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Sample records for activity conclusions results

  1. Conclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    This compilation of papers in this book represents approximately half of the works discussed at the MS&T 2010 symposium entitled Tools, Models, Databases, and Simulation Tools Developed and Needed to Realize the Vision of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering at Materials Science & Technology wherein five sessions comprised of 33 presentations was organized. The goal of the symposium was two fold To provide a forum in which current state-of-the-art methods for ICME (e.g., information informatics, experimentation, and modeling) could be openly discussed and critiqued by not only materials scientist but also structural engineers/researchers, component designers, industrial leaders and government program managers. To leave the symposium and in particular the panel discussion with a clear idea of the gaps and barriers (both technical, cultural and economical) that must be addressed in order for ICME to fully succeed. The organizers felt that these goals were met, as particularly evident by the standing room only attendance during a lively panel discussion session at the end of the Symposium. However it is the firm belief of the editors of this book that this symposium was merely a start in the right direction, and that subsequent conferences/symposium (e.g., First World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering to be held July 10-14, 2011 at Seven Springs Mountain Resort in Pennsylvania) must work hard to ensure that a truly diverse, multidisciplinary, community of researchers and practitioners are present and have ample opportunity for interaction. This will ensure that a proper balance between push and pull disciplines and technologies is maintained so that this emerging focus area, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), has the greatest potential for success and impact on "system-level" payoffs. Similarly, a pro-active approach is required to reform historical modes of operation in industry, government and the academic

  2. Conclusion: Major Findings and Future Activities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Hillel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) incorporates a number of major advances in the way that climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are being simulated. At its core is a protocol approach that results in impact assessments being more scientifically credible and thus ultimately having greater value to the wide range of agricultural stakeholders. Moreover, the use of the protocol approach enables closer scrutiny and intercomparison of models and methods so that they can be improved over time. By creating a truly trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach, AgMIP impact assessments and evaluation of adaptations become useful to agricultural decision-makers at multiple scales. The chapters in this two-part set demonstrate the use of this approach and represent early steps towards the full realization of these new methods and their application.

  3. Equipment qualification risk scoping analyses: Results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and insights have been employed during an investigation entitled the Equipment Qualification (EQ)-Risk Scoping Study to assess the risk significance of equipment qualification issues. This approach for evaluating EQ issues suggests that some issues are not risk significant while some have a significant potential to increase risk. For example, EQ issues associated with long term accident equipment operability are not risk significant. Alternatively, there are selected system operations that require equipment not qualified for important accident environments. Though the study demonstrated that PRA does provide insights that modify perceptions regarding the importance of various EQ issues, it should be noted that PRA methods currently cannot define the risk significance for some EQ issues. Additional discussion regarding the study's results and conclusions is provided. 6 refs.

  4. Results and conclusions of stress measurements at Stripa

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, T.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Leijon, B.; Ingevald, K.; Strindell, L.; Carlsson, H.

    1982-10-01

    This paper describes the results of stress measurements at Stripa, compares the results obtained by different techniques, and recommends a stress measurement program for a hard rock repository site. The state of stress at the Stripa Mine has been measured both in a 381-m-deep hole drilled from the surface and in holes drilled from the drifts underground. Hydraulic fracturing and several overcoring methods have been used (Lulea triaxial gauge, CSIRO gauge, USBM gauge, Swedish State Power Board deep-hole Leeman triaxial gauge). The results of overcoring and hydraulic fracturing agree well, particularly for the magnitude and orientation of the greatest stress. A recommended program for stress measurement at a repository site would include hydraulic fracturing and deep-hole overcoring in a deep hole drilled from surface, and overcoring (Lulea gauge and USBM gauge) and hydraulic fracturing from holes drilled from underground openings when access is available. Propagation of the hydraulic fractures should be monitored acoustically to determine their location and orientation.

  5. Acrylamide monitoring in Switzerland, 2007-2009: results and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grundbock, F; Fiselier, K; Biedermann, S; Burgi, C; Grob, K

    2010-10-01

    Parallel to the European Union acrylamide monitoring for the years 2007-2009, Switzerland performed its own monitoring, covering the whole range of products that significantly contain acrylamide (almost 300 samples per year), but focusing on those products that may result in high exposure. As reducing sugars are critical for potato products, these were included. No significant change, particularly improvement, was noticed, especially regarding those products for which substantial potential for improvement is known. 'Western-style' French fries continued to contain some four times more reducing sugars than 'traditional' fries, with correspondingly higher acrylamide in the finished product. The supply of raw potatoes low in reducing sugars by retail shops needs improvement, but there seemed to be insufficient willingness on a voluntary basis. A foreign producer was successful in penetrating the Swiss market with special potato chips containing up to 7000 microg kg(-1) acrylamide and only harsh measures could stop this. Three of about 61 products in the group of bakery ware showed a marked improvement. But there was also a store brand cracker that competed with a leading brand which contained 15 times more acrylamide (845 microg kg(-1)). Cereals contained 1080 microg kg(-1) acrylamide and even a warning did not prompt the producer to sell substantially better products one year later. It seems that only measures by the authorities will achieve improvements. The following seem promising: a limit for reducing sugars in prefabricates for French fries; the improved supply of raw potatoes low in sugars for roasting and frying; a legal limit for acrylamide content in potato chips; a general provision that products must not contain substantially more acrylamide than achievable by good manufacturing practice; and fryers with a temperature profile from an initial high to a lower final value.

  6. Acrylamide monitoring in Switzerland, 2007-2009: results and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grundbock, F; Fiselier, K; Biedermann, S; Burgi, C; Grob, K

    2010-10-01

    Parallel to the European Union acrylamide monitoring for the years 2007-2009, Switzerland performed its own monitoring, covering the whole range of products that significantly contain acrylamide (almost 300 samples per year), but focusing on those products that may result in high exposure. As reducing sugars are critical for potato products, these were included. No significant change, particularly improvement, was noticed, especially regarding those products for which substantial potential for improvement is known. 'Western-style' French fries continued to contain some four times more reducing sugars than 'traditional' fries, with correspondingly higher acrylamide in the finished product. The supply of raw potatoes low in reducing sugars by retail shops needs improvement, but there seemed to be insufficient willingness on a voluntary basis. A foreign producer was successful in penetrating the Swiss market with special potato chips containing up to 7000 microg kg(-1) acrylamide and only harsh measures could stop this. Three of about 61 products in the group of bakery ware showed a marked improvement. But there was also a store brand cracker that competed with a leading brand which contained 15 times more acrylamide (845 microg kg(-1)). Cereals contained 1080 microg kg(-1) acrylamide and even a warning did not prompt the producer to sell substantially better products one year later. It seems that only measures by the authorities will achieve improvements. The following seem promising: a limit for reducing sugars in prefabricates for French fries; the improved supply of raw potatoes low in sugars for roasting and frying; a legal limit for acrylamide content in potato chips; a general provision that products must not contain substantially more acrylamide than achievable by good manufacturing practice; and fryers with a temperature profile from an initial high to a lower final value. PMID:20730646

  7. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  8. Results and conclusions: perception sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; LaCelle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Close, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has presented work on sensor requirements, specifications, and testing, to evaluate the feasibility of increasing autonomous vehicle system speeds. Discussions included the theoretical background for determining sensor requirements, and the basic test setup and evaluation criteria for comparing existing and prototype sensor designs. This paper will present and discuss the continuation of this work. In particular, this paper will focus on analyzing the problem via a real-world comparison of various sensor technology testing results, as opposed to previous work that utilized more of a theoretical approach. LADAR/LIDAR, radar, visual, and infrared sensors are considered in this research. Results are evaluated against the theoretical, desired perception specifications. Conclusions for utilizing a suite of perception sensors, to achieve the goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds, is also discussed.

  9. Experimental laser anastomosis of the large bowel: conclusive results and future prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Masaki; Kuramoto, Shu; Ryan, Peter

    2003-06-01

    Completely sutureless end-to-end large bowel anastomoses were successfully performed in New Zealand white rabbits by using 1064 nm, 0.4-W power pulsating Nd:YAG laser to produce welding. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the results of our whole experimental data and summarize our experimental work on laser colon anastomosis. Methods: This experimental study investigated integrity of anastomosis, degree of narrowing, macroscopic appearance, microscopic findings, animal body weight change, and collagen concentration of laser colon anastomoses, compared with those of conventional sutured anastomoses up to ninety postoperative days. Results: Bursting pressures of laser anastomoses were at first low and came to be equivalent at seven days, but the laser group exhibited a consistent narrowing tendency. However, laser anastomoses demonstrated fewer and milder adhesions, and animals showed a better recovery of body weight. Histologically, laser anastomoses showed better layer-to-layer reconstitution without foreign body response and with less fibrosis. Difference in collagen concentration did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The technique of laser anastomosis presents a promising alternative to suturing in reconstitution of the large bowel.

  10. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  11. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  12. Los Alamos PWR decay-heat-removal studies. Summary results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyack, B E; Henninger, R J; Horley, E; Lime, J F; Nassersharif, B; Smith, R

    1986-03-01

    The adequacy of shutdown-decay-heat removal in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is currently under investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. One part of this effort is the review of feed-and-bleed procedures that could be used if the normal cooling mode through the steam generators were unavailable. Feed-and-bleed cooling is effected by manually activating the high-pressure injection (HPI) system and opening the power-operated relief valves (PORVs) to release the core decay energy. The feasibility of the feed-and-bleed concept as a diverse mode of heat removal has been evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The TRAC-PF1 code has been used to predict the expected performance of the Oconee-1 and Calvert Cliffs-1 reactors of Bobcock and Wilcox and Combustion Engineering, respectively, and the Zion-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 plants of Westinghouse. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in each of the four plants studied, provided it was initiated no later than the time of loss of secondary heat sink. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in two of the plants, Oconee-1 and Zion-1, provided it was initiated no later than the time of primary system saturation. Feed and bleed in Calvert Cliffs-1 when initiated at the time of primary system saturation did result in core dryout; however, the core heatup was eventually terminated by coolant injection. Feed-and-bleed initiation at primary system saturation was not studied for H.B. Robinson-2. Insights developed during the analyses of specific plant transients have been identified and documented. 33 refs., 107 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. The successful conclusion of the Deep Space 1 Mission: important results without a flashy title

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    In September 2001, Deep Space 1 (DS1) completed a high-risk and flawless encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly. Its data provide a detailed view of this comet and offere surprising and exciting insights. With this successful conclusion of its extended mission, DS1 undertook a hyperextended mission. Following this period of extremely agressive testing, with no further technology or science objectives, the mission was terminated on December 18, 2001, with the powering off of the spacecraft's trnasmitter, although the receiver was left on. By the end of its mission, DS1 had returned a wealth of important science data and engineering data for future missions.

  14. Ocean services user needs assessment. Volume 1: Survey results, conclusions and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Patton, R. J.; Mccandless, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    An interpretation of environmental information needs of marine users, derived from a direct contact survey of eight important sectors of the marine user community is presented. Findings of the survey and results and recommendations are reported. The findings consist of specific and quantized measurement and derived product needs for each sector and comparisons of these needs with current and planned NOAA data and services. The following supportive and reference material are examined: direct contact interviews with industry members, analyses of current NOAA data gathering and derived product capabilities, evaluations of new and emerging domestic and foreign satellite data gathering capabilities, and a special commercial fishing survey conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  15. Research results for the Tornado Wind-Energy system: analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) concept utilizes a wind driven vortex confined by a hollow tower to create a low pressure core intended to serve as a turbine exhaust reservoir. The turbine inlet flow is provided by a separate ram air supply. Numerous experimental and analytical research efforts have investigated the potential of the TWES as a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The present paper summarizes and analyzes much of theresearch to date on the TWES. A simplified cost analysis incorporating these research results is also included. Based on these analyses, the TWES does not show significant promise of improving on either the performance or the cost of energy attainable by conventional WECS. The prospects for achieving either a system power coefficient above 0.20 or a cost of energy less than $0.50/kWh (1979 dollars) appear to be poor.

  16. Research results for the Tornado wind energy system: analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    The Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) concept utilizes a wind-driven vortex confined by a hollow tower to create a low-pressure core intended to serve as a turbine exhaust reservoir. The turbine inlet flow is provided by a separate ram air supply. Numerous experimental and analytical research efforts have investigated the potential of the TWES as a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The present paper summarizes and analyzes much of the research to date on the TWES. A simplified cost analysis incorporating these research results is also included. Based on these analyses, the TWES does not show any significant promise of improving on either the performance or the cost of energy attainable by conventional WECS. The prospects for achieving either a system power coefficient above 0.20 or a cost of energy less than $0.50/kWh (1979 dollars) appear to be poor.

  17. Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, S. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Balbaky, A.; Bastasz, R.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Boyle, D.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Buttery, R.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Davis, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fonck, R.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gray, T.; Guo, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E. B.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Indireshkumar, K.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kolemen, E.; Kramer, G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R. J.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Lore, J.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McLean, A.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Meier, E.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Park, Y. S.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Rewoldt, G.; Rognlien, T.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Shaing, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C. H.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Untergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, W.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K. L.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zimmer, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment, NSTX, targets physics understanding needed for extrapolation to a steady-state ST Fusion Nuclear Science Facility, pilot plant, or DEMO. The unique ST operational space is leveraged to test physics theories for next-step tokamak operation, including ITER. Present research also examines implications for the coming device upgrade, NSTX-U. An energy confinement time, τE, scaling unified for varied wall conditions exhibits a strong improvement of BTτE with decreased electron collisionality, accentuated by lithium (Li) wall conditioning. This result is consistent with nonlinear microtearing simulations that match the experimental electron diffusivity quantitatively and predict reduced electron heat transport at lower collisionality. Beam-emission spectroscopy measurements in the steep gradient region of the pedestal indicate the poloidal correlation length of turbulence of about ten ion gyroradii increases at higher electron density gradient and lower Ti gradient, consistent with turbulence caused by trapped electron instabilities. Density fluctuations in the pedestal top region indicate ion-scale microturbulence compatible with ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning mode instabilities. Plasma characteristics change nearly continuously with increasing Li evaporation and edge localized modes (ELMs) stabilize due to edge density gradient alteration. Global mode stability studies show stabilizing resonant kinetic effects are enhanced at lower collisionality, but in stark contrast have almost no dependence on collisionality when the plasma is off-resonance. Combined resistive wall mode radial and poloidal field sensor feedback was used to control n = 1 perturbations and improve stability. The disruption probability due to unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) was surprisingly reduced at very high βN/li > 10 consistent with low frequency magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy measurements of mode stability. Greater

  18. Sweet Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  19. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL REVIEW Review Responsibilities of Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) Qio Review Functions § 476.85 Conclusive effect of QIO...

  20. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures...

  1. Study for identification of beneficial uses of Space, phase 1. Volume 2, book 2: Technical report: results, conclusions and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A variety of technologies were investigated to determine the benefits to be derived from space activities. The subjects accepted for product development are: (1) eutectics for cold cathodes, (2) higher putiry fiber optics, (3) fluidic wafers, (4) large germanium wafers for gamma ray camera, (5) improved batteries and capacitors, (6) optical filters, (7) corrosion resistant electrodes, (8) high strength carbon-based filaments for plastic reinforcement, and (9) new antibiotics. In addition, three ideas for services, involving disposal of radioactive wastes, blood analysis, and enhanced solar insolation were proposed.

  2. Inconsistent definitions of "urban" result in different conclusions about the size of urban carbon and nitrogen stocks.

    PubMed

    Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Rao, Preeti; Finzi, Adrien C

    2012-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the importance of urban soils and vegetation in regional C budgets that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of "urban" land use. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to C stocks in the Boston (Massachusetts, USA) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions. Development altered aboveground and belowground C and N stocks, and the sign and magnitude of these changes varied by land use and development intensity. Aboveground biomass (live trees, dbh > or = 5 cm) for the MSA was 7.2 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2 (mean +/- SE), reflecting a high proportion of forest cover. Vegetation C was highest in forest (11.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), followed by residential (4.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), and then other developed (2.0 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2) land uses. Soil C (0-10 cm depth) followed the same pattern of decreasing C concentration from forest, to residential, to other developed land uses (4.1 +/- 0.1, 4.0 +/- 0.2, and 3.3 +/- 0.2 kg C/m2, respectively). Within a land use type, urban areas (which we defined as > 25% impervious surface area [ISA] within a 1-km(2) moving window) generally contained less vegetation C, but slightly more soil C, than nonurban areas. Soil N concentrations were higher in urban areas than nonurban areas of the same land use type, except for residential areas, which had similarly high soil N concentrations. When we compared our definition of urban to other commonly used urban extents (U.S. Census Bureau, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project [GRUMP], and the MSA itself), we found that urban soil (1 m depth) and vegetation C stocks spanned a wide range, from 14.4 +/- 0.8 to 54.5 +/- 3.4 Tg C and from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 27.3 +/- 3.2 Tg C, respectively. Conclusions about the importance of urban soils and vegetation to regional C and N stocks are very sensitive to the definition of urban used by the investigators. Urban areas, regardless of definition, are rapidly expanding in their extent; a systematic

  3. Portable XRF analysis of occupational air filter samples from different workplaces using different samplers: final results, summary and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Bartley, David L; Slaven, James E; Andrew, Michael E

    2007-11-01

    This paper concludes a five-year program on research into the use of a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for analyzing lead in air sampling filters from different industrial environments, including mining, manufacturing and recycling. The results from four of these environments have already been reported. The results from two additional metal processes are presented here. At both of these sites, lead was a minor component of the total airborne metals and interferences from other elements were minimal. Nevertheless, only results from the three sites where lead was the most abundant metal were used in the overall calculation of method accuracy. The XRF analyzer was used to interrogate the filters, which were then subjected to acid digestion and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma optical-emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The filter samples were collected using different filter-holders or "samplers" where the size (diameter), depth and homogeneity of aerosol deposit varied from sampler to sampler. The aerosol collection efficiencies of the samplers were expected to differ, especially for larger particles. The distribution of particles once having entered the sampler was also expected to differ between samplers. Samplers were paired to allow the between-sampler variability to be addressed, and, in some cases, internal sampler wall deposits were evaluated and compared to the filter catch. It was found, rather surprisingly, that analysis of the filter deposits (by ICP-OES) of all the samplers gave equivalent results. It was also found that deposits on some of the sampler walls, which in some protocols are considered part of the sample, could be significant in comparison to the filter deposit. If it is concluded that wall-deposits should be analyzed, then XRF analysis of the filter can only give a minimum estimate of the concentration. Techniques for the statistical analysis of field data were also developed as part of this program and have been reported

  4. [Prospective qualification requirements in nursing care. Results and conclusions of the BMBF research network FreQueNz].

    PubMed

    Schüler, G; Klaes, L; Rommel, A; Schröder, H; Köhler, T

    2013-08-01

    Demographic change, advances in medicine, and innovative health care services are leading to changes in the professional qualification requirements for nursing and care staff. Detecting future trends in relation to these requirements was the focus of a Delphi study developed as part of the BMBF FreQueNz initiative. After qualitative expert interviews, data collection was organized in three consecutive steps, with 243 interviews realized in the second wave. It was found that home care will further diversify in the fields of supporting and counseling services as well as in palliative care, resulting in the necessary expansion of specific qualifications (e.g., intensive care). Moreover, there will be an increased need for interprofessional, intersectoral, and intercultural coordination and communication skills. As a consequence of the delegation of medical tasks, new duties for nonmedical professions in inpatient and outpatient care will also arise. For instance, qualifications need to be tailored to the new demands of assessment, diagnostics, therapy, and patient education and they should take into account evidence-based knowledge as well as clinical practice guidelines. Consequently, the system of care professionals will further diversify through advanced training programs and the continued academization of nursing. PMID:23884530

  5. Is the general conclusion justified that higher applicable field strength results in shorter analysis time with organic solvents in CE?

    PubMed

    Téllez, Adolfo; Kenndler, Ernst

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a widespread opinion in CE with organic solvents for the background electrolyte is critically questioned, namely that in general a shorter analysis time can be achieved due to the higher field strength applicable compared with aqueous electrolyte systems. This view, common in the literature, is based on the supposition that the conductance in organic solvents is lower than in water. Indeed in many organic solvents with higher viscosity than water lower ion mobility is observed, and higher fields can be applied in these cases. However, in this paper the problem is sharper defined and treated two-fold: (i) in all solvents conditions are such that either the same electric power is generated, or (ii) the same temperature increase is taken into account. It was shown that for the same electric power the field strength in the organic solvent can be changed to a less extent than the ionic mobility changes. As a result, the migration velocity of the analytes is lower and the analysis time is longer in most organic solvents compared with water; acetonitrile (MeCN) is an exception (in this solvent the mobilities are higher than in water). The more stringent treatment of the problem takes an equal temperature increase due to Joule heating into account rather than equal electric power. The temperature increase in the capillary depends on the thermal conductivity of the solvent, which is only about one-third of that of water for organic liquids. The consequence is that in none of the organic solvent systems a shorter analysis time can be achieved compared with water (given that the experimental conditions are comparable, e.g. zero EOF). The theoretical predictions were confirmed by measurements with water, methanol, propylenecarbonate, and MeCN as solvents.

  6. Beginning without a Conclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a series of activities without conclusions to introduce scientific reasoning in a ninth grade physical science course. Uses popcorn popping to get students to think about the concepts of graphing, histograms, frequency, probability, and scientific methodology. (CW)

  7. Clues to Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloway, Rhoda K.

    1978-01-01

    To help students learn how to interpret, infer, and speculate on conclusions, here is a week-long learning activity on "clue finding". A mitten, a bagful of debris and a few intriguing exercises with descriptive paragraphs show students that they use clues every day to draw conclusions and that they can extend this ability to analyze what they…

  8. Structured Teaching and Classroom Management--the Solution for the Decline of Swedish School Results? Conclusions Drawn from a Comparative Meta-Synthesis of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Håkansson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    With a basis in conclusions from a comparative meta-synthesis of teaching and learning, the question of structured and teacher-led teaching in Swedish comprehensive schools is discussed and analysed. The aim is to illustrate the development of results and changes in teaching patterns in Swedish comprehensive schools in relation to new regulations…

  9. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds: Phase 1: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The structural response to aerodynamic buffet during moderate to high-g maneuvers at subsonic and transonic speeds was investigated. The investigation is reported in three volumes. This volume presents a summary of the investigation with a complete description of the technical approach, description of the aircraft, its instrumentation, the data reduction procedures, results and conclusion.

  10. Analysis and optimization of thermal stratification and self-pressurization effects in liquid hydrogen storage systems -- Part 2: Model results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Gursu, S.; Veziroglu, T.N. . Clean Energy Research Inst.); Sherif, S.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sheffield, J.W. . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics)

    1993-09-01

    Three models capable of predicting the phenomena of thermal stratification and self-pressurization in liquid hydrogen storage systems were presented in Part 1 of this paper. In order to be able to evaluate the performance of the different pressure rise models, the results are compared with experimental data obtained from different tests. The set of experimental data obtained from the Plum Brook B-2 test, in the NASA-Lewis Research Center, represents a very accurately instrumented and closely controlled experimental work performed on the liquid hydrogen storage tank. Another set of data is taken from the experimental study conducted again in the NASA-Lewis Research Center to obtain a correlating parameter which relates the rate of pressure rise to the volume of spherical liquid hydrogen tank. In this paper model results are presented and discussed and general conclusions are reached.

  11. Project Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    A top level summary of activities conducted throughout the course of the EDOMP in response to initial concerns at the outset of the program is provided. Significant findings from the investigations are summarized, together with resulting countermeasures that were implemented and flight rules that were developed in response to these findings. Subsequent paragraphs provide more information; details will be found in the referenced sections.

  12. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds. Phase 2: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Traylor, S., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the flight buffeting response of the F-111A was performed in two phases. In Phase 1 stochastic analysis techniques were applied to wing and fuselage responses for maneuvers flown at subsonic speeds and wing leading edge sweep of 26 degrees. Power spectra and rms values were obtained. This report gives results of Phase 2 where the analyses were extended to include maneuvers flown at wing leading edge sweep values of 50 and 75.5 degrees at subsonic and supersonic speeds and the responses examined were expanded to include vertical shear, bending moment, and hingeline torque of the left and right horizontal tails. Power spectra, response time histories, variations of rms response with angle of attack and effects of wing sweep and Mach number are presented and discussed. Some Phase 1 results are given for comparison purposes.

  13. NGS-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing of high-grade serous ovarian cancer tissue: results and conclusions of the first international round robin trial.

    PubMed

    Endris, Volker; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Pfarr, Nicole; Penzel, Roland; Möbs, Markus; Lenze, Dido; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Hummel, Michael; Sabine-Merkelbach-Bruse; Jung, Andreas; Lehmann, Ulrich; Kreipe, Hans; Kirchner, Thomas; Büttner, Reinhard; Jochum, Wolfram; Höfler, Gerald; Dietel, Manfred; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter

    2016-06-01

    With the approval of olaparib as monotherapy treatment in platinum-sensitive, relapsed high-grade serous ovarian cancer by the European Medical Agency (EMA), comprehensive genotyping of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in tumor tissue has become a mandatory pre-therapeutic test. This requires significant advances in routine tumor test methodologies due to the large size of both genes and the lack of mutational hot spots. Classical focused screening approaches, like Sanger sequencing, do not allow for a sensitive, rapid, and economic analysis of tumor tissue. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches employing targeted panels for BRCA1/2 to interrogate formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples from either surgical resection or biopsy specimens can overcome these limitations. Although focused NGS methods have been implemented by few centers in routine molecular diagnostics for the analysis of some druggable oncogenic mutations, the reliable diagnostic testing of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was a new challenge requiring extensive technological improvement and quality management. Here, we describe the implementation and results of the first round robin trial for BRCA1/2 mutation testing in tumor tissue that was conducted in central Europe on May 2015, shortly after the approval and prior to the official release of olaparib. The high success rate of 81 % (21/26 test centers) demonstrates that BRCA1/2 multicenter mutation testing is well feasible in FFPE tumor tissue, extending to other tumor entities beyond ovarian cancer. The high number of test centers passing the trial demonstrates the success of the concerted efforts by German, Swiss, and Austrian pathology centers to ensure quality-controlled NGS-based testing and proves the potential of this technology in routine molecular pathology. On the basis of our results, we provide recommendations for predictive testing of tumor tissue for BRCA1/2 to clinical decision making in ovarian cancer patients.

  14. System performance conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of reducing power levels and using antennas with diameters smaller than 1 Km were evaluated if rectenna costs and land usage requirements become major factors, operating at 5800 megahertz should be considered. Three sequences (random, incoherent phasing, and concentric rings - center to edge) provided satisfactory performance in that the resultant sidelobe levels during startup/ shutdown were lower than the steady-state levels present during normal operations. Grating lobe peaks and scattered power levels were used to determine the array/subarray mechanical alignment requirements. The antenna alignment requirement is 1 min or 3 min depending on phase control configuration. System error parameters were defined to minimize scattered microwave power.

  15. Conclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Considering the breadth of perspectives in security research among Europeans, as exemplified within this publication, one may certainly note that a tremendous development of this young discipline has occurred in a short period of time. Only three years have passed since the discipline was promoted to an individual theme within the specific programme on `Cooperation' of the European Commission FP7. Since then, a conceptual framework has been established and the first collaborative projects have been executed on different levels, all at an impressive pace. Although the future of security research will remain closely linked to the political will of EU member states, the established base will serve as a solid foundation for the further development of the discipline on a European scale.

  16. Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    Some say that an increase in security does not necessarily mean a further encroachment on privacy - indeed, security is necessary to protect personal data and our privacy. Networks must be secure, our personal devices, reliable, dependable and trustworthy. But security is a multifaceted term, with many dimensions. We are of the view that an increase in security most likely will encroach upon our privacy in an ambient intelligence world. Surveillance cameras will continue to proliferate. We assume that, whatever the law is, whatever privacy protections government and business say they honour, our telecommunications, e-mails and Internet usage will be monitored to an increasing degree. The same will be true of our interfaces with the world of ambient intelligence.

  17. Conclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    It is often held that things should always be made simple, which presumes that either that they can always be made simple or that all the jetisoned logic doesn't matter anyway. Alledgedly, anything should be explainable so that anyone can understand it. Don't get bogged down in dreary details. It should be effortless for the reader: low-dimensional systems exhibit complex behaviour while high-dimensional systems exhibit simple behaviour (to return to our prolegomonal opening), competition is a universal solution, demand must increase as price falls, and everything under the sun neatly fits a power law. Or so the story goes...

  18. Conclusive exclusion of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Perry, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    In the task of quantum state exclusion, we consider a quantum system prepared in a state chosen from a known set. The aim is to perform a measurement on the system which can conclusively rule that a subset of the possible preparation procedures cannot have taken place. We ask what conditions the set of states must obey in order for this to be possible and how well we can complete the task when it is not. The task of quantum state discrimination forms a subclass of this set of problems. Within this paper, we formulate the general problem as a semidefinite program (SDP), enabling us to derive sufficient and necessary conditions for a measurement to be optimal. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary condition on the set of states for exclusion to be achievable with certainty, and we give a construction for a lower bound on the probability of error. This task of conclusively excluding states has gained importance in the context of the foundations of quantum mechanics due to a result from Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR). Motivated by this, we use our SDP to derive a bound on how well a class of hidden variable models can perform at a particular task, proving an analog of Tsirelson's bound for the PBR experiment and the optimality of a measurement given by PBR in the process. We also introduce variations of conclusive exclusion, including unambiguous state exclusion, and state exclusion with worst-case error.

  19. [Results of 2 years of activity].

    PubMed

    Panigazzi, M

    2010-01-01

    Work-related injuries and occupational diseases are a scourge of modern, western societies, which, although technologically advanced, have difficulty in preventing, treating and rehabilitating victims with speed and efficiency. The current hospital neuromotor rehabilitation centres, whether public or accredited private structures, have notable difficulty in meeting the demand, which despite annual fluctuations and variable needs, does not, overall, seem to be decreasing. We present the results of an organization model developed at the "Fondazione Maugeri" Scientific Institute (Pavia, Italy), the criteria used for the activity, the technological innovations employed to determine ability, and the prospects for further development. This model is effective from a health care-rehabilitative point of view, also in the light of the new legislative scenarios, and is sustainable from an economic points of view; overall it is, therefore, efficient. PMID:21438253

  20. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  1. [SENTIERI Project: discussion and conclusions].

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Roberta; Ricci, Paolo; Comba, Pietro; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Biggeri, Annibale; Conti, Susanna; Fazzo, Lucia; Forastiere, Francesco; Iavarone, Ivano; Martuzzi, Marco; Musmeci, Loredana; Pasetto, Roberto; Zona, Amerigo; Crocetti, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    showing the increase, considering latency and the length of the observation period. Of further interest are results relating to diseases of the urinary tract such as kidney failure in the NPCSs of Basso bacino del fiume Chienti, Taranto, Milazzo and Priolo. Overall, the results discussed above are consistent with the previous findings pertaining to mortality for 1995-2002. The present analysis also introduces a new element - the study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges - which can tell us a great deal about diseases with high survival rates or non lethal ones. The first is the case of thyroid cancer, which presents increases in both databases and for both genders in a number of NPCSs (Brescia-Caffaro, Laghi di Mantova, Milazzo, Sassuolo- Scandiano and Taranto). The study of cancer incidence and hospital discharges also revealed cancer excesses for melanoma, breast cancer and non Hodgkin lymphoma in Brescia-Caffaro NPCS where PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyl) are the site's main pollutant. PCBs, according to the 2013 evaluation of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are ascertained human carcinogens for melanoma and probable carcinogens for breast cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The results pertaining to cancer incidence in the 17 NPCSs can also be presented using rankings by area or disease analyzed by a multivariate hierarchical Bayesian model. These rankings reveal an overlapping of credibility intervals, such that it is not possible to speak of a limited number of cancer sites or of certain NPCSs as being particularly affected. Every NPCS, therefore, must be considered individually and ordering them by ranking of cancer incidence wouldn't be appropriate. Data collected concerning some of the NPCSs in the context of the SENTIERI Project is so conclusive that remediation measures can immediately be put in place. This is the case in the Biancavilla and Brescia-Caffaro NPCSs. A similar conclusion can be drawn for complex locations such as Taranto

  2. Conclusions. [hydrogen-based energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Conclusions are presented according to general areas of technology with some specific examples of research and technology needs identified. These conclusions provide a base for the future development of detailed program plans and identify research needs that are not being given attention or are not being supported at a sufficient level. Emphasis is placed on hydrogen production and use.

  3. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cheryl A; Smith, Bryan K; DuBose, Katrina D; Greene, J Leon; Bailey, Bruce W; Williams, Shannon L; Ryan, Joseph J; Schmelzle, Kristin H; Washburn, Richard A; Sullivan, Debra K; Mayo, Matthew S; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI). It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control). Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control), which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Enjoyment ratings for classroom-based lessons were also higher for intervention students. Competing factors, which might influence program results, were not carried out at intervention or control schools or were judged to be minimal. Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity. PMID:18606013

  4. Lunar maria - result of mantle plume activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E.

    It is generally accepted that lunar maria are the result of catastrophic impact events. However, comparative studying of the Earth's and the Moon's tectonomagmatic evolution could evidence about another way of these specific structures origin. Such studies showed that the both planetary bodies evolved on the close scenario: their geological development began after solidification of global magmatic oceans which led to appearance of their primordial crusts: granitic on the Earth and anorthositic - on the Moon. The further evolution of the both bodies occurred in two stages. For their first stages, lasted ˜2.5 mlrd. years on the Earth and ˜1.5 mlrd. years on the Moon, were typical melts, generated in depleted mantle (Bogatikov et al., 2000). However, at the boundary 2.2-2.0 Ga ago on the Earth and 3.9-3.8 Ga on the Moon another type of magmas appeared: geochemical enriched Fe-Ti picrites and basalts, characteristic for the terrestrial Phanerozoic plume-related situations, and basaltic mare magmatism with high-Ti varieties on the Moon. It suggests that evolution of the Earth's magmatism was linked with ascending of mantle plumes (superplumes) of two generation: (1) generated in the mantle, depleted during solidification of magmatic ocean and Archean magmatic activity, and (2) generated at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). The latter were enriched in the mantle fluid components (Fe, Ti, alkalies, etc); this lighter material could ascend to shallower depths, leading to change of tectonic processes, in particular, to appearance of plate tectonics as the major type of tectonomagmatic activity till now (Bogatikov et al., 2000). By analogy to the Earth, magmatism of the Moon was also linked with ascending of mantle plumes: (1) generated in the depleted mantle (magnesian suite) and (2) generated at the lunar CMB with liquid at that time metallic core (mare basalt and picrites with high-Ti varieties). Like on the Earth, these plumes were lighter than the older plumes, and

  5. Conclusions and Recommendations. Chapter 37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Hummel, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief wrap-up of the task group report and focuses on the overall conclusions and recommendations for future work for the CAWAPI and VFE-2 facets beyond the task group. The overall conclusion is that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of CFD solvers has been improved in predicting the flow-physics of vortex-dominated flows during the work of the task group, by having flight and wind-tunnel data available for comparison. Moreover, like all good scientific studies, this task group has identified flight conditions on the F-16XL airplane or wind-tunnel test conditions for a specific leading-edge radius on the 65 delta-wing model where the TRL still needs to be increased.

  6. Misapplied survey data and model uncertainty result in incorrect conclusions about the role of predation on alewife population dynamics in Lake Huron: a comment on He et al. (2015)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Dunlop, Erin S.

    2016-01-01

    Drastic recent and ongoing changes to fish populations and food webs in the Great Lakes have been well-described (Riley et al. 2008; Barbiero et al. 2009; Nalepa et al. 2009; Fahnenstiel et al. 2010;Evans et al. 2011; Gobin et al. 2015), and uncertainty regarding their potential effects on fisheries has caused concern among scientists and fishery managers (e.g., Dettmers et al. 2012). In particular, the relative importance of “bottom-up” (e.g., lower trophic level changes) versus “top-down” (e.g., predation) factors to fish community changes in the Great Lakes have been widely debated (e.g.,Barbiero et al. 2011; Eshenroder and Lantry 2012; Bunnell et al. 2014). In Lake Huron, recent ecosystem changes have been particularly profound, and populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), an offshore pelagic prey fish, collapsed in 2003 and have yet to recover (Riley et al. 2008, 2014). He et al. (2015) recently used a series of linked ecological models to assess the role of predation in the dynamics of the offshore prey fish community in Lake Huron. While we believe that they provide a novel method for combining bioenergetics and stock assessment modeling, we question the validity of their conclusions because of the misapplication of survey data and the lack of critical interpretation of their modeling efforts. Here we describe how He et al. (2015) have misapplied bottom trawl data from Lake Huron, and we provide examples of how this has resulted in erroneous conclusions regarding the importance of predation to the population dynamics and collapse of alewife in Lake Huron.

  7. NWCC Transmission Case Study Conclusions Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Wiese, Terry Allison

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 The NWCC Transmission Case Studies Conclusions Summary In the spring of 1999, the Utility Wind Interest Group (UWIG), with the cooperation of the National Wind Coordinating Committee (NWCC), conducted a forum on transmission issues associated with the production of energy from wind. As a result of this forum, a number of issues were identified which, if successfully resolved, could help reduce barriers to the future expansion of wind power. The NWCC, being a multi-stakeholder group, was in an ideal position to conduct follow-up activities among a cross-section of the interested parties. The follow-up activities took the form of three case studies in the areas of interest identified by forum participants: (1) Transmission policy and pricing; (2) ''Virtual wheeling'' arrangements; and, (3) Transmission system improvements. The case studies provide an interesting snapshot in time dealing with a range of issues associated with scheduled or planned regulatory and restructuring proceedings related to energy transmission. The NWCC Transmission Subcommittee and the UWIG reviewed early drafts of the case studies in November 1999. The case studies were conducted through a questionnaire and interview process with interested parties. In writing each case study, NWCC staff attempted to identify all stakeholder groups with an interest in each topic and solicit their input. While all parties do not agree on every issue presented, a serious effort has been made to present all views in an unbiased fashion. At the end of each case study, relevant conclusions are drawn and recommendations for next steps are provided where appropriate.

  8. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  9. Results and conclusions test capabilities task group summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, T.; Pierce, K.; Easterling, R.; Rogers, J.

    1996-12-01

    This annotated briefing documents an economic analysis of Sandia`s system-level test facilities maintained and operated by the Design, Evaluation, and Test Technology Center 9700. The study was divided into four primary sub-tasks: (1) Estimation of the future system-level test workload, (2) Development of a consistent economic model to estimate the cost of maintaining and operating the test facilities, (3) Determination of the availability of viable alternative test sites, and (4) Assessment of the potential savings through reduction of excess capacity under various facility-closure scenarios. The analysis indicated that potential savings from closing all facilities could approach $6 million per year. However, large uncertainties in these savings remove any sound economic arguments for such closure: it is possible that testing at alternative sites could cost more than maintaining the current set of system-level test facilities. Finally, a number of programmatic risks incurred by facility closure were identified. Consideration of facility closure requires a careful weighing of any projected economic benefit against these programmatic risks. This summary report covers the briefing given to upper management. A more detailed discussion of the data and analyses is given in the full report, available for internal use from the technical library.

  10. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization.

  11. Conclusions from recent pionic--atom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Strauch, Th.; Amaro, F.; Covita, D. S.; Santos, J. M. F. dos; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Anagnostopoulos, D. F.; Biri, S.; Gorke, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, Ph.; Zmeskal, J.; Indelicato, P.; Jensen, Th.; Le Bigot, E.-O.

    2008-08-08

    The most recent pionic--hydrogen experiment marks the completion of a whole series of measurements, the main goal of which was to provide conclusive data on pion--nucleon interaction at threshold for comparison with calculations from Chiral perturbation theory. The precision achieved for hadronic shift and broadening of 0.2% and 2%, respectively, became possible by comprehensive studies of cascade effects in hydrogen and other light exotic atoms including results from the last years of LEAR operation. In order to obtain optimum conditions for the Bragg crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap II has been used to provide a suitable X--ray source. To characterize the bent crystal spectrometer, the cyclotron trap has been modified to operate as an electron--cyclotron resonance source, which produces with high intensity narrow X-ray transitions in the few keV range originating from highly charged ions.

  12. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  13. First Results of the TIGRE Chromospheric Activity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Hempelmann, A.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of the stellar activity survey with TIGRE (Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato, Robótico-Espectroscópico). This long term program was started in August 2013 with the monitoring of a larger number of stars. We aim at measuring the short- and long-term variability of stellar activity for stars of different spectral types and luminosity classes, using indicators of different spectral lines (mainly Ca II S-Index, Ca II IR triplet, H_α and sodium D). A transformation equation of the TIGRE S-Index into the Mount Wilson S-index was derived in order to compare our results to the vast body of existing S-index measurements. Furthermore, the correlation between the S-index and the lines of the Ca II IR triplet has been studied, based on strictly simultaneous observations.

  14. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus. PMID:25775592

  15. Human Ebola virus infection results in substantial immune activation.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Anita K; Akondy, Rama S; Davis, Carl W; Ellebedy, Ali H; Mehta, Aneesh K; Kraft, Colleen S; Lyon, G Marshall; Ribner, Bruce S; Varkey, Jay; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Campbell, Shelley; Ströher, Ute; Damon, Inger; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F; Ahmed, Rafi

    2015-04-14

    Four Ebola patients received care at Emory University Hospital, presenting a unique opportunity to examine the cellular immune responses during acute Ebola virus infection. We found striking activation of both B and T cells in all four patients. Plasmablast frequencies were 10-50% of B cells, compared with less than 1% in healthy individuals. Many of these proliferating plasmablasts were IgG-positive, and this finding coincided with the presence of Ebola virus-specific IgG in the serum. Activated CD4 T cells ranged from 5 to 30%, compared with 1-2% in healthy controls. The most pronounced responses were seen in CD8 T cells, with over 50% of the CD8 T cells expressing markers of activation and proliferation. Taken together, these results suggest that all four patients developed robust immune responses during the acute phase of Ebola virus infection, a finding that would not have been predicted based on our current assumptions about the highly immunosuppressive nature of Ebola virus. Also, quite surprisingly, we found sustained immune activation after the virus was cleared from the plasma, observed most strikingly in the persistence of activated CD8 T cells, even 1 mo after the patients' discharge from the hospital. These results suggest continued antigen stimulation after resolution of the disease. From these convalescent time points, we identified CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses to several Ebola virus proteins, most notably the viral nucleoprotein. Knowledge of the viral proteins targeted by T cells during natural infection should be useful in designing vaccines against Ebola virus.

  16. Summary of the Results of STIS SMOV4 Calibration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bohlin, Ralph; Cox, Colin, Goudfrooij, Paul; Gull, Thodore, R.; Kaiser, Mary Beth; Lallo, Matt; Lennon, Daniel J.; Lindler, Don J.; Makidon, Russ; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Serrano, Beverly; Wheeler, Thomas; Wolfe, Michael E.; Serrano, Beverly; Woodgate, Bruce; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    After HST Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), there was a period of Science Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV4), to check out the new and repaired instruments. Here we summarize the execution and results of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) SMOV 4 activities undertaken to ensure that the repaired STIS instrument was ready to carry out its scheduled science program after a nearly five year hiatus in operation. The results of the initial aliveness and functional tests are reviewed, anomalies that aff ected the execution of the STIS SMOV plan are discussed, and the results of each STIS SMOV activity executed are summarized. In most respects the performance of STIS after the SM4 repair is very similar to that seen prior to the 2004 failure. Notable chang es include a significant and unexpected enhancement of the NUV MAMA dark rate that has been declining only very slowly, and continued degradation of the CCD performance due to radiation damage. Post - repair throughputs of most modes are close to expectation s based on extrapolation of previous trends.

  17. Subliminal psychodynamic activation: updated comprehensive list of experimental results and comments on previous lists.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R; Benjamin, C

    1992-06-01

    A comprehensive list of results from visual subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments is presented. This list includes results reported since the publication of the last comprehensive list by Weinberger and Hardaway in 1990 and several results not found on that list. On the present list, SPA results are categorized according to criteria that we contend are more objective than those used previously. In contrast to conclusions drawn from previous lists prepared by Silverman in 1980 and 1983, by Weinberger and Hardaway in 1990, and by Weinberger and Silverman in 1987, the present list indicates that the results of a majority of experiments do not clearly support hypotheses tested by the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Aspects of Hardaway's meta-analyses from 1987 and 1990 for major areas of research on subliminal psychodynamic activation are discussed in terms of suggestions for further research. PMID:1608734

  18. 4.11 Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.11 Summary and Conclusions' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  19. The TOEFL and Domestic Students: Conclusively Inappropriate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dixon C.

    1977-01-01

    This experiment tested college students whose first language is English with the TOEFL examination. The major conclusion was that TOEFL scores do not relate to academic aptitude or performance of domestic students and to evaluate English competency of native speakers with this test is inappropriate. (CHK)

  20. Activities Contributing to Total Energy Expenditure in the United States: Results from the NHAPS Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linda; Block, Gladys; Mandel, Shelly

    2004-01-01

    Background Physical activity is increasingly recognized as an important factor influencing health and disease status. Total energy expenditure, both low-intensity and high-intensity, contributes to maintenance of healthy body weight. This paper presents the results of a quantitative approach to determining the activities that contribute to total energy expenditure in the United States. Methods Data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) were used. In 1992–1994 the NHAPS sampled 4,185 females and 3,330 males, aged 18 years and over, weighted to be representative of the 48 contiguous United States. A detailed report of each activity performed in the previous 24 hours was obtained. A score was created for each activity, by multiplying duration and intensity for each individual and summing across individuals. This score was then used to rank each activity according to its contribution to total population energy expenditure, for the total sample and separately for each gender, race, age, region, and season. Results This analysis reveals our society to be primarily sedentary; leisure time physical activity contributed only approximately 5% of the population's total energy expenditure. Not counting sleeping, the largest contributor to energy expenditure was "Driving a car", followed by "Office work" and "Watching TV". Household activities accounted for 20.1% and 33.3% of energy expenditure for males and females respectively. Conclusion The information presented in this paper may be useful in identifying common activities that could be appropriate targets for behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. PMID:15169563

  1. Test results of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degregoria, A. J.; Feuling, L. J.; Laatsch, J. F.; Rowe, J. R.; Trueblood, J. R.; Wang, A. A.

    The principle of the Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) is tested with an experimental refrigerator designed to operate within the temperature range of about 4 to 80 K. Applications, including helium and hydrogen liquefaction and hydrogen slush generation, are envisioned. The device uses a single moveable superconducting solenoidal magnet in persistent mode to alternately charge and discharge two in-line beds of magnetic material. Between magnet motions, a double-acting piston displacer moves heat transfer fluid in the form of helium gas through the beds, absorbing heat at the cold heat exchanger and rejecting heat at the hot heat exchanger. A description of the refrigerator and performance results are presented. Comparisons to a detailed AMR model are shown.

  2. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  3. The common premise for uncommon conclusions.

    PubMed

    Coady, C A J

    2013-05-01

    Recent controversy over philosophical advocacy of infanticide (or the comically-styled euphemism 'postnatal abortion') reveals a surprisingly common premise uniting many of the opponents and supporters of the practice. This is the belief that the moral status of the early fetus or embryo with respect to a right to life is identical to that of a newly born or even very young baby. From this premise, infanticidists and strong anti-abortionists draw opposite conclusions, the former that the healthy newly born have no inherent right to life and the latter that minute embryos and the very early fetus have the same right to life as young babies. (Indeed strong anti-abortionists tend to regard this right to life as identical to that possessed by adult humans.) This paper argues that these opposed conclusions are both deeply implausible and that the implausibility resides in the common premise. The argument requires some attention to the structure of the philosophical case underpinning the supposed vice of speciesism that has been given intellectual currency by many philosophers, most notably Peter Singer, and also to the reasoning behind the strong anti-abortionist adoption of the common premise. PMID:23637428

  4. The common premise for uncommon conclusions.

    PubMed

    Coady, C A J

    2013-05-01

    Recent controversy over philosophical advocacy of infanticide (or the comically-styled euphemism 'postnatal abortion') reveals a surprisingly common premise uniting many of the opponents and supporters of the practice. This is the belief that the moral status of the early fetus or embryo with respect to a right to life is identical to that of a newly born or even very young baby. From this premise, infanticidists and strong anti-abortionists draw opposite conclusions, the former that the healthy newly born have no inherent right to life and the latter that minute embryos and the very early fetus have the same right to life as young babies. (Indeed strong anti-abortionists tend to regard this right to life as identical to that possessed by adult humans.) This paper argues that these opposed conclusions are both deeply implausible and that the implausibility resides in the common premise. The argument requires some attention to the structure of the philosophical case underpinning the supposed vice of speciesism that has been given intellectual currency by many philosophers, most notably Peter Singer, and also to the reasoning behind the strong anti-abortionist adoption of the common premise.

  5. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Methods Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11–17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward’s method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Results Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. Conclusion The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use

  6. Solar activity variations of ionosonde measurements and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, D.; Arrazola, D.; Blanch, E.; Buresova, D.

    2008-08-01

    The time series of hourly electron density profiles N(h) obtained at several mid-latitude stations in Europe have been used to obtain N(h) profiles on a monthly basis and to extract both the expected bottomside parameters and a proxy of the ionospheric variability as functions of time and height. With these data we present advances on a “Local Model” technique for the parameters B0 and B1, its applicability to other ionospheric stations, to other bottomside ionospheric parameters, and to modeling the time/height variability of the profile. The Local Model (LM) is an empirical model based on the experimental results of the solar activity dependence of the daily and seasonal behavior of the above parameters. The LM improves the IRI-2001 prediction of the B0 and B1 by factor of two at mid-latitudes. Moreover, the LM can be used to simulate other ionospheric parameters and to build mean N(h) profiles and the deviations from them. The modeling of both the average N(h) profiles and their deviations is an useful tool for ionospheric model users who want to know both the expected patterns and their deviations.

  7. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  8. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  9. Epistemology applied to conclusions of expert reports.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan

    2016-07-01

    It is believed that to build a robust reasoning logic to make probabilistic inferences in forensic science from a merely mathematical or logistical viewpoint is not enough. Mathematical logic is the positive science of reasoning and as for that it is only interested in the positive calculus of its validity, regardless any prior ontological assumption. But without a determined ontology and epistemology which imply to define the concepts that they will use, it seems difficult that the proposed scientifically correct mathematical solution be successful as a European standard for making conclusions in forensic reports because it has to be based on judicial language. Forensic experts and Courts are not interested in the development of a positive science but in a practical science: in clarifying whether certain known facts are related to a possible crime. Therefore, not only the coherence of the demonstrative logic reasoning used (logic of propositions) is important, but also the precision of the concepts used by language and consistency among them in reasoning (logic of concepts). There is a linguistic level essential for a successful communication between the forensic practitioner and the Court which is mainly related, in our opinion, to semantics and figures of speech. The first one is involved because words used in forensic conclusions often have different meanings - it is said that they are polysemic - and the second one because there is often metonymy as well. Besides, semantic differences among languages regarding words with the same etymological root add another difficulty for a better mutual understanding. The two main European judicial systems inherit a wide and deep culture related to evidence in criminal proceedings and each of them has coined their own terminology but there are other two more abstract levels such as logical and epistemological, where we can find solid arguments by which terms used at legal level on conclusions of forensic reports could be

  10. Epistemology applied to conclusions of expert reports.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan

    2016-07-01

    It is believed that to build a robust reasoning logic to make probabilistic inferences in forensic science from a merely mathematical or logistical viewpoint is not enough. Mathematical logic is the positive science of reasoning and as for that it is only interested in the positive calculus of its validity, regardless any prior ontological assumption. But without a determined ontology and epistemology which imply to define the concepts that they will use, it seems difficult that the proposed scientifically correct mathematical solution be successful as a European standard for making conclusions in forensic reports because it has to be based on judicial language. Forensic experts and Courts are not interested in the development of a positive science but in a practical science: in clarifying whether certain known facts are related to a possible crime. Therefore, not only the coherence of the demonstrative logic reasoning used (logic of propositions) is important, but also the precision of the concepts used by language and consistency among them in reasoning (logic of concepts). There is a linguistic level essential for a successful communication between the forensic practitioner and the Court which is mainly related, in our opinion, to semantics and figures of speech. The first one is involved because words used in forensic conclusions often have different meanings - it is said that they are polysemic - and the second one because there is often metonymy as well. Besides, semantic differences among languages regarding words with the same etymological root add another difficulty for a better mutual understanding. The two main European judicial systems inherit a wide and deep culture related to evidence in criminal proceedings and each of them has coined their own terminology but there are other two more abstract levels such as logical and epistemological, where we can find solid arguments by which terms used at legal level on conclusions of forensic reports could be

  11. Conclusions from PISA and TIMSS Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of Education Duncan (2010) lamented the state of U.S. education in 2010 after the release of the results from the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). He wrote: "Unfortunately, the 2009 PISA results show that American students are poorly prepared to compete in today's knowledge economy. President Obama…

  12. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H; Drake, Jeremy J

    2015-05-28

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  13. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  14. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H; Drake, Jeremy J

    2015-05-28

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars.

  15. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  16. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  17. Environmental Justice and Feminist Pedagogy: A Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berila, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As the pieces by Di Chiro, Plevin, and Sze in this issue have illustrated, feminist pedagogy offers a productive framework through which to explore environmental justice issues. Environmental justice issues, in turn, offer invaluable sites for feminist praxis. The mutually enriching relationship between the two fields results from their similar…

  18. Soil Moisture Active Passive Satellite Status and Recent Validation Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January, 2015 and began its calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. Cal/Val will begin with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and evolve to the geophysical products that include...

  19. Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Chillón, Palma; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frédéric; González-Gross, Marcela; Ward, Dianne S; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.

  20. Conclusions and comments for the XII ISCM.

    PubMed

    Karczmar, Alexander G

    2006-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanism (ISCM), organized by the late Edith Heilbronn, was held in Skokloster in 1970; Alicante's XII ISCM shows the exponential progress made in the cholinergic field in barely 30 years! Thus, Alzheimer's disease was not a topic at the first ISCM. The concept of homeostatic mechanisms regulating choline levels in the brain was not conceived of as yet. Three-dimensional pictures and the the protein structure of cholinergic receptors were not even thought of, as in 1970, we had only an "abstract" knowledge of receptors, based on SAR notions of Everhardus Ariens, Robert Furchgott, and Peter Pauling; in fact the Nobel Prize winner Furchgott stated in 1964 that "... with rare exceptions, we cannot ... identify the receptor as an individual chemical entity." Similarly, three-dimensional images of cholinesterases (ChEs) and the ChE "gorges" were unknown (Furchgott, 1964). The Whittakerian notion of synaptic vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh) was the only version of the mode of ACh release, and the unorthodox opinions of Yves Dunant, Maurice Israel, Bruno Ceccarelli and Jacopo Meldolesi were still to be promulgated. Little was known about cholinergic correlates of behaviors such as learning and aggression, and there was no notion of cholinergic aspects of self-awareness (consciousness), free will, and the active subconscious. And modern methodologies were unknown, including the measurements of ACh, such as the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) method, discovered by Israel Hanin, Don Jenden, and Bo Holmstedt in the 1950s, the chemiluminescence developed by Maurice Israel, Yves Dunant, and their associates (Israel et al., 1983), and crystallography and molecular biology techniques, such as the "knockout" (KO) mouse models. PMID:17192684

  1. Return to sporting activity after Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty: Mid term results

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, Nemandra; Muirhead-Allwood, SK; Skinner, JA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is primarily indicated for young, active patients with disabling coxarthrosis who wish to remain active and return to sports after surgery. Relatively few prospective studies have assessed return to sporting activity and impact of gender and age on this. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine consecutive patients treated with HRA were included. Patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically. Function was assessed using the modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score. The Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were calculated. Results: Average age at the time of surgery was 54.9 years (range 34.5–73.6 years). Average preoperative and postoperative UCLA scores were 4 and 7.6 respectively. Patients were involved in 2 (0–4) sporting activities preoperatively and 2 (0–5) postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative Oxford Hip Scores, Harris Hip Score and WOMAC scores were 40, 46 and 51 and 16, 94 and 3 respectively (P < 0.0001). Patients returned to sports at an average of 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Patients were able to return to sports by 3 months and perform the same number of activities at preoperative intensity. Activity levels are maintained up to the medium term with few complications. PMID:26806965

  2. Annoyance resulting from intrusion of aircraft sounds upon various activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Shepherd, W. T.; Fletcher, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in which subjects were engaged in TV viewing, telephone listening, or reverie (no activity) for a 1/2-hour session. During the session, they were exposed to a series of recorded aircraft sounds at the rate of one flight every 2 minutes. Within each session, four levels of flyover noise, separated by dB increments, were presented several times in a Latin Square balanced sequence. The peak level of the noisiest flyover in any session was fixed at 95, 90, 85, 75, or 70 dBA. At the end of the test session, subjects recorded their responses to the aircraft sounds, using a bipolar scale which covered the range from very pleasant to extremely annoying. Responses to aircraft noises were found to be significantly affected by the particular activity in which the subjects were engaged. Not all subjects found the aircraft sounds to be annoying.

  3. MUSE dream conclusion: the sky verdict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Francois, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J.-E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-08-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it collects its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. This critical moment when the instrument finally meets its destiny is the opportunity to look at the overall outcome of the project and the final performance of the instrument on the sky. The instrument which we dreamt of has become reality. Are the dreamt performances there as well? These final instrumental performances are the result of a step by step process of design, manufacturing, assembly, test and integration. Now is also time to review the path opened by the MUSE project. What challenges were faced during those last steps, what strategy, what choices did pay off? What did not?

  4. Conclusions on measurement uncertainty in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Forster, Lynne I

    2009-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1999, testing laboratories wishing to comply with all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 have been collecting data for estimating uncertainty of measurement for quantitative determinations. In the microbiological field of testing, some debate has arisen as to whether uncertainty needs to be estimated for each method performed in the laboratory for each type of sample matrix tested. Queries also arise concerning the estimation of uncertainty when plate/membrane filter colony counts are below recommended method counting range limits. A selection of water samples (with low to high contamination) was tested in replicate with the associated uncertainty of measurement being estimated from the analytical results obtained. The analyses performed on the water samples included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci by membrane filtration, and heterotrophic plate counts by the pour plate technique. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were > or =20, uncertainty estimates at a 95% confidence level were very similar for the methods, being estimated as 0.13, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12, respectively. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were <20, estimated uncertainty values for each sample showed close agreement with published confidence limits established using a Poisson distribution approach.

  5. Active X-ray mirror development at UCL: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Yao, Jun; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-12-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics project is a UK based consortium consisting of several institutions to investigate the application of active/adaptive optics upon both small and large scale grazing incidence x-ray optics. The work done at University College London (UCL) focuses on the application of piezoelectric materials to large scale optics in order to actively deform the mirror's surface. These optics are geared towards the next generation of x-ray telescopes and it is hoped that the project will be able to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). One of the aims of the consortium is to produce a working prototype. The initial design is based on a thin nickel ellipsoid segment with an x-ray reflective coating, on the back of which will be bonded a series of piezoelectric actuators. Investigation into the specification of the design of an active x-ray optic prototype and suitable support test structure has been undertaken. The dimensions and constraints upon the prototype, and the manufacturing process to produce a nickel shell are discussed. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the physical characteristics of piezoelectric materials has shown the ability to deform the nickel surface to correct for errors of several microns. FEA has also been utilised in the specification of the prototype's support structure to ensure that gravitational sag upon the optic is kept to a minimum. Laboratory experiments have tested a series of materials, different actuators and bonding methods, which could then be applied to the prototype.

  6. Towards active capsular endoscopy: preliminary results on a legged platform.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, Arianna; Stefanini, Cesare; Orlandi, Giovanni; Quirini, Marco; Dario, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the problem of active locomotion in the gastrointestinal tract for endoscopic capsules. Authors analyze the problem of locomotion in unstructured, flexible and tubular environments and explain the reasons leading to the selection of a legged system. They present a theoretical simulation of legged capsule locomotion, which is used to define the optimal parameters for capsule design and gait selection. Finally, a legged capsule--about 3 cm3 in volume--is presented; it consists of 4 back legs whose actuation is achieved thanks to a miniaturized DC brushless motor. In vitro tests demonstrate good performance in terms of achievable speed (92 mm/min).

  7. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  8. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  9. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  10. Key conclusions from AVOID Work Stream One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one ‘2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes

  11. Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing CFD Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wing test (see chapter 8E) provides data for the validation of aerodynamic, aeroelastic, and active aeroelastic control simulation codes. These data provide a rich database for development and validation of computational aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic methods. In this vein, high-level viscous CFD analyses of the BACT wing have been performed for a subset of the test conditions available in the dataset. The computations presented in this section investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the rigid clean wing configuration as well as simulations of the wing with a static and oscillating aileron and spoiler deflection. Two computational aeroelasticity codes extensively used at NASA Langley Research Center are implemented in this simulation. They are the ENS3DAE and CFL3DAE computational aeroelasticity programs. Both of these methods solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for both rigid and flexible vehicles, but they use significantly different approaches to the solution 6f the aerodynamic equations of motion. Detailed descriptions of both methods are presented in the following section.

  12. Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association's activities: Preliminary results on Perseids 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary results on the Perseids 2010 are presented. Visual and video observations were obtained by the author and a first reduction of the visual data shows that a maximum of ZHR ~120 was reached during the night 12-13 of August 2010. Moreover, a video setup was tested (DMK camera and UFO Capture v2) and the results show that, under some limitations, valuable data can be obtained.

  13. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    presence of platelet-derived microparticles, platelets, and platelet aggregates whereas SMHEF pulses primarily resulted in platelet-derived microparticles. Microparticles and platelets in PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses had significantly lower annexin V-positivity than those following SMHEF activation. In contrast, the % P-selectin positivity and surface P-selectin expression (MFI) for platelets and microparticles in SMLEF bipolar pulse activated PRP was significantly higher than that in SMHEF-activated PRP, but not significantly different from that produced by thrombin activation. Higher levels of EGF were observed following either SMLEF bipolar pulses or SMHEF pulses of PRP than after bovine thrombin activation while VEGF, PDGF, and PF4 levels were similar with all three activating conditions. Cell proliferation was significantly increased by releasates of both SMLEF bipolar pulse and SMHEF pulse activated PRP compared to plasma alone. Conclusions PEF activation of PRP at bipolar low vs. monopolar high field strength results in differential platelet-derived microparticle production and activation of platelet surface procoagulant markers while inducing similar release of growth factors and similar capacity to induce cell proliferation. Stimulation of PRP with SMLEF bipolar pulses is gentler than SMHEF pulses, resulting in less platelet microparticle generation but with overall activation levels similar to that obtained with thrombin. These results suggest that PEF provides the means to alter, in a controlled fashion, PRP properties thereby enabling evaluation of their effects on wound healing and clinical outcomes. PMID:27556645

  14. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    SciTech Connect

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  15. Results of Skylab medical experiment M171: Metabolic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Buderer, M. C.; Lem, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to establish whether man's ability to perform mechanical work would be progressively altered as a result of exposure to the weightless environment of space flight. The Skylab crewmen exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads approximating 25, 50, and 75 percent of their maximum aerobic capacity. The physiological parameters monitored were respiratory gas exchange, blood pressure, and vectorcardiogram/heart rate. The results of these tests indicate that the crewmen had no significant decrement in their responses to exercise during their exposure to zero gravity. The results of the third manned Skylab mission (Skylab 4) are presented and a comparison is made of the overall results obtained from the three successively longer Skylab manned missions. The Skylab 4 crewmembers' 84-day in-flight responses to exercise were no worse and were probably better than the responses of the crewmen on the first two Skylab missions. Indications that exercise was an important contributing factor in maintaining this response are discussed.

  16. Activation of Hypoxia‐Inducible Factor‐2 in Adipocytes Results in Pathological Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qun; Huang, Yan; Booth, Carmen J.; Haase, Volker H.; Johnson, Randall S.; Celeste Simon, M.; Giordano, Frank J.; Yun, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity can cause structural and functional abnormalities of the heart via complex but largely undefined mechanisms. Emerging evidence has shown that obesity results in reduced oxygen concentrations, or hypoxia, in adipose tissue. We hypothesized that the adipocyte hypoxia‐signaling pathway plays an essential role in the development of obesity‐associated cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results Using a mouse model in which the hypoxia‐inducible factor (HIF) pathway is activated by deletion of the von Hippel–Lindau gene specifically in adipocytes, we found that mice with adipocyte–von Hippel–Lindau deletion developed lethal cardiac hypertrophy. HIF activation in adipocytes results in overexpression of key cardiomyopathy‐associated genes in adipose tissue, increased serum levels of several proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin‐1β and monocyte chemotactic protein‐1, and activation of nuclear factor–κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells in the heart. Interestingly, genetic deletion of Hif2a, but not Hif1a, was able to rescue cardiac hypertrophy and abrogate adipose inflammation. Conclusion We have discovered a previously uncharacterized mechanism underlying a critical and direct role of the adipocyte HIF‐2 transcription factor in the development of adipose inflammation and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:24326162

  17. European activities in exobiology in earth orbit: results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1999-01-01

    A large portion of European activities in Earth orbit have concentrated on studies of the responses of resistant microbes to the harsh environment of space with the aim of providing experimental evidence testing the hypothesis that interplanetary transfer of life is possible. Various types of microorganisms, such as bacterial or fungal spores, as well as viruses and biomolecules, such as DNA, amino acids and liposomes, have been exposed to selected and combined space conditions outside the Earth's magnetic field (Apollo 16) or in low Earth orbit (Spacelab 1, Spacelab D2, ERA on EURECA, LDEF, BIOPAN on FOTON). Space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense solar ultraviolet radiation, different components of the cosmic radiation field and temperature extremes affected the genetic stability of the organisms in space, leading to increased mutation rates, DNA damage and inactivation. Extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most lethal factor. If shielded against the influx of solar UV, spores of Bacillus subtilis survived for more than 5 years in space. Future research will be directed towards long-term studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and endoevaporitic ecosystems. For these studies, the European Space Agency will provide the facility EXPOSE to be accommodated on the External Platform of the International Space Station during the Early Utilization Phase.

  18. The uses and results of active tetanus immunization

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Inga

    1955-01-01

    Both in animal experiments and in the course of two world wars active immunization has proved a safe method of protection against tetanus, and a method superior to passive serum prophylaxis. The three types of vaccine—plain, combined, and precipitated or adsorbed—all have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them must be left to individual national health authorities. They should, however, be administered in two or three doses to confer basic immunity. What amount of circulating antitoxin is necessary to give full protection has not been accurately determined, but it is clear that one recall dose should be given about a year after the first injections as part of the routine course of injections. This seems enough to provide a long-lasting immunity, but a dose of vaccine should also be given at the time of injury. General immunization of the population is not practicable, but children, who are among the groups most at risk, can be immunized relatively simply by combined diphtheria and tetanus vaccine; in many countries, indeed, this is being done on an ever-increasing scale. PMID:13270078

  19. Current Results and Proposed Activities in Microgravity Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polezhaev, V. I.

    1996-01-01

    The Institute for Problems in Mechanics' Laboratory work in mathematical and physical modelling of fluid mechanics develops models, methods, and software for analysis of fluid flow, instability analysis, direct numerical modelling and semi-empirical models of turbulence, as well as experimental research and verification of these models and their applications in technological fluid dynamics, microgravity fluid mechanics, geophysics, and a number of engineering problems. This paper presents an overview of the results in microgravity fluid dynamics research during the last two years. Nonlinear problems of weakly compressible and compressible fluid flows are discussed.

  20. United States radiological health activities: inspection results of mammography facilities

    PubMed Central

    Spelic, DC; Kaczmarek, RV; Hilohi, M; Belella, S

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) was enacted in 1992 to set national standards for high-quality mammography, including standards for mammographic X-ray equipment, patient dose, clinical image quality, and related technical parameters. The MQSA also requires minimum qualifications for radiologic technologists, interpreting physicians and medical physicists, mandates acceptable practices for quality-control, quality-assurance, and requires processes to audit medical outcomes. This paper presents the findings of MQSA inspections of facilities, which characterize significant factors affecting mammography quality in the United States. Materials and Methods: Trained inspectors collected data regarding X-ray technical factors, made exposure measurements for the determination of mean glandular dose (MGD), evaluated image quality, and inspected the quality of the film-processing environment. The average annual facility and total U.S. screening exam workloads were computed using workload data reported by facilities. Results: Mammography facilities have made technical improvements as evidenced by a narrower distribution of doses, higher phantom-film background optical densities associated with higher phantom image-quality scores, and better film processing. It is estimated that approximately 36 million screening mammography exams were conducted in 2006, a rate that is almost triple the exam volume estimated for 1997. Digital mammography (DM) is now in use at approximately 14% (1,191 of 8,834) of MQSA-certified mammography facilities. The results indicate that DM can offer lower dose to the patient while providing comparable or better image quality. PMID:21614276

  1. Preliminary results and future activities at the GARFIELD apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P. F.; Vannucci, L.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Fiandri, L.; Lanchais, A.; Vannini, G.; Casini, G.; Chiari, M.; Nannini, A.; Bonasera, A.; Cavallaro, S.; Cosmano, A.; Moroni, A.; Ordine, A.; Abbondanno, U.; Milazzo, P. M.; Margagliotti, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    A new apparatus has been designed and built to study reaction mechanisms in the energy regime of the ALPI linear accelerator of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (E/A = 5 - 20 MeV). In this paper the importance of studying these mechanisms will be underlined, no more as a problem limited to a narrow energy range or a single process, but as a continuous trend from low to high energies and from the physics of stable nuclei to that one regarding instabilities. With this remarks in mind, a first experiment has been performed studying the reaction 32S+58Ni at 11AMeV. Preliminary results show that important information can be derived on multi-body emission, which can contribute to renew the interest in this energy regime.

  2. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R E; Witt, D A; Cottrell, W D; Carrier, R F

    1991-06-01

    From 1942 through approximately 1966, the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works operated four plants in St. Louis, Missouri, for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. A variety of production processes using uranium- and radium-bearing ore materials were performed at the plants. It is the policy of the DOE to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Mallinckrodt properties have been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. At the request of DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a survey in May 1990, of public roadways and suspected haul routes between the Mallinckrodt plant and storage sites in St. Louis to ensure that no residual radioactive materials were conveyed off-site. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify possible anomalies. Suspect areas are those displaying measurements deviating from gamma exposure rates identified as typical for radiologically unenhanced areas in the vicinity of the areas of interest. The instrumentation highlighted three anomaly locations each of which measured less than 1m{sup 2} in size. None of the slightly elevated radiation levels originated from material associated with former AEC-related processing operations in the area. The anomalies resulted from elevated concentrations of radionuclides present in phosphate fertilizers, increased thorium in road-base gravel, and emanations from the radioactive storage site near the Latty Avenue airport. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Jumping to conclusions and the continuum of delusional beliefs.

    PubMed

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Martin, Joel M; Davis, Louanne; Haudenschield, Samantha L

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined the jumping to conclusions reasoning bias across the continuum of delusional ideation by investigating individuals with active delusions, delusion prone individuals, and non-delusion prone individuals. Neutral and highly self-referent probabilistic reasoning tasks were employed. Results indicated that individuals with delusions gathered significantly less information than delusion prone and non-delusion prone participants on both the neutral and self-referent tasks, (p<.001). Individuals with delusions made less accurate decisions than the delusion prone and non-delusion prone participants on both tasks (p<.001), yet were more confident about their decisions than were delusion prone and non-delusion prone participants on the self-referent task (p=.002). Those with delusions and those who were delusion prone reported higher confidence in their performance on the self-referent task than they did the neutral task (p=.02), indicating that high self-reference impacted information processing for individuals in both of these groups. The results are discussed in relation to previous research in the area of probabilistic reasoning and delusions. PMID:17052687

  4. Differential and Active Charging Results from the ATS Spacecraft.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Richard Christopher

    1980-12-01

    This study of spacecraft charging concentrates on the differential charging and artificial particle emission experiments on ATS-5 and ATS-6. It was found that differential charging of spacecraft surfaces generated large electrostatic barriers to spacecraft generated electrons, from photoemission, secondary emission, and thermal emitters. The electrostatic barrier is a potential minimum outside the charged spacecraft which causes low energy electrons to be trapped near the spacecraft. The large dish antenna on ATS-6 was identified as the source of the electrostatic barrier around the Environmental Measurements Experiment package. Daylight charging on ATS-6 was shown to have behavior suggesting the dominance of differential charging on the absolute potential of the mainframe. Electron emission experiments on ATS-5 in eclipse charging environments showed that the electron emitter could partially or totally discharge the satellite, but the mainframe recharged negatively in a few 10's of seconds. The equilibrium emitter current was found to be .3 microamps, substantially below the milliamp capability of the emitter. The limiting of the current and the time dependence seen in the ATS-5 potential during these operations were explained as the result of differential charging of the insulating surfaces on the spacecraft, and the creation of an electrostatic barrier by the differential potential. This barrier limited the artificially generated electron current to the point that the net flux to the spacecraft was again negative. Both the daylight charging events of ATS-6 and the eclipse electron emission experiments of ATS-5 were further analyzed with a simple time dependent model which showed that the barrier height quickly reached an equilibrium value which limited but did not completely stop electron emission. Average and differential potentials developed in time subject to the constraint that the barrier height remain constant. Ion engine operations and plasma emission

  5. SU-E-T-594: Preliminary Active Scanning Results of KHIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C; Yang, T; Chang, S; Kim, H; Lee, H; Kim, J; Jang, H; Han, G; Park, D; Hwang, W; Kim, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify the design criteria on heavy ion beam irradiation, developing a proto type active scanning system was purposed. The active scanning system consists of scanning magnet, power supplies, beam monitors, energy modulation system, and irradiation control system. Methods: Each components of the active scanning system was designed for carbon beam first. For the fast ramping a laminated yoke was purposed. To measure incoming dose and profile, a plate and strip type of ion chambers were designed. Also, ridge filter and range shifter was manufactured. And, the scanning system was modified to adopt 45 MeV of proton beam because of the absence of carbon ion beam in Korea. The system was installed in a beam line at MC-50, KIRAMS. Also, the irradiation control system and planning software was provided. Results: The scanning experiment was performed by drawing KHIMA logo on GaF film. The logo was scanned by 237 scanning points through time normalized intensity modulation. Also, a grid points scanning was performed to measure the scanning resolution and intensity resolution. Conclusion: A prototype active scanning system was successfully designed and manufactured. Also, an initial experiment to print out a drawing on GaF film through the scanning system was completed. More experiments would be required to specify the system performance.

  6. Design of a Website on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Adolescents: Results From Formative Research

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Boushey, Carol; Konzelmann, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The Internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Objective To collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly website promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Qualitative research, encompassing both focus group and interview techniques, were used to design the website. Participants were 12-17 year olds in Houston, Texas, and West Lafayette, Indiana. Results A total of 133 participants took part in 26 focus groups while 15 participated in one-on-one interviews to provide guidance for the development of teen-friendly content and structure for an online behavior change program promoting healthy eating and physical activity to 12-17 year olds. The youth made suggestions to overcome common barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. Their feedback was used to develop “Teen Choice: Food & Fitness,” a 12-week online behavior change program, populated by 4 cartoon character role models. Conclusions It is critical that members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant, appealing, and address their needs and interests. PMID:22538427

  7. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  8. Improvement of IVF results and optimisation of quality control by using intermittent activity.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Nelly; Fanchin, Rénato; Le Dû, Anne; Bourrier, Marie Catherine; Tachdjian, Gérard; Frydman, René

    2004-11-01

    For several years the present authors' team had not been satisfied with the pregnancy rate achieved by their unit, especially in comparison with the results achieved by other teams with a similar population. A quality programme was established, and it was decided to switch from non-stop to intermittent activity. It was envisaged that this programme would provide a more realistic view of the team's activity and could also, as a secondary effect, improve its results. The team's experience of an in-series organization was presented for the management of 408 consecutive infertile couples, during 2002. The results obtained during 2002 were compared with those for two previous years. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the clinical pregnancy rate per oocyte retrieval from 28.9% (2000) and 25.2% (2001) to 41% (2002) in IVF and from 23% (2000) and 26% (2001) to 38.5% (2002) in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A significant increase (P < 0.01) was also observed in the implantation rate, from 14.8% and 13.4% to 20% in IVF and from 12.1% and 12.9% to 23.5% in ICSI. The higher pregnancy rate was achieved without an increase in the multiple pregnancy rate. In conclusion, recent data support the hypothesis that the use of a quality management system, can, as in this case, have positive repercussions on pregnancy rates.

  9. Subconjunctival Sirolimus for the Treatment of Chronic Active Anterior Uveitis: Results of a Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sen, H. Nida; Larson, Theresa A.; Meleth, Annal D.; Smith, Wendy M.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of subconjunctival sirolimus for the treatment of chronic active anterior uveitis Design Prospective, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial. Methods This single-center pilot trial enrolled 5 patients with chronic active anterior uveitis. The study drug was administered as single subconjunctival injection of 30μL (1,320μg) sirolimus in the study eye at the baseline visit. Study visits were performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and monthly until 4 months, and included a complete ophthalmic exam, review of systems, adverse event assessment at each visit, physical exam and ancillary ophthalmic testing at some visits. The primary outcome measure was a 2-step reduction in the anterior chamber inflammation within 4 weeks of injection of the study drug. Results There were 3 females and 2 males; 4 patients had idiopathic anterior uveitis and one had psoriatic arthritis-associated anterior uveitis. Three of the five patients met the primary outcome criteria by showing at least a 2-step decrease in inflammation within 4 weeks, 2 patients showed a 1-step decrease in inflammation within the same time frame. No recurrence was encountered during a 4 month follow-up. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Subconjunctival sirolimus appears to be well tolerated in this pilot trial and shows promise as a treatment for active inflammation in patients with chronic anterior uveitis. Larger studies are needed to assess its usefulness in uveitis. PMID:22465364

  10. Field Test Results from a 10 kW Wind Turbine with Active Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Thomas; Bychkova, Veronika; Taylor, Keith; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control devices including synthetic jets and dynamic vortex generators were tested on a 10 kW wind turbine at RPI. Previous work has shown that load oscillations caused by dynamic stall could be modified through the use of active flow control by injecting momentum into the flow field near the leading edge of a dynamically pitching model. In this study, this work has been extended to its logical conclusion, field-testing active flow control on a real wind turbine. The blades in the current study have a 0.28m chord and 3.05m span, no twist or taper, and were retrofitted with six synthetic jets on one blade and ten dynamic vortex generators on a second blade. The third blade of this turbine was not modified, in order to serve as a control. Strain gauges were installed on each blade to measure blades' deflection. A simple closed loop control was demonstrated and preliminary results indicate reduced vibrational amplitude. Future testing will be conducted on a larger scale, 600kW machine at NREL, incorporating information collected during this study.

  11. Conclusiveness of natural languages and recognition of images

    SciTech Connect

    Wojcik, Z.M.

    1983-01-01

    The conclusiveness is investigated using recognition processes and one-one correspondence between expressions of a natural language and graphs representing events. The graphs, as conceived in psycholinguistics, are obtained as a result of perception processes. It is possible to generate and process the graphs automatically, using computers and then to convert the resulting graphs into expressions of a natural language. Correctness and conclusiveness of the graphs and sentences are investigated using the fundamental condition for events representation processes. Some consequences of the conclusiveness are discussed, e.g. undecidability of arithmetic, human brain assymetry, correctness of statistical calculations and operations research. It is suggested that the group theory should be imposed on mathematical models of any real system. Proof of the fundamental condition is also presented. 14 references.

  12. Social support and physical activity change in Latinas: Results from the Seamos Saludables trial

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Becky; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Pekmezi, Dori; Larsen, Britta A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Family responsibilities and poor social support are barriers to physical activity among Latinas. This study evaluated the effects of a home- and print-based intervention on social support, moderating effects of familial ties on support and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and mediating effects of support on MVPA. Methods Participants were randomized to receive through the mail either individually tailored physical activity intervention or general wellness print materials. Familial ties and social support were assessed by marital and child status and the social support for physical activity measure, respectively. MVPA was measured using the 7-day Physical Activity Recall Interview and accelerometer. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months post-treatment, and 12 months follow-up. Results Participants (n=266; 40.6 ± 9.9 years old) were mostly immigrant and Spanish-speaking Latinas. The intervention group achieved greater increases in family and friend support compared to the wellness control group from baseline to post-treatment and follow-up (p<0.05). Intervention changes in support did not depend on marital or child status. The intervention also increased minutes per week of MVPA more than the wellness control (p<0.05) and the effect did not depend on marital or child status. There were significant indirect effects of treatment, indicating the intervention achieved greater increases in MVPA by increasing family (ab=5.21, SE=2.94, 95% CI=0.91–14.11) and friend (ab=6.83, SE=5.15, 95% CI=0.16–20.56) support. Conclusions The intervention improved and sustained support from family and friends and MVPA irrespective of familial ties. Social support mediated increases in MVPA. PMID:26863464

  13. Results From an Intervention to Improve Rural Home Food and Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Alcantara, Iris; Veluswamy, J. K.; Haardörfer, Regine; Hotz, James A.; Glanz, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Ecological models of healthy eating and physical activity emphasize the influence of behavioral settings such as homes and worksites in shaping behavior. Research on home environments suggests that both social and physical aspects of the home may impact physical activity and healthy eating. Objective Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the Emory Prevention Research Center (EPRC), Cancer Coalition of South Georgia, and the EPRC’s Community Advisory Board (CAB) designed and tested a coach-based intervention to make the home environment more supportive of healthy eating and physical activity for rural adults. Methods The 6-week intervention consisted of a tailored home environment profile, goal-setting, and behavioral contracting delivered through two home visits and two telephone calls. The study used a quasi-experimental design with data collected via telephone interviews at baseline, 2 and 4 months post-baseline. Ninety households (n = 90) completed all three telephone interviews. Results Multilevel models indicated that intervention households reported significant improvements in household food inventories, purchasing of fruit and vegetables, healthier meal preparation, meals with the TV off, and family support for healthy eating, relative to comparison households. Intervention households also reported increased exercise equipment and family support for physical activity relative to comparison households. Percent of fat intake decreased significantly, but no changes were observed for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, or weight among intervention relative to comparison households, although trends were generally in a positive direction. Conclusion Coaching combined with a focus on the home environment may be a promising strategy for weight gain prevention in adults. PMID:22982840

  14. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  15. [The reliable and plausible conclusions in the decisions of the forensic medical experts].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The authors characterize in brief the conclusions drawn by the forensic medical experts in the course of their professional activities with special reference to their reliability and plausibility. The most common errors creeping into the conclusions are discussed together with the approaches to their prevention and/or correction. This article continues a series of publications of the same authors concerning the main logical errors encountered in the conclusions of the forensic medical experts. The results of a deeper analysis of such errors will be published elsewhere. PMID:27030098

  16. National level promotion of physical activity: results from England's ACTIVE for LIFE campaign

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Cavill, N; Nanchahal, K; Diamond, A; White, I

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To assess the impact of a national campaign on awareness of the campaign, change in knowledge of physical activity recommendations and self reported physical activity.
DESIGN—three year prospective longitudinal survey using a multi-stage, cluster random probability design to select participants.
SETTING—England.
PARTICIPANTS—A nationally representative sample of 3189 adults aged 16-74 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Awareness of the advertising element of the campaign, changes in knowledge of physical activity recommendations for health and self reported physical activity.
RESULTS—38% of participants were aware of the main advertising images, assessed six to eight months after the main television advertisement. The proportion of participants knowledgeable about moderate physical activity recommendations increased by 3.0% (95% CI: 1.4%, 4.5%) between waves 1 and 2 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.1%, 5.3%) between waves 1 and 3. The change in proportion of active people between baseline and waves 1 and 2 was
−0.02 (95% CI: −2.0 to +1.7) and between waves 1 and 3 was −9.8 (−7.9 to −11.7).
CONCLUSION—The proportion of participants who were knowledgeable about the new recommendations, increased significantly after the campaign. There was however, no significant difference in knowledge by awareness of the main campaign advertisement. There is no evidence that ACTIVE for LIFE improved physical activity, either overall or in any subgroup.


Keywords: exercise; mass media; follow up studies; health promotion; physical activity PMID:11553661

  17. Results and Activities in RDA and their Potential for Efficient Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenburg, Peter; Stehouwer, Herman; Pennington, Rob

    2015-04-01

    A large cross-disciplinary survey on data practices in Europe with about 120 interviews and intensive meetings revealed that working with data is extremely inefficient and costly. In addition our methods in the departments are such that only a small percentage of papers resulting from data intensive research is reproducible. A workshop organized by Research Data Alliance and MPS with leading scientists from various disciplines came to similar conclusions. This is the reason why the global and cross-disciplinary Research Data Alliance started working on aspects of data management, description/ annotation,access, re-use, interoperability etc. Already after 18 months the first working groups came up with their results that have the potential to help overcoming the current situation. Agreeing on a common basic data model would help in many data operations, re-using best practices for practical policies would improve reproducibility, making use of a common API for registering and resolving persistent identifiers would make usage of persistent identifier services much simpler and thus increase trust in data and making use of data type registries would help us to deal with unknown data types which is a usual phenomenon in data science. In addition, after 2 years of intensive discussions new groups have been formed such as Data Fabric which is analyzing data life cycle phases and the scientific data processing machinery to identify essential common components and services and place the activities of current working and interest groups into this language. Many data scientists are involved in these discussions which gives us hope in quick convergence. Based on a few projects that started to uptake these results and the broad interest in the new activities we can see the huge potential of them. In a presentation we will describe these first results and their potential impact for data intensive science and we will describe the objectives behind discussions of Data Fabric and

  18. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  19. Results of a workshop concerning impacts of various activities on the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Horak, Gerald C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    characterization of the structure and functions of bottomland hardwoods. The approach to the second workshop, the results of which are described in this report, was therefore modified in response to the conclusions from the first workshop. The focus of the second workshop remained an analysis of the impacts of various activities or the functions of BLH ecosystems. However, as a prerequisite to this analysis, participants were also asked to develop a list of characteristics that determine the extent to which BLH sites perform the important functions. The workshop was organized such that alternating plenary and workgroup sessions allowed ample time for communication while still maintaining a focus on the overall goal. In the initial session, various individuals gave presentations concerning methodologies for evaluating the functions performed by wetlands, factors influencing the conversion of BLH forests to other uses, and the impacts of conversion activities. These were followed by a series of case study presentations designed to familiarize participants with the kinds of issues that are dealt with in the Section 404 program. These presentations are cited in this report as (author, workshop presentation). At the conclusion of these presentations, participants were divided into six workgroups to examine the functions of BLH ecosystems in the areas of hydrology, water quality, fisheries, wildlife, ecosystem processes, and culture/recreation/economics. Each workgroup was asked to undertake the following tasks. 1. Developed a list of functions performed by BLH ecosystems from the perspective of the workgroup's expertise and area of responsibility. 2. Identify those activities (e.g., impoundment construction, conversion to soybean farming) that impact the major functions (e.g., sediment retention, detrital export) performed by BLH ecosystems. 3. Develop a list of characteristics that determine the extent to which a BLH site performs each function and describe the relationship of each

  20. Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator Can Be Safely Given without Complete Blood Count Results Back

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Yang, Lumeng; Ren, Jinma; Nair, Deepak S.; Parker, Sarah; Jahnel, Jan L.; Swanson-Devlin, Teresa G.; Beck, Judith M.; Mathews, Maureen; McNeil, Clayton J.; Ling, Yifeng; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Yuan; Dong, Qiang; Wang, David Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well known that the efficacy of intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is time-dependent when used to treat patients with acute ischemic strokes. Aim Our study examines the safety issue of giving IV tPA without complete blood count (CBC) resulted. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective observational study by examining the database from Huashan Hospital in China and OSF/INI Comprehensive Stroke Center in United States. Patient data collected included demographics, occurrence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, door to needle intervals, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores on admission, CBC results on admission and follow-up modified Rankin Scale scores. Linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors that would have an impact on door-to-needle intervals. Results Our study included120 patients from Huashan Hospital and 123 patients from INI. Among them, 36 in Huashan Hospital and 51in INI received IV tPA prior to their CBC resulted. Normal platelet count was found in 98.8% patients after tPA was given. One patient had thrombocytopenia but no hemorrhagic event. A significantly shorter door to needle interval (DTN) was found in the group without CBC resulted. There was also a difference in treatment interval between the two hospitals. Door to needle intervals had a strong correlation to onset to treatment intervals and NIHSS scores on admission. Conclusion In patients presented with acute ischemic stroke, the risk of developing hemorrhagic event is low if IV tPA is given before CBC has resulted. The door to needle intervals can be significantly reduced. PMID:26147994

  1. Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. Methods This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child’s day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Results Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Conclusions Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322. PMID

  2. SMART wind turbine rotor. Data analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  3. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Barone, Matthew F.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  4. Conclusive identification of quantum channels via monogamy of quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Asutosh; Singha Roy, Sudipto; Pal, Amit Kumar; Prabhu, R.; Sen(De), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the action of global noise and local channels, namely, amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels, on monogamy of quantum correlations, such as negativity and quantum discord, in three-qubit systems. We discuss the monotonic and non-monotonic variation, and robustness of the monogamy scores. By using monogamy scores, we propose a two-step protocol to conclusively identify the noise applied to the quantum system, by using generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and generalized W states as resource states. We discuss a possible generalization of the results to higher number of parties.

  5. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  6. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48... Termination of Enrollment § 901.48 Proposed findings and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has... proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons therefor....

  7. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  8. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law, briefs and...

  9. 19 CFR 111.68 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 111.68 Section... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.68 Proposed findings and conclusions. The... record in which to submit proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons for the findings...

  10. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  11. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  12. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  13. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  14. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  15. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions...

  16. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  17. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  18. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  19. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  20. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions...

  1. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions...

  2. 19 CFR 111.68 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 111.68 Section... Monetary Penalty in Lieu of Suspension or Revocation § 111.68 Proposed findings and conclusions. The... record in which to submit proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons for the findings...

  3. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48... Termination of Enrollment § 901.48 Proposed findings and conclusions. Except in cases where the respondent has... proposed findings and conclusions and supporting reasons therefor....

  4. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section... RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) A party to a proceeding may submit proposed findings of fact and conclusions...

  5. 39 CFR 957.20 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 957.20 Section... RELATIVE TO DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.20 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the Judicial Officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law...

  6. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  7. 47 CFR 1.263 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 1.263... Proceedings Hearing and Intermediate Decision § 1.263 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or memoranda of law: Provided,...

  8. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  9. 29 CFR 417.12 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 417.12 Section 417.12... findings and conclusions. Within 10 days following the close of hearings, interested persons may submit proposed findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting...

  10. 39 CFR 3001.35 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 3001.35 Section... General Applicability § 3001.35 Proposed findings and conclusions. The Commission or the presiding officer may direct the filing of proposed findings and conclusions with a brief statement of the...

  11. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gertis, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-02-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this ``detection loophole'' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ˜62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  12. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition-edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geoff; de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Wiseman, Howard M.; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date, all experimental tests with single-photon states have relied on post selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavourable events in losses. Here we close this 'detection loophole' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition-edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ~62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 s.d.s. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  13. Low dose cadmium poisoning results in sustained ERK phosphorylation and caspase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Patrick . E-mail: pmartin@unice.fr; Poggi, Marie Christine . E-mail: poggi@unice.fr; Chambard, Jean Claude . E-mail: chambard@unice.fr; Boulukos, Kim E. . E-mail: boulukos@unice.fr; Pognonec, Philippe . E-mail: pognonec@unice.fr

    2006-11-24

    Cadmium poisoning has been known to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and kinase activation. It has been reported that ERK is activated following acute cadmium exposure, and this response is commonly seen as a classical ERK survival mechanism. Here, we analyzed different cell types for their responses to low concentrations of cadmium poisoning. We found that there is an association between cell susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and ERK activation. This activation is atypical, since it consists of a sustained ERK phosphorylation, that lasts up to 6 days post stimulation. This activation is associated with the appearance of cleaved caspases 8 and 3, processed PARP, and irreversible damage. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation results in the ability of cells to resist cadmium poisoning. Our data indicate that low cadmium concentrations result in an unconventional ERK sustained phosphorylation, which in turn leads to death signaling.

  14. Oscillatory phase modulates the timing of neuronal activations and resulting behavior.

    PubMed

    Coon, W G; Gunduz, A; Brunner, P; Ritaccio, A L; Pesaran, B; Schalk, G

    2016-06-01

    Human behavioral response timing is highly variable from trial to trial. While it is generally understood that behavioral variability must be due to trial-by-trial variations in brain function, it is still largely unknown which physiological mechanisms govern the timing of neural activity as it travels through networks of neuronal populations, and how variations in the timing of neural activity relate to variations in the timing of behavior. In our study, we submitted recordings from the cortical surface to novel analytic techniques to chart the trajectory of neuronal population activity across the human cortex in single trials, and found joint modulation of the timing of this activity and of consequent behavior by neuronal oscillations in the alpha band (8-12Hz). Specifically, we established that the onset of population activity tends to occur during the trough of oscillatory activity, and that deviations from this preferred relationship are related to changes in the timing of population activity and the speed of the resulting behavioral response. These results indicate that neuronal activity incurs variable delays as it propagates across neuronal populations, and that the duration of each delay is a function of the instantaneous phase of oscillatory activity. We conclude that the results presented in this paper are supportive of a general model for variability in the effective speed of information transmission in the human brain and for variability in the timing of human behavior. PMID:26975551

  15. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  16. Does Pedometer Goal Setting Improve Physical Activity among Native Elders? Results from a Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Russo, Joan E.; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant…

  17. Measuring Computer Literacy in Colleges of Agriculture: Results, Conclusions and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, P. A.; And Others

    A computer literacy assessment instrument was developed to evaluate the current level of computer literacy of students enrolled in agricultural classes at Texas A&M University. A faculty member from each of the 19 departments in the College of Agriculture was asked to recommend two classes representative of the students in his or her department,…

  18. Results and conclusions of pine treeline advanced project in subarctic Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Siren, G.

    1997-12-31

    The original project components dealt with seed germination, soil conditions, competition, seedling ecology in and development. Subsequent research into flowering, seed maturation, dispersal and sexual development gained notable interest, as the uninhibited advance of the pine treeline continued. Since then the significant roles of repeated seed years and stand development became evident as stem numbers first increased and thereafter decreased. Improving bio-energy resources and quantifying the increasing CO{sub 2} sink dominated the sup-projects in the final stages. Ultimately the careful age and dry weight measurements and stem inventories prove decisively important in determining what factors were the main prerequisites for the advance of pine on forest-tundra and the development of the new CO{sub 2} sink. During the 20th century the favorable climate has promoted the advance of pine in the far north of Finland, which would appear to support the IPCC message of global warming. A consequence of this climate warming might be that the productive forest area in northernmost Finland will increase rather dramatically during the next century. Considering the longevity of pine, the standing productive forest stock and CO{sub 2} sink capacity would hence increase accordingly. It would therefore seem prudent to recommend the enhancement of conifer seed years and intensified experimentation with genetically tested conifer species throughout the circumpolar treeline regions. Consequently, through sustainable use of new biomass reserves, new areas south of the timberline could be opened to allow for potential ecological forestry practices and alternate energy sources could be developed. At the same time, this will create new employment opportunities for local people in all circumpolar regions.

  19. A Review of the Reflector Compact Fluorescent Lights Technology Procurement Program: Conclusions and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2008-05-19

    This report describes a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), from 2000 to 2007 to improve the performance of reflector type (R-lamp) compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and increase their availability throughout the United States by means of a technology development and procurement strategy. In 2000, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Emerging Technologies Program and its predecessors, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory undertook a technology procurement seeking R-CFLs that were specifically designed for use in ICAT recessed can fixtures and that met other minimum performance criteria including minimum light output and size restrictions (to ensure they fit in standard residential recessed cans). The technology procurement included two phases. In Phase I, requests for proposals (RFPs) were issued in October 2002 and five manufacturers responded with 12 lamp models. Eight of these models met the minimum requirements and passed the 6-hour short-term test in a simulated ICAT environment. These eight models were subjected to long-term tests of 6,000 or more hours in a simulated ICAT environment. Three of these models passed the short- and long-term tests and were promoted through the program website (www.pnl.gov/rlamps), press releases, and fliers. To increase the number of qualifying models, a second RFP was issued in June 2005. In April 2007, DOE announced that 16 reflector CFL (R-CFL) models by four manufacturers had met all the minimum requirements of Phase 2 of the R-CFL Technology Innovation Competition. PNNL developed both the criteria and the test apparatus design for Elevated Temperature Life Testing (ETLT), which has been included by DOE in its draft ENERGY STAR specifications for the reflector category of CFLs. PNNL promoted the winning lamps through a program website, press releases, and fliers as well as through program partners. PNNL also helped engage distributors including Costco, the Home Depot, Bonneville Power Administration, and utility organizations.

  20. Interpretation of Structure Coefficients Can Prevent Erroneous Conclusions about Regression Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Jean S.

    The increased use of multiple regression analysis in research warrants closer examination of the coefficients produced in these analyses, especially ones which are often ignored, such as structure coefficients. Structure coefficients are bivariate correlation coefficients between a predictor variable and the synthetic variable. When predictor…

  1. Preliminary results from a study of the impact of digital activity trackers on health risk status.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Roberts, Dinah; Cercos, Robert; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Digital activity trackers are becoming increasingly more widespread and affordable, providing new opportunities to support participatory e-health programs in which participants take an active role. However, there is limited knowledge of how to deploy these activity trackers within these programs. In response, we conducted a 7-month study with 212 employees using a wireless activity tracker to log step count. Our results suggest that these devices can support improving physical activity levels and consequently reduce diabetes risk factors. Furthermore, the intervention seems more effective for people with higher risk factors. With our work we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in the design of participatory e-health programs that include activity trackers. PMID:25087541

  2. 37 CFR 251.52 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.52 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  3. β-Eliminative depolymerization of the fucosylated chondroitin sulfate and anticoagulant activities of resulting fragments.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Lu, Feng; Xiao, Chuang; Yang, Lian; Chen, Jun; Zhou, Kai; Wen, Dandan; Li, Zi; Wu, Mingyi; Jiang, Jianmin; Liu, Guangming; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS) from sea cucumber with complex structure has potent anticoagulant activity by inhibition of intrinsic tenase; however, it could activate factor XII and platelet. To obtain FCS' fragments with selective inhibition on intrinsic tenase, a method for β-eliminative depolymerization of FCS was developed by treating FCS benzyl esters with alkaline in anhydrous solution. Our results demonstrated that the glycosidic linkages of GalNAc-β1, 4-GlcA were selectively cleaved and distinctive Δ(4,5) unsaturated hexuronic acid was formed at non-reducing end of resulting fragments, while the main structures were essentially stable during depolymerization. By this method, five depolymerized fragments (dFCSs) with various molecular sizes were prepared and their anticoagulant activities and activation activities of factor XII and platelet were compared. Overall, dFCSs with Mw 3.2-8.8 kDa reserved potent anticoagulant activities by inhibition of intrinsic tenase, and activation activities of factor XII or platelet could be diminished or eliminated.

  4. High Fc Density Particles Result in Binary Complement Activation but Tunable Macrophage Phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulchek, Todd; Pacheco, Patricia; White, David

    2014-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis and complement system activation represent two key components of the immune system and both can be activated through the presentation of multiple Fc domains of IgG antibodies. We have created functionalized micro- and nanoparticles with various densities of Fc domains to understand the modulation of the immune system for eventual use as a novel immunomodulation platform. Phagocytosis assays were carried out by adding functionalized particles to macrophage cells and quantitatively determined using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Complement system activation by the functionalized particles in human serum was quantified with an enzyme immunoassay. Our phagocytosis assay revealed a strong dependence on particle size and Fc density. For small particles, as the Fc density increased, the number of particles phagocytosed also increased. Large particles were phagocytosed at significantly lower levels and showed no dependency on Fc density. Complement was successfully activated at levels comparable to positive controls for small particles at high Fc densities. However at low Fc densities, there is a significant decrease in complement activation. This result suggests a binary response for complement system activation with a threshold density for successful activation. Therefore, varying the Fc density on micro/nanoparticles resulted in a tunable response in macrophage phagocytosis while a more binary response for complement activation.

  5. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupski, Vladimir N

    2011-05-31

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  6. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupski, Vladimir N.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  7. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.75 Proposed findings... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  8. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-24 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  9. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.75 Proposed findings... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  10. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-24 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  11. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.23 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the discretion of the presiding officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of...

  12. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.23 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each... the discretion of the presiding officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings of...

  13. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.75 Proposed findings... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  14. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.87 Proposed findings and... findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  15. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... ORDERS Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and...

  16. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.75 Proposed findings... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  17. 37 CFR 251.52 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and... PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.52 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to the proceeding may file proposed findings of fact and conclusions, briefs, or...

  18. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-24 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  19. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.67 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  20. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.87 Proposed findings and... findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  1. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.67 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  2. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.87 Proposed findings and... findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  3. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.87 Proposed findings and... findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  4. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... ORDERS Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and...

  5. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except... indicates in the answer that he or she does not desire to appear, may submit proposed findings of...

  6. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.67 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  7. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.67 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  8. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712... ORDERS Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed by the presiding officer shall, file proposed findings of fact and...

  9. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-24 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  10. 31 CFR 8.67 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 8... THE BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.67 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  11. 29 CFR 458.87 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 458.87 Section 458.87... OF CONDUCT STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.87 Proposed findings and... findings and conclusions to the Administrative Law Judge, together with supporting reasons therefor,...

  12. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except... indicates in the answer that he or she does not desire to appear, may submit proposed findings of...

  13. 31 CFR 10.75 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 10... THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.75 Proposed findings... submit proposed findings and conclusions and their supporting reasons to the Administrative Law Judge....

  14. 31 CFR 15.737-24 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 15... EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-24 Proposed findings and... afford the parties a reasonable opportunity to submit proposed findings and conclusions and...

  15. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except... indicates in the answer that he or she does not desire to appear, may submit proposed findings of...

  16. 39 CFR 959.22 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 959.22 Section... RELATIVE TO THE PRIVATE EXPRESS STATUTES § 959.22 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Each party, except... indicates in the answer that he or she does not desire to appear, may submit proposed findings of...

  17. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section 952.23 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS § 952.23 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a)...

  18. Post-Knowledge of Results Delay: Effects of Interpolated Activity on Learning and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetti, Carol; McCullagh, Penny

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence strongly supports the assumption that knowledge of results (KR) is necessary for learning to occur. This study compares the effects of KR or no-KR with the effects of an interpolated verbal activity on learning and performance of a timed motor task. Results are presented. (Author/MT)

  19. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP) - Recent Results from an Airborne Simulator for SMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP) is a recently-developed NASA airborne instrument specially tailored to simulate the new Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite instrument suite. SLAP conducted its first test flights in December, 2013 and participated in its first science campaign-the IPHEX ground validation campaign of the GPM mission-in May, 2014. This paper will present results from additional test flights and science observations scheduled for 2015.

  20. Does pedometer goal setting improve physical activity among Native elders? Results from a randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Russo, Joan E; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant between-group differences were found, within-group analyses indicated that elders significantly improved on the majority of step count, physical activity, health-related quality of life, and 6-minute walk outcomes.

  1. Early activation of caspases during T lymphocyte stimulation results in selective substrate cleavage in nonapoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Alam, A; Cohen, L Y; Aouad, S; Sékaly, R P

    1999-12-20

    Apoptosis induced by T cell receptor (TCR) triggering in T lymphocytes involves activation of cysteine proteases of the caspase family through their proteolytic processing. Caspase-3 cleavage was also reported during T cell stimulation in the absence of apoptosis, although the physiological relevance of this response remains unclear. We show here that the caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (zVAD) blocks proliferation, major histocompatibility complex class II expression, and blastic transformation during stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, T cell activation triggers the selective processing and activation of downstream caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7), but not caspase-1, -2, or -4, as demonstrated even in intact cells using a cell-permeable fluorescent substrate. Caspase-3 processing occurs in different T cell subsets (CD4(+), CD8(+), CD45RA(+), and CD45RO(+)), and in activated B lymphocytes. The pathway leading to caspase activation involves death receptors and caspase-8, which is also processed after TCR triggering, but not caspase-9, which remains as a proenzyme. Most importantly, caspase activity results in a selective substrate specificity, since poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), lamin B, and Wee1 kinase, but not DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45) or replication factor C (RFC140), are processed. Caspase and substrate processing occur in nonapoptotic lymphocytes. Thus, caspase activation is an early and physiological response in viable, stimulated lymphocytes, and appears to be involved in early steps of lymphocyte activation. PMID:10601362

  2. Collaborative Automation Reliably Remediating Erroneous Conclusion Threats (CARRECT)

    PubMed Central

    Lansey, Jonathan C.; Picciano, Paul; Yohai, Ian; Grant, Fred; Gern, Robert

    2013-01-01

    estimated parameters of the model properly accounts for both types of uncertainty (Rubin 1987; King et al. 2001). As a result, MI will lead to valid standard errors and confidence intervals along with unbiased point estimates. In order to compute the joint distribution, CARRECT uses a bootstrapping-based algorithm that gives essentially the same answers as the standard Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) or Expectation Maximization (EM) approaches, is usually considerably faster than existing approaches and can handle many more variables. Results Tests were conducted on one of the proposed methods with an epidemiological dataset from the Integrated Health Interview Series (IHIS) producing verifiably unbiased results despite high missingness rates. In addition, mockups (Figure 1) were created of an intuitive data wizard that guides the user through the analysis processes by analyzing key features of a given dataset. The mockups also show prompts for the user to provide additional substantive knowledge to improve the handling of imperfect datasets, as well as the selection of the most appropriate algorithms and models. Conclusions Our approach and program were designed to make bias mitigation much more accessible to much more than only the statistical elite. We hope that it will have a wide impact on reducing bias in epidemiological studies and provide more accurate information to policymakers.

  3. Symbolic Models for Single-Conclusion Proof Logics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupski, Vladimir N.

    Symbolic semantics for logics of proofs based on Mkrtychev models covers the the case of multi-conclusion proof logics. We propose symbolic models for single-conclusion proof logics (FLP and its extensions). The corresponding soundness and completeness theorems are proven. The developed symbolic model technique is used to establish the consistency of contexts required for proof internalization. In particular, we construct an extension of FLP that enjoys the strong proof internalization property with empty context.

  4. Are we driving our kids to unhealthy habits? Results of the active healthy kids Canada 2013 report card on physical activity for children and youth.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey E; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D; Colley, Rachel C; Bonne, Jennifer Cowie; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M; Manske, Stephen R; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  5. Are We Driving Our Kids to Unhealthy Habits? Results of the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Casey E.; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D.; Colley, Rachel C.; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M.; Manske, Stephen R.; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C.; Timmons, Brian W.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  6. Are we driving our kids to unhealthy habits? Results of the active healthy kids Canada 2013 report card on physical activity for children and youth.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey E; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D; Colley, Rachel C; Bonne, Jennifer Cowie; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M; Manske, Stephen R; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT.

  7. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  8. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children.

    PubMed

    Kersey, Alyssa J; James, Karin H

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters-in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback.

  9. Deriving rules from activity diary data: A learning algorithm and results of computer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arentze, Theo A.; Hofman, Frank; Timmermans, Harry J. P.

    Activity-based models consider travel as a derived demand from the activities households need to conduct in space and time. Over the last 15 years, computational or rule-based models of activity scheduling have gained increasing interest in time-geography and transportation research. This paper argues that a lack of techniques for deriving rules from empirical data hinders the further development of rule-based systems in this area. To overcome this problem, this paper develops and tests an algorithm for inductively deriving rules from activity-diary data. The decision table formalism is used to exhaustively represent the theoretically possible decision rules that individuals may use in sequencing a given set of activities. Actual activity patterns of individuals are supplied to the system as examples. In an incremental learning process, the system progressively improves on the selection of rules used for reproducing the examples. Computer experiments based on simulated data are performed to fine-tune rule selection and rule value update functions. The results suggest that the system is effective and fairly robust for parameter settings. It is concluded, therefore, that the proposed approach opens up possibilities to derive empirically tested rule-based models of activity scheduling. Follow-up research will be concerned with testing the system on empirical data.

  10. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  12. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  13. Neighborhood built environment and physical activity of Japanese older adults: results from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although many studies have reported the association between neighborhood built environment (BE) and physical activity (PA), less is known about the associations for older populations or in countries besides the US and Australia. The aim of this paper is to examine the associations for older adult populations in Japan. Methods Our analyses were based on cross-sectional data from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), conducted in 2003. The respondents were older adults, aged 65 years or over (n = 9,414), from 8 municipalities across urban, suburban, and rural areas. The frequency of leisure time sports activity and total walking time were used as the outcome variables. Using geographic information systems (GIS), we measured residential density, street connectivity, number of local destinations, access to recreational spaces, and land slope of the respondents' neighborhoods, based on network distances with multiple radii (250 m, 500 m, 1,000 m). An ordinal logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between PA and BE measures. Results Population density and presence of parks or green spaces had positive associations with the frequency of sports activity, regardless of the selected buffer zone. The analysis of total walking time, however, showed only a few associations. Conclusions Our findings provide mixed support for the association between PA and the characteristics of BE measures, previously used in Western settings. Some characteristics of the neighborhood built environment may facilitate leisure time sports activity, but not increase the total walking time for Japanese older adults. PMID:21854598

  14. [Physical activity: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS1)].

    PubMed

    Krug, S; Jordan, S; Mensink, G B M; Müters, S; Finger, J; Lampert, T

    2013-05-01

    Regular physical activity can have a positive effect on health at any age. Today's lifestyles, however, can often be characterised as sedentary. Therefore, the promotion of physical activity and sports has become an integral part of public health measures. The representative data of adults aged 18 to 79 years in Germany obtained from the "German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults" (DEGS1) provide an overview of self-estimated current physical activity behaviour. The results show that one third of the adult population claims to pay close attention to reaching a sufficient level of physical activity and one fourth participates in sports for at least 2 h/week on a regular basis. Thus, the percentage of adults regularly engaged in sports has increased compared to the previous "German National Health Interview and Examination Survey 1998". Still, four out of five adults do not achieve at least 2.5 h/week of moderate-intensity physical activity as recommended by the World Health Organisation. Consequently, future individual-level and population-level interventions should focus on target group-specific measures while continuing to promote regular physical activity in all segments of the population. An English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink as supplemental.

  15. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  16. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  17. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  18. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  19. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  20. 40 CFR 209.35 - Conclusion of hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 209.35 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE NOISE CONTROL ACT OF 1972 Rules of Practice Governing Hearings for Orders Issued Under Section 11(d) of the Noise Control Act § 209.35 Conclusion of hearing....

  1. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 952.23 Section... RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY ORDERS (EFF. UNTIL 7-22-2011) § 952.23 Proposed findings and..., unless at the discretion of the presiding officer such is not appropriate, submit proposed findings...

  2. 20 CFR 901.48 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 901.48 Section 901.48 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE... Law Judge, before making his/her decision, shall give the parties a reasonable opportunity to...

  3. When Proofs Reflect More on Assumptions than Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawkins, Paul Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how questions of "provability" can help students engaged in reinvention of mathematical theory to understand the axiomatic game. While proof demonstrates how conclusions follow from assumptions, "provability" characterizes the dual relation that assumptions are "justified" when they afford…

  4. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  5. 45 CFR 672.19 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 672.19 Section 672.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... reply briefs must be submitted. All submissions shall be in writing, shall be served upon all...

  6. 45 CFR 672.19 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 672.19 Section 672.19 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE... reply briefs must be submitted. All submissions shall be in writing, shall be served upon all...

  7. 39 CFR 912.14 - Conclusiveness of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provisions of the Federal Tort Claims Act, shall be final and conclusive on the claimant, his agent, or legal... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES PROCEDURES TO ADJUDICATE CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.14...

  8. 39 CFR 912.14 - Conclusiveness of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provisions of the Federal Tort Claims Act, shall be final and conclusive on the claimant, his agent, or legal... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES PROCEDURES TO ADJUDICATE CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.14...

  9. 39 CFR 912.14 - Conclusiveness of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provisions of the Federal Tort Claims Act, shall be final and conclusive on the claimant, his agent, or legal... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES PROCEDURES TO ADJUDICATE CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.14...

  10. 39 CFR 912.14 - Conclusiveness of remedy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provisions of the Federal Tort Claims Act, shall be final and conclusive on the claimant, his agent, or legal... Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES PROCEDURES TO ADJUDICATE CLAIMS FOR PERSONAL INJURY OR PROPERTY DAMAGE ARISING OUT OF THE OPERATION OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE § 912.14...

  11. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46 Section 511.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings §...

  12. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46 Section 511.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings §...

  13. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section 2700.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW... supporting briefs. The proposals shall be served upon all parties, and shall contain adequate references...

  14. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  15. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  16. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  17. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  18. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  19. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase. PMID:15890680

  20. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase.

  1. Activity based financing in England: the need for continual refinement of payment by results.

    PubMed

    Street, Andrew; Maynard, Alan

    2007-10-01

    The English National Health Service is introducing activity based tariff systems or Payment by Results (PbR) as the basis for hospital funding. The funding arrangements provide incentives for increasing activity, particularly day surgery, and, uniquely, are based on costing data from all hospitals. But prices should not be based on average costs and the potential of PbR to improve the quality of care is yet to be exploited. Without refinement, PbR threatens to undermine expenditure control, to divert resources away from primary care, and to distort needs based funding. PMID:18634642

  2. Epidermal Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Activation and Ultraviolet B Radiation Result in Synergistic Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Production

    PubMed Central

    Wolverton, Jay E.; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Yao, Yongxue; Zhang, Qiwei; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is a potent stimulator of epidermal cytokine production which has been implicated in photoaggravated dermatoses. In addition to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), UVB generates bioactive lipids including platelet-activating factor (PAF). Our previous studies have demonstrated that UVB-mediated production of keratinocyte TNF-α is in part due to PAF. The current studies use a human PAF-receptor (PAF-R) negative epithelial cell line transduced with PAF-Rs and PAF–R-deficient mice to demonstrate that activation of the epidermal PAF-R along with UVB irradiation results in a synergistic production of TNF-α. It should be noted that PAF-R effects are mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) agonist phorbol myristic acetate, and are inhibited by pharmacological antagonists of the PKC gamma isoenzyme. These studies suggest that concomitant PAF-R activation and UVB irradiation results in a synergistic production of the cytokine TNF-α which is mediated in part via PKC. These studies provide a novel potential mechanism for photosensitivity responses. PMID:19769579

  3. Mouse strain-dependent caspase activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity does not result in apoptosis or modulation of inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; Koerner, Michael R.; Lampe, Jed N.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-12-15

    The mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatic oncotic necrosis have been extensively characterized. However, it was recently demonstrated that fed CD-1 mice have a transient caspase activation which initiates apoptosis. To evaluate these findings in more detail, outbred (Swiss Webster, SW) and inbred (C57BL/6) mice were treated with APAP with or without pan-caspase inhibitor and compared to the apoptosis model of galactosamine (GalN)/endotoxin (ET). Fasted or fed APAP-treated C57BL/6 mice showed no evidence of caspase-3 processing or activity. Interestingly, a minor, temporary increase in caspase-3 processing and activity (150% above baseline) was observed after APAP treatment only in fed SW mice. The degree of caspase-3 activation in SW mice after APAP was minor compared to that observed in GalN/ET-treated mice (1600% above baseline). The pancaspase inhibitor attenuated caspase activation and resulted in increased APAP-induced injury (plasma ALT, necrosis scoring). The caspase inhibitor did not affect apoptosis because regardless of treatment only < 0.5% of hepatocytes showed consistent apoptotic morphology after APAP. In contrast, > 20% apoptotic cells were observed in GalN/ET-treated mice. Presence of the caspase inhibitor altered hepatic glutathione levels in SW mice, which could explain the exacerbation of injury. Additionally, the infiltration of hepatic neutrophils was not altered by the fed state of either mouse strain. Conclusion: Minor caspase-3 activation without apoptotic cell death can be observed only in fed mice of some outbred strains. These findings suggest that although the severity of APAP-induced liver injury varies between fed and fasted animals, the mechanism of cell death does not fundamentally change. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During acetaminophen overdose caspase-3 can be activated in fed mice of certain outbred strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hepatic ATP levels are not the determining factor for caspase

  4. Report of a successful ongoing pregnancy as a result of IMSI with assisted oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Doroftei, Bogdan; Zlei, Mihaela; Simionescu, Gabriela; Maftei, Radu; Cumpata, Simona; Emerson, Geraldine

    2015-05-03

    We report a successful ongoing pregnancy obtained in a case of total globozoospermia after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) with oocyte activation. The first semen analysis on investigation showed partial globozoospermia. However, under high magnification assessment at oocyte retrieval only round headed sperm were observed. Considering the high risk of a complete failure to fertilize from IMSI the couple gave written informed consent to the use of oocyte activation media post IMSI. One embryo fertilized, developed to a hatching blastocyst and was transferred resulting in an ongoing pregnancy. This successful outcome shows the use of IMSI is useful in the evaluation of total globozooozpermia and therefore aids in the justification of the use of oocyte activation media.

  5. PP2A inhibition results in hepatic insulin resistance despite Akt2 activation.

    PubMed

    Galbo, Thomas; Perry, Rachel J; Nishimura, Erica; Samuel, Varman T; Quistorff, Bjørn; Shulman, Gerald I

    2013-10-01

    In the liver, insulin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating Akt, which inactivates the key gluconeogenic transcription factor FoxO1 (Forkhead Box O1). Recent studies have implicated hyperactivity of the Akt phosphatase Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and impaired Akt signaling as a molecular defect underlying insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that PP2A inhibition would enhance insulin-stimulated Akt activity and decrease glucose production. PP2A inhibitors increased hepatic Akt phosphorylation and inhibited FoxO1in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes. Paradoxically, PP2A inhibition exacerbated insulin resistance in vivo. This was explained by phosphorylation of both hepatic glycogen synthase (GS) (inactivation) and phosphorylase (activation) resulting in impairment of glycogen storage. Our findings underline the significance of GS and Phosphorylase as hepatic PP2A substrates and importance of glycogen metabolism in acute plasma glucose regulation. PMID:24150286

  6. HIV-1 Tat Protein Increases Microglial Outward K+ Current and Resultant Neurotoxic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianuo; Xu, Peng; Collins, Cory; Liu, Han; Zhang, Jingdong; Keblesh, James P.; Xiong, Huangui

    2013-01-01

    Microglia plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders. Increasing evidence indicates the voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are involved in the regulation of microglia function, prompting us to hypothesize Kv channels may also be involved in microglia-mediated neurotoxic activity in HIV-1-infected brain. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the involvement of Kv channels in the response of microglia to HIV-1 Tat protein. Treatment of rat microglia with HIV-1 Tat protein (200 ng/ml) resulted in pro-inflammatory microglial activation, as indicated by increases in TNF-α, IL-1β, reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide, which were accompanied by enhanced outward K+ current and Kv1.3 channel expression. Suppression of microglial Kv1.3 channel activity, either with Kv1.3 channel blockers Margatoxin, 5-(4-Phenoxybutoxy)psoralen, or broad-spectrum K+ channel blocker 4-Aminopyridine, or by knockdown of Kv1.3 expression via transfection of microglia with Kv1.3 siRNA, was found to abrogate the neurotoxic activity of microglia resulting from HIV-1 Tat exposure. Furthermore, HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis was attenuated with the application of supernatant collected from K+ channel blocker-treated microglia. Lastly, the intracellular signaling pathways associated with Kv1.3 were investigated and enhancement of microglial Kv1.3 was found to correspond with an increase in Erk1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. These data suggest targeting microglial Kv1.3 channels may be a potential new avenue of therapy for inflammation-mediated neurological disorders. PMID:23738010

  7. Highlights and Conclusions of the Unidata OGC Interoperability Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenico, B.; Davis, E.; Rew, R.; Caron, J.; Nativi, S.; Yang, W.; Falke, S.; Woolf, A.; Tandy, J.

    2007-12-01

    At the OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Technical Committee meetings, Unidata hosted a special Interoperability Day workshop to address the use of web services via standard interfaces for accessing a broad range of environmental data. These interfaces include: WCS (Web Coverage Service), WFS (Web Feature Service, SOS (Sensor Observation Service, CS-W/ebRIM (Catalog Service for the Web / electronic business Registry Information Model) for providing access to data currently served via THREDDS (THematic Real-time Environmental Distributed Data Services), OPeNDAP (Open source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol), netCDF-CF (network Common Data Form - Climate and Forecast conventions) and IDD/LDM (Internet Data Distribution / Local Data Manager) technologies. The primary data served includes weather, climate and ocean data from the community sometimes referred to as Fluid Earth Sciences (FES). An international set of representatives from industry, government, and academia, spanning many geosciences disciplines participated actively in the workshop and are committed to continued collaboration. The overall objective for the day was to come up with practical and concrete ideas for how to deliver various classes of FES data via web services through the standard interfaces. The primary focus was on gridded datasets (e.g., forecast model output) and station/observation/point datasets (e.g. the observational data collected at weather stations, ocean buoys, river gaging stations. As time allowed, other categories (profile/trajectory, swath, radial, unstructured grids) were addressed. The main objective was to come up with a realistic plan for dealing with gridded and station/observation/point datasets. Then the remaining categories can be addressed incrementally. This presentation summarizes the highlights of the Interoperability Day and the resulting plans for future implementation and testing.

  8. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  9. Silencing of Doublecortin-Like (DCL) Results in Decreased Mitochondrial Activity and Delayed Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Verissimo, Carla S.; Elands, Rachel; Cheng, Sou; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan; ter Horst, Judith P.; Alme, Maria N.; Pont, Chantal; van de Water, Bob; Håvik, Bjarte; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; Vreugdenhil, Erno

    2013-01-01

    Doublecortin-like (DCL) is a microtubule-binding protein crucial for neuroblastoma (NB) cell proliferation. We have investigated whether the anti-proliferative effect of DCL knockdown is linked to reduced mitochondrial activity. We found a delay in tumor development after DCL knockdown in vivo in doxycycline-inducible NB tumor xenografts. To understand the mechanisms underlying this tumor growth retardation we performed a series of in vitro experiments in NB cell lines. DCL colocalizes with mitochondria, interacts with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein OMP25/ SYNJ2BP and DCL knockdown results in decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, DCL knockdown decreases cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. We identified the C-terminal Serine/Proline-rich domain and the second microtubule-binding area as crucial DCL domains for the regulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. Furthermore, DCL knockdown causes a significant reduction in the proliferation rate of NB cells under an energetic challenge induced by low glucose availability. Together with our previous studies, our results corroborate DCL as a key player in NB tumor growth in which DCL controls not only mitotic spindle formation and the stabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, but also regulates mitochondrial activity and energy availability, which makes DCL a promising molecular target for NB therapy. PMID:24086625

  10. Statistical Conclusion Validity: Some Common Threats and Simple Remedies

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research is to produce dependable knowledge or to provide the evidence that may guide practical decisions. Statistical conclusion validity (SCV) holds when the conclusions of a research study are founded on an adequate analysis of the data, generally meaning that adequate statistical methods are used whose small-sample behavior is accurate, besides being logically capable of providing an answer to the research question. Compared to the three other traditional aspects of research validity (external validity, internal validity, and construct validity), interest in SCV has recently grown on evidence that inadequate data analyses are sometimes carried out which yield conclusions that a proper analysis of the data would not have supported. This paper discusses evidence of three common threats to SCV that arise from widespread recommendations or practices in data analysis, namely, the use of repeated testing and optional stopping without control of Type-I error rates, the recommendation to check the assumptions of statistical tests, and the use of regression whenever a bivariate relation or the equivalence between two variables is studied. For each of these threats, examples are presented and alternative practices that safeguard SCV are discussed. Educational and editorial changes that may improve the SCV of published research are also discussed. PMID:22952465

  11. Combustion of dried animal dung as biofuel results in the generation of highly redox active fine particulates

    PubMed Central

    Mudway, Ian S; Duggan, Sean T; Venkataraman, Chandra; Habib, Gazala; Kelly, Frank J; Grigg, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Background The burning of biomass in the developing world for heating and cooking results in high indoor particle concentrations. Long-term exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with increased rates of acute respiratory infections, chronic obstructive lung disease and cancer. In this study we determined the oxidative activity of combustion particles derived from the biomass fuel dung cake by examining their capacity to deplete antioxidants from a model human respiratory tract lining fluid (RTLF). For comparison, the observed oxidative activity was compared with that of particles derived from industrial and vehicular sources. Results Incubation of the dung cake particle suspensions in the RTLF for 4 h resulted in a mean loss of ascorbate of 72.1 ± 0.7 and 89.7 ± 2.5% at 50 and 100 μg/ml, respectively. Reduced glutathione was depleted by 49.6 ± 4.3 and 63.5 ± 22.4% under the same conditions. The capacity of these samples to deplete ascorbate was in excess of that observed with diesel or gasoline particles, but comparable to that seen with residual oil fly ash and considerably in excess of all three control particles in terms of glutathione depletion. Co-incubation with the metal chelator diethylenetriaminepentaacetate inhibited these losses, whilst minimal inhibition was seen with superoxide dismutase and catalase treatment. The majority of the activity observed appeared to be contained within aqueous particle extracts. Conclusion These data demonstrate that biomass derived particles have considerable oxidative activity, largely attributable to their transition metal content. PMID:16202154

  12. F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test results viewed from an active controls perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalai, K. J.; Deets, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire flight test program are presented, along with the implications for active controls applications. The closed loop performance of the digital control system agreed well with the sampled-data system design predictions. The digital fly-by-wire mechanization also met pilot flying qualities requirements. The advantages of mechanizing the control laws in software became apparent during the flight program and were realized without sacrificing overall system reliability. This required strict software management. The F-8 flight test results are shown to be encouraging in light of the requirements that must be met by control systems for flight-critical active controls applications.

  13. [Results of active surveillance in low and intermediate risk prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Llorente, Carlos; Diaz Goizueta, Francisco Javier; Hernandez, Virginia; de la Morena, Jose Manuel; de la Peña, Enrique

    2014-06-01

    In this article we review the most significant published papers on active surveillance in prostate cancer and present the results of our case series. We used as main response variables the percentage of patients remaining in surveillance and the oncological results presented as global, cancer specific and metastasis free survivals. Globally, in published series 71.2% of patients included in active surveillance programs, 10-year overall survival is 68% in the series with longer follow up, and cancer-specific survival varies from 97% to 100%. In our series of 144 patients with median follow up of 3.2 years, 76.3% of the patients continue on surveillance. 24 patients (15.9%) stopped surveillance due to histological progression. 5 patients (21.3%) out of the 23 undergoing surgery presented unfavorable pathological criteria on prostatectomy specimen. No patient has died or developed metastases.

  14. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    -ray radiation. The team concludes that it is likely to be due to the nearly instantaneous, non-symmetrical collapse of the inner region of a highly developed star (known as the "collapsar" model) . The March 29 gamma-ray burst will pass into the annals of astrophysics as a rare "type-defining event", providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars . PR Photo 17a/03 : Image of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 (VLT FORS1+2). PR Photo 17b/03 : A series of VLT spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329. What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the dramatic events known as "gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by sensitive instruments on-board orbiting military satellites, launched for the surveillance and detection of nuclear tests. Originating, not on the Earth, but far out in space, these short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite major observational efforts, it is only within the last six years that it has become possible to pinpoint with some accuracy the sites of some of these events. With the invaluable help of comparatively accurate positional observations of the associated X-ray emission by various X-ray satellite observatories since early 1997, astronomers have until now identified about fifty short-lived sources of optical light associated with GRBs (the "optical afterglows"). Most GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00 . During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of massive

  15. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  16. OMP gene deletion results in an alteration in odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, S L; Kent, P F; Margolis, F L

    2003-12-01

    Previous behavioral work, using a complex five-odorant identification task, demonstrated that olfactory marker protein (OMP) is critically involved in odor processing to the extent that its loss results in an alteration in odorant quality perception. Exactly how the lack of OMP exerts its influence on the perception of odorant quality is unknown. However, there is considerable neurophysiological evidence that different odorants produce different spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity at the level of the mucosa and that these patterns predict the psychophysically determined perceptual relationship among odorants. In this respect, OMP gene deletion is known to result in a constellation of physiologic defects (i.e., marked reduction in the electroolfactogram (EOG) and altered response and recovery kinetics) that would be expected to alter the odorant-induced spatiotemporal activity patterns that are characteristic of different odorants. This, in turn, would be expected to alter the spatiotemporal patterning of information that results from the mucosal projection onto the bulb, thereby changing odorant quality perception. To test the hypothesis that odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns are altered in mice lacking the gene for OMP, we optically recorded the fluorescent changes in response to odorant stimulation from both the septum and turbinates of both OMP-null and control mice using a voltage-sensitive dye (di-4-ANEPPS Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and a Dalsa 120 x 120, 12-bit CCD camera. To maintain continuity with the previous behavioral work, the odorants 2-propanol, citral, carvone, ethylacetoacetate, and propyl acetate were again used. Each odorant was randomly presented to each mucosal surface in a Latin-Square design. The results of this study demonstrated that, for both mouse strains, there do indeed exist different spatiotemporal activity patterns for different odorants. More importantly, however, these patterns significantly differed between OMP

  17. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  18. Effects of geomagnetic activity variations on the physiological and psychological state of functionally healthy humans: Some results of Azerbaijani studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayev, Elchin S.; Allahverdiyeva, Aysel A.

    There are collaborative and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences conducted with purposes of revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems. This paper describes some results of the experimental studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of geomagnetic activity upon human brain, human health and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. It is experimentally established that weak and moderate geomagnetic storms do not cause significant changes in the brain's bioelectrical activity and exert only stimulating influence while severe disturbances of geomagnetic conditions cause negative influence, seriously disintegrate brain's functionality, activate braking processes and amplify the negative emotional background of an individual. It is concluded that geomagnetic disturbances affect mainly emotional and vegetative spheres of human beings while characteristics reflecting personality properties do not undergo significant changes.

  19. Primary patellar tendon repair and early mobilization: results in an active-duty population.

    PubMed

    Enad, J G; Loomis, L L

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 13 patellar tendon repairs done over 32 months at a tertiary care, military medical center. Early mobilization was initiated within 2 weeks postoperatively. Clinical and functional results were statistically examined with relation to age, timing of surgery, length of follow-up, quadriceps atrophy, extensor lag, patella position, and time to full duty. At an average of 24 months' follow-up, six patients (46%) had thigh girth atrophy, and one patient (8%) had an extensor lag >5 degrees. Mean Lysholm score was 84 (range, 57 to 100). Maximum postoperative Tegner activity scores averaged 7.1 (range, 5 to 10). Clinical results classified five cases as excellent, three good, three fair, and two poor. Functional results classified three cases as excellent, four good, two fair, and four poor. Time to return to duty averaged 13 months. Our results suggest that adequate extensor function can be restored after primary repair and immediate motion therapy.

  20. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: lessons and conclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1970-01-01

    local waves. Better earthquake-hazard maps, based on improved knowledge of regional geology, fault behavior, and earthquake mechanisms, are needed for the entire country. Their preparation will require the close collaboration of engineers, seismologists, and geologists. Geologic maps of all inhabited places in earthquake-prone parts of the country are also needed by city planners and others, because the direct relationship between local geology and potential earthquake damage is now well understood. Improved and enlarged nets of earthquake-sensing instruments, sited in relation to known geology, are needed, as are many more geodetic and hydrographic measurements. Every large earthquake, wherever located, should be regarded as a full-scale laboratory experiment whose study can give scientific and engineering information unobtainable from any other source. Plans must be made before the event to insure staffing, funding, and coordination of effort for the scientific and engineering study of future earthquakes. Advice of earth scientists and engineers should be used in the decision-making processes involved in reconstruction after any future disastrous earthquake, as was done after the Alaska earthquake. The volume closes with a selected bibliography and a comprehensive index to the entire series of U.S. Geological Survey Professional Papers 541-546. This is the last in a series of six reports that the U.S. Geological Survey published on the results of a comprehensive geologic study that began, as a reconnaissance survey, within 24 hours after the March 27, 1964, Magnitude 9.2 Great Alaska Earthquake and extended, as detailed investigations, through several field seasons. The 1964 Great Alaska earthquake was the largest earthquake in the U.S. since 1700. Professional Paper 546, in 1 part, describes Lessons and Conclusions.

  1. The Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop Activities FIN-1 and FIN-2: Overview and Selected Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, O.; Cziczo, D. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Hiranuma, N.; Petters, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of aerosol particles for ice formation in clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the Earth's weather and climate systems, which is related to the poor knowledge of ice nucleation microphysics or of the nature and atmospheric abundance of ice nucleating particles (INPs). During the recent years, new mobile instruments were developed for measuring the concentration, size and chemical composition of INPs, which were tested during the three-part Fifth International Ice Nucleation (FIN) workshop. The FIN activities addressed not only instrument issues, but also important science topics like the nature of atmospheric INP and cloud ice residuals, the ice nucleation activity of relevant atmospheric aerosols, or the parameterization of ice formation in atmospheric weather and climate models. The first activity FIN-1 was conducted during November 2014 at the AIDA cloud chamber. It involved co-locating nine single particle mass spectrometers to evaluate how well they resolve the INP and ice residual composition and how spectra from different instruments compare for relevant atmospheric aerosols. We conducted about 90 experiments with mineral, carbonaceous and biological aerosol types, some also coated with organic and inorganic compounds. The second activity FIN-2 was conducted during March 2015 at the AIDA facility. A total of nine mobile INP instruments directly sampled from the AIDA aerosol chambers. Wet suspension and filter samples were also taken for offline INP processing. A refereed blind intercomparison was conducted during two days of the FIN-2 activity. The third activity FIN-3 will take place at the Desert Research Institute's Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in order to test the instruments' performance in the field. This contribution will introduce the FIN activities, summarize first results from the formal part of FIN-2, and discuss selected results, mainly from FIN-1 for the effect of coating on the ice nucleation (IN) by mineral

  2. Activation of thalamus in motor imagery results from gating by hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Müller, Katharina; Bacht, Katrin; Prochnow, Denise; Schramm, Stefanie; Seitz, Rüdiger J

    2013-02-01

    The ability to mentally imagine the performance of automatic movements has been well-established being employed in sports and physiotherapy as a tool for motor learning and rehabilitation. This is probably mediated by engagement of the same brain areas as during real motor performance. Here we investigated the effect of hypnotic trance on the cerebral activation pattern engaged in motor imagery in 16 healthy, right-handed subjects using fMRI. Motor imagery as compared with rest was related to activations in the left medial frontal areas (preSMA/SMA), prefrontal- and frontal areas, putamen and inferior parietal areas. When compared with performance of the same movements motor imagery resulted in activation of the left middle frontal cortex, precuneus, and posterior cingulate. Under hypnotic trance there was one extra-activation in the left thalamus which occurred specifically in the motor imagery condition. The regional beta indices were highly correlated among the areas of the cortical-subcortical motor network. Our data accord with the notion that hypnotic trance enhances the motor control circuit engaged in motor imagery by modulating the gating function of the thalamus.

  3. Activation of Benznidazole by Trypanosomal Type I Nitroreductases Results in Glyoxal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Belinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Benznidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole, is the front-line treatment used against American trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite nearly 40 years of use, the trypanocidal activity of this prodrug is not fully understood. It has been proposed that benznidazole activation leads to the formation of reductive metabolites that can cause a series of deleterious effects, including DNA damage and thiol depletion. Here, we show that the key step in benznidazole activation involves an NADH-dependent trypanosomal type I nitroreductase. This catalyzes an oxygen-insensitive reaction with the interaction of enzyme, reductant, and prodrug occurring through a ping-pong mechanism. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the resultant metabolites identified 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazole as the major product of a reductive pathway proceeding through hydroxylamine and hydroxy intermediates. The breakdown of this product released the reactive dialdehyde glyoxal, which, in the presence of guanosine, generated guanosine-glyoxal adducts. These experiments indicate that the reduction of benznidazole by type I nitroreductase activity leads to the formation of highly reactive metabolites and that the expression of this enzyme is key to the trypanocidal properties displayed by the prodrug. PMID:22037852

  4. Massive transfusion protocol activation does not result in preferential use of older red blood cells.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Lauren M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Cramer, James; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Sperry, Jason L; Peitzman, Andrew B; Raval, Jay S; Neal, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Widespread, anecdotal belief exists that patients receiving massive transfusion, particularly those for whom a massive transfusion protocol (MTP) is activated, are more likely to receive older red blood cells (RBCs). Retrospective review of blood bank records from calendar year 2011 identified 131 patients emergently issued ≥10 RBC units (emergency release (ER)) prior to obtaining a type and screen. This cohort was subclassified based on whether there was MTP activation. For comparison, 176 identified patients transfused with ≥10 RBC units in a routine fashion over 24 hours represented the nonemergency release (nER) cohort. Though the median age of ER RBCs was 5 days older than nER RBCs (ER 20, nER 15 days, P < 0.001), both fell within the third week of storage. Regardless of MTP activation, transfused ER RBCs had the same median age (MTP 20, no-MTP 20 days, P = 0.069). In the ER cohort, transition to type-specific blood components increased the median age of transfused RBC units from 17 to 36 days (P < 0.001). These data refute the anecdotal belief that MTP activation results in transfusion of older RBCs. However, upon transition to type-specific blood components, the age of RBCs enters a range in which it is hypothesized that there may be a significant effect of storage age on clinical outcomes.

  5. Changes in electrical activity in muscles resulting from chiropractic adjustment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, P

    1987-12-01

    This study examines the effects of chiropractic adjustment on the muscles of the back. Vertebrae that are hypomobile may be held in that state by the erector spinae muscle group; adjusting such vertebrae should result in less muscle tension. By measuring the change in electrical activity, such relaxation can be observed. Hypomobile vertebrae were found by motion palpation. The patient was then placed prone and surface electrodes were placed over the upper trapezius, upper erector spinae (T3-T5), and lumbar erector spinae (L1-L3) muscle groups on both sides of the body. The patient was adjusted using full spine toggle recoil thrusts, and postadjustment readings were taken. Results from this study show that significant changes in muscle electrical activity occur as a consequence of adjusting. On average, a 25% reduction in muscle activity was observed across the 20 subjects tested, while no significant reductions were observed with the control group of 14 subjects. Significant reductions in side-to-side imbalances were also observed.

  6. Incorporation of Cobalt‐Cyclen Complexes into Templated Nanogels Results in Enhanced Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Ana Rita; Chernobryva, Mariya; Rigby, Stephen E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in nanomaterials have identified nanogels as an excellent matrix for novel biomimetic catalysts using the molecular imprinting approach. Polymerisable Co‐cyclen complexes with phosphonate and carbonate templates have been prepared, fully characterised and used to obtain nanogels that show high activity and turnover with low catalytic load, compared to the free complex, in the hydrolysis of 4‐nitrophenyl phosphate, a nerve agent simulant. This work demonstrates that the chemical structure of the template has an impact on the coordination geometry and oxidation state of the metal centre in the polymerisable complex resulting in very significant changes in the catalytic properties of the polymeric matrix. Both pseudo‐octahedral cobalt(III) and trigonal‐bipyramidal cobalt(II) structures have been used for the synthesis of imprinted nanogels, and the catalytic data demonstrate that: i) the imprinted nanogels can be used in 15 % load and show turnover; ii) the structural differences in the polymeric matrices resulting from the imprinting approach with different templates are responsible for the molecular recognition capabilities and the catalytic activity. Nanogel P1, imprinted with the carbonate template, shows >50 % higher catalytic activity than P2 imprinted with the phosphonate. PMID:26661923

  7. Changes in the cardiac muscle electric activity as a result of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajek, Magdalena; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Kalawski, Ryszard; Kulczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Many bioelectric signals have a complex internal structure that can be a rich source of information on the tissue or cell processes. The structure of such signals can be analysed in detail by applying digital methods of signal processing. Therefore, of substantial use in diagnosis of the coronary arterial disease is the method of digital enhancement of increasing signal resolution ECG (NURSE-ECG), permitting detection of temporary changes in the electric potentials in the cardiac muscle in the process of depolarisation. Thanks to the application of NURSE-ECG it has become possible to detect relatively small changes in the electric activity of particular fragments of the cardiac muscle undetectable by the standard ECG method, caused by ischemia, the effect of a drug or infarct. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) operation. In this study the method of NURSE-ECG has been applied in order to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the CABG operation. In the study performed in cooperation of the Institute of Physics Adam Mickiewicz University and the Strus Hospital, Cardiac Surgery Ward, 37 patients with advanced coronary arterial disease were asked to participate. The patients were examined prior to the operation, on the day after the operation and two months after the operation and a year after the operation. The ECG recordings were subjected to a numerical procedure of resolution enhancement by a NURSE-ECG program to reveal the tentative changes in the electric potential of the cardiac muscle on its depolarisation. Results of the study have shown that the NURSE ECG method can be applied to monitor changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle occurring as a result of CABG operation. One the second day after the operation in the majority of patients (70%) a rapid decrease of the total

  8. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-02-20

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na{sup +}-channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  9. Long term results of mechanical prostheses for treatment of active infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area.
RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis.


Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564

  10. [Outline of political conclusions of multiple regressions: integrants and problems].

    PubMed

    Dixon, R B

    1978-01-01

    In this article the author criticizes the methodology and the findings of an article by Mauldin and Berelson which appeared in 1978 in Studies in Family Planning about population decrease in developing countries and about its implications on population policies. According to the author that article did not take into consideration: 1) the fact that socioeconomic conditions in a given country are more important than family planning programs for a decrease in fertility rate; 2) the fact that it is not known which kinds of family planning programs are more effective, and which kind of social level is more conducive to fertility decrease; and, 3) the status and educational level of women in the countries studied. In conclusion, the author states that the findings of Mauldin and Berelson, although interesting, imply arbitrary procedures and statistics, and cannot be used for the purpose of population policy.

  11. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions.

    PubMed

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  12. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  13. Activation of TLR3/interferon signaling pathway by bluetongue virus results in HIV inhibition in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ming; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Sang, Ming; Liu, Jin-Biao; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus, is a potent inducer of type Ι interferons in multiple cell systems. In this study, we report that BTV16 treatment of primary human macrophages induced both type I and III IFN expression, resulting in the production of multiple antiviral factors, including myxovirus resistance protein A, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and the IFN-stimulated gene 56. Additionally, BTV-treated macrophages expressed increased HIV restriction factors (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 G/F/H) and CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted), the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor CC chemokine receptor type 5. BTV16 also induced the expression of tetherin, which restricts HIV release from infected cells. Furthermore, TLR3 signaling of macrophages by BTV16 resulted in the induction of several anti-HIV microRNAs (miRNA-28, -29a, -125b, -150, -223, and -382). More importantly, the induction of antiviral responses by BTV resulted in significant suppression of HIV in macrophages. These findings demonstrate the potential of BTV-mediated TLR3 activation in macrophage innate immunity against HIV.

  14. Proteolysis of decellularized extracellular matrices results in loss of fibronectin and cell binding activity.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Anand; Karuri, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Excessive inflammation in the chronic wound bed is believed to result in increased fibronectin (FN) proteolysis and poor tissue repair. However, FN fragments can prime the immune response and result in higher protease levels. The reciprocity between FN proteolysis and inflammation makes it challenging to determine the specific contribution of FN proteolysis in the extracellular matrix (ECM) on tissue responses. We studied the impact of proteolysis of decellularized extracellular matrices (dECMs) obtained from NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts on FN level and activity. The dECMs were treated with α chymotrypsin and proteolysis was stopped at different time points. The protease solution was obtained, the remaining dECM was scrapped and examined by immunoblotting and Bicinchoninic Acid assays. Fibronectin was 9.4 ± 1.8% of the total protein content in the dECM but was more susceptible to proteolysis. After 15 min of protease treatment there was a 67.6% and 11.1% decrease in FN and total protein, respectively, in the dECMs. Fibronectin fragments were present both in the proteolysis solution and in the dECM. Cell adhesion, spreading and actin extensions on dECMs decreased with increasing proteolysis time. Interestingly, the solutions obtained after proteolysis of the dECMs supported cell adhesion and spreading in a time dependent manner, thus demonstrating the presence of FN cell binding activity in the protease solution of dECMs. This study demonstrates the susceptibility of FN in the ECM to proteolysis and the resulting loss of cell adhesion due to the decrease of FN activity and places weight on bioengineering strategies to stabilize FN against proteolysis.

  15. Chronic ethanol consumption by mice results in activated splenic T cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Kejing; Coleman, Ruth A; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Alber, Carol; Ballas, Zuhair K; Waldschmidt, Thomas J; Cook, Robert T

    2002-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that T cells from human alcoholics overexpress activation or memory markers such as human leukocyte antigen-DR, CD45RO, CD57, and CD11b and may have reduced levels of CD62L. In those studies, we demonstrated that the increased CD57(+) T cell population rapidly produces interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha, independent of a second signal requirement, consistent with an increased effector T cell population. In contrast to the length of alcohol abuse by human alcoholics, most work with mice has involved 2-week ethanol exposures or less, which result in decreased IFN-gamma responses. In the present work, we have evaluated C57Bl/6 or BALB/c mice, which were administered 20% w/v ethanol in water for 3-13 weeks. In these mice, rapid cytoplasmic IFN-gamma expression by T cells after stimulation through the T cell receptor was significantly increased versus normals. Studies of surface-activation markers showed that T cells from chronically ethanol-fed mice had reduced CD62L expression and an increased percentage of CD44(hi) T cells. The CD44(hi) subset was largely second signal-independent for secreted IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-4 production at early times after stimulation. The enriched T cells of chronic ethanol mice secreted more IFN-gamma and IL-4 than controls and equivalent IL-2 at early times after stimulation (6-24 h). The overall results support the concept that in humans and mice, chronic alcohol exposure of sufficient duration results in T cell activation or sensitization in vivo and an increased percentage of the effector/memory subset.

  16. Fluctuations and resulting competing pathways in RNA folding: The activation of splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1991-01-01

    We implement a parallel processing Monte Carlo simulation to explore RNA configuration space that takes into account fluctuations in base-pairing patterns. The choice of folding pathways is biased by the refolding events that occur as the chain is being assembled. We prove that fluctuations in the initial stages of folding might lead to either active or inactive emerging structures. As an illustration, competing pathways that are the result of fluctuation propagation are computed for the splicing YC4 intron (a segment of the mitochondrial RNA from fungi), and the emerging structures are proved to be biologically relevant.

  17. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  18. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  19. The Formation of CIRs at Stream-Stream Interfaces and Resultant Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.

    2005-01-01

    Corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are regions of compressed plasma formed at the leading edges of corotating high-speed solar wind streams originating in coronal holes as they interact with the preceding slow solar wind. Although particularly prominent features of the solar wind during the declining and minimum phases of the 11-year solar cycle, they may also be present at times of higher solar activity. We describe how CIRs are formed, and their geomagnetic effects, which principally result from brief southward interplanetary magnetic field excursions associated with Alfven waves. Seasonal and long-term variations in these effects are briefly discussed.

  20. Video and film analysis with correlation tracking and active result presentation (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowa, Per

    1990-08-01

    Experience with a turnkey analysis system featuring high resolution video input and display, a modular video disc system and a 16 mm cine film scanner with 2600-point resolution, is presented. Tracking is performed with a high-speed correlation process, requiring no special markers. Software packages for evaluating two and three-dimensional results are interactively accessible. Combining the original image sequence with real-time graphic overlays and active drawing of graphic diagrams, provides for an excellent understanding and documentation of the motion sequences.

  1. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. PMID:27111629

  3. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction.

  4. Efficacy and causal mechanism of an online social media intervention to increase physical activity: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Centola, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify what features of social media – promotional messaging or peer networks – can increase physical activity. Method: A 13-week social media-based exercise program was conducted at a large Northeastern university in Philadelphia, PA. In a randomized controlled trial, 217 graduate students from the University were randomized to three conditions: a control condition with a basic online program for enrolling in weekly exercise classes led by instructors of the University for 13 weeks, a media condition that supplemented the basic program with weekly online promotional media messages that encourage physical activity, and a social condition that replaced the media content with an online network of four to six anonymous peers composed of other participants of the program, in which each participant was able to see their peers' progress in enrolling in classes. The primary outcome was the number of enrollments in exercise classes, and the secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activities. Data were collected in 2014. Results: Participants enrolled in 5.5 classes on average. Compared with enrollment in the control condition (mean = 4.5), promotional messages moderately increased enrollment (mean = 5.7, p = 0.08), while anonymous social networks significantly increased enrollment (mean = 6.3, p = 0.02). By the end of the program, participants in the social condition reported exercising moderately for an additional 1.6 days each week compared with the baseline, which was significantly more than an additional 0.8 days in the control condition. Conclusion: Social influence from anonymous online peers was more successful than promotional messages for improving physical activity. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02267369. PMID:26844132

  5. Regional distribution pattern of groundwater heavy metals resulting from agricultural activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, J.; Mahvi, A. H.; Jahed, G. R.; Babaei, A. A.

    2008-09-01

    Contaminations of groundwater by heavy metals due to agricultural activities are growing recently. The objective of this study was to evaluate and map regional patterns of heavy metals (Cd, Zn and Cu) in groundwater on a plain with high agricultural activities. The study was conducted to investigate the concentration of heavy metals and distribution in groundwater in regions of Shush Danial and Andimeshk aquifers in the southern part of Iran. Presently, groundwater is the only appropriate and widely used source of drinking water for rural and urban communities in this region. The region covers an area of 1,100 km2 between the Dez and Karkhe rivers, which lead to the Persian Gulf. For this study, the region was divided into four sub-regions A, B, C and D. Additionally, 168 groundwater samples were collected from 42 water wells during the earlier months of 2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS-Flame) was used to measure the concentration of heavy metals in water samples and the Surfer software was used for determination of the contour map of metal distribution. The results demonstrated that in all of the samples, Cd and Zn concentrations were below the EPA MCLG and EPA secondary standard, respectively. However, the Cu contents of 4.8 % of all samples were higher than EPA MCL. It is also indicated that the concentrations of metals were more pronounced at the southern part of the studied region than at the others. The analysis of fertilizers applied for agricultural activities at this region also indicated that a great majority of the above-mentioned heavy metals were discharged into the environment. Absence of confining layers, proximity to land surface, excess agricultural activities in the southern part and groundwater flow direction that is generally from the north to the southern parts in this area make the southern region of the Shush plain especially vulnerable to pollution by heavy metals than by other contaminants.

  6. The harms of enhancement and the conclusive reasons view.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Many critics of bioenhancement go to considerable lengths to establish the existence of reasons against pursuing bioenhancements but do little to establish the absence of reasons in favor. This suggests that they accept what Allen Buchanan has called the conclusive reasons view (CRV). According to this view, our reasons against bioenhancement are obviously decisive, so there is no need to balance them against countervailing reasons. Buchanan criticizes the CRV by showing that the reasons most commonly adduced against bioenhancement are not decisive, or, at least, not obviously so. In this article, I suggest that both Buchanan and the authors to whom he is responding underestimate the strength of the case for the CRV. There are, I argue, harm-based reasons against bioenhancement that provide stronger support to the CRV than the reasons that have most often been adduced by critics of enhancement. However, I then argue that even these harm-based reasons are not obviously decisive. Thus, I ultimately agree with Buchanan about the falsity of the CRV, though I disagree with him about the reasons for its falsity.

  7. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  8. Safety and environmental analyses and conclusions for TIBER-II

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Stasko, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The safety and environmental characteristics of the TIBER-II (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design have been studied, focusing on innovative design features. Analyses included accident concerns, maintenance exposure, effluent control, and waste management. Unresolved problems include removal of decay heat from the high activation tungsten inboard shield, provision for rapid, passive, and benign plasma shutoff, compatibility between liquid-metal test modules and water-cooled blanket/shield, and elimination of high level wastes. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. A highly sensitive telomerase activity assay that eliminates false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity.

  10. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  11. A highly sensitive telomerase activity assay that eliminates false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity. PMID:24071983

  12. Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in an active surveillance cohort: results from a baseline analysis in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel W.; Newcomb, Lisa F.; Brown, Elissa C.; Brooks, James D.; Carroll, Peter R.; Feng, Ziding; Gleave, Martin E.; Lance, Raymond S.; Sanda, Martin G.; Thompson, Ian M.; Wei, John T.; Nelson, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance is used to manage low risk prostate cancer. Both PCA3 and TMRPSS2-ERG are promising biomarkers that may be associated with aggressive disease. This study examines the correlation of these biomarkers with higher cancer volume and grade determined at the time of biopsy in an active surveillance cohort. Experimental Design Post-DRE urine was collected prospectively as part of the multi-institutional Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study (PASS). PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG levels were analyzed in urine collected at study entry. Biomarker scores were correlated to clinical and pathologic variables. Results In 387 men, both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were significantly associated with higher volume disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, and 1–10%, 11–33%, ≥34% positive cores, median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores increased incrementally (P < 0.005). Both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores were also significantly associated with presence of high grade disease. For a negative repeat biopsy, Gleason 6 and Gleason ≥7 cancers, the median PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores also increased incrementally (P = 0.02 and P = 0.001, respectively). Using the marker scores as a continuous variables, the odds ratio for a biopsy in which cancer was detected versus a negative repeat biopsy (ref) on modeling was 1.41 (95% CI 1.07–1.85), P = 0.01 for PCA3 and 1.28 (95% CI 1.10–1.49), P = 0.001 for TMPRSS2-ERG. Conclusions For men on active surveillance both PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG appear to stratify risk of having aggressive cancer as defined by tumor volume or Gleason score. PMID:23515404

  13. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Guesly J.; Fort, Dumesle St.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache (“Go and Seek”) was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment.

  14. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Guesly J.; Fort, Dumesle St.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache (“Go and Seek”) was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment. PMID:27668093

  15. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria; Zeiler, Michael; Adamcik, Tanja; Manousek, Matthias; Stamm, Tanja; Krajic, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs) and participants (health status, discipline) rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL). Participants and methods The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female). Results Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36) improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied. Conclusion Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. PMID:26056438

  16. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Experiences, Results, and Implications for Tuberculosis Control Programs.

    PubMed

    Delva, Guesly J; Francois, Ingrid; Claassen, Cassidy W; Dorestan, Darwin; Bastien, Barbara; Medina-Moreno, Sandra; Fort, Dumesle St; Redfield, Robert R; Buchwald, Ulrike K

    2016-01-01

    Background. Haiti has the highest tuberculosis (TB) prevalence in the Americas with 254 cases per 100,000 persons. Case detection relies on passive detection and TB services in many regions suffer from poor diagnostic and clinical resources. Methods. Mache Chache ("Go and Seek") was a TB REACH Wave 3 funded TB case finding project in Port-au-Prince between July 2013 and September 2014, targeting four intervention areas with insufficient TB diagnostic performance. Results. Based on a verbal symptom screen emphasizing the presence of cough, the project identified 11,150 (11.75%) of all screened persons as TB subjects and 2.67% as smear-positive (SS+) TB cases. Enhanced case finding and strengthening of laboratory services led to a 59% increase in bacteriologically confirmed cases in the evaluation population. In addition, smear grades dropped significantly, suggesting earlier case detection. Xpert® MTB/RIF was successfully introduced and improved TB diagnosis in HIV-infected, smear-negative clinic patients, but not in HIV-negative, smear-negative TB suspects in the community. However, the number needed to screen for one additional SS+ case varied widely between clinic and community screening activities. Conclusion. Enhanced and active TB case finding in Haiti can improve TB diagnosis and care. However, screening algorithms have to be tailored to individual settings, necessitating long-term commitment. PMID:27668093

  17. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  18. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    exchanged GOODcoins, the mean balance was 4,000 (95% CI 3850, 4150) at time of redemption, and 50.4% (n=61) of exchanges were for fitness or outdoor products, while 4.1% (n=5) were for food-related items. Participants were most likely to complete challenges when rewards were between 201-300 GOODcoins. Conclusions The purpose of this study is to form a baseline for future research. Overall, results indicate that challenges and incentives may be effective for connected and active members, and may play a role in achieving daily-recommended activity guidelines. Registrants were typically younger, walking was the primary activity, and rewards were mainly exchanged for fitness or outdoor products. Remaining to be determined is whether members were already physically active at time of registration and are representative of healthy adherers, or were previously inactive and were incentivized to change their behavior. As challenges are gamified, there is an opportunity to investigate the role of superusers and healthy adherers, impacts on behavioral norms, and how cooperative games and incentives can be leveraged across stratified populations. Study limitations and future research agendas are discussed. PMID:26821955

  19. Dust loading in Gusev crater, Mars: Results from two active dust devil seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, D. A.; Greeley, R.; Neakrase, L. D.; Landis, G. A.; Whelley, P.; Thompson, S. D.

    2009-12-01

    Dust devils dominate the volcanic plains at the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) landing site within the Low Albedo Zone (LAZ) in Gusev Crater. Previous studies indicate that the inferred pressure drop within the dust devil core allows the vortex to lift large amounts of unconsolidated dust high into the atmosphere which contributes to the atmospheric haze. Previous laboratory results indicate that dust devils are efficient in lifting very fine-grained (<10 μm) material, even when boundary layer winds do not exceed previously predicted threshold wind speeds (~30-35 m/s at 1.5 m above the surface for Mars conditions). Since landing in Gusev crater in January 2004, MER Spirit has obtained data for two dust devil seasons (defined as the period of time when the first and last dust devils were imaged), with a third season currently being analyzed. These seasons typically correspond to southern spring and summer, when winds capable of lifting sediment are determined to be most frequent. All observations for Season One were taken as Spirit neared the summit of Husband Hill. During Season Two Spirit imaged dust devils in the plains as it traversed within the Inner Basin, a low-lying area in the Columbia Hills complex. All results were extrapolated so that they are representative of the entire LAZ. Season One lasted 270 sols (March 2005 to December 2005 corresponding to Ls 173.2 to 339.5 degrees), whereas Season Two lasted 153 sols (January 2007 to June 2007 corresponding to Ls 171.2 to 266.7 degrees) and ended suddenly on sol 1240 just after the dust devil frequency peaked for the season. This abrupt drop in dust devil activity corresponded to atmospheric opacity levels that exceeded 1.0 and the onset of a global dust storm that originated in the southern hemisphere that engulfed Gusev within weeks. Results show a large contrast in activity between the two seasons. An 81% decrease in dust devil frequency across the plains was found in Season Two. 533 dust devils were imaged

  20. Alteration of rare earth element distribution as a result of microbial activity and empirical methane injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, D. J.; Davies, N. W.; Thurber, A. R.; Haley, B. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of warming, methane is being released into the marine environment in areas that have not historically experienced methane input. While methane is a potent greenhouse gas, microbial oxidation of methane within the sediment greatly limits the role of marine methane sources on atmospheric forcing. However, in these areas of new methane release, consumption of methane prior to its release into the atmosphere is a result of the response of the microbial community to this new input of methane. Further, rare earth elements (REEs) are not currently thought to be involved with microbial activity, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here we test that: (1) microbial communities will rapidly respond to the onset of methane emission, and (2) the microbial response to this methane input will impact the distribution of REEs within the sediment. Undisturbed cores sampled from a tidal flat at Yaquina Bay, OR, were brought back to a lab and injected with anoxic seawater (as a control) or anoxic sea water saturated with methane gas for a total of 2 weeks. Aerobic methanotrophs proliferated over this short time period, becoming an abundant member of the microbial community as identified using fatty acid biomarkers. Excitingly, the experimental injection of methane also shifted the distribution of REEs within the sediment, a trend that appeared to follow the microbial response and that was different from the control cores. Further, the lightest REEs appeared to be used more than the heavier ones, supporting that the REEs are being actively used by the microbes. While we focused on identifying the response of those microbes responsible in methane-cycling, we also identified how the entire microbial community shifts as a result of methane input, and correlating with shifts in REE distribution. Here we have empirically demonstrated the rapid response of methanotrophs to the onset of methane emission and that REE distribution within the sediment is likely

  1. CCN Activity, Hygroscopicity, and Droplet Activation Kinetics of Secondary Organic Aerosol Resulting from the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Lathem, T. L.; Cerully, K.; Bahreini, R.; Brock, C. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Nenes, A.; Calnex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    We present an analysis of the hygroscopicity and droplet activation kinetics of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sampled onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D aircraft downwind of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site on June 8th and 10th, 2010. This set of measurements provides a unique case study for assessing in-situ the impact of fresh, hydrocarbonlike aerosols, which are expected to be formed via gas-to-particle conversion of the semi-volatile vapors released from oil evaporation. Similar hydrocarbon-rich aerosols constitute an important local emissions source in urban areas, but often coexist as an external/partially-internal mixture with more-oxidized, aged organic and sulfate aerosol. The DWH site provides the means to study the hygroscopic properties of these less-oxidized organic aerosols above a cleaner environmental background typical of marine environments in order to better discern their contribution to CCN activity and droplet growth. Measurements were performed with a Droplet Measurement Technologies Streamwise, Thermal-Gradient CCN counter, operating both as a counter (s=0.3%) and as a spectrometer (s=0.2-0.6%) using the newly-developed Scanning Flow CCN Analysis (SFCA) technique [1]. The instrument measures both the number concentration of particles able to nucleate droplets and also their resulting droplet sizes. The measured size information combined with a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics instrument model enables us to determine the rate of water uptake onto the particles and parameterize it in terms of an effective mass transfer coefficient [2], a key parameter needed to predict the number of activated droplets in ambient clouds. Non-refractory aerosol chemical composition was measured with an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. It was observed that the aerosols sampled downwind of the site on both days were composed predominantly of organics with a low degree of oxidation and low

  2. Conclusions and Recommendations of the Strategy Consulation on Adolescent Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    The problem of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing is addressed. The document is a result of a conference of youth service agencies, family planning organizations, policy makers, health service providers, and leaders in sex education. Following summaries of participants' discussion of the nature of the problem and strategies for program…

  3. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, F.; Bindslev, H.; Korsholm, S. B.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Leuterer, F.; Woskov, P.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.

    2008-10-15

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110 GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits of the diagnostic. It then describes the commissioning activities carried out to date. These activities include gyrotron studies, transmission line alignment, and beam pattern measurements in the vacuum vessel. Overlap experiments in near perpendicular and near parallel have confirmed the successful alignment of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen.

  4. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited).

    PubMed

    Meo, F; Bindslev, H; Korsholm, S B; Furtula, V; Leuterer, F; Leipold, F; Michelsen, P K; Nielsen, S K; Salewski, M; Stober, J; Wagner, D; Woskov, P

    2008-10-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110 GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits of the diagnostic. It then describes the commissioning activities carried out to date. These activities include gyrotron studies, transmission line alignment, and beam pattern measurements in the vacuum vessel. Overlap experiments in near perpendicular and near parallel have confirmed the successful alignment of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen.

  5. Oscillatory activity in developing prefrontal networks results from theta-gamma-modulated synaptic inputs.

    PubMed

    Bitzenhofer, Sebastian H; Sieben, Kay; Siebert, Kai D; Spehr, Marc; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L

    2015-04-21

    The hippocampus-driven entrainment of neonatal prefrontal circuits in theta-gamma oscillations contributes to the maturation of cognitive abilities, yet the underlying synaptic mechanisms are still unknown. Here we combine patch-clamp recordings from morphologically and neurochemically characterized layer V pyramidal neurons and interneurons in vivo, with extracellular recordings from the prelimbic cortex (PL) of awake and lightly anesthetized neonatal rats, to elucidate the synaptic framework of early network oscillations. We demonstrate that all neurons spontaneously fire bursts of action potentials. They receive barrages of fast and slow glutamatergic as well as GABAergic synaptic inputs. Oscillatory theta activity results from long-range coupling of pyramidal neurons, presumably within prelimbic-hippocampal circuits, and from local interactions between interneurons. In contrast, beta-low gamma activity requires external glutamatergic drive on prelimbic interneurons. High-frequency oscillations in layer V are independent of interactions at chemical synapses. Thus, specific theta-gamma-modulated synaptic interactions represent the substrate of network oscillations in the developing PL. PMID:25865885

  6. Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8∘ declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

  7. Sonic hedgehog shedding results in functional activation of the solubilized protein.

    PubMed

    Ohlig, Stefanie; Farshi, Pershang; Pickhinke, Ute; van den Boom, Johannes; Höing, Susanne; Jakuschev, Stanislav; Hoffmann, Daniel; Dreier, Rita; Schöler, Hans R; Dierker, Tabea; Bordych, Christian; Grobe, Kay

    2011-06-14

    All Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are released from producing cells despite being synthesized as N- and C-terminally lipidated, membrane-tethered molecules. Thus, a cellular mechanism is needed for Hh solubilization. We previously suggested that a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-mediated shedding of Sonic hedgehog (ShhNp) from its lipidated N and C termini results in protein solubilization. This finding, however, seemed at odds with the established role of N-terminal palmitoylation for ShhNp signaling activity. We now resolve this paradox by showing that N-palmitoylation of ShhNp N-terminal peptides is required for their proteolytic removal during solubilization. These peptides otherwise block ShhNp zinc coordination sites required for ShhNp binding to its receptor Patched (Ptc), explaining the essential yet indirect role of N-palmitoylation for ShhNp function. We suggest a functional model in which membrane-tethered multimeric ShhNp is at least partially autoinhibited in trans but is processed into fully active, soluble multimers upon palmitoylation-dependent cleavage of inhibitory N-terminal peptides. PMID:21664575

  8. Twist Model Development and Results From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the wing twist of the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft is a fundamental research objective for the program and offers numerous benefits. In order to clearly understand the wing flexibility characteristics, a model was created to predict real-time wing twist. A reliable twist model allows the prediction of twist for flight simulation, provides insight into aircraft performance uncertainties, and assists with computational fluid dynamic and aeroelastic issues. The left wing of the aircraft was heavily instrumented during the first phase of the active aeroelastic wing program allowing deflection data collection. Traditional data processing steps were taken to reduce flight data, and twist predictions were made using linear regression techniques. The model predictions determined a consistent linear relationship between the measured twist and aircraft parameters, such as surface positions and aircraft state variables. Error in the original model was reduced in some cases by using a dynamic pressure-based assumption and by using neural networks. These techniques produced excellent predictions for flight between the standard test points and accounted for nonlinearities in the data. This report discusses data processing techniques and twist prediction validation, and provides illustrative and quantitative results.

  9. Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, F.; Marx, N.; Gentili, S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.; Di Mare, L.; Cerri, G.; Dini, D.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the gas turbine blade vibrations can give rise to catastrophic failures and a reduction of the blades life because of fatigue related phenomena[1]-[3] . In last two decades, the adoption of piezoelectric elements, has received considerable attention by many researcher for its potential applicability to different areas of mechanical, aerospace, aeronautical and civil engineering. Recently, a number of studies of blades vibration control via piezoelectric plates and patches have been reported[4]-[6] . It was reported that the use of piezoelectric elements can be very effective in actively controlling vibrations. In one of their previous contributions[7] , the authors of the present manuscript studied a model to control the blade vibrations by piezoelectric elements and validated their results using a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL) and results from the literature. An optimal placement method of piezoelectric plate has been developed and applied to different loading scenarios for realistic configurations encountered in gas turbine blades. It has been demonstrated that the optimal placement depends on the spectrum of the load, so that segmented piezoelectric patches have been considered and, for different loads, an optimal combination of sequential and/or parallel actuation and control of the segments has been studied. In this paper, an experimental investigation carried out by the authors using a simplified beam configuration is reported and discussed. The test results obtained by the investigators are then compared with the numerical predictions [7] .

  10. Ten-year study on acid precipitation nears conclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H. )

    1990-04-01

    Results from the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) are discussed. Final results are contained in 26 state of the science reports. Seven of the reports provide information on acid rain and aquatic ecosystems. They describe the current state of acidic surface waters, watershed processes affecting surface water chemistry, historical evidence for surface water acidification, methods for forecasting future changes, and the response of acidic surface water to liming. Six areas of the country were found to be of special interest: southwest Adirondacks, New England, forested areas of the mid-Atlantic highlands, the Atlantic coastal plain, the northern Florida highlands, parts of northeastern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Environmental effects, mitigation efforts and possible legislation are briefly discussed.

  11. Tetraploidization of diploid Dioscorea results in activation of the antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yi; Hu, Chun-Gen; Yao, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-15

    Polyploidy is reported to show increased tolerance to environmental stress. In this work, tetraploid plants of Dioscorea zingiberensis were obtained by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. The highest tetraploid induction rate was achieved by treatment with 0.15% colchicine for 24h. Diploid and tetraploid plants were exposed to normal (28 degrees C) and high temperature (42 degrees C) for 5d during which physiological indices were measured. Compared with diploid plants, relative electrolyte leakage and contents of malondialdehyde, superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide were lower in tetraploids, while activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were stimulated and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) were maintained at high concentrations. These results indicate that tetraploid plants possess a stronger antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance. PMID:19692145

  12. Characterization of a photon-counting intensified active pixel sensor (PC-IAPS): preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslenghi, Michela C.; Bonanno, Giovanni; Belluso, Massimiliano; Modica, Angelo; Bergamini, Paolo

    2001-12-01

    We report about preliminary results of the characterization of a new kind of MCP-based detector: a Photon Counting Intensified Active Pixel Sensor (APS). PC-IAPS appears as the natural evolution of the Intensified CCD, maintaining the basic characteristics, but with improved performance in terms of dynamic range, along with some other appealing properties: higher radiation hardness, more compact design, lower requirements on the external electronics, low power consumption. The prototype we realized is currently in an early stage of development. Nevertheless, it allows us to demonstrate the feasibility of the photon counter and to measure some of the basic parameters. Some of the characteristics of the APS, relevant to the use in intensified systems, are analyzed and compared with the CCD ones, demonstrating the potentiality of the new device and allowing us to set the basis of future development.

  13. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%.

  14. New Activity of Chiron: Results from 5 Years of Photometric Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, René; Lazzaro, Daniela; Pinto, Sandro; Carvano, Jorge; Angeli, Claudia; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro; Fernández, Silvia

    2002-11-01

    The results of photometric observations of Centaur object Chiron carried out at the Observatório do Pico dos Dias (OPD, Brazil), the Estación Astrofı´sica de Bosque Alegre (EABA, Argentina), and Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) from 1997 to 2001 are presented here. The analysis of the photometric data shows that the brightness of Chiron reached a minimum value in 1999 and began increasing again in 2000. The absolute magnitude, HV, varied from 7.26 in June 1999 to 5.78 in April 2001. The data tend to indicate that Chiron is starting a new outburst of activity which is compatible with a sporadic cometary behavior not related to heliocentric distance.

  15. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism.

    PubMed

    Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Hollinshead, Kate E R; Ludwig, Christian; Menara, Mélanie; Morin, Aurélie; Castro-Vega, Luis-Jaime; Parker, Seth J; Janin, Maxime; Martinelli, Cosimo; Ottolenghi, Chris; Metallo, Christian; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Favier, Judith; Tennant, Daniel A

    2015-11-02

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway responsible for supplying reducing potential for oxidative phosphorylation and anabolic substrates for cell growth, repair and proliferation. As such it thought to be essential for cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis. However, since the initial report of an inactivating mutation in the TCA cycle enzyme complex, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in paraganglioma (PGL), it has become clear that some cells and tissues are not only able to survive with a truncated TCA cycle, but that they are also able of supporting proliferative phenotype observed in tumours. Here, we show that loss of SDH activity leads to changes in the metabolism of non-essential amino acids. In particular, we demonstrate that pyruvate carboxylase is essential to re-supply the depleted pool of aspartate in SDH-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the loss of SDH reduces the metabolic plasticity of cells, suggesting vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically.

  16. Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

  17. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%. PMID:26737144

  18. Standard spacecraft economic analysis. Volume 2: Findings and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, E. D.; Large, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The comparative program costs associated with use of various standardized spacecraft for Air Force space test program missions to be flown on the space shuttle were studied in two phases. In the first phase, a variety of procurement mixes composed of existing or programmed NASA standard spacecraft designs and an Air Force standard spacecraft design were considered. The second phase dealt with additional procurement options using an upgraded version of an existing NASA design. The results of both phases are discussed.

  19. Once-daily budesonide MMX in active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis: results from the randomised CORE II study

    PubMed Central

    Travis, Simon P L; Danese, Silvio; Kupcinskas, Limas; Alexeeva, Olga; D'Haens, Geert; Gibson, Peter R; Moro, Luigi; Jones, Richard; Ballard, E David; Masure, Johan; Rossini, Matteo; Sandborn, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective Budesonide MMX is a novel oral formulation of budesonide that uses Multi-Matrix System (MMX) technology to extend release to the colon. This study compared the efficacy of budesonide MMX with placebo in patients with active, mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Design Patients were randomised 1:1:1:1 to receive budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, or Entocort EC 9 mg (budesonide controlled ileal-release capsules; reference arm) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was combined clinical and endoscopic remission, defined as UC Disease Activity Index score ≤1 with a score of 0 for rectal bleeding and stool frequency, no mucosal friability on colonoscopy, and a ≥1-point reduction in endoscopic index score from baseline. Results 410 patients were evaluated for efficacy. Combined clinical and endoscopic remission rates with budesonide MMX 9 mg or 6 mg, Entocort EC and placebo were 17.4%, 8.3%, 12.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The difference between budesonide MMX 9 mg and placebo was significant (OR 4.49; 95% CI 1.47 to 13.72; p=0.0047). Budesonide MMX 9 mg was associated with numerically higher rates of clinical (42.2% vs 33.7%) and endoscopic improvement (42.2% vs 31.5%) versus placebo. The rate of histological healing (16.5% vs 6.7%; p=0.0361) and proportion of patients with symptom resolution (23.9% vs 11.2%; p=0.0220) were significantly higher for budesonide MMX 9 mg than placebo. Adverse event profiles were similar across groups. Conclusion Budesonide MMX 9 mg was safe and more effective than placebo at inducing combined clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with active, mild-to-moderate UC. PMID:23436336

  20. Mechanical Injury Suppresses Autophagy Regulators and its Pharmacological Activation Results in Chondroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Caramés, Beatriz; Taniguchi, Noboru; Seino, Daisuke; Blanco, Francisco J.; D’Lima, Darryl; Lotz, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Objective Mechanical injury induces cell death in cartilage and triggers a remodeling process that ultimately can manifest as osteoarthritis (OA). Autophagy is a process for turnover of intracellular organelles and macromolecules that protects cells during stress responses. This study determined changes and functions of autophagy following mechanical injury to cartilage. Methods Bovine and human cartilage explants were subjected to mechanical impact (40% strain, 500 ms). Cell viability, sulfated glycosaminoglyan (sGAG) release and changes in autophagy markers ULK1, Beclin1 and LC3 were evaluated. Cartilage explants were also treated with the mTORC1 inhibitor and autophagy inducer rapamycin and tested for protective effects against mechanical injury, the cell death inducers nitric oxide and TNFα+Actinomycin D and the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1α. Results Mechanical injury induced cell death and loss of sGAG in a time-dependent manner. This was associated with significantly decreased ULK1, Beclin1 and LC3 expression in the cartilage superficial zone (P < 0.05) at 48 hours post-injury. The levels of LC3-II were increased at 24 hours post-injury but decreased at 48 and 96 hours. Rapamycin enhanced expression of autophagy regulators and prevented cell death and sGAG loss in mechanically injured explants. Rapamycin also protected against cell death induced by SNP, TNFα+Actinomycin D and prevented sGAG loss induced by IL-1α. Conclusion Mechanical injury leads to suppression of autophagy, predominantly in the superficial zone where most of the cell death occurs. Pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1, at least in part by enhancement of autophagy prevented cell and matrix damage suggesting a novel approach for chondroprotection. PMID:22034068

  1. Hanford study: a review of its limitations and controversial conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-10-01

    The Hanford data set has attracted attention primarily because of analyses conducted by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale (MSK). These investigators claim that the Hanford data provide evidence that our current estimates of cancer mortality resulting from radiation exposure are too low, and advocate replacing estimates based on populations exposed at relatively high doses (such as the Japanese atom bomb survivors) with estimates based on the Hanford data. In this paper, it is shown that the only evidence of association of radiation exposure and mortality provided by the Hanford data is a small excess of multiple myeloma, and that this data set is not adequate for reliable risk estimation. It is demonstrated that confidence limits for risk estimates are very wide, and that the data are not adequate to differentiate among models. The more recent MSK analyses, which claim to provide adequate models and risk estimates, are critiqued. 18 references, 1 table.

  2. Broad Consent For Research With Biological Samples: Workshop Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Christine; Eckstein, Lisa; Berkman, Ben; Brock, Dan; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Greely, Hank; Hansson, Mats G.; Hull, Sara; Kim, Scott; Lo, Bernie; Pentz, Rebecca; Rodriguez, Laura; Weil, Carol; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wendler, David

    2016-01-01

    Different types of consent are used to obtain human biospecimens for future research. This variation has resulted in confusion regarding what research is permitted, inadvertent constraints on future research, and research proceeding without consent. The NIH Clinical Center’s Department of Bioethics held a workshop to consider the ethical acceptability of addressing these concerns by using broad consent for future research on stored biospecimens. Multiple bioethics scholars, who have written on these issues, discussed the reasons for consent, the range of consent strategies, gaps in our understanding, and concluded with a proposal for broad initial consent coupled with oversight and, when feasible, ongoing provision of information to donors. The manuscript describes areas of agreement as well as areas that need more research and dialogue. Given recent proposed changes to the Common Rule, and new guidance regarding storing and sharing data and samples, this is an important and timely topic. PMID:26305750

  3. The "H5N1 publication case" and its conclusions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The request of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) to the editors of the scientific journals SCIENCE and NATURE not to publish details on the modified H5N1-virus has surprisingly not caused a discussion on censorship within the scientific community (NSABB, 2012a, P.1). This may show that science generally acknowledges the necessity to cut out sensitive data from research results in publications that may serve as a manual for weapons of mass destruction. In this article the policy of the NSABB and the reaction of the scientific community is discussed, as well as the meaning of censorship in dual use research and how an appropriate organisation of future surveillance in sensitive science fields could be organised: To guarantee future undisturbed work in sensitive science fields, the establishment of an internationally organised frame for scientists dealing with dual-use-research is suggested. PMID:22910559

  4. Modulation of cortical activity as a result of voluntary postural sway direction: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Slobounov, Semyon; Hallett, Mark; Cao, Cheng; Newell, Karl

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating the role of the cerebral cortex in human postural control. Modulation of EEG both in voltage and frequency domains has been observed preceding and following self-paced postural movements and those induced by external perturbations. The current study set out to provide additional evidence regarding the role of cerebral cortex in human postural control by specifically examining modulation of EEG as a function of postural sway direction. Twelve neurologically normal subjects were instructed to produce self-paced voluntary postural sways in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure dynamics and EEG both in voltage and frequency domains were extracted by averaging and Morlet wavelet techniques, respectively. The amplitude of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) was significantly higher preceding ML sways. Also, time-frequency wavelet coefficients (TF) indicated differential modulation of EEG within alpha, beta and gamma bands as a function of voluntary postural sway direction. Thus, ML sway appear to be more difficult and energy demanding tasks than the AP sway as reflected in differential modulation of EEG. These results are discussed within the conceptual framework of differential patterns of brain activation as a result of postural task complexity. PMID:18639613

  5. Metal dispersion resulting from mining activities in coastal environments: a pathways approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koski, Randolph A.

    2012-01-01

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) and disposal of tailings that result from mining activities impact coastal areas in many countries. The dispersion of metals from mine sites that are both proximal and distal to the shoreline can be examined using a pathways approach in which physical and chemical processes guide metal transport in the continuum from sources (sulfide minerals) to bioreceptors (marine biota). Large amounts of metals can be physically transported to the coastal environment by intentional or accidental release of sulfide-bearing mine tailings. Oxidation of sulfide minerals results in elevated dissolved metal concentrations in surface waters on land (producing ARD) and in pore waters of submarine tailings. Changes in pH, adsorption by insoluble secondary minerals (e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides), and precipitation of soluble salts (e.g., sulfates) affect dissolved metal fluxes. Evidence for bioaccumulation includes anomalous metal concentrations in bivalves and reef corals, and overlapping Pb isotope ratios for sulfides, shellfish, and seaweed in contaminated environments. Although bioavailability and potential toxicity are, to a large extent, functions of metal speciation, specific uptake pathways, such as adsorption from solution and ingestion of particles, also play important roles. Recent emphasis on broader ecological impacts has led to complementary methodologies involving laboratory toxicity tests and field studies of species richness and diversity.

  6. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; Njoku, E. G.; Kellogg, K.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015. SMAP provides high-resolution, frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on coincident L-band radiometer and L-band radar measurements. The primary science goal of SMAP is to provide new perspectives on how the three fundamental cycles of the Earth system, the water, energy and carbon cycles, are linked together over land. Soil moisture is the key variable that links the three cycles and makes their co-variations synchronous in time. Soil moisture products with varying resolution and coverage are produced from the radiometer alone, radar alone, radiometer-radar combination and data assimilation. In this session the status of the SMAP observatory and early results based on the science data products will be included. The science data acquisition began in May 2015 following several weeks of observatory and instrument commissioning. An intense calibration and validation period followed. Preliminary science products on instrument measurements, soil moisture, landscape frozen or thawed status, and net ecosystem exchange are available at publicly-accessible data archives. The presentation will include early and summary results on the validation of these products. The instrument measurements can also be used to map sea-ice coverage, ocean surface winds and sea surface salinity. Examples of these global retrievals are also presented.

  7. Disruption of PPARγ signaling results in mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia involving active autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming; Fernandez, Suzanne; Jerome, W. Gray; He, Yue; Yu, Xiuping; Cai, Hui; Boone, Braden; Yi, Yajun; Magnuson, Mark A.; Roy-Burman, Pradip; Matusik, Robert J.; Shappell, Scott B.; Hayward, Simon W.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) regulates the interface between cellular lipid metabolism, redox status and organelle differentiation. Conditional prostatic epithelial knockout of PPARγ in mice resulted in focal hyperplasia which developed into mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN). The grade of PIN became more severe with time. Electron microscopy (EM) showed accumulated secondary lysosomes containing cellular organelles and debris suggestive of autophagy. Consistent with this analysis the autophagy marker LC3 was found to be upregulated in areas of PIN in PPARγ KO tissues. We selectively knocked down PPARγ2 isoform in wild-type mouse prostatic epithelial cells and examined the consequences of this in a tissue recombination model. Histopathologically grafted tissues resembled the conditional PPARγ KO mouse prostates. EM studies of PPARγ- and PPARγ2-deficient epithelial cells in vitro were suggestive of autophagy, consistent with the prostatic tissue analysis. This was confirmed by examining expression of beclin-1 and LC3. Gene expression profiling in PPARγ-/γ2-deficient cells indicated a major dysregulation of cell cycle control and metabolic signaling networks related to peroxisomal and lysosomal maturation, lipid oxidation and degradation. The putative autophagic phenotypes of PPARγ-deficient cells could be rescued by re-expression of either γ1 or γ2 isoform. We conclude that disruption of PPARγ signaling results in autophagy and oxidative stress during mPIN pathogenesis. PMID:19834493

  8. Anaerobic homolactate fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in depletion of ATP and impaired metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Derek A; van den Brink, Joost; Minneboo, Inge M K; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2009-05-01

    Conversion of glucose to lactic acid is stoichiometrically equivalent to ethanol formation with respect to ATP formation from substrate-level phosphorylation, redox equivalents and product yield. However, anaerobic growth cannot be sustained in homolactate fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ATP-dependent export of the lactate anion and/or proton, resulting in net zero ATP formation, is suspected as the underlying cause. In an effort to understand the mechanisms behind the decreased lactic acid production rate in anaerobic homolactate cultures of S. cerevisiae, aerobic carbon-limited chemostats were performed and subjected to anaerobic perturbations in the presence of high glucose concentrations. Intracellular measurements of adenosine phosphates confirmed ATP depletion and decreased energy charge immediately upon anaerobicity. Unexpectedly, readily available sources of carbon and energy, trehalose and glycogen, were not activated in homolactate strains as they were in reference strains that produce ethanol. Finally, the anticipated increase in maximal velocity (V(max)) of glycolytic enzymes was not observed in homolactate fermentation suggesting the absence of protein synthesis that may be attributed to decreased energy availability. Essentially, anaerobic homolactate fermentation results in energy depletion, which, in turn, hinders protein synthesis, central carbon metabolism and subsequent energy generation.

  9. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  10. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  11. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  12. Preliminary Results from the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Kiser, Eric; Palomeras, Imma; Zelt, Colin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steve; Harder, Steven; Creagar, Kenneth; Vidale, John; Abers, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    iMUSH (imaging Magma Under Saint Helens) is a US NSF sponsored multi-disciplinary investigation of Mount Saint Helens (MSH), currently the most active volcano in the Cascades arc in the northwestern United States. The project consists of active and passive seismic experiments, extensive magnetotelluric sounding, and geological/geochemical studies involving scientists at 7 institutions in the U.S. and Europe. The long-term goal of the seismic project is to combine analysis of the active source data with that of data from the 70 element broadband seismograph operating from summer 2014 until 2016. Combining seismic and MT analyses with other data, we hope to image the MSH volcanic plumbing system from the surface to the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we describe preliminary results of the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, conducted in July and August 2014. The active source experiment consisted of twenty-three 454 or 908 kg weight shots recorded by ~3500 seismographs deployed at ~6,000 locations. Of these instruments, ~900 Nodal Seismic instruments were deployed continuously for two weeks in an areal array within 10 km of the MSH summit. 2,500 PASSCAL Texan instruments were deployed twice for five days in 3 areal arrays and 2 dense orthogonal linear arrays that extended from MSH to distances > 80 km. Overall the data quality from the shots is excellent. The seismograph arrays also recorded dozens of micro-earthquakes beneath the MSH summit and along the MSH seismic zone, and numerous other local and regional earthquakes. In addition, at least one low frequency event beneath MSH was recorded during the experiment. At this point we have begun various types of analysis of the data set: We have determined an average 1D Vp structure from stacking short-term/long-term average ratios, we have determined the 2-D Vp structure from ray-trace inversions along the two orthogonal profiles (in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions), and we have made low-fold CMP stacks of the

  13. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  14. Conclusive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Eels are unique species in the biological world. The two North Atlantic eel species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the European eel (A. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the Caribbean to Greenland in the western Atlantic and from Morocco to Iceland in the eastern Atlantic, respectively. North Atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the Sargasso Sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. Despite such a wide distribution range, North Atlantic eels have been regarded as a textbook example of panmictic species. In contrast with the large amount of population genetic studies testing the panmixia hypothesis in the European eel, a relatively modest effort has been given to study the population structure of the American eel. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, C^ote et al. (2013) present the most comprehensive American eel data set to date, which includes samples of different life stages obtained throughout all its distribution range in North America. Results show a total lack of genetic differentiation among samples and provide decisive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

  15. Conclusive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Eels are unique species in the biological world. The two North Atlantic eel species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the European eel (A. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the Caribbean to Greenland in the western Atlantic and from Morocco to Iceland in the eastern Atlantic, respectively. North Atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the Sargasso Sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. Despite such a wide distribution range, North Atlantic eels have been regarded as a textbook example of panmictic species. In contrast with the large amount of population genetic studies testing the panmixia hypothesis in the European eel, a relatively modest effort has been given to study the population structure of the American eel. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, C^ote et al. (2013) present the most comprehensive American eel data set to date, which includes samples of different life stages obtained throughout all its distribution range in North America. Results show a total lack of genetic differentiation among samples and provide decisive evidence for panmixia in the American eel. PMID:23620904

  16. Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration: Conclusions from Four Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya L. Le Blanc; John O'Hara; Jeffrey C. Joe; April M. Whaley; Heather Medema

    2013-11-01

    The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) research project is investigating how advanced technologies that are planned for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMR) will affect the performance and the reliability of the plant from a human factors and human performance perspective. The HAC research effort investigates the consequences of allocating functions between the operators and automated systems. More specifically, the research team is addressing how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. Oxstrand et al. (2013 - March) describes the efforts conducted by the researchers to identify the research needs for HAC. The research team reviewed the literature on HAC, developed a model of HAC, and identified gaps in the existing knowledge of human-automation collaboration. As described in Oxstrand et al. (2013 – June), the team then prioritized the research topics identified based on the specific needs in the context of AdvSMR. The prioritization was based on two sources of input: 1) The preliminary functions and tasks, and 2) The model of HAC. As a result, three analytical studies were planned and conduced; 1) Models of Teamwork, 2) Standardized HAC Performance Measurement Battery, and 3) Initiators and Triggering Conditions for Adaptive Automation. Additionally, one field study was also conducted at Idaho Falls Power.

  17. Waste dislodging and conveyance testing summary and conclusions to date

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Hatchell, B.K.; Mullen, O.D.

    1994-09-01

    This document summarizes recent work performed by the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance technology development program to provide assistance with the retrieval of wastes from the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). This work is sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Office with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. A baseline technology of high-pressure water-jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier is proposed as a means of retrieval. The tests and studies described were performed to demonstrate that at least one robust technology exists that could be effectively used with low water-addition arm-based systems. These results are preliminary and do not represent an optimized baseline. The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance work thus far has demonstrated that waterjet mobilization and air conveyance can mobilize and convey SST waste simulants at the target rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of deployment devices. The recommended technologies are well proven in industrial applications and are quite robust, yet lightweight and relatively benign to the retrieval environment. The baseline approach has versatility to continuously dislodge and convey a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes. The approach also has the major advantage of being noncontact with the waste surface under normal operation.

  18. Recent Simulation Conclusions for Damped-Oscillation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.

    2001-02-19

    When suspended payloads are moved with an overhead crane, pendulum like oscillations are naturally introduced. This presents a problem any time a crane is used, especially when expensive and/or delicate objects are moved, when moving in a cluttered and/or hazardous environment, and when objects are to be placed in tight locations. For example, one nuclear waste-handling operation examined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the transportation of heavy objects such as waste storage casks or barrels from one location to another through cluttered process facility environments or storage facilities. Typically, an object is lifted by a crane hook on the end of a cable, creating a pendulum that is free to swing during transit. This swinging motion makes remote positioning of casks or barrels difficult to control precisely and is potentially destructive to facility equipment and to other storage containers. Typically, a crane operator moves objects slowly to minimize induced swinging and allow time for oscillations to dampen, maintaining safety but greatly decreasing the efficiency of operations. Using damped-oscillation control algorithms is one approach to solving this problem. This paper summarizes recent simulation results in damped-oscillation-type control algorithms. It also discusses practical implementation issues including control algorithm robustness to payload length changes, hardware requirements for implementation of the control algorithms, and system limits on Coulomb friction.

  19. Active Source Tomography of Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Results From the 2006 Seismic Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, L.; Patanè, D.; Cocina, O.; Castellano, M.; Sgroi, T.; Favali, P.; de Gori, P.

    2008-12-01

    Stromboli island, located in the Southern Tyrrhenian sea, is the emerged part (about 900 m a.s.l.) of a 3km-high strato-volcano. Its persistent Strombolian activity, documented for over 2000 years, is sometimes interrupted by lava effusions or major explosions. Despite the amount of recent published geophysical studies aimed to clarifying eruption dynamics, the spatial extend and geometrical characteristics of the plumbing system remain poorly understood. In fact, the knowledge of the inner structure and the zones of magma storage is limited to the upper few hundreds meters of the volcanic edifice and P- and S-waves velocity models are available only in restricted areas. In order to obtain a more suitable internal structural and velocity models of the volcano, from 25 November to 2 December 2006, a seismic tomography experiment through active seismics using air-gun sources was carried out and the final Vp model is here presented. The data has been inverted for the Vp structure by using the code Simulps13q, considering a 3D grid of nodes spaced 0.5 km down to 2 km depth, beneath the central part of volcano. The results show a relatively high velocity zones located both in the inner part of the volcanic structure, at about 1km b.s.l. and in the last 200-300 m a.s.l. in correspondence with the volcanic conduit. Slower zones were located around the summit craters in agreement with volcanological and petrological informations for the area. The relatively high velocity zones could suggest the presence of intrusive bodies related to the plumbing system.

  20. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gram, Inger T; Vilier, Alice; Fervers, Béatrice; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Bakker, Marieke F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bjerkaas, Eivind; Braaten, Tonje; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Romieu, Isabelle; Cox, David G; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-04-15

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious.

  1. The First Results of Monitoring Galactic Magnetar Activities with MAXI/GSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Yujin; Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Motoko; Matsuoka, Masaru; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Morii, Mikio; Sugimori, Kohsuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazu-Taka; Nakahira, Satoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Isobe, Naoki; Maxi Team

    Magnetars are strongly magnetized neutron stars with surface magnetic fields up to 1015 G. In the galactic plane, 5 soft gamma repeaters (SGRs) and 8 anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are known as X-ray counterpart of the magnetars based on observational and theoretical studies. They exhibit thermal soft X-ray emission below ˜10 keV with a few mCrab fluxes. Interest-ingly, a hard power law component was found above ˜10 keV with a very hard index of -1 using INTEGRAL and Suzaku data. Some of the SGRs and AXPs presented a flux increasing by a factor of a few. During the high flux phases, some SGRs and AXPs exhibited high burst activities (e.g., Enoto et al. 2009) and/or enhanced quiescent emission with unusual spectral properties (e.g., Kaneko et al. 2010). In order to investigate radiation mechanisms, observa-tions of the high flux phases are important as well as those of the low flux phases. Therefore continuous monitoring of the SGRs and the AXPs are crucial to know their activities. Thanks to a wide field of view and a good sensitivity of the MAXI/GSC, it is suitable for the continuous monitoring of the SGRs and the AXPs. The MAXI/GSC has a better sensi-tivity than RXTE by a factor of a few in an energy range of 2-30 keV, and therefore detects ˜4 mCrab sources using accumulated data for ˜4 weeks. Among the 5 SGRs and 8 AXPs, AXP 4U 0142+614 and AXP 1E 1048.1-5937 are detected at least. In this paper, we will re-port the first results of monitoring the galactic SGRs and AXPs such as long-term light curves with the MAXI/GSC.

  2. Active and passive cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk: results from the EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Gram, Inger T; Vilier, Alice; Fervers, Béatrice; Manjer, Jonas; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Boeing, Heiner; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Sarantopoulou, Maria; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J B; Bakker, Marieke F; Peeters, Petra Hm; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Bjerkaas, Eivind; Braaten, Tonje; Menéndez, Virginia; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Tormo, Maria-Jose; Barricarte, Aurelio; Butt, Salma; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Rinaldi, Sabina; McCormack, Valerie; Romieu, Isabelle; Cox, David G; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-04-15

    Recent cohort studies suggest that increased breast cancer risks were associated with longer smoking duration, higher pack-years and a dose-response relationship with increasing pack-years of smoking between menarche and first full-term pregnancy (FFTP). Studies with comprehensive quantitative life-time measures of passive smoking suggest an association between passive smoking dose and breast cancer risk. We conducted a study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition to examine the association between passive and active smoking and risk of invasive breast cancer and possible effect modification by known breast cancer risk factors. Among the 322,988 women eligible for the study, 9,822 developed breast cancer (183,608 women with passive smoking information including 6,264 cases). When compared to women who never smoked and were not being exposed to passive smoking at home or work at the time of study registration, current, former and currently exposed passive smokers were at increased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.16 [1.05-1.28], 1.14 [1.04-1.25] and 1.10 [1.01-1.20], respectively). Analyses exploring associations in different periods of life showed the most important increase in risk with pack-years from menarche to FFTP (1.73 [1.29-2.32] for every increase of 20 pack-years) while pack-years smoked after menopause were associated with a significant decrease in breast cancer risk (HR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82 for every increase of 20 pack-years). Our results provide an important replication, in the largest cohort to date, that smoking (passively or actively) increases breast cancer risk and that smoking between menarche and FFTP is particularly deleterious. PMID:24590452

  3. Upper Pleistocene - Holocene activity of the Carrascoy Fault (Murcia, SE Spain): preliminary results from paleoseismological research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Banda, Raquel; Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Salazar, Angel; Rodriguez-Escudero, Emilio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Herrero, Maria J.; Medialdea, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    The Carrascoy Fault is located in the Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera (Southern Spain). In particular, the Carrascoy Fault is one of the major faults forming the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, the main structure accommodating the convergence between Nubian and Eurasian plates in the westernmost Mediterranean. So far, the Carrascoy Fault has been defined as a left-lateral strike-slip fault. It extends for at least 31 km in a NE-SW trend from the village of Zeneta (Murcia) at its northeastern tip, to the Cañaricos village, controlling the northern edge of the Carrascoy Range and its linkage to the Guadalentin Depression towards the southwest. This is an area of moderate seismic activity, but densely populated, the capital of the region, Murcia, being settled very close to the fault. Hence, the knowledge of the structure and kinematics of the Carrascoy Fault is essential for assessing reliably the seismic hazard of the region. We present a detailed-scale geological and geomorphological map along the fault zone created from a LIDAR DEM combined with fieldwork, and geological and geophysical information. Furthermore, a number of trenches have been dug across the fault at different locations providing insights in the fault most recent activity as well as paleoseismic data. Preliminary results suggest that the Cararscoy Fault has recently changed its kinematic showing a near pure reverse motion. According to this, the fault can be divided into two distinct segments, the eastern one: Zeneta - Fuensanta, and the western one: Fuensanta - Cañaricos, each one having its own characteristic style and geodynamics. Some new active strands of the fault locate at the foot of the very first relief towards the North of the older strand, forming the current southern border of the Guadalentin Depression. These new faults show an increasingly reverse component westwards, so that the Fuensanta - Cañaricos segment is constituted by thrusts, which are blind at its western end

  4. Workshop observations, conclusions, and recommendations for moving forward

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok currently has enormous numbers of motorised vehicles. The number of motor vehicles registered in Bangkok in 1993 was about 2.6 million of which over 1 million were cars and around 1.1 million were motorcycles. The vehicle population is noticeably increasing at about 12% over the previous year, despite the traffic congestion which is nearly at gridlock. Overall average traffic speed in the Bangkok metropolitan area is around 10 km/h. However, during peak hours on some main roads in the central business area, the crawl rate is at 1-2 km/h, or only half walking pace. There are, however, several circumstances to be addressed before Bangkok can begin to overcome its air quality and congestion problems. The first is that many of the city`s transport planners that design transport projects, and the policymakers with investment authority appear to be caught in the same conventional transport planning paradigm as many other industrializing and industrialized countries. That paradigm, pioneered in the United States and exported to much of the world, defines the problems as a shortage of road space to meet demand for, private, vehicular mobility. The investment focus is almost exclusively on the construction of large road-based infrastructure to machines instead of people, while de-emphasizing other forms of transport such as rail, water, and non-motorized transport - even if they are a less expensive investment that can meet demand. The predominance of this paradigm results in a persistent myth held by many of Bangkok`s policymakers, transport and urban planners, financiers, and citizens. The myth is that the city does not have enough kilometers of roadways per person, and should focus on road and highway investment in order to solve their air quality and congestion problems.

  5. Translating Scientific Conclusions about Risk for Public Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    Climate change has been aptly described as a problem of risk management, yet the scientific community has not been successful in helping the public engage in risk management effectively. Behavioral science studies demonstrate that, while the public generally accepts the reality of anthropogenic climate change today, the immanence of impacts and scale of risk and opportunities for effective mitigation are poorly understood. Helping the public overcome these misperceptions and engage in decision-making about climate risks is, perhaps, the climate communication community’s most urgent priority. Scientific writing and graphic conventions are poorly suited for communicating with non-scientists. Using examples from the IPCC 4th Assessment, this session will demonstrate how specific conventions in science writing and graph making have obscured critical information about climate risks. The session will further demonstrate how reformatting the graphical information can create an exceptionally clear picture of where humanity stands and the implications of various emissions pathways for the future. Attendees will appreciate how presentations of science results can be tailored to answer the public’s questions more effectively by highlighting useful information in accurate, yet accessible ways. Decision-makers and the public urgently need information about climate impact risks and the consequences of various emissions pathways. Yet written and graphic descriptions from the IPCC and other assessment agencies burden non-scientists with multiple temperature baselines (e.g., pre-Industrial, mid-20th century, late 20th century, today), two confusingly similar measures for the key human contribution to atmospheric composition (CO2 and CO2-eq), and multiple ways of describing probability and certainty. The public is further confounded by inconsistent graphic conventions in scientific figures, including inconsistent color-coding, labeling, axis orientation, and treatment of

  6. Physical Activity in German Adolescents Measured by Accelerometry and Activity Diary: Introducing a Comprehensive Approach for Data Management and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Pfitzner, Rebecca; Gorzelniak, Lukas; Heinrich, Joachim; von Berg, Andrea; Klümper, Claudia; Bauer, Carl P.; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Horsch, Alexander; Schulz, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Surveillance of physical activity (PA) is increasingly based on accelerometry. However, data management guidelines are lacking. We propose an approach for combining accelerometry and diary based PA information for assessment of PA in adolescents and provide an example of this approach using data from German adolescents. Methods The 15-year-old participants comprised a subsample the GINIplus birth cohort (n = 328, 42.4% male). Data on PA was obtained from hip-worn accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days, combined with a prospective activity diary. Major aspects of data management were validity of wear time, handling of non-wear time and diary comments. After data cleaning, PA and percentage of adolescents meeting the recommendations for moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) per day were determined. Results From the 2224 recorded days 493 days (25%) were invalid, mainly due to uncertainties relating to non-wear time (322 days). Ultimately, 269 of 328 subjects (82%) with valid data for at least three weekdays and one weekend day were included in the analysis. Mean MVPA per day was 39.1 minutes (SD ±25.0), with boys being more active than girls (41.8±21.5 minutes vs. 37.1±27.8 minutes, p<0.001). Accordingly, 24.7% of boys and 17.2% of girls (p<0.01) met the WHO recommendations for PA. School sport accounted for only 6% of weekly MVPA. In fact, most MVPA was performed during leisure time, with the majority of adolescents engaging in ball sports (25.4%) and endurance sports (19.7%). Girls also frequently reported dancing and gymnastics (23%). Conclusion For assessment of PA in adolescents, collecting both accelerometry and diary-based information is recommended. The diary is vital for the identification of invalid data and non-compliant participants. Preliminary results suggest that four out of five German adolescents do not meet WHO recommendations for PA and that school sport contributes only little to MVPA. PMID:23750243

  7. Physical activity in solid organ transplant recipients: organizational aspects and preliminary results of the Italian project.

    PubMed

    Roi, G S; Stefoni, S; Mosconi, G; Brugin, E; Burra, P; Ermolao, A; Granito, M; Macini, P; Mastrosimone, S; Nacchia, F; Pegoraro, C; Rigotti, P; Sella, G; Sgarzi, S; Tamè, M R; Totti, V; Trerotola, M; Tripi, F; Nanni Costa, A

    2014-09-01

    Most of the difficulties when trying to realize the proposal to prescribe physical activity for transplantation patients come from patient attitudes and cultural beliefs that ignore the benefits of exercise, but there also are organizational aspects arising from the difficulties that these patients face in accessing supervised exercise facilities. To address these difficulties, the Italian study project "Transplant … and Now Sport" was developed based on a model of cooperation among transplantation specialists, sports physicians, and exercise specialists organized as a team combining their specific skills to effectively actuate the physical exercise programs. This preliminary report is based on 26 patients (16 male, 10 female; 47.8±10.0 years old; 21 kidney and 5 liver transplantations; time from transplantation 2.3±1.4 years) who performed prescribed and supervised exercises consisting of 3 sessions per week of aerobic and strengthening exercises for 1 year. Preliminary results show a significant decrease in body mass index (t=1.966; P<.05) and a significant increase in peak aerobic power (t=4.535; P<.01) and maximum workload (t=4.665; P<.01) on the incremental cycling test. Also maximum strength of knee extensors (t=2.933; P<.05) and elbow flexors (t=2.450; P<.05) and countermovement jump performance (t=2.303; P<.05) significantly increased. Creatinine and proteinuria tended to decrease, but the differences were not significant. In health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire, the Bodily Pain, General Health, Vitality, Social Functioning, and Role Emotional scale scores showed a significant improvement (P<.05). Preliminary results of the study protocol "Transplant…and Now Sport" show the positive effects of the model based on cooperation among transplantation centers, sports medicine centers, and gyms in the administration of a supervised exercise prescription. These data should be considered a contribution to developing and promoting

  8. The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: lessons and conclusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckel, Edwin B.

    1970-01-01

    One of the greatest earthquakes of all time struck south-central Alaska on March 27, 1964. Strong motion lasted longer than for most recorded earthquakes, and more land surface was dislocated, vertically and horizontally, than by any known previous temblor. Never before were so many effects on earth processes and on the works of man available for study by scientists and engineers over so great an area. The seismic vibrations, which directly or indirectly caused most of the damage, were but surface manifestations of a great geologic event-the dislocation of a huge segment of the crust along a deeply buried fault whose nature and even exact location are still subjects for speculation. Not only was the land surface tilted by the great tectonic event beneath it, with resultant seismic sea waves that traversed the entire Pacific, but an enormous mass of land and sea floor moved several tens of feet horizontally toward the Gulf of Alaska. Downslope mass movements of rock, earth, and snow were initiated. Subaqueous slides along lake shores and seacoasts, near-horizontal movements of mobilized soil (“landspreading”), and giant translatory slides in sensitive clay did the most damage and provided the most new knowledge as to the origin, mechanics, and possible means of control or avoidance of such movements. The slopes of most of the deltas that slid in 1964, and that produced destructive local waves, are still as steep or steeper than they were before the earthquake and hence would be unstable or metastable in the event of another great earthquake. Rockslide avalanches provided new evidence that such masses may travel on cushions of compressed air, but a widely held theory that glaciers surge after an earthquake has not been substantiated. Innumerable ground fissures, many of them marked by copious emissions of water, caused much damage in towns and along transportation routes. Vibration also consolidated loose granular materials. In some coastal areas, local

  9. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Graedel, T.E.

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed.

  10. The IGAC activity for the development of global emissions inventories: Description and initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M. ); Graedel, T.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Modeling assessments of the atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climatic conditions of the past, present and future require as input inventories of emissions of the appropriate chemical species constructed on appropriate spatial and temporal scales. The task of the Global Emissions Inventories Activity (GEIA) of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) is the production of global inventories suitable for a range of research applications. Current GEIA programs are generally based on addressing emissions by species; these include CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}/N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, CFC, volatile organic compounds and radioisotopes. In addition a separate program to inventory emissions from biomass burning is also being structured, plus an additional program to address data management issues for all the developing inventories. Program priorities are based on current knowledge and tasks needed to produce the desired inventories. This paper will discuss the different types of global inventories to be developed by the GEIA programs, their key characteristics, and areas to be addressed in the compilation of such inventories. Results of the first GEIA task, a survey of existing inventories and auxiliary data, will be presented. The survey included status assessments for the available inventory information for nineteen different atmospheric species or groups of species on global and regional scales and over time. Of this entire body of information, the only inventory regarded as satisfactory was that for the global emissions of CFCs. An implication of the results of these assessments is that properly gridded emissions inventories are badly needed to support atmospheric modeling calculations on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Initial studies in the development of global inventories of sulfur dioxide, currently the most advanced GEIA program, will be presented and discussed.

  11. Active shield technology for space craft protection revisited in new laboratory results and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, R.; Gibson, K. J.; Thornton, A. T.; Bradford, J.; Bingham, R.; Gargate, L.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.; Hapgood, M.; Norberg, C.; Todd, T.; Stamper, R.

    2009-04-01

    Energetic ions in the solar wind plasma are a known hazard to both spacecraft electronics and to astronaut's health. Of primary concern is the exposure to keV--MeV protons on manned space flights to the Moon and Mars that extend over long periods of time. Attempts to protect the spacecraft include active shields that are reminiscent of Star Trek "deflector" shields. Here we describe a new experiment to test the shielding concept of a dipole-like magnetic field and plasma, surrounding the spacecraft forming a "mini magnetosphere". Initial laboratory experiments have been conducted to determine the effectiveness of a magnetized plasma barrier to be able to expel an impacting, low beta, supersonic flowing energetic plasma representing the Solar Wind. Optical and Langmuir probe data of the plasma density, the plasma flow velocity, and the intensity of the dipole field clearly show the creation of a narrow transport barrier region and diamagnetic cavity virtually devoid of energetic plasma particles. This demonstrates the potential viability of being able to create a small "hole" in a Solar Wind plasma, of the order of the ion Larmor orbit width, in which an inhabited spacecraft could reside in relative safety. The experimental results have been quantitatively compared to a 3D particle-in-cell ‘hybrid' code simulation that uses kinetic ions and fluid electrons, showing good qualitative agreement and excellent quantitative agreement. Together the results demonstrate the pivotal role of particle kinetics in determining generic plasma transport barriers. [1] [1] R Bamford et al., "The interaction of a flowing plasma with a dipole magnetic field: measurements and modelling of a diamagnetic cavity relevant to spacecraft protection." 2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 124025 (11pp) doi: 10.1088/0741-3335/50/12/124025

  12. Granular Activated Carbon Treatment May Result in Higher Predicted Genotoxicity in the Presence of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Lee, Tiffany Chih Fen; Westerhoff, Paul; Fischer, Natalia; Hanigan, David; Karanfil, Tanju; Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Taylor-Edmonds, Liz; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Certain unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are more of a health concern than regulated DBPs. Brominated species are typically more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. The impact of granular activated carbon (GAC) on controlling the formation of regulated and selected unregulated DBPs following chlorine disinfection was evaluated. The predicted cyto- and genotoxicity of DBPs was calculated using published potencies based on the comet assay for Chinese hamster ovary cells (assesses the level of DNA strand breaks). Additionally, genotoxicity was measured using the SOS-Chromotest (detects DNA-damaging agents). The class sum concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and unregulated DBPs, and the SOS genotoxicity followed the breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however the formation of brominated species did not. The bromide/DOC ratio was higher than the influent through much of the breakthrough curve (GAC does not remove bromide), which resulted in elevated brominated DBP concentrations in the effluent. Based on the potency of the haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes, these nitrogen-containing DBPs were the driving agents of the predicted genotoxicity. GAC treatment of drinking or reclaimed waters with appreciable levels of bromide and dissolved organic nitrogen may not control the formation of unregulated DBPs with higher genotoxicity potencies. PMID:27467860

  13. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  14. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  15. Highlights of recent results from the VERITAS Active Galactic Nuclei Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Udara; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the dominant class of the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. The VERITAS Observatory dedicates about 430 hr/year of dark time and 200 hr/year of observations under moonlight, on the AGN observing program. VERITAS is located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, and is sensitive to gamma rays with energies between of 85 GeV and 30 TeV. VERITAS became fully operational in 2007, and has since then detected 34 very high energy (VHE) AGN. The majority of the detected galaxies are blazars, in addition to a few radio galaxies. The VHE emission mechanism, and the location of the VHE emission zone of AGN are still poorly understood. Detailed observations of VHE AGN are necessary for understanding these uncertainties. AGN are plausible source candidates for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos. VHE gamma-rays from AGN can also be used as probes to place limits on extragalactic background light density. This presentation will report the most recent results from the VERITAS AGN program including newly discovered AGN, and VHE flares of known TeV AGN. Udara Abeysekara for the VERITAS Collaboration.

  16. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  17. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP)—FLIGHT Results from a New Airborne Simulator for Smap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Faulkner, T.; Wu, A.; Patel, H.

    2014-12-01

    1. Introduction and BackgroundThis paper introduces a new NASA airborne instrument, the Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP), which is specially tailored to simulate SMAP. 2. Description of SLAPSLAP has both passive (radiometer) and active (radar) microwave L-band imaging capabilities. The radiometer observes at 1.4 GHz using duplicate front end hardware from the SMAP satellite radiometer. It also includes a duplicate of the digital backend development unit for SMAP, thus the novel Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation features and algorithms for SMAP are duplicated with very high fidelity in SLAP. The digital backend provides 4-Stokes polarization capability. The real-aperture radar operates in the 1215-1300 MHz band with quad-pol capability. Radar and radiometer share one antenna via diplexers that are spare units from the Aquarius satellite instrument. 3. Flight ResultsSLAP's initial flights were conducted in Dec 2013 over the eastern shore of Maryland and successfully demonstrated radiometer imaging over 2 full SMAP 36x36 km grid cells at 1km resolution within 3 hrs, easily meeting the SMAP post-launch cal/val airborne mapping requirements. A second flight on the same day also demonstrated SLAP's quick-turn abilities and high-resolution/wide-swath capabilities with 200m resolution across a 1500m swath from 2000 ft AGL. Additional flights were conducted as part of the GPM iPHEX campaign in May, 2014. 4. ConclusionThis paper presents flight data and imagery, as well as details of the radiometer and radar performance and calibration. The paper will also describe the mission performance achievable on the King Air and other platforms.

  18. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR...

  19. Exergame Apps and Physical Activity: The Results of the ZOMBIE Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Joan; Majeske, Paul; Frank, Rebecca; Brown, Devin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are thousands of health and fitness smartphone apps currently available, little research exists regarding the effects of mobile app technology on physical activity behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test whether Exergame smartphone applications increase physical activity levels. Methods: This was a…

  20. Cortical Activations during a Computer-Based Fraction Learning Game: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joseph M.; Martin, Taylor; Aghababyan, Ani; Armaghanyan, Armen; Gillam, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Advances in educational neuroscience have made it possible for researchers to conduct studies that observe concurrent behavioral (i.e., task performance) and neural (i.e., brain activation) responses to naturalistic educational activities. Such studies are important because they help educators, clinicians, and researchers to better understand the…

  1. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  2. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis.

  3. Ablation of PGC-1beta results in defective mitochondrial activity, thermogenesis, hepatic function, and cardiac performance.

    PubMed

    Lelliott, Christopher J; Medina-Gomez, Gema; Petrovic, Natasa; Kis, Adrienn; Feldmann, Helena M; Bjursell, Mikael; Parker, Nadeene; Curtis, Keira; Campbell, Mark; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Litwin, Sheldon E; Zaha, Vlad G; Fountain, Kimberly T; Boudina, Sihem; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Blount, Margaret; Lopez, Miguel; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Strömstedt, Maria; Snaith, Michael; Oresic, Matej; Abel, E Dale; Cannon, Barbara; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1beta ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1alpha in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1betaKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic role of PGC-1beta was identified in thermoneutral and cold-adapted conditions by inadequate responses to norepinephrine injection. Furthermore, PGC1betaKO hearts showed a blunted chronotropic response to dobutamine stimulation, and isolated soleus muscle fibres from PGC1betaKO mice have impaired mitochondrial function. Lack of PGC-1beta also impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in response to acute high fat dietary loads, resulting in hepatic steatosis and reduced lipoprotein-associated triglyceride and cholesterol content. Altogether, our data suggest that PGC-1beta plays a general role in controlling basal mitochondrial function and also participates in tissue-specific adaptive responses during metabolic stress. PMID:17090215

  4. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26232452

  5. Ablation of PGC-1β Results in Defective Mitochondrial Activity, Thermogenesis, Hepatic Function, and Cardiac Performance

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Natasa; Kis, Adrienn; Feldmann, Helena M; Bjursell, Mikael; Parker, Nadeene; Curtis, Keira; Campbell, Mark; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Dongfang; Litwin, Sheldon E; Zaha, Vlad G; Fountain, Kimberly T; Boudina, Sihem; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Blount, Margaret; Lopez, Miguel; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Storlien, Leonard; Strömstedt, Maria; Snaith, Michael; Orešič, Matej; Abel, E. Dale; Cannon, Barbara; Vidal-Puig, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1β (PGC-1β) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1β (PGC1βKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1βKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy. Using systems biology, we identified a general defect in the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function and, specifically, the electron transport chain. This defect correlated with reduced mitochondrial volume fraction in soleus muscle and heart, but not brown adipose tissue (BAT). Under ambient temperature conditions, PGC-1β ablation was partially compensated by up-regulation of PGC-1α in BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT) that lead to increased thermogenesis, reduced body weight, and reduced fat mass. Despite their decreased fat mass, PGC1βKO mice had hypertrophic adipocytes in WAT. The thermogenic role of PGC-1β was identified in thermoneutral and cold-adapted conditions by inadequate responses to norepinephrine injection. Furthermore, PGC1βKO hearts showed a blunted chronotropic response to dobutamine stimulation, and isolated soleus muscle fibres from PGC1βKO mice have impaired mitochondrial function. Lack of PGC-1β also impaired hepatic lipid metabolism in response to acute high fat dietary loads, resulting in hepatic steatosis and reduced lipoprotein-associated triglyceride and cholesterol content. Altogether, our data suggest that PGC-1β plays a general role in controlling basal mitochondrial function and also participates in tissue-specific adaptive responses during metabolic stress. PMID:17090215

  6. Activation of Raf as a result of recruitment to the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Stokoe, D; Macdonald, S G; Cadwallader, K; Symons, M; Hancock, J F

    1994-06-01

    The small guanine nucleotide binding protein Ras participates in a growth promoting signal transduction pathway. The mechanism by which interaction of Ras with the protein kinase Raf leads to activation of Raf was studied. Raf was targeted to the plasma membrane by addition of the COOH-terminal localization signals of K-ras. This modified form of Raf (RafCAAX) was activated to the same extent as Raf coexpressed with oncogenic mutant Ras. Plasma membrane localization rather than farnesylation or the presence of the additional COOH-terminal sequence accounted for the activation of RafCAAX. The activation of RafCAAX was completely independent of Ras; it was neither potentiated by oncogenic mutant Ras nor abrogated by dominant negative Ras. Raf, once recruited to the plasma membrane, was not anchored there by Ras; most activated Raf in cells was associated with plasma membrane cytoskeletal elements, not the lipid bilayer. Thus, Ras functions in the activation of Raf by recruiting Raf to the plasma membrane where a separate, Ras-independent, activation of Raf occurs.

  7. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs... research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs. This section provides disposal requirements for wastes generated during and as a result of research...

  8. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. PMID:23890623

  9. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored.

  10. Results from Finland's 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jaakkola, Timo; Kokko, Sami; Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Koski, Pasi; Tynjälä, Jorma; Soini, Anne; Ståhl, Timo; Tammelin, Tuija

    2014-05-01

    The Finnish 2014 Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth is the first assessment of Finland's efforts in promoting and facilitating PA opportunities for children and youth using the Active Healthy Kids Canada grading system. The Report Card relies primarily on research findings from 6 Research Institutes, coordinated by the University of Jyväskylä. The Research Work Group convened to evaluate the aggregated evidence and assign grades for each of the 9 PA indicators, following the Canadian Report Card protocol. Grades from A (highest) to F (lowest) varied in Finland as follows: 1) Overall physical activity-fulfillment of recommendations (D), 2) Organized sport participation (C), 3) Active play (D), 4) Active transportation (B), 5) Sedentary behaviors (D), 6) Family and peers (C), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the built environment (B), and 9) Government (B). This comprehensive summary and assessment of indicators related to PA in Finnish children and youth indicates that Finland still has many challenges to promote a physically active life style for youth. PMID:25426914

  11. Anomalous electrical signals associated with microbial activity: Results from Iron and Nitrate-Reducing Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, R. B.; Zheng, Q.; Flynn, P.; Singha, K.; Brantley, S.

    2008-12-01

    /m), increased in the iron reducing column (0.2 S/m to 0.8 S/m) and increased markedly in the nitrate reducing column (0.3 S/m to 1.2 S/m). This runs counter to our expectations. We expected to see an increase in σ b as [Fe(II)] increased and a decrease in σ b as nitrate was removed from the columns. All three columns showed little or no IP response at the outset and developed negative chargeabilities over the course of the experiment (as great as -20 mV/V). These values are anomalous and difficult to interpret. SP signals show the most variable response. Initially all three columns had SP values at or very near 0 mV. SP for the nitrate reducing column remained constant around 0mV. The iron reducing column displayed an increasingly negative SP response for the first two months that became constant at about -200mV for the remainder of the experiment. The alternating redox column displayed an oscillating signal recording large positive values (~475 mV) when nitrate concentrations were low and returning to a baseline value (~160mV) when nitrate was introduced to the column. The results of these column experiments indicate that there is a link between microbial activity and geophysical signals and that further research is needed to better quantify these signals.

  12. Knockout of the neural and heart expressed gene HF-1b results in apical deficits of ventricular structure and activation

    PubMed Central

    Hewett, Kenneth W.; Norman, Lisa W.; Sedmera, David; Barker, Ralph J.; Justus, Charles; Zhang, Jing; Kubalak, Steven W.; Gourdie, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Knockout of the neural and cardiac expressed transcription factor HF-1b causes electrophysiological abnormalities including fatal ventricular arrhythmias that occur with increasing frequency around the 4th week of postnatal life. This study addresses factors that may contribute to conduction disturbance in the ventricle of the HF-1b knockout mouse. Disruptions to gap junctional connexin40 (Cx40) have been reported in distal (i.e., apically located), but not proximal His–Purkinje conduction tissues of the HF-1b knockout mouse. This abnormality in myocardial Cx40 led us to address whether 4-week-old HF-1b knockout postnates display other disruptions to ventricular structure and function. Methods Western blotting and immunoconfocal quantification of Cx43 and coronary arteriole density and function were undertaken in the ventricle. Electrical activation was described by optical mapping. Results Western blotting and immunoconfocal microscopy indicated that overall levels of Cx43 (p <0.001) and percent of Cx43 localized in intercalated disks (p <0.001) were significantly decreased in the ventricular myocardium of knockouts relative to wildtype littermate controls. Analysis of the reduction in Cx43 level by basal and apical territories revealed that the decrease was most pronounced in the lower, apical half of the ventricle of knockouts relative to controls (p <0.001). Myocyte size also showed a significant decrease in the knockout, that was more marked within the apical half of the ventricle (p <0.05). Optical recordings of ventricular activation indicated apically localized sectors of slowed conduction in knockout ventricles not occurring in controls that could be correlated directly to tissues showing reduced Cx43. These discrete sectors of abnormal conduction in the knockout heart were resolved following point stimulation of the ventricular epicardium and thus were not explained by dysfunction of the His–Purkinje system. To further probe base

  13. What clinical activities do advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists perform? Results of a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; Rothpletz Puglia, Pamela; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Activities performed by advanced-practice registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) have yet to be clearly elucidated. The study aimed to gain consensus on the practice activities of advanced-practice RDNs who provide direct clinical nutrition care. A three-round Delphi study was conducted. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDN experts working as clinicians and/or managers in direct care settings that met inclusion criteria for advanced-level practice. In Round 1, 85 experts provided open-ended advanced-level practice activities linked to the Nutrition Care Process sections. Using content analysis, the responses were coded into activity statements. In Round 2, experts rated the essentiality of these activities. In Round 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus while viewing their previous rating, the group median, and comments. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 were neither essential nor nonessential, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to each question was <2.0. Seventy-six (89.4%) experts completed all rounds. From 770 comments, 129 activity statements were generated. All statements reached consensus: 97.7% as essential; 0.8% as nonessential; and 1.5% as neither. Of essential activities, 67.5% were highly essential with limited variability (median=1.0; interquartile range≤2.0). Advanced-practice RDNs' tasks are patient-centered and reflect complex care; involve a comprehensive and discriminating approach; are grounded in advanced knowledge and expertise in clinical nutrition; include use of advanced interviewing, education, and counseling strategies; and require communication with patient, families, and the health care team. The high-level of consensus from experts suggest advanced-level clinical nutrition practice exists and can be defined.

  14. Development of Visualizations and Loggable Activities for the Geosciences. Results from Recent TUES Sponsored Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Bailey, J. E.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Our TUES research centers on the role of digital data, visualizations, animations, and simulations in undergraduate geoscience education. Digital hardware (smartphones, tablets, GPSs, GigaPan robotic camera mounts, etc.) are revolutionizing field data collection. Software products (GIS, 3-D scanning and modeling programs, virtual globes, etc.) have truly transformed the way geoscientists teach, learn, and do research. Whilst Google-Earth-style visualizations are famously user-friend for the person browsing, they can be notoriously unfriendly for the content creator. Therefore, we developed tools to help educators create and share visualizations as easily as if posting on Facebook. Anyone whoIf you wish to display geological cross sections on Google Earth, go to digitalplanet.org, upload image files, position them on a line of section, and share with the world through our KMZ hosting service. Other tools facilitate screen overlay and 3-D map symbol generation. We advocate use of such technology to enable undergraduate students to 'publish' their first mapping efforts even while they are working in the field. A second outcome of our TUES projects merges Second-Life-style interaction with Google Earth. We created games in which students act as first responders for natural hazard mitigation, prospectors for natural resource explorations, and structural geologist for map-making. Students are represented by avatars and collaborate by exchange of text messages - the natural mode of communication for the current generation. Teachers view logs showing student movements as well as transcripts of text messages and can scaffold student learning and geofence students to prevent wandering. Early results of in-class testing show positive learning outcomes. The third aspect of our program emphasizes dissemination. Experience shows that great effort is required to overcome activation energy and ensure adoption of new technology into the curriculum. We organized a GSA Penrose

  15. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  16. Holocene glacier activity on Kerguelen Island: preliminary results from a novel proglacial lake sediment record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Støren, Eivind; Bakke, Jostein; Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Polar-regions are changing rapidly as greenhouse warming is continuing with huge impact on e.g. sea ice extent and snow cover. This change triggers teleconnections to low latitude areas challenging societies and human activity. We have, however, very little quantitative information of past climate in the Polar-regions that can be used to evaluate the potential responses and the response patterns to forcing changes and changes in boundary conditions. Whatever anthropogenic changes may occur in the future, they will be superimposed on, and interact with, natural climate variations due to all the forcing we are aware of. This means we need to better document past climate/environmental variability of the Polar-regions. Especially in the Southern Ocean there are few time series recording past climate due to few suitable land areas and the few Sub-Antarctic Islands is remote and has cumbersome logistics. Continuous terrestrial records from this region are therefore urgently needed for constraining future scenarios from earth system models. Glaciers and ice caps are still ubiquitous in the Polar-regions, although they are rapidly shrinking due to the on-going warming. The continuous sedimentary records produced by glaciers, which are stored in downstream lakes, represent supreme archives of past variability wherefrom quantitative information of key climate system components can be extracted. Kerguelen Island is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Southern Westerly wind belt and contains several glaciers and smaller ice caps. Terrestrial archives recording past history of the glaciers at Kerguelen thus have a unique potential to record past changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns from southern mid-latitudes. Here we present preliminary results from the first distal glacier-fed lake that is sampled from Kerguelen Island. A 2.8 m long sediment core was obtained from Lac Guynemer (121masl.) located at the Peninsule Loranchet at the

  17. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary

  18. A novel method for the automatic segmentation of activity data from a wrist worn device: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Amor, James D; Ahanathapillai, Vijayalakshmi; James, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Activity monitoring is used in a number of fields in order to assess the physical activity of the user. Applications include health and well-being, rehabilitation and enhancing independent living. Data are often gathered from multiple accelerometers and analysis focuses on multi-parametric classification. For longer term monitoring this is unsuitable and it is desirable to develop a method for the precise analysis of activity data with respect to time. This paper presents the initial results of a novel approach to this problem which is capable of segmenting activity data collected from a single accelerometer recording naturalized activity.

  19. Process evaluation methods, implementation fidelity results and relationship to physical activity and healthy eating in the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ruth P; Wilcox, Sara; Baruth, Meghan; Dowda, Marsha

    2014-04-01

    Faith, Activity and Nutrition (FAN), a community-based participatory research project in African American churches, aimed to increase congregant physical activity and healthy eating. The Health-Promoting Church framework, developed collaboratively with faith-based partners, guided the intervention and a comprehensive process evaluation. The Health-Promoting Church components related to healthy eating and physical activity were getting the message out, opportunities, pastor support, and organizational policy. There was no evidence for sequential mediation for any of the healthy eating components. These results illustrate the complexity of systems change within organizational settings and the importance of conducting process evaluation. The FAN intervention resulted in increased implementation for all physical activity and most healthy eating components. Mediation analyses revealed no direct association between implementation and increased physical activity; rather, sequential mediation analysis showed that implementation of physical activity messages was associated with improved self-efficacy at the church level, which was associated with increased physical activity.

  20. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Goodrich, D. C.; Holifield Collins, C.; McKee, L.; Kim, S.; Yueh, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR Watershed provides the infrastructure for the experiment with its extensive soil moisture and soil temperature network. A total of seven aircraft flights are planned for the Passive Active L-Band Scanning instrument (PALS) to provide a high resolution soil moisture map for a variety of soil moisture conditions across the domain. Extensive surface roughness, vegetation and soil rock fraction mapping was conducted to provide a ground truth estimate of the many ancillary datasets used in the SMAP soil moisture algorithms. A review of the methodologies employed in the experiment, as well as initial findings will be discussed.

  1. Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation

    SciTech Connect

    B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor

    2011-12-31

    Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Through extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.

  2. 10 years of cloud droplet activation data from Pallas, Northern Finland - preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivekäs, Niku; Asmi, Eija; Brus, David; Komppula, Mika; Lihavainen, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Activation of atmospheric aerosol particles into cloud droplets has been studied in situ at Pallas measurement station in Finnish Lapland from year 2005 to present day. The site is located on a hill top, about 300 m above the surrounding lowlands, and it is inside a cloud for 15 % of time. Here in-cloud periods are defined as periods when visibility was below 1000 m. There are two parallel Differential Mobility Particle Sizers (DMPS) at the site, measuring the number concentration and dry size distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles. One DMPS is connected to a PM2.5 inlet, the other to a total air inlet with no cut-off diameter. After each inlet the particles are dried to evaporate any water in them. This way it is possible to measure simultaneously the dry number-size-distribution of all particles, and that of particles with wet diameter smaller than 2.5 m. As the latter does not include cloud droplets, the difference between the two measurements represents the number concentration and size distribution of those particles that have activated into cloud droplets. The number concentration of particles at Pallas has a clear seasonal cycle, being highest during summer and lowest during winter. The monthly mean number concentration of particles with diameter larger than 100 nm varied from 38 cm-3 in November to 270 cm-3 in July. During in-cloud periods the monthly mean number concentration of activated particles of this same size class showed a similar pattern, varying from 23 cm-3 (November) to 110 cm-3 in April. The monthly mean D50 activation diameter (diameter at which 50 % of particles activate) varied from 85 nm (February) to 189 nm (July), showing an average 0.1 nm increase for each added particle with diameter > 100 nm. The activated fraction of particles in all sizes decreased sharply when visibility exceeded 1000 m. The highest activated fractions of particles were not observed during the periods of the thickest clouds, but during clouds with in

  3. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  4. Three-dimensional field structure in open unstable cavities Part II: Active cavity results.

    PubMed

    Oughstun, K; Khamnei, C

    1999-05-10

    The three-dimensional field distribution of the diffractive cavity mode structure in an active, open, unstable laser resonator is presented as a function of the equivalent Fresnel number of the cavity. The active cavity mode structures are compared to that of the corresponding passive cavity so that the effects of a spatially extended, homogeneously broadened, saturable gain medium on the cavity field structure may be ascertained. The qualitative structure of this intracavity field distribution, including the central intensity core (or oscillator filament), is explained in terms of the Fresnel zone structure defined over the cavity feedback aperture. PMID:19396296

  5. Activities of the International Labour Office; Conclusions from an International Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labour Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    The symposium on economic education for trade unionists held in Geneva identified areas of major interest, analyzed different ways of improving the economic knowledge of workers, discussed the planning and implementation of programs and materials, and reviewed ILO economic contributions to economic education. (Author/BP)

  6. Programmable electronic calculator in underground corrosion related activity. Part 5 (Conclusion)

    SciTech Connect

    Siefert, R.L.

    1980-10-01

    The program presented is designed to calculate and store network constants in the HewLett-Packard 97 and 67 calculators preliminary to performing the cathodic-protection interference calculations discussed in Part 4. Field data recorded on a special data sheet are entered directly into the program. The program then calculates the network constants and loads the essential data into the proper storage registers.

  7. Interpreting systematic reviews: are we ready to make our own conclusions? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Independent evaluation of clinical evidence is advocated in evidence-based medicine (EBM). However, authors' conclusions are often appealing for readers who look for quick messages. We assessed how well a group of Malaysian hospital practitioners and medical students derived their own conclusions from systematic reviews (SRs) and to what extent these were influenced by their prior beliefs and the direction of the study results. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies: one with hospital practitioners (n = 150) attending an EBM course in June 2008 in a tertiary hospital and one with final-year medical students (n = 35) in November 2008. We showed our participants four Cochrane SR abstracts without the authors' conclusions. For each article, the participants chose a conclusion from among six options comprising different combinations of the direction of effect and the strength of the evidence. We predetermined the single option that best reflected the actual authors' conclusions and labelled this as our best conclusion. We compared the participants' choices with our predetermined best conclusions. Two chosen reviews demonstrated that the intervention was beneficial ("positive"), and two others did not ("negative"). We also asked the participants their prior beliefs about the intervention. Results Overall, 60.3% correctly identified the direction of effect, and 30.1% chose the best conclusions, having identified both the direction of effect and the strength of evidence. More students (48.2%) than practitioners (22.2%) chose the best conclusions (P < 0.001). Fewer than one-half (47%) correctly identified the direction of effect against their prior beliefs. "Positive" SRs were more likely than "negative" SRs to change the participants' beliefs about the effect of the intervention (relative risk (RR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.6) and "convert" those who were previously unsure by making them choose the appropriate direction of effect (RR 1

  8. Characteristics of Effective In-Service Programmes and Activities: Results of a Dutch Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulder Van, Margriet; Veenman, Simon

    1991-01-01

    Urges in-service education and training (INSET) participants to be well informed of goals and involved in planning. Concludes that most participants are positive about the activities' design and execution despite extensive criticism about the value of INSET. Presents data about program participants' and trainers' opinions and beliefs about…

  9. 78 FR 26748 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR... of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Orders, 77 FR 29875 (May 21, 2012). Reference to 19 CFR 351... Administrative Review, 75 FR 70208, 70211 (November 17, 2010). \\6\\ In the third administrative review,...

  10. Processes, Procedures, and Methods to Control Pollution Resulting from Silvicultural Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report presents brief documentation of silvicultural practices, both those now in use and those in stages of research and development. A majority of the text is concerned with the specific aspects of silvicultural activities which relate to nonpoint source pollution control methods. Analyzed are existing and near future pollution control…

  11. Extracurricular Activities and Bullying Perpetration: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Alison; Gjelsvik, Annie; Ranney, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a widespread problem for school-aged children and adolescents. Interventions to reduce bullying are not well disseminated. Extracurricular involvement is, however, common. This study aims to examine the relationship between parent-reported participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration. Methods: Using…

  12. Design of a website on nutrition and physical activity for adolescents: results from formative research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Our objective was to collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly web site promoting healthy eati...

  13. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Second Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, and Preliminary Rescission in Part, 75 FR 26927 (May 13... review was requested. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR... Administrative Review, 74 FR 31690 (July 2, 2009). \\3\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic...

  14. T-Cell Tumor Elimination as a Result of T-Cell Receptor-Mediated Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Longo, Dan L.; Bridges, Sandra H.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been shown that activation of murine T-cell hybridomas with antigen inhibits their growth in vitro. The ``suicide'' of these neoplastic T cells upon stimulation with antigen suggested the possibility that activation via the antigen-specific receptor could also inhibit the growth of neoplastic T cells in vivo. To test this, mice were subcutaneously inoculated with antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas and then treated intraperitoneally with antigen. Administration of the appropriate antigen immediately after inoculation with the T-cell hybridoma abrogated tumor formation; antigen administered after tumors had become established decreased the tumor burden and, in a substantial fraction of animals, led to long-term survival. The efficacy of antigen therapy was due to both a direct inhibitory effect on tumor growth and the induction of host immunity. These studies demonstrate the utility of cellular activation as a means of inhibiting neoplastic T-cell growth in vivo and provide a rationale for studying the use of less selective reagents that can mimic the activating properties of antigen, such as monoclonal antibodies, in the treatment of T-cell neoplasms of unknown antigen specificity.

  15. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  16. Potentials of Physical Activity Promotion in Preschools--An Overview of Results of an Ethnographic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Natalie; Sterdt, Elena; Azouagh, Karima; Kramer, Silke; Walter, Ulla; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses exemplary differences between preschools with systematic physical activity (PA) programmes and preschools without PA programmes in Germany. Two preschools from each group were visited in the context of a focused ethnographic observation to examine the educational practice, PA and social behaviour of preschool children. The…

  17. Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

  18. Nacnac(Bn)CuOiPr: a strained geometry resulting in very high lactide polymerization activity.

    PubMed

    Whitehorne, Todd J J; Schaper, Frank

    2012-10-25

    N,N'-Dibenzyl diketiminate copper isopropanolate, (nacnac(Bn)CuOiPr)(2), polymerizes rac- and S,S-lactide in the presence or absence of isopropanol as a chain-transfer reagent with very high activity (k(2) = 32 M(-1) s(-1)), narrow polydispersities and without evidence of side reactions such as transesterification, epimerization or catalyst decomposition. PMID:22968601

  19. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2012 and 2013, a broad monitoring activity was carried out at the Rice Research Centre of Ente Nazionale Risi (CRR-ENR) located in Castello d'Agogna (PV, Italy) with the purpose of comparing the water balance components of paddy rice (Gladio cv.) under different water regimes and assessing the possibility of reducing the high water inputs related to the conventional practice of continuous submergence. The experiments were laid out in six plots of about 20 m x 80 m each, with two replicates for each of the following water regimes: i) continuous flooding with wet-seeded rice (FLD), ii) continuous flooding from around the 3-leaf stage with dry-seeded rice (3L-FLD), and iii) surface irrigation every 7-10 days with dry-seeded rice (IRR). One out of the two replicates of each treatment was instrumented with: water inflow and outflow meters, set of piezometers, set of tensiometers and multi-sensor moisture probes. Moreover, an eddy covariance station was installed on the bund between the treatments FLD and IRR. Data were automatically recorded and sent by a wireless connection to a PC, so as to be remotely controlled thanks to the development of a Java interface. Furthermore, periodic measurements of crop biometric parameters (LAI, crop height and rooting depth) were performed in both 2012 and 2013 (11 and 14 campaigns respectively). Cumulative water balance components from dry-seeding (3L-FLD and IRR), or flooding (FLD), to harvest were calculated for each plot by either measurements (i.e. rainfall, irrigation and surface drainage) or estimations (i.e. difference in the field water storage, evaporation from both the soil and the water surface and transpiration), whereas the sum of percolation and capillary rise (i.e. the 'net percolation') was obtained as the residual term of the water balance. Incidentally, indices of water application efficiency (evapotranspiration over net water input) and water productivity (grain production over net water

  20. Safe Play Spaces To Promote Physical Activity in Inner-City Children: Results from a Pilot Study of an Environmental Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Thomas A.; Meriwether, Rebecca A.; Baker, Erin T.; Watkins, Liza T.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Webber, Larry S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effect of providing a safe play space on the physical activity level of inner-city schoolchildren. Methods. In 1 of 2 matched neighborhoods, we opened a schoolyard and provided attendants to ensure children’s safety. Over the next 2 years we directly observed the number of children and their physical activity levels in the school-yard, as well as in the surrounding intervention and comparison neighborhoods. We also surveyed children in the schools in the intervention and comparison neighborhoods regarding sedentary activities. Results. After the schoolyard was opened, a mean of 71.4 children used it on weekdays and 25.8 used it on weekends during the school year. When observed, 66% of these children were physically active. The number of children who were outdoors and physically active was 84% higher in the intervention neighborhood than the comparison neighborhood. Survey results showed that children in the intervention school reported declines relative to the children in the comparison school in watching television, watching movies and DVDs, and playing video games on weekdays. Conclusion. When children were provided with a safe play space, we observed a relative increase in their physical activity. Provision of safe play spaces holds promise as a simple replicable intervention. PMID:17666701

  1. Occupational Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Richard H.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Gellman, Marc D.; Archer, Edward; Davis, Sonia M.; Gotman, Nathan; Marquez, David X.; Buelna, Christina; Deng, Yu; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between overweight/obesity and occupation among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority population in the U.S. Methods This study included 7,409 employed individuals in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a prospective study of Hispanic/Latino individuals aged 18–74 in four communities in the U.S. We independently examined the relationships between BMI, Occupational Activity (OA), and Total Hours Worked, quantified via self-reported hours worked per week and occupation-assigned Metabolic Equivalents (METs). Results More than three quarters of the participants were either overweight (39.3%) or obese (37.8%). Individuals with a primary occupation and those employed in a secondary occupation worked an average of 36.8 and 14.6 hrs/wk, respectively. The overall adjusted odds for being obese compared to normal weight were 3.2% (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and 14.4% (AOR = 1.14 95% Cl 1.07, 1.23) greater for each 10 MET•hrs/wk unit of increased OA, and each 10-hrs/wk unit of Total Hours Worked, respectively. Conclusion This study presents the first findings on the association between OA with overweight/obesity among Hispanic/Latino individuals in the U.S. Increasing OA and Total Hours Worked per week were independently associated with increasing odds of overweight/obesity suggesting that the workplace is only one part of the overall energy expenditure dynamic. Our findings point to the need to emphasize engaging employed individuals in greater levels of PA outside of the work environment to impact overweight/obesity. PMID:27031996

  2. Low dose alpha interferon therapy can be effective in chronic active hepatitis C. Results of a multicentre, randomised trial.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Tapias, J M; Forns, X; Ampurdanés, S; Titó, L; Planas, R; Viver, J M; Acero, D; Torres, M; Mas, P; Morillas, R; Forné, M; Espinós, J; Llovet, J M; Costa, J; Olmedo, E; López-Labrador, F X; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Rodés, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is some controversy concerning the efficacy of low dose alpha interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. AIMS--To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with low doses of alpha interferon in chronic hepatitis C. PATIENTS--One hundred and forty one patients with anti-HCV positive chronic active hepatitis C from six hospitals were enrolled in the study. METHODS--Patients were randomised to treatment with 5 MU (group A) or 1.5 MU (group B) injections. The dose was reduced in responders from group A or increased in non-responders from group B to maintain treatment with the minimal effective dose. Patients were treated for 48 weeks and followed up for 24 additional weeks with no treatment. Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used to evaluate response. RESULTS--A sustained response was seen in eight patients from group A (12%) and in 15 (21%) from group B. This difference was not statistically significant. Increasing the dose of interferon led to sustained response in only five of 58 patients (9%) from group B who did not respond to 1.5 MU injections. In contrast, 15 of 21 patients (71%) in whom ALT remained normal with 1.5 MU injections developed a sustained response. By multivariate analysis sustained response seemed associated with young age and was more frequent in patients with genotype 3 HCV infection. Sustained response was preceded by a rapid normalisation of ALT and was inversely related to the amount of alpha interferon necessary to maintain ALT at low values during treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Some patients with chronic hepatitis C are very sensitive to alpha interferon and can be successfully treated with low doses. Treatment with higher doses may be effective in a minority of patients who do not respond to low doses. PMID:8707096

  3. A Physical Activity Intervention to Treat the Frailty Syndrome in Older Persons—Results From the LIFE-P Study

    PubMed Central

    Vellas, Bruno; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Newman, Anne B.; Doss, Hani; King, Abby C.; Manini, Todd M.; Church, Timothy; Gill, Thomas M.; Miller, Michael E.; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background. The frailty syndrome is as a well-established condition of risk for disability. Aim of the study is to explore whether a physical activity (PA) intervention can reduce prevalence and severity of frailty in a community-dwelling elders at risk of disability. Methods. Exploratory analyses from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot, a randomized controlled trial enrolling 424 community-dwelling persons (mean age=76.8 years) with sedentary lifestyle and at risk of mobility disability. Participants were randomized to a 12-month PA intervention versus a successful aging education group. The frailty phenotype (ie, ≥3 of the following defining criteria: involuntary weight loss, exhaustion, sedentary behavior, slow gait speed, poor handgrip strength) was measured at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Repeated measures generalized linear models were conducted. Results. A significant (p = .01) difference in frailty prevalence was observed at 12 months in the PA intervention group (10.0%; 95% confidence interval = 6.5%, 15.1%), relative to the successful aging group (19.1%; 95% confidence interval = 13.9%,15.6%). Over follow-up, in comparison to successful aging participants, the mean number of frailty criteria in the PA group was notably reduced for younger subjects, blacks, participants with frailty, and those with multimorbidity. Among the frailty criteria, the sedentary behavior was the one most affected by the intervention. Conclusions. Regular PA may reduce frailty, especially in individuals at higher risk of disability. Future studies should be aimed at testing the possible benefits produced by multidomain interventions on frailty. PMID:25387728

  4. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight. PMID:26108649

  5. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in the Heart Electrical Axis Position Conclusion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2016-08-01

    The article touches upon building of a heart electrical axis position conclusion model using an artificial neural network. The input signals of the neural network are the values of deflections Q, R and S; and the output signal is the value of the heart electrical axis position. Training of the network is carried out by the error propagation method. The test results allow concluding that the created neural network makes a conclusion with a high degree of accuracy.

  6. Aggregation and spatial analysis of walking activity in an urban area: results from the Halifax space-time activity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neatt, K.; Millward, H.; Spinney, J.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines neighborhood characteristics affecting the incidence of walking trips in urban and suburban areas of Halifax, Canada. We employ data from the Space-Time Activity Research (STAR) survey, conducted in 2007-8. Primary respondents completed a two- day time-diary survey, and their movements were tracked using a GPS data logger. Primary respondents logged a total of 5,005 walking trips, specified by 781,205 individual GPS points. Redundant and erroneous points, such as those with zero or excessive speed, were removed. Data points were then imported into ArcGIS, converted from points to linear features, visually inspected for data quality, and cleaned appropriately. From mapped walking tracks we developed hypotheses regarding variations in walking density. To test these, walking distances were aggregated by census tracts (CTs), and expressed as walking densities (per resident, per metre of road, and per developed area). We employed multivariate regression to examine which neighborhood (CT) variables are most useful as estimators of walking densities. Contrary to much of the planning literature, built-environment measures of road connectivity and dwelling density were found to have little estimating power. Office and institutional land uses are more useful estimators, as are the income and age characteristics of the resident population.

  7. Differential MR/GR activation in mice results in emotional states beneficial or impairing for cognition.

    PubMed

    Brinks, Vera; van der Mark, Maaike H; de Kloet, E Ron; Oitzl, Melly S

    2007-01-01

    Corticosteroids regulate stress response and influence emotion, learning, and memory via two receptors in the brain, the high-affinity mineralocorticoid (MR) and low-affinity glucocorticoid receptor (GR). We test the hypothesis that MR- and GR-mediated effects interact in emotion and cognition when a novel situation is encountered that is relevant for a learning process. By adrenalectomy and additional constant corticosterone supplement we obtained four groups of male C57BL/6J mice with differential chronic MR and GR activations. Using a hole board task, we found that mice with continuous predominant MR and moderate GR activations were fast learners that displayed low anxiety and arousal together with high directed explorative behavior. Progressive corticosterone concentrations with predominant action via GR induced strong emotional arousal at the expense of cognitive performance. These findings underline the importance of a balanced MR/GR system for emotional and cognitive functioning that is critical for mental health.

  8. Improving the quality of emergency department documentation using the voice-activated word processor: interim results.

    PubMed Central

    Linn, N. A.; Rubenstein, R. M.; Bowler, A. E.; Dixon, J. L.

    1992-01-01

    We examined whether voice-activated word processors provide an acceptable means for emergency physicians to create medical records. Our study addressed three areas of inquiry: whether physicians can be induced to try this new technology, whether they will continue to use it after outside technical support is withdrawn, and the factors contributing to adoption and substantial use of voice-activated computers by practicing emergency physicians. This paper presents findings from the first half of the study, reflecting physicians' reported experiences while receiving onsite training followed by technical support for three months after system installation. Based on preliminary assessments, the keys to successful use appear to include physician and group commitment, acceptance of a steep learning curve, and flexibility in adapting the computer software and/or practice habits. PMID:1482976

  9. Protease activities of Candida spp. isolated from otitis externa: preliminary result.

    PubMed

    Arsović, N A; Banko, A V; Dimitrijević, M V; Djordjević, V Z; Milovanović, J P; Arsenijević, V A

    2009-01-01

    Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the ear predominantly caused by Candida and Aspergillus spp. The possible virulence factors of Candida spp. are enzymes, such as proteases, phospholipases, phosphatases and esterase. According to our knowledge, protease production in Candida strains isolated from patients with otomycosis has not been investigated. The present study was aimed at determining in vitro protease activity in 8 strains of Candida spp. (C. parapsilosis, C. famata, C. guilliermondii and C. albicans) isolated from children with otomycosis. A majority of isolated strains 7/8 (87.5%) were protease positive. The protease activity ranged from Pz 0.61 to 0.78. Further investigation is necessary to clarify the contribution of protease production to Candida virulence associated with otomycosis.

  10. Inappropriate Neural Activity during a Sensitive Period in Embryogenesis Results in Persistent Seizure-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo N.G.; Baines, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maturation of neural circuits requires activity-dependent processes that underpin the emergence of appropriate behavior in the adult. It has been proposed that disruption of these events, during specific critical periods when they exert maximal influence, may lead to neurodevelopmental diseases, including epilepsy [1, 2, 3]. However, complexity of neurocircuitry, coupled with the lack of information on network formation in mammals, makes it difficult to directly investigate this hypothesis. Alternative models, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, show remarkable similarities between experimental seizure-like activity and clinical phenotypes [4, 5, 6]. In particular, a group of flies, termed bang-sensitive (bs) mutants have been extensively used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizure [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Seizure phenotype can be measured in larval stages using an electroshock assay, and this behavior in bs mutants is dramatically reduced following ingestion of typical anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs; [13]). In this study we describe a critical period of embryonic development in Drosophila during which manipulation of neural activity is sufficient to significantly influence seizure behavior at postembryonic stages. We show that inhibition of elevated activity, characteristic of bs seizure models, during the critical period is sufficient to suppress seizure. By contrast, increasing neuronal excitation during the same period in wild-type (WT) is sufficient to permanently induce a seizure behavior. Further, we show that induction of seizure in WT correlates with functional alteration of motoneuron inputs that is a characteristic of bs mutants. Induction of seizure is rescued by prior administration of AEDs, opening a new perspective for early drug intervention in the treatment of genetic epilepsy. PMID:26549258

  11. Assessing and promoting physical activity in African American barbershops: results of the FITStop pilot study.

    PubMed

    Linnan, Laura A; Reiter, Paul L; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S; Viera, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research. The authors recruited African American shop owners (n = 4), barbers (n = 6), and customers (n = 90) from four barbershops in Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina, during 2009. The participation levels were high among owners (100%), barbers (67%), and customers (81%). In addition to completing a self-administered survey, 57% (51/90) of the customers completed physical measurements. According to self-reported data, 34% (30/88) of the customers met national physical activity recommendations within the last week. Customers expressed moderately high interest in learning more about health at barbershops and joining a barbershop-based physical activity contest. The estimated recruiting cost per customer was $105.92. Barbershops offer an effective setting for recruiting African American men and conducting physical measurements as well as an interesting possible location for conducting future interventions.

  12. [Transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors in Italy: activity and results].

    PubMed

    Dini, G; Miano, M; Morreale, G; Lanino, E

    1999-01-01

    Unrelated donor (UD) bone marrow transplantation (BMT) represents an attractive option for patients with haematological, oncological or genetic diseases lacking a compatible familiar donor. Between September 1988 and December 1997 the search of a donor has been activated for 1724 patients in Italy. Until May 1998, 413 BMT from UD have been performed in 28 different authorized italian centres. Forty out of these patients were affected by genetic diseases apart from SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency). Sixty-month disease free survival (DFS) of this group was 62%. Seventy-four out of 215 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for whom a donor search was started underwent a BMT. Six year DFS was 25%. Fifty-nine out of 379 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) for whom a donor search was activated underwent BMT. Forty-eight month DFS was 41.5%. Inborn errors curable with BMT, relapsed ALL and CML represent an absolute indication for UD BMT. In these cases donor search should be activated yearly.

  13. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs... research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs. This... development authorized under § 761.30(j). This section also provides disposal requirements for...

  14. 40 CFR 761.64 - Disposal of wastes generated as a result of research and development activities authorized under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... result of research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs... research and development activities authorized under § 761.30(j) and chemical analysis of PCBs. This... development authorized under § 761.30(j). This section also provides disposal requirements for...

  15. Building reproductive health research and audit capacity and activity in the pacific islands (BRRACAP) study: methods, rationale and baseline results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research and audit in reproductive health is essential to improve reproductive health outcomes and to address the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Research training, mentoring and a supportive participatory research environment have been shown to increase research activity and capacity in low to middle income countries (LMIC). This paper details the methods, rationale and baseline findings of a research program aimed at increasing clinical research activity and audit in the six Pacific Islands of Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu, Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands. Method Twenty-eight clinician participants were selected by the five Ministries of Health and the Fiji National University to undergo a research capacity building program which includes a research workshop and mentoring support to perform research and audit as teams in their country. Data on the participants’ characteristics, knowledge and experiences were collected from structured interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, and an online survey. The interviews and the two focus groups were audio-recorded and all replies were analysed in a thematic framework. Results The 28 participants included 9 nurses/midwives, 17 medical doctors of whom 8 were specialists in reproductive health and 2 other health workers. Most (24, 86%) were required to perform research as part of their employment and yet 17 (61%) were not confident in writing a research proposal, 13 (46%) could not use an electronic spreadsheet and the same number had not analysed quantitative data. The limited environmental enablers contributed to poor capacity with only 11 (46%) having access to a library, 10 (42%) receiving management support and 6 (25%) having access to an experienced researcher. Barriers to research that affected more than 70% of the participants were time constraints, poor coordination, no funding and a lack of skills. Conclusion Building a research capacity program appropriate for the diversity of

  16. Physical Activity Level and Sedentary Behaviors among Public School Children in Dakar (Senegal) Measured by PAQ-C and Accelerometer: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Adama; Thiam, Mbeugué; Idohou-Dossou, Nicole; Diongue, Ousmane; Mégné, Ndé; Diallo, Khady; Sembène, Pape Malick; Wade, Salimata

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyles are major risk factors of childhood obesity. This study aimed to measure physical activity (PA) levels by accelerometer and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Senegalese school children and the relation with Body Mass Index (BMI) and body composition. Methodology: 156 pupils 8–11 years old were randomly selected in four elementary public schools of Dakar. BMI z-score was used to categorize children according to their weight status. PA was measured by PAQ-C in the 156 pupils and by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+, Pensacola, FL, USA) in a subsample of 42 children. Body composition was determined by deuterium dilution method. Results: PAQ-C results were comparable in the 156 and 42 pupils. The 42 pupils presented a light activity measured by accelerometer, while PAQ-C classified the majority of them (57%; n = 24) in the moderate PA level. Children spent most of their time (min/day) in sedentary activities and light activities than in moderate and intense activity levels. Accumulation of 60 min/day Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) was achieved by 54.8% (n = 23) of the pupils. MVPA decreased in girls in relation to their body fatness. There was a significant difference in MVPA between boys and girls. Similarly, overweight/obese (45 ± 16 min/day) children had lower MVPA than their normal and underweight peers (88 ± 34 and 74 ± 36 min/day, respectively; p = 0.004). Conclusions: The two methods are inconsistent for measuring light and moderate PA levels. Although PAQ-C is an uncomplicated routine method, various activities were not adapted for genuine activities in Senegalese children and therefore needs to be validated in African children. PMID:27735876

  17. Mutation in E1, the ubiquitin activating enzyme, reduces Drosophila lifespan and results in motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hsiu-Yu; Pfleger, Cathie M

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases cause tremendous suffering for those afflicted and their families. Many of these diseases involve accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins thought to play a causal role in disease pathology. Ubiquitinated proteins are often found in these protein aggregates, and the aggregates themselves have been shown to inhibit the activity of the proteasome. These and other alterations in the Ubiquitin Pathway observed in neurodegenerative diseases have led to the question of whether impairment of the Ubiquitin Pathway on its own can increase mortality or if ongoing neurodegeneration alters Ubiquitin Pathway function as a side-effect. To address the role of the Ubiquitin Pathway in vivo, we studied loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme, Uba1 or E1, the most upstream enzyme in the Ubiquitin Pathway. Loss of only one functional copy of E1 caused a significant reduction in adult lifespan. Rare homozygous hypomorphic E1 mutants reached adulthood. These mutants exhibited further reduced lifespan and showed inappropriate Ras activation in the brain. Removing just one functional copy of Ras restored the lifespan of heterozygous E1 mutants to that of wild-type flies and increased the survival of homozygous E1 mutants. E1 homozygous mutants also showed severe motor impairment. Our findings suggest that processes that impair the Ubiquitin Pathway are sufficient to cause early mortality. Reduced lifespan and motor impairment are seen in the human disease X-linked Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy, which is associated with mutation in human E1 warranting further analysis of these mutants as a potential animal model for study of this disease.

  18. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes.

  19. Animal-Assisted Activities: Results From a Survey of Top-Ranked Pediatric Oncology Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chubak, Jessica; Hawkes, Rene

    2016-07-01

    Animal-assisted activities (AAA) are increasingly common, yet little is known about practices in pediatric oncology. To address this gap, we surveyed the top 20 pediatric oncology hospitals in the United States in May and June of 2014. Questionnaires were sent via e-mail and generally returned by e-mail or postal mail. Among the 19 responding hospitals, the 18 that offered AAA to pediatric patients formed the basis of our analysis. All sites had written AAA policies. Most programs were restricted to dogs. At 11 hospitals, children with cancer could participate in AAA activities. Outpatient waiting rooms and individual inpatient rooms were the most common locations for AAA with pediatric oncology patients. Safety precautions varied by hospital, but all required hand sanitation after visits and that animals receive an annual health examination, be on a leash or in a carrier, be ≥1 year old, and not be directly from a shelter. Our findings reveal consistencies and variations in practice that may help other hospitals develop their own programs and researchers identify areas of future study.

  20. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-08-17

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being.

  1. Microearthquake activity on the Orozco Fracture Zone: Preliminary results from Project ROSE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-10

    We present preliminary hypocenter determinations for 52 earthquakes recorded by a large multiinstitutional network of ocean bottom seismometers and ocean bottom hydrophones in the Orozco Fracture Zone in the eastern Pacific during late February to mid-March 1979. The network was deployed as part of the Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment, also known as Project ROSE. The Orozco Fracture Zone is Physiographically complex, and the pattern of microearthquake hypocenters at least partly reflects this complexity. All of the well-located epicenters lie within the active transform fault segment of the fracture zone. About half of the recorded earthquakes were aligned along a narrow trough that extends eastward from the northern rise crest intersection in the approximate direction of the Cocos-Pacific relative plate motion; these events appear to be characterized by strike-slip faulting. The second major group of activity occurred in the central portion of the transform fault; the microearthquakes in this group do not display a preferred alignment parallel to the direction of spreading, and several are not obviously associated with distinct topographic features. Hypocentral depth was well resolved for many of the earthquakes reported here. Nominal depths range from 0 to 17 km below the seafloor.

  2. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  3. Loss of rostral brainstem cholinergic activity results in decreased ultrasonic vocalization behavior and altered sensorimotor gating.

    PubMed

    Machold, Robert P

    2013-11-01

    The parabigeminal (PBG), pedunculopontine (PPTg), and laterodorsal tegmental (LDTg) nuclei located in the rostral brainstem are the primary sources of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) for the midbrain and thalamus, and as part of the ascending reticular activating system, these cholinergic signaling pathways regulate mouse behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, I report that mice harboring a conditional deletion of ACh synthesis specifically within these nuclei (ChAT(En1 KO)) exhibit decreased ultrasonic vocalizations both as pups and adults, consistent with their previously reported hypoactivity when exploring the novel environment of the open field arena. Furthermore, in prepulse inhibition (PPI) tests, ChAT(En1 KO) animals exhibited increased sensorimotor gating in comparison to control littermates. These data suggest that ACh signaling arising from the rostral brainstem modulates animal behavior in part by tuning the levels of sensorimotor gating. Thus, the net effect of this cholinergic activity is to increase sensitivity to environmental stimuli, and loss of this pathway contributes to the hypoactivity in these mutants by raising the sensory threshold for eliciting exploratory behaviors.

  4. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  5. Results of the survey activities and mobile gamma scanning in Monticello, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.

    1985-11-01

    The town of Monticello, Utah, was once the site of an active mill which processed vanadium ore (1942 to 1948), and uranium ore (1948 to 1960). Properties in the vicinity of that mill have become contaminated with radioactive material from ore processing. The Radiological Survey Activities (RASA) group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was requested by the Division of Remedial Action Projects (DRAP) in the Department of Energy (DOE) to: (1) identify potentially contaminated properties; (2) assess natural background radiation levels; and (3) rapidly assess the magnitude, extent, and type (i.e. ore, tailings, etc.) of contamination present on these properties (if any). This survey was conducted by RASA during April 1983. In addition to the 114 properties previously identified from historical information, the ORNL mobile gamma scanning van located 36 new properties exhibiting anomalous gamma radiation levels. Onsite surveys were conducted on 145 of the 150 total properties identified either historically or with the gamma scanning van. Of these 145 properties, 122 of them appeared to have some type of contaminated material present on them; however, only 48 appeared to be contaminated to the extent where they were in excess of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria (40 CFR 192). Twenty-one other properties were recommended for additional investigation (indoor gamma scanning and radon daughter measurements); of these, only ten required further analysis. This report provides the detailed data and analyses related to the radiological survey efforts performed by ORNL in Monticello, Utah.

  6. Microearthquake activity on the Orozco Fracture Zone: Preliminary results from Project ROSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists, Project Rose

    1981-05-01

    We present preliminary hypocenter determinations for 52 earthquakes recorded by a large multi-institutional network of ocean bottom seismometers and ocean bottom hydrophones in the Orozco Fracture Zone in the eastern Pacific during late February to mid-March 1979. The network was deployed as part of the Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment, also known as Project ROSE. The Orozco Fracture Zone is physiographically complex, and the pattern of microearthquake hypocenters at least partly reflects this complexity. All of the well-located epicenters lie within the active transform fault segment of the fracture zone. About half of the recorded earthquakes were aligned along a narrow trough that extends eastward from the northern rise crest intersection in the approximate direction of the Cocos-Pacific relative plate motion; these events appear to be characterized by strike-slip faulting. The second major group of activity occurred in the central portion of the transform fault; the microearthquakes in this group do not display a preferred alignment parallel to the direction of spreading, and several are not obviously associated with distinct topographic features. Hypocentral depth was well resolved for many of the earthquakes reported here. Nominal depths range from 0 to 17 km below the seafloor.

  7. Microearthquake activity on the Orozco Fracture Zone: Preliminary results from Project ROSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-05-01

    We present preliminary hypocenter determinations for 52 earthquakes recorded by a large multiinstitutional network of ocean bottom seismometers and ocean bottom hydrophones in the Orozco Fracture Zone in the eastern Pacific during late February to mid-March 1979. The network was deployed as part of the Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment, also known as Project ROSE. The Orozco Fracture Zone is Physiographically complex, and the pattern of microearthquake hypocenters at least partly reflects this complexity. All of the well-located epicenters lie within the active transform fault segment of the fracture zone. About half of the recorded earthquakes were aligned along a narrow trough that extends eastward from the northern rise crest intersection in the approximate direction of the Cocos-Pacific relative plate motion; these events appear to be characterized by strike-slip faulting. The second major group of activity occurred in the central portion of the transform fault; the microearthquakes in this group do not display a preferred alignment parallel to the direction of spreading, and several are not obviously associated with distinct topographic features. Hypocentral depth was well resolved for many of the earthquakes reported here. Nominal depths range from 0 to 17 km below the seafloor.

  8. Biomarker validation of reports of recent sexual activity: results of a randomized controlled study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Steiner, Markus J; Gallo, Maria F; Warner, Lee; Hobbs, Marcia M; van der Straten, Ariane; Chipato, Tsungai; Macaluso, Maurizio; Padian, Nancy S

    2009-10-01

    Challenges in the accurate measurement of sexual behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention research are well documented and have prompted discussion about whether valid assessments are possible. Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) may increase the validity of self-reported behavioral data. In 2006-2007, Zimbabwean women participated in a randomized, cross-sectional study that compared self-reports of recent vaginal sex and condom use collected through ACASI or face-to-face interviewing (FTFI) with a validated objective biomarker of recent semen exposure (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels). Of 910 study participants, 196 (21.5%) tested positive for PSA, an indication of semen exposure during the previous 2 days. Of these 196 participants, 23 (11.7%) reported no sex in the previous 2 days, with no difference in reported sexual activity between interview modes (12.5% ACASI vs. 10.9% FTFI; Fisher's exact test: P = 0.72). In addition, 71 PSA-positive participants (36.2%) reported condom-protected vaginal sex only; their reports also indicated no difference between interview modes (33.7% ACASI vs. 39.1% FTFI; P = 0.26). Only 52% of PSA-positive participants reported unprotected sex during the previous 2 days. Self-report was a poor predictor of recent sexual activity and condom use in this study, regardless of interview mode, providing evidence that such data should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:19741042

  9. Biomarker Validation of Reports of Recent Sexual Activity: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Markus J.; Gallo, Maria F.; Warner, Lee; Hobbs, Marcia M.; van der Straten, Ariane; Chipato, Tsungai; Macaluso, Maurizio; Padian, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    Challenges in the accurate measurement of sexual behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention research are well documented and have prompted discussion about whether valid assessments are possible. Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) may increase the validity of self-reported behavioral data. In 2006–2007, Zimbabwean women participated in a randomized, cross-sectional study that compared self-reports of recent vaginal sex and condom use collected through ACASI or face-to-face interviewing (FTFI) with a validated objective biomarker of recent semen exposure (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels). Of 910 study participants, 196 (21.5%) tested positive for PSA, an indication of semen exposure during the previous 2 days. Of these 196 participants, 23 (11.7%) reported no sex in the previous 2 days, with no difference in reported sexual activity between interview modes (12.5% ACASI vs. 10.9% FTFI; Fisher's exact test: P = 0.72). In addition, 71 PSA-positive participants (36.2%) reported condom-protected vaginal sex only; their reports also indicated no difference between interview modes (33.7% ACASI vs. 39.1% FTFI; P = 0.26). Only 52% of PSA-positive participants reported unprotected sex during the previous 2 days. Self-report was a poor predictor of recent sexual activity and condom use in this study, regardless of interview mode, providing evidence that such data should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:19741042

  10. Effects of health information in youth on adult physical activity: 20-year study results from the Amsterdam growth and health longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Han C G; Verhagen, E A L M; Milo, D; Post, G B; Van Lenthe, F; Van Mechelen, W; Twisk, J W R; De Vente, W

    2002-01-01

    In the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS), a group of apparently healthy males and females (n = 200) were interviewed about their physical activities on eight separate occasions over a period of 20 years between 13 and 33 years of age (multi-measured group: MM). Information about their health was given based on their personally measured lifestyle (activity, diet, smoking) and biological risk characteristics for chronic diseases (medical check-ups). A comparable group of boys and girls (n = 200) was only measured on two occasions (bi-measured group: BM): at 13 and 33 years. Physical activity was estimated with a structured interview. Total physical activity and sports activity were estimated in three intensity levels (light, moderate, and heavy). It was hypothesized that the eight repeated medical check-ups with health information in the MM group would result in a healthier lifestyle with respect to the determinants and levels of habitual physical activity compared to the BM group. Contrary to the hypothesis, males and females in the BM group showed a significantly higher increase or a lower decrease in physical activities compared to the MM group. This negative effect on the physical activity pattern at 33 years in the MM group may have been caused by more underreporting of physical activities than in the BM group. In conclusion, there does not appear to be a significant effect of long-term (multi-measured) health information with medical check-ups during adolescence and young adulthood on level of physical activity in males and females at 33 years of age. PMID:12112566

  11. IPEC Gels for Remediating Soils Contaminated as Result of Nuclear and Industrial Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheykin, S.V.; Anciferova, E.Yu.; Simonov, V.P.; Zezin, A.B.; Rogacheva, V.B.; Bolusheva, T.N.

    2006-07-01

    be highly erosion-resistant. It showed that new kinds of IPECs based with micro-gels are very useful as soil stabilizers and applicable as activating agent of grass vegetation in the remediation activities. It may successfully apply also in the post-accidental activities in the case of spray radioactive materials onto topsoils. (authors)

  12. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Ombrotrophic Peat as a Result of Anthropic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabio Lourençato, Lucio; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    Ombrotrophic peat can be defined as a soil rich in organic matter, formed from the partial decomposition of vegetable organic material in a humid and anoxic environment, where the accumulation of material is necessarily faster than the decomposition. From the physical-chemical point of view, it is a porous and highly polar material with high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. The high ability of trace elements to undergo complexation by humic substances happens due to the presence of large amounts of oxygenated functional groups in these substances. Since the beginning of industrialization human activities have scattered a large amount of trace elements in the environment. Soil contamination by atmospheric deposition can be expressed as a sum of site contamination by past/present human activities and atmospheric long-range transport of trace elements. Ombrotrophic peat records can provide valuable information about the entries of trace metals into the atmosphere and that are subsequently deposited on the soil. These trace elements are toxic, non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain, even in relatively low quantities. Thus studies on the increase of trace elements in the environment due to human activities are necessary, particularly in the southern hemisphere, where these data are scarce. The aims of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of mercury in ombrotrophic peat altomontanas coming from atmospheric deposition. The study is conducted in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazilian conservation unit, situated between the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. An ombrotrophic peat core is being sampled in altitude (1980m), to measure the trace elements concentrations of this material. As it is conservation area, the trace elements found in the samples is mainly from atmospheric deposition, since in Brazil don't exist significant lithology of trace elements. The samples are characterized by organic matter content which

  13. Biological activity resulting from exposure to aquatic environmental genotoxic pollutants in northern Egypt.

    PubMed

    Saad, A A; El-Sikaily, A M; Kholeif, S F; Khalil, E S; Mahrous, H S; Al-Zabedi, E M S; Kassem, H A

    2010-01-01

    We estimated pollution in Lake Edku and the Mediterranean Sea, El-Maadiya Region, with 3 aromatic amines (1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine and benzidine) in the muscle tissue of fish. There were marked seasonal variations in the aromatic amine levels. We also determined oxidative stress (blood glutathione, and catalase activity) and genotoxic effects (chromosomal aberrations and urinary metabolites) in fishermen from each area. The fishermen suffered from oxidative stress and had high levels of the urinary metabolite sulfanilamide [mean (microg/mg creatinine): Lake Edku 20.7, Mediterranean 14.5, controls 5.3]. Frequencies for total chromosomal aberrations were significantly raised in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of fishermen in both areas [frequency (per 100 metaphases): Mediterranean 67, Lake Edku 45, controls 14]. PMID:20214163

  14. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (<5 % deviation) among the participating laboratories with good repeatability. The sorption data and technical information on the different experimental setups have been used to investigate errors and potential pitfalls in the assessment of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. References Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, B.M. Krooss, G. de

  15. First results from the THOR experiment imaging thunderstorm activity from the ISS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Mogensen, Andreas; Yair, Yoav; Stendel, Martin; Larsen, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Video imaging from the THOR experiment conducted on International Space Station by the Danish astronaut Andreas Mogensen has been analyzed. The observations we report in this paper were taken with a color camera from the vantage point of the Cupola, tracking thunderstorm activity over the Bay of Bengal. Among many lightning, the observations contain a sprite, a blue jet and numerous small blue discharge regions at the top of a tall cumulonimbus cloud. The latter are interpreted as electric discharges between layers at the uppermost layers of the cloud and to the screening layer formed at the very edge between the cloud and the surrounding atmosphere. The observations are the first of their kind and give new insights into the charge structure at the top of clouds in the tropical tropopause regions, a region that is difficult to observe and to access.

  16. Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

  17. Results from NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Managua,Central American Volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, K.; Funk, J.; Mann, P.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    Lake Managua covers an area of 1,035 km2 of the Central American volcanic arc and is enclosed by three major stratovolcanoes: Momotombo to the northwest was last active in AD 1905, Apoyeque in the center on the Chiltepe Peninsula was last active ca. 4600 years BP, and Masaya to the southeast was last active in AD 2003. A much smaller volcano in the lake (Momotombito) is thought to have been active <4500 yrs B.P. In May of 2006, we used a chartered barge to collect 330 km of 3.5 kHz profiler data along with coincident 274 km of sidescan sonar and 27 km of seismic reflection data. These data identify three zones of faulting on the lake floor: 1) A zone of north-northeast-striking faults in the shallow (2.5-7.5 m deep) eastern part of the lake that extends from the capital city of Managua, which was severely damaged by shallow, left-lateral strike-slip displacements on two of these faults in 1931 (M 5.6) and 1972 (M 6.2): these faults exhibit a horst and graben character and include possible offsets on drowned river valleys 2) a semicircular rift zone that is 1 km wide and can be traced over a distance of 30 km in the central part of the lake; the rift structure defines the deepest parts of the lake ranging from 12 to 18 m deep and is concentric about the Apoyeque stratocone/Chiltepe Peninsula; and 3) a zone of fault scarps defining the northwestern lake shore that may correlate to the northwestern extension of the Mateare fault zone, a major scarp-forming fault that separates the Managua lowlands from the highlands south and west of the city. Following previous workers, we interpret the northeast- trending group of faults in the eastern part of the lake as part of a 15-km-long discontinuity where the trend of the volcanic arc is offset in a right-lateral sense. The semi-circular pattern of the rift zone that is centered on Chiltepe Peninsula appears to have formed as a distal effect of either magma intrusion or withdrawal from beneath this volcanic complex. The

  18. Application of electrical methods to measure microbial activity in soils: Preliminary microcosm results

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.L. Sweet, A.; Majer, E.

    1997-12-01

    The application of the geophysical technique known as self-potential to the measurement of microbial activity was tested on laboratory microcosms containing ferric iron and iron-reducing bacteria Shewanella alga BrY. Measurements of the electrical response of silver-coated copper electrodes distributed along a Teflon probe inserted into sterile and inoculated layers containing either ferric chloride, ferric citrate, or ferric oxide rich soil were recorded over hours or days. Strong electrical signals reached values more negative than {minus}400 mV for all types of inoculated ferric iron layers. Electric signals in sterile control layers, by contrast, rarely reached values more negative than {minus}150 mV. These preliminary experiments indicate that it may be possible to apply the self-potential geophysical method to monitor bioremediation in the field.

  19. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  20. Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Miller, Daniel M.; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P.; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  1. Inflammasome activation of IL-18 results in endothelial progenitor cell dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kahlenberg, J Michelle; Thacker, Seth G; Berthier, Celine C; Cohen, Clemens D; Kretzler, Matthias; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2011-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with heterogeneous manifestations including severe organ damage and vascular dysfunction leading to premature atherosclerosis. IFN-α has been proposed to have an important role in the development of lupus and lupus-related cardiovascular disease, partly by repression of IL-1 pathways leading to impairments in vascular repair induced by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). Counterintuitively, SLE patients also display transcriptional upregulation of the IL-1β/IL-18 processing machinery, the inflammasome. To understand this dichotomy and its impact on SLE-related cardiovascular disease, we examined cultures of human and murine control or lupus EPC/CACs to determine the role of the inflammasome in endothelial differentiation. We show that caspase-1 inhibition improves dysfunctional SLE EPC/CAC differentiation into mature endothelial cells and blocks IFN-α-mediated repression of this differentiation, implicating inflammasome activation as a crucial downstream pathway leading to aberrant vasculogenesis. Furthermore, serum IL-18 levels are elevated in SLE and correlate with EPC/CAC dysfunction. Exogenous IL-18 inhibits endothelial differentiation in control EPC/CACs and neutralization of IL-18 in SLE EPC/CAC cultures restores their capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells, supporting a deleterious effect of IL-18 on vascular repair in vivo. Upregulation of the inflammasome machinery was operational in vivo, as evidenced by gene array analysis of lupus nephritis biopsies. Thus, the effects of IFN-α are complex and contribute to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease by suppression of IL-1β pathways and by upregulation of the inflammasome machinery and potentiation of IL-18 activation.

  2. Jumping to conclusions and delusions: the impact of discussion of the bias on the bias.

    PubMed

    Warman, Debbie M; Martin, Joel M; Lysaker, Paul

    2013-11-01

    The present study was an investigation of the impact a brief intervention designed to raise awareness of a cognitive bias known to be robust for individuals with delusions has on the reasoning strategies of individuals with delusions. Individuals with delusions (n=57) were randomly assigned either to receive or not to receive a discussion of the jumping to conclusions bias and its pitfalls. Participants' performance on 3 reasoning trials - 1 emotionally neutral (beads) and 2 emotionally salient (self-referred survey words) - was then assessed; the number of stimuli participants requested before making a decision was evaluated to determine if the Jumping to Conclusions Discussion resulted in increased data gathering. There was no difference between groups (those who received and those who did not receive the Jumping to Conclusions Discussion) in terms of how many beads they gathered (p=.36), but there were significant differences on both reasoning trials of emotionally salient stimuli (p's<.05), such that participants who received the Jumping to Conclusions Discussion requested more stimuli on those tasks than individuals who did not receive the discussion. Thus, results suggest that discussion of the jumping to conclusions bias may impact the bias directly, at least for material that is emotional in nature. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to cognitive behavioral therapies for psychosis and existing research on reasoning and delusions.

  3. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  4. Computer-based procedure for field activities: Results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna; bly, Aaron; LeBlanc, Katya

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  5. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: A PRELIMINARY INVENTORY OF ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Eight Regional CHP Application Centers (RACs) are funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies in all 50 states. The RACs build end-user awareness by providing CHP-related information to targeted markets through education and outreach; they work with the states and regulators to encourage the creation and adoption of favorable public policies; and they provide CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. The RACs were started by DOE as a pilot program in 2001 to support the National CHP Roadmap developed by industry to accelerate deployment of energy efficient CHP technologies (U.S. Combined Heat and Power Association 2001). The intent was to foster a regional presence to build market awareness, address policy issues, and facilitate project development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported DOE with the RAC program since its inception. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort involving DOE and some CHP industry stakeholders to establish quantitative metrics for measuring the RACs accomplishments. This effort incorporated the use of logic models to define and describe key RAC activities, outputs, and outcomes. Based on this detailed examination of RAC operations, potential metrics were identified associated with the various key sectors addressed by the RACs: policy makers; regulatory agencies; investor owned utilities; municipal and cooperative utilities; financiers; developers; and end users. The final product was reviewed by a panel of representatives from DOE, ORNL, RACs, and the private sector. The metrics developed through this effort focus on major RAC activities as well as on CHP installations and related outcomes. All eight RACs were contacted in August 2008 and asked to provide data for every year of Center operations for those metrics on which they kept records. In addition, data on CHP installations and

  6. Transcriptional activation by TAL1 and FUS-CHOP proteins expressed in acute malignancies as a result of chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-García, I; Rabbitts, T H

    1994-01-01

    Proteins that appear to participate in transcriptional control of gene expression are increasingly implicated in leukemias and malignant solid tumors. We report here that the N-terminal domains of the proteins TAL1 (ectopically activated in T-cell acute leukemias after chromosomal abnormalities caused by V-D-J recombinase error) (V, variable; D, diversity; J, joining) and FUS-CHOP (a liposarcoma tumor-specific fusion protein that is produced as a result of a chromosomal translocation) can function as transcription activators of specific responsive reporter genes. The result with TAL1 provides evidence that transcriptional activation can be mediated by a gene activated by translocation in T-cell acute leukemias. In the case of the liposarcoma, transactivation by the FUS-CHOP protein occurs because the FUS transcriptional activation domain is added to the DNA-binding CHOP protein normally lacking such activity. Therefore, the association of transcriptional activation and DNA-binding elements is a common consequence in proteins activated or newly created as fusion proteins after chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias and in malignant solid tumors. Images PMID:8058726

  7. The New Data on Dynamics of Permian - Triassic Magmatic Activity on Siberian Platform: Paleomagnetic Results from Tunguska Syncline and Angara - Taseeva Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    We perform the new paleomagnetic data from intrusive complexes of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and Tunguska syncline). Results of paleomagnetic and geological investigation indicate that two different patterns of magmatic process took place in these regions. In Angara - Taseeva depression short intense peaks of magmatic activity alternate with more prolonged periods of relative quietness. These bursts of magmatic activity resulted in intruding of large dolerite sills. In the central part of Tunguska syncline local intrusive events took place on the background of effusive volcanic activity. Considering the new data together with previous paleomagnetic results from Norilsk and Maymecha - Kotuy regions (Pavlov et al., 2015), western part of Viluy basin (Konstantinov et al., 2014) and Angara-Taseeva depression (Latyshev et al., 2013), it can be concluded that pulsating character of magmatic activity is typical for the periphery of Tunguska syncline. However, the central part of Tunguska syncline is characterized by more prolonged and even style of volcanic process and less widescale intrusive events. This conclusion is important for understanding of LIPs formation and mantle plumes dynamics. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 14-05-31447 and 15-35-20599 and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant 14.Z50.31.0017).

  8. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  9. Thoron detection with an active Radon exposure meter—First results

    SciTech Connect

    Irlinger, J. Wielunski, M.; Rühm, W.

    2014-02-15

    For state-of-the-art discrimination of Radon and Thoron several measurement techniques can be used, such as active sampling, electrostatic collection, delayed coincidence method, and alpha-particle-spectroscopy. However, most of the devices available are bulky and show high power consumption, rendering them unfeasible for personal exposition monitoring. Based on a Radon exposure meter previously realized at the Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU), a new electronic prototype for Radon/Thoron monitoring is currently being developed, which features small size and weight. Operating with pin-diode detectors, the low-power passive-sampling device can be used for continuous concentration measurements, employing alpha-particle-spectroscopy and coincidence event registration to distinguish decays originating either from Radon or Thoron isotopes and their decay products. In open geometry, preliminary calibration measurements suggest that one count per hour is produced by a 11 Bq m{sup −3} Radon atmosphere or by a 15 Bq m{sup −3} Thoron atmosphere. Future efforts will concentrate on measurements in mixed Radon/Thoron atmospheres.

  10. VR PTSD exposure therapy results with active duty OIF/OEF combatants.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert A; Difede, Joann; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Johnston, Scott; McLay, Robert N; Reger, Greg; Gahm, Greg; Parsons, Thomas; Graap, Ken; Pair, Jarrell

    2009-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Reports indicate that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality exposure therapy has been previously used for PTSD with reports of positive outcomes. This paper will present a brief description of the USC/ICT Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD therapy application and present clinical outcome data from active duty patients treated at the Naval Medical Center-San Diego (NMCSD) as of October 2009. Initial outcomes from the first twenty patients to complete treatment indicate that 16 no longer meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD at post treatment. Research and clinical tests using the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan software are also currently underway at Weill Cornell Medical College, Emory University, Fort Lewis and WRAMC along with 20 other test sites. PMID:19377167

  11. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  12. Sport facility proximity and physical activity: Results from the Study of Community Sports in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiujin; Dai, Jian; Xun, Pengcheng; Jamieson, Lynn M; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Increased sport facility proximity is associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in western studies, but it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalized to the Chinese population. From September 2012 to December 2012, 3926 participants drawn from China using a multi-stage sampling strategy were invited to participate in the Study of Community Sports in China. Participants' demographics, commuting time to the nearest sport facility and PA levels were assessed. Among 3926 participants included (51.2% female) in the final analysis, 878 (22.4%) of them met the PA recommendation. Participants who spent ≥30 minutes in commuting time had 80% odds [odds ratio (OR): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98)] of meeting the PA recommendation compared to those who spent less than 10 minutes. For every 10-minute increment in commuting time, the odds reduced by 6% [OR = 0.94 (0.88-0.99)]. The observed associations were not appreciably modified by age, gender or education level. In this cross-sectional community-based study, we found that residents in China were less likely to meet the PA recommendation if they needed more commuting time to the nearest sport facility. Increasing sport facility proximity may be effective in improving the PA levels in the Chinese population.

  13. Thoron detection with an active Radon exposure meter--first results.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, J; Wielunski, M; Rühm, W

    2014-02-01

    For state-of-the-art discrimination of Radon and Thoron several measurement techniques can be used, such as active sampling, electrostatic collection, delayed coincidence method, and alpha-particle-spectroscopy. However, most of the devices available are bulky and show high power consumption, rendering them unfeasible for personal exposition monitoring. Based on a Radon exposure meter previously realized at the Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU), a new electronic prototype for Radon/Thoron monitoring is currently being developed, which features small size and weight. Operating with pin-diode detectors, the low-power passive-sampling device can be used for continuous concentration measurements, employing alpha-particle-spectroscopy and coincidence event registration to distinguish decays originating either from Radon or Thoron isotopes and their decay products. In open geometry, preliminary calibration measurements suggest that one count per hour is produced by a 11 Bq m(-3) Radon atmosphere or by a 15 Bq m(-3) Thoron atmosphere. Future efforts will concentrate on measurements in mixed Radon/Thoron atmospheres. PMID:24593342

  14. Adaptive wave field synthesis for active sound field reproduction: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Sound field reproduction has applications in music reproduction, spatial audio, sound environment reproduction, and experimental acoustics. Sound field reproduction can be used to artificially reproduce the spatial character of natural hearing. The objective is then to reproduce a sound field in a real reproduction environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. The room response thus reduces the quality of the physical sound field reproduction by WFS. In recent research papers, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a potential solution to compensate for these quality reductions from which WFS objective performance suffers. In this paper, AWFS is experimentally investigated as an active sound field reproduction system with a limited number of reproduction error sensors to compensate for the response of the listening environment. Two digital signal processing algorithms for AWFS are used for comparison purposes, one of which is based on independent radiation mode control. AWFS performed propagating sound field reproduction better than WFS in three tested reproduction spaces (hemianechoic chamber, standard laboratory space, and reverberation chamber). PMID:18397007

  15. Experimental Results from the Active Aeroelastic Wing Wind Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Florance, James R.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Ivanco, Thomas G.; DeMoss, Joshua; Silva, Walter A.; Panetta, Andrew; Lively, Peter; Tumwa, Vic

    2005-01-01

    The Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) program is a cooperative effort among NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Boeing Company, encompassing flight testing, wind tunnel testing and analyses. The objective of the AAW program is to investigate the improvements that can be realized by exploiting aeroelastic characteristics, rather than viewing them as a detriment to vehicle performance and stability. To meet this objective, a wind tunnel model was crafted to duplicate the static aeroelastic behavior of the AAW flight vehicle. The model was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel in July and August 2004. The wind tunnel investigation served the program goal in three ways. First, the wind tunnel provided a benchmark for comparison with the flight vehicle and various levels of theoretical analyses. Second, it provided detailed insight highlighting the effects of individual parameters upon the aeroelastic response of the AAW vehicle. This parameter identification can then be used for future aeroelastic vehicle design guidance. Third, it provided data to validate scaling laws and their applicability with respect to statically scaled aeroelastic models.

  16. Purinergic signaling during macrophage differentiation results in M2 alternative activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages represent a highly heterogenic cell population of the innate immune system, with important roles in the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory response. Purinergic signaling regulates both M1 and M2 macrophage function at different levels by controlling the secretion of cytokines, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that extracellular nucleotides arrest macrophage differentiation from bone marrow precursors via adenosine and P2 receptors. This results in a mature macrophage with increased expression of M2, but not M1, genes. Similar to adenosine and ATP, macrophage growth arrested with LPS treatment resulted in an increase of the M2-related marker Ym1. Recombinant Ym1 was able to affect macrophage proliferation and could, potentially, be involved in the arrest of macrophage growth during hematopoiesis.

  17. Cosmic dust analogue material condensation in microgravity: The Stardust programme - First results and future activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, F.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Nuth, J.; Stephens, J. R.; Bussoletti, E.; Carotenuto, L.; Colangeli, L.; Dell'aversana, P.; Mele, F.; Mennella, V.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results are presented from airborne experiments investigating the vapor phase condensation in microgravity, carried out in the framework of the Stardust international program. Special attention is given to the design and operation of the experimental equipment, which includes the furnace for producing vapors from different materials and the cloud chamber in which the vapor nucleation occurs. A two-part mathematical model was developed to describe the transport processes in the nucleation chamber. Results obtained from three experimental series were conducted with Mg and Zn aboard NASA's KC-135 reduced-gravity research aircraft showed that nucleation front (smoke cloud) was quite different in appearance in microgravity from that typically observed at 1-g condition. The Mg and Zn particles exhibited significant differences in shape; there was some evidence of coagulation.

  18. 78 FR 70533 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...; 2011-2012, 78 FR 26748 (May 8, 2013) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES: Effective Date: November 26....\\12\\ \\2\\ See id. \\3\\ See id., 78 FR at 26749. \\4\\ See Memorandum to Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant... Results, 78 FR at 26749; see also Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from...

  19. 77 FR 67337 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011; Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Fourth Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, and Intent To Rescind in Part, 77 FR 26496 (May 4, 2012... of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR 20988... Preliminary Results, 77 FR at 26498. Changes Since the Preliminary Results Based on a review of the record...

  20. Biotransformation of dianabol with the filamentous fungi and β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity of resulting metabolites.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naik T; Zafar, Salman; Noreen, Shagufta; Al Majid, Abdullah M; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim; Atta-ur-Rahman; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Biotransformation of the anabolic steroid dianabol (1) by suspended-cell cultures of the filamentous fungi Cunninghamella elegans and Macrophomina phaseolina was studied. Incubation of 1 with C. elegans yielded five hydroxylated metabolites 2-6, while M. phaseolina transformed compound 1 into polar metabolites 7-11. These metabolites were identified as 6β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (2), 15α,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (3), 11α,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (4), 6β,12β,17β-trihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (5), 6β,15α,17β-trihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (6), 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3,6-dione (7), 7β,17β,-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (8), 15β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (9), 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3,11-dione (10), and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (11). Metabolite 3 was also transformed chemically into diketone 12 and oximes 13, and 14. Compounds 6 and 12-14 were identified as new derivatives of dianabol (1). The structures of all transformed products were deduced on the basis of spectral analyses. Compounds 1-14 were evaluated for β-glucuronidase enzyme inhibitory activity. Compounds 7, 13, and 14 showed a strong inhibition of β-glucuronidase enzyme, with IC50 values between 49.0 and 84.9 μM. PMID:24755238

  1. An international activity and spectrum analysis of linezolid: ZAAPS Program results for 2011.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Mendes, Rodrigo E; Ross, James E; Sader, Helio S; Jones, Ronald N

    2013-06-01

    Through a continuing resistance surveillance monitoring program, linezolid was shown to maintain its spectrum and potency against a collection of 8059 clinically relevant Gram-positive strains collected from patients at 79 medical centers in 33 countries and Hong Kong. Linezolid MIC90 values were 2 μg/mL for methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and enterococci, and the MIC90 value was 1 μg/mL for coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), β-hemolytic streptococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and viridans group streptococci. Reference broth microdilution susceptibility testing for linezolid demonstrated a 99.83% susceptibility rate for all organisms. All S. aureus were inhibited by ≤2 μg/mL. Three (0.3%) of 928 strains of CoNS had a linezolid MIC of 4 μg/mL and contained the cfr resistance gene; 1 also had a mutation in L3. There were 14 linezolid-resistant strains detected from 7 countries (Brazil [5], France [1], Germany [2] Greece [2], Italy [2], Ireland [1], and Spain [1]) representing 5 species (E. faecium, S. capitis, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. lugdenensis). A mobile cfr gene was noted in 2 species having elevated linezolid MIC values; one was a S. haemolyticus isolate with a MIC at 4 μg/mL. Resistance rates were as follows for the 6 groups of organisms sampled in the 2011 ZAAPS Program: CoNS, 1.2%; enterococci, 0.39%; among S aureus, S. pneumoniae, viridans group streptococci, and β-hemolytic streptococci, no resistance was detected. As the activities of commonly used antimicrobials continue to be compromised by evolving resistance mechanisms in Gram-positive pathogens, linezolid-resistant strains remain uncommon and without increasing occurrence.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of human α-defensin 5 and its linear analogs: N-terminal fatty acylation results in enhanced antimicrobial activity of the linear analogs.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Basil; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Human α-defensin 5 (HD5) exhibits broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and plays an important role in mucosal immunity of the small intestine. Although there have been several studies, the structural requirements for activity and mechanism of bacterial killing is yet to be established unequivocally. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of HD5 and linear analogs. Cysteine deletions attenuated the antibacterial activity considerably. Candidacidal activity was affected to a lesser extent. Fatty acid conjugated linear analogs showed antimicrobial activity comparable activity to HD5. Effective surface charge neutralization of bacteria was observed for HD5 as compared to the non-fatty acylated linear analogs. Our results show that HD5 and non-fatty acylated linear analogs enter the bacterial cytoplasm without causing damage to the bacterial inner membrane. Although fatty acylated peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to HD5, their mechanism of action involved permeabilization of the Escherichia coli inner membrane. HD5 and analogs had the ability to bind plasmid DNA. HD5 had greater binding affinity to plasmid DNA as compared to the analogs. The three dimensional structure of HD5 favors greater interaction with the bacterial cell surface and also with DNA. Antibacterial activity of HD5 involves entry into bacterial cytoplasm and binding to DNA which would result in shut down of the bacterial metabolism leading to cell death. We show how a moderately active linear peptide derived from the α-defensin HD5 can be engineered to enhance antimicrobial activity almost comparable to the native peptide. PMID:26206286

  3. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED)-XL performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Lum, Alden K.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2009-05-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the OLED-XL devices over the standard OLED displays, publishing results at the 2007 and 2008 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2. In 2008, eMagin Corporation made additional improvements on the lifetime of their displays and developed the first SXGA (1280 × 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. A summary of the life and performance tests run at CERDEC NVESD will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  4. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Lum, Alden K.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2010-04-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XLTM devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2009 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 × 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2007, 2008, and 2009 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2,3. Life and performance tests have continued through 2009, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  5. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Ghosh, Amalkumar; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2012-06-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2011 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 triad pixels) and WUXGA (1920 X 1200) OLED microdisplays. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing Symposia1,2,3,4,5. Life and performance tests have continued through 2012, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems by determining where good fits are made and where further development might be desirable.

  6. Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Ghosh, Amalkumar; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas

    2011-06-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through research and development programs from 2007 to 2010 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2,3,4. Life and performance tests have continued through 2010, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  7. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Botkin, Michael E.; Draper, Russell S.; Coletta, Jason

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2012 with the U.S. Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 with triad pixels) and WUXGA (1920 X 1200 with triad pixels) OLED microdisplays. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing Symposia. Life and performance tests have continued through 2013, and this data will be presented along with a comparison to previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems, where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  8. Permafrost and active layer monitoring in the maritime Antarctic: Preliminary results from CALM sites on Livingston and Deception Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.; Blanco, J.J.; Hauck, C.; Hidalgo, M.A.; Tome, D.; Nevers, M.; Trindade, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained from scientific work and experiments performed on Livingston and Deception Islands. Located in the South Shetland Archipelago, these islands have been some of the most sensitive regions over the last 50 years with respect to climate change with a Mean Annual Air Temperature (MAAT) close to -2 ºC. Three Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were installed to record the thermal regime and the behaviour of the active layer in different places with similar climate, but with different soil composition, porosity, and water content. The study’s ultimate aim is to document the influence of climate change on permafrost degradation. Preliminary results, obtained in 2006, on maximum active-layer thickness (around 40 cm in the CALM of Deception Island), active layer temperature evolution, snow thickness, and air temperatures permit early characterization of energy exchange mechanisms between the ground and the atmosphere in the CALM-S sites.

  9. Japanese spousal smoking study revisited: how a tobacco industry funded paper reached erroneous conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Yano, E

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To provide a participant's account of the development of a paper commissioned by the tobacco industry examining the reliability of self reported smoking status; to redress the distorted report of this Japanese spousal smoking study which evaluated the reliability and validity of self reported smoking status, and estimated confounding by diet and lifestyle factors. Design: Repeated interviews on smoking status and its verification by environmental and biological markers for environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Setting: Urban wives in Osaka City and Sizuoka City, Japan Participants: Semi-random sampling of 200 wives in each city. From the Osaka subjects, 100 non-smoking wives were selected for the validity study. Main outcome measures: Kappa coefficient for reliability of self reported smoking status. Correlation coefficients between environmental nicotine concentration, cotinine in saliva and urine, and self reported smoking status. Results: The κ coefficient for the repeated interview was high suggesting sufficient reliability of the response. The proportion of self reported current smokers misclassified as non-smokers was equivalent to the misclassified self reported non-smokers. Ambient concentration of nicotine and personal exposure to nicotine correlated with each other and also with salivary cotinine and self reported ETS exposure but not with urinary cotinine/creatinine ratio (CCR). There was no major difference in diet and lifestyle related to husband's smoking status. Conclusion: Self reported smoking status by Japanese wives shows high reliability. It also shows high validity when verified by both nicotine exposure and salivary cotinine, but not by CCR. A previous report questioning the credibility of self reported smoking status, based on questionable CCR, could thus be of dubious validity. In addition, possible dietary and lifestyle confounding factors associated with smoking husbands were not demonstrable, a finding not reported

  10. Preliminary structural control results from the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Saarmaa, Erik; Jacques, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of on-going closed-loop ground experiments on the MACE test article, the objective of which is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero gravity can be predicted, as well as to examine orbit system identification and control reconfiguration. The MACE hardware consists of three torque wheels, a two-axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors, and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this is to represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. When linear quadratic Gaussian control is used, payload pointing accuracy is improved by an order of magnitude when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The successes and failures of the design and implementation process are discussed.

  11. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  12. Amino acid substitutions in naturally occurring variants of ail result in altered invasion activity.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, K B; Miller, V L

    1992-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the causative agent of a variety of gastrointestinal syndromes ranging from acute enteritis to mesenteric lymphadenitis. In addition, systemic infections resulting in high mortality rates can occur in elderly and immunocompromised patients. More than 50 serotypes of Y. enterocolitica have been identified, but only a few of them commonly cause disease in otherwise healthy hosts. Those serotypes that cause disease have been divided into two groups, American and non-American, based on their geographical distributions, biotypes, and pathogenicity. We have been studying two genes, inv and ail, from Y. enterocolitica that confer in tissue culture assays an invasive phenotype that strongly correlates with virulence. Some differences between the American and non-American serotypes at the ail locus were noted previously and have been investigated further in this report. The ail locus was cloned from seven Y. enterocolitica strains (seven different serotypes). Although the different clones produced similar amounts of Ail, the product of the ail gene from non-American serotypes (AilNA) was less able to promote invasion by Escherichia coli than was the product of the ail gene from American serotypes (AilA). This difference is probably due to one or more of the eight amino acid changes found in the derived amino acid sequence for the mature form of AilNA compared with that of AilA. Seven of these changes are predicted to be in cell surface domains of the protein (a model for the proposed folding of Ail within the outer membrane is presented). These results are discussed in relation to the growing family of outer membrane proteins, which includes Lom from bacteriophage lambda, PagC from salmonella typhimurium, and OmpX from Enterobacter cloacae. Images PMID:1370953

  13. Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show a Circumspect Reasoning Bias Rather than "Jumping-to-Conclusions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Chapman, Emma; Ashwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often take longer to make decisions. The Autism-Psychosis Model proposes that people with autism and psychosis show the opposite pattern of results on cognitive tasks. As those with psychosis show a jump-to-conclusions reasoning bias, those with ASD should show a circumspect reasoning bias.…

  14. Tritium in precipitation of Vostok (Antarctica): conclusions on the tritium latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Detlef

    2011-09-01

    During the Antarctic summer of 1985 near the Soviet Antarctic station Vostok, firn samples for tritium measurements were obtained down to a depth of 2.40 m. The results of the tritium measurements are presented and discussed. Based on this and other data, conclusions regarding the tritium latitude effect are derived.

  15. Disease Phenotype, Activity and Clinical Course Prediction Based on C-Reactive Protein Levels at Diagnosis in Patients with Crohn’s Disease: Results from the CONNECT Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jee Hye; Im, Jong Pil; Ye, Byong Duk; Cheon, Jae Hee; Jang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Kang Moon; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Young Ho; Song, Geun Am; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims C-reactive protein (CRP) is an easily measured index of disease activity, but its ability to predict clinical course is controversial. We therefore designed a study to determine whether the CRP level at Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosis is a valuable indicator of the disease phenotype, activity, and clinical course. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 705 CD patients from 32 institutions. The patients were classified into two groups according to CRP level. The patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics and their use of immunosuppressive or biological agents were recorded. Disease location and behavior, hospitalization, and surgery were analyzed. Results A high CRP was associated with younger age, steroid use, colonic or ileocolonic location, high CD activity index, and active inflammation at colonoscopy (p<0.001). As the disease progressed, patients with high CRP were more likely to exhibit strictures (p=0.027). There were significant differences in the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid, antibiotics, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and infliximab (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.023, respectively). Hospitalization was also more frequent in patients with high CRP. Conclusions The CRP level at diagnosis is useful for evaluating the phenotype, activity, and clinical course of CD. Closer follow-up strategies, with early aggressive treatment, could be considered for patients with high CRP. PMID:27021506

  16. LISA Pathfinder Discharge Working Group: Activities, Results, and Lessons Learned for LISA/NGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, T.; Bergner, P.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Brandt, N.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) entrusted Astrium GmbH to identify the root cause and corrective measures for the shortcomings of the LISA Pathfinder discharge system baseline that were identified during the system level testing in the torsion pendulum at the University of Trento. The main goal was to maximize the discharge system robustness under the given constraint to minimize the impact on manufacturing and the AIT process of the existing flight hardware. Astrium GmbH set-up a dedicated discharge working group (DWG) for 9 months, bringing together the expertise of surface scientists (DLR Stuttgart, Uni Würzburg, Uni Modena, BEAR Trieste) with the existing significant knowledge in the LTP community (Uni Trento, Imperial College London, CGS, Selex Galileo, TWT GmbH, ESA). The findings resulted in a recommendation to modify the baseline discharge system of LISA Pathfinder, including the definition of dedicated manufacturing and AIT requirements. These findings have relevance also for LISA/NGO, since they allow for a significantly more robust discharge system design.

  17. Erythrocyte membrane changes of chorea-acanthocytosis are the result of altered Lyn kinase activity.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, Lucia; Tomelleri, Carlo; Matte, Alessandro; Brunati, Anna Maria; Bovee-Geurts, Petra H; Bertoldi, Mariarita; Lasonder, Edwin; Tibaldi, Elena; Danek, Adrian; Walker, Ruth H; Jung, Hans H; Bader, Benedikt; Siciliano, Angela; Ferru, Emanuela; Mohandas, Narla; Bosman, Giel J C G M

    2011-11-17

    Acanthocytic RBCs are a peculiar diagnostic feature of chorea-acanthocytosis (ChAc), a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder. Although recent years have witnessed some progress in the molecular characterization of ChAc, the mechanism(s) responsible for generation of acanthocytes in ChAc is largely unknown. As the membrane protein composition of ChAc RBCs is similar to that of normal RBCs, we evaluated the tyrosine (Tyr)-phosphorylation profile of RBCs using comparative proteomics. Increased Tyr phosphorylation state of several membrane proteins, including band 3, β-spectrin, and adducin, was noted in ChAc RBCs. In particular, band 3 was highly phosphorylated on the Tyr-904 residue, a functional target of Lyn, but not on Tyr-8, a functional target of Syk. In ChAc RBCs, band 3 Tyr phosphorylation by Lyn was independent of the canonical Syk-mediated pathway. The ChAc-associated alterations in RBC membrane protein organization appear to be the result of increased Tyr phosphorylation leading to altered linkage of band 3 to the junctional complexes involved in anchoring the membrane to the cytoskeleton as supported by coimmunoprecipitation of β-adducin with band 3 only in ChAc RBC-membrane treated with the Lyn-inhibitor PP2. We propose this altered association between membrane skeleton and membrane proteins as novel mechanism in the generation of acanthocytes in ChAc.

  18. Repeated Activation of Lung Invariant NKT Cells Results in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Like Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Cheng-Chiu; Tsao, Po-Nien; Chen, Yi-Guang; Chuang, Ya-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and emphysema, which lead to reduced lung function and breathlessness. The pathologies of COPD are due to an abnormal immune response. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an important population of innate lymphocytes and have been implicated in the regulation of immune responses associated with a broad range of diseases including COPD. We have here analyzed the role of iNKT cells in a model of COPD induced by repeated intranasal administration of iNKT cell agonist α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). Our results demonstrated that mice that received repeated intranasal administration of α-GalCer had molecular and inflammatory features of COPD including airway inflammation with significant increases in infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes, CD8+ T cells, as well as proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. In particular, these mice also showed the presence of pulmonary emphysema, mucus production, and pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-4 reduced α-GalCer induced emphysema. This study indicates the importance of iNKT cells in the pathogenesis of COPD by an IL-4 dependent mechanism.

  19. Active experiments in modifying spacecraft potential: Results from ATS-5 and ATS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Whipple, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    The processing of data from onboard spacecraft instruments are described. The modification of spacecraft potentials is reviewed. Analysis of this data yielded the following results: (1) electron emission (E approximately 10 electron-volts) did not perturb the status of a satellite at low potential the absolute value of phi approximately 50 volts by more than 50 volts (the ATS 5 low energy limit), (2) emission of a low energy plasma (E approximatey 10 volts) does not change low potentials (the absolute value of phi approximately 5 volts) by more than a few volts (ATS 6 low energy resolution), (3) when ATS 6 entered eclipse in the presence of a high energy plasma (10 keV), the neutralizer suppressed any rise in the absolute value of phi (within a few volts resolution), (4) when the electron emitter on ATS 5 operated, it served to discharge negative potentials from thousands to hundreds of volts, and (5) when the neutralizer on ATS 6 was operated, it served to discharge kilovolt potentials to below 50 volts. Low altitude (100 - 300 km) experiments with KV electron beams are studied. Differential charging was eliminated by the operation of the main thruster on ATS 6 clamped on the spacecraft at -5 volts.

  20. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  1. MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.

  2. Myosin7a Deficiency Results in Reduced Retinal Activity Which Is Improved by Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Pasqualina; Sommella, Andrea; Marrocco, Elena; Di Vicino, Umberto; Polishchuk, Elena; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Polishchuk, Roman; Auricchio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in MYO7A cause autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type IB (USH1B), one of the most frequent conditions that combine severe congenital hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. A promising therapeutic strategy for retinitis pigmentosa is gene therapy, however its pre-clinical development is limited by the mild retinal phenotype of the shaker1 (sh1−/−) murine model of USH1B which lacks both retinal functional abnormalities and degeneration. Here we report a significant, early-onset delay of sh1−/− photoreceptor ability to recover from light desensitization as well as a progressive reduction of both b-wave electroretinogram amplitude and light sensitivity, in the absence of significant loss of photoreceptors up to 12 months of age. We additionally show that subretinal delivery to the sh1−/− retina of AAV vectors encoding the large MYO7A protein results in significant improvement of sh1−/− photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium ultrastructural anomalies which is associated with improvement of recovery from light desensitization. These findings provide new tools to evaluate the efficacy of experimental therapies for USH1B. In addition, although AAV vectors expressing large genes might have limited clinical applications due to their genome heterogeneity, our data show that AAV-mediated MYO7A gene transfer to the sh1−/− retina is effective. PMID:23991031

  3. Repeated Activation of Lung Invariant NKT Cells Results in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease-Like Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Cheng-Chiu; Tsao, Po-Nien; Chen, Yi-Guang; Chuang, Ya-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic airway inflammation, mucus hypersecretion, and emphysema, which lead to reduced lung function and breathlessness. The pathologies of COPD are due to an abnormal immune response. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an important population of innate lymphocytes and have been implicated in the regulation of immune responses associated with a broad range of diseases including COPD. We have here analyzed the role of iNKT cells in a model of COPD induced by repeated intranasal administration of iNKT cell agonist α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). Our results demonstrated that mice that received repeated intranasal administration of α-GalCer had molecular and inflammatory features of COPD including airway inflammation with significant increases in infiltration of macrophages and lymphocytes, CD8+ T cells, as well as proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. In particular, these mice also showed the presence of pulmonary emphysema, mucus production, and pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, neutralization of IL-4 reduced α-GalCer induced emphysema. This study indicates the importance of iNKT cells in the pathogenesis of COPD by an IL-4 dependent mechanism. PMID:26811900

  4. Changes in physical activity and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, A; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe change in physical activity over 1 year and associations with change in cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent measurement of self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors at 1 year. Results There was no change in self-reported physical activity over 12 months. Even relatively large changes in physical activity were associated with relatively small changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors after allowing for changes in self-reported medication and diet. For every 30 metabolic equivalent-h increase in recreational activity (equivalent to 10 h/brisk walking/week), there was an average reduction of 0.1% in HbA1c in men (95% CI −0.15 to −0.01, P = 0.021) and an average reduction of 2 mmHg in systolic blood pressure in women (95% CI −4.0 to −0.05, P = 0.045). Conclusions Few associations were observed between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors in this trial cohort. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction appeared to be driven largely by factors other than changes in self-reported physical activity in the first year following diagnosis. PMID:22913463

  5. Depolymerization of Fucosylated Chondroitin Sulfate with a Modified Fenton-System and Anticoagulant Activity of the Resulting Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-hui; Li, Shan; Zhi, Zi-jian; Yan, Lu-feng; Ye, Xing-qian; Ding, Tian; Yan, Lei; Linhardt, Robert John; Chen, Shi-guo

    2016-01-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (fCS) from sea cucumber Isostichopus badionotus (fCS-Ib) with a chondroitin sulfate type E (CSE) backbone and 2,4-O-sulfo fucose branches has shown excellent anticoagulant activity although has also show severe adverse effects. Depolymerization represents an effective method to diminish this polysaccharide’s side effects. The present study reports a modified controlled Fenton system for degradation of fCS-Ib and the anticoagulant activity of the resulting fragments. Monosaccharides and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of the resulting fragments indicate that no significant chemical changes in the backbone of fCS-Ib and no loss of sulfate groups take place during depolymerization. A reduction in the molecular weight of fCS-Ib should result in a dramatic decrease in prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time. A decrease in the inhibition of thrombin (FIIa) by antithromin III (AT III) and heparin cofactor II (HCII), and the slight decrease of the inhibition of factor X activity, results in a significant increase of anti-factor Xa (FXa)/anti-FIIa activity ratio. The modified free-radical depolymerization method enables preparation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides suitable for investigation of clinical anticoagulant application. PMID:27657094

  6. Recent Results from Crosswell CASSM (Continuous Active-Source Seismic Monitoring)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daley, T. M.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Niu, F.

    2011-12-01

    The precision in-situ measurement of seismic properties has been previously demonstrated by crosswell CASSM surveys utilizing piezoelectric seismic sources and various seismic sensors. The underlying precision of travel time measurement (and hence velocity measurement) is shown to be a function of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), and therefore the semi-permanent CASSM deployment allows massive stacking to provide very large S/N. With high precision data, properties such as the velocity-stress dependence can be resolved. In this presentation, data from three recent CASSM deployments will be shown. First, we will present the recent measurement of stress dependence at 1 km depth in the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). This work follows on the published observation of preseismic stress changes (Niu, et al, 2008) with a redeployment of instrumentation at SAFOD. The latest SAFOD deployment, in which we collected ~40-days of data, from February 19, 2010 to March 31, 2010, suffered from instrumentation failure before observation of seismicity, but data for velocity-stress calibration was acquired using barometric pressure, and the stress sensitivity result of ~2.5 x 10-7 Pa-1 is in agreement with our previous measurement. Secondly, we show a measurement of effective stress dependence in a 3 km deep reservoir used for CO2 sequestration in Cranfield, MS. This experiment uses a fluid pump test, with downhole pressure gauge, to demonstrate a velocity-stress sensitivity of ~5 x 10-6 MPa-1 . In the third CASSM experiment, the methodology was expanded to multi-level measurement (ML-CASSM) of hydrofracture growth in a shallow (~30 m) bioremediation project. In this experiment we demonstrate the first fully automated multi-source/multi-sensor CASSM system capable of tomographic velocity imaging with temporal resolution of 3-4 minutes. This temporal sampling allowed quantitative imaging of velocity changing in response to fracture growth.

  7. The status of the CABRI test program: Recent results and future activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, F.; Gonnier, Ch.; Papin, J.

    1997-01-01

    The first five CABRI experiments of the REP-Na series, all with UO2 fuel and up to a maximum local burnup of 64 GWd/t, have been examined and analyzed and are now reasonably well understood. In March 1996, the first MOX test with a 3 cycle irradiated fuel at 47 GWd/t radially averaged, local maximum burnup has been successfully performed. The rod did not fail and detailed examinations are being obtained and still in progress presently. The available results and findings are presented in this paper. Three experiments of the REP-Na test matrix are still to be performed, REP-Na7, a 4 cycle MOX test, is scheduled in November 1996. The last two experiments, REP-Na 8 the key experiment of the UO2 matrix, and REP-Na 9, a 2 cycle MOX fuel test, will be performed during the first half of 1997. The CABRI tests made with sodium cooling have a good representativity of reactor conditions during some tens of milliseconds. For better simulation on a longer time range, a project study has been undertaken in view of the implementation of a pressurized-water loop into the CABRI reactor. The design of this loop and the performance parameters of the upgraded driver core of CABRI is presented. Finally, the planning of the CABRI transformation and the outlines of the future test matrix is given. The most optimistic estimation allows to predict that the first tests under prototypical test conditions could be performed before the end of 1999.

  8. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18–30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  9. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  10. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brunett, A. J.; Fei, T.; Strons, P. S.; Papadias, D. D.; Hoffman, E. A.; Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Connaway, H. M.; Wright, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    Report (FSAR) [3]. Depending on the availability of historical data derived from HEU TREAT operation, results calculated for the LEU core are compared to measurements obtained from HEU TREAT operation. While all analyses in this report are largely considered complete and have been reviewed for technical content, it is important to note that all topics will be revisited once the LEU design approaches its final stages of maturity. For most safety significant issues, it is expected that the analyses presented here will be bounding, but additional calculations will be performed as necessary to support safety analyses and safety documentation. It should also be noted that these analyses were completed as the LEU design evolved, and therefore utilized different LEU reference designs. Preliminary shielding, neutronic, and thermal hydraulic analyses have been completed and have generally demonstrated that the various LEU core designs will satisfy existing safety limits and standards also satisfied by the existing HEU core. These analyses include the assessment of the dose rate in the hodoscope room, near a loaded fuel transfer cask, above the fuel storage area, and near the HEPA filters. The potential change in the concentration of tramp uranium and change in neutron flux reaching instrumentation has also been assessed. Safety-significant thermal hydraulic items addressed in this report include thermally-induced mechanical distortion of the grid plate, and heating in the radial reflector.

  11. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

    2015-06-01

    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can--or, as the case may be, cannot--validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met.

  12. Recurrent Selection for Transgene Activity Levels in Maize Results in Proxy Selection for a Native Gene with the Same Promoter.

    PubMed

    Bodnar, Anastasia L; Schroder, Megan N; Scott, M Paul

    2016-01-01

    High activity levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High activity levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurrent selection for activity of a transgene will result in higher activity, and if selection for activity of a transgene controlled by a native promoter will also increase protein levels of the native gene with the same promoter. To accomplish this goal we used transgenic maize containing a construct encoding green fluorescent protein controlled by the promoter for the maize endosperm-specific 27 kDa gamma zein seed storage protein. We carried out recurrent selection for fluorescence intensity in two breeding populations. After three generations of selection, both selected populations were significantly more fluorescent and had significantly higher levels of 27 kDa gamma zein than the unselected control populations. These higher levels of the 27 kDa gamma zein occurred independently of the presence of the transgene. The results show that recurrent selection can be used to increase activity of a transgene and that selection for a transgene controlled by a native promoter can increase protein levels of the native gene with the same promoter via proxy selection. Moreover, the increase in native gene protein level is maintained in the absence of the transgene, demonstrating that proxy selection can be used to produce non-transgenic plants with desired changes in gene expression.

  13. Insensitivity of astrocytes to interleukin 10 signaling following peripheral immune challenge results in prolonged microglial activation in the aged brain.

    PubMed

    Norden, Diana M; Trojanowski, Paige J; Walker, Frederick R; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial interleukin (IL)-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher glial fibrillary acidic protein, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 receptor-1 (IL-10R1). After in vivo lipopolysaccharide immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and transforming growth factor β and resolve microglial activation. In addition, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, whereas aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10R(KO) astrocytes did not augment transforming growth factor β after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  14. Active Surveillance for Small Renal Masses: A Review of the Aims and Preliminary Results of the DISSRM Registry.

    PubMed

    Danzig, Matthew R; Chang, Peter; Wagner, Andrew A; Allaf, Mohamad E; McKiernan, James M; Pierorazio, Phillip M

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance is an increasingly accepted treatment modality for select patients with small renal masses. The DISSRM (delayed intervention and surveillance for small renal masses) registry is a multi-institutional, prospectively collected data repository which includes patients who select active surveillance for their small renal masses, as well as others who select immediate intervention. Preliminary results from the registry suggest oncological equivalence of active surveillance and surgical modalities in the intermediate term. Additionally, the registry provides the first published data regarding trends in renal function among patients undergoing active surveillance. On average, these patients experience a decline in renal function, and their renal functional outcomes are superior to those of patients undergoing radical nephrectomy, but do not significantly differ from those of patients undergoing partial nephrectomy.

  15. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  16. Results of MAGDAS activities at "UN/Nigeria Workshop on ISWI" (Abuja) and of "MAGDAS School" (Lagos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Rabiu, A.; Ikeda, A.; Abe, S.; Magdas Group

    2011-12-01

    We report on the results of MAGDAS activities during "UN/Nigeria Workshop on ISWI" (Abuja, October 2011) and on the results of "ISWI/MAGDAS School on Litho-Space Weather" (Lagos, August 2011). MAGDAS School and ISWI Workshop both represent the ongoing effort of the MAGDAS Project (PI: Prof. K. Yumoto, Kyushu Univ., Japan) to facilitate "Capacity Building" in developing nations, especially in Africa.

  17. 26 CFR 1.527-5 - Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... example, if a political organization pays a personal legal obligation of a candidate for public office... individual or political organization. 1.527-5 Section 1.527-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.527-5 Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization. (a)...

  18. Impact of aspirin dose on adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet activities. Results of an in vitro pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Thano, Estela; Rollini, Fabiana; Patel, Ronakkumar; Wilson, Ryan E; Muñiz-Lozano, Ana; Franchi, Francesco; Darlington, Andrew; Desai, Bhaloo; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2013-10-01

    Different aspirin dosing regimens have been suggested to impact outcomes when used in combination with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor antagonists. Prior investigations have shown that not only aspirin, but also potent ADP P2Y12 receptor blockade can inhibit thromboxane A2-mediated platelet activation. The impact of aspirin dosing on ADP mediated platelet activities is unknown and represents the aim of this in vitro pilot pharmacodynamic (PD) investigation. Twenty-six patients with stable coronary artery disease on aspirin 81 mg/day and P2Y12 naïve were enrolled. PD assessments were performed at baseline, while patients were on 81 mg/day aspirin and after switching to 325 mg/day for 7 ± 2 days with and without escalating concentrations (vehicle, 1, 3, and 10 μM) of prasugrel's active metabolite (P-AM). PD assays included flow cytometric assessment of VASP to define the platelet reactivity index (PRI) and the Multiplate Analyzer (MEA) using multiple agonists [ADP, ADP + prostaglandin (PGE1), arachidonic acid (AA), and collagen]. Escalating P-AM concentrations showed incremental platelet P2Y12 inhibition measured by VASP-PRI (p<0.001). However, there were no differences according to aspirin dosing regimen at any P-AM concentration (vehicle: p=0.899; 1 μM: p=0.888; 3 μM: p=0.524; 10 μM: p=0.548). Similar findings were observed in purinergic markers assessed by MEA (ADP and ADP+PGE1). P-AM addition significantly reduced AA and collagen induced platelet aggregation (p<0.001 for all measures), irrespective of aspirin dose. In conclusion, aspirin dosing does not appear to affect PD measures of ADP-mediated platelet reactivity irrespective of the degree of P2Y12 receptor blockade. P2Y12 receptor blockade modulates platelet reactivity mediated by alternative activators. PMID:23884248

  19. Encapsulated curcumin results in prolonged curcumin activity in vitro and radical scavenging activity ex vivo on skin after UVB-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Suwannateep, N; Wanichwecharungruang, S; Haag, S F; Devahastin, S; Groth, N; Fluhr, J W; Lademann, J; Meinke, M C

    2012-11-01

    The phytochemical curcumin possesses antioxidant activity; however, it becomes unstable after being exposed to light or heat or loses activity during storage. This is especially important when curcumin is applied to the skin within a cosmetic or pharmaceutical formulation, since sun exposure is unavoidable. This drawback can be directly addressed by encapsulation of curcumin in photo-stable nanospheres. Therefore, curcumin was encapsulated into nanoparticles consisting of ethyl cellulose and/or methyl cellulose. Nanoparticles were subjected to processing conditions commonly used in industry, for example, temperature and pressure and thus retained their morphology. Furthermore, sun exposure resulted in the protection of curcumin by nanoparticles, whereas non-encapsulated curcumin degraded completely. Determination of the radical protection factor resulted in similar antioxidant activity of encapsulated and non-encapsulated curcumin indicating that curcumin maintains its antioxidant activity. Application of lotions containing curcumin or curcumin nanoparticles to the skin and subsequent UVB-irradiation resulted in less radical formation compared to lotion application only. Moreover, radical formation was even less after nanoparticle application compared to free curcumin. Nanoencapsulation protects curcumin from photo degradation and can therefore prolong the antioxidant activity of curcumin.

  20. Fear of falling and associated activity restriction in older people. results of a cross-sectional study conducted in a Belgian town

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This article aims at describing, in a Belgian town, the frequency of the fear of falling and of subsequent activity restriction among non-institutionalised people aged 65 years and over, and at identifying persons affected by these two issues. Methods Cross-sectional survey conducted in Fontaine l'Evêque (Belgium) in 2006, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results The participants could fill in the questionnaire on their own or with the help of a third party if needed. The latter were not taken into account in this article. Analyses covered 419 questionnaires. Fear of falling and activity restriction were reported by, respectively, 59.1% and 33.2% of participants. They were more frequent among fallers but also affected non-fallers. In logistic regression analyses: gender, the fact of living alone and the number of falls were significantly associated with fear of falling; gender, age and the number of falls were significantly associated with activity restriction. Conclusions Our study, despite various limitations, shows the importance of fear of falling and of subsequent activity restriction among older people, among fallers as well as among non-fallers. It also provides information, though limited, concerning persons affected by these two issues in Belgium, and in other contexts as well. Given the ageing of our populations, it is important to take these problems into account when caring for older people. PMID:22958732