani, Biswaranjan; Kahsai, Alem W; Kim, Tae Hun; Wingler, Laura M; Ahn, Seungkirl; Chatterjee, Arnab; Masoudi, Ali; Kruse, Andrew C; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Weis, William I; Prosser, R. Scott; Kobilka, Brian K; Costa, Tommaso; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) modulate many physiological processes by transducing a variety of extracellular cues into intracellular responses. Ligand binding to an extracellular orthosteric pocket propagates conformational change to the receptor cytosolic region to promote binding and activation of downstream signaling effectors such as G proteins and β-arrestins. It is widely appreciated that different agonists can share the same binding pocket but evoke unique receptor conformations leading to a wide range of downstream responses (i.e., ‘efficacy’)1. Furthermore, mounting biophysical evidence, primarily using the β-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) as a model system, supports the existence of multiple active and inactive conformational states2–5. However, how agonists with varying efficacy modulate these receptor states to initiate cellular responses is not well understood. Here we report stabilization of two distinct β2AR conformations using single domain camelid antibodies (nanobodies): a previously described positive allosteric nanobody (Nb80) and a newly identified negative allosteric nanobody (Nb60)6,7. We show that Nb60 stabilizes a previously unappreciated low affinity receptor state which corresponds to one of two inactive receptor conformations as delineated by X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy. We find that the agonist isoproterenol has a 15,000-fold higher affinity for the β2AR in the presence of Nb80 compared to Nb60, highlighting the full allosteric range of a GPCR. Assessing the binding of 17 ligands of varying efficacy to the β2AR in the absence and presence of Nb60 or Nb80 reveals large ligand-specific effects that can only be explained using an allosteric model which assumes equilibrium amongst at least three receptor states. Agonists generally exert efficacy by stabilizing the active Nb80-stabilized receptor state (R80). In contrast, for a number of partial agonists, both stabilization of R80 and destabilization of the

  13. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (<30 km) of the earthquake-damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg−1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg−1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution. PMID:27048779

  14. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-06

    The radioactive fission product (90)Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing (90)Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (<30 km) of the earthquake-damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure (90)Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. (137)Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with (90)Sr. The (90)Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg(-1) while the (137)Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg(-1). The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of (134)Cs. However, (90)Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of (90)Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between (90)Sr and (137)Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background (90)Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  15. Strontium-90 activity concentration in soil samples from the exclusion zone of the Fukushima daiichi nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata Kumar; Kavasi, Norbert; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Arae, Hideki; Tokonami, Shinji; Mietelski, Jerzy Wojciech; Łokas, Edyta; Yoshida, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive fission product 90Sr has a long biological half-life (˜18 y) in the human body. Due to its chemical similarity to calcium it accumulates in bones and irradiates the bone marrow, causing its high radio-toxicity. Assessing 90Sr is therefore extremely important in case of a nuclear disaster. In this work 16 soil samples were collected from the exclusion zone (<30 km) of the earthquake-damaged Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, to measure 90Sr activity concentration using liquid scintillation counting. 137Cs activity concentration was also measured with gamma-spectroscopy in order to investigate correlation with 90Sr. The 90Sr activity concentrations ranged from 3.0 ± 0.3 to 23.3 ± 1.5 Bq kg‑1 while the 137Cs from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 110.8 ± 0.3 kBq kg‑1. The fact that radioactive contamination originated from the Fukushima nuclear accident was obvious due to the presence of 134Cs. However, 90Sr contamination was not confirmed in all samples although detectable amounts of 90Sr can be expected in Japanese soils, as a background, stemming from global fallout due to the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. Correlation analysis between 90Sr and 137Cs activity concentrations provides a potentially powerful tool to discriminate background 90Sr level from its Fukushima contribution.

  16. D/H and Water Concentrations of Submarine MORB Glass Around the World: Analytical Aspects, Standardization, and (re)defining Mantle D/H Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindeman, I. N.; Dixon, J. E.; Langmuir, C. H.; Palandri, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The advent and calibration of the Thermal Combustion Element Analyzer (TCEA) continuous flow system coupled with the large-radius mass spectrometer MAT253 permits precise (±0.02 wt.% H2O, ±1-3‰ D/H) measurements in 1-10 mg of volcanic glass (0.1 wt.% H2O requires ~10 mg glass), which permits the targeting of small amounts of the freshest concentrate. This is a >100 factor reduction in sample size over conventional methods, four times over more common Delta series instruments. We investigated in triplicate 115 samples of submarine MORB glasses ranging from water-poor (0.1-0.2wt%) to water-rich (1.2-1.5wt%). These samples were previously investigated for major and trace elements, radiogenic isotopes; a large subset of these samples coming from the FAZAR expedition were studied previously by FTIR for water concentration. We also ran samples previously studied by the conventional off-line technique: MORB glass including those from the Easter Platform and the Alvin 526-1 standard (0.2wt% H2O). We observe excellent 1:1 correspondence (1.02x+0.02, R2=0.94) of wt% water by FTIR and TCEA suggesting complete extraction of water and no dependence on water concentration. We measure 51‰ total range in D/H that correlates with all other chemical and isotopic indicators of mantle enrichment, with the heaviest values occurring in the most enriched samples. When used uncorrected values of H2 gas run against H2 gas of known composition, this range agrees nicely with previous D/H range for MORB (-30 to -90‰), measured for samples run conventionally. Uncorrected analyses of Alvin glass 526-1 gives -66‰. When run against SMOW, SLAP and -41‰ water sealed in silver cups, the range is shifted by -15‰; when standardization is done by with three commonly used mica standards as is done most commonly in different labs, the range is shifted downward by -30-32‰. There are no isotopic offsets related to total water or D/H range requiring different slope or non-linear correction

  17. On the calculation of activity concentrations and nuclide ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when nuclide ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for nuclide ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.

  18. Long-range Electrostatic Complementarity Governs Substrate Recognition by Human Chymotrypsin C, a Key Regulator of Digestive Enzyme Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Batra, Jyotica; Szabó, András; Caulfield, Thomas R.; Soares, Alexei S.; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós; Radisky, Evette S.

    2013-01-01

    Human chymotrypsin C (CTRC) is a pancreatic serine protease that regulates activation and degradation of trypsinogens and procarboxypeptidases by targeting specific cleavage sites within their zymogen precursors. In cleaving these regulatory sites, which are characterized by multiple flanking acidic residues, CTRC shows substrate specificity that is distinct from that of other isoforms of chymotrypsin and elastase. Here, we report the first crystal structure of active CTRC, determined at 1.9-Å resolution, revealing the structural basis for binding specificity. The structure shows human CTRC bound to the small protein protease inhibitor eglin c, which binds in a substrate-like manner filling the S6-S5′ subsites of the substrate binding cleft. Significant binding affinity derives from burial of preferred hydrophobic residues at the P1, P4, and P2′ positions of CTRC, although acidic P2′ residues can also be accommodated by formation of an interfacial salt bridge. Acidic residues may also be specifically accommodated in the P6 position. The most unique structural feature of CTRC is a ring of intense positive electrostatic surface potential surrounding the primarily hydrophobic substrate binding site. Our results indicate that long-range electrostatic attraction toward substrates of concentrated negative charge governs substrate discrimination, which explains CTRC selectivity in regulating active digestive enzyme levels. PMID:23430245

  19. Relative contribution of AtHAK5 and AtAKT1 to K+ uptake in the high-affinity range of concentrations.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Francisco; Nieves-Cordones, Manuel; Alemán, Fernando; Martínez, Vicente

    2008-12-01

    The relative contribution of the high-affinity K(+) transporter AtHAK5 and the inward rectifier K(+) channel AtAKT1 to K(+) uptake in the high-affinity range of concentrations was studied in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia (Col-0). The results obtained with wild-type lines, with T-DNA insertion in both genes and specific uptake inhibitors, show that AtHAK5 and AtAKT1 mediate the NH4+-sensitive and the Ba(2+)-sensitive components of uptake, respectively, and that they are the two major contributors to uptake in the high-affinity range of Rb(+) concentrations. Using Rb(+) as a K(+) analogue, it was shown that AtHAK5 mediates absorption at lower Rb(+) concentrations than AtAKT1 and depletes external Rb(+) to values around 1 muM. Factors such as the presence of K(+) or NH4+ during plant growth determine the relative contribution of each system. The presence of NH4+ in the growth solution inhibits the induction of AtHAK5 by K(+) starvation. In K(+)-starved plants grown without NH4+, both systems are operative, but when NH4+ is present in the growth solution, AtAKT1 is probably the only system mediating Rb(+) absorption, and the capacity of the roots to deplete Rb(+) is reduced.

  20. Broad-Range Antiviral Activity of Hydrogen Sulfide Against Highly Pathogenic RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bazhanov, Nikolay; Escaffre, Olivier; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Garofalo, Roberto P.; Casola, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is an important endogenous mediator that has been the focus of intense investigation in the past few years, leading to the discovery of its role in vasoactive, cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory responses. Recently, we made a critical observation that H2S also has a protective role in paramyxovirus infection by modulating inflammatory responses and viral replication. In this study we tested the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity of the H2S slow-releasing donor GYY4137 on enveloped RNA viruses from Ortho-, Filo-, Flavi- and Bunyavirus families, for which there is no FDA-approved vaccine or therapeutic available, with the exception of influenza. We found that GYY4137 significantly reduced replication of all tested viruses. In a model of influenza infection, GYY4137 treatment was associated with decreased expression of viral proteins and mRNA, suggesting inhibition of an early step of replication. The antiviral activity coincided with the decrease of viral-induced pro-inflammatory mediators and viral-induced nuclear translocation of transcription factors from Nuclear Factor (NF)-kB and Interferon Regulatory Factor families. In conclusion, increasing cellular H2S is associated with significant antiviral activity against a broad range of emerging enveloped RNA viruses, and should be further explored as potential therapeutic approach in relevant preclinical models of viral infections. PMID:28106111

  1. Global earthquake catalogs and long-range correlation of seismic activity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Y.

    2009-12-01

    In view of the long-term seismic activity in the world, homogeneity of a global catalog is indispensable. Lately, Engdahl and Villaseñor (2002) compiled a global earthquake catalog of magnitude (M)7.0 or larger during the last century (1900-1999). This catalog is based on the various existing catalogs such as Abe catalog (Abe, 1981, 1984; Abe and Noguchi, 1983a, b) for the world seismicity (1894-1980), its modified catalogs by Perez and Scholz (1984) and by Pacheco and Sykes (1992), and also the Harvard University catalog since 1975. However, the original surface wave magnitudes of Abe catalog were systematically changed by Perez and Scholz (1984) and Pacheco and Sykes (1992). They suspected inhomogeneity of the Abe catalog and claimed that the two seeming changes in the occurrence rate around 1922 and 1948 resulted from magnitude shifts for some instrumental-related reasons. They used a statistical test assuming that such a series of large earthquakes in the world should behave as the stationary Poisson process (uniform occurrences). It is obvious that their claim strongly depends on their a priori assumption of an independent or short-range dependence of earthquake occurrence. We question this assumption from the viewpoint of long-range dependence of seismicity. We make some statistical analyses of the spectrum, dispersion-time diagrams and R/S for estimating and testing of the long-range correlations. We also attempt to show the possibility that the apparent rate change in the global seismicity can be simulated by a certain long-range correlated process. Further, if we divide the globe into the two regions of high and low latitudes, for example, we have different shapes of the cumulative curves to each other, and the above mentioned apparent change-points disappear from the both regions. This suggests that the Abe catalog shows the genuine seismic activity rather than the artifact of the suspected magnitude shifts that should appear in any wide enough regions

  2. Evaluation of metal concentration and antioxidant activity of three edible mushrooms from Mugla, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Tepe, Bektas; Semiz, Deniz Karsli; Solak, M Halil

    2010-05-01

    This study is designed for the determination of metal concentrations, antioxidant activity potentials and total phenolics of Amanita caesarea, Clitocybe geotropa and Leucoagaricus pudicus. Concentrations of four heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni) and five minor elements (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Co) are determined. In the case of A. caesarea, Cr and Ni concentrations are found in a high level. Concentrations of the metals are found to be within safe limits for C. geotropa. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid test, L. pudicus showed the highest activity potential. In DPPH system, A. caesarea showed 79.4% scavenging ability. Additionally, reducing power and chelating capacity of the mushrooms increased with concentration. The strongest super-oxide anion scavenger was A. caesarea. In the case of total phenolics, L. pudicus found to have the highest content.

  3. Activation of the Escherichia coli marA/soxS/rob regulon in response to transcriptional activator concentration.

    PubMed

    Martin, Robert G; Bartlett, Emily S; Rosner, Judah L; Wall, Michael E

    2008-07-04

    The paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and by measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between the MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo and marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor; and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS, implying that the two activators interact with RNA polymerase in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determine which regulon promoters are activated, as well as the extent of their activation.

  4. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  5. Seasonal and spatial variations of 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in Mytilus galloprovincialis from Croatian coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rožmarić, Martina; Rogić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila; Štrok, Marko; Barišić, Delko

    2013-11-01

    Results of 2 years monitoring of (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in soft tissue of the species Mytilus galloprovincialis from Croatian part of the Adriatic coast are presented. The samples were collected at thirteen coastal stations (some of which are also a part of the Mediterranean Mussel Watch Project) in spring and autumn of 2010 and 2011. The collected mussels were ranging between 4 cm and 6 cm in shell length. After sample pre-treatment lead and polonium were radiochemically separated on Sr resin. (210)Po was determined by alpha-particle spectrometry and (210)Pb was determined, via (210)Bi, by a low-level gas proportional counter. The results of (210)Po activity concentrations were found to vary between (104±11) and (1421±81) Bq kg(-1) dry weight while (210)Pb activity concentrations were much lower and in range (8.2±5.3)-(94.1±29.8) Bq kg(-1) dry weight. Higher (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations were determined in spring period. The inter-site differences seen in their activity concentrations can be due to natural background levels of sites. The (210)Po/(210)Pb activity concentration ratios in all cases exceeded unity for all mussel samples and ranged between 4.0 and 47.9.

  6. Integrated optical gyroscope using active long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2014-01-24

    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10(-4) deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide.

  7. Integrated optical gyroscope using active Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguide resonator

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Qian, Guang; Wang, Yang-Yang; Xue, Xiao-Jun; Shan, Feng; Li, Ruo-Zhou; Wu, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Yang

    2014-01-01

    Optical gyroscopes with high sensitivity are important rotation sensors for inertial navigation systems. Here, we present the concept of integrated resonant optical gyroscope constructed by active long-range surface plasmon-polariton (LRSPP) waveguide resonator. In this gyroscope, LRSPP waveguide doped gain medium is pumped to compensate the propagation loss, which has lower pump noise than that of conventional optical waveguide. Peculiar properties of single-polarization of LRSPP waveguide have been found to significantly reduce the polarization error. The metal layer of LRSPP waveguide is electro-optical multiplexed for suppression of reciprocal noises. It shows a limited sensitivity of ~10−4 deg/h, and a maximum zero drift which is 4 orders of magnitude lower than that constructed by conventional single-mode waveguide. PMID:24458281

  8. Effect of glass composition on activation energy of viscosity in glass-melting-temperature range

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Han, Sang Soo

    2012-08-01

    In the high-temperature range, where the viscosity (Eta) of molten glass is <10{sup 3} Pa s, the activation energy (B) is virtually ln(Eta) = A + B/T, is nearly independent of melt composition. Hence, the viscosity-composition relationship for Eta < 10{sup 3} Pa s is defined by B as a function of composition. Using a database encompassing over 1300 compositions of high-level waste glasses with nearly 7000 viscosity data, we developed mathematical models for B(x), where x is the composition vector in terms of mass fractions of components. In this paper, we present 13 versions of B(x) as first- and second-order polynomials with coefficients for 15 to 39 components, including Others, a component that sums constituents having little effect on viscosity.

  9. Active range of motion outcomes after reconstruction of burned wrist and hand deformities.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Ahmed M; Mahboub, Tarek A; Ibrahim Fouad, Amr; Azari, Kodi; Khalil, Haitham H; McCarthy, James E

    2016-06-01

    This works aim is to evaluate the efficacy of skin grafts and flaps in reconstruction of post-burn hand and wrist deformities. A prospective study of 57 burn contractures of the wrist and dorsum of the hand was performed. Flaps were used only if there was a non-vascularized structure after contracture release, otherwise a skin graft was used. Active range of motion (ROM) was used to assess hand function. The extension deformity cohort uniformly underwent skin graft following contracture release with a mean improvement of 71 degrees (p<0.0001). The flexion deformity cohort was treated with either skin grafts (8 patients) or flaps (9 patients) with a mean improvement of 44 degrees (p<0.0001). Skin grafts suffice for dorsal hand contractures to restore functional wrist ROM. For flexion contractures, flaps were more likely for contractures >6 months. Early release of burn contracture is advisable to avoid deep structure contracture.

  10. Influence of Concentration and Activation on Hydrogen Peroxide Diffusion through Dental Tissues In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Carlos R. G.; Souza, Cristiane S.; Borges, Alessandra B.; Huhtala, Maria Filomena R. L.; Caneppele, Taciana M. F.

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of physical and chemical activation on the diffusion time of different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching agents through enamel and dentin. One hundred and twenty bovine cylindrical specimens were divided into six groups (n = 20): 20% HP; 20% HP with light activation; 20% HP with manganese gluconate; 35% HP; 35% HP with light activation; and 35% HP with manganese gluconate. The specimens were fixed over transparent epoxy wells with internal cavities to simulate a pulpal chamber. This chamber was filled with an enzymatic reagent to simulate pulpal fluid. The bleaching gels were applied on enamel surface and the image of the pulpal fluid was captured by a video camera to monitor the time of peroxide penetration in each specimen. ANOVA analysis showed that concentration and type of activation of bleaching gel significantly influenced the diffusion time of HP (P < 0.05). 35% HP showed the lowest diffusion times compared to the groups with 20% HP gel. The light activation of HP decreased significantly the diffusion time compared to chemical activation. The highest diffusion time was obtained with 20% HP chemically activated. The diffusion time of HP was dependent on activation and concentration of HP. The higher concentration of HP diffused through dental tissues more quickly. PMID:24163616

  11. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

  12. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

  13. Molecular Assembly of Wheat Gliadins into Nanostructures: A Small-Angle X-ray Scattering Study of Gliadins in Distilled Water over a Wide Concentration Range.

    PubMed

    Sato, Nobuhiro; Matsumiya, Aoi; Higashino, Yuki; Funaki, Satoshi; Kitao, Yuki; Oba, Yojiro; Inoue, Rintaro; Arisaka, Fumio; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Urade, Reiko

    2015-10-07

    Gliadin, one of the major proteins together with glutenin composing gluten, affects the physical properties of wheat flour dough. In this study, nanoscale structures of hydrated gliadins extracted into distilled water were investigated primarily by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) over a wide range of concentrations. Gliadins are soluble in distilled water below 10 wt %. Guinier analyses of SAXS profiles indicate that gliadins are present as monomers together with small amounts of dimers and oligomers in a very dilute solution. The SAXS profiles also indicate that interparticle interference appears above 0.5 wt % because of electrostatic repulsion among gliadin assemblies. Above 15 wt %, gliadins form gel-like hydrated solids. At greater concentrations, a steep upturn appears in the low-q region owing to the formation of large aggregates, and a broad shoulder appears in the middle-q region showing density fluctuation inside. This study demonstrates that SAXS can effectively disclose the nanostructure of hydrated gliadin assemblies.

  14. Peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles stabilized by hyperbranched polyglycidol derivatives over a wide pH range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marcin; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Parzuchowski, Paweł; Mazurkiewicz-Pawlicka, Marta; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to carry out comparative studies on the peroxidase-like activity of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) stabilized with low molecular weight hyperbranched polyglycidol (HBPG-OH) and its derivative modified with maleic acid residues (HBPG-COOH). The influence of the stabilizer to gold precursor ratio on the size and morphology of nanoparticles obtained was checked, and prepared nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results indicated the divergent effect of increasing the concentration of stabilizers (HBPG-OH or HBPG-COOH) on the size of the nanostructures obtained. The gold nanoparticles obtained were characterized as having intrinsic peroxidase-like activity and the mechanism of catalysis in acidic and alkaline mediums was consistent with the standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, revealing a strong affinity of AuNPs with 2, 2‧-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 3, 3‧, 5, 5‧-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), and significantly lower affinity towards phenol. By comparing the kinetic parameters, a negligible effect of polymeric ligand charge on activity against various types of substrates (anionic or cationic) was indicated. The superiority of steric stabilization via the application of tested low-weight hyperbranched polymers over typical stabilizers in preventing salt-induced aggregation and maintaining high catalytic activity in time was proved. The applied hyperbranched stabilizers provide a good tool for manufacturing gold-based nanozymes, which are highly stable and active over a wide pH range.

  15. Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295μgL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater.

  16. Comparison of flash and accumulation mode in range-gated active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christnacher, Frank; Laurenzis, Martin; Schertzer, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    Range-gated active imaging has significantly been improved in the recent past. Due to the availability of high power laser diodes around 800-860 nm, it is now possible to find off-the-shelf systems working with very sensitive light intensifier and laser diodes. On the other hand, eye-safe systems working around 1.5 μm suffer from a lack of intensified sensor in the SWIR band. The only existing intensified sensors require the use of high power pulsed laser sources for the illumination. Consequently, the type of source (diode or solid-state laser) gives fundamental differences between the two types of system. The first technique which uses laser diodes, μchip or fiber lasers, is called "accumulation" imaging. These sources are characterized by a low-pulse power and high repetition rate, mostly around a few tens of kHz. Here, each image is the result of the accumulation of hundred of pulses during the frame time. The second technique which uses a solid-state laser illumination is called "flash" imaging. Here, each image is the result of a unique high power illumination of the scene at low repetition rate, mostly around the video rate. In this paper, we investigate the theoretical and practical differences between these two imaging modes and its influence on image quality, on sensitivity to day light or stray light, on fog penetration capacity, on its sensitivity to turbulences and on laser safety (NOHD). For comparative experimental purposes, we've built a range-gated active imaging system which allows the investigation of both methods. We've carried out precise comparative studies between the two acquisition methods.

  17. Impacts of Oil and Gas Exploration Activities on SOA formation in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahreini, R.; Vu, K. K. T.; Dingle, J. H.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Campos, T. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, A.; Herndon, S. C.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Huey, L. G.; Kaser, L.; Mauldin, L.; Meinardi, S.; Montzka, D.; Nowak, J. B.; Richter, D.; Roscioli, J. R.; Schroeder, J.; Shertz, S.; Stell, M. H.; Tanner, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Walega, J.; Weibring, P.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and gas exploration activities (O&G) in Wattenberg Field, located north of the Denver Metropolitan area, have expanded in the last few years. Although VOC emissions and the potential for ozone formation in the area from these sources have been studied previously, no information is available on the impact on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. During the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE), airborne measurements of trace gases and aerosol composition were made in the northern Front Range during July-August 2014. We present analyses on evolution of organic aerosol (OA) and their precursors in order to assess the impact of urban vs. O&G emissions on SOA formation. Significant contribution of SOA to total OA was observed in pure urban and urban plumes mixed with O&G emissions. Under an OH-exposure of 2.8×1011 molecule cm-3 s, enhancement ratios of OA relative to carbon monoxide (ΔOA/ΔCO) increased by factors of ~3.6-5.4; however, (ΔSOA/ΔCO)urban+O&G was 87% higher than (ΔSOA/ΔCO)urban. Predicted ΔSOA/ΔCO values from the oxidation of C7-C11 alkanes, C6-C9 aromatics, and biogenics were about a factor of 10-15 too small compared to the measurements. Predicated alkane-derived SOA contributed to 38% (16%) of anthropogenic ΔSOA/ΔCO values in urban+O&G- (urban-) influenced air masses.

  18. Is there long-range memory in solar activity on timescales shorter than the sunspot period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, M.; Rypdal, K.

    2012-04-01

    The sunspot number (SSN), the total solar irradiance (TSI), a TSI reconstruction, and the solar flare index (SFI) are analyzed for long-range persistence (LRP). Standard Hurst analysis yields H ≈ 0.9, which suggests strong LRP. However, solar activity time series are nonstationary because of the almost-periodic 11 year smooth component, and the analysis does not give the correct H for the stochastic component. Better estimates are obtained by detrended fluctuation analysis, but estimates are biased and errors are large because of the short time records. These time series can be modeled as a stochastic process of the form x(t) = y(t) + σy(t)wH(t), where y(t) is the smooth component and wH(t) is a stationary fractional noise with Hurst exponent H. From ensembles of numerical solutions to the stochastic model and application of Bayes' theorem, we can obtain bias and error bars on H and also a test of the hypothesis that a process is uncorrelated (H = 1/2). The conclusions from the present data sets are that SSN, TSI, and TSI reconstruction almost certainly are long-range persistent, but with the most probable value H ≈ 0.7. The SFI process, however, is either very weakly persistent (H < 0.6) or completely uncorrelated on timescales longer than a few solar rotations. Differences between stochastic properties of the TSI and its reconstruction indicate some error in the reconstruction scheme.

  19. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs. disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.

  20. Microbial community proteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    DOE PAGES

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E.; Li, Zhou; ...

    2015-01-01

    We found that the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome component is not insignificant, but rather provides important functions that are absolutely critical to many aspects of human health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial community proteomics (sometimes referred to as metaproteomics) provides a powerful approach to measure the range and details of human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities, revealing information about microbiome development and stability especially with regard to human health vs.more » disease states. In most cases, both microbial and human proteins are extracted from fecal samples and then measured by the high performance MS-based proteomics technology. We review the field of human gut microbiome community proteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems that range from low complexity defined model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the simple gut microbiota in the GI tract of newborn infants, and finally to the complex gut microbiota in adults. Moreover, the current state-of-the-art in experimental and bioinformatics capabilities for community proteomics enable a detailed measurement of the gut microbiota, yielding valuable insights into the broad functional profiles of even complex microbiota. Future developments are likely to expand into improved analysis throughput and coverage depth, as well as post-translational modification characterizations.« less

  1. Wide-temperature range operation supercapacitors from nanostructured activated carbon fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Kaihsuan; Masarapu, Charan; Ko, Tsehao; Wei, Bingqing

    Electrochemical power sources that offer high energy and power densities and, can also withstand a harsh temperature range have become extremely desirable in applications ranging from civilian portable electronic devices to military weapons. In this report, we demonstrated a wide temperature withstanding supercapacitor which can be operated from 100 °C to -40 °C within a voltage window from -2 V to 2 V. The performance of the supercapacitor coin cells, assembled with nanostructured activated carbon fabric (ACF) as the electrode material and 1 M tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF 4) in polypropylene carbonate (PC) solution as the electrolyte, was systematically studied within the set temperature window. The ACF supercapacitor yielded ideal rectangular shapes in cyclic voltammograms within 0-100 °C with an average mass capacitance of 90 F g -1 and, 60 F g -1 at -25 °C. The capacitance was still over 20 F g -1 at the extremely low temperature of -40 °C. Another exciting feature of the ACF supercapacitors was that they resumed their room temperature capacitance when cooled from 100 °C and defrosted from -40 °C, demonstrating an excellent repeatability and stability. The charge-discharge behavior of the ACF supercapacitors showed long-cycle stability at extreme temperatures. These high electrochemical performances make this type of supercapacitors very promising in many practical applications.

  2. Influence of life-history parameters on organochlorine concentrations in free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) from Prince William Sound, AK.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, G M; Matkin, C O; Buzitis, J; Krahn, M M; Jones, L L; Rowles, T; Stein, J E

    2001-12-17

    Certain populations of killer whales (Orcinus orca) have been extensively studied over the past 30 years, including populations that use Puget Sound, WA, the inside waters of British Columbia, Southeastern Alaska and Kenai Fjords/Prince William Sound, Alaska. Two eco-types of killer whales, 'transient' and 'resident', occur in all of these regions. These eco-types are genetically distinct and differ in various aspects of morphology, vocalization patterns, diet and habitat use. Various genetic and photo-identification studies of eastern North Pacific killer whales have provided information on the male-female composition of most of these resident pods and transient groups, as well as the approximate ages, reproductive status and putative recruitment order (birth order) of the individual whales. Biopsy blubber samples of free-ranging resident and transient killer whales from the Kenai Fjords/Prince William Sound, AK region were acquired during the 1994-1999 field seasons and analyzed for selected organochlorines (OCs), including dioxin-like CB congeners and DDTs. Concentrations of OCs in transient killer whales (marine mammal-eating) were much higher than those found in resident animals (fish-eating) apparently due to differences in diets of these two killer whale eco-types. Certain life-history parameters such as sex, age and reproductive status also influenced the concentrations of OCs in the Alaskan killer whales. Reproductive female whales contained much lower levels of OCs than sexually immature whales or mature male animals in the same age class likely due to transfer of OCs from the female to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Recruitment order also influenced the concentrations of OCs in the Alaskan killer whales. In adult male residents, first-recruited whales contained much higher OC concentrations than those measured in non-first-recruited (e.g. second recruited, third recruited) resident animals in the same age group. This study provides

  3. Inhibitory effect of high calcium concentration on municipal solid waste leachate treatment by the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yi; He, Pin Jing; Pu, Hong Xia; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li Ming; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    This research focused on the inhibitory effects of Ca on the aerobic biological treatment of landfill leachate containing extremely high Ca concentrations. When the Ca concentration in leachate to be treated was more than 4500 mg l(-1), the total organic carbon removal rate was significantly reduced and the processing time to achieve the same removal efficiency was 1.4 times that in the control treatment without added Ca. In contrast, the total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) removal efficiencies were positively related to the Ca concentration, increasing from 65.2% to 81.2% and from 69.2% to 83.7%, respectively, when the dosage of added Ca increased from zero to 8000 mg l(-1). During aerobic treatment, the reductions of solution Ca concentration were in the range of 1003-2274 mg l(-1) and were matched with increases in the Ca content in the residual sludge. The inhibition threshold of Ca in the leachate treated by the activated sludge process appeared to be 4500 mg l(-1), which could be realized by controlling the influent Ca concentration and using an appropriate sludge return ratio in the activated sludge process.

  4. Dimethyl sulfoxide induced structural transformations and non-monotonic concentration dependence of conformational fluctuation around active site of lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Jana, Biman; Bagchi, Biman

    2012-03-21

    Experimental studies have observed significant changes in both structure and function of lysozyme (and other proteins) on addition of a small amount of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in aqueous solution. Our atomistic molecular dynamic simulations of lysozyme in water-DMSO reveal the following sequence of changes on increasing DMSO concentration. (i) At the initial stage (around 5% DMSO concentration) protein's conformational flexibility gets markedly suppressed. From study of radial distribution functions, we attribute this to the preferential solvation of exposed protein hydrophobic residues by the methyl groups of DMSO. (ii) In the next stage (10-15% DMSO concentration range), lysozome partially unfolds accompanied by an increase both in fluctuation and in exposed protein surface area. (iii) Between 15-20% concentration ranges, both conformational fluctuation and solvent accessible protein surface area suddenly decrease again indicating the formation of an intermediate collapse state. These results are in good agreement with near-UV circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence studies. We explain this apparently surprising behavior in terms of a structural transformation which involves clustering among the methyl groups of DMSO. (iv) Beyond 20% concentration of DMSO, the protein starts its final sojourn towards the unfolding state with further increase in conformational fluctuation and loss in native contacts. Most importantly, analysis of contact map and fluctuation near the active site reveal that both partial unfolding and conformational fluctuations are centered mostly on the hydrophobic core of active site of lysozyme. Our results could offer a general explanation and universal picture of the anomalous behavior of protein structure-function observed in the presence of cosolvents (DMSO, ethanol, tertiary butyl alcohol, dioxane) at their low concentrations.

  5. Cytotoxic bile acids, but not cytoprotective species, inhibit the ordering effect of cholesterol in model membranes at physiologically active concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mello-Vieira, João; Sousa, Tânia; Coutinho, Ana; Fedorov, Aleksander; Lucas, Susana D; Moreira, Rui; Castro, Rui E; Rodrigues, Cecília M P; Prieto, Manuel; Fernandes, Fábio

    2013-09-01

    Submillimolar concentrations of cytotoxic bile acids (BAs) induce cell death via apoptosis. On the other hand, several cytoprotective BAs were shown to prevent apoptosis in the same concentration range. Still, the mechanisms by which BAs trigger these opposite signaling effects remain unclear. This study was aimed to determine if cytotoxic and cytoprotective BAs, at physiologically active concentrations, are able to modulate the biophysical properties of lipid membranes, potentially translating into changes in the apoptotic threshold of cells. Binding of BAs to membranes was assessed through the variation of fluorescence parameters of suitable derivatized BAs. These derivatives partitioned with higher affinity to liquid disordered than to the cholesterol-enriched liquid ordered domains. Unlabeled BAs were also shown to have a superficial location upon interaction with the lipid membrane. Additionally, the interaction of cytotoxic BAs with membranes resulted in membrane expansion, as concluded from FRET data. Moreover, it was shown that cytotoxic BAs were able to significantly disrupt the ordering of the membrane by cholesterol at physiologically active concentrations of the BA, an effect not associated with cholesterol removal. On the other hand, cytoprotective bile acids had no effect on membrane properties. It was concluded that, given the observed effects on membrane rigidity, the apoptotic activity of cytotoxic BAs could be potentially associated with changes in plasma membrane organization (e.g. modulation of lipid domains) or with an increase in mitochondrial membrane affinity for apoptotic proteins.

  6. Serum concentration comparisons of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals between zoo and free-ranging giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Debra A; Koutsos, Elizabeth A; Ellersieck, Mark R; Griffin, Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Serum concentrations of amino acids, fatty acids, lipoproteins, vitamins A and E, and minerals in zoo giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) were compared to values obtained from free-ranging giraffes in an effort to identify potential nutritional differences in the zoo population. Zoo giraffes have a specific set of maladies that may be nutritionally related, including peracute mortality, energy malnutrition, pancreatic disease, urolithiasis, hoof disease, and severe intestinal parasitism. Dietary requirements for giraffes are not known; invasive studies used with domestic animals cannot be performed on zoo animals. Though domestic animal standards are often used to evaluate nutritional health of exotic animals, they may not be the most appropriate standards to use. Serum samples from 20 zoo giraffes at 10 zoological institutions in the United States were compared to previously collected samples from 24 free-ranging giraffes in South Africa. Thirteen of the zoo animal samples were collected from animals trained for blood collection, and seven were banked samples obtained from a previous serum collection. Dietary information was also collected on each zoo giraffe; most zoo giraffe diets consisted of alfalfa-based pellets (acid detergent fiber-16), alfalfa hay, and browse in varying quantities. Differences between zoo and free-ranging giraffes, males and females, and adults and subadults were analyzed with the use of a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial and Fisher's Least Significant Difference (LSD) for mean separation. Of the 84 parameters measured, 54 (60%) were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between zoo and free-ranging giraffes. Nine (11%) items were significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between adult and subadult animals. Only one parameter, sodium concentration, was found to be significantly different (P < or = 0.05) between genders. Further investigation in zoo giraffe diets is needed to address the differences seen in this study and the potentially related health

  7. A Lactobacillus plantarum esterase active on a broad range of phenolic esters.

    PubMed

    Esteban-Torres, María; Landete, José María; Reverón, Inés; Santamaría, Laura; de las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-05-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is the lactic acid bacterial species most frequently found in the fermentation of food products of plant origin on which phenolic compounds are abundant. L. plantarum strains showed great flexibility in their ability to adapt to different environments and growth substrates. Of 28 L. plantarum strains analyzed, only cultures from 7 strains were able to hydrolyze hydroxycinnamic esters, such as methyl ferulate or methyl caffeate. As revealed by PCR, only these seven strains possessed the est_1092 gene. When the est_1092 gene was introduced into L. plantarum WCFS1 or L. lactis MG1363, their cultures acquired the ability to degrade hydroxycinnamic esters. These results support the suggestion that Est_1092 is the enzyme responsible for the degradation of hydroxycinnamic esters on the L. plantarum strains analyzed. The Est_1092 protein was recombinantly produced and biochemically characterized. Surprisingly, Est_1092 was able to hydrolyze not only hydroxycinnamic esters, since all the phenolic esters assayed were hydrolyzed. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed that the expression of est_1092 was induced in the presence of methyl ferulate, an hydroxycinnamic ester, but was inhibited on methyl gallate, an hydroxybenzoic ester. As Est_1092 is an enzyme active on a broad range of phenolic esters, simultaneously possessing feruloyl esterase and tannase activities, its presence on some L. plantarum strains provides them with additional advantages to survive and grow on plant environments.

  8. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M.; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. METHOD. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. RESULTS. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of −65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction–adduction), 0°–108° for humeral elevation, −55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°–121° for elbow flexion, −53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, −40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion–extension, and −28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar–radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion–extension. CONCLUSION. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. PMID:26709433

  9. Behavior‐dependent activity patterns of GABAergic long‐range projecting neurons in the rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Micklem, Ben; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Swiejkowski, Daniel A.; Valenti, Ornella; Viney, Tim J.; Kotzadimitriou, Dimitrios; Klausberger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Long‐range glutamatergic and GABAergic projections participate in temporal coordination of neuronal activity in distributed cortical areas. In the hippocampus, GABAergic neurons project to the medial septum and retrohippocampal areas. Many GABAergic projection cells express somatostatin (SOM+) and, together with locally terminating SOM+ bistratified and O‐LM cells, contribute to dendritic inhibition of pyramidal cells. We tested the hypothesis that diversity in SOM+ cells reflects temporal specialization during behavior using extracellular single cell recording and juxtacellular neurobiotin‐labeling in freely moving rats. We have demonstrated that rare GABAergic projection neurons discharge rhythmically and are remarkably diverse. During sharp wave‐ripples, most projection cells, including a novel SOM+ GABAergic back‐projecting cell, increased their activity similar to bistratified cells, but unlike O‐LM cells. During movement, most projection cells discharged along the descending slope of theta cycles, but some fired at the trough jointly with bistratified and O‐LM cells. The specialization of hippocampal SOM+ projection neurons complements the action of local interneurons in differentially phasing inputs from the CA3 area to CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites during sleep and wakefulness. Our observations suggest that GABAergic projection cells mediate the behavior‐ and network state‐dependent binding of neuronal assemblies amongst functionally‐related brain regions by transmitting local rhythmic entrainment of neurons in CA1 to neuronal populations in other areas. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27997999

  10. Streptolysin S of Streptococcus anginosus exhibits broad-range hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Asam, Daniela; Mauerer, Stefanie; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus anginosus is a commensal of mucous membranes and an emerging human pathogen. Some strains, including the type strain, display a prominent β-hemolytic phenotype. A gene cluster (sag), encoding a variant of streptolysin S (SLS) has recently been identified as the genetic background for β-hemolysin production in S. anginosus. In this study, we further characterized the hemolytic and cytolytic activity of the S. anginosus hemolysin in comparison with other streptococcal hemolysins. The results indicate that SLS of S. anginosus is a broad-range hemolysin able to lyse erythrocytes of different species, including horse, bovine, rabbit and even chicken. The hemolytic activity is temperature dependent, and a down-regulation of the hemolysin expression is induced in the presence of high glucose levels. Survival assays indicate that in contrast to other streptococcal species, S. anginosus does not require SLS for survival in the presence of human granulocytes. Cross-complementation studies using the sagB and sagD genes of Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis demonstrated functional similarities to the S. anginosus SLS. Nevertheless, distinct differences to other streptolysin S variants were noted and provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms of SLS pathogen host interactions.

  11. Characterizing proton-activated materials to develop PET-mediated proton range verification markers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Kerr, Matthew D; Amos, Richard A; Stingo, Francesco C; Marom, Edith M; Truong, Mylene T; Palacio, Diana M; Betancourt, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J; DeGroot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Gladish, Gregory W; Sabloff, Bradley S; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Godoy, Myrna C; Patil, Shekhar; Sorensen, James; Mawlawi, Osama R

    2016-06-07

    Conventional proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) relies on tissue activation alone and therefore requires particle therapy PET whose installation can represent a large financial burden for many centers. Previously, we showed the feasibility of developing patient implantable markers using high proton cross-section materials ((18)O, Cu, and (68)Zn) for in vivo proton range verification using conventional PET scanners. In this technical note, we characterize those materials to test their usability in more clinically relevant conditions. Two phantoms made of low-density balsa wood (~0.1 g cm(-3)) and beef (~1.0 g cm(-3)) were embedded with Cu or (68)Zn foils of several volumes (10-50 mm(3)). The metal foils were positioned at several depths in the dose fall-off region, which had been determined from our previous study. The phantoms were then irradiated with different proton doses (1-5 Gy). After irradiation, the phantoms with the embedded foils were moved to a diagnostic PET scanner and imaged. The acquired data were reconstructed with 20-40 min of scan time using various delay times (30-150 min) to determine the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio. The resultant PET/computed tomography (CT) fusion images of the activated foils were then examined and the foils' PET signal strength/visibility was scored on a 5 point scale by 13 radiologists experienced in nuclear medicine. For both phantoms, the visibility of activated foils increased in proportion to the foil volume, dose, and PET scan time. A linear model was constructed with visibility scores as the response variable and all other factors (marker material, phantom material, dose, and PET scan time) as covariates. Using the linear model, volumes of foils that provided adequate visibility (score 3) were determined for each dose and PET scan time. The foil volumes that were determined will be used as a guideline in developing practical implantable markers.

  12. Characterizing proton-activated materials to develop PET-mediated proton range verification markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jongmin; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Kerr, Matthew D.; Amos, Richard A.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Marom, Edith M.; Truong, Mylene T.; Palacio, Diana M.; Betancourt, Sonia L.; Erasmus, Jeremy J.; DeGroot, Patricia M.; Carter, Brett W.; Gladish, Gregory W.; Sabloff, Bradley S.; Benveniste, Marcelo F.; Godoy, Myrna C.; Patil, Shekhar; Sorensen, James; Mawlawi, Osama R.

    2016-06-01

    Conventional proton beam range verification using positron emission tomography (PET) relies on tissue activation alone and therefore requires particle therapy PET whose installation can represent a large financial burden for many centers. Previously, we showed the feasibility of developing patient implantable markers using high proton cross-section materials (18O, Cu, and 68Zn) for in vivo proton range verification using conventional PET scanners. In this technical note, we characterize those materials to test their usability in more clinically relevant conditions. Two phantoms made of low-density balsa wood (~0.1 g cm-3) and beef (~1.0 g cm-3) were embedded with Cu or 68Zn foils of several volumes (10-50 mm3). The metal foils were positioned at several depths in the dose fall-off region, which had been determined from our previous study. The phantoms were then irradiated with different proton doses (1-5 Gy). After irradiation, the phantoms with the embedded foils were moved to a diagnostic PET scanner and imaged. The acquired data were reconstructed with 20-40 min of scan time using various delay times (30-150 min) to determine the maximum contrast-to-noise ratio. The resultant PET/computed tomography (CT) fusion images of the activated foils were then examined and the foils’ PET signal strength/visibility was scored on a 5 point scale by 13 radiologists experienced in nuclear medicine. For both phantoms, the visibility of activated foils increased in proportion to the foil volume, dose, and PET scan time. A linear model was constructed with visibility scores as the response variable and all other factors (marker material, phantom material, dose, and PET scan time) as covariates. Using the linear model, volumes of foils that provided adequate visibility (score 3) were determined for each dose and PET scan time. The foil volumes that were determined will be used as a guideline in developing practical implantable markers.

  13. Shoulder muscle activity in Parkinson's disease during multijoint arm movements across a range of speeds.

    PubMed

    Farley, Becky G; Sherman, Scott; Koshland, Gail F

    2004-01-01

    Bradykinesia is one of the primary symptoms of Parkinson disease and leads to significant functional limitations for patients. Single joint movement studies, that have investigated the mechanism of bradykinesia, suggest that several features of muscle activity are disrupted, including modulation of burst amplitude and duration, and the number of bursts. It has been proposed that it is the blending of these different burst deficits that collectively defines bradykinesia. This study adds two new approaches to the study of bradykinesia. First, we examined the features of shoulder muscle activities during multijoint arm movement in bradykinetic and control subjects, such that previously reported single joint hypotheses could be tested for generalized arm movement. Second, we directly manipulated speed while keeping distance constant for a large range of speeds. In this manner, we could compare individual trials of muscle activity between controls and subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) for movements matched for both speed and movement duration. Our results showed that while a multiple burst pattern of shoulder muscles was a common strategy for all subjects (young, elderly controls and PD), subjects with PD showed several burst abnormalities, including deficits in initial agonist burst amplitude and duration at both fast and slow speeds. Subjects with PD also (1) failed to produce a one-burst pattern at fast speeds and, instead, produced a predominance of multiple burst patterns and (2) showed a relationship between the number of burst deficits and the severity of disease. These results extend the findings of single joint studies to multi-joint and similarly indicate that a combination of burst modulation abnormalities correlate with bradykinesia and disease severity.

  14. Small Caliber Ranges in New York and New Engand (Active Use Only).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Table 3 lists, by state, the type of ranges (small caliber weapon use categories of pistol, .22 caliber rifle, M-16/ 5 56mm rifle, and M-60/i.62mm light...FIRING RANGE RANGE: UNIFORM 1 FIRING POINTS: 5 PRIMARY USE: BASIC 25 METER FIRING, ZEROING RANGE WEAPONS AUTH; M-14 ORD/AMMO AUTH: .30 CALIBER M-16...FIRING RANGE RANGE: UNIORM 2 FIRING POINTS: 5 PRIMARY USE: BASIC 25 METER FIRING, ZEROING RANGE WEAPONS AUTH: M-14 ORD/AMMO AUTH: .30 CALIBER M-16

  15. Contraceptive steroid concentrations in women with early active schistosomiasis: lack of effect of antischistosomal drugs.

    PubMed

    el-Raghy, I; Back, D J; Osman, F; Orme, M L; Fathalla, M

    1986-04-01

    Plasma concentrations of the oral contraceptive steroids (OCS) ethinyloestradiol (EE2) and levonorgestrel (LNG) have been determined in women with early active schistosomiasis and compared to those obtained in healthy volunteers. Steroid concentrations following a single dose of Ovral (500 micrograms LNG, 50 micrograms EE2) or during a multiple dose regimen were unaffected by the disease. There was no significant effect of the antischistosomal drugs praziquantel (40 mg X kg-1) or metrifonate (10 mg X kg-1 X 3 at 2-week intervals) on plasma steroid concentrations. In regular users of OCS, significantly higher concentrations of LNG were observed than in women who received only a single dose. We conclude that there is no pharmacokinetic reason for withholding OCS from patients with early active schistosomiasis who are also receiving either praziquantel or metrifonate.

  16. An indole-containing dauer pheromone component with unusual dauer inhibitory activity at higher concentrations.

    PubMed

    Butcher, Rebecca A; Ragains, Justin R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-07-16

    In Caenorhabditis elegans, the dauer pheromone, which consists of a number of derivatives of the 3,6-dideoxysugar ascarylose, is the primary cue for entry into the stress-resistant, "nonaging" dauer larval stage. Here, using activity-guided fractionation and NMR-based structure elucidation, a structurally novel, indole-3-carboxyl-modified ascaroside is identified that promotes dauer formation at low nanomolar concentrations but inhibits dauer formation at higher concentrations.

  17. Activity Concentrations and Dose Assessment of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Canned Tuna and Sardines Produced after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Zaid Q; Al-Masoud, Fahad I; Ababneh, Anas M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the radioactivity concentrations of gamma emitting radionuclides in canned tuna and sardines that were produced after the Fukushima nuclear accident and to assess the resulting radiation doses to the public. Fifty-eight brands of canned tuna and sardines consumed in the Middle East and produced from different parts of the world were analyzed using a germanium detector. Cesium-137 (137Cs) was not detected above the minimum detectable activity in any of the samples. Natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra and 228Ra were detected with wide activity concentration ranges and with average values of (in Bq kg(-1) wet weight): 68 ± 36, 0.31 ± 0.45, 0.34 ± 0.25, respectively, in tuna samples and with averages of 129 ± 67, 0.20 ± 0.33, 0.60 ± 0.31 in sardine samples. The results of the activity concentrations of 40K and 226Ra showed some regional dependence. Tuna samples produced in Europe have almost twice the concentration of 40K and half the concentration of 226Ra as compared to samples produced in either East or South Asia and North America. Moreover, sardine samples produced in North Africa and Europe have almost twice the concentrations of 40K and 226Ra as those produced in East or South Asia and North America. Dose assessment due to ingestion of canned seafood was also performed, and the committed effective dose was found to be well within the worldwide average.

  18. Characteristics of Zinc Phosphate Coating Activated by Different Concentrations of Nickel Acetate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdalla, Khalid; Zuhailawati, H.; Rahmat, Azmi; Azizan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Activation pretreatment with nickel acetate solution at various concentrations was performed prior to the phosphating step to enhance the corrosion resistance of carbon steel substrates. The activation solution was studied over various concentrations: 10, 50, and 100 g/L. The effects of these concentrations on surface characteristics and microstructural evolution of the coated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and immersion test in a 3.5 pct NaCl solution. Significant increases in the nucleation sites and surface coverage of zinc phosphate coating were observed as the concentration of activation solution reached 50 g/L. The electrochemical analysis revealed that the activation treatment with 50 g/L nickel acetate solution significantly improved the protection ability of the zinc phosphate coating. The corrosion current density of activated phosphate coating with 50 g/L was reduced by 64.64 and 13.22 pct, compared to the coatings obtained with activation solutions of 10 and 100 g/L, respectively.

  19. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  20. Inhibitory effect of high concentrations of ferric ions on the activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Yoshishige; Inoue, Chihiro; Suto, Koichi; Chida, Tadashi

    2003-01-01

    The influence of high concentrations of ferric ions on the biochemical activity of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied using intact cells. The specific oxidation rate of ferrous ions decreased with increasing ferric ion concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed typical competitive inhibition kinetics, because the slopes varied with the ferric ion concentration. A linear relationship between the slope and the square of the ferric ion concentration revealed that the iron-oxidizing enzyme system of A. ferrooxidans was competitively inhibited by about two molecules of ferric ion. The kinetic equation based on this inhibition model agreed with the experimental observation at a high ferric ion concentration where the bacterium is usually exposed in bioleaching and biooxidation plants.

  1. Range-gated intensified spectrographic imager: an instrument for active hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Jean-Robert; Mathieu, Pierre; Fournier, Georges R.; Larochelle, Vincent; Babey, Stephen K.

    2000-09-01

    Hyperspectral imaging has demonstrated impressive capabilities in airborne surveys, particularly for mineral and biomass characterizations. Based on this success, it is believed that other applications like search and rescue operations, and detection/identification of various ground military targets could greatly benefit from this technology. The strength of hyperspectral imaging comes from the access to another dimension of information: the spectral content of the detected return signal for each spatial pixel. In the case of conventional hyperspectral imaging, the return signal depicts the spectral reflectance of the day irradiance from the scene within the field of view of each pixel. However, by inserting a range-gated intensifier into a hyperspectral camera and by combining the camera with selected pulsed lasers, it becomes possible to relate the returned spectral information to specific light/matter interactions like induced fluorescence. This new technique may be referred to as 'active hyperspectral imaging.' Among its advantages, this approach is independent of the ambient lighting conditions and can be customized in excitation wavelengths. Moreover, by using a range-gated intensified camera, it is possible to survey limited area with a significant increase in signal-to-noise ratio. A camera of this type has been built by our group in collaboration with private industry and is described in this paper. The internal design of the camera is discussed, new issues concerning the calibration of the camera are depicted and a model based on signal-to-noise ratio analysis is presented. From the fluorescent characteristics of surrogate land mines measured in the laboratory, this model is used to predict the capabilities of detecting surface-laid mines from an aerial platform based scenario.

  2. Active dendrites mediate stratified gamma-range coincidence detection in hippocampal model neurons

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anindita; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal pyramidal neurons exhibit gamma-phase preference in their spikes, selectively route inputs through gamma frequency multiplexing and are considered part of gamma-bound cell assemblies. How do these neurons exhibit gamma-frequency coincidence detection capabilities, a feature that is essential for the expression of these physiological observations, despite their slow membrane time constant? In this conductance-based modelling study, we developed quantitative metrics for the temporal window of integration/coincidence detection based on the spike-triggered average (STA) of the neuronal compartment. We employed these metrics in conjunction with quantitative measures for spike initiation dynamics to assess the emergence and dependence of coincidence detection and STA spectral selectivity on various ion channel combinations. We found that the presence of resonating conductances (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated or T-type calcium), either independently or synergistically when expressed together, led to the emergence of spectral selectivity in the spike initiation dynamics and a significant reduction in the coincidence detection window (CDW). The presence of A-type potassium channels, along with resonating conductances, reduced the STA characteristic frequency and broadened the CDW, but persistent sodium channels sharpened the CDW by strengthening the spectral selectivity in the STA. Finally, in a morphologically precise model endowed with experimentally constrained channel gradients, we found that somatodendritic compartments expressed functional maps of strong theta-frequency selectivity in spike initiation dynamics and gamma-range CDW. Our results reveal the heavy expression of resonating and spike-generating conductances as the mechanism underlying the robust emergence of stratified gamma-range coincidence detection in the dendrites of hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons. PMID:26018187

  3. Rice potassium transporter OsHAK1 is essential for maintaining potassium-mediated growth and functions in salt tolerance over low and high potassium concentration ranges.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Hu, Qingdi; Luo, Le; Yang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Song; Hu, Yibing; Yu, Ling; Xu, Guohua

    2015-12-01

    Potassium (K) absorption and translocation in plants rely upon multiple K transporters for adapting varied K supply and saline conditions. Here, we report the expression patterns and physiological roles of OsHAK1, a member belonging to the KT/KUP/HAK gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The expression of OsHAK1 is up-regulated by K deficiency or salt stress in various tissues, particularly in the root and shoot apical meristem, the epidermises and steles of root, and vascular bundles of shoot. Both oshak1 knockout mutants in comparison to their respective Dongjin or Manan wild types showed a dramatic reduction in K concentration and stunted root and shoot growth. Knockout of OsHAK1 reduced the K absorption rate of unit root surface area by ∼50-55 and ∼30%, and total K uptake by ∼80 and ∼65% at 0.05-0.1 and 1 mm K supply level, respectively. The root net high-affinity K uptake of oshak1 mutants was sensitive to salt stress but not to ammonium supply. Overexpression of OsHAK1 in rice increased K uptake and K/Na ratio. The positive relationship between K concentration and shoot biomass in the mutants suggests that OsHAK1 plays an essential role in K-mediated rice growth and salt tolerance over low and high K concentration ranges.

  4. Summary and analysis of approaches linking visual range, PM2.5 concentrations, and air quality health impact indices for wildfires.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Susan M; Lahm, Peter W; Fitch, Mark J; Broughton, Mike

    2013-09-01

    Several U.S. state and tribal agencies and other countries have implemented a methodology developed in the arid intermountain western U.S. where short-term (1- to 3-hr) particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) concentrations are estimated from an observed visual range (VR) measurement. This PM2.5 concentration estimate is then linked to a public health warning scale to inform the public about potential health impacts from smoke from wildfire. This methodology is often used where monitoring data do not exist (such as many rural areas). This work summarizes the various approaches, highlights the potential for wildfire smoke impact messaging conflicts at state and international borders, and highlights the need to define consistent short-term health impact category breakpoint categories. Is air quality "unhealthy" when 1- to 3-hr PM2.5 is > or = 139 microg/m3 as specified in the Wildfire Smoke, A Guide for Public Health Officials? Or is air quality unhealthy when 1- to 3-hr PM2.5 is > or = 88.6 microg/m3 as specified in the Montana categorizations? This work then examines the relationship between visual range and PM2.5 concentrations using data from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) program and the IMPROVE extinction coefficient (beta ext) equation to simulate an atmosphere dominated by smoke for sites in the arid intermountain western U.S. and great plains. This was accomplished by rearranging the beta ext equation to solve for organic mass as a function of VR. The results show that PM2.5 and VR are related by PM2.5 = 622 * VR(-0.98) with a correlation of 0.99 and that at low VR values (<10 km) a small change in VR results in a large change in PM2.5 concentrations. The results also show that relative humidity and the presence of hygroscopic pollutants from sources other than fire can change the VR/PM2.5 relationships, especially at PM2.5 concentrations less than approximately 90 microg/m3.

  5. Intramuscular pressure and torque during isometric, concentric and eccentric muscular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styf, J.; Ballard, R.; Aratow, M.; Crenshaw, A.; Watenpaugh, D.; Hargens, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    Intramuscular pressures, electromyography (EMG) and torque generation during isometric, concentric and eccentric maximal isokinetic muscle activity were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers. Pressure and EMG activity were continuously and simultaneously measured side by side in the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles. Ankle joint torque and position were monitored continuously by an isokinetic dynamometer during plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the foot. The increased force generation during eccentric muscular activity, compared with other muscular activity, was not accompanied by higher intramuscular pressure. Thus, this study demonstrated that eccentric muscular activity generated higher torque values for each increment of intramuscular pressure. Intramuscular pressures during antagonistic co-activation were significantly higher in the tibilis anterior muscle (42-46% of maximal agonistic activity) compared with the soleus muscle (12-29% of maximal agonistic activity) and was largely due to active recruitment of muscle fibers. In summary, eccentric muscular activity creates higher torque values with no additional increase of the intramuscular pressure compared with concentric and isometric muscular activity.

  6. Determination of thorium concentrations and activity ratios in silicate rocks by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, R N; Marques, L S; Nicolai, S H A; Ribeiro, F B

    2004-01-01

    A detailed radiochemical procedure for alpha spectrometry measurements of thorium concentrations and of 230Th/232Th activity ratios in silicates is presented. The Th behaviour, during each step of the chemical process, was investigated by using a 234Th tracer, which is a gamma-ray emitter. The described chemical processing provides relatively high thorium yields, which varied between 56% and 88%, in the analysis of GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) Brazilian geological standards. Also, the application of the established radiochemical method allowed a determination of both Th concentrations and activity ratios with high reproducibility, on the order of 2%. The estimation of the concentration result accuracy is also about 2%, which was calculated by using published data obtained from neutron activation analysis as reference values.

  7. Comparison of Lower Limb Muscle Activity during Eccentric and Concentric Exercises in Runners with Achilles Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jaeho

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to identify changes in muscle activation by comparing muscle activities of the affected side (AS) and non-affected side (NAS) during eccentric and concentric exercises in runners with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy. [Subjects] The study included 18 participants consisting of men and women with chronic Achilles tendinopathy in a single leg who had more than 1 year of running experience. [Methods] All subjects performed concentric and eccentric exercise with the Achilles tendon moving from full plantar flexion to full dorsiflexion for 8 seconds, and electromyography data was obtained. [Results] All muscles examined showed a significant increase in %maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with concentric exercise compared with eccentric exercise. Compared with the NAS, the AS showed significant increases in %MVC of the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and lateral gastrocnemius. All interaction effects of exercise methods and injuries showed statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] Runners with Achilles tendinopathy show increases in medial gastrocnemius activity when performing eccentric exercise. PMID:25276014

  8. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration in marine sediments at Amvrakikos Gulf, western of Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C; Patiris, D L; Fillis-Tsirakis, E; Kapsimalis, V; Pilakouta, M; Pappa, F K; Vlastou, R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present work is the study of (137)Cs migration in sediment column taking into account the sedimentation rate in the Amvrakikos Gulf, at the western part of Greece. Marine core sediments were collected and the measurements were performed using the high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry method. The vertical distribution of (137)Cs activity concentration, as part of anthropogenic marine radioactivity, provided averaged sedimentation rate by identifying the depths of activity concentrations due to the Chernobyl accident and the nuclear tests signals. Furthermore, (137)Cs measurements were reproduced using the proposed one-dimensional diffusion-advection model which provides mainly as an output, the sedimentation rate and the average diffusivity of (137)Cs in the sediment column. The proposed model estimates the temporal variation of (137)Cs activity concentration from 1987 (one year after the Chernobyl accident) till today (2014).

  9. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  10. a Step Towards Dynamic Scene Analysis with Active Multi-View Range Imaging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, M.; Jutzi, B.

    2012-07-01

    Obtaining an appropriate 3D description of the local environment remains a challenging task in photogrammetric research. As terrestrial laser scanners (TLSs) perform a highly accurate, but time-dependent spatial scanning of the local environment, they are only suited for capturing static scenes. In contrast, new types of active sensors provide the possibility of simultaneously capturing range and intensity information by images with a single measurement, and the high frame rate also allows for capturing dynamic scenes. However, due to the limited field of view, one observation is not sufficient to obtain a full scene coverage and therefore, typically, multiple observations are collected from different locations. This can be achieved by either placing several fixed sensors at different known locations or by using a moving sensor. In the latter case, the relation between different observations has to be estimated by using information extracted from the captured data and then, a limited field of view may lead to problems if there are too many moving objects within it. Hence, a moving sensor platform with multiple and coupled sensor devices offers the advantages of an extended field of view which results in a stabilized pose estimation, an improved registration of the recorded point clouds and an improved reconstruction of the scene. In this paper, a new experimental setup for investigating the potentials of such multi-view range imaging systems is presented which consists of a moving cable car equipped with two synchronized range imaging devices. The presented setup allows for monitoring in low altitudes and it is suitable for getting dynamic observations which might arise from moving cars or from moving pedestrians. Relying on both 3D geometry and 2D imagery, a reliable and fully automatic approach for co-registration of captured point cloud data is presented which is essential for a high quality of all subsequent tasks. The approach involves using sparse point

  11. Influence of microwave irradiation on boron concentrate activation with an emphasis on surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Liu, Yajing; Xue, Xiangxin; Duan, Peining

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we employed microwave irradiation for activating boron concentrate, an abundant but low-grade boron mineral resource in China. The boron concentrate was pretreated by microwave irradiation based on TG-DTG-DSC analysis, and the influence of each parameter on processing efficiency was characterized using chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, FTIR and particle distribution analysis. Subsequently, the surface properties of boron concentrate and the mechanism of microwave irradiation was analyzed. Our results indicate that microwave irradiation decreased the processing temperature and shortened the roasting time by accelerating dehydroxylation and oxidation reactions in the boron concentrate, reducing the particle diameter and damaging the microstructure of the minerals, and it increased the B2O3 activity of boron from 64.68% to 86.73%, greater than the optimal conventional treatment. Compared with the simple thermal field, microwave roasting obviously increased ability of the boron concentrate to absorb OH- in the leachant and promoted boron leaching by expanding the contact area of the mineral exposed to leachant, boosting the amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ on mineral surfaces, and increasing the hydrophilicity of the boron concentrate respectively. It enhanced the γSVLW and γSV- of boron concentrate from 29.15 mJ/m2 and 5.07 mJ/m2 to 37.07 mJ/m2 and 12.41 mJ/m2.

  12. Doses of Quercetin in the Range of Serum Concentrations Exert Delipidating Effects in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes by Acting on Different Stages of Adipogenesis, but Not in Mature Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Eseberri, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Churruca, Itziar; Portillo, María P.

    2015-01-01

    Scope. To determine whether doses of quercetin in the range of serum concentrations exert any effect on triacylglycerol accumulation in maturing preadipocytes and mature adipocytes. The influence on the expression of adipogenic markers as well as on gene expression and activity of enzymes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism were assessed. Methods and Results. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated during differentiation and mature adipocytes for 24 hours with low doses (0.1–10 µM) of quercetin. Triacylglycerol content in both cell types and free fatty acid and glycerol in the incubation medium of mature adipocytes were measured spectrophotometrically. Gene and protein expression were assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot. LPL and FAS activities were quantified. During differentiation quercetin reduced triacylglycerol content at doses from 0.5 to 10 µM. 1 µM of quercetin reduced C/EBPβ gene expression, SREBP1 mature protein levels, and PPARγ gene expression. 10 µM of quercetin reduced LPL gene expression and PPARγ and SREBP1c expression. In mature adipocytes, only 10 µM of quercetin reduced triacylglycerol content. Lipogenic FAS expression and activity were reduced at this dose. Conclusion. Quercetin, in the range of serum concentrations, is able to inhibit adipogenesis, but higher doses, at least 10 µM, are needed to reduce fat accumulation in mature adipocytes. PMID:26180590

  13. Investigation of the treatability of the primary indoor volatile organic compounds on activated carbon fiber cloths at typical indoor concentrations.

    PubMed

    Yao, Meng; Zhang, Qiong; Hand, David W; Perram, David L; Taylor, Roy

    2009-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are a major concern for indoor air pollution because of the impacts on human health. In recent years, interest has increased in the development and design of activated carbon filters for removing VOCs from indoor air. Although extensive information is available on sources, concentrations, and types of indoor VOCs, there is little or no information on the performance of indoor air adsorption systems for removing low concentrations of primary VOCs. Filter designs need to consider various factors such as empty bed contact time, humidity effects, competitive adsorption, and feed concentration variations, whereas adsorption capacities of the indoor VOCs at the indoor concentration levels are important parameters for filter design. A preliminary assessment of the feasibility of using adsorption filters to remove low concentrations of primary VOCs can be performed. This work relates the information (including VOC classes in indoor air, the typical indoor concentrations, and the adsorption isotherms) with the design of a particular adsorbent/adsorbates system. As groundwork for filter design and development, this study selects the primary VOCs in indoor air of residences, schools, and offices in different geographical areas (North America, Europe, and Asia) on the basis of occurrence, concentrations, and health effects. Activated carbon fiber cloths (ACFCs) are chosen as the adsorbents of interest. It is demonstrated that the isotherm of a VOC (e.g., toluene on the ACFC) at typical indoor concentrations-parts per billion by volume (ppbv) level-is different than the isotherm at parts per million by volume (ppmv) levels reported in the publications. The isotherms at the typical indoor concentrations for the selected primary VOCs are estimated using the Dubinin-Radushkevitch equation. The maximum specific throughput for an indoor VOC removal system to remove benzene is calculated as a worst-case scenario. It is shown that VOC adsorption

  14. Microbial metaproteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome is not merely a collection of opportunistic parasites, but rather provides important functions to the host that are absolutely critical to many aspects of health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial metaproteomics provides the ability to characterize the human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities at a remarkably deep level, revealing information about microbiome development and stability as well as their interactions with their human host. Generally, microbial and human proteins can be extracted and then measured by high performance mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics technology. Here we review the field of human gut microbiome metaproteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems ranging from low-complexity model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the emerging gut microbiome in the GI tract of newborn human infants, and finally to an established gut microbiota in human adults. PMID:25914197

  15. Microbial metaproteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome is not merely a collection of opportunistic parasites, but rather provides important functions to the host that are absolutely critical to many aspects of health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial metaproteomics provides the ability to characterize the human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities at a remarkably deep level, revealing information about microbiome development and stability as well as their interactions with their human host. Generally, microbial and human proteins can be extracted and then measured by high performance MS-based proteomics technology. Here, we review the field of human gut microbiome metaproteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems ranging from low-complexity model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the emerging gut microbiome in the GI tract of newborn human infants, and finally to an established gut microbiota in human adults.

  16. Effects of Active Recovery on Lactate Concentration, Heart Rate and RPE in Climbing

    PubMed Central

    Draper, Nick; Bird, Ellis L.; Coleman, Ian; Hodgson, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The performance advantage of active rather than passive recovery during subsequent trials for repeated high intensity short-term exercise is well documented. Research findings suggest that shorter periods of active recovery, than traditionally employed, can be prescribed and still retain performance benefits over passive recoveries in successive exercise trials. The aim of this study was to examine the benefits of a short duration active recovery for repeat climbing trials. Ten recreational climbers volunteered for the study. In this randomly assigned crossover study each climber completed five two-minute climbing trails before a two minute active or passive recovery. This was followed by a one and a half minute passive refocusing period for all climbers before the subsequent climbing trial. Heart rate was monitored continuously, RPE immediately post climbing and fingertip capillary blood samples collected during each refocusing phase. There was a non-significant difference between active and passive recoveries for heart rate during climbing. After the active phase climbers had higher heart rates than when following the passive recovery protocol, however, by the end of the refocusing phase the active recovery protocol led to lower heart rates than for the entirely passive recovery. There was a significant difference between active and passive recovery conditions in lactate concentration (F(1,9) = 18.79, p = 0.002) and RPE (F(1,9) = 6.51, p = 0.031). Lactate concentration and RPE were lower across all five climbing trials for the active recovery protocol. After active recovery climbers started the next trial with a lower arterial lactate concentration than for a passive recovery and indicated lower RPE scores at the end of each climb. The refocusing period following active recovery allowed climbers heart rates to return to a lower level at the start of the next climb than for the passive recovery condition. Key Points The three and half minute recovery strategy

  17. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  18. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides obtained from Chlorella pyrenoidosa via different ethanol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Xuan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Zheng; Huang, Yi-Fan; Liu, Bin

    2016-10-01

    An ultrasonic-assisted extraction of Chlorella pyrenoidosa polysaccharides (CPP) was carried out using different concentrations of ethanol for precipitation, and named as CPP60, CPP70 and CPP85, respectively. The monosaccharide composition of each polysaccharide (CPP) was determined using gas chromatography (GC) and the antioxidant activity of each was investigated via the reducing power and scavenging activity of hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and superoxide anion radicals, respectively. All of the polysaccharides examined possessed antioxidant activity in vitro. CPP70 exhibited stronger scavenging activity against superoxide, DPPH and hydroxyl radicals, when compared with CPP60 and CPP85. This suggests that polysaccharides from C. pyrenoidosa precipitated by a final ethanol concentration of 70%, have the potential to be developed as natural antioxidants for use in food and pharmaceuticals.

  19. Detecting kinase activities from single cell lysate using concentration-enhanced mobility shift assay.

    PubMed

    Cheow, Lih Feng; Sarkar, Aniruddh; Kolitz, Sarah; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Han, Jongyoon

    2014-08-05

    Electrokinetic preconcentration coupled with mobility shift assays can give rise to very high detection sensitivities. We describe a microfluidic device that utilizes this principle to detect cellular kinase activities by simultaneously concentrating and separating substrate peptides with different phosphorylation states. This platform is capable of reliably measuring kinase activities of single adherent cells cultured in nanoliter volume microwells. We also describe a novel method utilizing spacer peptides that significantly increase separation resolution while maintaining high concentration factors in this device. Thus, multiplexed kinase measurements can be implemented with single cell sensitivity. Multiple kinase activity profiling from single cell lysate could potentially allow us to study heterogeneous activation of signaling pathways that can lead to multiple cell fates.

  20. Activity of TDT 067 (terbinafine in Transfersome) against agents of onychomycosis, as determined by minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

    2011-05-01

    TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38-A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 μg/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC(50) values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted.

  1. Relationship between Physical Activity and Plasma Fibrinogen Concentrations in Adults without Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Marcos, Manuel A.; Recio-Rodríguez, José I.; Patino-Alonso, Maria C.; Martinez-Vizcaino, Vicente; Martin-Borras, Carme; de-la-Cal-dela-Fuente, Aventina; Sauras-Llera, Ines; Sanchez-Perez, Alvaro; Agudo-Conde, Cristina; García-Ortiz, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR), and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. Methods A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women). Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs)/hour/week) and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute) for 7 days. Results Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute) and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week). Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = −0.100; p<0.001) and METs/hour/week (r = −0.162; p<0.001). In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week) respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile), maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = −0.03; p = 0.046 and β = −0.06; p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders. PMID:24498413

  2. Dry desulfurization of simulated flue gas in a fluidized-bed reactor for a broad range of SO{sub 2} concentration and temperature: A comparison of models

    SciTech Connect

    Suyadal, Y.; Oguz, H.

    1999-08-01

    In this work, dry desulfurization of simulated flue gas was investigated in a batchwise operated laboratory-scale stainless steel fluidized-bed reactor (46 x 500 mm{sup 2}) by using calcium-containing local Turkish limestone (Karaagach/MUS) which was calcined at 900 C with 5% H{sub 2}O vapor. The sulfation reaction was carried out in a broad range of temperature (200 {le} T({degree}C) {le} 900) and SO{sub 2} feedstock concentration (1000 {le} C(ppm SO{sub 2}) {le} 6000). The experimental sulfation conversion-time data were tested according to unreacted shrinking core model (SCM), changing the grain size model (GM) and random pore model (RPM). It was found that the random pore model with control of product layer (CaSO{sub 3}/CaSO{sub 4}) diffusion described the experimental data best.

  3. Effects of allopurinol on uric acid concentrations, xanthine oxidoreductase activity and oxidative stress in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Carro, M D; Falkenstein, E; Radke, W J; Klandorf, H

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of allopurinol (AL) on xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) activity and uric acid (UA) levels in chickens. Thirty 5-week-old broilers were divided into three groups and fed 0 (control), 25 (AL25) or 50 (AL50) mg AL per kg of body mass for 5 weeks. Chicks were weighed twice weekly and leukocyte oxidative activity (LOA) and plasma purine levels were determined weekly in five birds per group. Chicks were sacrificed after 2 or 5 weeks, and samples from tissues were taken for analysis of XOR activity. Plasma UA concentrations were lower (P<0.001) and xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were greater (P<0.001) in AL25 and AL50 birds compared to controls, whereas no differences (P=0.904) were detected in allantoin concentrations. By week 5, body mass was reduced (P<0.001) to 84.0 and 65.1% of that in controls for AL25 and AL50 broilers, respectively, and LOA was 4.1 times greater (P<0.05) in AL25 compared to control birds. Liver XOR activity was increased by 1.1 and 1.2 times in AL25 and AL50 birds, but there was no change (P>0.05) in XOR activity in the pancreas and intestine. These results suggest that AL effect on XOR activity is tissue dependent.

  4. The relationship between infliximab concentrations, antibodies to infliximab and disease activity in Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Vande Casteele, Niels; Khanna, Reena; Levesque, Barrett G; Stitt, Larry; Zou, G Y; Singh, Sharat; Lockton, Steve; Hauenstein, Scott; Ohrmund, Linda; Greenberg, Gordon R; Rutgeerts, Paul J; Gils, Ann; Sandborn, William J; Vermeire, Séverine; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although low infliximab trough concentrations and antibodies to infliximab (ATI) are associated with poor outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), the clinical relevance of ATI in patients with adequate infliximab concentrations is uncertain. We evaluated this question using an assay sensitive for identification of ATI in the presence of infliximab. Design In an observational study, 1487 trough serum samples from 483 patients with CD who participated in four clinical studies of maintenance infliximab therapy were analysed using a fluid phase mobility shift assay. Infliximab and ATI concentrations most discriminant for remission, defined as a C-reactive protein concentration of ≤5 mg/L, were determined by receiver operating characteristic curves. A multivariable regression model evaluated these factors as independent predictors of remission. Results Based upon analysis of 1487 samples, 77.1% of patients had detectable and 22.9% had undetectable infliximab concentrations, of which 9.5% and 71.8%, respectively, were positive for ATI. An infliximab concentration of >2.79 μg/mL (area under the curve (AUC)=0.681; 95% CI 0.632 to 0.731) and ATI concentration of <3.15 U/mL (AUC=0.632; 95% CI 0.589 to 0.676) were associated with remission. Multivariable analysis showed that concentrations of both infliximab trough (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3 to 2.5; p<0.001) and ATI (OR 0.57; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.81; p=0.002) were independent predictors of remission. Conclusions The development of ATI increases the probability of active disease even at low concentrations and in the presence of a therapeutic concentration of drug during infliximab maintenance therapy. Evaluation of strategies to prevent ATI formation, including therapeutic drug monitoring with selective infliximab dose intensification, is needed. PMID:25336114

  5. Characterization of concentration gradients of a morphogenetically active retinoid in the chick limb bud

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    It has long been suggested that the generation of biological patterns depends in part on gradients of diffusible substances. In an attempt to bridge the gap between this largely theoretical concept and experimental embryology, we have examined the physiology of diffusion gradients in an actual embryonic field. In particular, we have generated in the chick wing bud concentration gradients of the morphogenetically active retinoid TTNPB, (E)-4-[2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro- 5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-prope nyl] benzoic acid, a synthetic vitamin A compound. Upon local application of TTNPB the normal 234 digit pattern is duplicated in a way that correlates with the geometry of the underlying TTNPB gradient; low doses of TTNPB lead to a shallow gradient and an additional digit 2, whereas higher doses result in a steep, far-reaching gradient and patterns with additional digits 3 and 4. The experimentally measured TTNPB distribution along the anteroposterior axis, can be modeled by a local source and a dispersed sink. This model correctly predicts the site of specification of digit 2, and provides an empirical estimate of the diffusion coefficient (D) of retinoids in embryonic limb tissue. The numerical value of approximately 10(-7) cm2s-1 for D suggests that retinoids are not freely diffusible in the limb rudiment, but interact with the previously identified cellular retinoic acid binding protein. In addition, D affords an estimate of the time required to establish a diffusion gradient as 3 to 4 h. This time span is in a range compatible with the time scale of pattern specification in developing vertebrate limbs. Our studies support the view that diffusion of morphogenetic substances is a plausible mechanism of pattern formation in secondary embryonic fields. PMID:3667700

  6. Spatial variability of dissolved phosphorous concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity in the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Chang, J.; Ho, T.; Gong, G.

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) have been determined at about 25 sampling stations in the East China Sea since 2003. The stations are mainly distributed from the Changjiang river mouth to northern Taiwan and east to the shelf break. In addition to the Changjiang discharge, we have found a specific nutrient source around a coastal site (122° 2’30’’ E, 28° 40’ N). Elevated DIP and nitrate concentrations have been constantly observed around the sampling station for 8 years, where the surface DIP concentrations are generally around 0.3 µM. The nutrient source may either originate from ground water discharge or coastal upwelling, where lower temperature has been observed in the water column around the station. In general, APA has been negatively correlated with DIP concentrations in the studies sites, with lowest APA around the high DIP station and the Changjiang river mouth.

  7. 76 FR 48882 - Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium Concentrations in Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium... Collection 1028-NEW, Uranium concentrations in private wells in south-east New Hampshire, in the subject line... telephone (970) 226-9165; or schusterr@usgs.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract...

  8. Different cortical activation patterns during voluntary eccentric and concentric muscle contractions: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Hyun; Park, Ji-Won

    2011-01-01

    Concentric and eccentric muscle contractions have distinct differences in their neuromuscular and neurophysiologic characteristics. However, although many evidences regarding the features of these types of muscle contraction have emerged, there have been few neuroimaging studies to compare the two types of contractions. Therefore, we investigated whether cortical activity associated with eccentric contraction of the wrist extensors differed from that of concentric contraction, using functional MRI (fMRI). Fifteen right-handed healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. During 4 repeating blocks of eccentric and concentric muscle contraction paradigms, the brain was scanned with fMRI. The differences in the BOLD signal intensities during the performance of eccentric and concentric exercise were compared in the predetermined regions of interest. Our findings revealed that many cortical areas associated with motor performance were activated, including the primary motor area, the inferior parietal lobe, the pre-supplementary area (pre-SMA), the anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal area, and the cerebellum. In addition, lower signal intensities were seen in the right primary motor cortex and right cerebellum during eccentric contractions compared with concentric contractions, whereas higher signal intensities were detected in other cortical areas during eccentric contractions. In the study, we demonstrated that eccentric and concentric muscle contractions induced quite different patterns of cortical activity respectively. These findings might be attributed to different strategy of neuro-motor processing and a higher level of cognitive demand for the performance of motor task with a higher degree of difficulty such as that required during eccentric contractions in comparison of concentric contractions.

  9. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  10. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.01), the quadratic effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.05), the linear effects of copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P<0.05). Additionally, the synergistic effects of temperature and copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  11. Study of the mass transfer kinetics of BSA on a TSK-GEL DEAE-5PW anion exchanger in a wide concentration range

    SciTech Connect

    Guan-Sajonz, H.; Zhong, G.; Guiochon, G. |; Sajonz, P. |

    1996-05-01

    The adsorption isotherms of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on TOSOHAAS TSK-GEL DEAE-5PW were determined in a pH = 7.5 buffer for a 1.0 mL/min flow rate and at pH = 6.0 for 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mL/min flow rates. The isotherm data were derived from the breakthrough curves obtained by step series frontal analysis (FA) method. The sample concentrations ranged from ca. 0.2 to 3 mg/mL. From the Scatchard plots, it was found that the bi-Langmuir isotherm model fits the adsorption isotherm data better than the single Langmuir isotherm model at both pH = 7.5 and 6.0, for flow rates up to 2.0 mL/min. The rate of the mass transfer kinetics was determined for each breakthrough curve by using a lumped kinetic model. An average rate coefficient of mass transfer kinetics was derived. This rate coefficient depends linearly on the average sample concentration. 25 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. In vitro tests aiding ecological risk assessment of ciprofloxacin, tamoxifen and cyclophosphamide in range of concentrations released in hospital wastewater and surface water.

    PubMed

    Mater, N; Geret, F; Castillo, L; Faucet-Marquis, V; Albasi, C; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, A

    2014-02-01

    Ciprofloxacin (CIP), tamoxifen (TAM) and cyclophosphamide (CP) which are often used in anticancer treatment are released in hospital effluent and into the environment. Although the concentrations are low (from ng/L to μg/L), no data exist concerning their ecotoxicological impact. In this study two biomarkers of early effect were performed on hepatic cells (HepG2): cell viability and genotoxicity (DNA breaks) using cell proliferative assay and comet assay, respectively. These data were compared with two standardized ecotoxicological tests: algaltoxkit F™ and microtox®. Cells were exposed to an increasing amount of an individual drug or in a mixture for 24, 48 or 72h. The time-exposure of bacteria and algae ranged between 5 and 30min and 72h, respectively. A non-monotonic dose-response on cell viability was observed when HepG2 cells were exposed to TAM alone or in the presence of CIP. The same scheme was observed with microtox® when the bacteria were exposed to the mixtures. On the other side, an individual drug does not induce any DNA breaks on hepatic cells, whereas a mixture leads to a dose dependent increase of DNA breaks. Similarly a positive response was observed with algaltoxkit F™ only with mixtures. Synergistic effects observed when drugs are in a mixture highlight the importance of investigating the ecotoxicological effects of contaminants at low concentrations and in mixtures.

  13. Ovicidal activity of different concentrations of Pochonia chlamydosporia chlamydospores on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs.

    PubMed

    Braga, F R; Silva, A R; Carvalho, R O; Araújo, J V; Pinto, P S A

    2011-03-01

    Three concentrations of chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish) were evaluated in vitro on Taenia taeniaeformis eggs. Chlamydospores at each concentration were cultured in two different media: 2% water-agar (2%WA) and 2% corn-meal-agar (2%CMA). Taenia taeniaeformis eggs were plated in each chlamydospore concentration in 2%WA and 2%CMA (treated groups) and without fungus (control group). Eggs were removed from each Petri dish at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days and classified according to ovicidal activity (type 1, type 2 and type 3 effects). Plates containing 2%CMA showed the highest percentages for type 3 effect (81.3%) on the 21st day of observation. A difference (P < 0.01) between the media 2%WA and 2%CMA for type 1 effect was observed only at a concentration of 1000 chlamydospores on the 7th day. There were differences (P < 0.01) between 2%WA and 2%CMA on the 14th and 21st days, at the concentration of 20,000 chlamydospores, for type 1 and type 3 effects. Regression curves for type 3 effect in 2%WA and 2%CMA at the tested concentrations showed higher ovicidal activity with increasing chlamydospore concentrations. Results indicate that, at concentrations of 1000, 10,000 and 20,000 per Petri dish, chlamydospores of P. chlamydosporia effectively destroyed T. taeniaeformis eggs and can be considered a potential biological control agent for this cestode.

  14. Influence of various concentrations of selenic acid (IV) on the activity of soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nowak, J; Kaklewski, K; Klódka, D

    2002-05-27

    The aim of this experiment was the assessment of the influence of various concentrations of H2SeO3 (0.05, 0.5 and 5 mM) on the activity of soil enzymes over 112 days. The lab experiment was performed using soil samples (dust-silt black soil of 1.92% organic C content, pH 7.7), 60% maximal water capacity. The soil samples were treated with a selenic acid water solution at the concentrations mentioned above. As a reference, natural soil was used (without the selenic acid). The activity of the following enzymes was tested: beta-glucosidase, nitrate reductase, urease, dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatases. The soil was sampled at days 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 112. The results of the study have shown that the selenic acid had no effect on the activity of the beta-glucosidase in soil. In the course of the whole experiment, the applied selenic acid inhibited activity of the nitrate reductase up to 70% at 5 mM, and the activity of dehydrogenase was also decreased--by up to 85% at 5 mM, similarly to urease (with the exception of days 14 and 28), and acid phosphatase (until day 56). The activity of alkaline phosphatase was increased by the lowest concentration of selenic acid and decreased by the highest, which was found in the course of the whole experiment. The 5-mM concentration of selenic acid inhibited the activity of all the enzymes tested in this experiment.

  15. Short-term effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Claros, J; Jiménez, E; Borrás, L; Aguado, D; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Serralta, J

    2010-01-01

    A continuously aerated SHARON (single reactor high activity ammonia removal over nitrite) system has been operated to achieve partial nitritation. Two sets of batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Activity of AOB raised as free ammonia concentration was increased reaching its maximum value at 4.5 mg NH3-N l(-1). The half saturation constant for free ammonia was determined (K(NH3)=0.32 mg NH3-N l(-1)). Activity decreased at TAN (total ammonium-nitrogen) concentration over 2,000 mg NH4-N l(-1). No free ammonia inhibition was detected. The effect of salinity was studied by adding different concentrations of different salts to the biomass. No significant differences were observed between the experiments carried out with a salt containing or not containing NH4. These results support that AOB are inhibited by salinity, not by free ammonia. A mathematical expression to represent this inhibition is proposed. To compare substrate affinity and salinity inhibitory effect on different AOB populations, similar experiments were carried out with biomass from a biological nutrient removal pilot plant. The AOB activity reached its maximum value at 0.008 mg NH3-N l(-1) and decreased at TAN concentration over 400 mg NH4-N l(-1). These differences can be explained by the different AOB predominating species: Nitrosomonas europaea and N. eutropha in the SHARON biomass and Nitrosomonas oligotropha in the pilot plant.

  16. Estimating ROI activity concentration with photon-processing and photon-counting SPECT imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Recently a new class of imaging systems, referred to as photon-processing (PP) systems, are being developed that uses real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate multiple attributes per detected photon and store these attributes in a list format. PP systems could have a number of potential advantages compared to systems that bin photons based on attributes such as energy, projection angle, and position, referred to as photon-counting (PC) systems. For example, PP systems do not suffer from binning-related information loss and provide the potential to extract information from attributes such as energy deposited by the detected photon. To quantify the effects of this advantage on task performance, objective evaluation studies are required. We performed this study in the context of quantitative 2-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with the end task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a region of interest (ROI). We first theoretically outline the effect of null space on estimating the mean activity concentration, and argue that due to this effect, PP systems could have better estimation performance compared to PC systems with noise-free data. To evaluate the performance of PP and PC systems with noisy data, we developed a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based analytic method to estimate the activity concentration from PP systems. Using simulations, we studied the accuracy and precision of this technique in estimating the activity concentration. We used this framework to objectively compare PP and PC systems on the activity concentration estimation task. We investigated the effects of varying the size of the ROI and varying the number of bins for the attribute corresponding to the angular orientation of the detector in a continuously rotating SPECT system. The results indicate that in several cases, PP systems offer improved estimation performance compared to PC systems.

  17. Determination of certain trace impurities in uranium concentrates by activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rassoul, A A; Wahba, S S; Abdel-Aziz, A

    1966-03-01

    A method is presented for the simultaneous determination of chromium, iron, cobalt and zinc in samples of uranium concentrates, oxides and metallic uranium by neutron-activation analysis. The method involves adequate decontamination of gross fission product activities by adsorption on silica gel, removal of uranium by solvent extraction, separation of most carrier-free rare-earth activities by coprecipitation with aluminium chloride, and, finally, fractional separation of the elements concerned by ion-exchange chromatography. The method can assay ppm of such elements in limited quantities of samples by scintillation gamma-ray spectrometric analysis with a reproducibility of 10-15%.

  18. Low Concentrations of Hydrogen Peroxide Activate the Antioxidant Defense System in Human Sperm Cells.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Barinova, K V; Turovetskii, V B; Muronetz, V I; Schmalhausen, E V

    2015-09-01

    The effect of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (10-100 µM) on sperm motility and on the activity of the sperm enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) was investigated. Incubation of semen samples with 10 and 100 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of spermatozoa with progressive motility by 20 and 18%, respectively, and enhanced the activity of GAPDS in the sperm cells by 27 and 20% compared to a semen sample incubated without additions. It was also found that incubation with 10 µM hydrogen peroxide increased the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in sperm cells by 50% on average compared to that in the control samples. It is supposed that low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide activate the pentose phosphate pathway, resulting in NADPH synthesis and the reduction of the oxidized glutathione by glutathione reductase yielding GSH. The formed GSH reduces the oxidized cysteine residues of the GAPDS active site, increasing the activity of the enzyme, which in turn enhances the content of sperm cells with progressive motility. Thus, the increase in motile spermatozoa in the presence of low concentrations of hydrogen peroxide can serve as an indicator of normal functioning of the antioxidant defense system in sperm cells.

  19. Adsorption of Crystal Violet on Activated Carbon Prepared from Coal Flotation Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogmus, Ramazan; Depci, Tolga; Sarikaya, Musa; Riza Kul, Ali; Onal, Yunus

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is firstly to investigate the floatability properties of Zilan- Van coal after microwave irradiation and secondly to produce activated carbon from flotation concentrate in order to remove Crystal Violet (CV) from waste water. The flotation experiments showed that microwave heating at 0.9 kW power level for 60 sec exposure time enhanced the hydrophobicity and increased the flotation yield. The activated carbon with remarkable surface area (696 m2/g) was produced from the flotation concentrate and used to adsorb CV from aqueous solution in a batch reactor at different temperature. The adsorption properties of CV onto the activated carbon are discussed in terms of the adsorption isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) and found that the experimental results best fitted by the Langmuir model.

  20. Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7′N in central Europe to 70°00′N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

  1. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

  2. Platelet activation of platelet concentrates derived from buffy coat and apheresis methods.

    PubMed

    Ali, Soleimany Ferizhandy

    2011-02-01

    Preparation for storage may cause platelet activation. The quality of platelet concentrates plays an important role in transfusion therapy. Platelet concentrates are produced by different centrifugation methods; buffy coat (buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates-BC) and plateletpheresis (apheresis-derived platelet concentrates-APC). Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: platelet, WBC and RBC counts pH, volume, platelet factor 4 (PF4) and Annexin V. The present paper compares the quality of both platelet preparations in vitro. In this experimental study, 30 platelet concentrates were harvested with the Haemonetics MCS plus and 30 units via the buffy coat (BC) method. The percentages of Annexin V expression, PF4 levels, platelet, WBC and RBC counts, pH and volume were measure immediately after collection and after 3 days of storage. During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed, no significant pH or RBC, difference in comparison with apheresis preparations (p>0.05). During storage for up to 3 days, BC units displayed a significant increase in the PF4 and Annexin V expression, compared to the apheresis preparations on day three (p<0.05). The kinetics of PF4 and Annexin V levels are influenced by the method used to prepare platelets for storage. The different levels of PF4 and Annexin V in BCs and APCs clearly demonstrates a progressive activation of BC platelets exceeding that of APC. However, in vivo studies should be performed to confirm these findings.

  3. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  4. Limiting concentrations of activated mononucleotides necessary for poly(C)-directed elongation of oligoguanylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Chang, S.; Alberas, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Selected imidazolide-activated nucleotides have been subjected to hydrolysis under conditions similar to those that favor their template-directed oligomerization. Rate constants of hydrolysis of the P-N bond in guanosine 5'-monophosphate 2-methylimidazolide (2-MeImpG) and in guanosine 5'-monophosphate imidazolide (ImpG), kh, have been determined in the presence/absence of magnesium ion as a function of temperature and polycytidylate [poly(C)] concentration. Using the rate constant of hydrolysis of 2-MeImpG and the rate constant of elongation, i.e., the reaction of an oligoguanylate with 2-MeImpG in the presence of poly(C) acting as template, the limiting concentration of 2-MeImpG necessary for oligonucleotide elongation to compete with hydrolysis can be calculated. The limiting concentration is defined as the initial concentration of monomer that results in its equal consumption by hydrolysis and by elongation. These limiting concentrations of 2-MeImpG are found to be 1.7 mM at 37 degrees C and 0.36 mM at 1 degrees C. Boundary conditions in the form of limiting concentration of activated nucleotide may be used to evaluate a prebiotic model for chemical synthesis of biopolymers. For instance, the limiting concentration of monomer can be used as a basis of comparison among catalytic, but nonenzymatic, RNA-type systems. We also determined the rate constant of dimerization of 2-MeImpG, k2 = 0.45 +/- 0.06 M-1 h-1 in the absence of poly(C), and 0.45 +/- 0.06 less than or equal to k2 less than or equal to 0.97 +/- 0.13 M-1 h-1 in its presence at 37 degrees C and pH 7.95.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  5. Very High Concentrations of Active Intracellular Phosphorylated Emtricitabine in Neonates (ANRS 12109 Trial, Step 2)▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Pruvost, Alain; Ekouévi, Didier K.; Urien, Saïk; Arrivé, Elise; Kone, Mamourou; Nerrienet, Eric; Nyati, Mandisa; Gray, Glenda; Kruy, Leang Sim; Blanche, Stéphane; Dabis, François; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate neonatal emtricitabine (FTC) plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics. The study was designed as a phase I/II prospective trial in two sequential steps evaluating the combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and FTC for the prevention of mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. HIV-1-infected pregnant women received two tablets of TDF (300 mg) and FTC (200 mg) at onset of labor and then one tablet daily for 7 days postpartum. Based on the data obtained in the first part of the Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Africa and Asia (TEmAA) Study, single doses of 2 mg/kg of FTC and 13 mg/kg of TDF were given to the neonates within 12 h after birth. A total of 540 FTC plasma concentrations and 44 active intracellular phosphorylated metabolite FTC-TP concentrations were taken from the 36 enrolled women and their neonates. Concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method and analyzed by a population approach. The proposed dose obtained by simulations based on plasma drug concentrations was confirmed. However, median FTC-TP exposures were, respectively, 5.9 and 6.8 times higher in the fetus and the neonate than in the adult. High FTC-TP concentrations were observed in the four children who had serious adverse events (SAEs), but the link between FTC-TP concentrations and SAEs in children was not formally identified. The exposure to the active form of FTC was high in neonates despite plasma drug concentrations equivalent to those in adults. Our results are similar to those obtained with zidovudine or lamivudine. PMID:21464241

  6. Effect of active-ion concentration on holmium fibre laser efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkov, Andrei S; Sholokhov, E M; Marakulin, A V; Minashina, L A

    2010-08-03

    We have measured the fraction of holmium ions that relax nonradiatively to the ground level as a result of interaction at a metastable level in optical fibres with a silica-based core doped with holmium ions to 2 x 10{sup 19} - 2 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The percentage of such ions has been shown to depend on the absolute active-ion concentration. The fibres have been used to make a number of 2.05-{mu}m lasers, and their slope efficiency has been measured. The laser efficiency decreases with increasing holmium concentration in the fibres (lasers)

  7. Heterogeneous processing of biomass burning aerosol proxies by OH radicals for a wide range of OH concentrations and detection of volatilization products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, J. H.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) constitutes the majority of primary organic aerosol found in the atmosphere, with emission rates comparable to fossil-fuel burning. BBA affects earth's radiative budget directly through absorption and scattering of radiation or indirectly by modifying cloud radiative properties, and impacts air quality. Quantifying BBA source strength and thus its effects on air quality, human health, and climate can be difficult since these organic particles can chemically transform during atmospheric transport, a process also termed aging, due to heterogeneous reactions with oxidants and radicals such as OH. In this work we investigate the reactive uptake of OH radicals by typical BBA compounds that also serve as molecular markers for source apportionment studies. Organic substrates of cellulose pyrolysis products such as levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-glucopyranose, C6H10O5), resin acids such as abietic acid (1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, C20H30O2), and lignin decomposition products such as 5-nitroguaiacol (2-methoxy-5-nitrophenol, C7H7NO4) have been exposed to a wide range of OH concentrations (~107-1011 cm-3), in presence of O2 in a rotating wall flow reactor operated at 2-6 mbar coupled to a custom built chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). OH radicals were generated through H2 dissociation in an Evenson microwave resonant cavity operated at 2.45 GHz followed by reaction with O2 or NO2. In addition, potential volatilization of organic material due to heterogeneous oxidation by OH has been determined in-situ by monitoring the volatile organic compounds using a high resolution-proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (HR-PTR-ToF-MS). The volatilization studies are conducted at 1 atm and OH is generated by O3 photolysis in the presence of H2O vapor and quantified using a photochemical box model as well as through reaction with a known concentration of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C5H8). Reactive uptake validation

  8. Concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins facilitate osteogenesis through activation of the JNK-ATF4 pathway.

    PubMed

    Tsuji-Naito, Kentaro; Jack, Ralph W

    2012-01-01

    Concentrated fractions of low molecular weight whey proteins (1-30 kDa), that is concentrated bovine milk whey active proteins (CBP), have been found to enhance bone formation in both in vivo and clinical studies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we found that CBP promoted osteoblastic differentiation in normal human osteoblasts, and determined the involvement of the c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK)-activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) pathway. We observed that alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization were significantly induced by CBP treatment. In addition, mRNA expression of ATF4 was intensely elevated in CBP-treated osteoblasts, indicating that the late-phase events of differentiation were promoted. We found that CBP activated the phosphorylation of JNK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, pathway analyses using the various signaling pathway-specific inhibitors revealed that JNK activation, but not ERK activation, is essential for CBP-induced mineralization and ATF4 expression. Our results indicate that the JNK-mediated ATF4 pathway is required for CBP-promotive osteogenesis.

  9. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I.; Figueroa, Carlos D.; González, Carlos B.

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  10. Estimation of Na-24 activity concentration in BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajijul Hoq, M.; Malek Soner, M. A.; Salam, M. A.; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S. M.

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) TRIGA Research Reactor is a unique nuclear installation of the country generally implemented for a wide variety of research applications and serves as an excellent source of neutron. During reactor operation it is necessary to measure and control the activity concentration of the pool water for fuel element failure detection and for the determination of contamination. The present study deals with the estimation of activity concentration for Na-24 present in water coolant produced as a result of 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. Several governing equations have been employed to estimate the Na-24 activity concentrations theoretically at different reactor power levels including maximum reactor power of 2.4 MW. From the obtained result it is ensured that the estimated Na-24 activity of 8.83 × 10-3 μCi /cm3 is not significant enough for any radiological hazard. Thus for ensuring radiological safety issues of the research reactor the assessment performed under the present study has an implication.

  11. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press.

    PubMed

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.

  12. Elevated blood plasma concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin in benign ovarian neoplasms and ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Ziółkowska, A; Jaszczyńska-Nowinka, K; Madry, R; Malendowicz, L K

    2009-01-01

    Both ghrelin and obestatin are derived from preproghrelin by post-translational processing. The two peptides are secreted into the blood but circulating levels of these peptides have not been assessed in women with ovarian tumours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate peripheral blood concentrations of active and total ghrelin and obestatin in patients with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer. The studies were conducted on 22 patients operated due to benign ovarian tumours, and 31 patients operated due to ovarian cancer. A control group consisted of 32 women, 24 to 65 years of age. Both in women with benign ovarian tumours and those with ovarian cancer blood concentrations of active ghrelin and obestatin were higher than in the control group (active ghrelin: 90 +/- 4, 84 +/- 4 and 56 +/- 9 pg/ml, respectively, obestatin: 660 +/- 36; 630 +/- 30 and 538 +/- 31 ng/ml (x +/- SE), respectively). In contrast, total ghrelin concentrations in blood were similar in the studied groups. The alterations resulted in increased values of active to total ghrelin concentration ratio in the peripheral blood of patients with benign ovarian tumours or with ovarian cancer (0.79 +/- 0.02 and 0.93 +/- 0.05, respectively vs 0.58 +/- 0.02 in the control group). Due to the absence of any convincing proof for the presence of a functional GHS-R-1a receptor for ghrelin in human ovaries it did not seem probable that the observed elevated levels of active ghrelin and obestatin were directly linked to development of ovarian tumours.

  13. Familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity levels during adolescence: A longitudinal twin study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chun-Zi; Grant, Julia D; Heath, Andrew C; Reiersen, Angela M; Mulligan, Richard C; Anokhin, Andrey P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate familial influences on the full range of variability in attention and activity across adolescence, we collected maternal ratings of 339 twin pairs at ages 12, 14, and 16, and estimated the transmitted and new familial influences on attention and activity as measured by the Strengths and Weaknesses of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behavior Scale. Familial influences were substantial for both traits across adolescence: genetic influences accounted for 54%-73% (attention) and 31%-73% (activity) of the total variance, and shared environmental influences accounted for 0%-22% of the attention variance and 13%-57% of the activity variance. The longitudinal stability of individual differences in attention and activity was largely accounted for by familial influences transmitted from previous ages. Innovations over adolescence were also partially attributable to familial influences. Studying the full range of variability in attention and activity may facilitate our understanding of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder's etiology and intervention.

  14. Determination of the activity concentration levels of the artificial radionuclide137Cs in soil samples collected from Qatar using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sulaiti, Huda; Nasir, Tabassum; Al Mugren, K. S.; Alkhomashi, N.; Al-Dahan, N.; Al-Dosari, M.; Bradley, D. A.; Bukhari, S.; Regan, P. H.; Santawamaitre, T.; Malain, D.; Habib, A.; Al-Dosari, Hanan; Daar, Eman

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to establish the first baseline measurements for radioactivity concentration of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs in soil samples collected from the Qatarian peninsula. The work focused on the determination of the activity concentrations levels of man-made radiation in 129 soil samples collected across the landscape of the State of Qatar. All the samples were collected before the most recent accident in Japan, “the 2011 Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident”. The activity concentrations have been measured via high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry using a hyper-pure germanium detector situated in a low-background environment with a copper inner-plated passive lead shield. A radiological map showing the activity concentrations of 137Cs is presented in this work. The concentration wasfound to range from 0.21 to 15.41 Bq/kg. The highest activity concentration of 137Cs was observed in sample no. 26 in North of Qatar. The mean value was found to be around 2.15 ± 0.27 Bq/kg. These values lie within the expected range relative to the countries in the region. It is expected that this contamination is mainly due to the Chernobyl accident on 26 April 1986, but this conclusion cannot be confirmed because of the lack of data before this accident.

  15. Active Range of Motion with Individual Protective Equipment: Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and Levels B and A Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    CONDITIONS 27 FIGURES 1. AROM for Cervical Rotation during Head S2S Activity for Each IPE Condition 14 2. AROM for Cervical Flexion and Extension...during Head Nod Activity 14 3. AROM for Lateral Cervical Flexion to Left and Right for Head Lat Flex Activity 15 4. Left and Right Shoulder...Head Nod Cervical flexion and extension; full range of flexion and extension Head Lat Flex Left and right cervical lateral flexion ; total lateral

  16. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    PubMed

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ((227)Ac, (40)K, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of activated carbon respirator filter effectiveness by concentration mapping of dimethyl methylphosphonate.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Brendan L; Billingsley, Brit G; Logue, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) has been used extensively in personal protective equipment (PPE) to adsorb toxic substances for the purpose of protecting the user from exposure. The ability to evaluate localized carbon utilization in multiple PPE designs would help engineers develop more effective PPE. Therefore, a method to map dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), a common PPE testing agent, concentrations throughout AC filters was developed and tested on DMMP-exposed filters, some purposefully occluded to simulate defective filters. DMMP concentrations were highest at the point of entry and dispersed outward in a radial pattern from that site, decreasing with distance from the point of exposure. Occluded filters were detected by observing DMMP adsorption inconsistent with unblocked filters and showed high concentrations of DMMP localized in unblocked areas of the filter. The DMMP mapping technique detailed in this study provides a tool for testing AC utilization inside DMMP-exposed PPE.

  18. Long-range neural activity evoked by premotor cortex stimulation: a TMS/EEG co-registration study

    PubMed Central

    Zanon, Marco; Battaglini, Piero P.; Jarmolowska, Joanna; Pizzolato, Gilberto; Busan, Pierpaolo

    2013-01-01

    The premotor cortex is one of the fundamental structures composing the neural networks of the human brain. It is implicated in many behaviors and cognitive tasks, ranging from movement to attention and eye-related activity. Therefore, neural circuits that are related to premotor cortex have been studied to clarify their connectivity and/or role in different tasks. In the present work, we aimed to investigate the propagation of the neural activity evoked in the dorsal premotor cortex using transcranial magnetic stimulation/electroencephalography (TMS/EEG). Toward this end, interest was focused on the neural dynamics elicited in long-ranging temporal and spatial networks. Twelve healthy volunteers underwent a single-pulse TMS protocol in a resting condition with eyes closed, and the evoked activity, measured by EEG, was compared to a sham condition in a time window ranging from 45 ms to about 200 ms after TMS. Spatial and temporal investigations were carried out with sLORETA. TMS was found to induce propagation of neural activity mainly in the contralateral sensorimotor and frontal cortices, at about 130 ms after delivery of the stimulus. Different types of analyses showed propagated activity also in posterior, mainly visual, regions, in a time window between 70 and 130 ms. Finally, a likely “rebounding” activation of the sensorimotor and frontal regions, was observed in various time ranges. Taken together, the present findings further characterize the neural circuits that are driven by dorsal premotor cortex activation in healthy humans. PMID:24324426

  19. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of free range South-American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus).

    PubMed

    Tozetti, Alexandro M; Martins, Marcio

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed at describing daily and seasonal variation in the activity of a population of South-American rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus) in a savanna like habitat (Cerrado) in Southeastern Brazil. Seasonal and daily activities of snakes were evaluated by the number of captures of snakes during road surveys, accidental encounters, and relocations by radio-tracking. Our results show that climatic variables such as air temperature and rainfall have little influence on the activity pattern of rattlesnakes. Our findings indicate that rattlesnakes spend most of the day resting and most of the night in ambush posture. The South-American rattlesnake is active throughout the year with a discrete peak in activity of males during the matting season. The possibility of maintaining activity levels even during the coldest and driest season can facilitate the colonization of several habitats in South America. This possibility currently facilitates the colonization of deforested areas by rattlesnakes.

  20. Primary centers and secondary concentrations of tectonic activity through time in the western hemisphere of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, R.C.; Dohm, J.M.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; Franklin, B.J.; Tanaka, K.L.; Lias, J.; Peer, B.

    2001-01-01

    Five main stages of radial and concentric structures formed around Tharsis from the Noachian through the Amazonian as determined by geologic mapping of 24,452 structures within the stratigraphic framework of Mars and by testing their radial and concentric orientations. Tectonic activity peaked in the Noachian (stage 1) around the largest center, Claritas, an elongate center extending more than 20?? in latitude and defined by about half of the total grabens which are concentrated in the Syria Planum, Thaumasia, and Tempe Terra regions. During the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian (stage 2), extensional structures formed along the length of present-day Valles Marineris and in Thaumasia (with a secondary concentration near Warrego Vallis) radial to a region just to the south of the central margin of Valles Marineris. Early Hesperian (stage 3) radial grabens in Pavonis, Syria, Ulysses, and Tempe Terra and somewhat concentric wrinkle ridges in Lunae and Solis Plana and in Thaumasia, Sirenum, Memnonia, and Amazonis are centered northwest of Syria with secondary centers at Thaumasia, Tempe Terra, Ulysses Fossae, and western Valles Marineris. Late Hesperian/Early Amazonian (stage 4) structures around Alba Patera, the northeast trending alignment of Tharsis Montes, and Olympus Mons appears centered on Alba Patera. Stage 5 structures (Middle-Late Amazonian) represent the last pulse of Tharsis-related activity and are found around the large shield volcanoes and are centered near Pavonis Mons. Tectonic activity around Tharsis began in the Noachian and generally decreased through geologic time to the Amazonian. Statistically significant radial distributions of structures formed during each stage, centered at different locations within the higher elevations of Tharsis. Secondary centers of radial structures during many of the stages appear related to previously identified local magmatic centers that formed at different times and locations throughout Tharsis. Copyright 2001 by

  1. Effect of Fe doping concentration on photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanosheets under natural sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Khokhra, Richa; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-05-15

    A facile room temperature, aqueous solution-based chemical method has been adopted for large-scale synthesis of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets. The XRD and SEM results reveal the as-synthesized products well crystalline and accumulated by large amount of interweave nanosheets, respectively. Energy dispersive spectroscopy data confirmed Fe doping of the ZnO nanosheets with a varying Fe concentration. The photoluminescence spectrum reveals a continuous suppression of defect related emissions intensity by increasing the concentration of the Fe ion. A photocatalytic activity using these samples under sunlight irradiation in the mineralization of methylene blue dye was investigated. The photocatalytic activity of Fe doped ZnO nanosheets depends upon the presence of surface oxygen vacancies.

  2. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) microbial activities in the soils. The critical mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  3. NADPH oxidase inhibitor DPI is neuroprotective at femtomolar concentrations through inhibition of microglia over-activation.

    PubMed

    Qian, Li; Gao, Xi; Pei, Zhong; Wu, Xuefei; Block, Michelle; Wilson, Belinda; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Flood, Patrick M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report that diphenyliodonium (DPI), a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, shows potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects at femtomolar concentrations (10(-13) to 10(-14) M) in primary midbrain cultures. Mechanistic studies revealed that DPI-elicited effects were mediated by the inhibition of LPS-induced microglial ROS production and the subsequent release of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFa, and the production of nitric oxide. Further studies showed that 10(-14) M DPI significantly reduced LPS-induced ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that femtomolar concentrations of DPI exert potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects by inhibiting microglial activation through the inhibition of ERK-regulated PHOX activity.

  4. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity and porphyrin concentrations in peripheral red blood cells in hereditary sideroblastic anaemia.

    PubMed

    Pasanen, A V; Eklöf, M; Tenhunen, R

    1985-03-01

    The activity of coproporphyrinogen oxidase and the concentrations of coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin (measured by HPLC) in peripheral red blood cells were established in 2 families with different types of hereditary sideroblastic anaemia. 2 males and 4 females were members of a family with an X-chromosome-linked and pyridoxine-responsive HSA, and 3 females were members of another family where the mode of inheritance is not clear and where pyridoxine did not produce a haematological response. Coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity was normal in 8 of 9 patients and slightly decreased only in 1 patient. All patients had normal red cell coproporphyrin concentrations, but red cell protoporphyrin concentration was decreased in 4 patients. These findings indicate that in vivo haem synthesis was not impaired at the step of coproporphyrinogen oxidase, hence enzymatic defects in earlier steps of haem synthesis are more evident. Earlier suggestions of impaired haem synthesis at this level, based on observed increased concentrations of coproporphyrin in peripheral red blood cells might be explained by the use of unspecific methods.

  5. Concentration dependent effects of commonly used pesticides on activation versus inhibition of the quince (Cydonia Oblonga) polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Fattouch, Sami; Raboudi-Fattouch, Faten; Ponce, José Vicente Gil; Forment, Josep Vicent; Lukovic, Dunja; Marzouki, Nejib; Vidal, Daniel Ramón

    2010-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) catalyzes the oxidation of o-diphenols to their respective quinones which undergo autopolymerization and form dark pigments. The interaction of PPO with various substrates and effectors remains the focus of intensive investigations due to the enzyme's key role in pigments biosynthesis including animal melanogenesis and fruit/fungi enzymatic browning. In this study, the effect of a range of commonly used pesticides on the enzyme activity has been evaluated using the purified quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller) PPO. The biochemical analysis showed that, in the presence of high pesticide concentrations, the enzyme was competitively inhibited, particularly with benomyl, carbaryl, deltamethrine and parathion methyl for which inhibition constants (K(i)) were 8.3, 5.7, 12 and 4 microM, respectively. At lower pesticide concentrations (2-10 microM), however, the catecholase activity was significantly activated (p<0.01), suggesting a homotropic behavior of these chemical compounds. Furthermore, the use of in silico structure-based analyses, known as computational docking, highlighted the nature of the PPO-pesticides interactions and confirmed the in vitro observations. Catechol substrate and parathion methyl inhibitor showed lower total energy scores of -120.06 and -117.4 3 kcal mol(-1), indicating that these ligands had higher PPO-binding affinities. The obtained data bring to light new pesticide functional features of great interest in the medicinal, agro-chemical and environmental circles.

  6. Comparison of activity concentration of 238U, 232Th and 40K in different Layers of subsurface Structures in Dei-Dei and Kubwa, Abuja, northcentral Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, Omeje; Wagiran, Husin; Ibrahim, Noorddin; Lee, Siak Kuan; Sabri, Soheil

    2013-10-01

    The study of activity concentration of 232Th, 238U and 40K of rock samples from site one (S1L1-S1L11, 70 m) and site two (S2L1-S2L9, 60 m) boreholes in Dei-Dei and Kubwa was presented and the first time in the region to be compared. Activity concentrations were analysed using a high resolution co-axial HPGe gamma ray spectrometer system. The activity concentration ranges in site one borehole were from 45±1 to 98±6 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, from 18±2 to 37±4 Bq kg-1 for 238U and from 254 ±32 Bq kg-1 to 1195 ±151 Bq kg-1 for 40K. The activity concentration ranges in site two borehole were from 32±3 to 84±7 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, from 15±2 to 52±5 Bq kg-1 for 238U and from 119±15 to 705±94 for 40K Bq kg-1. Significantly higher concentration of 232Th and 238U occurs in samples collected from S1L7, S1L11 and S2L1 layers. These zones experienced granitic intrusions produced by denudation and tectonism. 40K in rock samples of S1L4 and S2L4 activity concentrations is close; it could be that biotite granitic intrusion that is inferred as the formation in that layer reflects the same activity of potassium in rock's radioactivity measurement. The area requires further investigation of soil geochemistry and activity concentration of radionuclides in groundwater.

  7. [Resistance activities of the association of pharmacists in the Auschwitz-Birkenau Concentration Camp].

    PubMed

    Nowak, B

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the Resistance was mainly focused on helping prisoners in the concentration camp. The underground organizations of independence existed due to the local population. That help was very effective-it rescued many people against starving and rebuilt the faith in the human. It was not only food but medicines, dressings, vaccines serums. The huge part in that help took pharmacists working in local countries and cities. This publication is strictly connected with these brave people.

  8. Low concentration of arsenite exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity

    SciTech Connect

    Qin Xujun; Hudson, Laurie G.; Liu Wenlan; Timmins, Graham S.; Liu Kejian

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated arsenic exposure with many types of human cancers. Arsenic has also been shown to act as a co-carcinogen even at low concentrations. However, the precise mechanism of its co-carcinogenic action is unknown. Recent studies indicate that arsenic can interfere with DNA-repair processes. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 is a zinc-finger DNA-repair protein, which can promptly sense DNA strand breaks and initiate DNA-repair pathways. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that low concentrations of arsenic could inhibit PAPR-1 activity and so exacerbate levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced DNA strand breaks. HaCat cells were treated with arsenite and/or UVR, and then DNA strand breaks were assessed by comet assay. Low concentrations of arsenite ({<=} 2 {mu}M) alone did not induce significant DNA strand breaks, but greatly enhanced the DNA strand breaks induced by UVR. Further studies showed that 2 {mu}M arsenite effectively inhibited PARP-1 activity. Zinc supplementation of arsenite-treated cells restored PARP-1 activity and significantly diminished the exacerbating effect of arsenite on UVR-induced DNA strand breaks. Importantly, neither arsenite treatment, nor zinc supplementation changed UVR-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suggesting that their effects upon UVR-induced DNA strand breaks are not through a direct free radical mechanism. Combination treatments of arsenite with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide or PARP-1 siRNA demonstrate that PARP-1 is the target of arsenite. Together, these findings show that arsenite at low concentration exacerbates UVR-induced DNA strand breaks by inhibiting PARP-1 activity, which may represent an important mechanism underlying the co-carcinogenicity of arsenic.

  9. The Role of Electrode Microstructure on Activation and Concentration Polarizations in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    December 1999 Abstract Activation and concentration polarization effects in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells ( SOFC ) were examined. The anode and...and Chemical Properties’, Schlol Solid state devices such as solid oxide fuel cells Ringberg, Germany, March 8-13, 1998. ( SOFC ) consist of a cathode...mail address: anil.virkar@m.cc.utah.edu (AV Virkar) development of the SOFC ; the electrolyte-supported 0167-2738/00/$ - see front matter © 2000 Elsevier

  10. Long-Range Temporal Correlations in the Spontaneous in vivo Activity of Interneuron in the Mouse Hippocampus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Sheng-Bo; Wang, Ying; Yan, Xing; Lin, Longnian; Tsien, Joe; Huang, De-Shuang

    The spontaneous in vivo firings of neuron in mouse hippocampus are generally considered as neuronal noise, where there is no any correlation in the inter-spike interval (ISI) sequences. In the present study, we investigate the nature of the ISI sequences of neuron in CA1 area of mouse hippocampus. By using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we calculated the fluctuation or scaling exponent of the ISI sequences. The results indicated that there exists the long-range power-law correlation over large time scale in the ISI sequences. To further investigate the long-range correlation of ISI, we studied the long-range correlation of ISI sequences from different types of neurons in mouse hippocampus, which are four types of interneurons categorized by their firing patterns. Our results show the presence of long-range correlations in the ISI sequence of different types of neurons. Furthermore, the shuffle surrogate data achieved by randomly shuffle the original ISI sequence is used to verify our conclusion. The application of shuffle surrogate shows that the long-range correlation is destroyed by randomly shuffle, which demonstrates that there is actually the long-range correlation in the ISI sequence. Furthermore, we also compare the long-range correlations of ISI sequence when mice are in different behavioral states, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and active exploration (AE). Our results indicated that the ISI sequences exhibit different extent of long-range correlations: the long-range correlation is significantly stronger when mice are in AE than that of ISI sequence when mice are in SWS, which demonstrated that the varied long-range correlations exhibiting in ISIs of interneurons might be associated with activities of neuronal network regulating the ongoing neuronal activity of different interneurons.

  11. Quantifying the 3D Odorant Concentration Field Used by Actively Tracking Blue Crabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Dickman, B. D.; Jackson, J. L.; Weissburg, M. J.

    2007-11-01

    Blue crabs and other aquatic organisms locate food and mates by tracking turbulent odorant plumes. The odorant concentration fluctuates unpredictably due to turbulent transport, and many characteristics of the fluctuation pattern have been hypothesized as useful cues for orienting to the odorant source. To make a direct linkage between tracking behavior and the odorant concentration signal, we developed a measurement system based the laser induced fluorescence technique to quantify the instantaneous 3D concentration field surrounding actively tracking blue crabs. The data suggest a correlation between upstream walking speed and the concentration of the odorant signal arriving at the antennule chemosensors, which are located near the mouth region. More specifically, we note an increase in upstream walking speed when high concentration bursts arrive at the antennules location. We also test hypotheses regarding the ability of blue crabs to steer relative to the plume centerline based on the signal contrast between the chemosensors located on their leg appendages. These chemosensors are located much closer to the substrate compared to the antennules and are separated by the width of the blue crab. In this case, it appears that blue crabs use the bilateral signal comparison to track along the edge of the plume.

  12. Impacts of active urea secretion into pars recta on urine concentration and urea excretion rate

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T; Bankir, Lise

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a “urea-selective” improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney. PMID:24058732

  13. Corticosterone targets distinct steps of synaptic transmission via concentration specific activation of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreejata; Sikdar, Sujit K

    2014-02-01

    Hippocampal neurons are affected by chronic stress and have a high density of cytoplasmic mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors (MR and GR). Detailed studies on the genomic effects of the stress hormone corticosterone at physiologically relevant concentrations on different steps in synaptic transmission are limited. In this study, we tried to delineate how activation of MR and GR by different concentrations of corticosterone affects synaptic transmission at various levels. The effect of 3-h corticosterone (25, 50, and 100 nM) treatment on depolarization-mediated calcium influx, vesicular release and properties of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) were studied in cultured hippocampal neurons. Activation of MR with 25 nM corticosterone treatment resulted in enhanced depolarization-mediated calcium influx via a transcription-dependent process and increased frequency of mEPSCs with larger amplitude. On the other hand, activation of GR upon 100 nM corticosterone treatment resulted in increase in the rate of vesicular release via the genomic actions of GR. Furthermore, GR activation led to significant increase in the frequency of mEPSCs with larger amplitude and faster decay. Our studies indicate that differential activation of the dual receptor system of MR and GR by corticosterone targets the steps in synaptic transmission differently.

  14. An Evaluation of a Wide Range of Job-Generating Activities for Rural Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finsterbusch, Kurt; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines the job-generating activities in 15 rural counties in Maryland through 175 interviews and field work. Those ranking high included industrial park development, economic development activities, and tourism. Special financial arrangements for relocating and new businesses also received high marks. Includes 48 references. (JOW)

  15. Bayesian Estimation of the Active Concentration and Affinity Constants Using Surface Plasmon Resonance Technology.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feng; Kepler, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has previously been employed to measure the active concentration of analyte in addition to the kinetic rate constants in molecular binding reactions. Those approaches, however, have a few restrictions. In this work, a Bayesian approach is developed to determine both active concentration and affinity constants using SPR technology. With the appropriate prior probabilities on the parameters and a derived likelihood function, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is applied to compute the posterior probability densities of both the active concentration and kinetic rate constants based on the collected SPR data. Compared with previous approaches, ours exploits information from the duration of the process in its entirety, including both association and dissociation phases, under partial mass transport conditions; do not depend on calibration data; multiple injections of analyte at varying flow rates are not necessary. Finally the method is validated by analyzing both simulated and experimental datasets. A software package implementing our approach is developed with a user-friendly interface and made freely available.

  16. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  17. Captopril and lisinopril only inhibit matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity at millimolar concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kuntze, Luciana B; Antonio, Raquel C; Izidoro-Toledo, Tatiane C; Meschiari, Cesar A; Tanus-Santos, Jose E; Gerlach, Raquel F

    2014-03-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) shares structural similarities with the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). ACE inhibitors have been described to inhibit MMP-2, but this inhibitory potential was not shown using a highly purified MMP-2. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of captopril and lisinopril regarding MMP-2 activity. The first objective was to test the potential of captopril to change the pH of the buffer solution. The second objective was to test the direct inhibitory effect of captopril and lisinopril on plasma MMP-2 and on recombinant human MMP-2 (rhMMP-2). The in vitro activity assays included gelatin zymography and a fluorimetric assay. Captopril solubilization significantly decreased the pH of the 50 mM Tris buffer solution at the following concentrations: 2 mM (p < 0.05), 4 mM and 8 mM (p < 0.01), while only the 8 mM lisinopril induced a drop in pH (p < 0.05). Thus, only 200 mM buffer solutions were used. Zymography results of plasma MMP-2 and rhMMP-2 showed that inhibition only happened at captopril concentrations ≥ 4 and 1 mM, respectively (p < 0.05), while only the higher concentration of lisinopril (8 mM) inhibited plasma MMP-2 (p < 0.05). In the fluorimetric assay, captopril led to significant inhibition of the rhMMP-2 activity at concentrations ≥2 mM (p < 0.01), whereas aminophenylmercuric acetate-activated rhMMP-2 was inhibited by 0.5 mM captopril (p < 0.01). The captopril and lisinopril concentrations found to inhibit MMP-2 are 3 orders of magnitude higher than those present in vivo after drug administration. We also discuss possible pitfalls for gelatinase inhibitory assays (besides the obvious pH problem already cited). In conclusion, this study's data show that captopril and lisinopril did not inhibit MMP-2 directly at the concentrations reached in vivo.

  18. Specular and transparent objects in moving range cameras: active reduction of ambiguities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygards, Jonas; Wernersson, Ake V.

    1994-10-01

    This paper is written to further understanding of the basic limitations of eye-in-hand range cameras for the handling of specular and transparent objects. The basic underlying assumption for a range camera is one diffuse reflex. Specular and transparent objects usually give multiple reflections interpreted as different types of `ghosts' in the range images. These `ghosts' are likely to cause serous errors during gripping operations. As the robot moves some of these `ghosts' move inconsistently with the true motion. In this paper we study, experimentally and theoretically, how the range measurements can be integrated in a consistent way during the motion of the robot. The paper is experimental with emphasis on parts with `optical complications' including multiple scattering. Occlusion is not studied in this paper. Some of our findings include: (1) For scenes with one plane mirror there is a complete understanding of the `deambiguation' by motion. Also, the coordinates of the mirror can be estimated without one single observation of the mirror itself. The other objects in the scene are not `mirror like.' (2) For polished steel cylinders, the inclination and radius can be estimated from the curved ray-traces on plane matte surfaces.

  19. Conceptual Model for the Transport of Energetic Residues from Surface Soil to Groundwater by Range Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -0 6 - 1 8 Conceptual Model for the Transport of Energetic Residues from Surface Soil to Groundwater by Range...compounds potentially migrating to groundwater. The goals of the report are to 1 ) review and summarize previous work; 2) identify data gaps; 3) provide...Nomenclature.......................................................................................................................................viii 1

  20. Structural Characterizations of Glycerol Kinase: Unraveling Phosphorylation-Induced Long-Range Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Joanne I.; Kettering, Regina; Saxl, Ruth; Bourand, Alexa; Darbon, Emmanuelle; Joly, Nathalie; Briozzo, Pierre; Deutscher, Josef

    2009-09-11

    Glycerol metabolism provides a central link between sugar and fatty acid catabolism. In most bacteria, glycerol kinase plays a crucial role in regulating channel/facilitator-dependent uptake of glycerol into the cell. In the firmicute Enterococcus casseliflavus, this enzyme's activity is enhanced by phosphorylation of the histidine residue (His232) located in its activation loop, approximately 25 A from its catalytic cleft. We reported earlier that some mutations of His232 altered enzyme activities; we present here the crystal structures of these mutant GlpK enzymes. The structure of a mutant enzyme with enhanced enzymatic activity, His232Arg, reveals that residues at the catalytic cleft are more optimally aligned to bind ATP and mediate phosphoryl transfer. Specifically, the position of Arg18 in His232Arg shifts by approximately 1 A when compared to its position in wild-type (WT), His232Ala, and His232Glu enzymes. This new conformation of Arg18 is more optimally positioned at the presumed gamma-phosphate location of ATP, close to the glycerol substrate. In addition to structural changes exhibited at the active site, the conformational stability of the activation loop is decreased, as reflected by an approximately 35% increase in B factors ('thermal factors') in a mutant enzyme displaying diminished activity, His232Glu. Correlating conformational changes to alteration of enzymatic activities in the mutant enzymes identifies distinct localized regions that can have profound effects on intramolecular signal transduction. Alterations in pairwise interactions across the dimer interface can communicate phosphorylation states over 25 A from the activation loop to the catalytic cleft, positioning Arg18 to form favorable interactions at the beta,gamma-bridging position with ATP. This would offset loss of the hydrogen bonds at the gamma-phosphate of ATP during phosphoryl transfer to glycerol, suggesting that appropriate alignment of the second substrate of glycerol kinase

  1. Evaluation of the influence of physical activity on the plasma concentrations of several trace metals.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Tuya, I; Pinilla Gil, E; Maynar Mariño, M; García-Moncó Carra, R M; Sánchez Misiego, A

    1996-01-01

    Our study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the influence that the degree of physical activity may have on plasma concentrations of essential and toxic elements. Copper and zinc, elements of known importance in basic cellular processes, have been analysed as essential, and cadmium and lead as toxic for the body in abnormal doses. The study was performed on a total population of 50 healthy individuals, 34 of them professional sportsmen and the rest who undertook moderate physical activity (control group), all of them living in a polluted environment (Madrid, Spain). Sampling was conducted at the beginning of the season (October). Electro-analytical techniques of proved reliability and accuracy were used for the determination of the metals. The results were related to data obtained using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by use of biological reference materials. We found significantly higher zinc plasma concentrations in the sportsmen involved in anaerobic-type training (judo, fencing) compared to those undertaking aerobic activities (endurance, cycling) (P < 0.05). The values in both cases were higher than those found in the control group. Our study showed an increase of plasma copper concentrations in professional sportsmen, especially in those performing anaerobic activities, compared to those subjects undertaking moderate activity (control group) (P < 0.05). In summary, our results showed that there were no deficiencies of copper and zinc in the athletes studied at the beginning of the season. The levels were higher than those of the control population. As for the toxic metals, cadmium and lead, we observed lower levels in the athletes than in the control group (cadmium P < 0.005, lead P < 0.05). These results may indicate the existence of possible elimination systems for these metals in athletes, when they are training in a polluted environment.

  2. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  3. Circulating extracellular proteasome in the cerebrospinal fluid: a study on concentration and proteolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Oliver; Anlasik, Timur; Wiedemann, Jonas; Thomassen, Jan; Wohlschlaeger, Jeremias; Hagel, Vincent; Keyvani, Kathy; Schwieger, Isabel; Dahlmann, Burkhardt; Sure, Ulrich; Sixt, Stephan Urs

    2012-03-01

    Alterations of the intracellular ubiquitin-proteasome pathway are found in neurodegenerative and inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system, as well as in its malignancies. Inhibitory substrates of the proteasomes represent promising approaches to control autoimmune inflammations and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. Extracellular circulating proteasomes are positively correlated to outcome prognosis in hematogenic neoplasias and the outcome in critically ill patients. Previously, we reported raised levels of proteolytic active 20S proteasomes in the extracellular alveolar space in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). For the cerebrospinal fluid, we assumed that extracellular circulating proteasomes with enzymatic activity can be found, too. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples of twenty-six patients (14 females, 12 males), who underwent diagnostic spinal myelography, were analyzed for leukocyte cell count, total protein content, lactate and interleukine-6 (Il-6) concentrations. CSF samples were analyzed for concentration and enzymatic activity of extracellular 20S proteasomes (fluorescenic substrate cleavage; femtokatal). Blood samples were analyzed with respect to concentration of extracellular circulating proteasomes. Choroidal plexus was harvested at autopsies and examined with immunoelectron microscopy (EM) for identification of possible transportation mechanisms. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (18.0.3). In all patients, extracellular proteasome was found in the CSF. The mean concentration was 24.6 ng/ml. Enzymatic activity of the 20S subunits of proteasomes was positively identified by the fluorescenic subtrate cleavage at a mean of 8.5 fkat/ml. Concentrations of extracellular proteasomes in the CSF, total protein content and Il-6 were uncorrelated. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed merging vesicles of proteasomes with the outer cell membrane suggestive of an exozytic transport mechanism. For the first time

  4. A sustained inward current activated at the diastolic potential range in rabbit sino-atrial node cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guo, J; Ono, K; Noma, A

    1995-01-01

    1. After blocking both the hyperpolarization-activated current and the membrane K+ conductance, depolarizations from -80 mV to between -70 and -50 mV induced a sustained current in sino-atrial node cells. We have tentatively designated this current Ist. 2. Ist was blocked by both organic and inorganic Ca2+ channel blockers, but was insensitive to tetrodotoxin (30 microM). Isoprenaline increased Ist. 3. The peak of Ist (at about -50 mV) was increased to 149 +/- 13% (n = 8, P < 0.01) by lowering the external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) from 1.8 to 0.1 mM, in contrast to the marked depression of the L-type Ca2+ current. In 0.1 mM [Ca2+]o solution, the nicardipine-sensitive current-voltage relation showed the peak amplitude at about -50 mV and a reversal potential of +37.4 +/- 4.4 mV (n = 5). The isoprenaline-sensitive component also showed a reversal potential of about +30 mV. 4. Reducing [Na+]o from 140 to 70 mM in 0.1 mM [Ca2+]o decreased Ist to 53 +/- 5% (n = 7, P < 0.01). Increasing [Ca2+]o or [Mg2+]o decreased the amplitude of Ist. The half-maximum concentration of Mg2+ inhibition was 2.2 mM. 5. At 1.8 mM [Ca2+]o, Ist was inactivated by clamping for 5s at -10 mV, and gradually recovered after repolarization to -80 mV with a half-time of 1.36 +/- 0.4 s (n = 6). 6. The transitional sino-atrial node cell had minimal amplitude of Ist. 7. These characteristics of Ist are qualitatively comparable to those of the monovalent cation conductance of the L-type Ca2+ channel induced by depleting external divalent cations to the micromolar range. We conclude that Ist is generated by a novel subtype of L-type Ca2+ channel. PMID:7776225

  5. Potassium permeability activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration in the pancreatic beta-cell.

    PubMed Central

    Atwater, I; Dawson, C M; Ribalet, B; Rojas, E

    1979-01-01

    1. Membrane potentials and input resistance were measured in beta-cells from mouse pancreatic islets of Langerhans in a study designed to assess the role of a K permeability specifically blocked by quinine or quinidine and activated by intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+])i-activated PK). 2. Addition of 100 microM-quinine to the perifusion medium resulted in a 10--30 mV depolarization of the membrane and an increase in the input resistance of ca. 4.10(7) omega. 3. In the absence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine induced electrical activity. 4. In the presence of glucose, 100 microM-quinine abolished the burst pattern of electrical activity and very much reduced the graded response of spike frequency normally seen with different concentrations of glucose. 5. Addition of mitochondrial inhibitors, KCN, NaN3, DNP, CCCP, FCCP, to the perifusion medium containing glucose rapidly hyperpolarized the beta-cell membrane, inducing a concomitant decrease in input resistance. 6. In the presence of glucose, these mitochondrial inhibitors reversibly blocked electrical activity; upon removal of the inhibitor, recovery of electrical activity followed a biphasic pattern. 7. The effects of mitochondrial inhibitors were partially reversed by 100 microM-quinine. 8. It is proposed that the membrane potential of the beta-cell in the absence of glucose is predominantly controlled by the [Ca2+]i-activated PK. It is further suggested that this permeability to K controls the level for glucose stimulation and leads to the generation of the burst pattern. PMID:381636

  6. Long-Range Inhibitor-Induced Conformational Regulation of Human IRE1α Endoribonuclease Activity.

    PubMed

    Concha, Nestor O; Smallwood, Angela; Bonnette, William; Totoritis, Rachel; Zhang, Guofeng; Federowicz, Kelly; Yang, Jingsong; Qi, Hongwei; Chen, Stephanie; Campobasso, Nino; Choudhry, Anthony E; Shuster, Leanna E; Evans, Karen A; Ralph, Jeff; Sweitzer, Sharon; Heerding, Dirk A; Buser, Carolyn A; Su, Dai-Shi; DeYoung, M Phillip

    2015-12-01

    Activation of the inositol-requiring enzyme-1 alpha (IRE1α) protein caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress results in the homodimerization of the N-terminal endoplasmic reticulum luminal domains, autophosphorylation of the cytoplasmic kinase domains, and conformational changes to the cytoplasmic endoribonuclease (RNase) domains, which render them functional and can lead to the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP 1) mRNA. Herein, we report the first crystal structures of the cytoplasmic portion of a human phosphorylated IRE1α dimer in complex with (R)-2-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro(4.5)decane-7-carboxamide, a novel, IRE1α-selective kinase inhibitor, and staurosporine, a broad spectrum kinase inhibitor. (R)-2-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-N-(4-methylbenzyl)-2,7-diazaspiro(4.5)decane-7-carboxamide inhibits both the kinase and RNase activities of IRE1α. The inhibitor interacts with the catalytic residues Lys599 and Glu612 and displaces the kinase activation loop to the DFG-out conformation. Inactivation of IRE1α RNase activity appears to be caused by a conformational change, whereby the αC helix is displaced, resulting in the rearrangement of the kinase domain-dimer interface and a rotation of the RNase domains away from each other. In contrast, staurosporine binds at the ATP-binding site of IRE1α, resulting in a dimer consistent with RNase active yeast Ire1 dimers. Activation of IRE1α RNase activity appears to be promoted by a network of hydrogen bond interactions between highly conserved residues across the RNase dimer interface that place key catalytic residues poised for reaction. These data implicate that the intermolecular interactions between conserved residues in the RNase domain are required for activity, and that the disruption of these interactions can be achieved pharmacologically by small molecule kinase domain inhibitors.

  7. Expanding the active pH range of Escherichia coli glutamate decarboxylase by breaking the cooperativeness.

    PubMed

    Thu Ho, Ngoc Anh; Hou, Chen Yuan; Kim, Woo Hyun; Kang, Taek Jin

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) transforms glutamate into γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) with the consumption of a proton. The enzyme is active under acidic environments only and sharply loses its activity as pH approaches neutrality with concomitant structural deformation. In an attempt to understand better the role of this cooperative loss of activity upon pH shifts, we prepared and studied a series of GAD site-specific mutants. In this report, we show that the cooperativeness was kept intact by at least two residues, Glu89 and His465, of which Glu89 is newly identified to be involved in the cooperativity system of GAD. Double mutation on these residues not only broke the cooperativity in the activity change but also yielded a mutant GAD that retained the activity at neutral pH. The resulting mutant GAD that was active at neutral pH inhibited the cell growth in a glycerol medium by converting intracellular Glu into GABA in an uncontrolled manner, which explains in part why the cooperativeness of GAD has to be kept by several layers of safety keepers. This unexpected result might be utilized to convert a low-valued by-product of biodiesel production, glycerol, into value-added product, GABA.

  8. A study of tectonic activity in the Basin-Range Province and on the San Andreas Fault. No. 1: Kinematics of Basin-Range intraplate extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddington, P. K.; Smith, R. B.; Renggli, C.

    1986-01-01

    Strain rates assessed from brittle fracture and total brittle-ductile deformation measured from geodetic data were compared to estimates of paleo-strain from Quaternary geology for the intraplate Great Basin part of the Basin-Range, western United States. These data provide an assessment of the kinematics and mode of lithospheric extension that the western U.S. Cordillera has experienced from the past few million years to the present. Strain and deformation rates were determined by the seismic moment tensor method using historic seismicity and fault plane solutions for sub-regions of homogeneous strain. Contemporary deformation in the Great Basin occurs principally along the active seismic zones. The integrated opening rate across the entire Great Basin is accommodated by E-E extension at 8 to 10 mm/a in the north that diminishes to NW-SE extension of 3.5 mm/a in the south. Zones of maximum lithospheric extension correspond to belts of thin crust, high heat flow, and Quaternary basaltic volcanism, suggesting that these parameters are related through mechanism of extension such as a stress relaxation, allowing bouyant uplift and ascension of magmas.

  9. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Prather, Aric A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-04-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems.

  10. Ecto-phosphatase activity on the external surface of Rhodnius prolixus salivary glands: modulation by carbohydrates and Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Suzete A O; Fonseca de Souza, André L; Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Dick, Claudia F; dos Santos, André L A; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2008-05-01

    The salivary glands of insect's vectors are target organs to study the vectors-pathogens interactions. Rhodnius prolixus an important vector of Trypanosoma cruzi can also transmit Trypanosoma rangeli by bite. In the present study we have investigated ecto-phosphatase activity on the surface of R. prolixus salivary glands. Ecto-phosphatases are able to hydrolyze phosphorylated substrates in the extracellular medium. We characterized these ecto-enzyme activities on the salivary glands external surface and employed it to investigate R. prolixus-T. rangeli interaction. Salivary glands present a low level of hydrolytic activity (4.30+/-0.35 nmol p-nitrophenol (p-NP)xh(-1)xgland pair(-1)). The salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity was not affected by pH variation; and it was insensitive to alkaline inhibitor levamisole and inhibited approximately 50% by inorganic phosphate (Pi). MgCl2, CaCl2 and SrCl2 enhanced significantly the ecto-phosphatase activity detected on the surface of salivary glands. The ecto-phosphatase from salivary glands surface efficiently releases phosphate groups from different phosphorylated amino acids, giving a higher rate of phosphate release when phospho-tyrosine is used as a substrate. This ecto-phosphatase activity was inhibited by carbohydrates as d-galactose and d-mannose. Living short epimastigotes of T. rangeli inhibited salivary glands ecto-phosphatase activity at 75%, while boiled parasites did not. Living long epimastigote forms induced a lower, but significant inhibitory effect on the salivary glands phosphatase activity. Interestingly, boiled long epimastigote forms did not loose the ability to modulate salivary glands phosphatase activity. Taken together, these data suggest a possible role for ecto-phosphatase on the R. prolixus salivary glands-T. rangeli interaction.

  11. Diurnal variations of radon and thoron activity concentrations and effective doses in dwellings in Niška Banja, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Vaupotič, J; Streil, T; Tokonami, S; Žunic, Z S

    2013-12-01

    In Niška Banja, a spa town in a radon-prone area in southern Serbia, radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) activity concentrations were measured continuously for one day in indoor air of 10 dwellings with a SARAD RTM 2010-2 Radon/Thoron Monitor, and equilibrium factor between radon and its decay products and the fraction of unattached radon decay products with a SARAD EQF 3020-2 Equilibrium Factor Monitor. Radon concentration in winter time ranged from 26 to 73 100 Bq m(-3) and that of thoron, from 10 to 8650 Bq m(-3). In the same period, equilibrium factor and the unattached fraction varied in the range of 0.08 to 0.90 and 0.01 to 0.27, respectively. One-day effective doses were calculated and were in winter conditions from 4 to 2599 μSv d(-1) for radon and from 0.2 to 73 μSv d(-1) for thoron.

  12. Tracking Dissolved Methane Concentrations near Active Seeps and Gas Hydrates: Sea of Japan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. T.; Aoki, S.; Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Owari, S.; Nakajima, R.; Doolittle, D. F.; Brant, B.

    2015-12-01

    A number of regions in the Sea of Japan are known for active gas venting and for gas hydrate exposures on the sea floor. In this investigation we employed several gas sensors mounted on a ROV in order to determine the concentrations of dissolved methane in the water near these sites. Methane concentrations were determined during two-second intervals throughout each ROV deployment during the cruise. The methane sensor deployments were coupled with seawater sampling using Niskin bottles. Dissolved gas concentrations were later measured using gas chromatography in order to compare with the sensor results taken at the same time. The observed maximum dissolved methane concentrations were much lower than saturation values, even when the ROV manipulators were in contact with gas hydrate. Nonetheless, dissolved concentrations did reach several thousands of nmol/L near gas hydrate exposures and gas bubbles, more than two orders of magnitude over the instrumental detection limits. Most of the sensors tested were able to detect dissolved methane concentrations as low as 10 nmol/L which permitted detection when the ROV approached methane plume sites, even from several tens of meters above the sea floor. Despite the low detection limits, the methane sensors showed variable response times when returning to low-background seawater (~5nM). For some of the sensors, the response time necessary to return to background values occurred in a matter of minutes, while for others it took several hours. Response time, as well as detection limit, should be an important consideration when selecting methane sensors for ROV or AUV investigations. This research was made possible, in part, through funding provided by the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  13. Activity patterns, blood lactate concentrations and ratings of perceived exertion during a professional singles tennis tournament

    PubMed Central

    Mendez‐Villanueva, Alberto; Fernandez‐Fernandez, Jaime; Bishop, David; Fernandez‐Garcia, Benjamin; Terrados, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    Objective To examine the game characteristics and physiological (ie, blood lactate concentration) and perceptual (ie, rating of perceived exertion, RPE) responses during actual tennis competition in professional performers. Methods Eight trained and internationally ranked (Association of Tennis Professionals rankings) male tennis players were studied during singles matches (best of three sets) played on an outdoor clay court surface during a professional, invitational tournament. Blood lactate concentrations (n = 53) and RPE (n = 113) were determined at selected changeovers during the game. The variables describing the characteristics of the matches, (a) duration of rallies (DRs); (b) rest time (RT); (c) effective playing time (EPT); and (d) shots per rally (SR), were determined from video recordings. Results The mean (SD) values for the match‐play activity variables were DR 7.5 (7.3) s, RT 16.2 (5.2) s, EPT 21.5 (4.9%), SR 2.7 (2.2) shots. Average blood lactate concentration and RPE values were 3.8 (2.0) mmol/l and 13 (2). Blood lactate concentrations and RPE values were significantly higher (p<0.01) in service games than in receiving games. Both blood lactate concentration and RPE values were significantly correlated with SR and DR (r = 0.80 to 0.28; p<0.001). Conclusions Blood lactate concentrations and RPE were found to be influenced by the characteristics of the match and the playing situation (ie, serving or returning). These specific situations might be used to alter the overload training stimulus during tennis on‐court practice. PMID:17237121

  14. Effect of altitude training on serum creatine kinase activity and serum cortisol concentration in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Wilber, R L; Drake, S D; Hesson, J L; Nelson, J A; Kearney, J T; Dallam, G M; Williams, L L

    2000-01-01

    In this investigation we evaluated the effect of a 5-week training program at 1860 m on serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and serum cortisol concentration in national-caliber triathletes for the purpose of monitoring the response to training in a hypobaric hypoxic environment. Subjects included 16 junior-level female (n = 8) and male (n = 8) triathletes who were training for the International Triathlon Union (ITU) World Championships. After an initial acclimatization period, training intensity and/or volume were increased progressively during the 5-week altitude training camp. Resting venous blood samples were drawn at 0700 hours following a 12-h overnight fast and were analyzed for serum CK activity and serum cortisol concentration. Subjects were evaluated before [7-10 days pre-altitude (SL 1)] and after [7-10 days post-altitude (SL 2)] the 5-week training camp at 1860 m. At altitude, subjects were evaluated within 24-36 h after arrival (ALT 1), 7 days after arrival (ALT 2), 18 days after arrival (ALT 3), and 24-36 h prior to leaving the altitude training camp (ALT 4). A repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences over time from SL 1 to SL 2. Compared to SL 1, serum CK activity increased approximately threefold (P < 0.05) within the initial 24-36 h at altitude (ALT 1), and increased by an additional 70% (P < 0.05) after the 1st week of altitude training (ALT 2). Serum CK activity remained significantly elevated over the duration of the experimental period compared to pre-altitude baseline levels. Serum cortisol concentration was increased (P < 0.05) at the end of the 5-week altitude training period (ALT 4) relative to SL 1, ALT 1 and ALT 3. These data suggest that: (1) the initial increase in serum CK activity observed in the first 24-36 h at altitude was due primarily to acute altitude exposure and was independent of increased training intensity and/or training volume, (2) the subsequent increases in serum CK activity observed over

  15. Evaluation of the activity concentrations of (137) Cs and (40)K in some Chanterelle mushrooms from Poland and China.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zalewska, Tamara; Apanel, Anna; Drewnowska, Małgorzata; Kluza, Karolina

    2016-10-01

    The activity concentrations of (137)Cs and (40)K in mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus (Cantharellus cibarius, Cantharellus tubaeformis, and Cantharellus minor) collected across Poland from 1997 to 2013 and in Yunnan province of China in 2013 were determined using gamma spectrometry with an HPGe detector, respectively. Activity concentrations of (137)Cs in C. cibarius from the places in Poland varied from 64 ± 3 to 1600 ± 47 Bq kg(-1) db in 1997-2004 and 4.2 ± 1.2 to 1400 ± 15 Bq kg(-1) db in 2006-2013. In the Chinese Cantharellus mushrooms, the activity level of (137)Cs was very low, i.e., at a range <1.2 to 1.2 ± 0.6 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass. The natural radionuclide (40)K was at similar activity level in C. cibarius collected across Poland and in China, and fluctuations in levels of (40)K over the years and locations in Poland were small. In C. cibarius from diverse sites in Poland, content of (137)Cs highly fluctuated in 1998-2013 but no clear downward trend was visible (Fig. 1). Published activity levels of (137)Cs in fruitbodies of Cantharellus such Cantharellus californicus, Cantharellus cascadensis, C. cibarius, Cantharellus cinnabarius, Cantharellus formosus, Cantharellus iuteocomus, Cantharellus lutescens, Cantharellus minor, Cantharellus pallens [current name C. cibarius], Cantharellus subalbidus, Cantharellus subpruinosus, and C. tubaeformis collected worldwide were compared. In the Polish cuisine, mushrooms of the genus Cantharellus are blanched before frying or pickling, and this kind of treatment, and additionally also pickling, both very efficiently remove alkali elements (and radioactivity from (134/137)Cs) from flesh of the species.

  16. SU-E-P-08: Alarming Range of Seed Activities Ordered for I-125 Plaque Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the variation in I-125 seed activities ordered by various clinics for their plaque brachytherapy cases under a standardized set of assumptions. Methods: A majority of the plaque programs in North America were contacted and a survey was designed to give a few standardized cases to allow inter-comparison of seed activities ordered. Tumor dose, treatment duration, number of seeds, plaque, and tumor apex were held constant in order to reveal differences in prescription point, seed type, and seed activity. Results: While the survey is presently underway, preliminary results show alarmingly wide variations between centers. Differences up to 45% have been found with 15% differences being common. Conclusion: Though knowledge of the TG-43 dose calculation formalism is common, a number of factors in the field of plaque brachytherapy lead to alarming differences in activity of I-125 seeds being ordered for a given tumor. Knowledge of the present reality of widely varying treatment activities, and thus doses to tumor and normal structures, should serve as motivation for centers involved in this modality to review their programs with others in the community and share their experiences.

  17. Fumonisin concentration and ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of corn, masa, and tortilla chips.

    PubMed

    Voss, Kenneth A; Norred, William P; Meredith, Filmore I; Riley, Ronald T; Stephen Saunders, D

    2006-07-01

    Nixtamalization removes fumonisins from corn and reduces their amounts in masa and tortilla products. Fumonisin concentrations and potential toxicity could be underestimated, however, if unknown but biologically active fumonisins are present. Therefore, the relative amounts of fumonisins in extracts of fumonisin-contaminated corn and its masa and tortilla chip nixtamalization products were determined with an in vitro ceramide synthase inhibition bioassay using increased sphinganine (Sa) and sphinganine to sphingosine ratio (Sa/So) as endpoints. African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells ATCC CCL-81) were grown in 1-ml wells and exposed to 4 microl of the concentrated extracts for 48 h. The corn extract inhibited ceramide synthase as Sa (mean = 132 pmol/well) and Sa/So (mean = 2.24) were high compared to vehicle controls (Sa = 9 pmol/well; Sa/So = 0.10). Inhibitory activity (mean Sa = 14-24 pmol/well; mean Sa/So = 0.17-0.28) of the masa and tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 80% compared to the corn extract. Results were corroborated in a second experiment in which Sa and Sa/So of the wells treated with masa or tortilla chip extracts were reduced > or = 89% compared to those treated with the corn extract. Masa and tortilla chip FB1 concentrations (4-7 ppm) were reduced about 80-90% compared to the corn (30 ppm) when the materials were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Therefore, nixtamalization reduced both the measured amount of FB1 and the ceramide synthase inhibitory activity of masa and tortilla chips extracts. The results further suggest that the masa and tortilla chip extracts did not contain significant amounts of unknown fumonisins having ceramide synthase inhibitory activity.

  18. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE PAGES

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; ...

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  19. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; Spenkelink, Lisanne M.; McGrath, William J.; Morrone, Seamus R.; Sohn, Jungsan; Robinson, Andrew; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use of short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.

  20. Variability in Saponin Content, Cancer Antiproliferative Activity and Physicochemical Properties of Concentrated Agave Sap.

    PubMed

    Santos-Zea, Liliana; Rosas-Pérez, Aratza Mireya; Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-08-01

    Concentrated agave sap (CAS) has gained popularity as an unrefined sweetener. It is obtained by boiling "aguamiel" that contains phytochemicals with diverse bioactivities. Saponins have been the most widely studied agave phytochemicals due to their cancer antiproliferative effect but their concentration may vary due to maturity of the agave plant and collection site. In this study, 18 CAS samples produced in different states of Mexico were analyzed using multivariate methods to determine which physicochemical or phytochemical parameters were responsible for variation. Additionally, extracts with different saponin profiles were tested to determine possible correlations with antiproliferative activity. Total soluble solids, pH, and water activity were similar to those reported for other agave sweeteners. Antioxidant capacity of samples was correlated to browning index. Eleven steroidal saponins were found in CAS samples and they were the main source of variability. Magueyoside B, a kammogenin tetraglycoside, was the most abundant saponin in all samples. With respect to bioactivity, multivariate analysis indicated that magueyoside B and a gentrogenin tetraglycoside were compounds strongly related with bioactivity. CAS from Hidalgo, Puebla, and Veracruz had higher concentration of magueyoside B than from the other kamogenin tetraglycoside found in the samples from other Mexican states. These results could be used as a first approach to characterize and standardize CAS to validate the potential health benefits derived from its consumption.

  1. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103.

  2. [Seasonal and geographical variation range of antifungal activity of sponge extracts from the Moroccan Atlantic coasts].

    PubMed

    El-Wahidi, M; El-Amraoui, B; Biard, J-F; Uriz, M-J; Fassouane, A; Bamhaoud, T

    2011-03-01

    Currently, marine organisms have a very important source of new molecules in pharmacology and thus in the development of new bioactive products. The organic and aqueous extracts of two marine sponges, Cinachyrella tarentine collected during two different seasons, winter and summer, and Cliona viridis collected in two different zones on the coast of El Jadida (Morocco) were tested for their antifungal activity using the diffusion method. The C. tarentine sponge collected in January (winter) has a very important activity compared to that collected in August (summer). While the sponge C. viridis collected from Jorf Lasfar port (shallower and polluted area) has a very important activity compared to that collected from the coast of El Jadida (depth and unpolluted area).

  3. Muscle conduction velocity, strength, neural activity, and morphological changes after eccentric and concentric training.

    PubMed

    Cadore, E L; González-Izal, M; Pallarés, J G; Rodriguez-Falces, J; Häkkinen, K; Kraemer, W J; Pinto, R S; Izquierdo, M

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the effects of concentric and eccentric training on neuromuscular adaptations in young subjects. Twenty-two men and women were assigned to one of two groups: concentric (CON, n = 11) and eccentric (ECC, n = 11) training. Training consisted of 6 weeks of isokinetic exercise, performed twice weekly, starting with two sets of eight repetitions, and progressing to five sets of 10 repetitions. Subjects were tested in strength variables [concentric, eccentric, and isometric peak torque (PT), and rate of force development (RFD)], muscle conduction velocity (CV), neuromuscular activity, vastus lateralis (VL) muscle thickness, and echo intensity as determined by ultrasonography. There were similar increases in the concentric and eccentric PTs in both the CON and ECC groups (P < 0.01), but only the ECC group showed an increase in isometric PT (P < 0.001). Similarly, both groups exhibited increased VL muscle thickness, CV, and RFD, and reduced VL echo intensity (P < 0.05). Significant correlations were observed among the relative changes in the neuromuscular outcomes and training variables (e.g., total work, average PT) (r = 0.68-0.75, P < 0.05). The results showed that both training types similarly improved dynamic PT, CV, RFD, and muscle thickness and quality during the early weeks of training.

  4. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Marisa P.; Alves, Vítor D.; Coelhoso, Isabel M.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas. PMID:28036043

  5. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  6. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  7. Characterizing the spatial and temporal activities of free-ranging cows from GPS data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic tracking provides a unique way to document animal behavior on a continuous basis. This manuscript describes how uncorrected 1 s GPS fixes can be used to characterize the rate of cow travel (m·s-1) into stationary, foraging and walking activities. Cows instrumented with GPS devices were ...

  8. Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountain Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon

    2010-05-01

    Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary

  9. Development of a precision, wide-dynamic-range actuator for use in active optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Aubrun, J-N.; Zacharie, D. F.; Perez, E. O.

    1989-01-01

    The design, operation, and performance of a wide-dynamic-range optical-quality actuator are discussed. The actuator uses a closed-loop control system to maintain accurate positioning and has an rms noise performance of 20 nm. A unique force offloading mechanism allows the actuator coil to dissipate less than 3 mW under quiescent conditions. The operation of an experimental segmented optical system that uses 18 of the actuators is examined to show how they are integrated into an actual system.

  10. Community design and policies for free-range children: creating environments that support routine physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Growing concern over childhood obesity has prompted a focus on underlying epidemics of physical inactivity and poor nutrition. Regarding the former, there is increasing understanding that behavior change promotion alone has not increased population physical activity levels and that an ecological approach is necessary. Therefore, the public health profession has moved beyond traditional behavior change campaigns toward a growing focus on altering policies and the built environment to create settings that support increases in routine, not just exercise or leisure time, physical activity among children. A survey of the literature suggests four broad factors that define settings where routine physical activity, especially active transportation, is more likely to occur: • a compact variety of land uses, with a mix of destinations in close proximity; • a comprehensive network of bicycle, pedestrian, and transit facilities; • inviting and functional site designs for pedestrians, cyclists, and transit users; • safety and access for users of all ages, incomes, abilities and disabilities. Although these principles are increasingly accepted as beneficial, not just to health but to a community's economic, environmental, and social well-being, many contemporary ordinances and development practices undermine these outcomes. Therefore, five specific policy and intervention approaches are recommended to guide communities to these outcomes: 1. zoning and development policies to protect open space, contain sprawl, and focus investment toward thriving, mixed downtowns and village centers; 2. Complete Streets policies, which require roadways that are safe and functional for pedestrians, bicyclists, and transit users, as well as motor vehicles; 3. a transportation- (not just recreation-) oriented trail network; 4. creation of bicycle- and transit-friendly infrastructure and incentive policies; 5. development of policy-based Safe Routes to School interventions. This proposed

  11. Activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs radionuclides in Turkish medicinal herbs, their ingestion doses and cancer risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmaksız, Aydın; Ağuş, Yusuf

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-two medicinal herb samples, each representing a distinct species, were collected from Turkish markets and measured by the gamma spectrometric method. The activity concentration of 226Ra in medicinal herbs was found in the range of minimum detectable activity (MDA) and 15.1 ± 2.2 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 232Th ranged from MDA values to 3.5 ± 0.8 Bqkg-1. The activity concentration of 40K varied between 50.0 ± 16.8 and 1311.5 ± 57.3 Bqkg-1. All 137Cs activity concentrations of medicinal herbs were found to have lower than MDA values. The bone surface dose, lower large intestine and colon doses were found to be 182.9, 18.8 and 18.7 µSvy-1, respectively. The highest committed effective dose originated from the annual ingestion of 1 kg medicinal herb was calculated notably low as 9.0 µSv. The cancer risk of ingestion of medicinal herbs was found to be small enough to be neglected. The selected Turkish medicinal herbs are considered safe for human consumption.

  12. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  13. [Electrical activity of the heart cells and myocardial contractility during a change in extracellular sodium concentration].

    PubMed

    Kobrin, V I; Alabovskiĭ, V V; Alipov, N N; Oleĭnikov, O D

    1988-09-01

    The transmembrane potentials of the cells of the ventricle contractile myocardium of the rat and frog isolated hearts were studied as well as the strength of the ventricle contraction under the effect of a decrease (to 30 mM) or increase (up to 200 mM) in the sodium chloride concentration in the perfusate. The decrease led to a fibrillation of ventricles, 80-85% of contractile cells generating a high-frequency activity, 12-15% preserving the same AP and 3-5% having completely lost the excitability. The increase only affects the transmembrane potentials of ischemized myocardium. The decrease in the sodium concentration led to an augmentation of the contraction strength through the sodium-calcium exchange mechanism.

  14. Occipital MEG Activity in the Early Time Range (<300 ms) Predicts Graded Changes in Perceptual Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lau M; Pedersen, Michael N; Sandberg, Kristian; Overgaard, Morten

    2016-06-01

    Two electrophysiological components have been extensively investigated as candidate neural correlates of perceptual consciousness: An early, occipitally realized component occurring 130-320 ms after stimulus onset and a late, frontally realized component occurring 320-510 ms after stimulus onset. Recent studies have suggested that the late component may not be uniquely related to perceptual consciousness, but also to sensory expectations, task associations, and selective attention. We conducted a magnetoencephalographic study; using multivariate analysis, we compared classification accuracies when decoding perceptual consciousness from the 2 components using sources from occipital and frontal lobes. We found that occipital sources during the early time range were significantly more accurate in decoding perceptual consciousness than frontal sources during both the early and late time ranges. These results are the first of its kind where the predictive values of the 2 components are quantitatively compared, and they provide further evidence for the primary importance of occipital sources in realizing perceptual consciousness. The results have important consequences for current theories of perceptual consciousness, especially theories emphasizing the role of frontal sources.

  15. Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the activities of proteases and amylases in soy sauce koji.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Wei; Wang, Mei-Ling; Kwok, Kam-Fu; Lee, Min-Hsiung

    2005-03-09

    This study investigated the effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of soy sauce koji. The optimal temperatures for both protease and amylase were found in the range of 50-55 degrees C. The protease was not stable at 55 degrees C and retained only approximately 20% residual activity after incubation at 55 degrees C for 4 h. The protease was labile in sodium chloride solution, whereas the amylase was quite stable. The residual protease activity in an 18% NaCl solution was only approximately 3%. The harvested koji was mixed with 1.5 volumes of water (v/w) and incubated at 45 degrees C for 48 h; the total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were 1.3 and 0.56%, respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis of koji at the critical temperature of 45 degrees C could be employed as a rapid fermentation method to reduce the time for soy sauce manufacturing. According to this study, the combination of 5% sodium chloride and fermentation at 45 degrees C was considered as the best condition for the prohydrolysis of koji for making soy sauce. In addition, the critical temperature of 45 degrees C was very important when used in the preparation of protein hydrolysates for the flavoring industry and for the preparation of biologically active peptides.

  16. Whole blood lead concentration and erythrocyte delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in selected canine populations in Greece.

    PubMed

    Polizopoulou, Z S; Kontos, V S; Koutinas, A F; Papasteriades, A

    1994-12-01

    In a total number of 275 dogs of various ages, sex and breed, blood lead concentrations (BLC) and erythrocyte ALAD activity were measured. Sixty-six of the dogs were living in lead mining areas (Group A), 157 in urban areas (Group B) and 52 in rural areas (Group C) of Greece. Mean BLC differed significantly (P < 0.05) between locations and were 326,97 and 68 micrograms/L, respectively. Mean ALAD activity was significantly different (P < 0.05) only between Groups A and B as between groups A and C. A significant (P < 0.05) negative correlation existed between BLC and ALAD activity. A normal range of erythrocyte ALAD activity of 807-992 mumol/PBG/LRBC/h was established for dogs. None of the 33 Group A dogs and 2 of the Group B dogs that had a BLC of 350 micrograms/L presented clinical signs indicating acute or chronic lead intoxication. No erythrocyte basophilic stippling or large number of nucleated red blood cells were seen in the 30 dogs of Group A with BLC > 350 micrograms/L.

  17. Adsorption/desorption of low concentration of carbonyl sulfide by impregnated activated carbon under micro-oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqian; Qiu, Juan; Ning, Ping; Ren, Xiaoguang; Li, Ziyan; Yin, Zaifei; Chen, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2012-08-30

    Activated carbon modified with different impregnants has been studied for COS removal efficiency under micro-oxygen conditions. Activated carbon modified with Cu(NO(3))(2)-CoPcS-KOH (denoted as Cu-Co-KW) is found to have markedly enhanced adsorption purification ability. In the adsorption purification process, the reaction temperature, oxygen concentration, and relative humidity of the gas are determined to be three crucial factors. A breakthrough of 43.34 mg COS/g adsorbent at 60°С and 30% relative humidity with 1.0% oxygen is shown in Cu-Co-KW for removing COS. The structures of the activated carbon samples are characterized using nitrogen adsorption, and their surface chemical structures are analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Modification of Cu(NO(3))(2)-CoPcS-KOH appears to improve the COS removal capacity significantly, during which, SO(4)(2-) is presumably formed, strongly adsorbed, and present in the micropores ranging from 0.7 to 1.5 nm. TPD is used to identify the products containing sulfur species on the carbon surface, where SO(2) and COS are detected in the effluent gas generated from exhausted Cu-Co-KW (denoted Cu-Co-KWE). According to the current study results, the activated carbon impregnated with Cu(NO(3))(2)-CoPcS-KOH promises a good candidate for COS adsorbent, with the purified gas meeting requirements for desirable chemical feed stocks.

  18. Serum Malondialdehyde Concentration and Glutathione Peroxidase Activity in a Longitudinal Study of Gestational Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, María; Muriach, María; Romero, Francisco J.; Villar, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of oxidative damage and to quantify its level in gestational diabetes. Methods Thirty-six healthy women and thirty-six women with gestational diabetes were studied in the three trimesters of pregnancy regarding their levels of oxidative stress markers. These women were diagnosed with diabetes in the second trimester of pregnancy. Blood glucose levels after 100g glucose tolerance test were higher than 190, 165 or 145 mg/dl, 1, 2 or 3 hours after glucose intake. Results The group of women with gestational diabetes had higher serum malondialdehyde levels, with significant differences between groups in the first and second trimester. The mean values of serum glutathione peroxidase activity in the diabetic women were significantly lower in the first trimester. In the group of women with gestational diabetes there was a negative linear correlation between serum malondialdehyde concentration and glutathione peroxidase activity in the second and third trimester. Conclusions In this observational and longitudinal study in pregnant women, the alterations attributable to oxidative stress were present before the biochemical detection of the HbA1c increase. Usual recommendations once GD is detected (adequate metabolic control, as well as any other normally proposed to these patients) lowered the concentration of malondialdehyde at the end of pregnancy to the same levels of the healthy controls. Serum glutathione peroxidase activity in women with gestational diabetes increased during the gestational period. PMID:27228087

  19. Mutagenicity studies in a tyre plant: in vitro activity of workers' urinary concentrates and raw materials.

    PubMed Central

    Crebelli, R; Paoletti, A; Falcone, E; Aquilina, G; Fabri, G; Carere, A

    1985-01-01

    The possible contribution to urinary mutagenicity of occupational exposures in the rubber industry was studied by assaying the urine concentrates of 72 workmen (44 smokers) employed in a tyre plant. Twenty three clerks (16 smokers) engaged in the administrative department of the same factory served as presumptive unexposed controls. XAD-2 resin concentrates of urine samples were assayed in the plate incorporation test and in the microtitre fluctuation assay with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535, TA98, and TA100. Furthermore, the in vitro mutagenicity of the major raw materials in use at the plant was determined in the plate incorporation assay with S typhimurium strains TA1535, TA1537, TA98, and TA100. The results obtained from the urinary mutagenicity study show that smoking habits, but not occupation, were statistically significantly related to the appearance of a urinary mutagenicity that was detectable with strain TA98. A possible synergistic effect of occupation with smoking was observed among tyre builders who were also smokers. The study of the raw materials showed that three technical grade materials were weakly active as mutagens in strain TA98 in the absence (poly-p-dinitrosobenzene) or in the presence of metabolic activation (mixed diaryl-p-phenylendiamines and tetramethyltiuram disulphide). The latter chemical was also weakly active in strain TA100. PMID:4015996

  20. Arsenic Adsorption Equilibrium Concentration and Adsorption Rate of Activated Carbon Coated with Ferric-Aluminum Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Oguma, T.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-12-01

    In some areas of developing countries, ground or well water contaminated with arsenic has been reluctantly used as drinking water. It is highly desirable that effective and inexpensive arsenic removal agents should be developed and provided to reduce the potential health risk. Previous studies demonstrated that activated carbon coated with ferric-aluminum hydroxides (Fe-Al-C) has high adsorptive potential for removal of arsenic. In this study, a series of experiments using Fe-Al-C were carried to discuss adsorption equilibrium time, adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorption rate of arsenic for Fe-Al-C. Fe-Al-C used in this study was provided by Astec Co., Ltd. Powder reagent of disodium hydrogen arsenate heptahydrate was dissolved into ion-exchanged water. The solution was then further diluted with ion-exchanged water to be 1 and 10 mg/L as arsenic concentration. The pH of the solution was adjusted to be around 7 by adding HCl and/or NaOH. The solution was used as artificial arsenic contaminated water in two types of experiments (arsenic adsorption equilibrium and arsenic adsorption rate tests). The results of the arsenic equilibrium tests were showed that a time period of about 3 days to reach apparent adsorption equilibrium for arsenic. The apparent adsorption equilibrium concentration and adsorbed amount of arsenic on Fe-Al-C adsorbent could be estimated by application of various adsorption isotherms, but the distribution coefficient of arsenic between solid and liquid varies with experimental conditions such as initial concentration of arsenic and addition concentration of adsorbent. An adsorption rate equation that takes into account the reduction in the number of effective adsorption sites on the adsorbent caused by the arsenic adsorption reaction was derived based on the data obtained from the arsenic adsorption rate tests.

  1. Active basement uplift of Sierra Pie de Palo (Northwestern Argentina): Rates and inception from10Be cosmogenic nuclide concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siame, Lionel L.; Sébrier, Michel; Bellier, Olivier; Bourlès, Didier; Costa, Carlos; Ahumada, Emilio A.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Cisneros, Hector

    2015-06-01

    Quaternary tectonic and denudation rates are investigated for an actively growing basement anticline: the Sierra Pie de Palo range, which belongs to the Andean foreland of Northwestern Argentina (28°S-33°S). In this study, a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography is combined with in situ-produced cosmogenic10Be concentrations measured in (1) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial terraces affected by fault activity (along the north bounding fault) and growth of the basement fold (along the southeastern border), (2) bedrock outcrops corresponding to an exhumed and folded, regional erosion surface, and (3) fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of several watersheds. Along the eastern and northern borders of the range, incision and uplift rates have been estimated at approximately 0.5 and 1 mm/yr when integrated on Holocene and Pleistocene time scales, in close agreement with both long-term (structural and basin evolution data) and short-term (GPS-derived velocity field) analyses. Cosmogenic-derived denudation and uplift rates combined with geomorphic characteristics of watersheds and river channels allows estimating the onset of the uplift at 4-6 Ma, followed by a more recent period of topographic rejuvenation at roughly 1-2 Ma, probably synchronous with steepening of the eastern and northern flanks of the anticline.

  2. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Bauer, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Bauer, L R

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates.

  4. Intestinal morphology and enzymatic activity in newly weaned pigs fed contrasting fiber concentrations and fiber properties.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, M S; Eskildsen, M; Laerke, H N; Pedersen, C; Lindberg, J E; Laurinen, P; Knudsen, K E Bach

    2006-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of fiber source and concentration on morphological characteristics, mucin staining pattern, and mucosal enzyme activities in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs. The experiment included 50 pigs from 10 litters weaned at 4 wk of age (BW 8.6 +/- 1.4 kg) and divided into 5 treatment groups. Diets containing fiber of various physico-chemical properties and concentrations were formulated to contain 73, 104, or 145 g of dietary fiber/kg of DM. The diets were based on raw wheat and barley flours. Pectin and barley hulls, representing soluble and insoluble fiber sources, respectively, were used to increase the fiber concentration. The pigs were fed the experimental diets for 9 d, and then the pigs were euthanized and the entire gastrointestinal tract was removed. Tissue samples were taken from the mid and distal small intestine and from the mid colon. Inclusion of pectin in the diets significantly decreased (P < 0.001) ADFI and ADG compared with pigs fed no pectin. The villi and the crypts were shorter in pigs fed pectin-containing diets, but the villous height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. Pectin significantly decreased the area of mucins in the crypts of the small intestine, indicating that the pigs fed the pectin-containing diet would probably be more susceptible to pathogenic bacteria, although this cannot be separated from the impact on ADFI. The lectin-binding pattern of the intestinal mucosa was unaffected by diet. The activity of lactase and maltase was increased in pigs fed diets with high fiber content, whereas sucrase activity was increased in pigs fed the pectin-containing diets. The activity of the peptidases, aminopeptidase N and dipeptidylpeptidase IV, was increased when feeding high fiber diets, whereas the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase remained unaffected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, the reduced feed intake observed with the pectin-containing diets could explain the

  5. Stratigraphic development and hydrothermal activity in the central western Cascade Range, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, M.L.; Bull, M.K. ); Pollock, J.M. ); Thompson, G.D. )

    1990-11-10

    Two volcanic sequences bounded by erosional unconformities compose the stratigraphy of the North Santiam mining district, Western Cascade Range, Oregon. Diorite, grandodiorite, and leucocratic quartz porphyry dikes, stocks, and sills intrude the breccias, flows, and tuffs of a volcanic center in the older Sardine Formation. Tourmaline-bearing breccia pipes are associated with the porphyritic granodiorite intrusions. An erosional unconformity separates the Sardine Formation from the overlying Elk Lake formation. The alteration patterns in the two formations are consistent with the development of hydrothermal systems during the eruption of each formation. However, the development of the two hydrothermal systems is separated by a period of erosion of the older volcanic pile. Early formation of mineralization that resembles porphyry copper deposits occurred within the Sardine Formation, and later, after eruption of the Elk Lake formation, epithermal veins and alteration developed along faults, fractures, and the margins of dikes in the Sardine Formation.

  6. Application of an artificial neural network for evaluation of activity concentration exemption limits in NORM industry.

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Hannah; Peyrés, Virginia; Crespo, Teresa; Mejuto, Marcos; García-Toraño, Eduardo; Maringer, Franz Josef

    2016-12-27

    NORM emits many different gamma energies that have to be analysed by an expert. Alternatively, artificial neural networks (ANNs) can be used. These mathematical software tools can generalize "knowledge" gained from training datasets, applying it to new problems. No expert knowledge of gamma-ray spectrometry is needed by the end-user. In this work an ANN was created that is able to decide from the raw gamma-ray spectrum if the activity concentrations in a sample are above or below the exemption limits.

  7. Effect of iron concentration on the expression and activity of catalase-peroxidases in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Veena C; Sundaram, C A S Sivagami; Sritharan, Manjula

    2005-02-01

    Mycobacterial catalases are known to exist in different isoforms. We studied the influence of iron concentration on the expression and activity of the different isoforms in Mycobacterium bovis BCG, M. smegmatis, M. fortuitum, M. kansasii and M. vaccae by growing them under iron-sufficient (4 microg Fe/mL) and iron-deficient (0.02 microg Fe/ml) conditions. Upon iron deprivation, significant differences were observed in the catalase/peroxidase activities in both quantitative spectrophotometric assays and in the activity staining in native gels. Notable feature was that the peroxidase activity showed a significant decrease upon iron deprivation in all the mycobacteria, except M. vaccae. Peroxidase activity in all the mycobacteria, irrespective of the iron status was susceptible to heat inactivation. However, the isoforms of catalase showed differences in their heat stability, indicating possible structural differences in these proteins. For example, M. bovis BCG expressed a heat labile catalase under iron-sufficient conditions, while a heat stable catalase band of similar mobility was expressed under iron-deprivation conditions. The study clearly indicates that iron plays an important role in the regulation of expression of the different isoforms of the catalase-peroxidases.

  8. Concentric zones of active RhoA and Cdc42 around single cell wounds

    PubMed Central

    Benink, Hélène A.; Bement, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Rho GTPases control many cytoskeleton-dependent processes, but how they regulate spatially distinct features of cytoskeletal function within a single cell is poorly understood. Here, we studied active RhoA and Cdc42 in wounded Xenopus oocytes, which assemble and close a dynamic ring of actin filaments (F-actin) and myosin-2 around wound sites. RhoA and Cdc42 are rapidly activated around wound sites in a calcium-dependent manner and segregate into distinct, concentric zones around the wound, with active Cdc42 in the approximate middle of the F-actin array and active RhoA on the interior of the array. These zones form before F-actin accumulation, and then move in concert with the closing array. Microtubules and F-actin are required for normal zone organization and dynamics, as is crosstalk between RhoA and Cdc42. Each of the zones makes distinct contributions to the organization and function of the actomyosin wound array. We propose that similar rho activity zones control related processes such as cytokinesis. PMID:15684032

  9. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Melissa J. S.; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B.; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E.; Adams, Andrew C.; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-01-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ. PMID:26092201

  10. Synthesis of 1-indanones with a broad range of biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Turek, Marika; Szczęsna, Dorota; Koprowski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive review describes methods for the preparation of 1-indanones published in original and patent literature from 1926 to 2017. More than 100 synthetic methods utilizing carboxylic acids, esters, diesters, acid chlorides, ketones, alkynes, alcohols etc. as starting materials, have been performed. This review also covers the most important studies on the biological activity of 1-indanones and their derivatives which are potent antiviral, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimalarial, antibacterial and anticancer compounds. Moreover, they can be used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and as effective insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. PMID:28382183

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Nanocomposites from Whey Protein Concentrate Activated with Lycopene.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rafaela Corrêa; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Assis, Odílio Benedito Garrido; Alvarenga, Gabriela Lara

    2016-03-01

    The production and characterization of nanocomposites based on whey protein concentrate (WPC) and montmorilonite (MMT) incorporated with lycopene as a functional substance is presented and discussed as an alternative biomaterial for potential uses in foodstuff applications. A full factorial design with varying levels of MMT (0% and 2% in w/w) and lycopene (0%, 6%, and 12% in w/w) was used. Color, light transmission, film transparency, moisture, density, solubility, water vapor permeability, and antioxidant activity of the resulting materials were evaluated. Results indicated that lycopene and MMT nanoparticles were successfully included in WPC films using the casting/evaporation method. Inclusion of 2% w/w of MMT in the polymeric matrix significantly improved barrier property against water vapor. Lycopene, besides its good red coloring ability, provided to the films antioxidant activity and UV-vis light protection. These findings open a new perspective for the use of materials for bioactive packaging applications.

  12. Barley chloroplast glutamine synthetase activity is not affected by CO sub 2 -concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Avila, C.; Forde, B.; Wallsgrove, R. )

    1990-05-01

    It has been reported that when photorespiration is suppressed by raising the concentration of CO{sub 2}, the expression of the chloroplast glutamine synthetase (GS2) gene in pea leaves is reduced (Plant Cell, 1, 241). We have examined this effect in barley (Hordeum vulgare), and confirm that plants grown continuously in 0.8% CO{sub 2}, or transferred to such conditions after growth in air, appear to have a reduced GS2 mRNA abundance. However, we were unable to detect any significant difference in the extractable GS2 activity, or any change in amount of GS2 protein (judged by Western blots). Whatever controls are operating on gS2 mRNA expression in response to changes is external CO{sub 2}, they do not affect the activity or amount of the enzyme in barley.

  13. Robust Long-Range Coordination of Spontaneous Neural Activity in Waking, Sleep and Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Yanagawa, Toru; Leopold, David A; Fujii, Naotaka; Duyn, Jeff H

    2015-09-01

    Although the emerging field of functional connectomics relies increasingly on the analysis of spontaneous fMRI signal covariation to infer the spatial fingerprint of the brain's large-scale functional networks, the nature of the underlying neuro-electrical activity remains incompletely understood. In part, this lack in understanding owes to the invasiveness of electrophysiological acquisition, the difficulty in their simultaneous recording over large cortical areas, and the absence of fully established methods for unbiased extraction of network information from these data. Here, we demonstrate a novel, data-driven approach to analyze spontaneous signal variations in electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from nearly entire hemispheres of macaque monkeys. Based on both broadband analysis and analysis of specific frequency bands, the ECoG signals were found to co-vary in patterns that resembled the fMRI networks reported in previous studies. The extracted patterns were robust against changes in consciousness associated with sleep and anesthesia, despite profound changes in intrinsic characteristics of the raw signals, including their spectral signatures. These results suggest that the spatial organization of large-scale brain networks results from neural activity with a broadband spectral feature and is a core aspect of the brain's physiology that does not depend on the state of consciousness.

  14. The relationship between the active cervical range of motion and changes in head and neck posture after continuous VDT work.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; An, Duk-Hyun

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the active cervical range of motion (ROM) and changes in the head and neck posture after continuous visual display terminal (VDT) work. Twenty VDT workers were recruited from laboratories. The active cervical ROM of the participants was measured and videotaped to capture the craniocervical and cervicothoracic angles using a single video camera before and after VDT work. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between active cervical ROM measurements and the changes in the craniocervical and cervicothoracic angles after continuous VDT work. Active neck extension (r=-0.84, p<0.01) was negatively correlated with the mean craniocervical angle, and active neck flexion (r=-0.82, p<0.01) and left lateral flexion (r=-0.67, p<0.01) were negatively correlated with the mean cervicothoracic angle.

  15. A novel method for measuring aromatase activity in tissue samples by determining estradiol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Tinwell, H; Rascle, J B; Colombel, S; Al Khansa, I; Freyberger, A; Bars, R

    2011-07-01

    Increasing scrutiny of endocrine disrupters has led to changes to European pesticide and biocide legislation and to the introduction of the Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program by the US EPA. One element of endocrine disrupter identification is to determine its effects on aromatase, but most available assays are limited as they depend on tritiated water production to indicate enzyme activity. Whilst acceptable for determining aromatase effects using a cell-free approach, this method is unreliable for cell or tissue-based investigations as other cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme activities can similarly produce tritiated water and consequently confound interpretation of the aromatase data. To address this lack of specificity an assay directly measuring the final estrogen product by incubating rat tissue protein with testosterone and measuring the resultant estradiol concentration was developed. Using this approach we demonstrated marked increases in enzyme activity in pregnant rat ovary samples and dose-related inhibitions when incubating non-pregnant rat ovary samples with known aromatase inhibitors. Hepatic aromatase activity was investigated using our method and by tritiated water production with microsomes from rats dosed with the antiandrogen 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4 chlorophenyl)ethane. Additional cytochrome P-450s were also measured. Treatment-related increased tritiated water production and general hepatic enzyme activity were recorded but estradiol was not increased, indicating that the increased tritiated water was due to general enzyme activity and not aromatase activity. A simple and specific method has been developed that can detect aromatase inhibition and induction, which when applied to tissue samples, provides a means of generating relevant animal data concerning chemical effects on the aromatase enzyme.

  16. Activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Fasae, K P

    2012-01-01

    The activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th have been measured in different brands of fertiliser samples sold to farmers in retail markets in six commercial cities in southwestern Nigeria. Gamma ray spectroscopy was employed in the measurements of these radionuclides. The results of measurements showed that the average activity concentration of ⁴⁰K in the nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilisers across the cities varied from 3972.0 ± 416.9 to 5089.3 ± 111.3 Bq kg⁻¹, 9.9 ± 7.3 to 450.6 ± 14.3 Bq kg⁻¹ for ²²⁶Ra, while for ²³²Th it varied from less than lower limit of detection to 15.1 ± 2.8 Bq kg⁻¹. The activity concentrations of ⁴⁰K, ²²⁶Ra and ²³²Th in single super phosphate (SSP) fertilisers and phosphate rocks were also determined. However, high activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra were obtained in the SSP fertiliser and phosphate rocks and in particular, two brands of fertilisers from ITL/TAK and F & C companies. The values of the activity concentration of the radionuclides in the brands of fertilisers used in Nigeria are within the range of values reported in several other countries except ⁴⁰K.

  17. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and {sup 210}Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  18. Optimisation of concentrating solar cell systems with passive and active cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenberg, J.

    1983-10-01

    Design considerations for concentrator solar cell arrays for space applications are reviewed, noting the restrictions on total mass that govern system selections. Consideration is given to systems with parabolic mirrors and Si and GaAs solar cells. Passive and active cooling systems for the arrays are discussed, as is the addition of a heat engine with a turbogenerator to utilize part of the waste heat of the cooling cycle. Attention is given to systems orbiting at 0.5, 1, and 3.5 AU from the sun. Flat panels are found to be more suitable for missions near the sun for Si solar cells, while GaAs cells with concentration are preferred to flat panel systems at all distances from the sun. Nuclear turboelectric systems are better than concentrator Si arrays at large distances from the sun, in terms of specific masses of the systems. The addition of a system to use waste heat is judged unfavorable from specific mass factors.

  19. Methanogenic activity inhibition by increasing the linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) concentration.

    PubMed

    Souza, Luiza F C; Florencio, Lourdinha; Gavazza, Savia; Kato, Mario T

    2016-07-02

    The effect of the initial concentration of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) on specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was investigated in this work. Six anaerobic flasks reactors with 1 L of total volume were inoculated with anaerobic sludge (2 g VSS L(-1)). The reactors were assayed for 42 days, and fed with volatile fatty acids, nutrients, and LAS. The initial LAS concentrations were 0, 10, 30, 50, 75, and 100 mg L(-1) for the treatment flasks T1 (control), T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively. When compared with T1, T2 exhibited a 30% reduction in maximum SMA and total methane production (TMP). In treatment T3 through T6, the reductions were 44-97% (T3-T6) for SMA, and 30-90% (T3-T6) for TMP. Total LAS removal increased following the increase in the initial LAS concentration (from 36% at T1 to 76% at T6), primarily due to the high degree of sludge adsorption. LAS biodegradation also occurred (32% in all treatments), although this was most likely associated with the formation of non-methane intermediates. Greater removal by adsorption was observed in long-chain homologues, when compared to short-chain homologues (C13 > C10), whereas the opposite occurred for biodegradation (C10 > C13). The C13 homologue was adsorbed to a great extent (in mass) in T4, T5 and T6, and may also have inhibited methane formation in these treatments.

  20. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  1. Electrical activation of Na/K pumps can increase ionic concentration gradient and membrane resting potential.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Dando, Robin

    2006-01-01

    It has been previously demonstrated by our group that our specifically designed synchronization modulation electric field can dynamically entrain the Na/K ATPase molecules, effectively accelerating the pumping action of these molecules. The ATPase molecules are first synchronized by the field, and subsequently their pumping rates are gradually modulated in a stepwise pattern to progressively higher and higher levels. Here, we present results obtained on application of the field to intact twitch skeletal muscle fibers. The ionic concentration gradient across the cell membrane was monitored, with the membrane potential extrapolated using a slow fluorescent probe with a confocal microimaging technique. The applied synchronization-modulation electric field is able to slowly but consistently increase the ionic concentration gradient across the membrane and, hence, hyperpolarize the membrane potential. All of these results were fully eliminated if ouabain was applied to the bathing solution, indicating a correlation with the action of the Na/K pump molecules. These results in combination with our previous results into the entrainment of the pump molecules show that the synchronization-modulation electric field-induced activation of the Na/K pump functions can effectively increase the ionic concentration gradient and the membrane potential.

  2. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    PubMed

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p < 0.01); and in the up-right position were r = 0.7765, r(2) = 0.9153 (p < 0.01). The cut-off values of ARR and ADRR ≥ 100 presented highest specificity (99%) for the diagnosis of PA; however, quite acceptable specificity and sensitivity (> 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  3. Black Carbon, Metal Concentrations and Lead Isotopes Ratios in Aerosols as Tracers of Human and Natural Activities in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric brown clouds (ABC) observed as widespread layers of brownish haze are regional scale plumes of air pollutants with a hot spot of emission located in East Asia. ABC are mainly composed of aerosol particles such as Black Carbon (BC) emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning and fossil fuels combustion. The atmospheric lifetime of BC ranges from a few days in wet season up to one month in dry season. The use of stable lead isotopes and 21 elements as tracers of air pollution was applied to identify and characterized the main sources of anthropogenic activities in Asian region. Aerosol samples from Haiphong (North Vietnam) were collected by a high volume sampler for a period of one year from October 2012 to October 2013. Vietnam's 207Pb/206Pb ratios were almost identical to those found for China. Ratios of 207Pb/206Pb ranged from 0.837 to 0.871 which agrees with values previously reported for the last 10 years in China (0.841 - 0.879). No significant variation in isotope ratio was observed during the sampling period, which suggests that there was no large seasonal variation in the isotope ratios of airborne lead. Trajectory analysis showed that almost two third of the air masses originated from East Northeast which implies that China was a major source of lead in atmosphere. Enrichment factor calculations indicated a large influence of coal activity (EF(Al) As = 1982 ± 796, EF(Al) Cd = 972 ± 659, EF(Al) Sb = 1358 ± 930) but the difference between combustion and mining exploitation could not be evidenced. Significant correlations were found between two others groups of elements: As, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Al, Fe K, Co. Wind dilution was effective on metals concentration variation. During the cold and dry season (winter) ambient concentrations were high and variable, during the warm and wet season (summer) concentrations were stable and low. Taken together, these factors also identified industrial and lithogenic activities in the region.

  4. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Meyer, Jordana M; Putman, Sarah B; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission-fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  5. High Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in Air from Ship Breaking Activities in Chittagong, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nøst, Therese H; Halse, Anne K; Randall, Scott; Borgen, Anders R; Schlabach, Martin; Paul, Alak; Rahman, Atiqur; Breivik, Knut

    2015-10-06

    The beaches on the coast of Chittagong in Bangladesh are one of the most intense ship breaking areas in the world. The aim of the study was to measure the concentrations of organic contaminants in the air in the city of Chittagong, including the surrounding ship breaking areas using passive air samplers (N = 25). The compounds detected in the highest amounts were the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), whereas dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were several orders of magnitude lower in comparison. PCBs, PAHs, and HCB were highest at sites near the ship breaking activities, whereas DDTs and SCCPs were higher in the urban areas. Ship breaking activities likely act as atmospheric emission sources of PCBs, PAHs, and HCB, thus adding to the international emphasis on responsible recycling of ships. Concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, HCB, and SCCPs in ambient air in Chittagong are high in comparison to those found in similar studies performed in other parts of Asia. Estimated toxic equivalent quotients indicate elevated human health risks caused by inhalation of PAHs at most sites.

  6. Radiocaesium activity concentrations in macrofungi from Galicia (NW Spain): Influence of environmental and genetic factors.

    PubMed

    García, M A; Alonso, J; Melgar, M J

    2015-05-01

    Radiocaesium ((137)Cs) is an artificial radionuclide that can be captured from the soil through the mycelium of fungi. However, in Spain there are few data on its presence in edible mushrooms. (137)Cs activity concentrations were determined using 54 samples of wild and cultivated mushrooms and 18 samples of soil, all of them collected in Galicia (NW Spain) during 2010. Samples were analyzed by gamma spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector. The average activity concentration of (137)Cs in wild mushrooms was 249.2Bqkg(-1) dry weight (dw) and about 24.9Bqkg(-1) fresh weight (fw). Genetic factors (species) influenced the uptake of (137)Cs, highlighting Hydnum repandum as the greatest accumulator of all wild species (1016.4Bqkg(-1) dw), while cultivated species showed much lower levels (1.6Bqkg(-1) fw). Accumulation was also favored by fungal mycorrhizal ecology, whose mycelium was distributed in contaminated soil horizons. The mean levels detected in soils were 14Bqkg(-1) fw. Although some species behaved as bioexclusors of radiocaesium, the transfer factors (TF) suggest that mushrooms preferentially bioaccumulate (137)Cs. No sample reached the limit of 600Bqkg(-1) fw (about 6000Bqkg(-1) dw) indicated in the European legislation. In conclusion, the consumption of mushrooms harvested from the investigated areas poses no toxicological risk to human health due to radiocaesium.

  7. Effects of plasma nitric oxide levels on platelet activation in single donor apheresis and random donor concentrates.

    PubMed

    Büyükkağnici, Demet Iren; Ilhan, Osman; Kavas, Güzin Ozelçi; Arslan, Onder; Arat, Mutlu; Dalva, Klara; Ayyildiz, Erol

    2007-02-01

    P-selectin is an useful marker to determine platelet activation and nitric oxide inhibits platelet activation, secretion, adhesion and aggregation. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitric oxide and P-selectin values in both single donor apheresis and random donor platelet concentrates. According to the results of this study, we found that the best platelet concentrate is freshly prepared single donor apheresis concentrate and it is important to prevent activation at the beginning of the donation. Nitric oxide, which is synthesized from platelets during the storage period, is not sufficient to prevent platelet activation.

  8. Amoxicillin concentrations in relation to beta-lactamase activity in sputum during exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; VanderValk, Paul; van der Zanden, Rogier W; Nijdam, Lars; van der Palen, Job; Hendrix, Ron; Movig, Kris

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are often treated with antibiotics. Theoretically, to be maximally effective, the antibiotic concentration at sites of infection should exceed the minimum inhibitory concentration at which 90% of the growth of potential pathogens is inhibited (MIC90). A previous study showed that most hospitalized COPD patients had sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations had better clinical outcomes. Low amoxicillin concentrations can be caused by beta-lactamase activity in the lungs. This study investigated whether patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations activity in sputum than patients with a concentration ≥MIC90. Methods In total, 23 patients hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were included. Sputum and serum samples were collected at day 3 of treatment to determine beta-lactamase activity in sputum and amoxicillin concentrations in both sputum and serum. Results We found no difference in beta-lactamase activity between patients with sputum amoxicillin concentrations activity and sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations were activity did not differ between those with sputum amoxicillin concentrations concentrations

  9. Impact of major and minor mode on EEG frequency range activities of music processing as a function of expertise.

    PubMed

    Jenni, Raoul; Oechslin, Mathias S; James, Clara E

    2017-04-24

    Processing western tonal music may yield distinct brain responses depending on the mode of the musical compositions. Although subjective feelings in response to major and minor mode are well described, the underlying brain mechanisms and their development with increasing expertise have not been thoroughly examined. Using high-density electroencephalography, the present study investigated neuronal activities in the frequency domain in response to polyphone musical compositions in major and minor mode in non-musicians, amateurs and experts. During active listening decrease of theta- and gamma-frequency range activities occurred with increasing expertise in right posterior regions, possibly reflecting enhanced processing efficiency. Moreover, minor and major compositions distinctively modulated synchronization of neuronal activities in high frequency ranges (beta and gamma) in frontal regions, with increased activity in response to minor compositions in musicians and in experts in particular. These results suggest that high-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activities carry information about musical mode, showing gradual increase of processing efficiency and sensitivity with musical expertise.

  10. Multifunctional Concentric FRET-Quantum Dot Probes for Tracking and Imaging of Proteolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Massey, Melissa; Li, Jia Jun; Algar, W Russ

    2017-01-01

    Proteolysis has many important roles in physiological regulation. It is involved in numerous cell signaling processes and the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cancers. Methods of visualizing and assaying proteolytic activity are therefore in demand. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes offer several advantages in this respect. FRET supports end-point or real-time measurements, does not require washing or separation steps, and can be implemented in various assay or imaging formats. In this chapter, we describe methodology for preparing self-assembled concentric FRET (cFRET) probes for multiplexed tracking and imaging of proteolytic activity. The cFRET probe comprises a green-emitting semiconductor quantum dot (QD) conjugated with multiple copies of two different peptide substrates for two target proteases. The peptide substrates are labeled with different fluorescent dyes, Alexa Fluor 555 and Alexa Fluor 647, and FRET occurs between the QD and both dyes, as well as between the two dyes. This design enables a single QD probe to track the activity of two proteases simultaneously. Fundamental cFRET theory is presented, and procedures for using the cFRET probe for quantitative measurement of the activity of two model proteases are given, including calibration, fluorescence plate reader or microscope imaging assays, and data analysis. Sufficient detail is provided for other researchers to adapt this method to their specific requirements and proteolytic systems of interest.

  11. Range degradation and distal edge behavior of proton radiotherapy beams using 11C activation and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmekawy, Ahmed Farouk

    The distal edge of therapeutic proton radiation beams was investigated by different methods. Proton beams produced at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute (HUPTI) were used to irradiate a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom for three different ranges (13.5, 17.0 and 21.0 cm) to investigate the distal slope dependence of the Bragg peak. The activation of 11 C was studied by scanning the phantom less than 10 minutes post-irradiation with a Philips Big Bore Gemini(c) PET/CT. The DICOM images were imported into the Varian Eclipse(c) Treatment Planning System (TPS) for analysis and then analyzed by ImageJ(c) . The distal slope ranged from ?0.1671 +/- 0.0036 to -0.1986 +/- 0.0052 (pixel intensity/slice number) for ranges 13.5 to 21.0 cm respectively. A realistic description of the setup was modeled using the GATE 7.0 Monte Carlo simulation tool and compared to the experiment data. The results show the distal slope ranged from -0.1158+/-0.0133 to -0.0787+/-0.002 (Gy/mm). Additionally, low activity, 11C were simulated to study the 11C reconstructed half-life dependence versus the initial activity for six ranges chosen around the previous activation study. The results of the expected/nominal half-life vs. activity ranged from -5 x 10-4 +/- 2.8104 x 10-4 to 1.6 x 10-3 +/- 9.44 x 10-4 (%diff./Bq). The comparison between two experiments with proton beams on a PMMA phantom and multi-layer ion chamber, and two GATE simulations of a proton beam incident on a water phantom and 11C PET study show that: (i) the distal fall-off variation of the steepness of the slopes are found to be similar thus validating the sensitivity of the PET technique to the range degradation and (ii) the average of the super-ratios difference between all studies observed is primarily due to the difference in the dose deposited in the media.

  12. Activity concentration, transfer factors and resultant radiological risk of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil and some vegetables consumed in Selangor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solehah, A. R.; Yasir, M. S.; Samat, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    The activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were determined in vegetable crops consumed by Malaysian people in Sungai Besar, Selangor. Sample of vegetables and the soil where the crops were cultivated and collected at five different location. The activity concentrations in Bq/kg of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K were measured by the gamma-ray spectroscopy using the high purity germanium detector. The range activity concentration in soil is between 51.81 and 71.84 Bq/kg, 64.18 and 78.00 Bq/kg, and 210.49 and 244.29 Bq/kg for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K, respectively. The activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in vegetables were found to be in the range of 2.06 to 5.44 Bq/kg, Not Detectable to 0.61 Bq/kg, and 101.00 to 1223.09 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentration in both soil and vegetables were all less than lower limit stated by UNSCEAR. The Transfer Factors range value for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K varied from 0.02 to 0.06, 0.003 to 0.008, and 1.79 to 5.19 respectively. Radium equivalent for soil range from 165.57 to 194.84 Bq/kg. It was within the international accepted value (370 Bq/kg). Absorb dose rate for soil range between 73.5 to 86.40 nGyh-1, in safe range from limit of international accepted value (55nGyh-1). Effective dose rate is found to be in range of 0.09 to 0.11 mSvy-1 for soil which is less than 2.4 mSv/y. External and Internal Hazard indices of soil was all below 1, within agreement of other researcher and UNSCEAR. The estimation of the consequent radiological risk due to the presence of those radionuclides is significantly low.

  13. Measurement of activity and concentration of paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) in seminal plasma and identification of PON-2 in the sperm of boar ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Roca, Jordi; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Rubér, Marie; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Atikuzzaman, Mohammad; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto

    2015-01-01

    This study revealed and characterised the presence of the antioxidant enzymes paraoxonase (PON) type 1 (PON-1, extracellular) and type 2 (PON-2, intracellular) in boar semen. To evaluate PON-1, an entire ejaculate from each of ten boars was collected and the seminal plasma was harvested after double centrifugation (1,500g for 10 min). Seminal plasma was analysed for concentration as well as enzymatic activity of PON-1 and total cholesterol levels. Seminal-plasma PON-1 concentration ranged from 0.961 to 1.670 ng/ml while its enzymatic activity ranged from 0.056 to 0.400