Science.gov

Sample records for activity conclusions results

  1. The Apollo SWC Experiment: Results, Conclusions, Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiss, J.; Bühler, F.; Cerutti, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Filleux, Ch.; Meister, J.; Signer, P.

    2004-01-01

    interplanetary space at the time of the five foil exposures. Finally, we discuss, from today's perspective, some of the implications and conclusions that can be drawn from the SWC results, concerning the Sun and its history, the solar system, the galaxy and the universe.

  2. Conclusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Wong, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    This compilation of papers in this book represents approximately half of the works discussed at the MS&T 2010 symposium entitled Tools, Models, Databases, and Simulation Tools Developed and Needed to Realize the Vision of Integrated Computational Materials Engineering at Materials Science & Technology wherein five sessions comprised of 33 presentations was organized. The goal of the symposium was two fold To provide a forum in which current state-of-the-art methods for ICME (e.g., information informatics, experimentation, and modeling) could be openly discussed and critiqued by not only materials scientist but also structural engineers/researchers, component designers, industrial leaders and government program managers. To leave the symposium and in particular the panel discussion with a clear idea of the gaps and barriers (both technical, cultural and economical) that must be addressed in order for ICME to fully succeed. The organizers felt that these goals were met, as particularly evident by the standing room only attendance during a lively panel discussion session at the end of the Symposium. However it is the firm belief of the editors of this book that this symposium was merely a start in the right direction, and that subsequent conferences/symposium (e.g., First World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering to be held July 10-14, 2011 at Seven Springs Mountain Resort in Pennsylvania) must work hard to ensure that a truly diverse, multidisciplinary, community of researchers and practitioners are present and have ample opportunity for interaction. This will ensure that a proper balance between push and pull disciplines and technologies is maintained so that this emerging focus area, Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), has the greatest potential for success and impact on "system-level" payoffs. Similarly, a pro-active approach is required to reform historical modes of operation in industry, government and the academic

  3. Conclusion: Major Findings and Future Activities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Hillel, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) incorporates a number of major advances in the way that climate impacts, vulnerability, and adaptation are being simulated. At its core is a protocol approach that results in impact assessments being more scientifically credible and thus ultimately having greater value to the wide range of agricultural stakeholders. Moreover, the use of the protocol approach enables closer scrutiny and intercomparison of models and methods so that they can be improved over time. By creating a truly trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach, AgMIP impact assessments and evaluation of adaptations become useful to agricultural decision-makers at multiple scales. The chapters in this two-part set demonstrate the use of this approach and represent early steps towards the full realization of these new methods and their application.

  4. NASA Applied Sciences Program Rapid Prototyping Results and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    NASA's Applied Sciences Program seeks to expand the use of Earth science research results to benefit current and future operational systems tasked with making policy and management decisions. The Earth Science Division within the Science Mission Directorate sponsors over 1000 research projects annually to answer the fundamental research question: How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth? As research results become available, largely from satellite observations and Earth system model outputs, the Applied Sciences Program works diligently with scientists and researchers (internal and external to NASA) , and other government agency officials (USDA, EPA, CDC, DOE, US Forest Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, DHS, USAID) to determine useful applications for these results in decision-making, ultimately benefiting society. The complexity of Earth science research results and the breadth of the Applied Sciences Program national priority areas dictate a broad scope and multiple approaches available to implement their use in decision-making. Over the past five years, the Applied Sciences Program has examined scientific and engineering practices and solicited the community for methods and steps that can lead to the enhancement of operational systems (Decision Support Systems - DSS) required for decision-making. In November 2006, the Applied Sciences Program launched an initiative aimed at demonstrating the applicability of NASA data (satellite observations, models, geophysical parameters from data archive centers) being incorporated into decision support systems and their related environments at a low cost and quick turnaround of results., i.e. designed rapid prototyping. Conceptually, an understanding of Earth science research (and results) coupled with decision-making requirements and needs leads to a demonstration (experiment) depicting enhancements or improvements to an operational decisions process through the use of NASA data. Five

  5. Acrylamide monitoring in Switzerland, 2007-2009: results and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grundbock, F; Fiselier, K; Biedermann, S; Burgi, C; Grob, K

    2010-10-01

    Parallel to the European Union acrylamide monitoring for the years 2007-2009, Switzerland performed its own monitoring, covering the whole range of products that significantly contain acrylamide (almost 300 samples per year), but focusing on those products that may result in high exposure. As reducing sugars are critical for potato products, these were included. No significant change, particularly improvement, was noticed, especially regarding those products for which substantial potential for improvement is known. 'Western-style' French fries continued to contain some four times more reducing sugars than 'traditional' fries, with correspondingly higher acrylamide in the finished product. The supply of raw potatoes low in reducing sugars by retail shops needs improvement, but there seemed to be insufficient willingness on a voluntary basis. A foreign producer was successful in penetrating the Swiss market with special potato chips containing up to 7000 microg kg(-1) acrylamide and only harsh measures could stop this. Three of about 61 products in the group of bakery ware showed a marked improvement. But there was also a store brand cracker that competed with a leading brand which contained 15 times more acrylamide (845 microg kg(-1)). Cereals contained 1080 microg kg(-1) acrylamide and even a warning did not prompt the producer to sell substantially better products one year later. It seems that only measures by the authorities will achieve improvements. The following seem promising: a limit for reducing sugars in prefabricates for French fries; the improved supply of raw potatoes low in sugars for roasting and frying; a legal limit for acrylamide content in potato chips; a general provision that products must not contain substantially more acrylamide than achievable by good manufacturing practice; and fryers with a temperature profile from an initial high to a lower final value. PMID:20730646

  6. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  7. Association of trial registration with the results and conclusions of published trials of new oncology drugs

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Registration of clinical trials has been introduced largely to reduce bias toward statistically significant results in the trial literature. Doubts remain about whether advance registration alone is an adequate measure to reduce selective publication, selective outcome reporting, and biased design. One of the first areas of medicine in which registration was widely adopted was oncology, although the bulk of registered oncology trials remain unpublished. The net influence of registration on the literature remains untested. This study compares the prevalence of favorable results and conclusions among published reports of registered and unregistered randomized controlled trials of new oncology drugs. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of published original research articles reporting clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of drugs newly approved for antimalignancy indications by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 2000 through 2005. Drugs receiving first-time approval for indications in oncology were identified using the FDA web site and Thomson Centerwatch. Relevant trial reports were identified using PubMed and the Cochrane Library. Evidence of advance trial registration was obtained by a search of clinicaltrials.gov, WHO, ISRCTN, NCI-PDQ trial databases and corporate trial registries, as well as articles themselves. Data on blinding, results for primary outcomes, and author conclusions were extracted independently by two coders. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression identified associations between favorable results and conclusions and independent variables including advance registration, study design characteristics, and industry sponsorship. Results Of 137 original research reports from 115 distinct randomized trials assessing 25 newly approved drugs for treating cancer, the 54 publications describing data from trials registered prior to publication were as likely to report statistically significant efficacy

  8. Results and conclusions: perception sensor study for high speed autonomous operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Anne; LaCelle, Zachary; Lacaze, Alberto; Murphy, Karl; Close, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has presented work on sensor requirements, specifications, and testing, to evaluate the feasibility of increasing autonomous vehicle system speeds. Discussions included the theoretical background for determining sensor requirements, and the basic test setup and evaluation criteria for comparing existing and prototype sensor designs. This paper will present and discuss the continuation of this work. In particular, this paper will focus on analyzing the problem via a real-world comparison of various sensor technology testing results, as opposed to previous work that utilized more of a theoretical approach. LADAR/LIDAR, radar, visual, and infrared sensors are considered in this research. Results are evaluated against the theoretical, desired perception specifications. Conclusions for utilizing a suite of perception sensors, to achieve the goal of doubling ground vehicle speeds, is also discussed.

  9. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  10. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  11. Inappropriate statistical method in a parallel-group randomized controlled trial results in unsubstantiated conclusions.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Rositsa B; Allison, David B

    2016-01-01

    The conclusions of Cassani et al. in the January 2015 issue of Nutrition Journal (doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-14-5 ) cannot be substantiated by the analysis reported nor by the data themselves. The authors ascribed the observed decrease in inflammatory markers to the components of flaxseed and based their conclusions on within-group comparisons made between the final and the baseline measurements separately in each arm of the randomized controlled trial. However, this is an improper approach and the conclusions of the paper are invalid. A correct analysis of the data shows no such effects. PMID:27265269

  12. The Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA): I Experiment: First Flight Results and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwiener, James M.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Finckenor, Miria M.

    1998-01-01

    The Passive Optical Sample Assembly-I (POSA-I), part of the Mir Environmental Effects Payload (MEEP), was designed to study the combined effects of contamination, atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, vacuum, thermal cycling, and other constituents of the space environment on spacecraft materials. The MEEP program is a Phase 1 International Space Station Risk Mitigation Experiment. SSP 30258 "Thermal Control Architectural Control Document", section 3.1.2 requires that International Space Station (ISS) external materials meet performance requirements when exposed to the external environment as defined in SSP 30426, "Space Station External Contamination Control Requirements." Contamination control documents call for less than 3 x 10(exp -7) gm/sq cm/yr of molecular contamination on a surface at 300 K at the Prime Measurement Points during quiescent periods and less than 1 x 10(exp-6) gm/sq cm/yr during non-quiescent periods. Assuming a density of 1.0 g/cu cm for the contaminant, this is roughly equivalent to 30-100 A per year. A previous Mir flight experiment (Guillaumon et al. 1991) measured 321-716 A per year. Were this to happen on ISS, the radiators would reach end-of-life properties much sooner than the planned 10 years. Therefore, POSA was proposed to expose ISS-baselined materials (such as Z93 white thermal control paint and chromic acid anodized aluminum) to the Mir environment and determine not only the level of contamination from an orbiting, active space station but also the effect of contamination on thermal optical properties. POSA-I consisted of nearly 400 samples of various candidate materials for ISS. Paint samples flown included Z-93 and YB-71 white thermal control paints and a new inorganic bright yellow paint htat can be utilized for astronaut visual aids.

  13. Ocean services user needs assessment. Volume 1: Survey results, conclusions and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.; Patton, R. J.; Mccandless, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    An interpretation of environmental information needs of marine users, derived from a direct contact survey of eight important sectors of the marine user community is presented. Findings of the survey and results and recommendations are reported. The findings consist of specific and quantized measurement and derived product needs for each sector and comparisons of these needs with current and planned NOAA data and services. The following supportive and reference material are examined: direct contact interviews with industry members, analyses of current NOAA data gathering and derived product capabilities, evaluations of new and emerging domestic and foreign satellite data gathering capabilities, and a special commercial fishing survey conducted by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  14. Research results for the Tornado Wind-Energy system: analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, E.

    1983-01-01

    The Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) concept utilizes a wind driven vortex confined by a hollow tower to create a low pressure core intended to serve as a turbine exhaust reservoir. The turbine inlet flow is provided by a separate ram air supply. Numerous experimental and analytical research efforts have investigated the potential of the TWES as a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The present paper summarizes and analyzes much of theresearch to date on the TWES. A simplified cost analysis incorporating these research results is also included. Based on these analyses, the TWES does not show significant promise of improving on either the performance or the cost of energy attainable by conventional WECS. The prospects for achieving either a system power coefficient above 0.20 or a cost of energy less than $0.50/kWh (1979 dollars) appear to be poor.

  15. Research results for the Tornado wind energy system: analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    The Tornado Wind Energy System (TWES) concept utilizes a wind-driven vortex confined by a hollow tower to create a low-pressure core intended to serve as a turbine exhaust reservoir. The turbine inlet flow is provided by a separate ram air supply. Numerous experimental and analytical research efforts have investigated the potential of the TWES as a wind energy conversion system (WECS). The present paper summarizes and analyzes much of the research to date on the TWES. A simplified cost analysis incorporating these research results is also included. Based on these analyses, the TWES does not show any significant promise of improving on either the performance or the cost of energy attainable by conventional WECS. The prospects for achieving either a system power coefficient above 0.20 or a cost of energy less than $0.50/kWh (1979 dollars) appear to be poor.

  16. Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbagh, S. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Balbaky, A.; Bastasz, R.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Boyle, D.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Buttery, R.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Davis, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fonck, R.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gray, T.; Guo, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E. B.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Indireshkumar, K.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kolemen, E.; Kramer, G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R. J.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Lore, J.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McLean, A.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Meier, E.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Park, Y. S.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Rewoldt, G.; Rognlien, T.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Shaing, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C. H.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Untergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, W.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K. L.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zimmer, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment, NSTX, targets physics understanding needed for extrapolation to a steady-state ST Fusion Nuclear Science Facility, pilot plant, or DEMO. The unique ST operational space is leveraged to test physics theories for next-step tokamak operation, including ITER. Present research also examines implications for the coming device upgrade, NSTX-U. An energy confinement time, τE, scaling unified for varied wall conditions exhibits a strong improvement of BTτE with decreased electron collisionality, accentuated by lithium (Li) wall conditioning. This result is consistent with nonlinear microtearing simulations that match the experimental electron diffusivity quantitatively and predict reduced electron heat transport at lower collisionality. Beam-emission spectroscopy measurements in the steep gradient region of the pedestal indicate the poloidal correlation length of turbulence of about ten ion gyroradii increases at higher electron density gradient and lower Ti gradient, consistent with turbulence caused by trapped electron instabilities. Density fluctuations in the pedestal top region indicate ion-scale microturbulence compatible with ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning mode instabilities. Plasma characteristics change nearly continuously with increasing Li evaporation and edge localized modes (ELMs) stabilize due to edge density gradient alteration. Global mode stability studies show stabilizing resonant kinetic effects are enhanced at lower collisionality, but in stark contrast have almost no dependence on collisionality when the plasma is off-resonance. Combined resistive wall mode radial and poloidal field sensor feedback was used to control n = 1 perturbations and improve stability. The disruption probability due to unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) was surprisingly reduced at very high βN/li > 10 consistent with low frequency magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy measurements of mode stability. Greater

  17. Sweet Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  18. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL...

  19. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT...

  20. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ORGANIZATIONS UTILIZATION AND QUALITY CONTROL...

  1. Joint inversion of displacement and gravity changes at Mt. Etna volcano during the 1995-2000 period: results and conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Jose; Camacho, Antonio; Carbone, Daniele; Bonforte, Alessandro; Guglielmino, Francesco; Puglisi, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Persistent inflation and long-period gravity fluctuations were observed at Mt. Etna (Italy) during the time interval bounded by the 1991-93 and 2001 main flank eruptions. Past studies suggest that, since 1993 and before the 2001 eruption, a large amount of magma was stored at depth. Until now, a joint inversion of displacement and gravity data has not been performed. We carry out simultaneous inversion of gravity, GNSS and Advanced Differential InSAR displacement data covering the 1995-2000 period. Our inversion scheme uses bodies with a 3D free geometry to determine the best-fitting configuration of pressure and density sources. Results provide new insight into the shallow plumbing system of Etna. Inflation pressure sources are located below the northwestern flank, at depths of 4-6 km, while a mass source is located in a shallower position below the SE flank. Mass increases and decreases are observed without significant associated deformation. The neat separation between mass and pressure sources is a key feature to understand the processes which controlled the activity of Mt Etna during the studied period.

  2. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures...

  3. 42 CFR 476.85 - Conclusive effect of QIO initial denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. 476.85 Section 476.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR... denial determinations and changes as a result of DRG validations. A QIO initial denial determination or change as a result of DRG validation is final and binding unless, in accordance with the procedures...

  4. Study for identification of beneficial uses of Space, phase 1. Volume 2, book 2: Technical report: results, conclusions and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A variety of technologies were investigated to determine the benefits to be derived from space activities. The subjects accepted for product development are: (1) eutectics for cold cathodes, (2) higher putiry fiber optics, (3) fluidic wafers, (4) large germanium wafers for gamma ray camera, (5) improved batteries and capacitors, (6) optical filters, (7) corrosion resistant electrodes, (8) high strength carbon-based filaments for plastic reinforcement, and (9) new antibiotics. In addition, three ideas for services, involving disposal of radioactive wastes, blood analysis, and enhanced solar insolation were proposed.

  5. Inconsistent definitions of "urban" result in different conclusions about the size of urban carbon and nitrogen stocks.

    PubMed

    Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Rao, Preeti; Finzi, Adrien C

    2012-04-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the importance of urban soils and vegetation in regional C budgets that is caused, in part, by inconsistent definitions of "urban" land use. We quantified urban ecosystem contributions to C stocks in the Boston (Massachusetts, USA) Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) using several alternative urban definitions. Development altered aboveground and belowground C and N stocks, and the sign and magnitude of these changes varied by land use and development intensity. Aboveground biomass (live trees, dbh > or = 5 cm) for the MSA was 7.2 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2 (mean +/- SE), reflecting a high proportion of forest cover. Vegetation C was highest in forest (11.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), followed by residential (4.6 +/- 0.5 kg C/m2), and then other developed (2.0 +/- 0.4 kg C/m2) land uses. Soil C (0-10 cm depth) followed the same pattern of decreasing C concentration from forest, to residential, to other developed land uses (4.1 +/- 0.1, 4.0 +/- 0.2, and 3.3 +/- 0.2 kg C/m2, respectively). Within a land use type, urban areas (which we defined as > 25% impervious surface area [ISA] within a 1-km(2) moving window) generally contained less vegetation C, but slightly more soil C, than nonurban areas. Soil N concentrations were higher in urban areas than nonurban areas of the same land use type, except for residential areas, which had similarly high soil N concentrations. When we compared our definition of urban to other commonly used urban extents (U.S. Census Bureau, Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project [GRUMP], and the MSA itself), we found that urban soil (1 m depth) and vegetation C stocks spanned a wide range, from 14.4 +/- 0.8 to 54.5 +/- 3.4 Tg C and from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 27.3 +/- 3.2 Tg C, respectively. Conclusions about the importance of urban soils and vegetation to regional C and N stocks are very sensitive to the definition of urban used by the investigators. Urban areas, regardless of definition, are rapidly expanding in their extent; a systematic

  6. [Prospective qualification requirements in nursing care. Results and conclusions of the BMBF research network FreQueNz].

    PubMed

    Schüler, G; Klaes, L; Rommel, A; Schröder, H; Köhler, T

    2013-08-01

    Demographic change, advances in medicine, and innovative health care services are leading to changes in the professional qualification requirements for nursing and care staff. Detecting future trends in relation to these requirements was the focus of a Delphi study developed as part of the BMBF FreQueNz initiative. After qualitative expert interviews, data collection was organized in three consecutive steps, with 243 interviews realized in the second wave. It was found that home care will further diversify in the fields of supporting and counseling services as well as in palliative care, resulting in the necessary expansion of specific qualifications (e.g., intensive care). Moreover, there will be an increased need for interprofessional, intersectoral, and intercultural coordination and communication skills. As a consequence of the delegation of medical tasks, new duties for nonmedical professions in inpatient and outpatient care will also arise. For instance, qualifications need to be tailored to the new demands of assessment, diagnostics, therapy, and patient education and they should take into account evidence-based knowledge as well as clinical practice guidelines. Consequently, the system of care professionals will further diversify through advanced training programs and the continued academization of nursing. PMID:23884530

  7. Beginning without a Conclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Describes a series of activities without conclusions to introduce scientific reasoning in a ninth grade physical science course. Uses popcorn popping to get students to think about the concepts of graphing, histograms, frequency, probability, and scientific methodology. (CW)

  8. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds: Phase 1: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    The structural response to aerodynamic buffet during moderate to high-g maneuvers at subsonic and transonic speeds was investigated. The investigation is reported in three volumes. This volume presents a summary of the investigation with a complete description of the technical approach, description of the aircraft, its instrumentation, the data reduction procedures, results and conclusion.

  9. Structured Teaching and Classroom Management--the Solution for the Decline of Swedish School Results? Conclusions Drawn from a Comparative Meta-Synthesis of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Håkansson, Jan

    2015-01-01

    With a basis in conclusions from a comparative meta-synthesis of teaching and learning, the question of structured and teacher-led teaching in Swedish comprehensive schools is discussed and analysed. The aim is to illustrate the development of results and changes in teaching patterns in Swedish comprehensive schools in relation to new regulations…

  10. Analysis and optimization of thermal stratification and self-pressurization effects in liquid hydrogen storage systems -- Part 2: Model results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Gursu, S.; Veziroglu, T.N. . Clean Energy Research Inst.); Sherif, S.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Sheffield, J.W. . Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics)

    1993-09-01

    Three models capable of predicting the phenomena of thermal stratification and self-pressurization in liquid hydrogen storage systems were presented in Part 1 of this paper. In order to be able to evaluate the performance of the different pressure rise models, the results are compared with experimental data obtained from different tests. The set of experimental data obtained from the Plum Brook B-2 test, in the NASA-Lewis Research Center, represents a very accurately instrumented and closely controlled experimental work performed on the liquid hydrogen storage tank. Another set of data is taken from the experimental study conducted again in the NASA-Lewis Research Center to obtain a correlating parameter which relates the rate of pressure rise to the volume of spherical liquid hydrogen tank. In this paper model results are presented and discussed and general conclusions are reached.

  11. Project Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles

    1999-01-01

    A top level summary of activities conducted throughout the course of the EDOMP in response to initial concerns at the outset of the program is provided. Significant findings from the investigations are summarized, together with resulting countermeasures that were implemented and flight rules that were developed in response to these findings. Subsequent paragraphs provide more information; details will be found in the referenced sections.

  12. An investigation of wing buffeting response at subsonic and transonic speeds. Phase 2: F-111A flight data analysis. Volume 1: Summary of technical approach, results and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benepe, D. B.; Cunningham, A. M., Jr.; Traylor, S., Jr.; Dunmyer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the flight buffeting response of the F-111A was performed in two phases. In Phase 1 stochastic analysis techniques were applied to wing and fuselage responses for maneuvers flown at subsonic speeds and wing leading edge sweep of 26 degrees. Power spectra and rms values were obtained. This report gives results of Phase 2 where the analyses were extended to include maneuvers flown at wing leading edge sweep values of 50 and 75.5 degrees at subsonic and supersonic speeds and the responses examined were expanded to include vertical shear, bending moment, and hingeline torque of the left and right horizontal tails. Power spectra, response time histories, variations of rms response with angle of attack and effects of wing sweep and Mach number are presented and discussed. Some Phase 1 results are given for comparison purposes.

  13. NGS-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing of high-grade serous ovarian cancer tissue: results and conclusions of the first international round robin trial.

    PubMed

    Endris, Volker; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Pfarr, Nicole; Penzel, Roland; Möbs, Markus; Lenze, Dido; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Hummel, Michael; Sabine-Merkelbach-Bruse; Jung, Andreas; Lehmann, Ulrich; Kreipe, Hans; Kirchner, Thomas; Büttner, Reinhard; Jochum, Wolfram; Höfler, Gerald; Dietel, Manfred; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter

    2016-06-01

    With the approval of olaparib as monotherapy treatment in platinum-sensitive, relapsed high-grade serous ovarian cancer by the European Medical Agency (EMA), comprehensive genotyping of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in tumor tissue has become a mandatory pre-therapeutic test. This requires significant advances in routine tumor test methodologies due to the large size of both genes and the lack of mutational hot spots. Classical focused screening approaches, like Sanger sequencing, do not allow for a sensitive, rapid, and economic analysis of tumor tissue. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches employing targeted panels for BRCA1/2 to interrogate formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples from either surgical resection or biopsy specimens can overcome these limitations. Although focused NGS methods have been implemented by few centers in routine molecular diagnostics for the analysis of some druggable oncogenic mutations, the reliable diagnostic testing of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was a new challenge requiring extensive technological improvement and quality management. Here, we describe the implementation and results of the first round robin trial for BRCA1/2 mutation testing in tumor tissue that was conducted in central Europe on May 2015, shortly after the approval and prior to the official release of olaparib. The high success rate of 81 % (21/26 test centers) demonstrates that BRCA1/2 multicenter mutation testing is well feasible in FFPE tumor tissue, extending to other tumor entities beyond ovarian cancer. The high number of test centers passing the trial demonstrates the success of the concerted efforts by German, Swiss, and Austrian pathology centers to ensure quality-controlled NGS-based testing and proves the potential of this technology in routine molecular pathology. On the basis of our results, we provide recommendations for predictive testing of tumor tissue for BRCA1/2 to clinical decision making in ovarian cancer patients. PMID

  14. Moving-bed gasification - combined-cycle control study. Volume 1: results and conclusions, Case 1 - air-blown dry-ash operation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ahner, D.J.; Brower, A.S.; Dawes, M.H.; Patel, A.S.

    1981-03-01

    A simulation study has been conducted to investigate the inherent process dynamics and required control strategies for an integrated coal gasification/combined cycle (GCC) power plant to operate successfully under load-changing conditions to meet power system requirements. The simulated GCC plant configuration is similar to the flowsheet developed in earlier EPRI economic studies (RP239), based on an air-blown, dry-ash, moving-bed gasifier of the Lurgi-type. A following GCC plant control study will be based on a Lurgi-type gasifier modified for oxygen-blown, slagging operations such as that being developed by British Gas Corporation. A large ditial computer simulation model of the GCC plant operating on a large utility power system network was developed to examine alternate plant control strategies. Gas turbine-lead and gasifier-lead control modes were evaluated with respect to power system requirements for daily load following, tie-line flow regulation with thermal backup, and frequency regulation. Inherent features of the gasifier led to unique process dynamics for the GCC plant. Sizeable transients were observed during load-changing operations, both in the fuel process and the steam system. However, the plant compensated effectively for such transients with a modified gas turbine-lead control strategy, by making use of fast-responding gas turbine controls and the large inherent volume of the fuel process. The results verify the capability of the GCC plant to operate with the fuel process closely integrated with the combined cycle plant under rapidly changing conditions. Furthermore, a GCC plant control strategy was developed which can successfully meet power sytem requirements within fuel system limitations, allowing an overall plant response rate of four (4) percent per minute.

  15. Hadron spectroscopy---Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Landua, R.

    1995-07-10

    The session on hadron spectroscopy covered a wide range of new results on the light and heavy meson spectrum. The discovery of three new scalar mesons at LEAR may be crucial for our understanding of the scalar nonet and the possible existence of exotic scalar states. An outlook on the prospects of hadron spectroscopy is given. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  16. System performance conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arndt, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of reducing power levels and using antennas with diameters smaller than 1 Km were evaluated if rectenna costs and land usage requirements become major factors, operating at 5800 megahertz should be considered. Three sequences (random, incoherent phasing, and concentric rings - center to edge) provided satisfactory performance in that the resultant sidelobe levels during startup/ shutdown were lower than the steady-state levels present during normal operations. Grating lobe peaks and scattered power levels were used to determine the array/subarray mechanical alignment requirements. The antenna alignment requirement is 1 min or 3 min depending on phase control configuration. System error parameters were defined to minimize scattered microwave power.

  17. Conclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancevic, Vladimir G.; Reid, Darryn J.

    2015-11-01

    It is often held that things should always be made simple, which presumes that either that they can always be made simple or that all the jetisoned logic doesn't matter anyway. Alledgedly, anything should be explainable so that anyone can understand it. Don't get bogged down in dreary details. It should be effortless for the reader: low-dimensional systems exhibit complex behaviour while high-dimensional systems exhibit simple behaviour (to return to our prolegomonal opening), competition is a universal solution, demand must increase as price falls, and everything under the sun neatly fits a power law. Or so the story goes...

  18. Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahonen, Pasi; Alahuhta, Petteri; Daskala, Barbara; Delaitre, Sabine; Hert, Paul De; Lindner, Ralf; Maghiros, Ioannis; Moscibroda, Anna; Schreurs, Wim; Verlinden, Michiel

    Some say that an increase in security does not necessarily mean a further encroachment on privacy - indeed, security is necessary to protect personal data and our privacy. Networks must be secure, our personal devices, reliable, dependable and trustworthy. But security is a multifaceted term, with many dimensions. We are of the view that an increase in security most likely will encroach upon our privacy in an ambient intelligence world. Surveillance cameras will continue to proliferate. We assume that, whatever the law is, whatever privacy protections government and business say they honour, our telecommunications, e-mails and Internet usage will be monitored to an increasing degree. The same will be true of our interfaces with the world of ambient intelligence.

  19. Conclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, Klaus; Hiller, Daniel; Leismann, Tobias; Drees, Birgit

    Considering the breadth of perspectives in security research among Europeans, as exemplified within this publication, one may certainly note that a tremendous development of this young discipline has occurred in a short period of time. Only three years have passed since the discipline was promoted to an individual theme within the specific programme on `Cooperation' of the European Commission FP7. Since then, a conceptual framework has been established and the first collaborative projects have been executed on different levels, all at an impressive pace. Although the future of security research will remain closely linked to the political will of EU member states, the established base will serve as a solid foundation for the further development of the discipline on a European scale.

  20. Conclusive exclusion of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Jain, Rahul; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Perry, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    In the task of quantum state exclusion, we consider a quantum system prepared in a state chosen from a known set. The aim is to perform a measurement on the system which can conclusively rule that a subset of the possible preparation procedures cannot have taken place. We ask what conditions the set of states must obey in order for this to be possible and how well we can complete the task when it is not. The task of quantum state discrimination forms a subclass of this set of problems. Within this paper, we formulate the general problem as a semidefinite program (SDP), enabling us to derive sufficient and necessary conditions for a measurement to be optimal. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary condition on the set of states for exclusion to be achievable with certainty, and we give a construction for a lower bound on the probability of error. This task of conclusively excluding states has gained importance in the context of the foundations of quantum mechanics due to a result from Pusey, Barrett, and Rudolph (PBR). Motivated by this, we use our SDP to derive a bound on how well a class of hidden variable models can perform at a particular task, proving an analog of Tsirelson's bound for the PBR experiment and the optimality of a measurement given by PBR in the process. We also introduce variations of conclusive exclusion, including unambiguous state exclusion, and state exclusion with worst-case error.

  1. Core Needle Biopsy Is a More Conclusive Follow-up Method Than Repeat Fine Needle Aspiration for Thyroid Nodules with Initially Inconclusive Results: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kang, Guhyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the appropriate management of thyroid nodules with prior non-diagnostic or atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: This study included 4,235 thyroid nodules from 26 eligible studies. We investigated the conclusive rate of follow-up core needle biopsy (CNB) or repeat fine needle aspiration (rFNA) after initial fine needle aspiration (FNA) with non-diagnostic or AUS/FLUS results. A diagnostic test accuracy (DTA) review was performed to determine the diagnostic role of the follow-up CNB and to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) on the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Results: The conclusive rates of follow-up CNB and rFNA after initial FNA were 0.879 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.801 to 0.929) and 0.684 (95% CI, 0.627 to 0.736), respectively. In comparison of the odds ratios of CNB and rFNA, CNB had more frequent conclusive results than rFNA (odds ratio, 5.707; 95% CI, 2.530 to 12.875). Upon subgroup analysis, follow-up CNB showed a higher conclusive rate than rFNA in both initial non-diagnostic and AUS/FLUS subgroups. In DTA review of followup CNB, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88 to 0.97) and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.91), respectively. The AUC for the SROC curve was 0.981, nearing 1. Conclusions: Our results show that CNB has a higher conclusive rate than rFNA when the initial FNA produced inconclusive results. Further prospective studies with more detailed criteria are necessary before follow-up CNB can be applied in daily practice. PMID:27077724

  2. Conclusions. [hydrogen-based energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Conclusions are presented according to general areas of technology with some specific examples of research and technology needs identified. These conclusions provide a base for the future development of detailed program plans and identify research needs that are not being given attention or are not being supported at a sufficient level. Emphasis is placed on hydrogen production and use.

  3. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  4. Physical activity across the curriculum: year one process evaluation results

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Cheryl A; Smith, Bryan K; DuBose, Katrina D; Greene, J Leon; Bailey, Bruce W; Williams, Shannon L; Ryan, Joseph J; Schmelzle, Kristin H; Washburn, Richard A; Sullivan, Debra K; Mayo, Matthew S; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2008-01-01

    Background Physical Activity Across the Curriculum (PAAC) is a 3-year elementary school-based intervention to determine if increased amounts of moderate intensity physical activity performed in the classroom will diminish gains in body mass index (BMI). It is a cluster-randomized, controlled trial, involving 4905 children (2505 intervention, 2400 control). Methods We collected both qualitative and quantitative process evaluation data from 24 schools (14 intervention and 10 control), which included tracking teacher training issues, challenges and barriers to effective implementation of PAAC lessons, initial and continual use of program specified activities, and potential competing factors, which might contaminate or lessen program effects. Results Overall teacher attendance at training sessions showed exceptional reach. Teachers incorporated active lessons on most days, resulting in significantly greater student physical activity levels compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Enjoyment ratings for classroom-based lessons were also higher for intervention students. Competing factors, which might influence program results, were not carried out at intervention or control schools or were judged to be minimal. Conclusion In the first year of the PAAC intervention, process evaluation results were instrumental in identifying successes and challenges faced by teachers when trying to modify existing academic lessons to incorporate physical activity. PMID:18606013

  5. Misapplied survey data and model uncertainty result in incorrect conclusions about the role of predation on alewife population dynamics in Lake Huron: a comment on He et al. (2015)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Dunlop, Erin S.

    2016-01-01

    Drastic recent and ongoing changes to fish populations and food webs in the Great Lakes have been well-described (Riley et al. 2008; Barbiero et al. 2009; Nalepa et al. 2009; Fahnenstiel et al. 2010;Evans et al. 2011; Gobin et al. 2015), and uncertainty regarding their potential effects on fisheries has caused concern among scientists and fishery managers (e.g., Dettmers et al. 2012). In particular, the relative importance of “bottom-up” (e.g., lower trophic level changes) versus “top-down” (e.g., predation) factors to fish community changes in the Great Lakes have been widely debated (e.g.,Barbiero et al. 2011; Eshenroder and Lantry 2012; Bunnell et al. 2014). In Lake Huron, recent ecosystem changes have been particularly profound, and populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), an offshore pelagic prey fish, collapsed in 2003 and have yet to recover (Riley et al. 2008, 2014). He et al. (2015) recently used a series of linked ecological models to assess the role of predation in the dynamics of the offshore prey fish community in Lake Huron. While we believe that they provide a novel method for combining bioenergetics and stock assessment modeling, we question the validity of their conclusions because of the misapplication of survey data and the lack of critical interpretation of their modeling efforts. Here we describe how He et al. (2015) have misapplied bottom trawl data from Lake Huron, and we provide examples of how this has resulted in erroneous conclusions regarding the importance of predation to the population dynamics and collapse of alewife in Lake Huron.

  6. Processed Vietnamese ginseng: Preliminary results in chemistry and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thi Hong Van; Lee, Seo Young; Kim, Tae Ryong; Kim, Jae Young; Kwon, Sung Won; Nguyen, Ngoc Khoi; Park, Jeong Hill; Nguyen, Minh Duc

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the steaming process on chemical constituents, free radical scavenging activity, and antiproliferative effect of Vietnamese ginseng. Methods Samples of powdered Vietnamese ginseng were steamed at 120°C for various times and their extracts were subjected to chemical and biological studies. Results Upon steaming, contents of polar ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rc, Rd, Re, and Rg1, were rapidly decreased, whereas less polar ginsenosides such as Rg3, Rg5, Rk1, Rk3, and Rh4 were increased as reported previously. However, ocotillol type saponins, which have no glycosyl moiety at the C-20 position, were relatively stable on steaming. The radical scavenging activity was increased continuously up to 20 h of steaming. Similarly, the antiproliferative activity against A549 lung cancer cells was also increased. Conclusion It seems that the antiproliferative activity is closely related to the contents of ginsenoside Rg3, Rg5, and Rk1. PMID:24748840

  7. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  8. Results of sprites, lightning activities and thunderstorms in Chinese mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Qie, X.; Feng, G.

    2009-12-01

    Sprites are large brief discharges above thunderstorms and have been observed in many countries of the world. Chinese Sprites Observation Campaign (CSOC) was conducted during the summer of 2007, and a total of 17 sprites were first observed over two thunderstorms. One of the sprites occurred on July 28 above a thunderstorm in Guan County and the center of the storm was about 272 km from the observation site. The other sprites were recorded at the late night of August 1 and in the early morning of August 2, the storm center was 315 km away. Characteristics of the observed sprites, lightning activities and thunderstorms were documented. In addition, comparative analysis of the sprites producing thunderstorms and the non-sprites producing thunderstorms were also presented. The results show that all of the observed sprites occurred in cluster, and their appearances were very different, including ‘columniform sprites’, ‘carrot sprites’ and ‘dancing sprites’, etc, which was not much different from the results obtained in other regions. The duration of the sprites varied from a minimum of 40 ms to a maximum of 160 ms with a mean value of 61 ms. All of the parental +CGs were positive and located in large stratiform regions with radar echo of 20-40 dBZ in the rear of the thunderstorms. The Doppler radar images indicated that comparatively large stratiform regions occurred in the sprites-producing thunderstorms. More cases are needed to test the validity and the universality of these conclusions.

  9. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  10. Results and conclusions test capabilities task group summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Bomber, T.; Pierce, K.; Easterling, R.; Rogers, J.

    1996-12-01

    This annotated briefing documents an economic analysis of Sandia`s system-level test facilities maintained and operated by the Design, Evaluation, and Test Technology Center 9700. The study was divided into four primary sub-tasks: (1) Estimation of the future system-level test workload, (2) Development of a consistent economic model to estimate the cost of maintaining and operating the test facilities, (3) Determination of the availability of viable alternative test sites, and (4) Assessment of the potential savings through reduction of excess capacity under various facility-closure scenarios. The analysis indicated that potential savings from closing all facilities could approach $6 million per year. However, large uncertainties in these savings remove any sound economic arguments for such closure: it is possible that testing at alternative sites could cost more than maintaining the current set of system-level test facilities. Finally, a number of programmatic risks incurred by facility closure were identified. Consideration of facility closure requires a careful weighing of any projected economic benefit against these programmatic risks. This summary report covers the briefing given to upper management. A more detailed discussion of the data and analyses is given in the full report, available for internal use from the technical library.

  11. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-05-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization.

  12. Recent results on structural control of an active precision structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, C. C.; Fanson, J. L.; Smith, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes recent results in structural control of an active precision truss structure at JPL. The goal is to develop practical control methodology and to apply to active truss structures intended for high precision space-based optics applications. The active structure considered incorporates piezoelectric active members which apply control forces internal to the structure and thereby improve the structure's dimensional stability. Two approaches to structural control system design were investigated. The first approach uses only noncollocated measurements of acceleration at the location of a simulated optical component to achieve structural stabilization. The second approach is essentially the same as the first one except that a viscous damper was used in place of a truss member on the structure to improve the dampings of selected flexible modes. The corresponding experimental closed-loop results are presented in this paper.

  13. Pacemaker activity resulting from the coupling with nonexcitable cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquemet, Vincent

    2006-07-01

    Fibroblasts are nonexcitable cells that are sometimes coupled with excitable cells (cardiomyocytes). Due to a higher resting potential, these cells may act as a current source or sink and therefore disturb the electrical activity of the surrounding excitable cells. The possible occurrence of spontaneous pacemaker activity resulting from these electrotonic interactions was investigated in a theoretical model of two coupled cells as well as in a multicellular fiber model based on the Courtemanche kinetics. The results indicate that repeated spontaneous activations can be observed after an alteration in the activation and recovery properties of the sodium current (changes in excitability properties), provided that the difference in the resting potential as well as the coupling between the excitable and nonexcitable cells is sufficiently high. This may constitute a mechanism of focal sources triggering arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation.

  14. [Commercialization of results of intellectual activities in pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Posylkina, O V; Timaniuk, V N; Gladukh, E V

    2002-01-01

    An analysis has been done of those causes impending the development of innovative processes and commercialization of results of intellectual activities in the economics of Ukraine and its pharmaceutical sector. Possible ways for rectifying the prevailing situation are considered. A scheme is proposed of staged commercialization of developments involving creation of new pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:12669531

  15. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  16. First Results of the TIGRE Chromospheric Activity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Hempelmann, A.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of the stellar activity survey with TIGRE (Telescopio Internacional de Guanajuato, Robótico-Espectroscópico). This long term program was started in August 2013 with the monitoring of a larger number of stars. We aim at measuring the short- and long-term variability of stellar activity for stars of different spectral types and luminosity classes, using indicators of different spectral lines (mainly Ca II S-Index, Ca II IR triplet, H_α and sodium D). A transformation equation of the TIGRE S-Index into the Mount Wilson S-index was derived in order to compare our results to the vast body of existing S-index measurements. Furthermore, the correlation between the S-index and the lines of the Ca II IR triplet has been studied, based on strictly simultaneous observations.

  17. Subliminal psychodynamic activation: updated comprehensive list of experimental results and comments on previous lists.

    PubMed

    Fudin, R; Benjamin, C

    1992-06-01

    A comprehensive list of results from visual subliminal psychodynamic activation experiments is presented. This list includes results reported since the publication of the last comprehensive list by Weinberger and Hardaway in 1990 and several results not found on that list. On the present list, SPA results are categorized according to criteria that we contend are more objective than those used previously. In contrast to conclusions drawn from previous lists prepared by Silverman in 1980 and 1983, by Weinberger and Hardaway in 1990, and by Weinberger and Silverman in 1987, the present list indicates that the results of a majority of experiments do not clearly support hypotheses tested by the subliminal psychodynamic activation method. Aspects of Hardaway's meta-analyses from 1987 and 1990 for major areas of research on subliminal psychodynamic activation are discussed in terms of suggestions for further research. PMID:1608734

  18. Summary of the Results of STIS SMOV4 Calibration Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bohlin, Ralph; Cox, Colin, Goudfrooij, Paul; Gull, Thodore, R.; Kaiser, Mary Beth; Lallo, Matt; Lennon, Daniel J.; Lindler, Don J.; Makidon, Russ; Niemi, Sami-Matias; Serrano, Beverly; Wheeler, Thomas; Wolfe, Michael E.; Serrano, Beverly; Woodgate, Bruce; Zheng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    After HST Servicing Mission 4 (SM4), there was a period of Science Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV4), to check out the new and repaired instruments. Here we summarize the execution and results of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) SMOV 4 activities undertaken to ensure that the repaired STIS instrument was ready to carry out its scheduled science program after a nearly five year hiatus in operation. The results of the initial aliveness and functional tests are reviewed, anomalies that aff ected the execution of the STIS SMOV plan are discussed, and the results of each STIS SMOV activity executed are summarized. In most respects the performance of STIS after the SM4 repair is very similar to that seen prior to the 2004 failure. Notable chang es include a significant and unexpected enhancement of the NUV MAMA dark rate that has been declining only very slowly, and continued degradation of the CCD performance due to radiation damage. Post - repair throughputs of most modes are close to expectation s based on extrapolation of previous trends.

  19. 4.11 Summary and Conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.11 Summary and Conclusions' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  20. Do Media Use and Physical Activity Compete in Adolescents? Results of the MoMo Study

    PubMed Central

    Spengler, Sarah; Mess, Filip; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The displacement hypothesis predicts that physical activity and media use compete in adolescents; however, findings are inconsistent. A more differentiated approach at determining the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use behaviors within subjects may be warranted. The aim of this study was to determine the co-occurrence of physical activity and media use by identifying clusters of adolescents with specific behavior patterns including physical activity in various settings (school, sports club, leisure time) and different types of media use (watching TV, playing console games, using PC / Internet). Methods Cross-sectional data of 2,083 adolescents (11–17 years) from all over Germany were collected between 2009 and 2012 in the Motorik-Modul Study. Physical activity and media use were self-reported. Cluster analyses (Ward’s method and K-means analysis) were used to identify behavior patterns of boys and girls separately. Results Eight clusters were identified for boys and seven for girls. The clusters demonstrated that a high proportion of boys (33%) as well as girls (42%) show low engagement in both physical activity and media use, irrespective of setting or type of media. Other adolescents are engaged in both behaviors, but either physical activity (35% of boys, 27% of girls) or media use (31% of boys and girls) predominates. These adolescents belong to different clusters, whereat in most clusters either one specific setting of physical activity or a specific combination of different types of media predominates. Conclusion The results of this study support to some extent the hypothesis that media use and physical activity compete: Very high media use occurred with low physical activity behavior, but very high activity levels co-occurred with considerable amounts of time using any media. There was no evidence that type of used media was related to physical activity levels, neither setting of physical activity was related to amount of media use

  1. The common premise for uncommon conclusions.

    PubMed

    Coady, C A J

    2013-05-01

    Recent controversy over philosophical advocacy of infanticide (or the comically-styled euphemism 'postnatal abortion') reveals a surprisingly common premise uniting many of the opponents and supporters of the practice. This is the belief that the moral status of the early fetus or embryo with respect to a right to life is identical to that of a newly born or even very young baby. From this premise, infanticidists and strong anti-abortionists draw opposite conclusions, the former that the healthy newly born have no inherent right to life and the latter that minute embryos and the very early fetus have the same right to life as young babies. (Indeed strong anti-abortionists tend to regard this right to life as identical to that possessed by adult humans.) This paper argues that these opposed conclusions are both deeply implausible and that the implausibility resides in the common premise. The argument requires some attention to the structure of the philosophical case underpinning the supposed vice of speciesism that has been given intellectual currency by many philosophers, most notably Peter Singer, and also to the reasoning behind the strong anti-abortionist adoption of the common premise. PMID:23637428

  2. Epistemology applied to conclusions of expert reports.

    PubMed

    Lucena-Molina, Jose-Juan

    2016-07-01

    It is believed that to build a robust reasoning logic to make probabilistic inferences in forensic science from a merely mathematical or logistical viewpoint is not enough. Mathematical logic is the positive science of reasoning and as for that it is only interested in the positive calculus of its validity, regardless any prior ontological assumption. But without a determined ontology and epistemology which imply to define the concepts that they will use, it seems difficult that the proposed scientifically correct mathematical solution be successful as a European standard for making conclusions in forensic reports because it has to be based on judicial language. Forensic experts and Courts are not interested in the development of a positive science but in a practical science: in clarifying whether certain known facts are related to a possible crime. Therefore, not only the coherence of the demonstrative logic reasoning used (logic of propositions) is important, but also the precision of the concepts used by language and consistency among them in reasoning (logic of concepts). There is a linguistic level essential for a successful communication between the forensic practitioner and the Court which is mainly related, in our opinion, to semantics and figures of speech. The first one is involved because words used in forensic conclusions often have different meanings - it is said that they are polysemic - and the second one because there is often metonymy as well. Besides, semantic differences among languages regarding words with the same etymological root add another difficulty for a better mutual understanding. The two main European judicial systems inherit a wide and deep culture related to evidence in criminal proceedings and each of them has coined their own terminology but there are other two more abstract levels such as logical and epistemological, where we can find solid arguments by which terms used at legal level on conclusions of forensic reports could be

  3. History Scene Investigations: From Clues to Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces a social studies lesson that allows students to learn history and practice reading skills, critical thinking, and writing. The activity is called History Scene Investigation or HSI, which derives its name from the popular television series based on crime scene investigations (CSI). HSI uses discovery learning…

  4. Optimal active vibration absorber - Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1993-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  5. Optimal active vibration absorber: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina; Juang, Jer-Nan; Sulla, Jeffrey L.

    1992-01-01

    An optimal active vibration absorber can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability and control for large flexible space structures with collocated sensors/actuators. The active vibration absorber is a second-order dynamic system which is designed to suppress any unwanted structural vibration. This can be designed with minimum knowledge of the controlled system. Two methods for optimizing the active vibration absorber parameters are illustrated: minimum resonant amplitude and frequency matched active controllers. The Controls-Structures Interaction Phase-1 Evolutionary Model at NASA LaRC is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the active vibration absorber for vibration suppression. Performance is compared numerically and experimentally using acceleration feedback.

  6. Solar activity variations of ionosonde measurements and modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, D.; Arrazola, D.; Blanch, E.; Buresova, D.

    2008-08-01

    The time series of hourly electron density profiles N(h) obtained at several mid-latitude stations in Europe have been used to obtain N(h) profiles on a monthly basis and to extract both the expected bottomside parameters and a proxy of the ionospheric variability as functions of time and height. With these data we present advances on a “Local Model” technique for the parameters B0 and B1, its applicability to other ionospheric stations, to other bottomside ionospheric parameters, and to modeling the time/height variability of the profile. The Local Model (LM) is an empirical model based on the experimental results of the solar activity dependence of the daily and seasonal behavior of the above parameters. The LM improves the IRI-2001 prediction of the B0 and B1 by factor of two at mid-latitudes. Moreover, the LM can be used to simulate other ionospheric parameters and to build mean N(h) profiles and the deviations from them. The modeling of both the average N(h) profiles and their deviations is an useful tool for ionospheric model users who want to know both the expected patterns and their deviations.

  7. Horseradish peroxidase and chitosan: activation, immobilization and comparative results.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh A; Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Kumosani, Taha A; El-Shishtawy, Reda M

    2013-09-01

    Recently, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was immobilized on activated wool and we envisioned that the use of chitosan would be interesting instead of wool owing to its simple chemical structure, abundant nature and biodegradability. In this work, HRP was immobilized on chitosan crosslinked with cyanuric chloride. FT-IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize immobilized HRP. The number of ten reuses of immobilized HRP has been detected. The pH was shifted from 5.5 for soluble HRP to 5.0 for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP had an optimum temperature of 30 °C, which was shifted to 35 °C for immobilized enzyme. The soluble HRP and immobilized HRP were thermal stable up to 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The apparent kinetic constant values (K(m)) of soluble HRP and chitosan-HRP were 35 mM and 40 mM for guaiacol and 2.73 mM and 5.7 mM for H2O2, respectively. Immobilization of HRP partially protected them from metal ions compared to soluble enzyme. The chitosan-HRP was remarkably more stable against urea, Triton X-100 and organic solvents. Chitosan-HRP exhibited large number of reuses and more resistance to harmful compounds compared with wool-HRP. On the basis of results obtained in the present study, chitosan-HRP could be employed in bioremediation application. PMID:23769933

  8. New approaches to enhance active steering system functionalities: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serarslan, Benan

    2014-09-01

    An important development of the steering systems in general is active steering systems like active front steering and steer-by-wire systems. In this paper the current functional possibilities in application of active steering systems are explored. A new approach and additional functionalities are presented that can be implemented to the active steering systems without additional hardware such as new sensors and electronic control units. Commercial active steering systems are controlling the steering angle depending on the driving situation only. This paper introduce methods for enhancing active steering system functionalities depending not only on the driving situation but also vehicle parameters like vehicle mass, tyre and road condition. In this regard, adaptation of the steering ratio as a function of above mentioned vehicle parameters is presented with examples. With some selected vehicle parameter changes, the reduction of the undesired influences on vehicle dynamics of these parameter changes has been demonstrated theoretically with simulations and with real-time driving measurements.

  9. Conclusions from PISA and TIMSS Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of Education Duncan (2010) lamented the state of U.S. education in 2010 after the release of the results from the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). He wrote: "Unfortunately, the 2009 PISA results show that American students are poorly prepared to compete in today's knowledge economy. President Obama…

  10. Assessment Results Following Inquiry and Traditional Physics Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Joel Arthur

    2006-01-01

    Preservice elementary teachers in a conceptual physics course were given multiple resources to use during several inquiry activities in order to investigate how materials were chosen, used, and valued. These students performed significantly better on assessment items related to the inquiry physics activities than on items related to traditional…

  11. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results.

    PubMed

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H; Drake, Jeremy J

    2015-05-28

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  12. Stellar activity and coronal heating: an overview of recent results

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Paola; Saar, Steven H.; Drake, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the coronae of the Sun and of solar-like stars provide complementary information to advance our understanding of stellar magnetic activity, and of the processes leading to the heating of their outer atmospheres. While solar observations allow us to study the corona at high spatial and temporal resolution, the study of stellar coronae allows us to probe stellar activity over a wide range of ages and stellar parameters. Stellar studies therefore provide us with additional tools for understanding coronal heating processes, as well as the long-term evolution of solar X-ray activity. We discuss how recent studies of stellar magnetic fields and coronae contribute to our understanding of the phenomenon of activity and coronal heating in late-type stars. PMID:25897087

  13. Charpy impact test results for low-activation ferritic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, N.S.; Hu, W.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the shift of the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) and the reduction of the upper shelf energy (USE) due to neutron irradiation of low activation ferritic alloys. Six low activation ferritic alloys have been tested following irradiation at 365/sup 0/C to 10 dpa and compared with control specimens in order to assess the effect of irradiation on Charpy impact properties.

  14. Environmental Justice and Feminist Pedagogy: A Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berila, Beth

    2006-01-01

    As the pieces by Di Chiro, Plevin, and Sze in this issue have illustrated, feminist pedagogy offers a productive framework through which to explore environmental justice issues. Environmental justice issues, in turn, offer invaluable sites for feminist praxis. The mutually enriching relationship between the two fields results from their similar…

  15. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  16. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  17. Conclusions and comments for the XII ISCM.

    PubMed

    Karczmar, Alexander G

    2006-01-01

    The first International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanism (ISCM), organized by the late Edith Heilbronn, was held in Skokloster in 1970; Alicante's XII ISCM shows the exponential progress made in the cholinergic field in barely 30 years! Thus, Alzheimer's disease was not a topic at the first ISCM. The concept of homeostatic mechanisms regulating choline levels in the brain was not conceived of as yet. Three-dimensional pictures and the the protein structure of cholinergic receptors were not even thought of, as in 1970, we had only an "abstract" knowledge of receptors, based on SAR notions of Everhardus Ariens, Robert Furchgott, and Peter Pauling; in fact the Nobel Prize winner Furchgott stated in 1964 that "... with rare exceptions, we cannot ... identify the receptor as an individual chemical entity." Similarly, three-dimensional images of cholinesterases (ChEs) and the ChE "gorges" were unknown (Furchgott, 1964). The Whittakerian notion of synaptic vesicular release of acetylcholine (ACh) was the only version of the mode of ACh release, and the unorthodox opinions of Yves Dunant, Maurice Israel, Bruno Ceccarelli and Jacopo Meldolesi were still to be promulgated. Little was known about cholinergic correlates of behaviors such as learning and aggression, and there was no notion of cholinergic aspects of self-awareness (consciousness), free will, and the active subconscious. And modern methodologies were unknown, including the measurements of ACh, such as the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) method, discovered by Israel Hanin, Don Jenden, and Bo Holmstedt in the 1950s, the chemiluminescence developed by Maurice Israel, Yves Dunant, and their associates (Israel et al., 1983), and crystallography and molecular biology techniques, such as the "knockout" (KO) mouse models. PMID:17192684

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Approaches for Motivating Activity in Sedentary Adults: Results of Project STRIDE

    PubMed Central

    Sevick, Mary Ann; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Papandonatos, George D.; Gordon, Adam J.; Reiser, Lorraine M.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of non face-to-face interventions for increasing physical activity in sedentary adults. The study took place in Providence, Rhode Island between the years 2000 and 2004. Methods 239 participants were randomized to: Phone, Print, or a contact control. Phone and Print groups were mailed regular surveys regarding their level of physical activity, motivational readiness and self-efficacy. Surveys were scanned by a computer expert system to generate feedback reports. Phone group participants received feedback by telephone. Print group participants received feedback by mail. The contact control group received mailings unrelated to physical activity. Intervention costs were assessed prospectively, from a payer perspective. Physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Recall. Ambulatory health service use was assessed via monthly surveys. Results The Print intervention was more economically efficient than the Phone intervention in engaging participants in a more active lifestyle. Conclusion The Print intervention provides an efficient approach to increasing physical activity. Research is needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in a more diverse population, within the context of the health service delivery system, and over a longer period of time. PMID:17573103

  19. Return to sporting activity after Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty: Mid term results

    PubMed Central

    Sandiford, Nemandra; Muirhead-Allwood, SK; Skinner, JA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is primarily indicated for young, active patients with disabling coxarthrosis who wish to remain active and return to sports after surgery. Relatively few prospective studies have assessed return to sporting activity and impact of gender and age on this. Materials and Methods: Seventy-nine consecutive patients treated with HRA were included. Patients were reviewed clinically and radiologically. Function was assessed using the modified University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score. The Oxford, Harris and WOMAC hip scores were calculated. Results: Average age at the time of surgery was 54.9 years (range 34.5–73.6 years). Average preoperative and postoperative UCLA scores were 4 and 7.6 respectively. Patients were involved in 2 (0–4) sporting activities preoperatively and 2 (0–5) postoperatively. Preoperative and postoperative Oxford Hip Scores, Harris Hip Score and WOMAC scores were 40, 46 and 51 and 16, 94 and 3 respectively (P < 0.0001). Patients returned to sports at an average of 3 months postoperatively. Conclusion: Patients were able to return to sports by 3 months and perform the same number of activities at preoperative intensity. Activity levels are maintained up to the medium term with few complications. PMID:26806965

  20. Geomagnetism and climate V: general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mörner, N.-A.; Nevanlinna, H.; Dergachev, V.; Shumilov, O.; Raspopov, O.; Abrahamsen, N.; Pilipenko, O.; Trubikhin, V.; Gooskova, E.

    2003-04-01

    The shielding capacity of the Earth’s geomagnetic field is a prime factor regulating the flux into the atmosphere of galactic cosmic ray (in its turn controlling the 14C and 10Be production). This shielding capacity is controlled both by the Earth’s own geomagnetic field variability and by the Solar Wind variations. The Solar Wind interaction with the magnetosphere also affects the Earth’s rate of rotation (as recorded in the correlation between LOD and Sunspot activity). This opens for three possible lines of Solar Terrestrial interaction. (1) Changes in the total irradiance (known to be very small, however, over a full sun spot cycle). (2) Changes in cosmic ray flux reaching into the Earth’s atmosphere where it has the potential of affecting airglow and cloudiness (especially the cloudiness at a height in the order of 15 km). (3) Changes in the Earth’s rate of rotation affecting the oceanic circulation redistributing ocean-stored heat and water masses. The Spörer, Maunder and Dalton sun spot minima seem all to have led to periods of rotational acceleration pulling Arctic water down the European coasts and displacing the warm Gulf Stream towards Gibraltar. The geomagnetic field as regulator of cosmic ray flux and rotational potential is likely to have played a significant role even over longer time periods. It should be noted, however, the geometry of the Earth’s geomagnetic field cannot have differed very much due to frozen plasma conditions even at excursions and reversals. If the recorded sunspot and geomagnetic cycles are extrapolated into the future they predict a new low (“Little Ice Age”) in the years 2050 2100 (i.e. a scenario very different from that presented by IPCC). Our study of the relation between geomagnetism and climate has shown that geomagnetic field changes have played an important role in modulation Earth’s climate. These changes may originate from internal planetary sources (i.e. the Earth’s own geomagnetic field) as well

  1. Soil Moisture Active Passive Satellite Status and Recent Validation Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched in January, 2015 and began its calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. Cal/Val will begin with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and evolve to the geophysical products that include...

  2. HIPPARCOS satellite: Aeritalia involvement and system test activities and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strim, B.; Cugno, W.; Morsillo, G.

    In 1989 the European Space Agency is scheduled to launch HIPPARCOS on a 2.5-year mission that will revolutionize the state of astronomy. This is the first satellite to be dedicated to astrometry, a branch of astronomy that deals with the position of celestial objects and their motion in space. With an accuracy impossible to achieve from Earth, HIPPARCOS will make position, trigonometric parallax and proper motion measurements of some 100.000 pre-selected stars. The data will be used to calculate each star's distance and motion, providing astronomers with an unprecedented map of the heavens. In the end, the HIPPARCOS mission is expected to reveal surprisingly new insight into theories of stellar evolution, as well as into the nature of our galaxy and the universe. The program has been awarded to the MESH industrial consortium for definition, development and production. The French firm MATRA (prime contractor) and the AERITALIA SPACE SYSTEMS GROUP (major co-contractor) share program responsibility. AERITALIA is in charge of the spacecraft or "service module". This is the structural platform for the telescope payload and provides all subsystem services including thermal control, data handling, telecommunications, electrical power distribution, power generation, attitude and orbit control, and apogee kick motor. AERITALIA is responsible for the procurement of all spacecraft subsystems for which it directs the activities of a multinational team of subcontractors. In addition, it is in charge of the satellite's final assembly, integration and testing, as well as for the procurement of all ground support equipment for satellite testing. HIPPARCOS stands for HIgh Precision PARallax COllecting Satellite. Its name is also intended to honor the Greek astronomer Hipparchus (190-120 BC) who compiled the first star catalog and who first used trigonometric parallax to calculate the distance to the moon. (Parallax is the apparent shift in a celestial body's position in the sky

  3. MUSE dream conclusion: the sky verdict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, R.; Boudon, D.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; Francois, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Gonté, F.; Haddad, N.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Larrieu, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J.-E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2014-08-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the finalisation of its integration in Europe, the MUSE instrument has been partially dismounted and shipped to the VLT (Very Large Telescope) in Chile. From October 2013 till February 2014, it has then been reassembled, tested and finally installed on the telescope its final home. From there it collects its first photons coming from the outer limit of the visible universe. This critical moment when the instrument finally meets its destiny is the opportunity to look at the overall outcome of the project and the final performance of the instrument on the sky. The instrument which we dreamt of has become reality. Are the dreamt performances there as well? These final instrumental performances are the result of a step by step process of design, manufacturing, assembly, test and integration. Now is also time to review the path opened by the MUSE project. What challenges were faced during those last steps, what strategy, what choices did pay off? What did not?

  4. Screening Analysis : Volume 1, Description and Conclusions.

    SciTech Connect

    Bonneville Power Administration; Corps of Engineers; Bureau of Reclamation

    1992-08-01

    The SOR consists of three analytical phases leading to a Draft EIS. The first phase Pilot Analysis, was performed for the purpose of testing the decision analysis methodology being used in the SOR. The Pilot Analysis is described later in this chapter. The second phase, Screening Analysis, examines all possible operating alternatives using a simplified analytical approach. It is described in detail in this and the next chapter. This document also presents the results of screening. The final phase, Full-Scale Analysis, will be documented in the Draft EIS and is intended to evaluate comprehensively the few, best alternatives arising from the screening analysis. The purpose of screening is to analyze a wide variety of differing ways of operating the Columbia River system to test the reaction of the system to change. The many alternatives considered reflect the range of needs and requirements of the various river users and interests in the Columbia River Basin. While some of the alternatives might be viewed as extreme, the information gained from the analysis is useful in highlighting issues and conflicts in meeting operating objectives. Screening is also intended to develop a broad technical basis for evaluation including regional experts and to begin developing an evaluation capability for each river use that will support full-scale analysis. Finally, screening provides a logical method for examining all possible options and reaching a decision on a few alternatives worthy of full-scale analysis. An organizational structure was developed and staffed to manage and execute the SOR, specifically during the screening phase and the upcoming full-scale analysis phase. The organization involves ten technical work groups, each representing a particular river use. Several other groups exist to oversee or support the efforts of the work groups.

  5. [Rectal cancer and adjuvant chemotherapy: which conclusions?].

    PubMed

    Bachet, J-B; Rougier, P; de Gramont, A; André, T

    2010-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the rectum represents about a third of cases of colorectal cancer, with an annual incidence of 12,000 cases in France. On the contrary of colon cancer, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer has not been definitively proved, more because this question was assessed in few recent studies than because negative results. Preoperative radiochemotherapy is now the reference treatment for mid and lower rectal cancers, and allow to increase the local control without improvement of progression free survival and overall survival. The data of the "historical studies" of adjuvant treatment in rectal cancer published before 1990, of the meta-analysis of adjuvant trials in rectal cancer and of the QUASAR study suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidines (intravenous or oral), in absence of pre-operative treatment, decrease the risk of metastatic relapse after curative surgery for a rectal cancer of stage II or III. This benefice seems similar to the one observed in colon cancer. In the EORTC radiotherapy group trial 22921, an adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low dose of leucovorin was not associated with a significantly improvement of overall survival but, despite the fact that only 42.9% of patients received all planed cycles, the progression free survival was increased (not significantly) in groups receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The French recommendations are to discuss the indication of adjuvant chemotherapy by fluoropyrimidines in cases of stage III rectal cancer on histopathologic reports and no chemotherapy in case of stade II. Despite the fact that none study have assessed a combination of fluoropyrimidines and oxaliplatin in adjuvant setting in rectal cancer, like in colon cancer, the Folfox4, modified Folfox6 or Xelox regimens are valid options in stage III (experts opinion). In cases of pathologic complete remission or in absence of involved nodes, the benefice of adjuvant chemotherapy is not assessed. In

  6. Annoyance resulting from intrusion of aircraft sounds upon various activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunn, W. J.; Shepherd, W. T.; Fletcher, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted in which subjects were engaged in TV viewing, telephone listening, or reverie (no activity) for a 1/2-hour session. During the session, they were exposed to a series of recorded aircraft sounds at the rate of one flight every 2 minutes. Within each session, four levels of flyover noise, separated by dB increments, were presented several times in a Latin Square balanced sequence. The peak level of the noisiest flyover in any session was fixed at 95, 90, 85, 75, or 70 dBA. At the end of the test session, subjects recorded their responses to the aircraft sounds, using a bipolar scale which covered the range from very pleasant to extremely annoying. Responses to aircraft noises were found to be significantly affected by the particular activity in which the subjects were engaged. Not all subjects found the aircraft sounds to be annoying.

  7. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    presence of platelet-derived microparticles, platelets, and platelet aggregates whereas SMHEF pulses primarily resulted in platelet-derived microparticles. Microparticles and platelets in PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses had significantly lower annexin V-positivity than those following SMHEF activation. In contrast, the % P-selectin positivity and surface P-selectin expression (MFI) for platelets and microparticles in SMLEF bipolar pulse activated PRP was significantly higher than that in SMHEF-activated PRP, but not significantly different from that produced by thrombin activation. Higher levels of EGF were observed following either SMLEF bipolar pulses or SMHEF pulses of PRP than after bovine thrombin activation while VEGF, PDGF, and PF4 levels were similar with all three activating conditions. Cell proliferation was significantly increased by releasates of both SMLEF bipolar pulse and SMHEF pulse activated PRP compared to plasma alone. Conclusions PEF activation of PRP at bipolar low vs. monopolar high field strength results in differential platelet-derived microparticle production and activation of platelet surface procoagulant markers while inducing similar release of growth factors and similar capacity to induce cell proliferation. Stimulation of PRP with SMLEF bipolar pulses is gentler than SMHEF pulses, resulting in less platelet microparticle generation but with overall activation levels similar to that obtained with thrombin. These results suggest that PEF provides the means to alter, in a controlled fashion, PRP properties thereby enabling evaluation of their effects on wound healing and clinical outcomes. PMID:27556645

  8. Active X-ray mirror development at UCL: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Doel, Peter; Yao, Jun; Brooks, David; Thompson, Samantha; Willingale, Richard; Feldman, Charlotte; Button, Tim; Zhang, Dou; James, Ady

    2007-12-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics project is a UK based consortium consisting of several institutions to investigate the application of active/adaptive optics upon both small and large scale grazing incidence x-ray optics. The work done at University College London (UCL) focuses on the application of piezoelectric materials to large scale optics in order to actively deform the mirror's surface. These optics are geared towards the next generation of x-ray telescopes and it is hoped that the project will be able to achieve a resolution greater than that currently available by Chandra (0.5"). One of the aims of the consortium is to produce a working prototype. The initial design is based on a thin nickel ellipsoid segment with an x-ray reflective coating, on the back of which will be bonded a series of piezoelectric actuators. Investigation into the specification of the design of an active x-ray optic prototype and suitable support test structure has been undertaken. The dimensions and constraints upon the prototype, and the manufacturing process to produce a nickel shell are discussed. Finite element analysis (FEA) of the physical characteristics of piezoelectric materials has shown the ability to deform the nickel surface to correct for errors of several microns. FEA has also been utilised in the specification of the prototype's support structure to ensure that gravitational sag upon the optic is kept to a minimum. Laboratory experiments have tested a series of materials, different actuators and bonding methods, which could then be applied to the prototype.

  9. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  10. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  11. Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) Wing CFD Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Bartels, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    The Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wing test (see chapter 8E) provides data for the validation of aerodynamic, aeroelastic, and active aeroelastic control simulation codes. These data provide a rich database for development and validation of computational aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic methods. In this vein, high-level viscous CFD analyses of the BACT wing have been performed for a subset of the test conditions available in the dataset. The computations presented in this section investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of the rigid clean wing configuration as well as simulations of the wing with a static and oscillating aileron and spoiler deflection. Two computational aeroelasticity codes extensively used at NASA Langley Research Center are implemented in this simulation. They are the ENS3DAE and CFL3DAE computational aeroelasticity programs. Both of these methods solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for both rigid and flexible vehicles, but they use significantly different approaches to the solution 6f the aerodynamic equations of motion. Detailed descriptions of both methods are presented in the following section.

  12. Hellenic Amateur Astronomy Association's activities: Preliminary results on Perseids 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, G.

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary results on the Perseids 2010 are presented. Visual and video observations were obtained by the author and a first reduction of the visual data shows that a maximum of ZHR ~120 was reached during the night 12-13 of August 2010. Moreover, a video setup was tested (DMK camera and UFO Capture v2) and the results show that, under some limitations, valuable data can be obtained.

  13. Summary of FY15 results of benchmark modeling activities

    SciTech Connect

    Arguello, J. Guadalupe

    2015-08-01

    Sandia is participating in the third phase of an is a contributing partner to a U.S.-German "Joint Project" entitled "Comparison of current constitutive models and simulation procedures on the basis of model calculations of the thermo-mechanical behavior and healing of rock salt." The first goal of the project is to check the ability of numerical modeling tools to correctly describe the relevant deformation phenomena in rock salt under various influences. Achieving this goal will lead to increased confidence in the results of numerical simulations related to the secure storage of radioactive wastes in rock salt, thereby enhancing the acceptance of the results. These results may ultimately be used to make various assertions regarding both the stability analysis of an underground repository in salt, during the operating phase, and the long-term integrity of the geological barrier against the release of harmful substances into the biosphere, in the post-operating phase.

  14. Results of Skylab medical experiment M171: Metabolic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, E. L.; Rummel, J. A.; Sawin, C. F.; Buderer, M. C.; Lem, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to establish whether man's ability to perform mechanical work would be progressively altered as a result of exposure to the weightless environment of space flight. The Skylab crewmen exercised on a bicycle ergometer at workloads approximating 25, 50, and 75 percent of their maximum aerobic capacity. The physiological parameters monitored were respiratory gas exchange, blood pressure, and vectorcardiogram/heart rate. The results of these tests indicate that the crewmen had no significant decrement in their responses to exercise during their exposure to zero gravity. The results of the third manned Skylab mission (Skylab 4) are presented and a comparison is made of the overall results obtained from the three successively longer Skylab manned missions. The Skylab 4 crewmembers' 84-day in-flight responses to exercise were no worse and were probably better than the responses of the crewmen on the first two Skylab missions. Indications that exercise was an important contributing factor in maintaining this response are discussed.

  15. The uses and results of active tetanus immunization

    PubMed Central

    Scheibel, Inga

    1955-01-01

    Both in animal experiments and in the course of two world wars active immunization has proved a safe method of protection against tetanus, and a method superior to passive serum prophylaxis. The three types of vaccine—plain, combined, and precipitated or adsorbed—all have their advantages and disadvantages, and the choice between them must be left to individual national health authorities. They should, however, be administered in two or three doses to confer basic immunity. What amount of circulating antitoxin is necessary to give full protection has not been accurately determined, but it is clear that one recall dose should be given about a year after the first injections as part of the routine course of injections. This seems enough to provide a long-lasting immunity, but a dose of vaccine should also be given at the time of injury. General immunization of the population is not practicable, but children, who are among the groups most at risk, can be immunized relatively simply by combined diphtheria and tetanus vaccine; in many countries, indeed, this is being done on an ever-increasing scale. PMID:13270078

  16. European activities in exobiology in earth orbit: results and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.

    1999-01-01

    A large portion of European activities in Earth orbit have concentrated on studies of the responses of resistant microbes to the harsh environment of space with the aim of providing experimental evidence testing the hypothesis that interplanetary transfer of life is possible. Various types of microorganisms, such as bacterial or fungal spores, as well as viruses and biomolecules, such as DNA, amino acids and liposomes, have been exposed to selected and combined space conditions outside the Earth's magnetic field (Apollo 16) or in low Earth orbit (Spacelab 1, Spacelab D2, ERA on EURECA, LDEF, BIOPAN on FOTON). Space parameters, such as high vacuum, intense solar ultraviolet radiation, different components of the cosmic radiation field and temperature extremes affected the genetic stability of the organisms in space, leading to increased mutation rates, DNA damage and inactivation. Extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most lethal factor. If shielded against the influx of solar UV, spores of Bacillus subtilis survived for more than 5 years in space. Future research will be directed towards long-term studies of microbes in artificial meteorites, as well as of microbial communities from special ecological niches, such as endolithic and endoevaporitic ecosystems. For these studies, the European Space Agency will provide the facility EXPOSE to be accommodated on the External Platform of the International Space Station during the Early Utilization Phase.

  17. United States radiological health activities: inspection results of mammography facilities

    PubMed Central

    Spelic, DC; Kaczmarek, RV; Hilohi, M; Belella, S

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Mammography Quality Standards Act (MQSA) was enacted in 1992 to set national standards for high-quality mammography, including standards for mammographic X-ray equipment, patient dose, clinical image quality, and related technical parameters. The MQSA also requires minimum qualifications for radiologic technologists, interpreting physicians and medical physicists, mandates acceptable practices for quality-control, quality-assurance, and requires processes to audit medical outcomes. This paper presents the findings of MQSA inspections of facilities, which characterize significant factors affecting mammography quality in the United States. Materials and Methods: Trained inspectors collected data regarding X-ray technical factors, made exposure measurements for the determination of mean glandular dose (MGD), evaluated image quality, and inspected the quality of the film-processing environment. The average annual facility and total U.S. screening exam workloads were computed using workload data reported by facilities. Results: Mammography facilities have made technical improvements as evidenced by a narrower distribution of doses, higher phantom-film background optical densities associated with higher phantom image-quality scores, and better film processing. It is estimated that approximately 36 million screening mammography exams were conducted in 2006, a rate that is almost triple the exam volume estimated for 1997. Digital mammography (DM) is now in use at approximately 14% (1,191 of 8,834) of MQSA-certified mammography facilities. The results indicate that DM can offer lower dose to the patient while providing comparable or better image quality. PMID:21614276

  18. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in Tonawanda, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Cottrell, W.D.; Witt, D.A.; Rodriguez, R.E.; Carrier, R.F.

    1990-12-01

    During the 1940s, the Linde Air Products Division of Union Carbide operated a plant in Tonawanda, New York, for the Manhattan Engineer District (MED) and the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). Uranium production and some nickel processing were conducted at the site. It is the policy of the US Department of Energy (DOE) to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Linde site itself has been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. As a precaution to insure that no residual radioactive materials were transported off-site, the Department of Energy requested that ORNL survey the area in the vicinity of the Linde Plant, the waste water treatment facility on Tower Road, the Sheridan Park Fire Station (District 4), and the Tonawanda Landfill to assess whether any residual radioactive material could be detected. The survey was conducted the week of April 3, 1990. Results of analysis of soil samples from the Tonawanda Landfill revealed slightly elevated concentrations of {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra suggestive of residuals from former Linde Plant operations. Therefore, it is recommended that additional surveying of the landfill property and of Sheridan Creek from south of the Linde property to its confluence with the Niagara River be conducted. The survey should include the measurement of gamma radiation levels and radionuclide analysis of silt samples. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Results of mobile gamma scanning activities in St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, R E; Witt, D A; Cottrell, W D; Carrier, R F

    1991-06-01

    From 1942 through approximately 1966, the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works operated four plants in St. Louis, Missouri, for the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. A variety of production processes using uranium- and radium-bearing ore materials were performed at the plants. It is the policy of the DOE to verify that radiological conditions at such sites or facilities comply with current DOE guidelines. Guidelines for release and use of such sites have become more stringent as research has provided more information since previous cleanups. The Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) was established as part of that effort to confirm the closeout status of facilities under contract to agencies preceding DOE during early nuclear energy development. Under the FUSRAP program, the Mallinckrodt properties have been previously investigated to determine the extent of on-site radiological contamination. At the request of DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) conducted a survey in May 1990, of public roadways and suspected haul routes between the Mallinckrodt plant and storage sites in St. Louis to ensure that no residual radioactive materials were conveyed off-site. A mobile gamma scanning van with an on-board computer system was used to identify possible anomalies. Suspect areas are those displaying measurements deviating from gamma exposure rates identified as typical for radiologically unenhanced areas in the vicinity of the areas of interest. The instrumentation highlighted three anomaly locations each of which measured less than 1m{sup 2} in size. None of the slightly elevated radiation levels originated from material associated with former AEC-related processing operations in the area. The anomalies resulted from elevated concentrations of radionuclides present in phosphate fertilizers, increased thorium in road-base gravel, and emanations from the radioactive storage site near the Latty Avenue airport. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  20. The effects of interruptions in work activity: field and laboratory results.

    PubMed

    Eyrolle, H; Cellier, J M

    2000-10-01

    The effects of interruptions in work activity were investigated, first in a field study where the operators' task was to card-index data about customers' phone lines. The interruptions due to customers' calls resulted in an increase of the processing time of the current task and in the use of several management strategies. A laboratory study was then designed in order to study the effects of temporal strain, complexity and similarity on time-sharing efficiency and to clarify the psychological mechanisms underlying the switching from one task to the other. The results showed especially a significant effect of temporal strains on performance and a strong increase in mean error rate at the very beginning of the processing of the second task. In conclusion, advice is given for both technical and organisational design. PMID:11059468

  1. SU-E-T-594: Preliminary Active Scanning Results of KHIMA

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C; Yang, T; Chang, S; Kim, H; Lee, H; Kim, J; Jang, H; Han, G; Park, D; Hwang, W; Kim, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To verify the design criteria on heavy ion beam irradiation, developing a proto type active scanning system was purposed. The active scanning system consists of scanning magnet, power supplies, beam monitors, energy modulation system, and irradiation control system. Methods: Each components of the active scanning system was designed for carbon beam first. For the fast ramping a laminated yoke was purposed. To measure incoming dose and profile, a plate and strip type of ion chambers were designed. Also, ridge filter and range shifter was manufactured. And, the scanning system was modified to adopt 45 MeV of proton beam because of the absence of carbon ion beam in Korea. The system was installed in a beam line at MC-50, KIRAMS. Also, the irradiation control system and planning software was provided. Results: The scanning experiment was performed by drawing KHIMA logo on GaF film. The logo was scanned by 237 scanning points through time normalized intensity modulation. Also, a grid points scanning was performed to measure the scanning resolution and intensity resolution. Conclusion: A prototype active scanning system was successfully designed and manufactured. Also, an initial experiment to print out a drawing on GaF film through the scanning system was completed. More experiments would be required to specify the system performance.

  2. Design of a Website on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Adolescents: Results From Formative Research

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Boushey, Carol; Konzelmann, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Background Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The Internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Objective To collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly website promoting healthy eating and physical activity behaviors. Methods Qualitative research, encompassing both focus group and interview techniques, were used to design the website. Participants were 12-17 year olds in Houston, Texas, and West Lafayette, Indiana. Results A total of 133 participants took part in 26 focus groups while 15 participated in one-on-one interviews to provide guidance for the development of teen-friendly content and structure for an online behavior change program promoting healthy eating and physical activity to 12-17 year olds. The youth made suggestions to overcome common barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. Their feedback was used to develop “Teen Choice: Food & Fitness,” a 12-week online behavior change program, populated by 4 cartoon character role models. Conclusions It is critical that members of the target audience be included in formative research to develop behavior change programs that are relevant, appealing, and address their needs and interests. PMID:22538427

  3. [The reliable and plausible conclusions in the decisions of the forensic medical experts].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, A V; Shmarov, L A; Ten'kov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The authors characterize in brief the conclusions drawn by the forensic medical experts in the course of their professional activities with special reference to their reliability and plausibility. The most common errors creeping into the conclusions are discussed together with the approaches to their prevention and/or correction. This article continues a series of publications of the same authors concerning the main logical errors encountered in the conclusions of the forensic medical experts. The results of a deeper analysis of such errors will be published elsewhere. PMID:27030098

  4. Balancing struggles with desired results in everyday activities: strategies for elderly persons with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Bontje, Peter; Asaba, Eric; Josephsson, Staffan

    2016-03-01

    The number of elderly persons with disabilities needing support with everyday activities increasing in Japan and around the world. Yet, engagement in everyday activities can support the quality of their daily life. Despite research focusing on reported meanings of people's actions, there is still limited knowledge on how engagement in everyday activity is enacted along with the meanings of persons' actions. The aim of the present study was to identify meanings of persons' actions within everyday activities of elderly Japanese with physical disabilities. Five elderly persons with physical disabilities living in the community participated in this study. Data were gathered by 10 participant observations of everyday activities supplemented with 13 unstructured interviews. Narrative analysis was used to identify meanings of persons' actions. The analysis identified an overall plot termed 'balancing struggles with desired results'. This plot illustrated that participants' and other involved individuals balanced problematic situations with finding situations that accommodated their needs. Meanings of these actions were further identified as three complementary strategies. Two of three strategies aimed to mitigate given problems, one by 'acting on a plan to achieve one's goals', the other by 'taking a step in a preferred direction by capitalising on emerging opportunities'. The third strategy focused on avoiding undesirable experiences by 'modifying problematic situations'. In conclusion, these findings call for care and rehabilitation providers' sensitivity to shifting foci of what matters in daily life's situations as well as aligning with persons' skills, resources and perspectives. Accordingly, the judicious and flexible use of these complementary strategies can enhance elderly persons' quality of daily living through everyday activities. PMID:26189963

  5. Subconjunctival Sirolimus for the Treatment of Chronic Active Anterior Uveitis: Results of a Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sen, H. Nida; Larson, Theresa A.; Meleth, Annal D.; Smith, Wendy M.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and possible efficacy of subconjunctival sirolimus for the treatment of chronic active anterior uveitis Design Prospective, non-randomized, open-label clinical trial. Methods This single-center pilot trial enrolled 5 patients with chronic active anterior uveitis. The study drug was administered as single subconjunctival injection of 30μL (1,320μg) sirolimus in the study eye at the baseline visit. Study visits were performed at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and monthly until 4 months, and included a complete ophthalmic exam, review of systems, adverse event assessment at each visit, physical exam and ancillary ophthalmic testing at some visits. The primary outcome measure was a 2-step reduction in the anterior chamber inflammation within 4 weeks of injection of the study drug. Results There were 3 females and 2 males; 4 patients had idiopathic anterior uveitis and one had psoriatic arthritis-associated anterior uveitis. Three of the five patients met the primary outcome criteria by showing at least a 2-step decrease in inflammation within 4 weeks, 2 patients showed a 1-step decrease in inflammation within the same time frame. No recurrence was encountered during a 4 month follow-up. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions Subconjunctival sirolimus appears to be well tolerated in this pilot trial and shows promise as a treatment for active inflammation in patients with chronic anterior uveitis. Larger studies are needed to assess its usefulness in uveitis. PMID:22465364

  6. Field Test Results from a 10 kW Wind Turbine with Active Flow Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Thomas; Bychkova, Veronika; Taylor, Keith; Clingman, Dan; Amitay, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Active flow control devices including synthetic jets and dynamic vortex generators were tested on a 10 kW wind turbine at RPI. Previous work has shown that load oscillations caused by dynamic stall could be modified through the use of active flow control by injecting momentum into the flow field near the leading edge of a dynamically pitching model. In this study, this work has been extended to its logical conclusion, field-testing active flow control on a real wind turbine. The blades in the current study have a 0.28m chord and 3.05m span, no twist or taper, and were retrofitted with six synthetic jets on one blade and ten dynamic vortex generators on a second blade. The third blade of this turbine was not modified, in order to serve as a control. Strain gauges were installed on each blade to measure blades' deflection. A simple closed loop control was demonstrated and preliminary results indicate reduced vibrational amplitude. Future testing will be conducted on a larger scale, 600kW machine at NREL, incorporating information collected during this study.

  7. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  8. Jumping to conclusions and paranoid ideation in the general population.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Daniel; Pugh, Katherine; Garety, Philippa

    2008-07-01

    An association of a 'jumping to conclusions' (JTC) reasoning style and delusions has been repeatedly found. The data-gathering bias has been particularly implicated with higher levels of delusional conviction in schizophrenia. For the first time the symptom, psychological and social correlates of jumping to conclusions are examined in a large general population sample. This is based upon the recognition that delusional ideation in non-clinical populations is on a continuum of severity with delusions in psychosis. Two hundred individuals completed a probabilistic reasoning task and assessments of paranoid ideation, intellectual functioning, affective symptoms, anomalies of experience, cognitive flexibility, illicit drug use, social support, and trauma. The jumping to conclusions reasoning bias was found in 20% of the non-clinical sample. JTC was strongly associated with higher levels of conviction in paranoid thoughts and the occurrence of perceptual anomalies, but not with the presence of affective symptoms. The results indicate that jumping to conclusions is a reasoning bias specifically associated with levels of delusional conviction, and is not a product of generally high levels of distress and affect. The association of jumping to conclusions with the types of anomalies of experience seen in psychotic disorders is intriguing, and consistent with recent dopamine dysregulation theories and the importance of reasoning to perception. The study is a further illustration of the need to consider the dimensions of delusional experience separately. PMID:18442898

  9. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  10. Results and Activities in RDA and their Potential for Efficient Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenburg, Peter; Stehouwer, Herman; Pennington, Rob

    2015-04-01

    A large cross-disciplinary survey on data practices in Europe with about 120 interviews and intensive meetings revealed that working with data is extremely inefficient and costly. In addition our methods in the departments are such that only a small percentage of papers resulting from data intensive research is reproducible. A workshop organized by Research Data Alliance and MPS with leading scientists from various disciplines came to similar conclusions. This is the reason why the global and cross-disciplinary Research Data Alliance started working on aspects of data management, description/ annotation,access, re-use, interoperability etc. Already after 18 months the first working groups came up with their results that have the potential to help overcoming the current situation. Agreeing on a common basic data model would help in many data operations, re-using best practices for practical policies would improve reproducibility, making use of a common API for registering and resolving persistent identifiers would make usage of persistent identifier services much simpler and thus increase trust in data and making use of data type registries would help us to deal with unknown data types which is a usual phenomenon in data science. In addition, after 2 years of intensive discussions new groups have been formed such as Data Fabric which is analyzing data life cycle phases and the scientific data processing machinery to identify essential common components and services and place the activities of current working and interest groups into this language. Many data scientists are involved in these discussions which gives us hope in quick convergence. Based on a few projects that started to uptake these results and the broad interest in the new activities we can see the huge potential of them. In a presentation we will describe these first results and their potential impact for data intensive science and we will describe the objectives behind discussions of Data Fabric and

  11. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  12. Results of a workshop concerning impacts of various activities on the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Horak, Gerald C.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    characterization of the structure and functions of bottomland hardwoods. The approach to the second workshop, the results of which are described in this report, was therefore modified in response to the conclusions from the first workshop. The focus of the second workshop remained an analysis of the impacts of various activities or the functions of BLH ecosystems. However, as a prerequisite to this analysis, participants were also asked to develop a list of characteristics that determine the extent to which BLH sites perform the important functions. The workshop was organized such that alternating plenary and workgroup sessions allowed ample time for communication while still maintaining a focus on the overall goal. In the initial session, various individuals gave presentations concerning methodologies for evaluating the functions performed by wetlands, factors influencing the conversion of BLH forests to other uses, and the impacts of conversion activities. These were followed by a series of case study presentations designed to familiarize participants with the kinds of issues that are dealt with in the Section 404 program. These presentations are cited in this report as (author, workshop presentation). At the conclusion of these presentations, participants were divided into six workgroups to examine the functions of BLH ecosystems in the areas of hydrology, water quality, fisheries, wildlife, ecosystem processes, and culture/recreation/economics. Each workgroup was asked to undertake the following tasks. 1. Developed a list of functions performed by BLH ecosystems from the perspective of the workgroup's expertise and area of responsibility. 2. Identify those activities (e.g., impoundment construction, conversion to soybean farming) that impact the major functions (e.g., sediment retention, detrital export) performed by BLH ecosystems. 3. Develop a list of characteristics that determine the extent to which a BLH site performs each function and describe the relationship of each

  13. Results of the First Year of Active for Life: Translation of 2 Evidence-Based Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults Into Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Dowda, Marsha; Griffin, Sarah F.; Rheaume, Carol; Ory, Marcia G.; Leviton, Laura; King, Abby C.; Dunn, Andrea; Buchner, David M.; Bazzarre, Terry; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Bartlett-Prescott, Jenny; Dowdy, Diane; Castro, Cynthia M.; Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Mockenhaupt, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Translating efficacious interventions into practice within community settings is a major public health challenge. We evaluated the effects of 2 evidence-based physical activity interventions on self-reported physical activity and related outcomes in midlife and older adults. Methods. Four community-based organizations implemented Active Choices, a 6-month, telephone-based program, and 5 implemented Active Living Every Day, a 20-week, group-based program. Both programs emphasize behavioral skills necessary to become more physically active. Participants completed pretest and posttest surveys. Results. Participants (n=838) were aged an average of 68.4 ±9.4 years, 80.6% were women, and 64.1% were non-Hispanic White. Seventy-two percent returned posttest surveys. Intent-to-treat analyses found statistically significant increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and total physical activity, decreases in depressive symptoms and stress, increases in satisfaction with body appearance and function, and decreases in body mass index. Conclusions. The first year of Active for Life demonstrated that Active Choices and Active Living Every Day, 2 evidence-based physical activity programs, can be successfully translated into community settings with diverse populations. Further, the magnitudes of change in outcomes were similar to those reported in the efficacy trials. PMID:16735619

  14. Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. Methods This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child’s day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Results Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Conclusions Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322. PMID

  15. SMART wind turbine rotor. Data analysis and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan Charles; Barone, Matthew Franklin; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-01

    The Wind Energy Technologies department at Sandia National Laboratories has developed and field tested a wind turbine rotor with integrated trailing-edge flaps designed for active control of the rotor aerodynamics. The SMART Rotor project was funded by the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was conducted to demonstrate active rotor control and evaluate simulation tools available for active control research. This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  16. Generalized measurement and conclusive teleportation with nonmaximal entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyunjae; Cheong, Yong Wook; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2004-07-01

    We present linear optical schemes to perform generalized measurements for conclusive teleportation when the sender and the receiver share nonmaximal entanglement resulting from amplitude errors during propagation or generation. Three different cases are considered for which the states to be teleported are unknown superpositions of (a) single-photon and vacuum states (b) vertically polarized and horizontally polarized photon states, and (c) two coherent states of opposite phases. The generalized measurement scheme for each case is analyzed, which indicates that the success probability is much more resistant to amplitude errors for case (c) than for case (a) or (b)

  17. SMART Wind Turbine Rotor: Data Analysis and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Jonathan C.; Barone, Matthew F.; Yoder, Nathanael C.

    2014-01-29

    This report documents the data post-processing and analysis performed to date on the field test data. Results include the control capability of the trailing edge flaps, the combined structural and aerodynamic damping observed through application of step actuation with ensemble averaging, direct observation of time delays associated with aerodynamic response, and techniques for characterizing an operating turbine with active rotor control.

  18. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geo; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gertis, Thomas; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-02-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date all experimental tests with single photon states have relied on post-selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavorable events in losses. Here we close this ``detection loophole'' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ˜62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 standard deviations. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  19. Conclusive quantum steering with superconducting transition-edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Devin H.; Gillett, Geoff; de Almeida, Marcelo P.; Branciard, Cyril; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; Weinhold, Till J.; Lita, Adriana; Calkins, Brice; Gerrits, Thomas; Wiseman, Howard M.; Nam, Sae Woo; White, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Quantum steering allows two parties to verify shared entanglement even if one measurement device is untrusted. A conclusive demonstration of steering through the violation of a steering inequality is of considerable fundamental interest and opens up applications in quantum communication. To date, all experimental tests with single-photon states have relied on post selection, allowing untrusted devices to cheat by hiding unfavourable events in losses. Here we close this 'detection loophole' by combining a highly efficient source of entangled photon pairs with superconducting transition-edge sensors. We achieve an unprecedented ~62% conditional detection efficiency of entangled photons and violate a steering inequality with the minimal number of measurement settings by 48 s.d.s. Our results provide a clear path to practical applications of steering and to a photonic loophole-free Bell test.

  20. Stream Interactions in STEREO and THEMIS Data and Resulting Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, M. L.; St Cyr, O. C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Zhang, H.; Jian, L.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    2009-12-01

    During this unusual solar minimum the decrease in solar activity has resulted in less geomagnetic activity. The observed activity, which ultimately arises from changes in the solar wind, has been from stream interaction regions (SIRs), shocks, and a few interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Stream interactions and shocks are identified in STEREO PLASTIC and ACE data and CMEs are identified in STEREO SECCHI. These events are studied in THEMIS data when the spacecraft are in dayside configuration. The propagation of these structures to the magnetopause, the resulting magnetospheric response, and any storm and substorm activity is discussed.

  1. Differences between evolution of Titan's and Earth's rivers - further conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiura, Katarzyna; Czechowski, Leszek

    2014-05-01

    Titan is the only celestial body, beside the Earth, where liquid is present on the surface. Liquid forms a number of lakes and rivers. In our research we use numerical model of the river to determine differences of evolution of rivers on the Earth and on Titan. We have found that transport of sediments on Titan is more effective than on Earth for the same river geometry and discharge. We have found also the theoretical explanations for this conclusion. 2.Introduction Titan is a very special body in the Solar System. It is the only moon that has dense atmosphere and flowing liquid on its surface. The Cassini-Huygens mission has found on Titan meandering rivers, and indicated processes of erosion, transport of solid material and its sedimentation. This paper is aimed to investigate the similarity and differences between these processes on Titan and the Earth. 3. Basic equations of our model The dynamical analysis of the considered rivers is performed using the package CCHE modified for the specific conditions on Titan. The package is based on the Navier-Stokes equations for depth-integrated two dimensional, turbulent flow and three dimensional convection-diffusion equation of sediment transport. 4. Parameters of the model We considered our model for a few kinds of liquid found on Titan. The liquid that falls as a rain (75% methane, 25% nitrogen) has different properties than the fluid forming lakes (74% ethane, 10% methane, 7% propane, 8.5% butane, 0.5% nitrogen). Other parameters of our model are: inflow discharge, outflow level, grain size of sediments etc. For every calculation performed for Titan's river similar calculations are performed for terrestrial ones. 5. Results and Conclusions The results of our simulation show the differences in behaviour of the flow and of sedimentation on Titan and on the Earth. Our preliminary results indicate that transport of material by Titan's rivers is more efficient than by terrestrial rivers of the same geometry parameters

  2. Low dose cadmium poisoning results in sustained ERK phosphorylation and caspase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Patrick . E-mail: pmartin@unice.fr; Poggi, Marie Christine . E-mail: poggi@unice.fr; Chambard, Jean Claude . E-mail: chambard@unice.fr; Boulukos, Kim E. . E-mail: boulukos@unice.fr; Pognonec, Philippe . E-mail: pognonec@unice.fr

    2006-11-24

    Cadmium poisoning has been known to result in a wide variety of cellular responses, including oxidative stress and kinase activation. It has been reported that ERK is activated following acute cadmium exposure, and this response is commonly seen as a classical ERK survival mechanism. Here, we analyzed different cell types for their responses to low concentrations of cadmium poisoning. We found that there is an association between cell susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and ERK activation. This activation is atypical, since it consists of a sustained ERK phosphorylation, that lasts up to 6 days post stimulation. This activation is associated with the appearance of cleaved caspases 8 and 3, processed PARP, and irreversible damage. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK phosphorylation results in the ability of cells to resist cadmium poisoning. Our data indicate that low cadmium concentrations result in an unconventional ERK sustained phosphorylation, which in turn leads to death signaling.

  3. Oscillatory phase modulates the timing of neuronal activations and resulting behavior.

    PubMed

    Coon, W G; Gunduz, A; Brunner, P; Ritaccio, A L; Pesaran, B; Schalk, G

    2016-06-01

    Human behavioral response timing is highly variable from trial to trial. While it is generally understood that behavioral variability must be due to trial-by-trial variations in brain function, it is still largely unknown which physiological mechanisms govern the timing of neural activity as it travels through networks of neuronal populations, and how variations in the timing of neural activity relate to variations in the timing of behavior. In our study, we submitted recordings from the cortical surface to novel analytic techniques to chart the trajectory of neuronal population activity across the human cortex in single trials, and found joint modulation of the timing of this activity and of consequent behavior by neuronal oscillations in the alpha band (8-12Hz). Specifically, we established that the onset of population activity tends to occur during the trough of oscillatory activity, and that deviations from this preferred relationship are related to changes in the timing of population activity and the speed of the resulting behavioral response. These results indicate that neuronal activity incurs variable delays as it propagates across neuronal populations, and that the duration of each delay is a function of the instantaneous phase of oscillatory activity. We conclude that the results presented in this paper are supportive of a general model for variability in the effective speed of information transmission in the human brain and for variability in the timing of human behavior. PMID:26975551

  4. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  5. Does Pedometer Goal Setting Improve Physical Activity among Native Elders? Results from a Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Russo, Joan E.; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant…

  6. 37 CFR 251.52 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.52 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  7. 37 CFR 251.52 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF PROCEDURE Procedures of Copyright Arbitration Royalty Panels § 251.52 Proposed findings and conclusions....

  8. Correlates of objectively measured overweight/obesity and physical activity in Kenyan school children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity and inadequate physical activity burden Western countries, and now, pose a growing threat to the health of children in low and middle income countries. Behavioural transitions toward more sedentary lifestyles coupled with increased consumption of high calorie foods has resulted in rising proportions of overweight/obesity and decreasing levels of physical activity in school-aged children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to investigate factors associated with overweight/obesity and physical activity in Kenyan children aged 9 to 11 years. Methods Body composition and physical activity measures of participating children were accomplished by anthropometric assessment, accelerometry, and administration of questionnaires related to diet and lifestyle, and the school and neighbourhood environments. Data collection was conducted in the city of Nairobi as part of a larger International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment. Results A total of 563 participants (46.5% boys, 53.5% girls) were included in the analyses. Of these, 3.7% were underweight, 14.4% were overweight, and 6.4% were obese based on WHO cut-points. Mean daily sedentary time was 398 minutes, time spent in light physical activity was 463 minutes, and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 36 minutes based on activity cut-points developed by Treuth et al. Only 12.6% of participating children were meeting the recommendation of ≥ 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 45.7% of participants used active transportation to/from school. Increasing parental education level, total annual household income, and attending a private rather than public school were associated positively with being overweight/obese and negatively with meeting physical activity guidelines. Conclusions This study provided the evidence for an existing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity in Nairobi

  9. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  10. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed...

  11. 10 CFR 2.712 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 2.712 Section 2.712 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Rules for Formal Adjudications § 2.712 Proposed findings and conclusions. (a) Any party to a proceeding may, or if directed...

  12. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section 2700.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of...

  13. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section 2700.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of...

  14. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46 Section 511.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and...

  15. 29 CFR 2700.65 - Proposed findings, conclusions and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. 2700.65 Section 2700.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Hearings § 2700.65 Proposed findings, conclusions and orders. The Judge may require the submission of proposed findings of...

  16. 39 CFR 952.23 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, orders, and supporting reasons. Unless given orally... record or given consideration. (b) Except when presented orally before the close of the hearing, proposed... proposed findings. Each proposed conclusion shall be separately stated. (c) Except when presented...

  17. On symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logic of Proofs

    SciTech Connect

    Krupski, Vladimir N

    2011-05-31

    In this paper we define symbolic models for Single-Conclusion Logics of Proofs. We prove the soundness and completeness of these logics with respect to the corresponding classes of symbolic models. We apply the semantic methods developed in this paper to justify the use of terms of single-conclusion logic of proofs as notation for derivations in this logic. Bibliography: 17 titles.

  18. 49 CFR 511.46 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 511.46 Section 511.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Hearings § 511.46 Proposed findings, conclusions, and...

  19. Move Sequences in Graduate Research Paper Introductions and Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrunio, Marilu Rañosa

    2012-01-01

    Graduate students submit academic papers at the end of the term as part of their coursework. Such papers contain introduction moves which may be troublesome and conclusion moves which may contain sub-moves not really required. This paper is aimed at assessing what particular moves are employed in the introduction and conclusion sections of 21…

  20. Scale decisions can reverse conclusions on community assembly processes

    PubMed Central

    Münkemüller, Tamara; Gallien, Laure; Lavergne, Sébastien; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Abdulhak, Sylvain; Dullinger, Stefan; Garraud, Luc; Guisan, Antoine; Lenoir, Jonathan; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Van Es, Jérémie; Vittoz, Pascal; Willner, Wolfgang; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Aim Phylogenetic diversity patterns are increasingly being used to better understand the role of ecological and evolutionary processes in community assembly. Here, we quantify how these patterns are influenced by scale choices in terms of spatial and environmental extent and organismic scales. Location European Alps. Methods We applied 42 sampling strategies differing in their combination of focal scales. For each resulting sub-dataset, we estimated the phylogenetic diversity of the species pools, phylogenetic α-diversities of local communities, and statistics commonly used together with null models in order to infer non-random diversity patterns (i.e. phylogenetic clustering versus over-dispersion). Finally, we studied the effects of scale choices on these measures using regression analyses. Results Scale choices were decisive for revealing signals in diversity patterns. Notably, changes in focal scales sometimes reversed a pattern of over-dispersion into clustering. Organismic scale had a stronger effect than spatial and environmental extent. However, we did not find general rules for the direction of change from over-dispersion to clustering with changing scales. Importantly, these scale issues had only a weak influence when focusing on regional diversity patterns that change along abiotic gradients. Main conclusions Our results call for caution when combining phylogenetic data with distributional data to study how and why communities differ from random expectations of phylogenetic relatedness. These analyses seem to be robust when the focus is on relating community diversity patterns to variation in habitat conditions, such as abiotic gradients. However, if the focus is on identifying relevant assembly rules for local communities, the uncertainty arising from a certain scale choice can be immense. In the latter case, it becomes necessary to test whether emerging patterns are robust to alternative scale choices. PMID:24791149

  1. Preliminary results from a study of the impact of digital activity trackers on health risk status.

    PubMed

    Rowe-Roberts, Dinah; Cercos, Robert; Mueller, Florian 'Floyd'

    2014-01-01

    Digital activity trackers are becoming increasingly more widespread and affordable, providing new opportunities to support participatory e-health programs in which participants take an active role. However, there is limited knowledge of how to deploy these activity trackers within these programs. In response, we conducted a 7-month study with 212 employees using a wireless activity tracker to log step count. Our results suggest that these devices can support improving physical activity levels and consequently reduce diabetes risk factors. Furthermore, the intervention seems more effective for people with higher risk factors. With our work we aim to contribute to a better understanding of the issues and challenges involved in the design of participatory e-health programs that include activity trackers. PMID:25087541

  2. Neonatal activation of the nuclear receptor CAR results in epigenetic memory and permanent change of drug metabolism in mouse liver

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Dong; Fu, Xianghui; Dong, Bingning; Wang, Yan-Dong; Shiah, Steven; Moore, David D.; Huang, Wendong

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant epigenetic alterations during development may result in long-term epigenetic memory and have a permanent effect on the health of subjects. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) is a central regulator of drug/xenobiotic metabolism. Here, we report that transient neonatal activation of CAR results in epigenetic memory and a permanent change of liver drug metabolism. CAR activation by neonatal exposure to a CAR-specific ligand, 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene (TCPOBOP) led to persistently induced expression of the CAR target genes Cyp2B10 and Cyp2C37 throughout the life of exposed mice. These mice showed a permanent reduction in sensitivity to zoxazolamine treatment as adults. Compared with control groups, the induction of Cyp2B10 and Cyp2C37 in hepatocytes isolated from these mice was more sensitive to low concentrations of the CAR agonist TCPOBOP. Accordingly, neonatal activation of CAR led to a permanent increase of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) mono-, di- and trimethylation and decrease of H3K9 trimethylation within the Cyp2B10 locus. Transcriptional coactivator ASC-2 and histone demethylase JMJD2d participated in this CAR-dependent epigenetic switch. Conclusion Neonatal activation of CAR results in epigenetic memory and a permanent change of liver drug metabolism. PMID:22488010

  3. Results and conclusions of pine treeline advanced project in subarctic Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Siren, G.

    1997-12-31

    The original project components dealt with seed germination, soil conditions, competition, seedling ecology in and development. Subsequent research into flowering, seed maturation, dispersal and sexual development gained notable interest, as the uninhibited advance of the pine treeline continued. Since then the significant roles of repeated seed years and stand development became evident as stem numbers first increased and thereafter decreased. Improving bio-energy resources and quantifying the increasing CO{sub 2} sink dominated the sup-projects in the final stages. Ultimately the careful age and dry weight measurements and stem inventories prove decisively important in determining what factors were the main prerequisites for the advance of pine on forest-tundra and the development of the new CO{sub 2} sink. During the 20th century the favorable climate has promoted the advance of pine in the far north of Finland, which would appear to support the IPCC message of global warming. A consequence of this climate warming might be that the productive forest area in northernmost Finland will increase rather dramatically during the next century. Considering the longevity of pine, the standing productive forest stock and CO{sub 2} sink capacity would hence increase accordingly. It would therefore seem prudent to recommend the enhancement of conifer seed years and intensified experimentation with genetically tested conifer species throughout the circumpolar treeline regions. Consequently, through sustainable use of new biomass reserves, new areas south of the timberline could be opened to allow for potential ecological forestry practices and alternate energy sources could be developed. At the same time, this will create new employment opportunities for local people in all circumpolar regions.

  4. A Review of the Reflector Compact Fluorescent Lights Technology Procurement Program: Conclusions and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.

    2008-05-19

    This report describes a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), from 2000 to 2007 to improve the performance of reflector type (R-lamp) compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and increase their availability throughout the United States by means of a technology development and procurement strategy. In 2000, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Emerging Technologies Program and its predecessors, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory undertook a technology procurement seeking R-CFLs that were specifically designed for use in ICAT recessed can fixtures and that met other minimum performance criteria including minimum light output and size restrictions (to ensure they fit in standard residential recessed cans). The technology procurement included two phases. In Phase I, requests for proposals (RFPs) were issued in October 2002 and five manufacturers responded with 12 lamp models. Eight of these models met the minimum requirements and passed the 6-hour short-term test in a simulated ICAT environment. These eight models were subjected to long-term tests of 6,000 or more hours in a simulated ICAT environment. Three of these models passed the short- and long-term tests and were promoted through the program website (www.pnl.gov/rlamps), press releases, and fliers. To increase the number of qualifying models, a second RFP was issued in June 2005. In April 2007, DOE announced that 16 reflector CFL (R-CFL) models by four manufacturers had met all the minimum requirements of Phase 2 of the R-CFL Technology Innovation Competition. PNNL developed both the criteria and the test apparatus design for Elevated Temperature Life Testing (ETLT), which has been included by DOE in its draft ENERGY STAR specifications for the reflector category of CFLs. PNNL promoted the winning lamps through a program website, press releases, and fliers as well as through program partners. PNNL also helped engage distributors including Costco, the Home Depot, Bonneville Power Administration, and utility organizations.

  5. Interpretation of Structure Coefficients Can Prevent Erroneous Conclusions about Regression Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Jean S.

    The increased use of multiple regression analysis in research warrants closer examination of the coefficients produced in these analyses, especially ones which are often ignored, such as structure coefficients. Structure coefficients are bivariate correlation coefficients between a predictor variable and the synthetic variable. When predictor…

  6. High Fc Density Particles Result in Binary Complement Activation but Tunable Macrophage Phagocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulchek, Todd; Pacheco, Patricia; White, David

    2014-03-01

    Macrophage phagocytosis and complement system activation represent two key components of the immune system and both can be activated through the presentation of multiple Fc domains of IgG antibodies. We have created functionalized micro- and nanoparticles with various densities of Fc domains to understand the modulation of the immune system for eventual use as a novel immunomodulation platform. Phagocytosis assays were carried out by adding functionalized particles to macrophage cells and quantitatively determined using fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. Complement system activation by the functionalized particles in human serum was quantified with an enzyme immunoassay. Our phagocytosis assay revealed a strong dependence on particle size and Fc density. For small particles, as the Fc density increased, the number of particles phagocytosed also increased. Large particles were phagocytosed at significantly lower levels and showed no dependency on Fc density. Complement was successfully activated at levels comparable to positive controls for small particles at high Fc densities. However at low Fc densities, there is a significant decrease in complement activation. This result suggests a binary response for complement system activation with a threshold density for successful activation. Therefore, varying the Fc density on micro/nanoparticles resulted in a tunable response in macrophage phagocytosis while a more binary response for complement activation.

  7. Predictors of Postpartum Weight Change Among Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Bercedis L.; Krause, Katrina M.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Methods Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Results Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to −24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Conclusions Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy. PMID:22092110

  8. Seasat: - JASIN workshop report. Volume 1: Findings and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Data acquired from the Joint Air-Sea Interaction (JASIN) Experiment and Seasat data from overpasses that covered the JASIN area were compared and evaluated. The JASIN data were used as a high quality withheld data set. The Seasat data were prepared for each instrument: the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS), the Scanning Multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR), and the synthetic aperture radar (SAR). The following results demonstrate the performance of Seasat: it was possible to identify mesoscale systems with the SASS as well as fronts; the SMMR provided accurate water vapor content of the atmosphere; the SAR showed evidence of helical rolls in the marine boundary layer; a SASS anomaly could be traced back to thunderstorm activity.

  9. Inhibition of PHOSPHO1 activity results in impaired skeletal mineralization during limb development of the chick

    PubMed Central

    MacRae, Vicky E.; Davey, Megan G.; McTeir, Lynn; Narisawa, Sonoko; Yadav, Manisha C.; Millan, Jose Luis; Farquharson, Colin.

    2010-01-01

    PHOSPHO1 is a bone specific phosphatase implicated in the initiation of inorganic phosphate generation for matrix mineralization. The control of mineralization is attributed to the actions of tissue-non specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). However, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing apatite crystals are present in patients with hypophosphatasia as well as TNAP null (Akp2-/-) mice. It is therefore likely that other phosphatases work with TNAP to regulate matrix mineralization. Although PHOSPHO1 and TNAP expression is associated with MVs, it is not known if PHOSPHO1 and TNAP are co-expressed during the early stages of limb development. Furthermore the functional in-vivo role of PHOSPHO1 in matrix mineralization has yet to be established. Here, we studied the temporal expression and functional role of PHOSPHO1 within chick limb bud mesenchymal micromass cultures and also in wild-type and talpid3 chick mutants. These mutants are characterized by defective hedgehog signalling and the absence of endochondral mineralization. The ability of in-vitro micromass cultures to differentiate and mineralize their matrix was temporally associated with increased expression of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP. Comparable changes in expression were noted in developing embryonic legs (developmental stages 23–36HH). Micromass cultures treated with lansoprazole, a small-molecule inhibitor of PHOSPHO1 activity, or FGF2, an inhibitor of chondrocyte differentiation, resulted in reduced alizarin red staining (P<0.05). FGF2 treatment also caused a reduction in PHOSPHO1 (P<0.001) and TNAP (P<0.001) expression. Expression analysis by whole mount RNA in-situ hybridization, correlated with qPCR micromass data and demonstrated the existence of a tightly regulated pattern of Phospho1 and Tnap expression which precedes mineralization. Treatment of developing embryos for 5-days with lansoprazole completely inhibited mineralization of all leg and wing long bones as assessed by alcian blue/alizarin red staining

  10. Are we driving our kids to unhealthy habits? Results of the active healthy kids Canada 2013 report card on physical activity for children and youth.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey E; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D; Colley, Rachel C; Bonne, Jennifer Cowie; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M; Manske, Stephen R; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian W; Tremblay, Mark S

    2014-06-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  11. Are We Driving Our Kids to Unhealthy Habits? Results of the Active Healthy Kids Canada 2013 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Casey E.; Larouche, Richard; Barnes, Joel D.; Colley, Rachel C.; Cowie Bonne, Jennifer; Arthur, Mike; Cameron, Christine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Faulkner, Guy; Janssen, Ian; Kolen, Angela M.; Manske, Stephen R.; Salmon, Art; Spence, John C.; Timmons, Brian W.; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the time trends in patterns of school travel mode among Canadian children and youth to inform the Active Transportation (AT) indicator of the 2013 Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. The AT grade was assigned based on a comprehensive synthesis of the 2000 and 2010 Physical Activity Monitor studies from the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute and the 1992, 1998, 2005, and 2010 General Social Survey from Statistics Canada. The results showed that in 2013, AT was graded a D, because less than half of Canadian children and youth used only active modes of transportation to get to and from school. The proportion of Canadian children and youth who used only inactive modes of transportation for school travel increased significantly from 51% to 62% over the last decade. Children and youth from larger communities and those with lower household income levels were significantly more likely to use AT than those living in smaller communities and those in higher income households, respectively. In conclusion, motorized transport for school travel has increased steadily over the last decade across Canada. Regional and socio-demographic disparities should be considered in efforts to increase the number of children using AT. PMID:24905246

  12. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP) - Recent Results from an Airborne Simulator for SMAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP) is a recently-developed NASA airborne instrument specially tailored to simulate the new Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite instrument suite. SLAP conducted its first test flights in December, 2013 and participated in its first science campaign-the IPHEX ground validation campaign of the GPM mission-in May, 2014. This paper will present results from additional test flights and science observations scheduled for 2015.

  13. Some results of a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, P; Hernández, A T; Serra, R A; Varela, C; Woods, M J

    2006-04-01

    This paper describes the results obtained using a simulated test for administration of activity in nuclear medicine between 2002 and 2004. Measurements in the radionuclide calibrator are made during the different stages of the procedure. The test attempts to obtain supplementary information on the quality of the measurement, with the aim of evaluating in a more complete way the accuracy of the administered activity value compared with the prescribed one. The participants' performance has been assessed by means of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Dependences between several attributes of the simulated administration tests results are discussed. Specifically, the proportion of satisfactory results in the 2003-2004 period was found to be higher than in 2002. It reveals an improvement of the activity administration in the Cuban nuclear medicine departments since 2003. PMID:16303312

  14. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  15. Stream interactions and CMEs in STEREO and THEMIS data and resulting geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mays, Leila; St. Cyr, Chris; Sibeck, David

    During this solar minimum the decrease in solar activity has resulted in less geomagnetic activity. The observed activity, which ultimately arises from changes in the solar wind, has been from stream interaction regions (SIRs), shocks, and some interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). A statistical study of stream interactions and CME events from January 2007 to December 2009 which result in storm and substorm activity is conducted. Stream interactions and shocks are identified in STEREO PLASTIC, ACE, and WIND data and CMEs are identified in the STEREO SECCHI coronagraphs. CME evolution in the lower corona and properties such as acceleration, speed and width are determined along with in-situ plasma data for ICMEs. The propagation of these structures to the magnetopause is studied using THEMIS data when the spacecraft are in dayside configuration. Aspects include the timing to the magnetopause boundary, magnetopause motion, magnetosheath properties, and the strength and duration of geomagnetic activity. The interplanetary propagation of CME events that were predicted to be Earth-directed but did not produce geomagnetic activity are also considered.

  16. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. Spectroscopy of asteroid pairs - new observations support previous conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polishook, David; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara Anna; None Kwiatkowski, Tomasz

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid pairs were split due to fast rotation of a strengthless body. Study them can reveal fundamental principles in asteroid interiors and evolution. We continue our spectroscopic survey of asteroid pairs in the near-IR range (IRTF) and work on completing the spectral coverage in the visible wavelength (SALT, NOT).Our new observations support our previous conclusions (Polishook et al. 2014):1. Primary and secondary members have very similar reflectance spectra supporting the claim that every pair originated from a single progenitor. We measured 2 more pairs that present the same taxonomy (4905-7813, 15107-291188). This increases to 22 the number of asteroid pairs with spectral similarities and supports the claim of a single progenitor for each pair to a significance of over 5 sigma.2. Rotational fission is not a function of the asteroid composition rather the asteroid’s structure. We present new reflectance spectra of S- and C-complex pairs that differ in their composition.3. Some asteroid pairs present spectral parameters that imply a fresh, non-weathered surface. This includes spectral slope, and a deep and wide absorption band at 1 micron. Among these, the asteroid 8306 can now be re-classified as a Q-type asteroid, a common class in the near-Earth environment, but rare in the main belt. 8306 is the 4th Q-type discovered within asteroid pairs (all locate in the main belt).4. A secondary member of an asteroid pair composed of ordinary chondrite (S-complex) might present a reflectance spectrum with lower spectral slope compared to its primary member. This is seen in the new measured reflectance spectrum of secondary 291188). This result supports the theory of Jacobson & Scheeres (2011) of continuous disintegration of the secondaries while still in the vicinity of their primaries.5. With time, the fresh surface becomes weathered. Dynamical calculations limit the disintegration time of the progenitor of the pair 4905-7813 to 1.65 millions years ago, what makes

  18. 22 CFR 18.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 18.18 Section 18.18 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL REGULATIONS CONCERNING POST EMPLOYMENT CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 18.18 Proposed findings and...

  19. Safety Specialist Manpower Conclusions and Recommendations, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booz Allen and Hamilton, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This final volume of a four-volume report on highway safety manpower includes conclusions and recommendations regarding prospects for staffing individual programs, with emphasis on the adequacy of both manpower resources and training capacity. The data indicate that reaching maximum staffing levels by 1977 is unlikely, although minimum levels…

  20. 40 CFR 22.26 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 22.26 Section 22.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES AND THE REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS...

  1. 40 CFR 22.26 - Proposed findings, conclusions, and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings, conclusions, and order. 22.26 Section 22.26 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CONSOLIDATED RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING THE ADMINISTRATIVE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES AND THE REVOCATION/TERMINATION OR SUSPENSION OF PERMITS...

  2. Hypothesis, Prediction, and Conclusion: Using Nature of Science Terminology Correctly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper defines the terms "hypothesis," "prediction," and "conclusion" and shows how to use the terms correctly in scientific investigations in both the school and science education research contexts. The scientific method, or hypothetico-deductive (HD) approach, is described and it is argued that an understanding of the scientific method,…

  3. Consultation on Higher Education and Social Justice: Statement and Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Frontiers in Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A group of 35 educators, mostly principals and teachers of colleges, met at Bangalore, India in May 1974 for a 5-day consultation on higher education's role in the promotion of social justice. The final statement and other conclusions of the Consultation are presented. (Author/PG)

  4. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section 954.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed...

  5. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section 954.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed...

  6. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section 954.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed...

  7. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section 954.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed...

  8. 39 CFR 954.18 - Proposed findings and conclusions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings and conclusions. 954.18 Section 954.18 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO THE DENIAL, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF PERIODICALS MAIL PRIVILEGES § 954.18 Proposed...

  9. "Exercise Dependence"--A Problem or Natural Result of High Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Suzanne; Bond, Dale S.; Lang, Wei; Jordan, Dustin; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare physical activity (PA) and exercise dependence (ED) in 267 weight-loss maintainers (WLM) and 213 normal-weight (NW) controls. Methods: PA and ED assessed via accelerometery and the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire. Results: WLM had higher PA levels and ED scores than those of NW (P less than 0.0001). WLM status (P = 0.006)…

  10. Social Work Roles and Activities Regarding Psychiatric Medication: Results of a National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Kia J.; Walsh, Joseph; Farmer, Rosemary L.

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a 2001 national survey of social workers regarding their everyday practice roles and activities regarding psychiatric medication. The results of this quantitative study indicate variability in the types of roles carried out by social workers with regard to psychiatric medication, but that perceptions of…

  11. Dynamic Docking Test System (DDTS) active table frequency response test results. [Apollo Soyuz Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, R. M.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of the frequency response test performed on the dynamic docking test system (DDTS) active table. Sinusoidal displacement commands were applied to the table and the dynamic response determined from measured actuator responses and accelerometers mounted to the table and one actuator.

  12. Deficiency of the B Cell-Activating Factor Receptor Results in Limited CD169+ Macrophage Function during Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haifeng C.; Huang, Jun; Khairnar, Vishal; Duhan, Vikas; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Grusdat, Melanie; Shinde, Prashant; McIlwain, David R.; Maney, Sathish Kumar; Gommerman, Jennifer; Löhning, Max; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Mak, Tak W.; Pieper, Kathrin; Sic, Heiko; Speletas, Matthaios; Eibel, Hermann; Ware, Carl F.; Tumanov, Alexei V.; Kruglov, Andrey A.; Nedospasov, Sergei A.; Häussinger, Dieter; Recher, Mike; Lang, Karl S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The B cell-activating factor (BAFF) is critical for B cell development and humoral immunity in mice and humans. While the role of BAFF in B cells has been widely described, its role in innate immunity remains unknown. Using BAFF receptor (BAFFR)-deficient mice, we characterized BAFFR-related innate and adaptive immune functions following infection with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). We identified a critical role for BAFFR signaling in the generation and maintenance of the CD169+ macrophage compartment. Consequently, Baffr−/− mice exhibited limited induction of innate type I interferon production after viral infection. Lack of BAFFR signaling reduced virus amplification and presentation following viral infection, resulting in highly reduced antiviral adaptive immune responses. As a consequence, BAFFR-deficient mice showed exacerbated and fatal disease after viral infection. Mechanistically, transient lack of B cells in Baffr−/− animals resulted in limited lymphotoxin expression, which is critical for maintenance of CD169+ cells. In conclusion, BAFFR signaling affects both innate and adaptive immune activation during viral infections. IMPORTANCE Viruses cause acute and chronic infections in humans resulting in millions of deaths every year. Innate immunity is critical for the outcome of a viral infection. Innate type I interferon production can limit viral replication, while adaptive immune priming by innate immune cells induces pathogen-specific immunity with long-term protection. Here, we show that BAFFR deficiency not only perturbed B cells, but also resulted in limited CD169+ macrophages. These macrophages are critical in amplifying viral particles to trigger type I interferon production and initiate adaptive immune priming. Consequently, BAFFR deficiency resulted in reduced enforced viral replication, limited type I interferon production, and reduced adaptive immunity compared to BAFFR

  13. Mouse strain-dependent caspase activation during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity does not result in apoptosis or modulation of inflammation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, C. David; Koerner, Michael R.; Lampe, Jed N.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-12-15

    The mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatic oncotic necrosis have been extensively characterized. However, it was recently demonstrated that fed CD-1 mice have a transient caspase activation which initiates apoptosis. To evaluate these findings in more detail, outbred (Swiss Webster, SW) and inbred (C57BL/6) mice were treated with APAP with or without pan-caspase inhibitor and compared to the apoptosis model of galactosamine (GalN)/endotoxin (ET). Fasted or fed APAP-treated C57BL/6 mice showed no evidence of caspase-3 processing or activity. Interestingly, a minor, temporary increase in caspase-3 processing and activity (150% above baseline) was observed after APAP treatment only in fed SW mice. The degree of caspase-3 activation in SW mice after APAP was minor compared to that observed in GalN/ET-treated mice (1600% above baseline). The pancaspase inhibitor attenuated caspase activation and resulted in increased APAP-induced injury (plasma ALT, necrosis scoring). The caspase inhibitor did not affect apoptosis because regardless of treatment only < 0.5% of hepatocytes showed consistent apoptotic morphology after APAP. In contrast, > 20% apoptotic cells were observed in GalN/ET-treated mice. Presence of the caspase inhibitor altered hepatic glutathione levels in SW mice, which could explain the exacerbation of injury. Additionally, the infiltration of hepatic neutrophils was not altered by the fed state of either mouse strain. Conclusion: Minor caspase-3 activation without apoptotic cell death can be observed only in fed mice of some outbred strains. These findings suggest that although the severity of APAP-induced liver injury varies between fed and fasted animals, the mechanism of cell death does not fundamentally change. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer During acetaminophen overdose caspase-3 can be activated in fed mice of certain outbred strains. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hepatic ATP levels are not the determining factor for caspase

  14. MOUSE STRAIN-DEPENDENT CASPASE ACTIVATION DURING ACETAMINOPHEN HEPATOTOXICITY DOES NOT RESULT IN APOPTOSIS OR MODULATION OF INFLAMMATION

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C. David; Koerner, Michael R.; Lampe, Jed N.; Farhood, Anwar; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms of acetaminophen (APAP)-mediated hepatic oncotic necrosis have been extensively characterized. However, it was recently demonstrated that fed CD-1 mice have a transient caspase activation which initiates apoptosis. To evaluate these findings in more detail, outbred (Swiss Webster, SW) and inbred (C57BL/6) mice were treated with APAP with or without pan-caspase inhibitor and compared to the apoptosis model of galactosamine (GalN)/endotoxin (ET). Fasted or fed APAP-treated C57BL/6 mice showed no evidence of caspase-3 processing or activity. Interestingly, a minor, temporary increase in caspase-3 processing and activity (150% above baseline) was observed after APAP treatment only in fed SW mice. The degree of caspase-3 activation in SW mice after APAP was minor compared to that observed in GalN/ET-treated mice (1600% above baseline). The pancaspase inhibitor attenuated caspase activation and resulted in increased APAP-induced injury (plasma ALT, necrosis scoring). The caspase inhibitor did not affect apoptosis because regardless of treatment only <0.5% of hepatocytes showed consistent apoptotic morphology after APAP. In contrast, >20% apoptotic cells were observed in GalN/ET-treated mice. Presence of the caspase inhibitor altered hepatic glutathione levels in SW mice, which could explain the exacerbation of injury. Additionally, the infiltration of hepatic neutrophils was not altered by the fed state of either mouse strain. Conclusion: Minor caspase-3 activation without apoptotic cell death can be observed only in fed mice of some outbred strains. These findings suggest that although the severity of APAP-induced liver injury varies between fed and fasted animals, the mechanism of cell death does not fundamentally change. PMID:22023962

  15. Modulation of fructokinase activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum) results in substantial shifts in tuber metabolism.

    PubMed

    Davies, Howard V; Shepherd, Louise V T; Burrell, Michael M; Carrari, Fernando; Urbanczyk-Wochniak, Ewa; Leisse, Andrea; Hancock, Robert D; Taylor, Mark; Viola, Roberto; Ross, Heather; McRae, Diane; Willmitzer, Lothar; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2005-07-01

    Potato plants (Solanum tuberosum L. cvs Desiree and Record) transformed with sense and antisense constructs of a cDNA encoding the potato fructokinase StFK1 exhibited altered transcription of this gene, altered amount of protein and altered enzyme activities. Measurement of the maximal catalytic activity of fructokinase revealed a 2-fold variation in leaf (from 90 to 180% of wild type activity) and either a 10- or 30-fold variation in tuber (from 10 or 30% to 300% in Record and Desiree, respectively) activity. The comparative effect of the antisense construct in leaf and tuber tissue suggests that this isoform is only a minor contributor to the total fructokinase activity in the leaf but the predominant isoform in the tuber. Antisense inhibition of the fructokinase resulted in a reduced tuber yield; however, its overexpression had no impact on this parameter. The modulation of fructokinase activity had few, consistent effects on carbohydrate levels, with the exception of a general increase in glucose content in the antisense lines, suggesting that this enzyme is not important for the control of starch synthesis. However, when metabolic fluxes were estimated, it became apparent that the transgenic lines display a marked shift in metabolism, with the rate of redistribution of radiolabel to sucrose markedly affected by the activity of fructokinase. These data suggest an important role for fructokinase, acting in concert with sucrose synthase, in maintaining a balance between sucrose synthesis and degradation by a mechanism independent of that controlled by the hexose phosphate-mediated activation of sucrose phosphate synthase. PMID:15890680

  16. Epidermal Platelet-activating Factor Receptor Activation and Ultraviolet B Radiation Result in Synergistic Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Production

    PubMed Central

    Wolverton, Jay E.; Al-Hassani, Mohammed; Yao, Yongxue; Zhang, Qiwei; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) is a potent stimulator of epidermal cytokine production which has been implicated in photoaggravated dermatoses. In addition to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), UVB generates bioactive lipids including platelet-activating factor (PAF). Our previous studies have demonstrated that UVB-mediated production of keratinocyte TNF-α is in part due to PAF. The current studies use a human PAF-receptor (PAF-R) negative epithelial cell line transduced with PAF-Rs and PAF–R-deficient mice to demonstrate that activation of the epidermal PAF-R along with UVB irradiation results in a synergistic production of TNF-α. It should be noted that PAF-R effects are mimicked by the protein kinase C (PKC) agonist phorbol myristic acetate, and are inhibited by pharmacological antagonists of the PKC gamma isoenzyme. These studies suggest that concomitant PAF-R activation and UVB irradiation results in a synergistic production of the cytokine TNF-α which is mediated in part via PKC. These studies provide a novel potential mechanism for photosensitivity responses. PMID:19769579

  17. Activity based financing in England: the need for continual refinement of payment by results.

    PubMed

    Street, Andrew; Maynard, Alan

    2007-10-01

    The English National Health Service is introducing activity based tariff systems or Payment by Results (PbR) as the basis for hospital funding. The funding arrangements provide incentives for increasing activity, particularly day surgery, and, uniquely, are based on costing data from all hospitals. But prices should not be based on average costs and the potential of PbR to improve the quality of care is yet to be exploited. Without refinement, PbR threatens to undermine expenditure control, to divert resources away from primary care, and to distort needs based funding. PMID:18634642

  18. Statistical Conclusion Validity: Some Common Threats and Simple Remedies

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research is to produce dependable knowledge or to provide the evidence that may guide practical decisions. Statistical conclusion validity (SCV) holds when the conclusions of a research study are founded on an adequate analysis of the data, generally meaning that adequate statistical methods are used whose small-sample behavior is accurate, besides being logically capable of providing an answer to the research question. Compared to the three other traditional aspects of research validity (external validity, internal validity, and construct validity), interest in SCV has recently grown on evidence that inadequate data analyses are sometimes carried out which yield conclusions that a proper analysis of the data would not have supported. This paper discusses evidence of three common threats to SCV that arise from widespread recommendations or practices in data analysis, namely, the use of repeated testing and optional stopping without control of Type-I error rates, the recommendation to check the assumptions of statistical tests, and the use of regression whenever a bivariate relation or the equivalence between two variables is studied. For each of these threats, examples are presented and alternative practices that safeguard SCV are discussed. Educational and editorial changes that may improve the SCV of published research are also discussed. PMID:22952465

  19. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-06-01

    -ray radiation. The team concludes that it is likely to be due to the nearly instantaneous, non-symmetrical collapse of the inner region of a highly developed star (known as the "collapsar" model) . The March 29 gamma-ray burst will pass into the annals of astrophysics as a rare "type-defining event", providing conclusive evidence of a direct link between cosmological gamma-ray bursts and explosions of very massive stars . PR Photo 17a/03 : Image of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329 (VLT FORS1+2). PR Photo 17b/03 : A series of VLT spectra of the optical afterglow of GRB 030329. What are Gamma-Ray Bursts? One of the currently most active fields of astrophysics is the study of the dramatic events known as "gamma-ray bursts (GRBs)" . They were first detected in the late 1960's by sensitive instruments on-board orbiting military satellites, launched for the surveillance and detection of nuclear tests. Originating, not on the Earth, but far out in space, these short flashes of energetic gamma-rays last from less than a second to several minutes. Despite major observational efforts, it is only within the last six years that it has become possible to pinpoint with some accuracy the sites of some of these events. With the invaluable help of comparatively accurate positional observations of the associated X-ray emission by various X-ray satellite observatories since early 1997, astronomers have until now identified about fifty short-lived sources of optical light associated with GRBs (the "optical afterglows"). Most GRBs have been found to be situated at extremely large ("cosmological") distances. This implies that the energy released in a few seconds during such an event is larger than that of the Sun during its entire lifetime of more than 10,000 million years. The GRBs are indeed the most powerful events since the Big Bang known in the Universe, cf. ESO PR 08/99 and ESO PR 20/00 . During the past years circumstantial evidence has mounted that GRBs signal the collapse of massive

  20. Report of a successful ongoing pregnancy as a result of IMSI with assisted oocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Doroftei, Bogdan; Zlei, Mihaela; Simionescu, Gabriela; Maftei, Radu; Cumpata, Simona; Emerson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    We report a successful ongoing pregnancy obtained in a case of total globozoospermia after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) with oocyte activation. The first semen analysis on investigation showed partial globozoospermia. However, under high magnification assessment at oocyte retrieval only round headed sperm were observed. Considering the high risk of a complete failure to fertilize from IMSI the couple gave written informed consent to the use of oocyte activation media post IMSI. One embryo fertilized, developed to a hatching blastocyst and was transferred resulting in an ongoing pregnancy. This successful outcome shows the use of IMSI is useful in the evaluation of total globozooozpermia and therefore aids in the justification of the use of oocyte activation media. PMID:25935518

  1. PP2A inhibition results in hepatic insulin resistance despite Akt2 activation.

    PubMed

    Galbo, Thomas; Perry, Rachel J; Nishimura, Erica; Samuel, Varman T; Quistorff, Bjørn; Shulman, Gerald I

    2013-10-01

    In the liver, insulin suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating Akt, which inactivates the key gluconeogenic transcription factor FoxO1 (Forkhead Box O1). Recent studies have implicated hyperactivity of the Akt phosphatase Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and impaired Akt signaling as a molecular defect underlying insulin resistance. We therefore hypothesized that PP2A inhibition would enhance insulin-stimulated Akt activity and decrease glucose production. PP2A inhibitors increased hepatic Akt phosphorylation and inhibited FoxO1in vitro and in vivo, and suppressed gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes. Paradoxically, PP2A inhibition exacerbated insulin resistance in vivo. This was explained by phosphorylation of both hepatic glycogen synthase (GS) (inactivation) and phosphorylase (activation) resulting in impairment of glycogen storage. Our findings underline the significance of GS and Phosphorylase as hepatic PP2A substrates and importance of glycogen metabolism in acute plasma glucose regulation. PMID:24150286

  2. Activity of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" in rat serum in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis (preliminary results).

    PubMed

    Kálmán, A; Kálmán, Z; Velösy, G; Vargha, G; Vargha, G; Papp, M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain more information on the serum level of "nonspecific pancreatic carboxylesterase" (PCE) in experimentally induced acute pancreatitis in rats. The effects of caerulein stimulation, hepatic duct ligation, bile-pancreatic duct ligation or the effect of retrograde injection of saline, 5% taurocholate and sunflower oil were investigated. The activity of PCE and amylase was measured in the serum, pancreatic tissue, pancreatic juice and ascitic fluid. The changes in PCE activity were greater (both in directions to increase or decrease) than that of amylase, produced by different experimental procedures. The results confirm the thesis that the serum activity of PCE is a more sensitive diagnostic method than that of amylase to detect the inflammatory process in the pancreas or the effect of obstruction of the pancreatic duct. PMID:2480696

  3. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  4. Silencing of Doublecortin-Like (DCL) Results in Decreased Mitochondrial Activity and Delayed Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Verissimo, Carla S.; Elands, Rachel; Cheng, Sou; Saaltink, Dirk-Jan; ter Horst, Judith P.; Alme, Maria N.; Pont, Chantal; van de Water, Bob; Håvik, Bjarte; Fitzsimons, Carlos P.; Vreugdenhil, Erno

    2013-01-01

    Doublecortin-like (DCL) is a microtubule-binding protein crucial for neuroblastoma (NB) cell proliferation. We have investigated whether the anti-proliferative effect of DCL knockdown is linked to reduced mitochondrial activity. We found a delay in tumor development after DCL knockdown in vivo in doxycycline-inducible NB tumor xenografts. To understand the mechanisms underlying this tumor growth retardation we performed a series of in vitro experiments in NB cell lines. DCL colocalizes with mitochondria, interacts with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein OMP25/ SYNJ2BP and DCL knockdown results in decreased expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, DCL knockdown decreases cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. We identified the C-terminal Serine/Proline-rich domain and the second microtubule-binding area as crucial DCL domains for the regulation of cytochrome c oxidase activity and ATP synthesis. Furthermore, DCL knockdown causes a significant reduction in the proliferation rate of NB cells under an energetic challenge induced by low glucose availability. Together with our previous studies, our results corroborate DCL as a key player in NB tumor growth in which DCL controls not only mitotic spindle formation and the stabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, but also regulates mitochondrial activity and energy availability, which makes DCL a promising molecular target for NB therapy. PMID:24086625

  5. Effects of geomagnetic activity variations on the physiological and psychological state of functionally healthy humans: Some results of Azerbaijani studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayev, Elchin S.; Allahverdiyeva, Aysel A.

    There are collaborative and cross-disciplinary space weather studies in the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences conducted with purposes of revealing possible effects of solar, geomagnetic and cosmic ray variability on certain technological, biological and ecological systems. This paper describes some results of the experimental studies of influence of the periodical and aperiodical changes of geomagnetic activity upon human brain, human health and psycho-emotional state. It also covers the conclusions of studies on influence of violent solar events and severe geomagnetic storms of the solar cycle 23 on the mentioned systems in middle-latitude location. It is experimentally established that weak and moderate geomagnetic storms do not cause significant changes in the brain's bioelectrical activity and exert only stimulating influence while severe disturbances of geomagnetic conditions cause negative influence, seriously disintegrate brain's functionality, activate braking processes and amplify the negative emotional background of an individual. It is concluded that geomagnetic disturbances affect mainly emotional and vegetative spheres of human beings while characteristics reflecting personality properties do not undergo significant changes.

  6. Cardiac autonomic activity predicts dominance in verbal over spatial reasoning tasks: results from a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Solernó, Juan I; Chada, Daniela Pérez; Guinjoan, Salvador M; Lloret, Santiago Pérez; Hedderwick, Alejandro; Vidal, María Florencia; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel E

    2012-04-01

    The present study sought to determine whether autonomic activity is associated with dominance in verbal over spatial reasoning tasks. A group of 19 healthy adults who performed a verbal and spatial aptitude test was evaluated. Autonomic function was assessed by means of heart rate variability analysis, before and during the tasks. The results showed that a better relative performance in verbal over spatial reasoning tasks was associated with vagal prevalence in normal subjects. PMID:22118959

  7. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  8. OMP gene deletion results in an alteration in odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, S L; Kent, P F; Margolis, F L

    2003-12-01

    Previous behavioral work, using a complex five-odorant identification task, demonstrated that olfactory marker protein (OMP) is critically involved in odor processing to the extent that its loss results in an alteration in odorant quality perception. Exactly how the lack of OMP exerts its influence on the perception of odorant quality is unknown. However, there is considerable neurophysiological evidence that different odorants produce different spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity at the level of the mucosa and that these patterns predict the psychophysically determined perceptual relationship among odorants. In this respect, OMP gene deletion is known to result in a constellation of physiologic defects (i.e., marked reduction in the electroolfactogram (EOG) and altered response and recovery kinetics) that would be expected to alter the odorant-induced spatiotemporal activity patterns that are characteristic of different odorants. This, in turn, would be expected to alter the spatiotemporal patterning of information that results from the mucosal projection onto the bulb, thereby changing odorant quality perception. To test the hypothesis that odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns are altered in mice lacking the gene for OMP, we optically recorded the fluorescent changes in response to odorant stimulation from both the septum and turbinates of both OMP-null and control mice using a voltage-sensitive dye (di-4-ANEPPS Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and a Dalsa 120 x 120, 12-bit CCD camera. To maintain continuity with the previous behavioral work, the odorants 2-propanol, citral, carvone, ethylacetoacetate, and propyl acetate were again used. Each odorant was randomly presented to each mucosal surface in a Latin-Square design. The results of this study demonstrated that, for both mouse strains, there do indeed exist different spatiotemporal activity patterns for different odorants. More importantly, however, these patterns significantly differed between OMP

  9. Testing and Oxygen Assessment Results for a Next Generation Extravehicular Activity Portable Life Support System Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Rivera, Fatonia L.; Martin, Devin

    2011-01-01

    NASA is designing a next generation Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for use in future surface exploration endeavors. To meet the new requirements for ventilation flow at nominal and buddy modes, a fan has been developed and tested. This paper summarizes the results of the performance and life cycle testing efforts conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Additionally, oxygen compatibility assessment results from an evaluation conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) are provided, and lessons learned and future recommendations are outlined.

  10. Comparison of Results of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Patients With Versus Without Active Cancer.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yusuke; Kozuma, Ken; Hioki, Hirofumi; Kawashima, Hideyuki; Nara, Yugo; Kataoka, Akihisa; Shirai, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Araki, Motoharu; Takagi, Kensuke; Yamanaka, Futoshi; Yamamoto, Masanori; Hayashida, Kentaro

    2016-08-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postprocedural and midterm outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with aortic stenosis and active cancer. From October 2013 to August 2015, a total of 749 patients undergoing TAVI using the Edwards Sapien XT prosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) were prospectively included in the OCEAN-TAVI registry from 8 Japanese centers. A total of 47 patients (44.7% men; median age 83 years) had active cancer. The transfemoral approach was implemented in 85.1% of patients in the cancer group and 78.1% in the noncancer group (p = 0.22). The occurrence of major vascular complication (4.3% vs 7.5%, p = 0.24), life-threatening bleeding (2.1% vs 7.1%, p = 0.15), and major bleeding (8.5% vs 13%, p = 0.38) was similar between the cancer and noncancer groups. No significant differences were observed regarding device success (100% vs 96.2%, p = 0.17) or 30-day survival (95.7% vs 97.3%, p = 0.38). No difference in midterm survival was found between the patients with cancer and without cancer (log-rank, p = 0.42), regardless of advanced or limited cancer (log-rank, p = 0.68). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, cancer metastasis was one of the most significant predictors of late mortality (hazard ratio 4.73, 95% CI 1.12 to 20.0; p = 0.035). In conclusion, patients with cancer with severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI had similar acute outcomes and midterm survival rates compared with patients without cancer. Cancer metastasis was associated with increased mortality after TAVI. PMID:27324159

  11. Evaluation of fine-particle catalysts: Activity testing results and phase identification using Mossbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stohl, F.V.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.; Rao, K.R.P.M.; Huggins, F.; Huffman, G.P.

    1994-10-01

    To evaluate and compare the activities/selectivities of fine- particle size catalysts being developed in the DOE/PETC Advanced Research (AR) Coal Liquefaction program by using standard coal liquefaction activity test procedures. Previously reported results have described the standard test procedure that was developed at Sandia to evaluate fine-particle size iron catalysts being developed in DOE/PETC`s AR Coal Liquefaction Program. This test uses DECS-17 Blind Canyon Coal, phenanthrene as the reaction solvent, and a factorial experimental design that enables evaluation of a catalyst over ranges of temperature (350 to 400{degrees}C), time (20 to 60 minutes), and catalyst loading (0 to 1 wt% on a dmmf coal basis). Testing has been performed on Pacific Northwest Laboratories` (PNL) 6-line ferrihydrite catalyst. Results showed that this catalyst is more active than the University of Pittsburgh`s sulfated iron oxide catalyst that was evaluated previously. PNL has also produced two additional batches of catalyst in an effort to optimize their preparation procedures for larger batches. Sandia has observed significant differences in activities among these three catalysts; these differences might be due to particle size effects, the type of drying procedure, or the amount of moisture present. Mossbauer characterization of the iron phases in the coal, catalyst precursors, and tetrahydrofuran (THF) insoluble material from liquefaction reactions has been performed on the University of Pittsburgh`s catalyst and the first PNL catalyst that was tested at Sandia. The Mossbauer results were obtained at the University of Kentucky and will be presented. Future work will include testing additional catalysts being developed in the AR Coal Liquefaction Program, developing procedures to characterize reaction products, and determining the kinetics of the reactions.

  12. 40 CFR 35.6820 - Conclusion of the SSC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities at the site and make all payments based upon project costs determined in § 35.6805(j); (2) Produce a final accounting of all project costs, including change orders and outstanding contractor claims; (3) Submit all State cost share payments to EPA (See § 35.6805(i)(5)); (4) Assume responsibility...

  13. The Fifth International Ice Nucleation Workshop Activities FIN-1 and FIN-2: Overview and Selected Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moehler, O.; Cziczo, D. J.; DeMott, P. J.; Hiranuma, N.; Petters, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    The role of aerosol particles for ice formation in clouds is one of the largest uncertainties in understanding the Earth's weather and climate systems, which is related to the poor knowledge of ice nucleation microphysics or of the nature and atmospheric abundance of ice nucleating particles (INPs). During the recent years, new mobile instruments were developed for measuring the concentration, size and chemical composition of INPs, which were tested during the three-part Fifth International Ice Nucleation (FIN) workshop. The FIN activities addressed not only instrument issues, but also important science topics like the nature of atmospheric INP and cloud ice residuals, the ice nucleation activity of relevant atmospheric aerosols, or the parameterization of ice formation in atmospheric weather and climate models. The first activity FIN-1 was conducted during November 2014 at the AIDA cloud chamber. It involved co-locating nine single particle mass spectrometers to evaluate how well they resolve the INP and ice residual composition and how spectra from different instruments compare for relevant atmospheric aerosols. We conducted about 90 experiments with mineral, carbonaceous and biological aerosol types, some also coated with organic and inorganic compounds. The second activity FIN-2 was conducted during March 2015 at the AIDA facility. A total of nine mobile INP instruments directly sampled from the AIDA aerosol chambers. Wet suspension and filter samples were also taken for offline INP processing. A refereed blind intercomparison was conducted during two days of the FIN-2 activity. The third activity FIN-3 will take place at the Desert Research Institute's Storm Peak Laboratory (SPL) in order to test the instruments' performance in the field. This contribution will introduce the FIN activities, summarize first results from the formal part of FIN-2, and discuss selected results, mainly from FIN-1 for the effect of coating on the ice nucleation (IN) by mineral

  14. Activation of central CRF receptor 1 by cortagine results in enhanced passive coping with a naturalistic threat in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tovote, Philip; Farrokhi, Catherine Borna; Gonzales, Rachael M. K.; Schnitzbauer, Udo; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.; Spiess, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Summary CRF receptor subtype 1 (CRF1), abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, has been implicated in defensive behavior in rodents. Pharmacological activation of CRF1 by peptidic agonists results in enhancement of anxiety-like behavior. However, receptor specificity of commonly used agonists was confounded by significant affinity to other receptors and widely used laboratory tests of experimental anxiety suffer from artificial aversive stimulation (e.g. electric shock), and limited measures of anxiety-like behavior. We used the recently developed, CRF1-selective agonist cortagine in a mouse model of defensive behaviors under semi-natural conditions, the Rat Exposure Test (RET). Cortagine was injected bilaterally into the cerebral ventricles (i.c.v.) of male C57Bl/6J mice, 20 min before exposure to a rat in specifically designed box that evokes a wide variety of defensive behaviors such as active/passive avoidance, freezing, risk assessment, and burying. Pre-injection of the CRF receptor antagonist acidic astressin was used to test for receptor specificity of the observed cortagine effects. A control experiment with no rat present was performed to test for baseline effects of cortagine in the exposure setup. Cortagine dose-dependently enhanced passive avoidance and freezing while burying was decreased. CRF receptor antagonism reliably blocked the effects of cortagine. Our results confirm previous findings of anxiogenic-like effects of cortagine, and demonstrate the usefulness of the RET in investigating differential pattering of drug-induced anxiety-like behavior in mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that CRF1 activation in forebrain areas promotes passive coping with the natural threat presented in the RET. PMID:20036073

  15. Activation of Benznidazole by Trypanosomal Type I Nitroreductases Results in Glyoxal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Belinda S.

    2012-01-01

    Benznidazole, a 2-nitroimidazole, is the front-line treatment used against American trypanosomiasis, a parasitic infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Despite nearly 40 years of use, the trypanocidal activity of this prodrug is not fully understood. It has been proposed that benznidazole activation leads to the formation of reductive metabolites that can cause a series of deleterious effects, including DNA damage and thiol depletion. Here, we show that the key step in benznidazole activation involves an NADH-dependent trypanosomal type I nitroreductase. This catalyzes an oxygen-insensitive reaction with the interaction of enzyme, reductant, and prodrug occurring through a ping-pong mechanism. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis of the resultant metabolites identified 4,5-dihydro-4,5-dihydroxyimidazole as the major product of a reductive pathway proceeding through hydroxylamine and hydroxy intermediates. The breakdown of this product released the reactive dialdehyde glyoxal, which, in the presence of guanosine, generated guanosine-glyoxal adducts. These experiments indicate that the reduction of benznidazole by type I nitroreductase activity leads to the formation of highly reactive metabolites and that the expression of this enzyme is key to the trypanocidal properties displayed by the prodrug. PMID:22037852

  16. Results from the Active for Life process evaluation: program delivery fidelity and adaptations.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sarah F; Wilcox, Sara; Ory, Marcia G; Lattimore, Diana; Leviton, Laura; Castro, Cynthia; Carpenter, Ruth Ann; Rheaume, Carol

    2010-04-01

    Active for Life((R)) (AFL) was a large (n = 8159) translational initiative to increase physical activity (PA) in midlife and older adults. Translational research calls for a shift in emphasis from just understanding what works (efficacy) to also understanding how it works in more 'real world' settings. This article describes the process evaluation design and findings, discuss how these findings were used to better understand the translational process and provide a set of process evaluation recommendations with community-based translational research. AFL community organizations across the United States implemented one of two evidence-based PA programs (Active Living Every Day-The Cooper Institute; Human Kinetics Inc. or Active Choices-Stanford University). Both programs were based on the transtheoretical model and social cognitive theory. Overall, the process evaluation revealed high-dose delivery and implementation fidelity by quite varied community organizations serving diverse adult populations. Findings reveal most variation occurred for program elements requiring more participant engagement. Additionally, the results show how a collaborative process allowed the organizations to 'fit' the programs to their specific participant base while maintaining fidelity to essential program elements. PMID:19325031

  17. Effect of petroleum coke expanding by perchloric acid on the performance of the resulted activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Mei-Gen; Wang, Ren-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Petroleum coke (PC) was expanded by using KMnO4 as oxidant and HClO4 as intercalator so as to decrease the amount of KOH needed for the successive activation. Activated carbon (AC) was prepared by activation of the expanded PC (EPC) at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1 (denoted as EAC-3). As a comparison, AC was also made by activation of PC at KOH/coke mass ratio of 3:1, 4:1 and 5:1 (denoted as AC-3, AC-4 and AC-5). Influence of expanding modification on the structure and performance of PC and AC was investigated. The results revealed that the expanding treatment increased the interplanar distance of PC microcrystalline from 0.344 to 0.362 nm and decreased the microcrystalline thickness from 2.34 to 1.57 nm. The specific surface area of EAC-3 and AC-5 was 3461 and 3291 m2ṡg-1, respectively. The average pore size of EAC-3 was 2.19 nm, which is 0.11 nm larger than that of AC-5. At a scan rate of 0.5 mVṡs-1, EAC-3 and AC-5 achieved a specific gravimetric capacitance of 486 and 429 Fṡg-1, respectively. Supercapacitor based on EAC-3 possessed lower resistance and better power performance.

  18. Parenteral trace element provision: recent clinical research and practical conclusions.

    PubMed

    Stehle, P; Stoffel-Wagner, B; Kuhn, K S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review (PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed and Cochrane, www.cochrane.org; last entry 31 December 2014) was to present data from recent clinical studies investigating parenteral trace element provision in adult patients and to draw conclusions for clinical practice. Important physiological functions in human metabolism are known for nine trace elements: selenium, zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron, molybdenum, iodine and fluoride. Lack of, or an insufficient supply of, these trace elements in nutrition therapy over a prolonged period is associated with trace element deprivation, which may lead to a deterioration of existing clinical symptoms and/or the development of characteristic malnutrition syndromes. Therefore, all parenteral nutrition prescriptions should include a daily dose of trace elements. To avoid trace element deprivation or imbalances, physiological doses are recommended. PMID:27049031

  19. Incorporation of Cobalt‐Cyclen Complexes into Templated Nanogels Results in Enhanced Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Ana Rita; Chernobryva, Mariya; Rigby, Stephen E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent advances in nanomaterials have identified nanogels as an excellent matrix for novel biomimetic catalysts using the molecular imprinting approach. Polymerisable Co‐cyclen complexes with phosphonate and carbonate templates have been prepared, fully characterised and used to obtain nanogels that show high activity and turnover with low catalytic load, compared to the free complex, in the hydrolysis of 4‐nitrophenyl phosphate, a nerve agent simulant. This work demonstrates that the chemical structure of the template has an impact on the coordination geometry and oxidation state of the metal centre in the polymerisable complex resulting in very significant changes in the catalytic properties of the polymeric matrix. Both pseudo‐octahedral cobalt(III) and trigonal‐bipyramidal cobalt(II) structures have been used for the synthesis of imprinted nanogels, and the catalytic data demonstrate that: i) the imprinted nanogels can be used in 15 % load and show turnover; ii) the structural differences in the polymeric matrices resulting from the imprinting approach with different templates are responsible for the molecular recognition capabilities and the catalytic activity. Nanogel P1, imprinted with the carbonate template, shows >50 % higher catalytic activity than P2 imprinted with the phosphonate. PMID:26661923

  20. Changes in the cardiac muscle electric activity as a result of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grajek, Magdalena; Krzyminiewski, Ryszard; Kalawski, Ryszard; Kulczak, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    Many bioelectric signals have a complex internal structure that can be a rich source of information on the tissue or cell processes. The structure of such signals can be analysed in detail by applying digital methods of signal processing. Therefore, of substantial use in diagnosis of the coronary arterial disease is the method of digital enhancement of increasing signal resolution ECG (NURSE-ECG), permitting detection of temporary changes in the electric potentials in the cardiac muscle in the process of depolarisation. Thanks to the application of NURSE-ECG it has become possible to detect relatively small changes in the electric activity of particular fragments of the cardiac muscle undetectable by the standard ECG method, caused by ischemia, the effect of a drug or infarct. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) operation. In this study the method of NURSE-ECG has been applied in order to identify and analyse changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle as a result of the CABG operation. In the study performed in cooperation of the Institute of Physics Adam Mickiewicz University and the Strus Hospital, Cardiac Surgery Ward, 37 patients with advanced coronary arterial disease were asked to participate. The patients were examined prior to the operation, on the day after the operation and two months after the operation and a year after the operation. The ECG recordings were subjected to a numerical procedure of resolution enhancement by a NURSE-ECG program to reveal the tentative changes in the electric potential of the cardiac muscle on its depolarisation. Results of the study have shown that the NURSE ECG method can be applied to monitor changes in the electric activity of the cardiac muscle occurring as a result of CABG operation. One the second day after the operation in the majority of patients (70%) a rapid decrease of the total

  1. Results of Resonant Activation and Macroscopic Quantum Tunneling Experiments in Magnesium Diboride Thin Film Josephson Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Roberto; Carabello, Steve; Lambert, Joseph; Mlack, Jerome; Dai, Wenqing; Shen, Yi.; Li, Qi; Cunnane, Daniel; Zhuang, C. G.; Chen, Ke; Xi, X. X.

    2012-02-01

    The Josephson junction is an experimental testbed widely used to study resonant activation and macroscopic quantum tunneling. These phenomena have been observed in junctions based on conventional low-temperature superconductors such as Nb and Al, and even in high-Tc, intrinsic superconductors. We report results of superconducting-to normal state switching experiments below 1 K using MgB2-based Josephson heterojunctions with Pb and Nb counter-electrodes. Measurements were made with and without RF excitation. With microwaves, we see evidence of a resonant peak, in addition to the primary escape (from ground state) peak -- consistent with resonant activation. We also observe features suggestive of macroscopic quantum tunneling including peaks in the escape rate enhancements and an ``elbow'' in the graph of calculated escape temperatures Tesc versus sample temperature.

  2. Motion-base simulator results of advanced supersonic transport handling qualities with active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, J. B.; Joshi, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    Handling qualities of the unaugmented advanced supersonic transport (AST) are deficient in the low-speed, landing approach regime. Consequently, improvement in handling with active control augmentation systems has been achieved using implicit model-following techniques. Extensive fixed-based simulator evaluations were used to validate these systems prior to tests with full motion and visual capabilities on a six-axis motion-base simulator (MBS). These tests compared the handling qualities of the unaugmented AST with several augmented configurations to ascertain the effectiveness of these systems. Cooper-Harper ratings, tracking errors, and control activity data from the MBS tests have been analyzed statistically. The results show the fully augmented AST handling qualities have been improved to an acceptable level.

  3. TRPA1 activation by lidocaine in nerve terminals results in glutamate release increase

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, L.-H.; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, C.-Y.; Liu Tao; Yue, H.-Y.; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2009-02-20

    We examined the effects of local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices with whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Bath-applied lidocaine (1-5 mM) dose-dependently and reversibly increased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) in SG neurons. Lidocaine activity was unaffected by the Na{sup +}-channel blocker, tetrodotoxin, and the TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine, but was inhibited by the TRP antagonist, ruthenium red. In the same neuron, the TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate, and lidocaine both increased sEPSC frequency. In contrast, procaine did not produce presynaptic enhancement. These results indicate that lidocaine activates TRPA1 in nerve terminals presynaptic to SG neurons to increase the spontaneous release of L-glutamate.

  4. Withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration results in dysregulated functional activity and altered locomotor activity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S.; Beveridge, Thomas J.R.; Jones, Sara R.; Porrino, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Much work has focused on determining the consequences of cocaine self-administration on specific neurotransmitter systems, thus neglecting the global changes that occur. Previous imaging studies have focused on the effects of cocaine self-administration in the presence of high blood levels of cocaine, but have not determined the functional effects of cocaine self-administration after cocaine has cleared. Extended-access cocaine self-administration, where animals administer cocaine for 6 hours each day, results in escalation in the rate of cocaine intake and is believed to model the transition from recreational use to addiction in humans. We aimed to determine the functional changes following acute (48 hours) withdrawal from an extended-access, defined intake self-administration paradigm (5 days, 40 inj/day, 6hrs/day), a time point when behavioral changes are present. Using the 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method to measure rates of local cerebral glucose metabolism, an indicator of functional activity, we found reductions in circuits related to learning and memory, attention, sleep, and reward processing, which have important clinical implications for cocaine addiction. Additionally, lower levels of functional activity were found in the dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus, suggesting that cocaine self-administration may have broader effects on brain function than previously noted. These widespread neurochemical reductions were concomitant with substantial behavioral differences in these animals, highlighted by increased vertical activity and decreased stereotypy. These data demonstrate that behavioral and neurochemical impairments following cocaine self-administration are present in the absence of drug and persist after cocaine has been cleared PMID:24118121

  5. Long term results of mechanical prostheses for treatment of active infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, J; Tornos, M; Permanyer-Miralda, G; Almirante, B; Murtra, M; Soler-Soler, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To analyse the long term results of mechanical prostheses for treating active infective endocarditis.
DESIGN—Prospective cohort study of a consecutive series of patients diagnosed with infective endocarditis and operated on in the active phase of the infection for insertion of a mechanical prosthesis.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre in a metropolitan area.
RESULTS—Between 1975 and 1997, 637 cases of infective endocarditis were diagnosed in the centre. Of these, 436 were left sided (with overall mortality of 20.3%). Surgical treatment in the active phase of the infection was needed in 141 patients (72% native, 28% prosthetic infective endocarditis). Mechanical prostheses were used in 131 patients. Operative mortality was 30.5% (40 patients). Ninety one survivors were followed up prospectively for (mean (SD)) 5.4 (4.5) years. Thirteen patients developed prosthetic valve dysfunction. Nine patients suffered reinfection: four of these (4%) were early and five were late. The median time from surgery for late reinfection was 1.4 years. During follow up, 12 patients died. Excluding operative mortality, actuarial survival was 86.6% at five years and 83.7% at 10 years; actuarial survival free from death, reoperation, and reinfection was 73.1% at five years and 59.8% at 10 years.
CONCLUSIONS—In patients surviving acute infective endocarditis and receiving mechanical prostheses, the rate of early reinfection compares well with reported results of homografts. In addition, prosthesis dysfunction rate is low and long term survival is good. These data should prove useful for comparison with long term studies, when available, using other types of valve surgery in active infective endocarditis.


Keywords: infective endocarditis; surgery; mechanical prosthesis PMID:11410564

  6. Efficacy and causal mechanism of an online social media intervention to increase physical activity: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Brackbill, Devon; Yang, Sijia; Centola, Damon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify what features of social media – promotional messaging or peer networks – can increase physical activity. Method: A 13-week social media-based exercise program was conducted at a large Northeastern university in Philadelphia, PA. In a randomized controlled trial, 217 graduate students from the University were randomized to three conditions: a control condition with a basic online program for enrolling in weekly exercise classes led by instructors of the University for 13 weeks, a media condition that supplemented the basic program with weekly online promotional media messages that encourage physical activity, and a social condition that replaced the media content with an online network of four to six anonymous peers composed of other participants of the program, in which each participant was able to see their peers' progress in enrolling in classes. The primary outcome was the number of enrollments in exercise classes, and the secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activities. Data were collected in 2014. Results: Participants enrolled in 5.5 classes on average. Compared with enrollment in the control condition (mean = 4.5), promotional messages moderately increased enrollment (mean = 5.7, p = 0.08), while anonymous social networks significantly increased enrollment (mean = 6.3, p = 0.02). By the end of the program, participants in the social condition reported exercising moderately for an additional 1.6 days each week compared with the baseline, which was significantly more than an additional 0.8 days in the control condition. Conclusion: Social influence from anonymous online peers was more successful than promotional messages for improving physical activity. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02267369. PMID:26844132

  7. Activation of TLR3/interferon signaling pathway by bluetongue virus results in HIV inhibition in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ming; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Sang, Ming; Liu, Jin-Biao; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus, is a potent inducer of type Ι interferons in multiple cell systems. In this study, we report that BTV16 treatment of primary human macrophages induced both type I and III IFN expression, resulting in the production of multiple antiviral factors, including myxovirus resistance protein A, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and the IFN-stimulated gene 56. Additionally, BTV-treated macrophages expressed increased HIV restriction factors (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 G/F/H) and CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted), the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor CC chemokine receptor type 5. BTV16 also induced the expression of tetherin, which restricts HIV release from infected cells. Furthermore, TLR3 signaling of macrophages by BTV16 resulted in the induction of several anti-HIV microRNAs (miRNA-28, -29a, -125b, -150, -223, and -382). More importantly, the induction of antiviral responses by BTV resulted in significant suppression of HIV in macrophages. These findings demonstrate the potential of BTV-mediated TLR3 activation in macrophage innate immunity against HIV. PMID:26296370

  8. Random Mutagenesis of the Aspergillus oryzae Genome Results in Fungal Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Cory A; Brown, Stacy D; Hayman, J Russell

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacteria cause severe infections in hospitals and communities. Development of new drugs to combat resistant microorganisms is needed. Natural products of microbial origin are the source of most currently available antibiotics. We hypothesized that random mutagenesis of Aspergillus oryzae would result in secretion of antibacterial compounds. To address this hypothesis, we developed a screen to identify individual A. oryzae mutants that inhibit the growth of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. To randomly generate A. oryzae mutant strains, spores were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Over 3000 EMS-treated A. oryzae cultures were tested in the screen, and one isolate, CAL220, exhibited altered morphology and antibacterial activity. Culture supernatant from this isolate showed antibacterial activity against Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but not Klebsiella pneumonia or Proteus vulgaris. The results of this study support our hypothesis and suggest that the screen used is sufficient and appropriate to detect secreted antibacterial fungal compounds resulting from mutagenesis of A. oryzae. Because the genome of A. oryzae has been sequenced and systems are available for genetic transformation of this organism, targeted as well as random mutations may be introduced to facilitate the discovery of novel antibacterial compounds using this system. PMID:23983696

  9. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  10. Safety and environmental analyses and conclusions for TIBER-II

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Stasko, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The safety and environmental characteristics of the TIBER-II (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design have been studied, focusing on innovative design features. Analyses included accident concerns, maintenance exposure, effluent control, and waste management. Unresolved problems include removal of decay heat from the high activation tungsten inboard shield, provision for rapid, passive, and benign plasma shutoff, compatibility between liquid-metal test modules and water-cooled blanket/shield, and elimination of high level wastes. 3 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  12. Video and film analysis with correlation tracking and active result presentation (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowa, Per

    1990-08-01

    Experience with a turnkey analysis system featuring high resolution video input and display, a modular video disc system and a 16 mm cine film scanner with 2600-point resolution, is presented. Tracking is performed with a high-speed correlation process, requiring no special markers. Software packages for evaluating two and three-dimensional results are interactively accessible. Combining the original image sequence with real-time graphic overlays and active drawing of graphic diagrams, provides for an excellent understanding and documentation of the motion sequences.

  13. Fluctuations and resulting competing pathways in RNA folding: The activation of splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Ariel

    1991-01-01

    We implement a parallel processing Monte Carlo simulation to explore RNA configuration space that takes into account fluctuations in base-pairing patterns. The choice of folding pathways is biased by the refolding events that occur as the chain is being assembled. We prove that fluctuations in the initial stages of folding might lead to either active or inactive emerging structures. As an illustration, competing pathways that are the result of fluctuation propagation are computed for the splicing YC4 intron (a segment of the mitochondrial RNA from fungi), and the emerging structures are proved to be biologically relevant.

  14. Oritavancin Activity Tested against Molecularly Characterized Staphylococci and Enterococci Displaying Elevated Linezolid MIC Results.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo E; Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Flamm, Robert K; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-06-01

    Oritavancin (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 to 0.12 μg/ml) had potent activity against linezolid-resistant staphylococci, as well as Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (oritavancin MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml against both species). All linezolid-resistant isolates were inhibited by oritavancin at ≤0.12 μg/ml. These results confirmed the absence of cross-resistance between linezolid and oritavancin in staphylococci and enterococci. PMID:27001823

  15. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-04-01

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  16. The Formation of CIRs at Stream-Stream Interfaces and Resultant Geomagnetic Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.

    2005-01-01

    Corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are regions of compressed plasma formed at the leading edges of corotating high-speed solar wind streams originating in coronal holes as they interact with the preceding slow solar wind. Although particularly prominent features of the solar wind during the declining and minimum phases of the 11-year solar cycle, they may also be present at times of higher solar activity. We describe how CIRs are formed, and their geomagnetic effects, which principally result from brief southward interplanetary magnetic field excursions associated with Alfven waves. Seasonal and long-term variations in these effects are briefly discussed.

  17. Active vibration absorber for the CSI evolutionary model - Design and experimental results. [Controls Structures Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstrations to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility has been developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The paper discusses the design of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. Experimental results in the presence of these factors are presented and discussed. The robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated.

  18. Results from the Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program: Their use in inspection activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.; Taylor, J. )

    1990-09-01

    The US NCR's Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has determined the susceptibility to aging of components and systems, and the potential for aging to impact plant safety and availability. The NPAR Program also identified methods for detecting and mitigating aging in components. This report describes the NPAR results which can enhance NRC inspection activities. Recommendations are provided for communicating pertinent information to NRC inspectors. These recommendations are based on a detailed assessment of the NRC's Inspection Program, and feedback from resident and regional inspectors as described within. Examples of NPAR report summaries and aging inspection guides for components and systems are included. 13 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Active behavior of abdominal wall muscles: Experimental results and numerical model formulation.

    PubMed

    Grasa, J; Sierra, M; Lauzeral, N; Muñoz, M J; Miana-Mena, F J; Calvo, B

    2016-08-01

    In the present study a computational finite element technique is proposed to simulate the mechanical response of muscles in the abdominal wall. This technique considers the active behavior of the tissue taking into account both collagen and muscle fiber directions. In an attempt to obtain the computational response as close as possible to real muscles, the parameters needed to adjust the mathematical formulation were determined from in vitro experimental tests. Experiments were conducted on male New Zealand White rabbits (2047±34g) and the active properties of three different muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Oblique and multi-layered samples formed by three muscles (External Oblique, Internal Oblique, and Transversus Abdominis) were characterized. The parameters obtained for each muscle were incorporated into a finite strain formulation to simulate active behavior of muscles incorporating the anisotropy of the tissue. The results show the potential of the model to predict the anisotropic behavior of the tissue associated to fibers and how this influences on the strain, stress and generated force during an isometric contraction. PMID:27111629

  20. Humic fractions of forest, pasture and maize crop soils resulting from microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Rose Luiza Moraes; Nahas, Ely

    2014-01-01

    Humic substances result from the degradation of biopolymers of organic residues in the soil due to microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different ecosystems: forest, pasture and maize crop on the formation of soil humic substances relating to their biological and chemical attributes. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiratory activity, nitrification potential, total organic carbon, soluble carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions and the rate and degree of humification were determined. Organic carbon and soluble carbon contents decreased in the order: forest > pasture > maize; humic and fulvic acids decreased in the order forest > pasture = maize. The MBC and respiratory activity were not influenced by the ecosystems; however, the nitrification potential was higher in the forest than in other soils. The rate and degree of humification were higher in maize soil indicating greater humification of organic matter in this system. All attributes studied decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, with the exception of the rate and degree of humification. Significant and positive correlations were found between humic and fulvic acids contents with MBC, microbial respiration and nitrification potential, suggesting the microbial influence on the differential formation of humic substances of the different ecosystems. PMID:25477932

  1. The smelling of Hedione results in sex-differentiated human brain activity.

    PubMed

    Wallrabenstein, I; Gerber, J; Rasche, S; Croy, I; Kurtenbach, S; Hummel, T; Hatt, H

    2015-06-01

    A large family of vomeronasal receptors recognizes pheromone cues in many animals including most amphibia, reptiles, rhodents, and other mammals. Humans possess five vomeronasal-type 1 receptor genes (VN1R1-VN1R5), which code for proteins that are functional in recombinant expression systems. We used two different recombinant expression systems and identified Hedione as a ligand for the putative human pheromone receptor VN1R1 expressed in the human olfactory mucosa. Following the ligand identification, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy volunteers to characterize the in vivo action of the VN1R1 ligand Hedione. In comparison to a common floral odor (phenylethyl alcohol), Hedione exhibited significantly enhanced activation in limbic areas (amygdala, hippocampus) and elicited a sex-differentiated response in a hypothalamic region that is associated with hormonal release. Utilizing a novel combination of methods, our results indicate that the putative human pheromone receptor VN1R1 is involved in extra-olfactory neuronal activations induced by the odorous substance Hedione. The activation of VN1R1 might play a role in gender-specific modulation of hormonal secretion in humans. PMID:25797832

  2. Humic fractions of forest, pasture and maize crop soils resulting from microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Rose Luiza Moraes; Nahas, Ely

    2014-01-01

    Humic substances result from the degradation of biopolymers of organic residues in the soil due to microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different ecosystems: forest, pasture and maize crop on the formation of soil humic substances relating to their biological and chemical attributes. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiratory activity, nitrification potential, total organic carbon, soluble carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions and the rate and degree of humification were determined. Organic carbon and soluble carbon contents decreased in the order: forest > pasture > maize; humic and fulvic acids decreased in the order forest > pasture=maize. The MBC and respiratory activity were not influenced by the ecosystems; however, the nitrification potential was higher in the forest than in other soils. The rate and degree of humification were higher in maize soil indicating greater humification of organic matter in this system. All attributes studied decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, with the exception of the rate and degree of humification. Significant and positive correlations were found between humic and fulvic acids contents with MBC, microbial respiration and nitrification potential, suggesting the microbial influence on the differential formation of humic substances of the different ecosystems. PMID:25477932

  3. Nighttime instabilities of neurophysiological, cardiovascular, and respiratory activity: integrative modeling and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Shusterman, Vladimir; Troy, William C; Abdelmessih, Medhat; Hoffman, Stacy; Nemec, Jan; Strollo, Patrick J; London, Barry; Lampert, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Unstable (cyclical alternating pattern, or CAP) sleep is associated with surges of sympathetic nervous system activity, increased blood pressure and vasoconstriction, heightened baroreflex sensitivity, and unstable heart rhythm and breathing. In susceptible persons, CAP sleep provokes clinically significant events, including hypertensive crises, sleep-disordered breathing, and cardiac arrhythmias. Here we explore the neurophysiology of CAP sleep and its impact on cardiovascular and respiratory functions. We show that: (i) an increase in neurophysiological recovery rate can explain the emergence of slow, self-sustained, hypersynchronized A1 CAP-sleep pattern and its transition to the faster A2-A3 CAP-sleep patterns; (ii) in a two-dimensional, continuous model of cardiac tissue with heterogeneous action potential duration (APD) distribution, heart rate accelerations during CAP sleep may encounter incompletely recovered electrical excitability in cell clusters with longer APD. If the interaction between short cycle length and incomplete, spatially heterogeneous repolarization persists over multiple cycles, irregularities and asymmetry of depolarization front may accumulate and ultimately lead to a conduction block, retrograde conduction, breakup of activation waves, reentrant activity, and arrhythmias; and (iii) these modeling results are consistent with the nighttime data obtained from patients with structural heart disease (N=13) that show clusters of atrial and ventricular premature beats occurring during the periods of unstable heart rhythm and respiration that accompany CAP sleep. In these patients, CAP sleep is also accompanied by delayed adaptation of QT intervals and T-wave alternans. PMID:26341647

  4. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cichocki, Martin; Quehenberger, Viktoria; Zeiler, Michael; Adamcik, Tanja; Manousek, Matthias; Stamm, Tanja; Krajic, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs) and participants (health status, discipline) rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL). Participants and methods The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female). Results Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36) improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure). No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied. Conclusion Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. PMID:26056438

  5. Social work roles and activities regarding psychiatric medication: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Kia J; Walsh, Joseph; Farmer, Rosemary L

    2005-10-01

    This article reports the findings of a 2001 national survey of social workers regarding their everyday practice roles and activities regarding psychiatric medication. The results of this quantitative study indicate variability in the types of roles carried out by social workers with regard to psychiatric medication, but that perceptions of competence and appropriateness in these roles tended to be positively associated with frequency of roles performed. Using content analysis of two open-ended questions, the authors present themes for respondents' keys to success and desired changes in working with clients and colleagues around psychiatric medication. The results suggest that achieving greater role breadth and competence with regard to psychiatric medications may be best achieved by increasing social workers' knowledge about psychiatric medication, increasing their use of specific intervention skills, and increasing the frequency of professional contact between clinicians and prescribing physicians. PMID:17892239

  6. Surface electromagnetic impedance and geomagnetic activity: results of long term observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemperger, István; Menvielle, Menvielle; Wesztergom, Viktor; Bencze, Pál; Szendrői, Judit; Novák, Attila; Kis, Árpád; Szalai, Sándor

    2014-05-01

    The magnetotelluric (MT) method is one of the most useful geophysical tool to discover even the deep subsurface structures. The target function of the MT data processing is the surface electromagnetic (EM) impedance. In case of practical MT exploration the surface EM impedance is computed based on a simplification related to the nature of the ionospheric source of the surface EM signals. Assuming that the ionospheric current systems result in homogeneous surface electromagnetic variations, the uncertainty of the computed surface electromagnetic impedance tensor depends only the duration of the EM observation. However the surface EM field can only be approached by plane waves in certain time periods and besides given uncertainty. The EM impedance may be sensitive to magnetospheric and -indirectly- interplanetary circumstances and solar activity. Four years continuous observation of telluric and surface geomagnetic components allowed to perform a representative survey to discover if geomagnetic activity has any effect on observed EM impedance tensor. Geomagnetic indices (Dst, ULF-index, ASY-H, SYM-H) have been used to classify dates according to geomagnetic activity. Processing to estimate the mean surface EM impedance tensor has been performed in each dataset, each class separately. The sensitivity and the characteristics of the answer of the EM impedance tensor to the geomagnetic disturbances seems to be definite. This presentation aims to briefly summarize the preliminary results of our study based on the unique dataset of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Obsevatory (Intermagnet code:NCK). In addition, pointing out the limitations of the routine way of practical MT data processing and interpretation is an important duty of this study. This study was supported by the TAMOP-4.2.2.C-11/1/KONV-2012-0015 (Earth-system) project sponsored by the EU and European Social Foundation.

  7. OFF-GAS MERCURY CONTROL USING SULFUR-IMPREGNATED ACTIVATED CARBON – TEST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg

    2007-05-01

    Several laboratory and pilot-scale tests since the year 2000 have included demonstrations of off-gas mercury control using fixed bed, sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. These demonstrations have included operation of carbon beds with gas streams containing a wide range of mercury and other gas species concentrations representing off-gas from several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed waste treatment processes including electrical resistance heated (joule-heated) glass melters, fluidized bed calciners, and fluidized bed steam reformers. Surrogates of various DOE mixed waste streams (or surrogates of offgas from DOE mixed waste streams) including INL “sodium bearing waste” (SBW), liquid “low activity waste” (LAW) from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and liquid waste from Savannah River National Laboratory (“Tank 48H waste”) have been tested. Test results demonstrate mercury control efficiencies up to 99.999%, high enough to comply with the Hazardous Waste (HWC) Combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards even when the uncontrolled off-gas mercury concentrations exceed 400,000 ug/dscm (at 7% O2), and confirm carbon bed design parameters for such high efficiencies. Results of several different pilot-scale and engineering-scale test programs performed over several years are presented and compared.

  8. A highly sensitive telomerase activity assay that eliminates false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2013-01-01

    An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity. PMID:24071983

  9. Behavioral Economics, Wearable Devices, and Cooperative Games: Results From a Population-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    exchanged GOODcoins, the mean balance was 4,000 (95% CI 3850, 4150) at time of redemption, and 50.4% (n=61) of exchanges were for fitness or outdoor products, while 4.1% (n=5) were for food-related items. Participants were most likely to complete challenges when rewards were between 201-300 GOODcoins. Conclusions The purpose of this study is to form a baseline for future research. Overall, results indicate that challenges and incentives may be effective for connected and active members, and may play a role in achieving daily-recommended activity guidelines. Registrants were typically younger, walking was the primary activity, and rewards were mainly exchanged for fitness or outdoor products. Remaining to be determined is whether members were already physically active at time of registration and are representative of healthy adherers, or were previously inactive and were incentivized to change their behavior. As challenges are gamified, there is an opportunity to investigate the role of superusers and healthy adherers, impacts on behavioral norms, and how cooperative games and incentives can be leveraged across stratified populations. Study limitations and future research agendas are discussed. PMID:26821955

  10. Conclusions and Recommendations of the Strategy Consulation on Adolescent Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    The problem of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing is addressed. The document is a result of a conference of youth service agencies, family planning organizations, policy makers, health service providers, and leaders in sex education. Following summaries of participants' discussion of the nature of the problem and strategies for program…

  11. Drawing conclusions: an intergenerational transmission of violence perspective.

    PubMed

    Levendosky, Alytia A

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the articles in this special issue on the effects of intimate partner violence on women and children, integrating the findings into critical questions about intergenerational transmission of violence. The author's own psychodynamically informed framework is used to interpret the results of the studies. Finally, clinically relevant implications and research directions are briefly proposed. PMID:23713624

  12. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED)-XL life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    OLED displays have been known to exhibit high levels of performance with regards to contrast, response time, uniformity, and viewing angle, but a lifetime improvement has been perceived to be essential for broadening the applications of OLED's in the military and in the commercial market. As a result of this need, the US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to improve the lifetime of OLED displays. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications, and RDECOM CERDEC NVESD ran life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the XL devices over the standard displays. Early results were published at the 2007 SPIE Defense and Security Symposium. Further life testing of XL and standard devices at ambient conditions and at high temperatures will be presented this year along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be needed. This is a continuation of the paper "Life test results of OLED-XL long-life devices for use in active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays for head mounted applications" presented at SPIE DSS in 2007.

  13. Smoke exposure of human macrophages reduces HDAC3 activity, resulting in enhanced inflammatory cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Aaron R; Nocka, Karl N; Williams, Cara M M

    2012-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a debilitating condition resulting from exposure to pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Pulmonary macrophages secrete a plethora of inflammatory mediators that are increased in the lungs of COPD patients, but whether this phenotype results directly from smoke exposure remains unknown. Using an in vitro model for alveolar macrophages (AM) derived from human peripheral blood monocytes with granulocyte-macrophage stimulating factor (GM-MØ), we analyzed the mechanistic connection between cigarette smoke exposure and histone deacetylase (HDAC) regulation, hypothesized to be a contributing factor in COPD pathophysiology. Here we show that acute smoke exposure inhibits HDAC enzymatic activity in GM-MØ. Analysis of mRNA and total cellular proteins for expression of class I (1, 2, 3 and 8), class II (4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10), and class IV (11) HDAC revealed no effect of smoke exposure, whereas nuclear HDAC3 protein content was reduced. To better understand the physiological significance of reduced HDAC3 activity, we utilized siRNA to knockdown HDAC1, 2 and 3 individually. Interestingly, siRNA-mediated reduction of HDAC3 resulted in increased production of IL8 and IL1β in response to LPS stimulation, while HDAC2 knockdown had no effect on either cytokine. Lower nuclear content of HDAC3 in the context of equivalent total HDAC protein levels following smoke exposure may reflect increased nuclear export of HDAC3, allowing increased nuclear factor kappa b (NF-κB ) driven cytokine expression that can contribute to inflammation. PMID:22613758

  14. Ten-year study on acid precipitation nears conclusion

    SciTech Connect

    Olem, H. )

    1990-04-01

    Results from the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) are discussed. Final results are contained in 26 state of the science reports. Seven of the reports provide information on acid rain and aquatic ecosystems. They describe the current state of acidic surface waters, watershed processes affecting surface water chemistry, historical evidence for surface water acidification, methods for forecasting future changes, and the response of acidic surface water to liming. Six areas of the country were found to be of special interest: southwest Adirondacks, New England, forested areas of the mid-Atlantic highlands, the Atlantic coastal plain, the northern Florida highlands, parts of northeastern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Environmental effects, mitigation efforts and possible legislation are briefly discussed.

  15. Standard spacecraft economic analysis. Volume 2: Findings and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, E. D.; Large, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    The comparative program costs associated with use of various standardized spacecraft for Air Force space test program missions to be flown on the space shuttle were studied in two phases. In the first phase, a variety of procurement mixes composed of existing or programmed NASA standard spacecraft designs and an Air Force standard spacecraft design were considered. The second phase dealt with additional procurement options using an upgraded version of an existing NASA design. The results of both phases are discussed.

  16. CCN Activity, Hygroscopicity, and Droplet Activation Kinetics of Secondary Organic Aerosol Resulting from the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Lathem, T. L.; Cerully, K.; Bahreini, R.; Brock, C. A.; Langridge, J. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Nenes, A.; Calnex Science Team

    2010-12-01

    We present an analysis of the hygroscopicity and droplet activation kinetics of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) sampled onboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D aircraft downwind of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill site on June 8th and 10th, 2010. This set of measurements provides a unique case study for assessing in-situ the impact of fresh, hydrocarbonlike aerosols, which are expected to be formed via gas-to-particle conversion of the semi-volatile vapors released from oil evaporation. Similar hydrocarbon-rich aerosols constitute an important local emissions source in urban areas, but often coexist as an external/partially-internal mixture with more-oxidized, aged organic and sulfate aerosol. The DWH site provides the means to study the hygroscopic properties of these less-oxidized organic aerosols above a cleaner environmental background typical of marine environments in order to better discern their contribution to CCN activity and droplet growth. Measurements were performed with a Droplet Measurement Technologies Streamwise, Thermal-Gradient CCN counter, operating both as a counter (s=0.3%) and as a spectrometer (s=0.2-0.6%) using the newly-developed Scanning Flow CCN Analysis (SFCA) technique [1]. The instrument measures both the number concentration of particles able to nucleate droplets and also their resulting droplet sizes. The measured size information combined with a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics instrument model enables us to determine the rate of water uptake onto the particles and parameterize it in terms of an effective mass transfer coefficient [2], a key parameter needed to predict the number of activated droplets in ambient clouds. Non-refractory aerosol chemical composition was measured with an Aerodyne compact time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. It was observed that the aerosols sampled downwind of the site on both days were composed predominantly of organics with a low degree of oxidation and low

  17. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20) were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94). Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p < 0.001) self-reported journey duration was over-reported (mean difference 154 s per journey; 95% CI = 89 to 218 s; 95% limits of agreement = 154 ± 598 s (-444 to 752 s)). The device also provided visual data that was used for directed interviews about sources of error. Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration. PMID:21599935

  18. Alteration of rare earth element distribution as a result of microbial activity and empirical methane injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, D. J.; Davies, N. W.; Thurber, A. R.; Haley, B. A.; Colwell, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    As a result of warming, methane is being released into the marine environment in areas that have not historically experienced methane input. While methane is a potent greenhouse gas, microbial oxidation of methane within the sediment greatly limits the role of marine methane sources on atmospheric forcing. However, in these areas of new methane release, consumption of methane prior to its release into the atmosphere is a result of the response of the microbial community to this new input of methane. Further, rare earth elements (REEs) are not currently thought to be involved with microbial activity, but this assumption has not been rigorously tested. Here we test that: (1) microbial communities will rapidly respond to the onset of methane emission, and (2) the microbial response to this methane input will impact the distribution of REEs within the sediment. Undisturbed cores sampled from a tidal flat at Yaquina Bay, OR, were brought back to a lab and injected with anoxic seawater (as a control) or anoxic sea water saturated with methane gas for a total of 2 weeks. Aerobic methanotrophs proliferated over this short time period, becoming an abundant member of the microbial community as identified using fatty acid biomarkers. Excitingly, the experimental injection of methane also shifted the distribution of REEs within the sediment, a trend that appeared to follow the microbial response and that was different from the control cores. Further, the lightest REEs appeared to be used more than the heavier ones, supporting that the REEs are being actively used by the microbes. While we focused on identifying the response of those microbes responsible in methane-cycling, we also identified how the entire microbial community shifts as a result of methane input, and correlating with shifts in REE distribution. Here we have empirically demonstrated the rapid response of methanotrophs to the onset of methane emission and that REE distribution within the sediment is likely

  19. The 1990 Hypobaric Decompression Sickness Workshop: Summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilmanis, Andrew A.; Stegmann, Barbara J.; Scoggins, Terrell E.

    1992-01-01

    Decompression sickness resulting from exposure to the hypobaric environment was reviewed and discussed at a three day workshop in Oct. 1990. This milestone meeting, attended by over 50 participants representing the Dept. of Defense, NASA, ESA, and academia, updated the current understanding of altitude decompression sickness (DCS). Both research and operational aspects of this illness were addressed through presentations on the pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of DCS, its incidence in aviation and space operations, and existing and proposed measures for DCS prevention. Specific areas requiring further research were also identified. A summary is presented for the material given at the workshop.

  20. REFRACTIVE SURGERY FOR HIGH AMETROPIES, A FEW CONCLUSIONS.

    PubMed

    Filip, Mircea; Nicolae, Miruna; Filip, Andrei; Dragne, Carmen; Triantafillydis, Grigorios; Antonescu, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a few clinical cases of patients with high ametropies and/or anisometropia, who underwent one or two surgical procedures in our clinic, in order to obtain independence of glasses or contact lenses. Twenty cases of high ametropies were included in our study, with or without astigmatism, with transparent lenses, who presented in our clinic for surgical treatment to correct their refractive errors. Postoperatively, we analyzed the results and took decisions for each case in particular; sometimes a second surgical procedure was needed. PMID:26978869

  1. Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

    2013-07-01

    IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8∘ declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

  2. Sonic hedgehog shedding results in functional activation of the solubilized protein.

    PubMed

    Ohlig, Stefanie; Farshi, Pershang; Pickhinke, Ute; van den Boom, Johannes; Höing, Susanne; Jakuschev, Stanislav; Hoffmann, Daniel; Dreier, Rita; Schöler, Hans R; Dierker, Tabea; Bordych, Christian; Grobe, Kay

    2011-06-14

    All Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are released from producing cells despite being synthesized as N- and C-terminally lipidated, membrane-tethered molecules. Thus, a cellular mechanism is needed for Hh solubilization. We previously suggested that a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)-mediated shedding of Sonic hedgehog (ShhNp) from its lipidated N and C termini results in protein solubilization. This finding, however, seemed at odds with the established role of N-terminal palmitoylation for ShhNp signaling activity. We now resolve this paradox by showing that N-palmitoylation of ShhNp N-terminal peptides is required for their proteolytic removal during solubilization. These peptides otherwise block ShhNp zinc coordination sites required for ShhNp binding to its receptor Patched (Ptc), explaining the essential yet indirect role of N-palmitoylation for ShhNp function. We suggest a functional model in which membrane-tethered multimeric ShhNp is at least partially autoinhibited in trans but is processed into fully active, soluble multimers upon palmitoylation-dependent cleavage of inhibitory N-terminal peptides. PMID:21664575

  3. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, F.; Bindslev, H.; Korsholm, S. B.; Furtula, V.; Leipold, F.; Michelsen, P. K.; Nielsen, S. K.; Salewski, M.; Leuterer, F.; Woskov, P.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.

    2008-10-15

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110 GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits of the diagnostic. It then describes the commissioning activities carried out to date. These activities include gyrotron studies, transmission line alignment, and beam pattern measurements in the vacuum vessel. Overlap experiments in near perpendicular and near parallel have confirmed the successful alignment of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen.

  4. Commissioning activities and first results from the collective Thomson scattering diagnostic on ASDEX Upgrade (invited).

    PubMed

    Meo, F; Bindslev, H; Korsholm, S B; Furtula, V; Leuterer, F; Leipold, F; Michelsen, P K; Nielsen, S K; Salewski, M; Stober, J; Wagner, D; Woskov, P

    2008-10-01

    The collective Thomson scattering (CTS) diagnostic installed on ASDEX Upgrade uses millimeter waves generated by the newly installed 1 MW dual frequency gyrotron as probing radiation at 105 GHz. It measures backscattered radiation with a heterodyne receiver having 50 channels (between 100 and 110 GHz) to resolve the one-dimensional velocity distribution of the confined fast ions. The steerable antennas will allow different scattering geometries to fully explore the anisotropic fast ion distributions at different spatial locations. This paper covers the capabilities and operational limits of the diagnostic. It then describes the commissioning activities carried out to date. These activities include gyrotron studies, transmission line alignment, and beam pattern measurements in the vacuum vessel. Overlap experiments in near perpendicular and near parallel have confirmed the successful alignment of the system. First results in near perpendicular of scattered spectra in a neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) plasma (minority hydrogen) on ASDEX Upgrade have shown evidence of ICRH heating phase of hydrogen. PMID:19044487

  5. Twist Model Development and Results From the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the wing twist of the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft is a fundamental research objective for the program and offers numerous benefits. In order to clearly understand the wing flexibility characteristics, a model was created to predict real-time wing twist. A reliable twist model allows the prediction of twist for flight simulation, provides insight into aircraft performance uncertainties, and assists with computational fluid dynamic and aeroelastic issues. The left wing of the aircraft was heavily instrumented during the first phase of the active aeroelastic wing program allowing deflection data collection. Traditional data processing steps were taken to reduce flight data, and twist predictions were made using linear regression techniques. The model predictions determined a consistent linear relationship between the measured twist and aircraft parameters, such as surface positions and aircraft state variables. Error in the original model was reduced in some cases by using a dynamic pressure-based assumption and by using neural networks. These techniques produced excellent predictions for flight between the standard test points and accounted for nonlinearities in the data. This report discusses data processing techniques and twist prediction validation, and provides illustrative and quantitative results.

  6. Twist Model Development and Results from the Active Aeroelastic Wing F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Allen, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the wing twist of the active aeroelastic wing (AAW) F/A-18 aircraft is a fundamental research objective for the program and offers numerous benefits. In order to clearly understand the wing flexibility characteristics, a model was created to predict real-time wing twist. A reliable twist model allows the prediction of twist for flight simulation, provides insight into aircraft performance uncertainties, and assists with computational fluid dynamic and aeroelastic issues. The left wing of the aircraft was heavily instrumented during the first phase of the active aeroelastic wing program allowing deflection data collection. Traditional data processing steps were taken to reduce flight data, and twist predictions were made using linear regression techniques. The model predictions determined a consistent linear relationship between the measured twist and aircraft parameters, such as surface positions and aircraft state variables. Error in the original model was reduced in some cases by using a dynamic pressure-based assumption. This technique produced excellent predictions for flight between the standard test points and accounted for nonlinearities in the data. This report discusses data processing techniques and twist prediction validation, and provides illustrative and quantitative results.

  7. Numerical Studies of Magnetohydrodynamic Activity Resulting from Inductive Transients Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sovinec, Carl R.

    2005-08-29

    This report describes results from numerical studies of transients in magnetically confined plasmas. The work has been performed by University of Wisconsin graduate students James Reynolds and Giovanni Cone and by the Principal Investigator through support from contract DE-FG02-02ER54687, a Junior Faculty in Plasma Science award from the DOE Office of Science. Results from the computations have added significantly to our knowledge of magnetized plasma relaxation in the reversed-field pinch (RFP) and spheromak. In particular, they have distinguished relaxation activity expected in sustained configurations from transient effects that can persist over a significant fraction of the plasma discharge. We have also developed the numerical capability for studying electrostatic current injection in the spherical torus (ST). These configurations are being investigated as plasma confinement schemes in the international effort to achieve controlled thermonuclear fusion for environmentally benign energy production. Our numerical computations have been performed with the NIMROD code (http://nimrodteam.org) using local computing resources and massively parallel computing hardware at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center. Direct comparisons of simulation results for the spheromak with laboratory measurements verify the effectiveness of our numerical approach. The comparisons have been published in refereed journal articles by this group and by collaborators at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (see Section 4). In addition to the technical products, this grant has supported the graduate education of the two participating students for three years.

  8. Optimal placement of piezoelectric plates for active vibration control of gas turbine blades: experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, F.; Marx, N.; Gentili, S.; Schwingshackl, C. W.; Di Mare, L.; Cerri, G.; Dini, D.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the gas turbine blade vibrations can give rise to catastrophic failures and a reduction of the blades life because of fatigue related phenomena[1]-[3] . In last two decades, the adoption of piezoelectric elements, has received considerable attention by many researcher for its potential applicability to different areas of mechanical, aerospace, aeronautical and civil engineering. Recently, a number of studies of blades vibration control via piezoelectric plates and patches have been reported[4]-[6] . It was reported that the use of piezoelectric elements can be very effective in actively controlling vibrations. In one of their previous contributions[7] , the authors of the present manuscript studied a model to control the blade vibrations by piezoelectric elements and validated their results using a multi-physics finite elements package (COMSOL) and results from the literature. An optimal placement method of piezoelectric plate has been developed and applied to different loading scenarios for realistic configurations encountered in gas turbine blades. It has been demonstrated that the optimal placement depends on the spectrum of the load, so that segmented piezoelectric patches have been considered and, for different loads, an optimal combination of sequential and/or parallel actuation and control of the segments has been studied. In this paper, an experimental investigation carried out by the authors using a simplified beam configuration is reported and discussed. The test results obtained by the investigators are then compared with the numerical predictions [7] .

  9. Tetraploidization of diploid Dioscorea results in activation of the antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Yi; Hu, Chun-Gen; Yao, Jia-Ling

    2010-01-15

    Polyploidy is reported to show increased tolerance to environmental stress. In this work, tetraploid plants of Dioscorea zingiberensis were obtained by colchicine treatment of shoots propagated in vitro. The highest tetraploid induction rate was achieved by treatment with 0.15% colchicine for 24h. Diploid and tetraploid plants were exposed to normal (28 degrees C) and high temperature (42 degrees C) for 5d during which physiological indices were measured. Compared with diploid plants, relative electrolyte leakage and contents of malondialdehyde, superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide were lower in tetraploids, while activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase, were stimulated and antioxidants (ascorbic acid and glutathione) were maintained at high concentrations. These results indicate that tetraploid plants possess a stronger antioxidant defense system and increased heat tolerance. PMID:19692145

  10. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%. PMID:26737144

  11. Active vibration absorber for CSI evolutionary model: Design and experimental results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Anne M.; Belvin, W. Keith; Horta, Lucas G.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    The development of control of large flexible structures technology must include practical demonstration to aid in the understanding and characterization of controlled structures in space. To support this effort, a testbed facility was developed to study practical implementation of new control technologies under realistic conditions. The design is discussed of a second order, acceleration feedback controller which acts as an active vibration absorber. This controller provides guaranteed stability margins for collocated sensor/actuator pairs in the absence of sensor/actuator dynamics and computational time delay. The primary performance objective considered is damping augmentation of the first nine structural modes. Comparison of experimental and predicted closed loop damping is presented, including test and simulation time histories for open and closed loop cases. Although the simulation and test results are not in full agreement, robustness of this design under model uncertainty is demonstrated. The basic advantage of this second order controller design is that the stability of the controller is model independent.

  12. 43 CFR 46.325 - Conclusion of the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to prepare an environmental impact statement; (2) A finding of no significant impact; or (3) A result... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Conclusion of the environmental assessment... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Assessments § 46.325 Conclusion...

  13. 43 CFR 46.325 - Conclusion of the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to prepare an environmental impact statement; (2) A finding of no significant impact; or (3) A result... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conclusion of the environmental assessment... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Assessments § 46.325 Conclusion...

  14. The "H5N1 publication case" and its conclusions.

    PubMed

    Becker, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The request of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) to the editors of the scientific journals SCIENCE and NATURE not to publish details on the modified H5N1-virus has surprisingly not caused a discussion on censorship within the scientific community (NSABB, 2012a, P.1). This may show that science generally acknowledges the necessity to cut out sensitive data from research results in publications that may serve as a manual for weapons of mass destruction. In this article the policy of the NSABB and the reaction of the scientific community is discussed, as well as the meaning of censorship in dual use research and how an appropriate organisation of future surveillance in sensitive science fields could be organised: To guarantee future undisturbed work in sensitive science fields, the establishment of an internationally organised frame for scientists dealing with dual-use-research is suggested. PMID:22910559

  15. Broad Consent For Research With Biological Samples: Workshop Conclusions

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Christine; Eckstein, Lisa; Berkman, Ben; Brock, Dan; Cook-Deegan, Robert; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Greely, Hank; Hansson, Mats G.; Hull, Sara; Kim, Scott; Lo, Bernie; Pentz, Rebecca; Rodriguez, Laura; Weil, Carol; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wendler, David

    2016-01-01

    Different types of consent are used to obtain human biospecimens for future research. This variation has resulted in confusion regarding what research is permitted, inadvertent constraints on future research, and research proceeding without consent. The NIH Clinical Center’s Department of Bioethics held a workshop to consider the ethical acceptability of addressing these concerns by using broad consent for future research on stored biospecimens. Multiple bioethics scholars, who have written on these issues, discussed the reasons for consent, the range of consent strategies, gaps in our understanding, and concluded with a proposal for broad initial consent coupled with oversight and, when feasible, ongoing provision of information to donors. The manuscript describes areas of agreement as well as areas that need more research and dialogue. Given recent proposed changes to the Common Rule, and new guidance regarding storing and sharing data and samples, this is an important and timely topic. PMID:26305750

  16. Hanford study: a review of its limitations and controversial conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-10-01

    The Hanford data set has attracted attention primarily because of analyses conducted by Mancuso, Stewart, and Kneale (MSK). These investigators claim that the Hanford data provide evidence that our current estimates of cancer mortality resulting from radiation exposure are too low, and advocate replacing estimates based on populations exposed at relatively high doses (such as the Japanese atom bomb survivors) with estimates based on the Hanford data. In this paper, it is shown that the only evidence of association of radiation exposure and mortality provided by the Hanford data is a small excess of multiple myeloma, and that this data set is not adequate for reliable risk estimation. It is demonstrated that confidence limits for risk estimates are very wide, and that the data are not adequate to differentiate among models. The more recent MSK analyses, which claim to provide adequate models and risk estimates, are critiqued. 18 references, 1 table.

  17. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  18. Conclusive evidence for panmixia in the American eel.

    PubMed

    Pujolar, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Eels are unique species in the biological world. The two North Atlantic eel species, the American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and the European eel (A. anguilla), occupy a broad range of habitats from the Caribbean to Greenland in the western Atlantic and from Morocco to Iceland in the eastern Atlantic, respectively. North Atlantic eels have a catadromous life cycle, spawning only in the Sargasso Sea and spending the majority of their lives in continental (fresh, brackish and coastal) waters. Despite such a wide distribution range, North Atlantic eels have been regarded as a textbook example of panmictic species. In contrast with the large amount of population genetic studies testing the panmixia hypothesis in the European eel, a relatively modest effort has been given to study the population structure of the American eel. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, C^ote et al. (2013) present the most comprehensive American eel data set to date, which includes samples of different life stages obtained throughout all its distribution range in North America. Results show a total lack of genetic differentiation among samples and provide decisive evidence for panmixia in the American eel. PMID:23620904

  19. Waste dislodging and conveyance testing summary and conclusions to date

    SciTech Connect

    Rinker, M.W.; Hatchell, B.K.; Mullen, O.D.

    1994-09-01

    This document summarizes recent work performed by the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance technology development program to provide assistance with the retrieval of wastes from the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). This work is sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Office with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. A baseline technology of high-pressure water-jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier is proposed as a means of retrieval. The tests and studies described were performed to demonstrate that at least one robust technology exists that could be effectively used with low water-addition arm-based systems. These results are preliminary and do not represent an optimized baseline. The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance work thus far has demonstrated that waterjet mobilization and air conveyance can mobilize and convey SST waste simulants at the target rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of deployment devices. The recommended technologies are well proven in industrial applications and are quite robust, yet lightweight and relatively benign to the retrieval environment. The baseline approach has versatility to continuously dislodge and convey a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes. The approach also has the major advantage of being noncontact with the waste surface under normal operation.

  20. Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration: Conclusions from Four Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johanna Oxstrand; Katya L. Le Blanc; John O'Hara; Jeffrey C. Joe; April M. Whaley; Heather Medema

    2013-11-01

    The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) research project is investigating how advanced technologies that are planned for Advanced Small Modular Reactors (AdvSMR) will affect the performance and the reliability of the plant from a human factors and human performance perspective. The HAC research effort investigates the consequences of allocating functions between the operators and automated systems. More specifically, the research team is addressing how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. Oxstrand et al. (2013 - March) describes the efforts conducted by the researchers to identify the research needs for HAC. The research team reviewed the literature on HAC, developed a model of HAC, and identified gaps in the existing knowledge of human-automation collaboration. As described in Oxstrand et al. (2013 – June), the team then prioritized the research topics identified based on the specific needs in the context of AdvSMR. The prioritization was based on two sources of input: 1) The preliminary functions and tasks, and 2) The model of HAC. As a result, three analytical studies were planned and conduced; 1) Models of Teamwork, 2) Standardized HAC Performance Measurement Battery, and 3) Initiators and Triggering Conditions for Adaptive Automation. Additionally, one field study was also conducted at Idaho Falls Power.

  1. Recent Simulation Conclusions for Damped-Oscillation Control

    SciTech Connect

    Kress, R.L.

    2001-02-19

    When suspended payloads are moved with an overhead crane, pendulum like oscillations are naturally introduced. This presents a problem any time a crane is used, especially when expensive and/or delicate objects are moved, when moving in a cluttered and/or hazardous environment, and when objects are to be placed in tight locations. For example, one nuclear waste-handling operation examined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is the transportation of heavy objects such as waste storage casks or barrels from one location to another through cluttered process facility environments or storage facilities. Typically, an object is lifted by a crane hook on the end of a cable, creating a pendulum that is free to swing during transit. This swinging motion makes remote positioning of casks or barrels difficult to control precisely and is potentially destructive to facility equipment and to other storage containers. Typically, a crane operator moves objects slowly to minimize induced swinging and allow time for oscillations to dampen, maintaining safety but greatly decreasing the efficiency of operations. Using damped-oscillation control algorithms is one approach to solving this problem. This paper summarizes recent simulation results in damped-oscillation-type control algorithms. It also discusses practical implementation issues including control algorithm robustness to payload length changes, hardware requirements for implementation of the control algorithms, and system limits on Coulomb friction.

  2. A happy conclusion to the SALT image quality saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crause, Lisa A.; O'Donoghue, Darragh E.; O'Connor, James E.; Strumpfer, Francois; Strydom, Ockert J.; Sass, Craig; du Plessis, Charl A.; Wiid, Eben; Love, Jonathan; Brink, Janus D.; Wilkinson, Martin; Coetzee, Chris

    2012-09-01

    Images obtained with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) during its commissioning phase showed degradation due to a large focus gradient and a variety of other optical aberrations. An extensive forensic investigation eventually traced the problem to the mechanical interface between the telescope and the secondary optics that form the Spherical Aberration Corrector (SAC). The SAC was brought down from the telescope in 2009 April, the problematic interface was replaced and the four corrector mirrors were optically tested and re-aligned. The surface figures of the SAC mirrors were confirmed to be within specification and a full system test following the re-alignment process yielded a RMS wavefront error of just 0.15 waves. The SAC was re-installed on the tracker in 2010 August and aligned with respect to the payload and primary mirror. Subsequent on-sky tests produced alarming results which were due to spurious signals being sent to the tracker by the auto-collimator, the instrument responsible for controlling the attitude of the SAC with respect to the primary mirror. Once this minor issue was resolved, we obtained uniform 1.1 arcsecond star images over the full 10 arcminute field of view of the telescope.

  3. Workshop observations, conclusions, and recommendations for moving forward

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Bangkok currently has enormous numbers of motorised vehicles. The number of motor vehicles registered in Bangkok in 1993 was about 2.6 million of which over 1 million were cars and around 1.1 million were motorcycles. The vehicle population is noticeably increasing at about 12% over the previous year, despite the traffic congestion which is nearly at gridlock. Overall average traffic speed in the Bangkok metropolitan area is around 10 km/h. However, during peak hours on some main roads in the central business area, the crawl rate is at 1-2 km/h, or only half walking pace. There are, however, several circumstances to be addressed before Bangkok can begin to overcome its air quality and congestion problems. The first is that many of the city`s transport planners that design transport projects, and the policymakers with investment authority appear to be caught in the same conventional transport planning paradigm as many other industrializing and industrialized countries. That paradigm, pioneered in the United States and exported to much of the world, defines the problems as a shortage of road space to meet demand for, private, vehicular mobility. The investment focus is almost exclusively on the construction of large road-based infrastructure to machines instead of people, while de-emphasizing other forms of transport such as rail, water, and non-motorized transport - even if they are a less expensive investment that can meet demand. The predominance of this paradigm results in a persistent myth held by many of Bangkok`s policymakers, transport and urban planners, financiers, and citizens. The myth is that the city does not have enough kilometers of roadways per person, and should focus on road and highway investment in order to solve their air quality and congestion problems.

  4. Why is the conclusion of the Gerda experiment not justified

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Krivosheina, I. V.

    2013-12-01

    The first results of the GERDA double beta experiment in Gran Sasso were recently presented. They are fully consistent with the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment, but because of its low statistics cannot proof anything at this moment. It is no surprise that the statistics is still far from being able to test the signal claimed by the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment. The energy resolution of the coaxial detectors is a factor of 1.5 worse than in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment. The original goal of background reduction to 10-2 counts/kg y keV, or by an order of magnitude compared to the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment, has not been reached. The background is only a factor 2.3 lower if we refer it to the experimental line width, i.e. in units counts/kg y energy resolution. With pulse shape analysis ( PSA) the back-ground in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment around Q ββ is 4 × 10-3 counts/kg y keV [1], which is a factor of 4 (5 referring to the line width) lower than that of GERDA with pulse shape analysis. The amount of enriched material used in the GERDA measurement is 14.6 kg, only a factor of 1.34 larger than that used in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment. The background model is oversimplified and not yet adequate. It is not shown that the lines of their background can be identified. GERDA has to continue the measurement further ˜5 years, until they can responsibly present an understood background. The present half life limit presented by GERDA of T {1/2/0v} > 2.1 × 1025 y (90% confidence level, i.e. 1.6ρ) is still lower than the half-life of T {1/2/0v} = 2.23{-0.31/+0.44} × 1025 y [1] determined in the HEIDELBERG-MOSCOW experiment.

  5. DETERMINING INCLINATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI VIA THEIR NARROW-LINE REGION KINEMATICS. I. OBSERVATIONAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.

    2013-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk.

  6. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, D.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.; Entin, J. K.; Njoku, E. G.; Kellogg, K.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission was launched on January 31, 2015. SMAP provides high-resolution, frequent revisit global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state based on coincident L-band radiometer and L-band radar measurements. The primary science goal of SMAP is to provide new perspectives on how the three fundamental cycles of the Earth system, the water, energy and carbon cycles, are linked together over land. Soil moisture is the key variable that links the three cycles and makes their co-variations synchronous in time. Soil moisture products with varying resolution and coverage are produced from the radiometer alone, radar alone, radiometer-radar combination and data assimilation. In this session the status of the SMAP observatory and early results based on the science data products will be included. The science data acquisition began in May 2015 following several weeks of observatory and instrument commissioning. An intense calibration and validation period followed. Preliminary science products on instrument measurements, soil moisture, landscape frozen or thawed status, and net ecosystem exchange are available at publicly-accessible data archives. The presentation will include early and summary results on the validation of these products. The instrument measurements can also be used to map sea-ice coverage, ocean surface winds and sea surface salinity. Examples of these global retrievals are also presented.

  7. Modulation of cortical activity as a result of voluntary postural sway direction: an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Slobounov, Semyon; Hallett, Mark; Cao, Cheng; Newell, Karl

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence demonstrating the role of the cerebral cortex in human postural control. Modulation of EEG both in voltage and frequency domains has been observed preceding and following self-paced postural movements and those induced by external perturbations. The current study set out to provide additional evidence regarding the role of cerebral cortex in human postural control by specifically examining modulation of EEG as a function of postural sway direction. Twelve neurologically normal subjects were instructed to produce self-paced voluntary postural sways in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) directions. The center of pressure dynamics and EEG both in voltage and frequency domains were extracted by averaging and Morlet wavelet techniques, respectively. The amplitude of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP) was significantly higher preceding ML sways. Also, time-frequency wavelet coefficients (TF) indicated differential modulation of EEG within alpha, beta and gamma bands as a function of voluntary postural sway direction. Thus, ML sway appear to be more difficult and energy demanding tasks than the AP sway as reflected in differential modulation of EEG. These results are discussed within the conceptual framework of differential patterns of brain activation as a result of postural task complexity. PMID:18639613

  8. Preliminary Results from the iMUSH Active Source Seismic Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, Alan; Kiser, Eric; Palomeras, Imma; Zelt, Colin; Schmandt, Brandon; Hansen, Steve; Harder, Steven; Creagar, Kenneth; Vidale, John; Abers, Geoffrey

    2015-04-01

    iMUSH (imaging Magma Under Saint Helens) is a US NSF sponsored multi-disciplinary investigation of Mount Saint Helens (MSH), currently the most active volcano in the Cascades arc in the northwestern United States. The project consists of active and passive seismic experiments, extensive magnetotelluric sounding, and geological/geochemical studies involving scientists at 7 institutions in the U.S. and Europe. The long-term goal of the seismic project is to combine analysis of the active source data with that of data from the 70 element broadband seismograph operating from summer 2014 until 2016. Combining seismic and MT analyses with other data, we hope to image the MSH volcanic plumbing system from the surface to the subducting Juan de Fuca slab. Here we describe preliminary results of the iMUSH active source seismic experiment, conducted in July and August 2014. The active source experiment consisted of twenty-three 454 or 908 kg weight shots recorded by ~3500 seismographs deployed at ~6,000 locations. Of these instruments, ~900 Nodal Seismic instruments were deployed continuously for two weeks in an areal array within 10 km of the MSH summit. 2,500 PASSCAL Texan instruments were deployed twice for five days in 3 areal arrays and 2 dense orthogonal linear arrays that extended from MSH to distances > 80 km. Overall the data quality from the shots is excellent. The seismograph arrays also recorded dozens of micro-earthquakes beneath the MSH summit and along the MSH seismic zone, and numerous other local and regional earthquakes. In addition, at least one low frequency event beneath MSH was recorded during the experiment. At this point we have begun various types of analysis of the data set: We have determined an average 1D Vp structure from stacking short-term/long-term average ratios, we have determined the 2-D Vp structure from ray-trace inversions along the two orthogonal profiles (in the NW-SE and NE-SW directions), and we have made low-fold CMP stacks of the

  9. Soil hydrological and soil property changes resulting from termite activity on agricultural fields in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mettrop, I.; Cammeraat, L. H.; Verbeeten, E.

    2009-04-01

    Termites are important ecosystem-engineers in subtropical and tropical regions. The effect of termite activity affecting soil infiltration is well documented in the Sahelian region. Most studies find increased infiltration rates on surfaces that are affected by termite activity in comparison to crusted areas showing non-termite presence. Crusted agricultural fields in the Sanmatenga region in Burkina Faso with clear termite activity were compared to control fields without visual ground dwelling termite activity. Fine scale rainfall simulations were carried out on crusted termite affected and control sites. Furthermore soil moisture change, bulk density, soil organic matter as well as general soil characteristics were studied. The top soils in the study area were strongly crusted (structural crust) after the summer rainfall and harvest of millet. They have a loamy sand texture underlain by a shallow sandy loam Bt horizon. The initial soil moisture conditions were significantly higher on the termite plots when compared to control sites. It was found that the amount of runoff produced on the termite plots was significantly higher, and also the volumetric soil moisture content after the experiments was significantly lower if compared to the control plots. Bulk density showed no difference whereas soil organic matter was significantly higher under termite affected areas, in comparison to the control plots. Lab tests showed no significant difference in hydrophobic behavior of the topsoil and crust material. Micro and macro-structural properties of the topsoil did not differ significantly between the termite sites and the control sites. The texture of the top 5 cm of the soil was also found to be not significantly different. The infiltration results are contradictory to the general literature, which reports increased infiltration rates after prolonged termite activity although mostly under different initial conditions. The number of nest entrances was clearly higher in

  10. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Results from the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sarah M.; Burgeson, Charlene R.; Fulton, Janet E.; Spain, Christine G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school-based physical activity programs consist of physical education and other physical activity opportunities including recess and other physical activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school initiatives. This article describes the characteristics of school physical education and…

  11. Characteristics of Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Williams, Barbara; Molina, Lourdes C.; Bayles, Constance; Bryant, Lucinda L.; Harris, Jeffrey R.; Hunter, Rebecca; Ivey, Susan; Watkins, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Although increased participation in physical activity by older adults is a major public health goal, little is known about the supply and use of physical activity programs in the United States. Design and Methods: Seven academic centers in diverse geographic areas surveyed physical activity programs for older adults. Five sites conducted…

  12. Repeated Activation of a CS-US-Contingency Memory Results in Sustained Conditioned Responding.

    PubMed

    Joos, Els; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Individuals seem to differ in conditionability, i.e., the ease by which the contingent presentation of two stimuli will lead to a conditioned response. In contemporary learning theory, individual differences in the etiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders are, among others, explained by individual differences in temperamental variables (Mineka and Zinbarg, 2006). One such individual difference variable is how people process a learning experience when the conditioning stimuli are no longer present. Repeatedly thinking about the conditioning experience, as in worry or rumination, might prolong the initial (fear) reactions and as such, might leave certain individuals more vulnerable to developing an anxiety disorder. However, in human conditioning research, relatively little attention has been devoted to the processing of a memory trace after its initial acquisition, despite its potential influences on subsequent performance. Post-acquisition processing can be induced by mental reiteration of a conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US)-contingency. Using a human conditioned suppression paradigm, we investigated the effect of repeated activations of a CS-US-contingency memory on the level of conditioned responding at a later test. Results of three experiments showed more sustained responding to a "rehearsed" CS+ as compared to a "non-rehearsed" CS+. Moreover, the second experiment showed no effect of rehearsal when only the CS was rehearsed instead of the CS-US-contingency. The third experiment demonstrated that mental CS-US-rehearsal has the same effect regardless of whether it was cued by the CS and a verbal reference to the US or by a neutral signal, making the rehearsal "purely mental." In sum, it was demonstrated that post-acquisition activation of a CS-US-contingency memory can impact conditioned responding, underlining the importance of post-acquisition processes in conditioning. This might indicate that individuals who are more prone to mentally

  13. Active Source Tomography of Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Results From the 2006 Seismic Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, L.; Patanè, D.; Cocina, O.; Castellano, M.; Sgroi, T.; Favali, P.; de Gori, P.

    2008-12-01

    Stromboli island, located in the Southern Tyrrhenian sea, is the emerged part (about 900 m a.s.l.) of a 3km-high strato-volcano. Its persistent Strombolian activity, documented for over 2000 years, is sometimes interrupted by lava effusions or major explosions. Despite the amount of recent published geophysical studies aimed to clarifying eruption dynamics, the spatial extend and geometrical characteristics of the plumbing system remain poorly understood. In fact, the knowledge of the inner structure and the zones of magma storage is limited to the upper few hundreds meters of the volcanic edifice and P- and S-waves velocity models are available only in restricted areas. In order to obtain a more suitable internal structural and velocity models of the volcano, from 25 November to 2 December 2006, a seismic tomography experiment through active seismics using air-gun sources was carried out and the final Vp model is here presented. The data has been inverted for the Vp structure by using the code Simulps13q, considering a 3D grid of nodes spaced 0.5 km down to 2 km depth, beneath the central part of volcano. The results show a relatively high velocity zones located both in the inner part of the volcanic structure, at about 1km b.s.l. and in the last 200-300 m a.s.l. in correspondence with the volcanic conduit. Slower zones were located around the summit craters in agreement with volcanological and petrological informations for the area. The relatively high velocity zones could suggest the presence of intrusive bodies related to the plumbing system.

  14. Upper Pleistocene - Holocene activity of the Carrascoy Fault (Murcia, SE Spain): preliminary results from paleoseismological research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Banda, Raquel; Garcia-Mayordomo, Julian; Insua-Arevalo, Juan M.; Salazar, Angel; Rodriguez-Escudero, Emilio; Alvarez-Gomez, Jose A.; Martinez-Diaz, Jose J.; Herrero, Maria J.; Medialdea, Alicia

    2014-05-01

    The Carrascoy Fault is located in the Internal Zones of the Betic Cordillera (Southern Spain). In particular, the Carrascoy Fault is one of the major faults forming the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, the main structure accommodating the convergence between Nubian and Eurasian plates in the westernmost Mediterranean. So far, the Carrascoy Fault has been defined as a left-lateral strike-slip fault. It extends for at least 31 km in a NE-SW trend from the village of Zeneta (Murcia) at its northeastern tip, to the Cañaricos village, controlling the northern edge of the Carrascoy Range and its linkage to the Guadalentin Depression towards the southwest. This is an area of moderate seismic activity, but densely populated, the capital of the region, Murcia, being settled very close to the fault. Hence, the knowledge of the structure and kinematics of the Carrascoy Fault is essential for assessing reliably the seismic hazard of the region. We present a detailed-scale geological and geomorphological map along the fault zone created from a LIDAR DEM combined with fieldwork, and geological and geophysical information. Furthermore, a number of trenches have been dug across the fault at different locations providing insights in the fault most recent activity as well as paleoseismic data. Preliminary results suggest that the Cararscoy Fault has recently changed its kinematic showing a near pure reverse motion. According to this, the fault can be divided into two distinct segments, the eastern one: Zeneta - Fuensanta, and the western one: Fuensanta - Cañaricos, each one having its own characteristic style and geodynamics. Some new active strands of the fault locate at the foot of the very first relief towards the North of the older strand, forming the current southern border of the Guadalentin Depression. These new faults show an increasingly reverse component westwards, so that the Fuensanta - Cañaricos segment is constituted by thrusts, which are blind at its western end

  15. ARGINASE 2 DEFICIENCY RESULTS IN SPONTANEOUS STEATOHEPATITIS: A NOVEL LINK BETWEEN INNATE IMMUNE ACTIVATION AND HEPATIC DE NOVO LIPOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Laura A.; Wree, Alexander; Povero, Davide; Berk, Michael P.; Eguchi, Akiko; Ghosh, Sudakshina; Papouchado, Bettina G.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Feldstein, Ariel E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Innate immune activation has been postulated as a central mechanism for disease progression from hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis in obesity-related fatty liver disease. Arginase 2 competes with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for its substrate and the balance between these two enzymes plays a crucial role in regulating immune responses and macrophage activation. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that arginase 2 deficiency in mice favors progression from isolated hepatic steatosis, induced by high fat feeding to steatohepatitis. METHODS Arginase 2-knockout (Arg2−/−) mice were studied for changes in liver histology and metabolic phenotype at baseline and after a short term course (7 week) feeding with a high fat (HFAT) diet. In additional experiments, Arg2−/− mice received tail vein injections of liposome-encapsulated clodronate (CLOD) over a three-week period to selectively deplete liver macrophages. RESULTS Unexpectedly, Arg2−/− mice showed profound changes in their livers at baseline characterized by significant steatosis as demonstrated with histological and biochemical analysis. These changes were independent of systemic metabolic parameters and associated with marked increase mRNA levels of genes involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Liver injury and inflammation were present with elevated serum ALT, marked infiltration of F4/80 positive cells, and increased mRNA levels of inflammatory genes. HFAT feeding exacerbated these changes. Macrophage depletion after CLOD injection significantly attenuated lipid deposition and normalized lipogenic mRNA profile of livers from Arg2−/− mice. CONCLUSIONS This study identifies arginase 2 as novel link between innate immune responses, hepatic lipid deposition, and liver injury. PMID:25234945

  16. Scanning L-Band Active Passive (SLAP)—FLIGHT Results from a New Airborne Simulator for Smap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E. J.; Faulkner, T.; Wu, A.; Patel, H.

    2014-12-01

    1. Introduction and BackgroundThis paper introduces a new NASA airborne instrument, the Scanning L-band Active Passive (SLAP), which is specially tailored to simulate SMAP. 2. Description of SLAPSLAP has both passive (radiometer) and active (radar) microwave L-band imaging capabilities. The radiometer observes at 1.4 GHz using duplicate front end hardware from the SMAP satellite radiometer. It also includes a duplicate of the digital backend development unit for SMAP, thus the novel Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation features and algorithms for SMAP are duplicated with very high fidelity in SLAP. The digital backend provides 4-Stokes polarization capability. The real-aperture radar operates in the 1215-1300 MHz band with quad-pol capability. Radar and radiometer share one antenna via diplexers that are spare units from the Aquarius satellite instrument. 3. Flight ResultsSLAP's initial flights were conducted in Dec 2013 over the eastern shore of Maryland and successfully demonstrated radiometer imaging over 2 full SMAP 36x36 km grid cells at 1km resolution within 3 hrs, easily meeting the SMAP post-launch cal/val airborne mapping requirements. A second flight on the same day also demonstrated SLAP's quick-turn abilities and high-resolution/wide-swath capabilities with 200m resolution across a 1500m swath from 2000 ft AGL. Additional flights were conducted as part of the GPM iPHEX campaign in May, 2014. 4. ConclusionThis paper presents flight data and imagery, as well as details of the radiometer and radar performance and calibration. The paper will also describe the mission performance achievable on the King Air and other platforms.

  17. Forensic scientists' conclusions: how readable are they for non-scientist report-users?

    PubMed

    Howes, Loene M; Kirkbride, K Paul; Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Kemp, Nenagh

    2013-09-10

    Scientists have an ethical responsibility to assist non-scientists to understand their findings and expert opinions before they are used as decision-aids within the criminal justice system. The communication of scientific expert opinion to non-scientist audiences (e.g., police, lawyers, and judges) through expert reports is an important but under-researched issue. Readability statistics were used to assess 111 conclusions from a proficiency test in forensic glass analysis. The conclusions were written using an average of 23 words per sentence, and approximately half of the conclusions were expressed using the active voice. At an average Flesch-Kincaid Grade level of university undergraduate (Grade 13), and Flesch Reading Ease score of difficult (42), the conclusions were written at a level suitable for people with some tertiary education in science, suggesting that the intended non-scientist readers would find them difficult to read. To further analyse the readability of conclusions, descriptive features of text were used: text structure; sentence structure; vocabulary; elaboration; and coherence and unity. Descriptive analysis supported the finding that texts were written at a level difficult for non-scientists to read. Specific aspects of conclusions that may pose difficulties for non-scientists were located. Suggestions are included to assist scientists to write conclusions with increased readability for non-scientist readers, while retaining scientific integrity. In the next stage of research, the readability of expert reports in their entirety is to be explored. PMID:23890623

  18. Granular Activated Carbon Treatment May Result in Higher Predicted Genotoxicity in the Presence of Bromide.

    PubMed

    Krasner, Stuart W; Lee, Tiffany Chih Fen; Westerhoff, Paul; Fischer, Natalia; Hanigan, David; Karanfil, Tanju; Beita-Sandí, Wilson; Taylor-Edmonds, Liz; Andrews, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Certain unregulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) are more of a health concern than regulated DBPs. Brominated species are typically more cytotoxic and genotoxic than their chlorinated analogs. The impact of granular activated carbon (GAC) on controlling the formation of regulated and selected unregulated DBPs following chlorine disinfection was evaluated. The predicted cyto- and genotoxicity of DBPs was calculated using published potencies based on the comet assay for Chinese hamster ovary cells (assesses the level of DNA strand breaks). Additionally, genotoxicity was measured using the SOS-Chromotest (detects DNA-damaging agents). The class sum concentrations of trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and unregulated DBPs, and the SOS genotoxicity followed the breakthrough of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), however the formation of brominated species did not. The bromide/DOC ratio was higher than the influent through much of the breakthrough curve (GAC does not remove bromide), which resulted in elevated brominated DBP concentrations in the effluent. Based on the potency of the haloacetonitriles and halonitromethanes, these nitrogen-containing DBPs were the driving agents of the predicted genotoxicity. GAC treatment of drinking or reclaimed waters with appreciable levels of bromide and dissolved organic nitrogen may not control the formation of unregulated DBPs with higher genotoxicity potencies. PMID:27467860

  19. The global unified parallel file system (GUPFS) project: FY 2002 activities and results

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Gregory F.; Lee, Rei Chi; Welcome, Michael L.

    2003-04-07

    The Global Unified Parallel File System (GUPFS) project is a multiple-phase, five-year project at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing (NERSC) Center to provide a scalable, high performance, high bandwidth, shared file system for all the NERSC production computing and support systems. The primary purpose of the GUPFS project is to make it easier to conduct advanced scientific research using the NERSC systems. This is to be accomplished through the use of a shared file system providing a unified file namespace, operating on consolidated shared storage that is directly accessed by all the NERSC production computing and support systems. During its first year, FY 2002, the GUPFS project focused on identifying, testing, and evaluating existing and emerging shared/cluster file system, SAN fabric, and storage technologies; identifying NERSC user input/output (I/O) requirements, methods, and mechanisms; and developing appropriate benchmarking methodologies and benchmark codes for a parallel environment. This report presents the activities and progress of the GUPFS project during its first year, the results of the evaluations conducted, and plans for near-term and longer-term investigations.

  20. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  1. General roles of abscisic and jasmonic acids in gene activation as a result of mechanical wounding.

    PubMed Central

    Hildmann, T; Ebneth, M; Peña-Cortés, H; Sánchez-Serrano, J J; Willmitzer, L; Prat, S

    1992-01-01

    Exogenous application of abscisic acid (ABA) has been shown to induce a systemic pattern of proteinase inhibitor II (pin2) mRNA accumulation identical to that induced by mechanical wounding. Evidence is presented that the ABA-specific response is not restricted to pin2 genes but appears to be part of a general reaction to wound stress. Four other wound-induced, ABA-responsive genes that encode two additional proteinase inhibitors, the proteolytic enzyme leucine aminopeptidase, and the biosynthetic enzyme threonine deaminase were isolated from potato plants. Wounding or treatment with ABA resulted in a pattern of accumulation of these mRNAs very similar to that of pin2. ABA-deficient plants did not accumulate any of the mRNAs upon wounding, although they showed normal levels of expression upon ABA treatment. Also, application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) induced a strong accumulation of these transcripts, both in wild-type and in ABA-deficient plants, thus supporting a role for jasmonic acid as an intermediate in the signaling pathway that leads from ABA accumulation in response to wounding to the transcriptional activation of the genes. PMID:1392612

  2. Highlights of recent results from the VERITAS Active Galactic Nuclei Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, Udara; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the dominant class of the Very High Energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. The VERITAS Observatory dedicates about 430 hr/year of dark time and 200 hr/year of observations under moonlight, on the AGN observing program. VERITAS is located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory near Tucson, Arizona, and is sensitive to gamma rays with energies between of 85 GeV and 30 TeV. VERITAS became fully operational in 2007, and has since then detected 34 very high energy (VHE) AGN. The majority of the detected galaxies are blazars, in addition to a few radio galaxies. The VHE emission mechanism, and the location of the VHE emission zone of AGN are still poorly understood. Detailed observations of VHE AGN are necessary for understanding these uncertainties. AGN are plausible source candidates for ultra-high-energy cosmic rays and astrophysical neutrinos. VHE gamma-rays from AGN can also be used as probes to place limits on extragalactic background light density. This presentation will report the most recent results from the VERITAS AGN program including newly discovered AGN, and VHE flares of known TeV AGN. Udara Abeysekara for the VERITAS Collaboration.

  3. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 in depression: Results from Animal and Clinical Studies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haitang; Li, Xiaoli; Chen, Suzhen; Lu, Na; Yue, Yingying; Liang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Zhijun; Yuan, Yonggui

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a stress-related factor, and serum PAI-1 levels are increased in patients with major depressive disorders (MDD). Herein, we analysed PAI-1 protein levels in the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of rodents exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress or treated with escitalopram. In addition, we examined PAI-1 concentrations in serum obtained from 17 drug-free depressed patients before and after escitalopram treatment. We found that PAI-1 expression was increased in area 1 of the cingulate cortex and prelimbic cortex of the medial prefrontal cortex as well as in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 3 and dentate gyrus in stressed rats. A downregulation of PAI-1 following chronic escitalopram treatment was also found. PAI-1 levels were higher in the CSF and serum in stressed rats than in controls, although the difference did not reach statistical significance in the serum. Escitalopram treatment significantly decreased PAI-1 levels in the serum, but not in the CSF. MDD patients had significantly greater serum PAI-1 concentrations than controls. Our results suggest that PAI-1 is implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. PMID:27456456

  4. Designing and Evaluating Classroom Activities Using Remotely Operated Microbeam Instruments: Some Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    Using analytical instruments in undergraduate courses is a longstanding method for exposing students to aspects of the research process. A range of instruments (XRD, AA/ICP-OES, IC, ICP-MS; MCS, GPR etc.) have been used in geoscience courses, often with the ancillary outcome of facilitating undergraduate research projects. These activities generally involve instruments available in-house; are usually restricted to "workhorse" instruments that can tolerate use by inexperienced student users; and are focused on comparatively basic analytical tools, as the output data are often more amenable to course content and direction, but also because such tools are viewed as more appropriate to the undergraduate experience. Despite abundant research uses in the geosciences, microbeam technologies (i.e., Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Electron Microprobe (EPMA)) have not been as heavily utilized in the classroom, due to the higher cost of these instruments and the relative delicacy of the hardware, which can involve multiple integrated spectrometers and imaging systems. SEM has been used on occasion as a classroom tool, at times as a lower cost stand-in for EMPA (i.e., Beane 2004), and for its high-resolution imaging capabilities. Remote instrument operation (Pratap et al. 2004) offers a means to bring advanced microbeam instruments into the classroom. We are using the remotely operable SEM and EPMA instruments at the Florida Center for Analytical Electron Microscopy (FCAEM, at FIU in Miami, FL) at the University of South Florida in Tampa, FL in introductory-level and upper level courses. Students receive instruction in microbeam analysis and the specifics of the instrument they are to use (SEM or EPMA). Instrument operation sessions occur in class, examining samples prepared by student teams as part of class projects. Assessment of effectiveness includes student impression surveys, and content-specific testing related to the activities. Early results indicate student

  5. 78 FR 26748 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from the People's Republic of China, 72 FR... FR 67142 (October 31, 2011); Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011... Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 74 FR 57995 (November 10, 2009); AR4 Carbon, 77 FR at 67339...

  6. Do Sedentary Older Adults Benefit from Community-Based Exercise? Results from the Active Start Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Tingjian; Wilber, Kathleen H.; Aguirre, Rosa; Trejo, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed the effectiveness of Active Start, a community-based behavior change and fitness program, designed to promote physical activity among sedentary community-dwelling older adults. Design and Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used. Data were analyzed using a within-group pretest-post-test design to calculate changes…

  7. Cortical Activations during a Computer-Based Fraction Learning Game: Preliminary Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Joseph M.; Martin, Taylor; Aghababyan, Ani; Armaghanyan, Armen; Gillam, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Advances in educational neuroscience have made it possible for researchers to conduct studies that observe concurrent behavioral (i.e., task performance) and neural (i.e., brain activation) responses to naturalistic educational activities. Such studies are important because they help educators, clinicians, and researchers to better understand the…

  8. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR...

  9. Exergame Apps and Physical Activity: The Results of the ZOMBIE Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowdery, Joan; Majeske, Paul; Frank, Rebecca; Brown, Devin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although there are thousands of health and fitness smartphone apps currently available, little research exists regarding the effects of mobile app technology on physical activity behavior. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test whether Exergame smartphone applications increase physical activity levels. Methods: This was a…

  10. Interpreting systematic reviews: are we ready to make our own conclusions? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Independent evaluation of clinical evidence is advocated in evidence-based medicine (EBM). However, authors' conclusions are often appealing for readers who look for quick messages. We assessed how well a group of Malaysian hospital practitioners and medical students derived their own conclusions from systematic reviews (SRs) and to what extent these were influenced by their prior beliefs and the direction of the study results. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional studies: one with hospital practitioners (n = 150) attending an EBM course in June 2008 in a tertiary hospital and one with final-year medical students (n = 35) in November 2008. We showed our participants four Cochrane SR abstracts without the authors' conclusions. For each article, the participants chose a conclusion from among six options comprising different combinations of the direction of effect and the strength of the evidence. We predetermined the single option that best reflected the actual authors' conclusions and labelled this as our best conclusion. We compared the participants' choices with our predetermined best conclusions. Two chosen reviews demonstrated that the intervention was beneficial ("positive"), and two others did not ("negative"). We also asked the participants their prior beliefs about the intervention. Results Overall, 60.3% correctly identified the direction of effect, and 30.1% chose the best conclusions, having identified both the direction of effect and the strength of evidence. More students (48.2%) than practitioners (22.2%) chose the best conclusions (P < 0.001). Fewer than one-half (47%) correctly identified the direction of effect against their prior beliefs. "Positive" SRs were more likely than "negative" SRs to change the participants' beliefs about the effect of the intervention (relative risk (RR) 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 2.6) and "convert" those who were previously unsure by making them choose the appropriate direction of effect (RR 1

  11. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26232452

  12. The relationship between hope and patient activation in consumers with schizophrenia: Results from longitudinal analyses.

    PubMed

    Oles, Sylwia K; Fukui, Sadaaki; Rand, Kevin L; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-08-30

    Hope (goal-directed thinking) and patient activation (knowledge and skills to manage one's illness) are both important in managing chronic conditions like schizophrenia. The relationship between hope and patient activation has not been clearly defined. However, hope may be viewed as a foundational, motivating factor that can lead to greater involvement in care and feelings of efficacy. The purpose of the present study was to understand the prospective relationship between hope and patient activation in a sample of adults with schizophrenia (N=118). This study was a secondary data analysis from a study on Illness Management and Recovery (IMR) - a curriculum-based approach to schizophrenia self-management. Data were collected at baseline (prior to any intervention), and at 9 and 18-month follow-up. As predicted, hope and patient activation were significantly related with each other, showing large positive concurrent correlations. Demographics and background characteristics were not significantly related to patient activation or hope. Longitudinal analyses found no specific directional effect, yet suggested that hope and patient activation mutually influence each other over time. Our findings add flexibility in designing recovery-based interventions - fostering hope may not be a pre-requisite for activating consumers to be more involved in their own care. PMID:26165962

  13. Baseline results from Hawaii's Nā Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Steffen, Alana D; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E; Dunn, Andrea L; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2-12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008-2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian-American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  14. Heat treatment results in a loss of transgene-encoded activities in several tobacco lines.

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, K; Dröge-Laser, W; Köhne, S; Broer, I

    1997-01-01

    Heat treatment (37 degrees C) of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants led to a reversible reduction or complete loss of transgene-encoded activities in about 40% of 10 independent transformants carrying the luciferase-coding region fused to the 355 cauliflower mosaic virus or the soybean small subunit promoter and the nopaline synthase promoter driving the neomycin phosphotransferase gene, whereas the other lines had temperature-tolerant activities. Temperature sensitivity or tolerance of transgene-encoded activities was heritable. In some of the lines, temperature sensitivity of the transgene-encoded activities depended on the stage of development, occurring in either seedlings (40% luciferase and 50% neomycin phosphotransferase) or adult plants (both 40%). The phenomenon did not correlate with copy numbers or the homo- or hemizygous state of the transgenes. In lines harboring a temperature-sensitive luciferase activity, reduction of bioluminescence was observed after 2 to 3 h at 37 degrees C. Activity was regained after 2 h of subsequent cultivation at 25 degrees C. Irrespective of the reaction to the heat treatment, the level of luciferase RNA was slightly increased at 37 degrees C. Only in lines showing temperature sensitivity of transgene-encoded activities was the amount of luciferase and neomycin phosphotransferase strongly reduced. In sterile culture, heat treatment for 15 d did not cause visible damage or changes in plant morphology. In all plants tested a slight induction of the heat-shock response was observed at 37 degrees C. PMID:9390430

  15. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  16. Mouse skin passage of Streptococcus pyogenes results in increased streptokinase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Rezcallah, Myrna S; Boyle, Michael D P; Sledjeski, Darren D

    2004-02-01

    The plasminogen activator streptokinase has been proposed to be a key component of a complex mechanism that promotes skin invasion by Streptococcus pyogenes. This study was designed to compare ska gene message and protein levels in wild-type M1 serotype isolate 1881 and a more invasive variant recovered from the spleen of a lethally infected mouse. M1 isolates selected for invasiveness demonstrated enhanced levels of active plasminogen activator activity in culture. This effect was due to a combination of increased expression of the ska gene and decreased expression of the speB gene. The speB gene product, SpeB, was found to efficiently degrade streptokinase in vitro. PMID:14766914

  17. Studies on free radical scavenging activity in Chinese seaweeds part I. Screening results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiao-Jun; Fang, Guo-Ming; Lou, Qing-Xiang

    1999-09-01

    Antioxidants have attracted the attention of researchers due to their beneficial effects as free radical scavengers. Application of a stable free radical named 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) to screen the free radical scavenging activity in 27 species of Chinese seaweed showed that 15 of them had significant activity in at least one of the organic solvent extracts. The most interesting seaweed species were Gelidium amansii, Gloiosiphonia capillaris, Polysiphonia urceolata, Sargassum kjellmanianum, Desmarestia viridis, and Rhodomela teres.

  18. Process evaluation methods, implementation fidelity results and relationship to physical activity and healthy eating in the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) study.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Ruth P; Wilcox, Sara; Baruth, Meghan; Dowda, Marsha

    2014-04-01

    Faith, Activity and Nutrition (FAN), a community-based participatory research project in African American churches, aimed to increase congregant physical activity and healthy eating. The Health-Promoting Church framework, developed collaboratively with faith-based partners, guided the intervention and a comprehensive process evaluation. The Health-Promoting Church components related to healthy eating and physical activity were getting the message out, opportunities, pastor support, and organizational policy. There was no evidence for sequential mediation for any of the healthy eating components. These results illustrate the complexity of systems change within organizational settings and the importance of conducting process evaluation. The FAN intervention resulted in increased implementation for all physical activity and most healthy eating components. Mediation analyses revealed no direct association between implementation and increased physical activity; rather, sequential mediation analysis showed that implementation of physical activity messages was associated with improved self-efficacy at the church level, which was associated with increased physical activity. PMID:24394548

  19. Using the Internet to Help With Diet, Weight, and Physical Activity: Results From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS)

    PubMed Central

    McCully, Scout N; Don, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet offers a viable platform for cost-effective and wide-reaching health interventions. However, little is known about use of the Internet to help with diet, weight, and physical activity (DWPA) using a nationally representative sample from the United States. Objective To (1) assess the demographic characteristics of people who use the Internet to help with DWPA, (2) assess whether usage trends changed over time, and (3) investigate the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and health behaviors. Methods Data on Internet users from the 2007 and 2011 iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), N=4827 were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the demographic correlates of using the Internet for help with DWPA. Multiple linear regression was used to test the associations between Internet use for DWPA and three health behaviors: fruit intake, vegetable intake, and physical activity. Results A larger percentage of Internet users used the Internet for DWPA in 2011 (42.83%) than in 2007 (40.43%). In general, Internet users who were younger (OR 0.98, P<.001), more educated (OR 1.40, P<.001), married (OR 1.06, P=.03), of a minority race (non-Hispanic blacks: OR 1.14, P=.02; Hispanics: OR 1.42, P=.01), and who had a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) (OR 1.04, P<.001) were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA. Across survey years, gender was not associated with using the Internet for DWPA (OR 1.03, P=.12), but there was a significant interaction between survey year and gender (OR 1.95, P=.002); in 2007, men were more likely to use the Internet for DWPA, but women were more likely to do so in 2011. Using the Internet for DWPA was associated with more vegetable intake (B=.22, P=.002), more fruit intake (B=.19, P=.001), and more moderate exercise (B=.25, P=.001), although the strength of the associations between using the Internet for DWPA and fruit intake and exercise was weaker in 2011 than in 2007

  20. Holocene glacier activity on Kerguelen Island: preliminary results from a novel proglacial lake sediment record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Støren, Eivind; Bakke, Jostein; Arnaud, Fabien; Poulenard, Jérôme; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The Polar-regions are changing rapidly as greenhouse warming is continuing with huge impact on e.g. sea ice extent and snow cover. This change triggers teleconnections to low latitude areas challenging societies and human activity. We have, however, very little quantitative information of past climate in the Polar-regions that can be used to evaluate the potential responses and the response patterns to forcing changes and changes in boundary conditions. Whatever anthropogenic changes may occur in the future, they will be superimposed on, and interact with, natural climate variations due to all the forcing we are aware of. This means we need to better document past climate/environmental variability of the Polar-regions. Especially in the Southern Ocean there are few time series recording past climate due to few suitable land areas and the few Sub-Antarctic Islands is remote and has cumbersome logistics. Continuous terrestrial records from this region are therefore urgently needed for constraining future scenarios from earth system models. Glaciers and ice caps are still ubiquitous in the Polar-regions, although they are rapidly shrinking due to the on-going warming. The continuous sedimentary records produced by glaciers, which are stored in downstream lakes, represent supreme archives of past variability wherefrom quantitative information of key climate system components can be extracted. Kerguelen Island is located within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Southern Westerly wind belt and contains several glaciers and smaller ice caps. Terrestrial archives recording past history of the glaciers at Kerguelen thus have a unique potential to record past changes in oceanic and atmospheric circulation patterns from southern mid-latitudes. Here we present preliminary results from the first distal glacier-fed lake that is sampled from Kerguelen Island. A 2.8 m long sediment core was obtained from Lac Guynemer (121masl.) located at the Peninsule Loranchet at the

  1. Results from an Investigation into Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) Training Related Shoulder Injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Brian J.; Williams, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The number and complexity of extravehicular activities (EVAs) required for the completion and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) is unprecedented. The training required to successfully complete this magnitude of space walks presents a real risk of overuse musculoskeletal injuries to the EVA crew population. There was mounting evidence raised by crewmembers, trainers, and physicians at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) between 1999 and 2002 that suggested a link between training in the Neutral - Buoyancy Lab (NBL) and the several reported cases of shoulder injuries. The short- and long-term health consequences of shoulder injury to astronauts in training as well as the potential mission impact associated with surgical intervention to assigned EVA crew point to this as a critical problem that must be mitigated. Thus, a multi-directorate tiger team was formed in December of 2002 led by the EVA Office and Astronaut Office at the JSC. The primary objectives of this Tiger Team were to evaluate the prevalence of these injuries and substantiate the relationship to training in the NBL with the crew person operating in the EVA Mobility Unit (EMU). Between December 2002 and June of 2003 the team collected data, surveyed crewmembers, consulted with a variety of physicians, and performed tests. The results of this effort were combined with the vast knowledge and experience of the Tiger Team members to formulate several findings and over fifty recommendations. This paper summarizes those findings and recommendations as well as the process by which these were determined. The Tiger Team concluded that training in the NBL was directly linked to several major and minor shoulder injuries that had occurred. With the assistance of JSC flight surgeons, outside consultants, and the lead crewmember/physician on the team, the mechanisms of injury were determined. These mechanisms were then linked to specific aspects of the hardware design, operational techniques, and the

  2. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary

  3. Development of Visualizations and Loggable Activities for the Geosciences. Results from Recent TUES Sponsored Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paor, D. G.; Bailey, J. E.; Whitmeyer, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Our TUES research centers on the role of digital data, visualizations, animations, and simulations in undergraduate geoscience education. Digital hardware (smartphones, tablets, GPSs, GigaPan robotic camera mounts, etc.) are revolutionizing field data collection. Software products (GIS, 3-D scanning and modeling programs, virtual globes, etc.) have truly transformed the way geoscientists teach, learn, and do research. Whilst Google-Earth-style visualizations are famously user-friend for the person browsing, they can be notoriously unfriendly for the content creator. Therefore, we developed tools to help educators create and share visualizations as easily as if posting on Facebook. Anyone whoIf you wish to display geological cross sections on Google Earth, go to digitalplanet.org, upload image files, position them on a line of section, and share with the world through our KMZ hosting service. Other tools facilitate screen overlay and 3-D map symbol generation. We advocate use of such technology to enable undergraduate students to 'publish' their first mapping efforts even while they are working in the field. A second outcome of our TUES projects merges Second-Life-style interaction with Google Earth. We created games in which students act as first responders for natural hazard mitigation, prospectors for natural resource explorations, and structural geologist for map-making. Students are represented by avatars and collaborate by exchange of text messages - the natural mode of communication for the current generation. Teachers view logs showing student movements as well as transcripts of text messages and can scaffold student learning and geofence students to prevent wandering. Early results of in-class testing show positive learning outcomes. The third aspect of our program emphasizes dissemination. Experience shows that great effort is required to overcome activation energy and ensure adoption of new technology into the curriculum. We organized a GSA Penrose

  4. Excitotoxic Insult Results in a Long-Lasting Activation of CaMKIIα and Mitochondrial Damage in Living Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Otmakhov, Nikolai; Gorbacheva, Elena V.; Regmi, Shaurav; Yasuda, Ryohei; Hudmon, Andy; Lisman, John

    2015-01-01

    Over-activation of excitatory NMDA receptors and the resulting Ca2+ overload is the main cause of neuronal toxicity during stroke. CaMKII becomes misregulated during such events. Biochemical studies show either a dramatic loss of CaMKII activity or its persistent autonomous activation after stroke, with both of these processes being implicated in cell toxicity. To complement the biochemical data, we monitored CaMKII activation in living hippocampal neurons in slice cultures using high spatial/temporal resolution two-photon imaging of the CaMKIIα FRET sensor, Camui. CaMKII activation state was estimated by measuring Camui fluorescence lifetime. Short NMDA insult resulted in Camui activation followed by a redistribution of its protein localization: an increase in spines, a decrease in dendritic shafts, and concentration into numerous clusters in the cell soma. Camui activation was either persistent (> 1–3 hours) or transient (~20 min) and, in general, correlated with its protein redistribution. After longer NMDA insult, however, Camui redistribution persisted longer than its activation, suggesting distinct regulation/phases of these processes. Mutational and pharmacological analysis suggested that persistent Camui activation was due to prolonged Ca2+ elevation, with little impact of autonomous states produced by T286 autophosphorylation and/or by C280/M281 oxidation. Cell injury was monitored using expressible mitochondrial marker mito-dsRed. Shortly after Camui activation and clustering, NMDA treatment resulted in mitochondrial swelling, with persistence of the swelling temporarily linked to the persistence of Camui activation. The results suggest that in living neurons excitotoxic insult produces long-lasting Ca2+-dependent active state of CaMKII temporarily linked to cell injury. CaMKII function, however, is to be restricted due to strong clustering. The study provides the first characterization of CaMKII activation dynamics in living neurons during excitotoxic

  5. Early results of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosh, M. H.; Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Goodrich, D. C.; Holifield Collins, C.; McKee, L.; Kim, S.; Yueh, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    In August of 2015, the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment (SMAPVEX15) was conducted to provide a high resolution soil moisture dataset for the calibration/validation of the Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP). The Upper San Pedro River Basin and the USDA-ARS Walnut Gulch LTAR Watershed provides the infrastructure for the experiment with its extensive soil moisture and soil temperature network. A total of seven aircraft flights are planned for the Passive Active L-Band Scanning instrument (PALS) to provide a high resolution soil moisture map for a variety of soil moisture conditions across the domain. Extensive surface roughness, vegetation and soil rock fraction mapping was conducted to provide a ground truth estimate of the many ancillary datasets used in the SMAP soil moisture algorithms. A review of the methodologies employed in the experiment, as well as initial findings will be discussed.

  6. Disease Mutations in Rab7 Result in Unregulated Nucleotide Exchange and Inappropriate Activation

    SciTech Connect

    B McCray; E Skordalakes; J Taylor

    2011-12-31

    Rab GTPases are molecular switches that orchestrate vesicular trafficking, maturation and fusion by cycling between an active, GTP-bound form, and an inactive, GDP-bound form. The activity cycle is coupled to GTP hydrolysis and is tightly controlled by regulatory proteins. Missense mutations of the GTPase Rab7 cause a dominantly inherited axonal degeneration known as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B through an unknown mechanism. We present the 2.8 A crystal structure of GTP-bound L129F mutant Rab7 which reveals normal conformations of the effector binding regions and catalytic site, but an alteration to the nucleotide binding pocket that is predicted to alter GTP binding. Through extensive biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that disease-associated mutations in Rab7 do not lead to an intrinsic GTPase defect, but permit unregulated nucleotide exchange leading to both excessive activation and hydrolysis-independent inactivation. Consistent with augmented activity, mutant Rab7 shows significantly enhanced interaction with a subset of effector proteins. In addition, dynamic imaging demonstrates that mutant Rab7 is abnormally retained on target membranes. However, we show that the increased activation of mutant Rab7 is counterbalanced by unregulated, GTP hydrolysis-independent membrane cycling. Notably, disease mutations are able to rescue the membrane cycling of a GTPase-deficient mutant. Thus, we demonstrate that disease mutations uncouple Rab7 from the spatial and temporal control normally imposed by regulatory proteins and cause disease not by a gain of novel toxic function, but by misregulation of native Rab7 activity.

  7. Physical Activity, Bone Health, and Obesity in Peri-/Pre- and Postmenopausal Women: Results from the EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Juliane; di Giuseppe, Romina; Wientzek, Angelika; Kroke, Anja; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia

    2015-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is suggested to increase the peak bone mass and to minimize age-related bone loss, and thereby to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. However, the relation between PA and bone health considering the obesity status is unclear so far. The present study examines the association between PA levels and calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), particularly under consideration of obesity. Data from a population-based sample of 6776 German women from the EPIC-Potsdam cohort were analyzed. Calibrated PA data were used. Statistical analyses were stratified by menopausal and obesity status. Multiple linear regression was used to model the relationship between PA and BUA levels after adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, education, alcohol and calcium intake, and hormone use. Peri-/premenopausal had higher BUA levels (112.39 ± 10.05 dB/MHz) compared to postmenopausal women (106.44 ± 9.95 dB/MHz). In both groups, BUA levels were higher in the fourth compared to the lowest quartile of PA (p for trend < 0.05). In women with BMI < 30, but not BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2), PA remained positively associated with BUA levels (p for interaction = 0.03). However, when waist circumference higher than 88 cm or body fat percentage (BF%) measures above the median were used to define obesity, a significant positive relationship was also observed in women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2) but with higher waist circumference or BF%. In conclusion, our results strengthen the hypothesis that PA has a positive influence on BUA levels, though dependent on weight. PMID:26108649

  8. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  9. Occupational Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Richard H.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Gellman, Marc D.; Archer, Edward; Davis, Sonia M.; Gotman, Nathan; Marquez, David X.; Buelna, Christina; Deng, Yu; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between overweight/obesity and occupation among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority population in the U.S. Methods This study included 7,409 employed individuals in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a prospective study of Hispanic/Latino individuals aged 18–74 in four communities in the U.S. We independently examined the relationships between BMI, Occupational Activity (OA), and Total Hours Worked, quantified via self-reported hours worked per week and occupation-assigned Metabolic Equivalents (METs). Results More than three quarters of the participants were either overweight (39.3%) or obese (37.8%). Individuals with a primary occupation and those employed in a secondary occupation worked an average of 36.8 and 14.6 hrs/wk, respectively. The overall adjusted odds for being obese compared to normal weight were 3.2% (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and 14.4% (AOR = 1.14 95% Cl 1.07, 1.23) greater for each 10 MET•hrs/wk unit of increased OA, and each 10-hrs/wk unit of Total Hours Worked, respectively. Conclusion This study presents the first findings on the association between OA with overweight/obesity among Hispanic/Latino individuals in the U.S. Increasing OA and Total Hours Worked per week were independently associated with increasing odds of overweight/obesity suggesting that the workplace is only one part of the overall energy expenditure dynamic. Our findings point to the need to emphasize engaging employed individuals in greater levels of PA outside of the work environment to impact overweight/obesity. PMID:27031996

  10. Low dose alpha interferon therapy can be effective in chronic active hepatitis C. Results of a multicentre, randomised trial.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Tapias, J M; Forns, X; Ampurdanés, S; Titó, L; Planas, R; Viver, J M; Acero, D; Torres, M; Mas, P; Morillas, R; Forné, M; Espinós, J; Llovet, J M; Costa, J; Olmedo, E; López-Labrador, F X; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Rodés, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is some controversy concerning the efficacy of low dose alpha interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. AIMS--To evaluate the effectiveness of treatment with low doses of alpha interferon in chronic hepatitis C. PATIENTS--One hundred and forty one patients with anti-HCV positive chronic active hepatitis C from six hospitals were enrolled in the study. METHODS--Patients were randomised to treatment with 5 MU (group A) or 1.5 MU (group B) injections. The dose was reduced in responders from group A or increased in non-responders from group B to maintain treatment with the minimal effective dose. Patients were treated for 48 weeks and followed up for 24 additional weeks with no treatment. Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was used to evaluate response. RESULTS--A sustained response was seen in eight patients from group A (12%) and in 15 (21%) from group B. This difference was not statistically significant. Increasing the dose of interferon led to sustained response in only five of 58 patients (9%) from group B who did not respond to 1.5 MU injections. In contrast, 15 of 21 patients (71%) in whom ALT remained normal with 1.5 MU injections developed a sustained response. By multivariate analysis sustained response seemed associated with young age and was more frequent in patients with genotype 3 HCV infection. Sustained response was preceded by a rapid normalisation of ALT and was inversely related to the amount of alpha interferon necessary to maintain ALT at low values during treatment. CONCLUSIONS--Some patients with chronic hepatitis C are very sensitive to alpha interferon and can be successfully treated with low doses. Treatment with higher doses may be effective in a minority of patients who do not respond to low doses. PMID:8707096

  11. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  12. Design of a website on nutrition and physical activity for adolescents: results from formative research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teens do not meet guidelines for healthy eating and physical activity. The internet may be an effective method for delivering programs that help them adopt healthy behaviors. Our objective was to collect information to design content and structure for a teen-friendly web site promoting healthy eati...

  13. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  14. Hint1 knockout results in a compromised activation of protein kinase C gamma in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Fang, Zhenfei; Wang, Jia Bei

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have implicated a role of the histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Protein kinase C gamma (PKCγ) could be potentially involved in the Hint1-implicated pathogenesis since PKCγ was identified as a Hint1 interacting protein. Recently, a debate was brought forward from the understanding how Hint1 affects the expression and activity of PKCγ in the brain. In the present study, we use Hint1 knockout mice and biochemical analysis to define the effect of Hint1 on protein PKCγ. Our data reveal that Hint1-deficiency in mouse brains led to increased protein levels of PKCγ in the cortex and hippocampus, the striatum and thalamus and amygdala. Without stimulation, PKCγ protein in Hint1-deficient brain displayed a basal activity that was reflected by control-leveled phosphorylations of PKCγ T514 and T674 at its kinase domain. Upon psycho-stimulation, both sites of PKCγ T514 and T674 were activated in these brain structures via phosphorylation; however, the phosphorylation level at the site of PKCγ T674 apparently attenuated in Hint1-deficient mice compared to wild-type control. Thus, we conclude that Hint1 deficiency leads to an increased protein level of PKCγ in the brain and a compromised activation response of PKCγ upon stimulation. These findings suggest an inhibitory role of Hint1 on the protein PKCγ in the brain and an impaired PKCγ-mediated phosphorylation signal in Hint1-deficient neuron. PMID:26133792

  15. T-Cell Tumor Elimination as a Result of T-Cell Receptor-Mediated Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwell, Jonathan D.; Longo, Dan L.; Bridges, Sandra H.

    1987-07-01

    It has recently been shown that activation of murine T-cell hybridomas with antigen inhibits their growth in vitro. The ``suicide'' of these neoplastic T cells upon stimulation with antigen suggested the possibility that activation via the antigen-specific receptor could also inhibit the growth of neoplastic T cells in vivo. To test this, mice were subcutaneously inoculated with antigen-specific T-cell hybridomas and then treated intraperitoneally with antigen. Administration of the appropriate antigen immediately after inoculation with the T-cell hybridoma abrogated tumor formation; antigen administered after tumors had become established decreased the tumor burden and, in a substantial fraction of animals, led to long-term survival. The efficacy of antigen therapy was due to both a direct inhibitory effect on tumor growth and the induction of host immunity. These studies demonstrate the utility of cellular activation as a means of inhibiting neoplastic T-cell growth in vivo and provide a rationale for studying the use of less selective reagents that can mimic the activating properties of antigen, such as monoclonal antibodies, in the treatment of T-cell neoplasms of unknown antigen specificity.

  16. Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

  17. Nacnac(Bn)CuOiPr: a strained geometry resulting in very high lactide polymerization activity.

    PubMed

    Whitehorne, Todd J J; Schaper, Frank

    2012-10-25

    N,N'-Dibenzyl diketiminate copper isopropanolate, (nacnac(Bn)CuOiPr)(2), polymerizes rac- and S,S-lactide in the presence or absence of isopropanol as a chain-transfer reagent with very high activity (k(2) = 32 M(-1) s(-1)), narrow polydispersities and without evidence of side reactions such as transesterification, epimerization or catalyst decomposition. PMID:22968601

  18. Increased skeletal VEGF enhances β-catenin activity and results in excessively ossified bones

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Christa; Goossens, Steven; Bartunkova, Sonia; Drogat, Benjamin; Coenegrachts, Lieve; Stockmans, Ingrid; Moermans, Karen; Nyabi, Omar; Haigh, Katharina; Naessens, Michael; Haenebalcke, Lieven; Tuckermann, Jan P; Tjwa, Marc; Carmeliet, Peter; Mandic, Vice; David, Jean-Pierre; Behrens, Axel; Nagy, Andras; Carmeliet, Geert; Haigh, Jody J

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and β-catenin both act broadly in embryogenesis and adulthood, including in the skeletal and vascular systems. Increased or deregulated activity of these molecules has been linked to cancer and bone-related pathologies. By using novel mouse models to locally increase VEGF levels in the skeleton, we found that embryonic VEGF over-expression in osteo-chondroprogenitors and their progeny largely pheno-copied constitutive β-catenin activation. Adult induction of VEGF in these cell populations dramatically increased bone mass, associated with aberrant vascularization, bone marrow fibrosis and haematological anomalies. Genetic and pharmacological interventions showed that VEGF increased bone mass through a VEGF receptor 2- and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase-mediated pathway inducing β-catenin transcriptional activity in endothelial and osteoblastic cells, likely through modulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3-β phosphorylation. These insights into the actions of VEGF in the bone and marrow environment underscore its power as pleiotropic bone anabolic agent but also warn for caution in its therapeutic use. Moreover, the finding that VEGF can modulate β-catenin activity may have widespread physiological and clinical ramifications. PMID:20010698

  19. Processes, Procedures, and Methods to Control Pollution Resulting from Silvicultural Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This report presents brief documentation of silvicultural practices, both those now in use and those in stages of research and development. A majority of the text is concerned with the specific aspects of silvicultural activities which relate to nonpoint source pollution control methods. Analyzed are existing and near future pollution control…

  20. 75 FR 70208 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Second Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, and Preliminary Rescission in Part, 75 FR 26927 (May 13... review was requested. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews, 74 FR... Administrative Review, 74 FR 31690 (July 2, 2009). \\3\\ See Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic...

  1. Extracurricular Activities and Bullying Perpetration: Results from a Nationally Representative Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Alison; Gjelsvik, Annie; Ranney, Megan L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying is a widespread problem for school-aged children and adolescents. Interventions to reduce bullying are not well disseminated. Extracurricular involvement is, however, common. This study aims to examine the relationship between parent-reported participation in extracurricular activities and bullying perpetration. Methods: Using…

  2. The free energy landscape in translational science: how can somatic mutations result in constitutive oncogenic activation?

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Jung; Nussinov, Ruth

    2014-04-14

    The free energy landscape theory has transformed the field of protein folding. The significance of perceiving function in terms of conformational heterogeneity is gradually shifting the interest in the community from folding to function. From the free energy landscape standpoint the principles are unchanged: rather than considering the entire protein conformational landscape, the focus is on the ensemble around the bottom of the folding funnel. The protein can be viewed as populating one of two states: active or inactive. The basins of the two states are separated by a surmountable barrier, which allows the conformations to switch between the states. Unless the protein is a repressor, under physiological conditions it typically populates the inactive state. Ligand binding (or post-translational modification) triggers a switch to the active state. Constitutive allosteric mutations work by shifting the population from the inactive to the active state and keeping it there. This can happen by either destabilizing the inactive state, stabilizing the active state, or both. Identification of the mechanism through which they work is important since it may assist in drug discovery. Here we spotlight the usefulness of the free energy landscape in translational science, illustrating how oncogenic mutations can work in key proteins from the EGFR/Ras/Raf/Erk/Mek pathway, the main signaling pathway in cancer. Finally, we delineate the key components which are needed in order to trace the mechanism of allosteric events. PMID:24445437

  3. Potentials of Physical Activity Promotion in Preschools--An Overview of Results of an Ethnographic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Natalie; Sterdt, Elena; Azouagh, Karima; Kramer, Silke; Walter, Ulla; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses exemplary differences between preschools with systematic physical activity (PA) programmes and preschools without PA programmes in Germany. Two preschools from each group were visited in the context of a focused ethnographic observation to examine the educational practice, PA and social behaviour of preschool children. The…

  4. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2012 and 2013, a broad monitoring activity was carried out at the Rice Research Centre of Ente Nazionale Risi (CRR-ENR) located in Castello d'Agogna (PV, Italy) with the purpose of comparing the water balance components of paddy rice (Gladio cv.) under different water regimes and assessing the possibility of reducing the high water inputs related to the conventional practice of continuous submergence. The experiments were laid out in six plots of about 20 m x 80 m each, with two replicates for each of the following water regimes: i) continuous flooding with wet-seeded rice (FLD), ii) continuous flooding from around the 3-leaf stage with dry-seeded rice (3L-FLD), and iii) surface irrigation every 7-10 days with dry-seeded rice (IRR). One out of the two replicates of each treatment was instrumented with: water inflow and outflow meters, set of piezometers, set of tensiometers and multi-sensor moisture probes. Moreover, an eddy covariance station was installed on the bund between the treatments FLD and IRR. Data were automatically recorded and sent by a wireless connection to a PC, so as to be remotely controlled thanks to the development of a Java interface. Furthermore, periodic measurements of crop biometric parameters (LAI, crop height and rooting depth) were performed in both 2012 and 2013 (11 and 14 campaigns respectively). Cumulative water balance components from dry-seeding (3L-FLD and IRR), or flooding (FLD), to harvest were calculated for each plot by either measurements (i.e. rainfall, irrigation and surface drainage) or estimations (i.e. difference in the field water storage, evaporation from both the soil and the water surface and transpiration), whereas the sum of percolation and capillary rise (i.e. the 'net percolation') was obtained as the residual term of the water balance. Incidentally, indices of water application efficiency (evapotranspiration over net water input) and water productivity (grain production over net water

  5. Building reproductive health research and audit capacity and activity in the pacific islands (BRRACAP) study: methods, rationale and baseline results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical research and audit in reproductive health is essential to improve reproductive health outcomes and to address the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. Research training, mentoring and a supportive participatory research environment have been shown to increase research activity and capacity in low to middle income countries (LMIC). This paper details the methods, rationale and baseline findings of a research program aimed at increasing clinical research activity and audit in the six Pacific Islands of Fiji, Samoa, Tonga, Vanuatu, Cook Islands and the Solomon Islands. Method Twenty-eight clinician participants were selected by the five Ministries of Health and the Fiji National University to undergo a research capacity building program which includes a research workshop and mentoring support to perform research and audit as teams in their country. Data on the participants’ characteristics, knowledge and experiences were collected from structured interviews, questionnaires, focus groups, and an online survey. The interviews and the two focus groups were audio-recorded and all replies were analysed in a thematic framework. Results The 28 participants included 9 nurses/midwives, 17 medical doctors of whom 8 were specialists in reproductive health and 2 other health workers. Most (24, 86%) were required to perform research as part of their employment and yet 17 (61%) were not confident in writing a research proposal, 13 (46%) could not use an electronic spreadsheet and the same number had not analysed quantitative data. The limited environmental enablers contributed to poor capacity with only 11 (46%) having access to a library, 10 (42%) receiving management support and 6 (25%) having access to an experienced researcher. Barriers to research that affected more than 70% of the participants were time constraints, poor coordination, no funding and a lack of skills. Conclusion Building a research capacity program appropriate for the diversity of

  6. Health Experts’ Opinions about Tobacco Control Activities in Iran: Results from a Delphi Panel of National Experts

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Hooman; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Iran signed the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control on June 16, 2003 and it was ratified by the parliament and the House of Representatives on November 6, 2005. Finally, it came into force on February 4, 2006. In this study, we aimed to evaluate health experts’ opinion about tobacco control activities in Iran. Materials and Methods This was a qualitative case study. We used a series of open-ended questionnaires to assess important information regarding Iranian National Tobacco Control law and FCTC implementation. The study population comprised of health experts. Use of this method ensured the validity of questionnaires’ contents. The first round of the questionnaire had been pre-tested in a pilot study. The final structure and lay out of questionnaires consisted of three main parts. The first part was designed with 7 multiple choice questions. Participants were able to rank answers from five (the most important) to one (the least important). The second part comprised four questions mainly on National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) and the final part was about FCTC. Data collection was carried out between May 2010 and May 2011. In the analysis process each interview was considered as a separate case and then compared to other cases to ascertain variations in answers. Results All 40 members (100%) of the panel completed the entire process. All the participants had a consensus on tobacco control program in Iran. They believed the prevention programs to be important priorities in this regard. Tobacco Company as a governmental organization is believed to be the main barrier against tobacco control activities in Iran, and banning sales of tobacco to minors and controlling its smuggling are important factors for decreasing the supply of tobacco products. It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran. Conclusion It is essential to implement comprehensive tobacco control law in Iran that covers all the priorities mentioned above

  7. Aggregation and spatial analysis of walking activity in an urban area: results from the Halifax space-time activity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neatt, K.; Millward, H.; Spinney, J.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines neighborhood characteristics affecting the incidence of walking trips in urban and suburban areas of Halifax, Canada. We employ data from the Space-Time Activity Research (STAR) survey, conducted in 2007-8. Primary respondents completed a two- day time-diary survey, and their movements were tracked using a GPS data logger. Primary respondents logged a total of 5,005 walking trips, specified by 781,205 individual GPS points. Redundant and erroneous points, such as those with zero or excessive speed, were removed. Data points were then imported into ArcGIS, converted from points to linear features, visually inspected for data quality, and cleaned appropriately. From mapped walking tracks we developed hypotheses regarding variations in walking density. To test these, walking distances were aggregated by census tracts (CTs), and expressed as walking densities (per resident, per metre of road, and per developed area). We employed multivariate regression to examine which neighborhood (CT) variables are most useful as estimators of walking densities. Contrary to much of the planning literature, built-environment measures of road connectivity and dwelling density were found to have little estimating power. Office and institutional land uses are more useful estimators, as are the income and age characteristics of the resident population.

  8. Elevated p21-activated kinase 2 activity results in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Marlin, Jerry W; Eaton, Andrew; Montano, Gerald T; Chang, Yu-Wen E; Jakobi, Rolf

    2009-03-01

    p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK-2) seems to be a regulatory switch between cell survival and cell death signaling. We have shown previously that activation of full-length PAK-2 by Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival, whereas caspase activation of PAK-2 to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment is involved in the cell death response. In this study, we present a role of elevated activity of full-length PAK-2 in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Hs578T human breast cancer cells that have low levels of PAK-2 activity were more sensitive to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis and showed higher levels of caspase activation of PAK-2 than MDA-MB435 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have high levels of PAK-2 activity. To examine the role of elevated PAK-2 activity in breast cancer, we have introduced a conditionally active PAK-2 into Hs578T human breast cells. Conditional activation of PAK-2 causes loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, conditional activation of PAK-2 suppresses activation of caspase 3, caspase activation of PAK-2, and apoptosis of Hs578T cells in response to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which full-length PAK-2 activity controls the apoptotic response by regulating levels of activated caspase 3 and thereby its own cleavage to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment. As a result, elevated PAK-2 activity interrupts the apoptotic response and thereby causes anchorage-independent survival and growth and resistance to anticancer drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:19242610

  9. Artemisinins, new miconazole potentiators resulting in increased activity against Candida albicans biofilms.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, Kaat; Lanckacker, Ellen; Cools, Tanne L; Bax, Marijke; De Brucker, Katrijn; Cos, Paul; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal biofilm-related fungal infections are very common, and the incidence of recurrent oral and vulvovaginal candidiasis is significant. As resistance to azoles (the preferred treatment) is occurring, we aimed at identifying compounds that increase the activity of miconazole against Candida albicans biofilms. We screened 1,600 compounds of a drug-repositioning library in combination with a subinhibitory concentration of miconazole. Synergy between the best identified potentiators and miconazole was characterized by checkerboard analyses and fractional inhibitory concentration indices. Hexachlorophene, pyrvinium pamoate, and artesunate act synergistically with miconazole in affecting C. albicans biofilms. Synergy was most pronounced for artesunate and structural homologues thereof. No synergistic effect could be observed between artesunate and fluconazole, caspofungin, or amphotericin B. Our data reveal enhancement of the antibiofilm activity of miconazole by artesunate, pointing to potential combination therapy consisting of miconazole and artesunate to treat C. albicans biofilm-related infections. PMID:25367916

  10. Inappropriate Neural Activity during a Sensitive Period in Embryogenesis Results in Persistent Seizure-like Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo N.G.; Baines, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Maturation of neural circuits requires activity-dependent processes that underpin the emergence of appropriate behavior in the adult. It has been proposed that disruption of these events, during specific critical periods when they exert maximal influence, may lead to neurodevelopmental diseases, including epilepsy [1, 2, 3]. However, complexity of neurocircuitry, coupled with the lack of information on network formation in mammals, makes it difficult to directly investigate this hypothesis. Alternative models, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, show remarkable similarities between experimental seizure-like activity and clinical phenotypes [4, 5, 6]. In particular, a group of flies, termed bang-sensitive (bs) mutants have been extensively used to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying seizure [7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12]. Seizure phenotype can be measured in larval stages using an electroshock assay, and this behavior in bs mutants is dramatically reduced following ingestion of typical anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs; [13]). In this study we describe a critical period of embryonic development in Drosophila during which manipulation of neural activity is sufficient to significantly influence seizure behavior at postembryonic stages. We show that inhibition of elevated activity, characteristic of bs seizure models, during the critical period is sufficient to suppress seizure. By contrast, increasing neuronal excitation during the same period in wild-type (WT) is sufficient to permanently induce a seizure behavior. Further, we show that induction of seizure in WT correlates with functional alteration of motoneuron inputs that is a characteristic of bs mutants. Induction of seizure is rescued by prior administration of AEDs, opening a new perspective for early drug intervention in the treatment of genetic epilepsy. PMID:26549258

  11. Pravastatin limits endothelial activation after irradiation and decreases the resulting inflammatory and thrombotic responses.

    PubMed

    Gaugler, Marie-Hélène; Vereycken-Holler, Valérie; Squiban, Claire; Vandamme, Marie; Vozenin-Brotons, Marie-Catherine; Benderitter, Marc

    2005-05-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, fibrosis and vascular occlusion after radiation therapy. Statins have been reported to improve endothelial function; however, this beneficial effect on endothelial cells has never been investigated after irradiation. Therefore, using human microvascular endothelial cells from lung that had been irradiated with 5 or 10 Gy, we assessed the effect of pravastatin on endothelial activation by ELISA, cell-ELISA and electrophoretic mobility shift assay and increased blood-endothelial cell interactions by a flow adhesion assay. Pravastatin inhibited the overproduction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, IL6 and IL8 and the enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 but had no effect on platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 expression. Moreover, pravastatin down-regulated the radiation-induced activation of the transcription factor activator protein 1 but not of nuclear factor-kappaB. Finally, an inhibition by pravastatin of increased adhesion of leukocytes and platelets to irradiated endothelial cells was observed. The effect of pravastatin was maintained up to 14 days after irradiation and was reversed by mevalonate. Pravastatin exerts persistent anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects on irradiated endothelial cells. Statins may be considered in therapeutic strategies for the management of patients treated with radiation therapy. PMID:15850408

  12. Assessing and Promoting Physical Activity in African American Barbershops: Results of the FITStop Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Linnan, Laura A.; Reiter, Paul L.; Duffy, Courtney; Hales, Derek; Ward, Dianne S.; Viera, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility of recruiting African American men in barbershops, assessing their physical activity, conducting physical measurements, and gauging their interest in barbershop-based health research. The authors recruited African American shop owners (n = 4), barbers (n = 6), and customers (n = 90) from four barbershops in Raleigh and Durham, North Carolina, during 2009. The participation levels were high among owners (100%), barbers (67%), and customers (81%). In addition to completing a self-administered survey, 57% (51/90) of the customers completed physical measurements. According to self-reported data, 34% (30/88) of the customers met national physical activity recommendations within the last week. Customers expressed moderately high interest in learning more about health at barbershops and joining a barbershop-based physical activity contest. The estimated recruiting cost per customer was $105.92. Barbershops offer an effective setting for recruiting African American men and conducting physical measurements as well as an interesting possible location for conducting future interventions. PMID:20413387

  13. Active Monitoring With The Use Of Seismic Vibrators: Experimental Systems And The Results Of Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalevsky, V.; Alekseev, A.; Glinsky, B.; Khairetdinov, M.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Soloviev, V.

    2004-12-01

    Active methods of geophysical monitoring with the use of powerful seismic vibrators play an important role in the investigation of changes in the medium's stressed-deformed state in seismic prone zones for problems of seismic hazard prediction. In the last three decades, this scientific direction has been actively developed at institutes of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences. In this period, experimental systems for the active monitoring of the medium, which include powerful vibrational sources with computer control systems, mobile specialized complexes for the precision recording of vibrational seismic signals, and data processing systems have been created. A review of various constructions of resonant vibrational seismic sources with a vibrational force of 100 tons in the frequency range from 5 to 15 Hz and the principles of creation of precision computer control systems and low-frequency three-component recording systems VIRS-M, VIRS-K, and ROSA is presented. A method for the active monitoring of the medium with the use of wideband sweep signals and narrow-band harmonic signals radiated by seismic vibrators has been developed. To determine the sensitivity of the active monitoring system, some experiments to detect the influence of the Earth's crust tidal deformations (of the order of 10-7) on seismic wave velocities have been performed. A 100-ton seismic vibrator and recording systems were located at a distance of 356 km. The radiation sessions of harmonic and sweep signals were repeated every 3 hours during 8 days. This made it possible to construct the time series of variations in the amplitudes and phases of the signals and wave arrival times. Both 12-hour and 24-hour periodicities correlated with the earth's tides were distinguished in the spectrum of variations of the recorded signals. The experiment has shown that the active monitoring system makes it possible to detect relative variations of the seismic wave velocities of the order of 10

  14. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes. PMID:24252101

  15. Normal Human Pregnancy Results in Maternal Immune Activation in the Periphery and at the Uteroplacental Interface

    PubMed Central

    Yesayan, Maria N.; Kahn, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy poses a unique challenge to the human immune system: the semi-allogeneic fetus must be protected from maternal immune attack while immunity towards pathogens is maintained. Breakdown in maternal-fetal tolerance can lead to pregnancy-specific diseases with potentially high degrees of morbidity and mortality for both the mother and her fetus. Various immune cell-types could mediate these functions, but a comprehensive evaluation of the peripheral and local maternal T cell and regulatory T cell compartments in normal human pregnancy is lacking. In this case-control study, we apply the Human Immunology Project Consortium proposed gating strategies to samples from healthy 3rd trimester human subjects compared with healthy non-pregnant controls. The proportions of HLA-DR+ and CD38+ effector- and effector memory CD8 T cells are significantly increased in the peripheral blood of pregnant women. Utilizing a novel technique that takes advantage of the standard protocol for intrauterine cleanup after cesarean section, we isolate lymphocytes resident at the uteroplacental interface (UPI). At the UPI, the CD4 and CD8 T cell compartments largely mirror the peripheral blood, except that the proportion of HLA-DR+ activated T regulatory cells is significantly increased in direct proportion to an observed increase in the number of activated CD8 T cells. We find that cryopreservation and delayed sample processing (>12 hours) decreases our ability to identify regulatory T cell subsets. Further, the Consortium proposed method for Treg identification underrepresents Resting and Cytokine Tregs compared with Activated Tregs, thus skewing the entire population. Better understanding of the changes in the immune system during pregnancy in the peripheral blood and at the uteroplacental interface are essential for progress in treatment of pregnancy diseases such as pre-eclampsia and recurrent miscarriage. PMID:24846312

  16. Mutation in E1, the Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme, Reduces Drosophila Lifespan and Results in Motor Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hsiu-Yu; Pfleger, Cathie M.

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases cause tremendous suffering for those afflicted and their families. Many of these diseases involve accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins thought to play a causal role in disease pathology. Ubiquitinated proteins are often found in these protein aggregates, and the aggregates themselves have been shown to inhibit the activity of the proteasome. These and other alterations in the Ubiquitin Pathway observed in neurodegenerative diseases have led to the question of whether impairment of the Ubiquitin Pathway on its own can increase mortality or if ongoing neurodegeneration alters Ubiquitin Pathway function as a side-effect. To address the role of the Ubiquitin Pathway in vivo, we studied loss-of-function mutations in the Drosophila Ubiquitin Activating Enzyme, Uba1 or E1, the most upstream enzyme in the Ubiquitin Pathway. Loss of only one functional copy of E1 caused a significant reduction in adult lifespan. Rare homozygous hypomorphic E1 mutants reached adulthood. These mutants exhibited further reduced lifespan and showed inappropriate Ras activation in the brain. Removing just one functional copy of Ras restored the lifespan of heterozygous E1 mutants to that of wild-type flies and increased the survival of homozygous E1 mutants. E1 homozygous mutants also showed severe motor impairment. Our findings suggest that processes that impair the Ubiquitin Pathway are sufficient to cause early mortality. Reduced lifespan and motor impairment are seen in the human disease X-linked Infantile Spinal Muscular Atrophy, which is associated with mutation in human E1 warranting further analysis of these mutants as a potential animal model for study of this disease. PMID:23382794

  17. Hydrothermal Petroleum in Active Continental Rift: Lake Chapala, Western Mexico, Initial Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-del Valle, P. F.; Simoneit, B. R.; Ramirez-Sanchez, H. U.

    2003-12-01

    Lake Chapala in western Mexico is located partially in the Citala Rift, which belongs to the well-known neotectonic Jalisco continental triple junction. The region is characterized by active volcanism (Ceboruco, Volcan de Fuego), tectonic (1995 earthquake, M=8, 40-50 mm to SW) and hydrothermal (San Juan Cosala & Villa Corona spas and La Calera sinter deposit) activities. Hydrothermal petroleum has been described in active continental rift (East African Rift) and marine spreading zones (Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California). In 1868 the Mexican local press reported that manifestations of bitumen were appearing in front of the Columba Cap on the mid south shore of Lake Chapala. This bitumen is linked to the lake bottom and when the water level decreases sufficiently it is possible to access these tar bodies as islands. Because of these manifestations the Mexican oil company (PEMEX) drilled an exploration well (2,348m) at Tizapan El Alto without success. Hydrothermal activity is evident in the tar island zone as three in-shore thermal springs (26.8 m depth, 48.5° C, pH 7.8 and oriented N-S). The preliminary analyses by GC-MS of the tar from these islands indicate hydrothermal petroleum derived from lake sedimentary organic matter, generated at low temperatures (150° -200° C). The tars contain no n-alkanes, no PAH or other aromatics, but a major UCM of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons and mature biomarkers derived from lacustrine biota. The biomarkers consist of mainly 17α (H),21β (H)-hopanes ranging from C27 to C34 (no C28), gammacerane, tricyclic terpanes (C20-C26), carotane and its cracking products, and drimanes (C14-C16). The biomarker composition indicates an organic matter source from bacteria and algae, typical of lacustrine ecosystems. 14C dating of samples from two tar islands yielded ages exceeding 40 kyrs, i.e., old carbon from hydrothermal/tectonic remobilization of bitumen from deeper horizons to the surface. The occurrence of hydrothermal petroleum in

  18. The New Data on Dynamics of Permian - Triassic Magmatic Activity on Siberian Platform: Paleomagnetic Results from Tunguska Syncline and Angara - Taseeva Depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    We perform the new paleomagnetic data from intrusive complexes of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and Tunguska syncline). Results of paleomagnetic and geological investigation indicate that two different patterns of magmatic process took place in these regions. In Angara - Taseeva depression short intense peaks of magmatic activity alternate with more prolonged periods of relative quietness. These bursts of magmatic activity resulted in intruding of large dolerite sills. In the central part of Tunguska syncline local intrusive events took place on the background of effusive volcanic activity. Considering the new data together with previous paleomagnetic results from Norilsk and Maymecha - Kotuy regions (Pavlov et al., 2015), western part of Viluy basin (Konstantinov et al., 2014) and Angara-Taseeva depression (Latyshev et al., 2013), it can be concluded that pulsating character of magmatic activity is typical for the periphery of Tunguska syncline. However, the central part of Tunguska syncline is characterized by more prolonged and even style of volcanic process and less widescale intrusive events. This conclusion is important for understanding of LIPs formation and mantle plumes dynamics. This study was funded by grants RFBR # 14-05-31447 and 15-35-20599 and Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (grant 14.Z50.31.0017).

  19. Microearthquake activity on the Orozco Fracture Zone: Preliminary results from Project ROSE

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-10

    We present preliminary hypocenter determinations for 52 earthquakes recorded by a large multiinstitutional network of ocean bottom seismometers and ocean bottom hydrophones in the Orozco Fracture Zone in the eastern Pacific during late February to mid-March 1979. The network was deployed as part of the Rivera Ocean Seismic Experiment, also known as Project ROSE. The Orozco Fracture Zone is Physiographically complex, and the pattern of microearthquake hypocenters at least partly reflects this complexity. All of the well-located epicenters lie within the active transform fault segment of the fracture zone. About half of the recorded earthquakes were aligned along a narrow trough that extends eastward from the northern rise crest intersection in the approximate direction of the Cocos-Pacific relative plate motion; these events appear to be characterized by strike-slip faulting. The second major group of activity occurred in the central portion of the transform fault; the microearthquakes in this group do not display a preferred alignment parallel to the direction of spreading, and several are not obviously associated with distinct topographic features. Hypocentral depth was well resolved for many of the earthquakes reported here. Nominal depths range from 0 to 17 km below the seafloor.

  20. Animal-Assisted Activities: Results From a Survey of Top-Ranked Pediatric Oncology Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chubak, Jessica; Hawkes, Rene

    2016-07-01

    Animal-assisted activities (AAA) are increasingly common, yet little is known about practices in pediatric oncology. To address this gap, we surveyed the top 20 pediatric oncology hospitals in the United States in May and June of 2014. Questionnaires were sent via e-mail and generally returned by e-mail or postal mail. Among the 19 responding hospitals, the 18 that offered AAA to pediatric patients formed the basis of our analysis. All sites had written AAA policies. Most programs were restricted to dogs. At 11 hospitals, children with cancer could participate in AAA activities. Outpatient waiting rooms and individual inpatient rooms were the most common locations for AAA with pediatric oncology patients. Safety precautions varied by hospital, but all required hand sanitation after visits and that animals receive an annual health examination, be on a leash or in a carrier, be ≥1 year old, and not be directly from a shelter. Our findings reveal consistencies and variations in practice that may help other hospitals develop their own programs and researchers identify areas of future study. PMID:26589356

  1. The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Status and Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Yueh, Simon; O'Neill, Peggy E.; Wood, Eric F.; Njoku, Eni G.; Entin, Jared K.; Kellogg, Kent H.

    2015-04-01

    The NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is launched in early 2015. The objective of SMAP is to produce global estimates of surface soil moisture at 9 km resolution every 2-3 days. It will also provide the freeze/thaw state of land surface north of 45° N at better than 3 km resolution every two days. The mission science data products are derived from the L-band radar and radiometer on board the SMAP spacecraft. The radar and radiometer share a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna. The instruments operate on-board the SMAP spacecraft in a 685-km Sun-synchronous near-polar orbit, viewing the surface at a constant 40-degree incidence angle across the wide 1000-km swath. The radiometer includes several capabilities based on characteristics of data over time, frequency band, and polarization to detect anthropogenic Radio-Frequency Interference (RFI). This presentation includes: 1) the status of SMAP mission related to radar and radiometer performance, 2) report on detected RFI environment, 3) calibration activities, and 4) preliminary assessment of soil moisture retrieval, freeze/thaw detection and model value-added (root-zone soil moisture and Net Ecosystem Exchange) algorithms.

  2. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA’s influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence—influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  3. Association between Natural Resources for Outdoor Activities and Physical Inactivity: Results from the Contiguous United States.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Yuan, Yongping; Neale, Anne; Jackson, Laura; Mehaffey, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Protected areas including national/state parks and recreational waters are excellent natural resources that promote physical activity and interaction with Nature, which can relieve stress and reduce disease risk. Despite their importance, however, their contribution to human health has not been properly quantified. This paper seeks to evaluate quantitatively how national/state parks and recreational waters are associated with human health and well-being, taking into account of the spatial dependence of environmental variables for the contiguous U.S., at the county level. First, we describe available natural resources for outdoor activities (ANROA), using national databases that include features from the Protected Areas Database, NAVSTREETS, and ATTAINSGEO 305(b) Waters. We then use spatial regression techniques to explore the association of ANROA and socioeconomic status factors on physical inactivity rates. Finally, we use variance analysis to analyze ANROA's influence on income-related health inequality. We found a significantly negative association between ANROA and the rate of physical inactivity: ANROA and the spatial effect explained 69%, nationwide, of the variation in physical inactivity. Physical inactivity rate showed a strong spatial dependence-influenced not only by its own in-county ANROA, but also by that of its neighbors ANROA. Furthermore, community groups at the same income level and with the highest ANROA, always had the lowest physical inactivity rate. This finding may help to guide future land use planning and community development that will benefit human health and well-being. PMID:27548195

  4. Biomarker validation of reports of recent sexual activity: results of a randomized controlled study in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Minnis, Alexandra M; Steiner, Markus J; Gallo, Maria F; Warner, Lee; Hobbs, Marcia M; van der Straten, Ariane; Chipato, Tsungai; Macaluso, Maurizio; Padian, Nancy S

    2009-10-01

    Challenges in the accurate measurement of sexual behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention research are well documented and have prompted discussion about whether valid assessments are possible. Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) may increase the validity of self-reported behavioral data. In 2006-2007, Zimbabwean women participated in a randomized, cross-sectional study that compared self-reports of recent vaginal sex and condom use collected through ACASI or face-to-face interviewing (FTFI) with a validated objective biomarker of recent semen exposure (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels). Of 910 study participants, 196 (21.5%) tested positive for PSA, an indication of semen exposure during the previous 2 days. Of these 196 participants, 23 (11.7%) reported no sex in the previous 2 days, with no difference in reported sexual activity between interview modes (12.5% ACASI vs. 10.9% FTFI; Fisher's exact test: P = 0.72). In addition, 71 PSA-positive participants (36.2%) reported condom-protected vaginal sex only; their reports also indicated no difference between interview modes (33.7% ACASI vs. 39.1% FTFI; P = 0.26). Only 52% of PSA-positive participants reported unprotected sex during the previous 2 days. Self-report was a poor predictor of recent sexual activity and condom use in this study, regardless of interview mode, providing evidence that such data should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:19741042

  5. Biomarker Validation of Reports of Recent Sexual Activity: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Markus J.; Gallo, Maria F.; Warner, Lee; Hobbs, Marcia M.; van der Straten, Ariane; Chipato, Tsungai; Macaluso, Maurizio; Padian, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    Challenges in the accurate measurement of sexual behavior in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention research are well documented and have prompted discussion about whether valid assessments are possible. Audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) may increase the validity of self-reported behavioral data. In 2006–2007, Zimbabwean women participated in a randomized, cross-sectional study that compared self-reports of recent vaginal sex and condom use collected through ACASI or face-to-face interviewing (FTFI) with a validated objective biomarker of recent semen exposure (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels). Of 910 study participants, 196 (21.5%) tested positive for PSA, an indication of semen exposure during the previous 2 days. Of these 196 participants, 23 (11.7%) reported no sex in the previous 2 days, with no difference in reported sexual activity between interview modes (12.5% ACASI vs. 10.9% FTFI; Fisher's exact test: P = 0.72). In addition, 71 PSA-positive participants (36.2%) reported condom-protected vaginal sex only; their reports also indicated no difference between interview modes (33.7% ACASI vs. 39.1% FTFI; P = 0.26). Only 52% of PSA-positive participants reported unprotected sex during the previous 2 days. Self-report was a poor predictor of recent sexual activity and condom use in this study, regardless of interview mode, providing evidence that such data should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:19741042

  6. Physical Activity and Different Concepts of Fall Risk Estimation in Older People–Results of the ActiFE-Ulm Study

    PubMed Central

    Klenk, Jochen; Kerse, Ngaire; Rapp, Kilian; Becker, Clemens; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Peter, Richard; Denkinger, Michael Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between physical activity and two measures of fall incidence in an elderly population using person-years as well as hours walked as denominators and to compare these two approaches. Design Prospective cohort study with one-year follow-up of falls using fall calendars. Physical activity was defined as walking duration and recorded at baseline over one week using a thigh-worn uni-axial accelerometer (activPAL; PAL Technologies, Glasgow, Scotland). Average daily physical activity was extracted from these data and categorized in low (0–59 min), medium (60–119 min) and high (120 min and more) activity. Setting The ActiFE Ulm study located in Ulm and adjacent regions in Southern Germany. Participants 1,214 community-dwelling older people (≥65 years, 56.4% men). Measurements Negative-binomial regression models were used to calculate fall rates and incidence rate ratios for each activity category each with using (1) person-years and (2) hours walked as denominators stratified by gender, age group, fall history, and walking speed. All analyses were adjusted either for gender, age, or both. Results No statistically significant association was seen between falls per person-year and average daily physical activity. However, when looking at falls per 100 hours walked, those who were low active sustained more falls per hours walked. The highest incidence rates of falls were seen in low-active persons with slow walking speed (0.57 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.33 to 0.98) falls per 100 hours walked) or history of falls (0.60 (95% CI: 0.36 to 0.99) falls per 100 hours walked). Conclusion Falls per hours walked is a relevant and sensitive outcome measure. It complements the concept of incidence per person years, and gives an additional perspective on falls in community-dwelling older people. PMID:26058056

  7. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Ombrotrophic Peat as a Result of Anthropic Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabio Lourençato, Lucio; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    Ombrotrophic peat can be defined as a soil rich in organic matter, formed from the partial decomposition of vegetable organic material in a humid and anoxic environment, where the accumulation of material is necessarily faster than the decomposition. From the physical-chemical point of view, it is a porous and highly polar material with high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. The high ability of trace elements to undergo complexation by humic substances happens due to the presence of large amounts of oxygenated functional groups in these substances. Since the beginning of industrialization human activities have scattered a large amount of trace elements in the environment. Soil contamination by atmospheric deposition can be expressed as a sum of site contamination by past/present human activities and atmospheric long-range transport of trace elements. Ombrotrophic peat records can provide valuable information about the entries of trace metals into the atmosphere and that are subsequently deposited on the soil. These trace elements are toxic, non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain, even in relatively low quantities. Thus studies on the increase of trace elements in the environment due to human activities are necessary, particularly in the southern hemisphere, where these data are scarce. The aims of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of mercury in ombrotrophic peat altomontanas coming from atmospheric deposition. The study is conducted in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazilian conservation unit, situated between the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. An ombrotrophic peat core is being sampled in altitude (1980m), to measure the trace elements concentrations of this material. As it is conservation area, the trace elements found in the samples is mainly from atmospheric deposition, since in Brazil don't exist significant lithology of trace elements. The samples are characterized by organic matter content which

  8. IPEC Gels for Remediating Soils Contaminated as Result of Nuclear and Industrial Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheykin, S.V.; Anciferova, E.Yu.; Simonov, V.P.; Zezin, A.B.; Rogacheva, V.B.; Bolusheva, T.N.

    2006-07-01

    be highly erosion-resistant. It showed that new kinds of IPECs based with micro-gels are very useful as soil stabilizers and applicable as activating agent of grass vegetation in the remediation activities. It may successfully apply also in the post-accidental activities in the case of spray radioactive materials onto topsoils. (authors)

  9. Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show a Circumspect Reasoning Bias Rather than "Jumping-to-Conclusions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Chapman, Emma; Ashwin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often take longer to make decisions. The Autism-Psychosis Model proposes that people with autism and psychosis show the opposite pattern of results on cognitive tasks. As those with psychosis show a jump-to-conclusions reasoning bias, those with ASD should show a circumspect reasoning bias.…

  10. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (<5 % deviation) among the participating laboratories with good repeatability. The sorption data and technical information on the different experimental setups have been used to investigate errors and potential pitfalls in the assessment of high-pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. References Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, B.M. Krooss, G. de

  11. Results from NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Managua,Central American Volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, K.; Funk, J.; Mann, P.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    Lake Managua covers an area of 1,035 km2 of the Central American volcanic arc and is enclosed by three major stratovolcanoes: Momotombo to the northwest was last active in AD 1905, Apoyeque in the center on the Chiltepe Peninsula was last active ca. 4600 years BP, and Masaya to the southeast was last active in AD 2003. A much smaller volcano in the lake (Momotombito) is thought to have been active <4500 yrs B.P. In May of 2006, we used a chartered barge to collect 330 km of 3.5 kHz profiler data along with coincident 274 km of sidescan sonar and 27 km of seismic reflection data. These data identify three zones of faulting on the lake floor: 1) A zone of north-northeast-striking faults in the shallow (2.5-7.5 m deep) eastern part of the lake that extends from the capital city of Managua, which was severely damaged by shallow, left-lateral strike-slip displacements on two of these faults in 1931 (M 5.6) and 1972 (M 6.2): these faults exhibit a horst and graben character and include possible offsets on drowned river valleys 2) a semicircular rift zone that is 1 km wide and can be traced over a distance of 30 km in the central part of the lake; the rift structure defines the deepest parts of the lake ranging from 12 to 18 m deep and is concentric about the Apoyeque stratocone/Chiltepe Peninsula; and 3) a zone of fault scarps defining the northwestern lake shore that may correlate to the northwestern extension of the Mateare fault zone, a major scarp-forming fault that separates the Managua lowlands from the highlands south and west of the city. Following previous workers, we interpret the northeast- trending group of faults in the eastern part of the lake as part of a 15-km-long discontinuity where the trend of the volcanic arc is offset in a right-lateral sense. The semi-circular pattern of the rift zone that is centered on Chiltepe Peninsula appears to have formed as a distal effect of either magma intrusion or withdrawal from beneath this volcanic complex. The

  12. Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

  13. Application of electrical methods to measure microbial activity in soils: Preliminary microcosm results

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.L. Sweet, A.; Majer, E.

    1997-12-01

    The application of the geophysical technique known as self-potential to the measurement of microbial activity was tested on laboratory microcosms containing ferric iron and iron-reducing bacteria Shewanella alga BrY. Measurements of the electrical response of silver-coated copper electrodes distributed along a Teflon probe inserted into sterile and inoculated layers containing either ferric chloride, ferric citrate, or ferric oxide rich soil were recorded over hours or days. Strong electrical signals reached values more negative than {minus}400 mV for all types of inoculated ferric iron layers. Electric signals in sterile control layers, by contrast, rarely reached values more negative than {minus}150 mV. These preliminary experiments indicate that it may be possible to apply the self-potential geophysical method to monitor bioremediation in the field.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-binding protein null mutation results in defective mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yuzhi; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Zhongyi; Zhu, Yiwei Tony; Rao, Sambasiva M; Zhu, Yi-Jun

    2005-03-18

    A conditional null mutation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-binding protein (PBP) gene was generated to understand its role in mammary gland development. PBP-deficient mammary glands exhibited retarded ductal elongation during puberty, and decreased alveolar density during pregnancy and lactation. PBP-deficient mammary glands could not produce milk to nurse pups during lactation. Both the mammary ductal elongation in response to estrogen treatment and the mammary lobuloalveolar proliferation stimulated by estrogen plus progesterone were attenuated in PBP-deficient mammary glands. The proliferation index was decreased in PBP-deficient mammary glands. PBP-deficient mammary epithelial cells expressed abundant beta-casein, whey acidic protein, and WDNM1 mRNA, indicating a relatively intact differentiated function. PBP-deficient epithelial cells were unable to form mammospheres, which were considered to be derived from mammary progenitor/stem cells. We conclude that PBP plays a pivotal role in the normal mammary gland development. PMID:15647257

  15. First results from the THOR experiment imaging thunderstorm activity from the ISS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten; Mogensen, Andreas; Yair, Yoav; Stendel, Martin; Larsen, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Video imaging from the THOR experiment conducted on International Space Station by the Danish astronaut Andreas Mogensen has been analyzed. The observations we report in this paper were taken with a color camera from the vantage point of the Cupola, tracking thunderstorm activity over the Bay of Bengal. Among many lightning, the observations contain a sprite, a blue jet and numerous small blue discharge regions at the top of a tall cumulonimbus cloud. The latter are interpreted as electric discharges between layers at the uppermost layers of the cloud and to the screening layer formed at the very edge between the cloud and the surrounding atmosphere. The observations are the first of their kind and give new insights into the charge structure at the top of clouds in the tropical tropopause regions, a region that is difficult to observe and to access.

  16. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  17. Macrophage Activation Associated with Chronic Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Results in More Severe Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G.; Miller, Daniel M.; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P.; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication. PMID:22570607

  18. Lightning-produced NOx during the Northern Australian monsoon; results from the ACTIVE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, L.; Vaughan, G.; Heyes, W.; Waddicor, D.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Pätz, H.-W.; Höller, H.

    2009-10-01

    Measurements of nitrogen oxides onboard a high altitude aircraft were carried out for the first time during the Northern Australian monsoon in the framework of the Aerosol and Chemical Transport in Tropical Convection (ACTIVE) campaign, in the area around Darwin, Australia. During one flight on 22 January 2006, average NOx volume mixing ratios (vmr) of 984 and 723 parts per trillion (ppt) were recorded for both in and out of cloud conditions, respectively. The in-cloud measurements were made in the convective outflow region of a storm 56 km south-west of Darwin, whereas those out of cloud were made due south of Darwin and upwind from the storm sampled. This storm produced a total of only 8 lightning strokes, as detected by an in-situ lightning detection network, ruling out significant lightning-NOx production. 5-day backward trajectories suggest that the sampled airmasses had travelled over convectively-active land in Northern Australia during that period. The low stroke count of the sampled storm, along with the high out-of-cloud NOx concentration, suggest that, in the absence of other major NOx sources during the monsoon season, a combination of processes including regional transport patterns, convective vertical transport and entrainment may lead to accumulation of lightning-produced NOx, a situation that contrasts with the pre-monsoon period in Northern Australia, where the high NOx values occur mainly in or in the vicinity of storms. These high NOx concentrations may help start ozone photochemistry and OH radical production in an otherwise NOx-limited environment.

  19. Lightning-produced NOx during the Northern Australian monsoon; results from the ACTIVE campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, L.; Vaughan, G.; Heyes, W.; Waddicor, D.; Volz-Thomas, A.; Pätz, H.-W.; Höller, H.

    2009-05-01

    Measurements of nitrogen oxides onboard a high altitude aircraft were carried out for the first time during the Northern Australian monsoon in the framework of the Aerosol and Chemical Transport in Tropical Convection (ACTIVE) campaign, in the area around Darwin, Australia. During one flight on 22 January 2006, average NOx mixing ratios (mrs) of 723 and 984 parts per trillion volume (pptv) were recorded for both in and out of cloud conditions, respectively. The in-cloud measurements were made in the convective outflow region of a storm 56 km south-west of Darwin, whereas those out of cloud were made due south of Darwin and upwind from the storm sampled. This storm produced a total of only 8 lightning strokes, as detected by an in-situ lightning detection network, ruling out significant lightning-NOx production. 5-day backward trajectories suggest that the sampled airmasses had travelled over convectively-active land in Northern Australia during that period. The low stroke count of the sampled storm, along with the high out-of-cloud NOx concentration, suggest that, in the absence of other major NOx sources during the monsoon season, a combination of processes including regional transport patterns, convective vertical transport and entrainment may lead to accretion of lightning-produced NOx, a situation that contrasts with the pre-monsoon period in Northern Australia, where the high NOx values occur mainly in or in the vicinity of storms. These high NOx concentrations may help start ozone photochemistry and OH radical production in an otherwise NOx-limited environment.

  20. Dissection of malonyl-coenzyme A reductase of Chloroflexus aurantiacus results in enzyme activity improvement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changshui; Wang, Qi; Xian, Mo; Ding, Yamei; Zhao, Guang

    2013-01-01

    The formation of fusion protein in biosynthetic pathways usually improves metabolic efficiency either channeling intermediates and/or colocalizing enzymes. In the metabolic engineering of biochemical pathways, generating unnatural protein fusions between sequential biosynthetic enzymes is a useful method to increase system efficiency and product yield. Here, we reported a special case. The malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR) of Chloroflexus aurantiacus catalyzes the conversion of malonyl-CoA to 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP), and is a key enzyme in microbial production of 3HP, an important platform chemical. Functional domain analysis revealed that the N-terminal region of MCR (MCR-N; amino acids 1-549) and the C-terminal region of MCR (MCR-C; amino acids 550-1219) were functionally distinct. The malonyl-CoA was reduced into free intermediate malonate semialdehyde with NADPH by MCR-C fragment, and further reduced to 3HP by MCR-N fragment. In this process, the initial reduction of malonyl-CoA was rate limiting. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the TGXXXG(A)X(1-2)G and YXXXK motifs were important for enzyme activities of both MCR-N and MCR-C fragments. Moreover, the enzyme activity increased when MCR was separated into two individual fragments. Kinetic analysis showed that MCR-C fragment had higher affinity for malonyl-CoA and 4-time higher K cat/K m value than MCR. Dissecting MCR into MCR-N and MCR-C fragments also had a positive effect on the 3HP production in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain. Our study showed the feasibility of protein dissection as a new strategy in biosynthetic systems. PMID:24073271

  1. Autoproteolytic activation of ThnT results in structural reorganization necessary for substrate binding and catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Buller, Andrew R; Labonte, Jason W; Freeman, Michael F; Wright, Nathan T; Schildbach, Joel F; Townsend, Craig A

    2012-01-01

    cis-Autoproteolysis is a post-translational modification necessary for the function of ThnT, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the β-lactam antibiotic thienamycin. This modification generates an N-terminal threonine nucleophile that is used to hydrolyze the pantetheinyl moiety of its natural substrate. We determined the crystal structure of autoactivated ThnT to 1.8 Å through X-ray crystallography. Comparison to a mutationally inactivated precursor structure revealed several large conformational rearrangements near the active site. To probe the relevance of these transitions, we designed a pantetheine-like chloromethyl ketone (CMK) inactivator and co-crystallized it with ThnT. Although this class of inhibitor has been in use for several decades, the mode of inactivation had not been determined for an enzyme that uses an N-terminal nucleophile. The co-crystal structure revealed the CMK bound to the N-terminal nucleophile of ThnT through an ether linkage and analysis suggests inactivation through a direct displacement mechanism. More importantly, this inactivated complex shows three regions of ThnT that are critical to the formation of the substrate binding pocket undergo rearrangement upon autoproteolysis. Comparison of ThnT with other autoproteolytic enzymes of disparate evolutionary lineage revealed a high degree similarity within the pro-enzyme active site, reflecting shared chemical constraints. However, after autoproteolysis many enzymes, like ThnT, are observed to rearrange to accommodate their specific substrate. We propose this is a general phenomenon, whereby autoprocessing systems with shared chemistry may possess similar structural features that dissipate upon rearrangement into a mature state. PMID:22706025

  2. [In vitro antibacterial activity of RU 51746 (sodium salt of cefpodoxime). Results of a multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Soussy, C J; Le Van Thoi, J; Kitzis, M D; Chanal, C; Mounier, M; Derlot, E; Vergnaud, M

    1990-05-01

    Cefpodoxime proxetil, a new oral cephalosporin, is the prodrug ester of cefpodoxime. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of RU 51746 (sodium salt of cefpodoxime: CPD) were evaluated by agar dilution for 1 696 bacterial strains isolated in 5 hospitals. For Enterobacteriaceae, MIC 50 and 90% were respectively (micrograms/ml): (1) naturally non bêtalactamase producing species: E. coli, Shigella and Salmonella 0.25-0.5; P. mirabilis 0.06-0.12. (II) chromosomal penicillinase producing species: Klebsiella 0.12-1. (III) chromosomal cephalosporinase producing species: E. cloacae and C. freundii 2-greater than 128; S. marcescens 2-64; indole + Proteus 0.25-64; P. stuartii 0.25-16. Activity of CPD was not modified on plasmid mediated penicillinase producing strains, but CPD was inactive on cephalosporinase hyperproducing strains, and on broad spectrum bêtalactamases producing strains. CPD was inactive on P. aeruginosa (MIC greater than or equal to 64) and on A. baumannii (16-pi 128). Haemophilus, regardless on bêtalactamase production status, were very susceptible to CPD (MIC less than or equal to 0.25) and B. catarrhalis was generally inhibited by 0.12 to 1. CPD was poorly active on methicillin susceptible Staphylococci (MIC 50 and 90%: 2-4) and inactive on methicillin resistant strains. Enterococci and Listeria monocytogenes were generally resistant; Streptococci A, B, C, G and Pneumococci were inhibited by low concentration: 0.002 to 0.25 (MIC 50 and 90%: 0.016-0.032) whereas MIC for other Streptococci were 0.004 to 32 (MIC 50 and 90%: 0.25-4). These antibacterial properties placed CPD in excellent position among oral cephalosporins. PMID:2195445

  3. Long-term active layer and ground surface temperature trends: results of 12 years of observations at Alaskan CALM sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Nelson, F. E.; Streletskyi, D. A.; Klene, A. E.; Schimek, M.; Little, J.

    2006-12-01

    The uppermost layer of seasonal thawing above permafrost (the active layer) is an important regulator of energy and mass fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere in the polar regions. The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program is a network of sites at which data about active-layer thickness (ALT) and dynamics are collected. CALM was established in the 1990s to observe and detect the long-term response of the active layer and near-surface permafrost to changes in climate. Active layer monitoring is an important component of efforts to assess the effects of global change in permafrost environments. CALM strategies are evolving; this presentation showcases some additions to CALM observation procedures designed to monitor processes and detect changes not anticipated in the original CALM protocol of the early 1990s. In this study we used data from 12 (1995-2006) years of extensive, spatially oriented field observations at CALM sites in northern Alaska to examine landscape-specific spatial and temporal trends in active-layer thickness and air and ground surface temperature. Despite an observed increase in air temperature, active-layer thickness exhibited a decreasing trend over the study period. This result indicates that soil consolidation accompanying penetration of thaw into an ice-rich stratum at the base of the active layer has resulted in subsidence of the surface with little or no apparent thickening of the active layer, as traditionally defined. Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) technology was used to detect frost heave and thaw settlement within representative landscapes. Preliminary results indicate that heave and settlement follow patterns of spatial variation similar to those of active-layer thickness. To evaluate the effect of vegetation on ground surface temperature, several heat-transfer coefficients were estimated, including land cover specific thermal diffusivity and empirical n-factors.

  4. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  5. 77 FR 67337 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China; 2010-2011; Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...The Department of Commerce (``the Department'') published its Preliminary Results of the antidumping duty order on certain activated carbon from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') on May 4, 2012,\\1\\ and we gave interested parties an opportunity to comment on the Preliminary Results. Based upon our analysis of the comments and information received, we made changes to the margin......

  6. 78 FR 70533 - Certain Activated Carbon From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...; 2011-2012, 78 FR 26748 (May 8, 2013) (``Preliminary Results''). DATES: Effective Date: November 26....\\12\\ \\2\\ See id. \\3\\ See id., 78 FR at 26749. \\4\\ See Memorandum to Christian Marsh, Deputy Assistant... Results, 78 FR at 26749; see also Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Activated Carbon from...

  7. Antimicrobial activity of human α-defensin 5 and its linear analogs: N-terminal fatty acylation results in enhanced antimicrobial activity of the linear analogs.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Basil; Nagaraj, Ramakrishnan

    2015-09-01

    Human α-defensin 5 (HD5) exhibits broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and plays an important role in mucosal immunity of the small intestine. Although there have been several studies, the structural requirements for activity and mechanism of bacterial killing is yet to be established unequivocally. In this study, we have investigated the antimicrobial activity of HD5 and linear analogs. Cysteine deletions attenuated the antibacterial activity considerably. Candidacidal activity was affected to a lesser extent. Fatty acid conjugated linear analogs showed antimicrobial activity comparable activity to HD5. Effective surface charge neutralization of bacteria was observed for HD5 as compared to the non-fatty acylated linear analogs. Our results show that HD5 and non-fatty acylated linear analogs enter the bacterial cytoplasm without causing damage to the bacterial inner membrane. Although fatty acylated peptides exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable to HD5, their mechanism of action involved permeabilization of the Escherichia coli inner membrane. HD5 and analogs had the ability to bind plasmid DNA. HD5 had greater binding affinity to plasmid DNA as compared to the analogs. The three dimensional structure of HD5 favors greater interaction with the bacterial cell surface and also with DNA. Antibacterial activity of HD5 involves entry into bacterial cytoplasm and binding to DNA which would result in shut down of the bacterial metabolism leading to cell death. We show how a moderately active linear peptide derived from the α-defensin HD5 can be engineered to enhance antimicrobial activity almost comparable to the native peptide. PMID:26206286

  8. Computer-based procedure for field activities: Results from three evaluations at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna; bly, Aaron; LeBlanc, Katya

    2014-09-01

    Nearly all activities that involve human interaction with the systems of a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. The paper-based procedures (PBPs) currently used by industry have a demonstrated history of ensuring safety; however, improving procedure use could yield tremendous savings in increased efficiency and safety. One potential way to improve procedure-based activities is through the use of computer-based procedures (CBPs). Computer-based procedures provide the opportunity to incorporate context driven job aids, such as drawings, photos, just-in-time training, etc into CBP system. One obvious advantage of this capability is reducing the time spent tracking down the applicable documentation. Additionally, human performance tools can be integrated in the CBP system in such way that helps the worker focus on the task rather than the tools. Some tools can be completely incorporated into the CBP system, such as pre-job briefs, placekeeping, correct component verification, and peer checks. Other tools can be partly integrated in a fashion that reduces the time and labor required, such as concurrent and independent verification. Another benefit of CBPs compared to PBPs is dynamic procedure presentation. PBPs are static documents which limits the degree to which the information presented can be tailored to the task and conditions when the procedure is executed. The CBP system could be configured to display only the relevant steps based on operating mode, plant status, and the task at hand. A dynamic presentation of the procedure (also known as context-sensitive procedures) will guide the user down the path of relevant steps based on the current conditions. This feature will reduce the user’s workload and inherently reduce the risk of incorrectly marking a step as not applicable and the risk of incorrectly performing a step that should be marked as not applicable. As part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactors Sustainability Program

  9. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: A PRELIMINARY INVENTORY OF ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2009-10-01

    Eight Regional CHP Application Centers (RACs) are funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies in all 50 states. The RACs build end-user awareness by providing CHP-related information to targeted markets through education and outreach; they work with the states and regulators to encourage the creation and adoption of favorable public policies; and they provide CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. The RACs were started by DOE as a pilot program in 2001 to support the National CHP Roadmap developed by industry to accelerate deployment of energy efficient CHP technologies (U.S. Combined Heat and Power Association 2001). The intent was to foster a regional presence to build market awareness, address policy issues, and facilitate project development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has supported DOE with the RAC program since its inception. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort involving DOE and some CHP industry stakeholders to establish quantitative metrics for measuring the RACs accomplishments. This effort incorporated the use of logic models to define and describe key RAC activities, outputs, and outcomes. Based on this detailed examination of RAC operations, potential metrics were identified associated with the various key sectors addressed by the RACs: policy makers; regulatory agencies; investor owned utilities; municipal and cooperative utilities; financiers; developers; and end users. The final product was reviewed by a panel of representatives from DOE, ORNL, RACs, and the private sector. The metrics developed through this effort focus on major RAC activities as well as on CHP installations and related outcomes. All eight RACs were contacted in August 2008 and asked to provide data for every year of Center operations for those metrics on which they kept records. In addition, data on CHP installations and

  10. Disease Phenotype, Activity and Clinical Course Prediction Based on C-Reactive Protein Levels at Diagnosis in Patients with Crohn’s Disease: Results from the CONNECT Study

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jee Hye; Im, Jong Pil; Ye, Byong Duk; Cheon, Jae Hee; Jang, Hyun Joo; Lee, Kang Moon; Kim, You Sun; Kim, Sang Wook; Kim, Young Ho; Song, Geun Am; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Won Ho; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims C-reactive protein (CRP) is an easily measured index of disease activity, but its ability to predict clinical course is controversial. We therefore designed a study to determine whether the CRP level at Crohn’s disease (CD) diagnosis is a valuable indicator of the disease phenotype, activity, and clinical course. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 705 CD patients from 32 institutions. The patients were classified into two groups according to CRP level. The patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics and their use of immunosuppressive or biological agents were recorded. Disease location and behavior, hospitalization, and surgery were analyzed. Results A high CRP was associated with younger age, steroid use, colonic or ileocolonic location, high CD activity index, and active inflammation at colonoscopy (p<0.001). As the disease progressed, patients with high CRP were more likely to exhibit strictures (p=0.027). There were significant differences in the use of 5-aminosalicylic acid, antibiotics, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and infliximab (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.023, respectively). Hospitalization was also more frequent in patients with high CRP. Conclusions The CRP level at diagnosis is useful for evaluating the phenotype, activity, and clinical course of CD. Closer follow-up strategies, with early aggressive treatment, could be considered for patients with high CRP. PMID:27021506

  11. Thoron detection with an active Radon exposure meter—First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irlinger, J.; Wielunski, M.; Rühm, W.

    2014-02-01

    For state-of-the-art discrimination of Radon and Thoron several measurement techniques can be used, such as active sampling, electrostatic collection, delayed coincidence method, and alpha-particle-spectroscopy. However, most of the devices available are bulky and show high power consumption, rendering them unfeasible for personal exposition monitoring. Based on a Radon exposure meter previously realized at the Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU), a new electronic prototype for Radon/Thoron monitoring is currently being developed, which features small size and weight. Operating with pin-diode detectors, the low-power passive-sampling device can be used for continuous concentration measurements, employing alpha-particle-spectroscopy and coincidence event registration to distinguish decays originating either from Radon or Thoron isotopes and their decay products. In open geometry, preliminary calibration measurements suggest that one count per hour is produced by a 11 Bq m-3 Radon atmosphere or by a 15 Bq m-3 Thoron atmosphere. Future efforts will concentrate on measurements in mixed Radon/Thoron atmospheres.

  12. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  13. Experimental Results from the Active Aeroelastic Wing Wind Tunnel Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heeg, Jennifer; Spain, Charles V.; Florance, James R.; Wieseman, Carol D.; Ivanco, Thomas G.; DeMoss, Joshua; Silva, Walter A.; Panetta, Andrew; Lively, Peter; Tumwa, Vic

    2005-01-01

    The Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) program is a cooperative effort among NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Boeing Company, encompassing flight testing, wind tunnel testing and analyses. The objective of the AAW program is to investigate the improvements that can be realized by exploiting aeroelastic characteristics, rather than viewing them as a detriment to vehicle performance and stability. To meet this objective, a wind tunnel model was crafted to duplicate the static aeroelastic behavior of the AAW flight vehicle. The model was tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel in July and August 2004. The wind tunnel investigation served the program goal in three ways. First, the wind tunnel provided a benchmark for comparison with the flight vehicle and various levels of theoretical analyses. Second, it provided detailed insight highlighting the effects of individual parameters upon the aeroelastic response of the AAW vehicle. This parameter identification can then be used for future aeroelastic vehicle design guidance. Third, it provided data to validate scaling laws and their applicability with respect to statically scaled aeroelastic models.

  14. Bilateral use of active middle ear implants: speech discrimination results in noise.

    PubMed

    Wolf-Magele, Astrid; Koci, Viktor; Schnabl, Johannes; Zorowka, Patrick; Riechelmann, Herbert; Sprinzl, Georg Mathias

    2016-08-01

    Binaural sound reception has advantages over unilateral perception, including better localization and sound quality as well as speech and tone reception in both quiet and noisy environments. Up to now, most active middle ear implant (AMEI) users have been unilaterally implanted, but patient demand for an implant on the other side is increasing. Ten bilaterally-AMEI implanted native German-speaking adults were included in the study. The Oldenburg sentence test was used to measure speech reception thresholds in noise. The subject's signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at a speech reception score of 50 % was calculated for different noise conditions. SRT was measured as a function of noise condition (nc) and listening condition (lc)-for example, SRT (lc, nc), with nc from S0N0, S0N-90, or S0N90 and lc from left, right or both. For each noise condition, the squelch effect and the binaural summation effect were calculated. Patients in this study demonstrated improvement with bilateral AMEIs compared to right or left AMEI only in all three tested listening conditions. Statistical significance was found in the S0N0 condition to favor usage of bilateral AMI versus either the right or left side only. The benefits of binaural hearing are well known, also in normal-hearing individuals. In the future every bilateral implantation should be a part of the clinical routine. Bilateral implantation can help to reduce problems in background noise and restore directional hearing. PMID:26385811

  15. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid alleviates autistic-like behaviors resulting from maternal immune activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Michael J; Mucha, Brittany; Denheyer, Heather; Atkinson, Devon; Schanz, Norman; Vassiliou, Evros; Benno, Robert H

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders over the last several decades has risen at an alarming rate. Factors such as broadened clinical definitions and increased parental age only partially account for this precipitous increase, suggesting that recent changes in environmental factors may also be responsible. One such factor could be the dramatic decrease in consumption of anti-inflammatory dietary omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to the amount of pro-inflammatory omega-6 (n-6) PUFAs and saturated fats in the Western diet. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the principle n-3 PUFA found in neural tissue and is important for optimal brain development, especially during late gestation when DHA rapidly and preferentially accumulates in the brain. In this study, we tested whether supplementation of a low n-3 PUFA diet with DHA throughout development could improve measures related to autism in a mouse model of maternal immune activation. We found that dietary DHA protected offspring from the deleterious effects of gestational exposure to the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid on behavioral measures of autism and subsequent adulthood immune system reactivity. These data suggest that elevated dietary levels of DHA, especially during pregnancy and nursing, may help protect normal neurodevelopment from the potentially adverse consequences of environmental insults like maternal infection. PMID:26703213

  16. HER2 activation results in β-catenin-dependent changes in pulmonary epithelial permeability.

    PubMed

    Finigan, James H; Vasu, Vihas T; Thaikoottathil, Jyoti V; Mishra, Rangnath; Shatat, Mohammad A; Mason, Robert J; Kern, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-15

    The receptor tyrosine kinase human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is known to regulate pulmonary epithelial barrier function; however, the mechanisms behind this effect remain unidentified. We hypothesized that HER2 signaling alters the epithelial barrier through an interaction with the adherens junction (AJ) protein β-catenin, leading to dissolution of the AJ. In quiescent pulmonary epithelial cells, HER2 and β-catenin colocalized along the lateral intercellular junction. HER2 activation by the ligand neuregulin-1 was associated with tyrosine phosphorylation of β-catenin, dissociation of β-catenin from E-cadherin, and decreased E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion. All effects were blocked with the HER2 inhibitor lapatinib. β-Catenin knockdown using shRNA significantly attenuated neuregulin-1-induced decreases in pulmonary epithelial resistance in vitro. Our data indicate that HER2 interacts with β-catenin, leading to dissolution of the AJ, decreased cell-cell adhesion, and disruption of the pulmonary epithelial barrier. PMID:25326580

  17. Thoron detection with an active Radon exposure meter—First results

    SciTech Connect

    Irlinger, J. Wielunski, M.; Rühm, W.

    2014-02-15

    For state-of-the-art discrimination of Radon and Thoron several measurement techniques can be used, such as active sampling, electrostatic collection, delayed coincidence method, and alpha-particle-spectroscopy. However, most of the devices available are bulky and show high power consumption, rendering them unfeasible for personal exposition monitoring. Based on a Radon exposure meter previously realized at the Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU), a new electronic prototype for Radon/Thoron monitoring is currently being developed, which features small size and weight. Operating with pin-diode detectors, the low-power passive-sampling device can be used for continuous concentration measurements, employing alpha-particle-spectroscopy and coincidence event registration to distinguish decays originating either from Radon or Thoron isotopes and their decay products. In open geometry, preliminary calibration measurements suggest that one count per hour is produced by a 11 Bq m{sup −3} Radon atmosphere or by a 15 Bq m{sup −3} Thoron atmosphere. Future efforts will concentrate on measurements in mixed Radon/Thoron atmospheres.

  18. The heat-activated stapes prosthesis 'SMart' Piston: technique and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Babighian, Gregorio; Fontana, Marco; Caltran, Silvia; Ciccolella, Michele; Amadori, Maurizio; De Zen, Michela

    2007-01-01

    Since 2003 we are using in our stapedotomies the Nitinol 'Smart' Piston. This prosthesis has a Teflon 'vestibular' end and a wire shaft made by Nitinol, with a heat activated self-crimping loop. Nitinol is an alloy of Nickel + Titanium, belonging to the class of the so-called smart materials, i.e. materials with shape-memory and superelastic properties. Nitinol is lightweight and highly biocompatible thanks to the thin layer of Titanium oxide covering the Nickel surface. The special advantage of this piston is that the loop grips by itself very uniformly and quite tightly around the incudal process or the malleus handle when a minimal heating (about 60 degrees C) is applied using a disposable heater ('Thermal Tip'). This piston was successfully used in our Department between 2003 and 2004 in a first group of 42 cases of stapedotomy and in 7 cases of malleostapedotomy. The shape and the uniformity of the loop grip was controlled by examining fresh temporal bone specimens by S.E.M. (x21 / 166) and in all specimens the loop was uniformly surrounding the ossicle, without 'dead' spaces. It is our feeling that this prosthesis is very useful in stapes surgery for at least two reasons: 1. because it improves the quality of the interface 'piston loop/long process of incus'; 2. because the duration of the procedure is reduced. PMID:17245045

  19. VR PTSD exposure therapy results with active duty OIF/OEF combatants.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert A; Difede, Joann; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Johnston, Scott; McLay, Robert N; Reger, Greg; Gahm, Greg; Parsons, Thomas; Graap, Ken; Pair, Jarrell

    2009-01-01

    Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is reported to be caused by traumatic events that are outside the range of usual human experience including military combat, violent personal assault, being kidnapped or taken hostage and terrorist attacks. Reports indicate that at least 1 out of 6 Iraq War veterans are exhibiting symptoms of depression, anxiety and PTSD. Virtual Reality exposure therapy has been previously used for PTSD with reports of positive outcomes. This paper will present a brief description of the USC/ICT Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan PTSD therapy application and present clinical outcome data from active duty patients treated at the Naval Medical Center-San Diego (NMCSD) as of October 2009. Initial outcomes from the first twenty patients to complete treatment indicate that 16 no longer meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD at post treatment. Research and clinical tests using the Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan software are also currently underway at Weill Cornell Medical College, Emory University, Fort Lewis and WRAMC along with 20 other test sites. PMID:19377167

  20. Sport facility proximity and physical activity: Results from the Study of Community Sports in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiujin; Dai, Jian; Xun, Pengcheng; Jamieson, Lynn M; He, Ka

    2015-01-01

    Increased sport facility proximity is associated with higher likelihood of meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in western studies, but it is uncertain whether the findings can be generalized to the Chinese population. From September 2012 to December 2012, 3926 participants drawn from China using a multi-stage sampling strategy were invited to participate in the Study of Community Sports in China. Participants' demographics, commuting time to the nearest sport facility and PA levels were assessed. Among 3926 participants included (51.2% female) in the final analysis, 878 (22.4%) of them met the PA recommendation. Participants who spent ≥30 minutes in commuting time had 80% odds [odds ratio (OR): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.98)] of meeting the PA recommendation compared to those who spent less than 10 minutes. For every 10-minute increment in commuting time, the odds reduced by 6% [OR = 0.94 (0.88-0.99)]. The observed associations were not appreciably modified by age, gender or education level. In this cross-sectional community-based study, we found that residents in China were less likely to meet the PA recommendation if they needed more commuting time to the nearest sport facility. Increasing sport facility proximity may be effective in improving the PA levels in the Chinese population. PMID:25427691

  1. Hydrothermal activity in the Lau Basin: First results from the NAUTILAU Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NAUTILAU Group

    The Lau Basin, a back arc spreading center, is one of the most active hydrothermal areas in the ocean. A scientific team from France, Germany, and Tonga investigated the southern Lau Basin near Tonga in 1989 to study the processes of seafloor ore-mineral formation associated with hydrothermal circulation along the volcanic Valu Fa ridge (Ride de Valu Fa in Figure 1), which lies in back of the Tonga-Kermadec trench.Between April 17 and May 10 scientists on the R/V Nadir used the submersible Nautile to make 22 dives in the southern Lau Basin. The cruise was called NAUTILAU, for Nautile in Lau Basin. In addition to the standard equipment of the submersible (video and photo cameras, and temperature probe), a CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth) instrument was integrated with a “mini rosette” water sampling device used for the first time on the Nautile to obtain correlations between the geological observations and the physical and chemical anomalies measured in the seawater.

  2. Coalbed natural gas exploration, drilling activities, and geologic test results, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Arthur C.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in partnership with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, the North Slope Borough, and the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation conducted a four-year study designed to identify, define, and delineate a shallow coalbed natural gas (CBNG) resource with the potential to provide locally produced, affordable power to the community of Wainwright, Alaska. From 2007 through 2010, drilling and testing activities conducted at three sites in or near Wainwright, identified and evaluated an approximately 7.5-ft-thick, laterally continuous coalbed that contained significant quantities of CBNG. This coalbed, subsequently named the Wainwright coalbed, was penetrated at depths ranging from 1,167 ft to 1,300 ft below land surface. Core samples were collected from the Wainwright coalbed at all three drill locations and desorbed-gas measurements were taken from seventeen 1-ft-thick sections of the core. These measurements indicate that the Wainwright coalbed contains enough CBNG to serve as a long-term energy supply for the community. Although attempts to produce viable quantities of CBNG from the Wainwright coalbed proved unsuccessful, it seems likely that with proper well-field design and by utilizing currently available drilling and reservoir stimulation techniques, this CBNG resource could be developed as a long-term economically viable energy source for Wainwright.

  3. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-03-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  4. Thoron detection with an active Radon exposure meter--first results.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, J; Wielunski, M; Rühm, W

    2014-02-01

    For state-of-the-art discrimination of Radon and Thoron several measurement techniques can be used, such as active sampling, electrostatic collection, delayed coincidence method, and alpha-particle-spectroscopy. However, most of the devices available are bulky and show high power consumption, rendering them unfeasible for personal exposition monitoring. Based on a Radon exposure meter previously realized at the Helmholtz Center Munich (HMGU), a new electronic prototype for Radon/Thoron monitoring is currently being developed, which features small size and weight. Operating with pin-diode detectors, the low-power passive-sampling device can be used for continuous concentration measurements, employing alpha-particle-spectroscopy and coincidence event registration to distinguish decays originating either from Radon or Thoron isotopes and their decay products. In open geometry, preliminary calibration measurements suggest that one count per hour is produced by a 11 Bq m(-3) Radon atmosphere or by a 15 Bq m(-3) Thoron atmosphere. Future efforts will concentrate on measurements in mixed Radon/Thoron atmospheres. PMID:24593342

  5. Adaptive wave field synthesis for active sound field reproduction: experimental results.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain

    2008-04-01

    Sound field reproduction has applications in music reproduction, spatial audio, sound environment reproduction, and experimental acoustics. Sound field reproduction can be used to artificially reproduce the spatial character of natural hearing. The objective is then to reproduce a sound field in a real reproduction environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. The room response thus reduces the quality of the physical sound field reproduction by WFS. In recent research papers, adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) was defined as a potential solution to compensate for these quality reductions from which WFS objective performance suffers. In this paper, AWFS is experimentally investigated as an active sound field reproduction system with a limited number of reproduction error sensors to compensate for the response of the listening environment. Two digital signal processing algorithms for AWFS are used for comparison purposes, one of which is based on independent radiation mode control. AWFS performed propagating sound field reproduction better than WFS in three tested reproduction spaces (hemianechoic chamber, standard laboratory space, and reverberation chamber). PMID:18397007

  6. Cosmic dust analogue material condensation in microgravity: The Stardust programme - First results and future activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, F.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Nuth, J.; Stephens, J. R.; Bussoletti, E.; Carotenuto, L.; Colangeli, L.; Dell'aversana, P.; Mele, F.; Mennella, V.

    1992-01-01

    Initial results are presented from airborne experiments investigating the vapor phase condensation in microgravity, carried out in the framework of the Stardust international program. Special attention is given to the design and operation of the experimental equipment, which includes the furnace for producing vapors from different materials and the cloud chamber in which the vapor nucleation occurs. A two-part mathematical model was developed to describe the transport processes in the nucleation chamber. Results obtained from three experimental series were conducted with Mg and Zn aboard NASA's KC-135 reduced-gravity research aircraft showed that nucleation front (smoke cloud) was quite different in appearance in microgravity from that typically observed at 1-g condition. The Mg and Zn particles exhibited significant differences in shape; there was some evidence of coagulation.

  7. Purinergic signaling during macrophage differentiation results in M2 alternative activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    Macrophages represent a highly heterogenic cell population of the innate immune system, with important roles in the initiation and resolution of the inflammatory response. Purinergic signaling regulates both M1 and M2 macrophage function at different levels by controlling the secretion of cytokines, phagocytosis, and the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that extracellular nucleotides arrest macrophage differentiation from bone marrow precursors via adenosine and P2 receptors. This results in a mature macrophage with increased expression of M2, but not M1, genes. Similar to adenosine and ATP, macrophage growth arrested with LPS treatment resulted in an increase of the M2-related marker Ym1. Recombinant Ym1 was able to affect macrophage proliferation and could, potentially, be involved in the arrest of macrophage growth during hematopoiesis. PMID:26382298

  8. Application of two design methods for active flutter suppression and wind-tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, J. R.; Abel, I.; Dunn, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The synthesis, implementation, and wind tunnel test of two flutter suppression control laws for an aeroelastic model equipped with a trailing edge control surface are presented. One control law is based on the aerodynamic energy method, and the other is based on results of optimal control theory. Analytical methods used to design the control laws and evaluate their performance are described. At Mach 0.6, 0.8, and 0.9, increases in flutter dynamic pressure were obtained but the full 44 percent increase was not achieved. However at Mach 0.95, the 44 percent increase was achieved with both control laws. Experimental results indicate that the performance of the systems is not so effective as that predicted by analysis, and that wind tunnel turbulence plays an important role in both control law synthesis and demonstration of system performance.

  9. Ageing does not result in a decline in cell synthetic activity in an injury prone tendon.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C T; McDermott, B T; Goodship, A E; Clegg, P D; Birch, H L

    2016-06-01

    Advancing age is a well-known risk factor for tendon disease. Energy-storing tendons [e.g., human Achilles, equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT)] are particularly vulnerable and it is thought that injury occurs following an accumulation of micro-damage in the extracellular matrix (ECM). Several authors suggest that age-related micro-damage accumulates due to a failure of the aging cell population to maintain the ECM or an imbalance between anabolic and catabolic pathways. We hypothesized that ageing results in a decreased ability of tendon cells to synthesize matrix components and matrix-degrading enzymes, resulting in a reduced turnover of the ECM and a decreased ability to repair micro-damage. The SDFT was collected from horses aged 3-30 years with no signs of tendon injury. Cell synthetic and degradative ability was assessed at the mRNA and protein levels. Telomere length was measured as an additional marker of cell ageing. There was no decrease in cellularity or relative telomere length with increasing age, and no decline in mRNA or protein levels for matrix proteins or degradative enzymes. The results suggest that the mechanism for age-related tendon deterioration is not due to reduced cellularity or a loss of synthetic functionality and that alternative mechanisms should be considered. PMID:26058332

  10. A fallacious jar? The peculiar relation between descriptive premises and normative conclusions in neuroethics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nils-Frederic; Northoff, Georg

    2015-06-01

    Ethical questions have traditionally been approached through conceptual analysis. Inspired by the rapid advance of modern brain imaging techniques, however, some ethical questions appear in a new light. For example, hotly debated trolley dilemmas have recently been studied by psychologists and neuroscientists alike, arguing that their findings can support or debunk moral intuitions that underlie those dilemmas. Resulting from the wedding of philosophy and neuroscience, neuroethics has emerged as a novel interdisciplinary field that aims at drawing conclusive relationships between neuroscientific observations and normative ethics. A major goal of neuroethics is to derive normative ethical conclusions from the investigation of neural and psychological mechanisms underlying ethical theories, as well as moral judgments and intuitions. The focus of this article is to shed light on the structure and functioning of neuroethical arguments of this sort, and to reveal particular methodological challenges that lie concealed therein. We discuss the methodological problem of how one can--or, as the case may be, cannot--validly infer normative conclusions from neuroscientific observations. Moreover, we raise the issue of how preexisting normative ethical convictions threaten to invalidate the interpretation of neuroscientific data, and thus arrive at question-begging conclusions. Nonetheless, this is not to deny that current neuroethics rightly presumes that moral considerations about actual human lives demand empirically substantiated answers. Therefore, in conclusion, we offer some preliminary reflections on how the discussed methodological challenges can be met. PMID:25985843

  11. Permafrost and active layer monitoring in the maritime Antarctic: Preliminary results from CALM sites on Livingston and Deception Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramos, M.; Vieira, G.; Blanco, J.J.; Hauck, C.; Hidalgo, M.A.; Tome, D.; Nevers, M.; Trindade, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes results obtained from scientific work and experiments performed on Livingston and Deception Islands. Located in the South Shetland Archipelago, these islands have been some of the most sensitive regions over the last 50 years with respect to climate change with a Mean Annual Air Temperature (MAAT) close to -2 ºC. Three Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were installed to record the thermal regime and the behaviour of the active layer in different places with similar climate, but with different soil composition, porosity, and water content. The study’s ultimate aim is to document the influence of climate change on permafrost degradation. Preliminary results, obtained in 2006, on maximum active-layer thickness (around 40 cm in the CALM of Deception Island), active layer temperature evolution, snow thickness, and air temperatures permit early characterization of energy exchange mechanisms between the ground and the atmosphere in the CALM-S sites.

  12. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18-30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  13. Effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhara A; Chevidikunnan, Mohamed Faisal; Khan, Fayaz Rahman; Gaowgzeh, Riziq Allah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The acquisition of motor skills are fundamental to human life. There is a lack of research on whether knowledge of performance or knowledge of result as augmented feedback is more effective. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of knowledge of result and knowledge of performance in the learning of a skilled motor activity by healthy young adults. [Subjects and Methods] A total of thirty healthy young adult males and females without any neurological or musculoskeletal impairment, between the age of 18–30 years were the subjects of the study. They were randomly allocated to 2 groups: group 1 was given knowledge of result as feedback, and knowledge of performance was given as feedback to group 2. Both the groups practiced the task of throwing a soft spongy ball for 6 days per week for 4 weeks, with 40 trials each day. The outcome measure used was the distance of the throw. [Results] The results were analyzed using the t-test. The mean distances thrown by both the groups showed highly significant improvements and throwing distance of group 2 showed better improvement than that of group 1. [Conclusion] Both types of augmented feedback were effective at improving skilled motor activity, but the knowledge of performance group showed better improvement than the knowledge of result group. PMID:27313355

  14. Marine Hazards, a Result of Naval War Activities in the Pacific 1942-1945?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernaerts, A.

    2014-12-01

    The clash between the United States and Japan in the Pacific from December 1942 to August 1945 presumably caused marine geohazards exceeding significantly many submarine earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions and tsunamis. Most significantly the most pronounced shift in Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) took place within the shortest period of time ever observed, and when the Allies navies approached Japan's coast line two years later, winter air temperatures (December to February 1944/45) fell to the lowest level ever observed. The Naval War in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 was not only devastating to man and material, but also substantially altered the structure of the sea surface layer down to 100 meter and more, with a subsequent impact on air temperatures, and PDO balance across the Northern Pacific. Until now the question has received little attention although it is obvious that a global rising temperature trend prior the early 1940s turned into a decreasing mode during the time when huge naval war activities took place across the oceans in the Northern Hemisphere that eventually lasted for three decades until the mid-1970s While the impact of screw driven vessels since their invention in the 19th Century on the sea surface structure is difficult to assess, and no investigations have been made yet . The naval war in the Pacific from 1943 - 1945 could be regarded as a huge scale 'field experiment' on manmade marine geohazards due to the suddenness, the magnitude and the intensity, penetrating the ocean to considerable depths. Naval operations and available sea and climate data need to be identified, linked, evaluated and discussed. What kind of impact did the Pacific War have on climate? It seems due time to pay attention to this issue.

  15. Conductive heat flow at the TAG Active Hydrothermal Mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

    We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (<20 mW/m²) 20-50 m west of the smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

  16. Biotransformation of dianabol with the filamentous fungi and β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity of resulting metabolites.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naik T; Zafar, Salman; Noreen, Shagufta; Al Majid, Abdullah M; Al Othman, Zeid A; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim; Atta-ur-Rahman; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2014-07-01

    Biotransformation of the anabolic steroid dianabol (1) by suspended-cell cultures of the filamentous fungi Cunninghamella elegans and Macrophomina phaseolina was studied. Incubation of 1 with C. elegans yielded five hydroxylated metabolites 2-6, while M. phaseolina transformed compound 1 into polar metabolites 7-11. These metabolites were identified as 6β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (2), 15α,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (3), 11α,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (4), 6β,12β,17β-trihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (5), 6β,15α,17β-trihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (6), 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3,6-dione (7), 7β,17β,-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (8), 15β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (9), 17β-hydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3,11-dione (10), and 11β,17β-dihydroxy-17α-methylandrost-1,4-dien-3-one (11). Metabolite 3 was also transformed chemically into diketone 12 and oximes 13, and 14. Compounds 6 and 12-14 were identified as new derivatives of dianabol (1). The structures of all transformed products were deduced on the basis of spectral analyses. Compounds 1-14 were evaluated for β-glucuronidase enzyme inhibitory activity. Compounds 7, 13, and 14 showed a strong inhibition of β-glucuronidase enzyme, with IC50 values between 49.0 and 84.9 μM. PMID:24755238

  17. Active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Ghosh, Amalkumar; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor; Ali, Tariq; Khayrullin, Ilyas

    2011-06-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through research and development programs from 2007 to 2010 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2007, 2008, 2009, and 2010 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2,3,4. Life and performance tests have continued through 2010, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  18. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED)-XL performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Lum, Alden K.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2009-05-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life tests on these displays, finding over 200% lifetime improvement for the OLED-XL devices over the standard OLED displays, publishing results at the 2007 and 2008 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2. In 2008, eMagin Corporation made additional improvements on the lifetime of their displays and developed the first SXGA (1280 × 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. A summary of the life and performance tests run at CERDEC NVESD will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  19. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Lum, Alden K.; Ghosh, Amalkumar P.; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2010-04-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XLTM devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2009 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 × 1024 triad pixels) OLED microdisplay. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2007, 2008, and 2009 SPIE Defense and Security Symposia1,2,3. Life and performance tests have continued through 2009, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems: where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  20. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Wood, Michael V.; Hastings, Arthur R., Jr.; Draper, Russell S.; Ghosh, Amalkumar; Prache, Olivier; Wacyk, Ihor

    2012-06-01

    The US Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2011 with the US Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 triad pixels) and WUXGA (1920 X 1200) OLED microdisplays. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing Symposia1,2,3,4,5. Life and performance tests have continued through 2012, and this data will be presented along with a recap of previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems by determining where good fits are made and where further development might be desirable.

  1. Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) performance and life test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellowes, David A.; Botkin, Michael E.; Draper, Russell S.; Coletta, Jason

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Army and eMagin Corporation established a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to characterize the ongoing improvements in the lifetime of OLED displays. This CRADA also called for the evaluation of OLED performance as the need arises, especially when new products are developed or when a previously untested parameter needs to be understood. In 2006, eMagin Corporation developed long-life OLED-XL devices for use in their AMOLED microdisplays for head-worn applications. Through Research and Development programs from 2007 to 2012 with the U.S. Government, eMagin made additional improvements in OLED life and developed the first SXGA (1280 X 1024 with triad pixels) and WUXGA (1920 X 1200 with triad pixels) OLED microdisplays. US Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD conducted life and performance tests on these displays, publishing results at the 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007 SPIE Defense, Security and Sensing Symposia. Life and performance tests have continued through 2013, and this data will be presented along with a comparison to previous data. This should result in a better understanding of the applicability of AMOLEDs in military and commercial head mounted systems, where good fits are made, and where further development might be desirable.

  2. Current results on biological activities of lichen secondary metabolites: a review.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Katalin; Farkas, Edit

    2010-01-01

    Lichens are symbiotic organisms of fungi and algae or cyanobacteria. Lichen-forming fungi synthesize a great variety of secondary metabolites, many of which are unique. Developments in analytical techniques and experimental methods have resulted in the identification of about 1050 lichen substances (including those found in cultures). In addition to their role in lichen chemotaxonomy and systematics, lichen secondary compounds have several possible biological roles, including photoprotection against intense radiation, as well as allelochemical, antiviral, antitumor, antibacterial, antiherbivore, and antioxidant action. These compounds are also important factors in metal homeostasis and pollution tolerance of lichen thalli. Although our knowledge of the contribution of these extracellular products to the success of the lichen symbiosis has increased significantly in the last decades, their biotic and abiotic roles have not been entirely explored. PMID:20469633

  3. Preliminary structural control results from the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Saarmaa, Erik; Jacques, Robert N.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of on-going closed-loop ground experiments on the MACE test article, the objective of which is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero gravity can be predicted, as well as to examine orbit system identification and control reconfiguration. The MACE hardware consists of three torque wheels, a two-axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors, and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this is to represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. When linear quadratic Gaussian control is used, payload pointing accuracy is improved by an order of magnitude when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The successes and failures of the design and implementation process are discussed.

  4. Experimental results of active control on a large structure to suppress vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Three design methods, Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR), H-infinity, and mu-synthesis, are used to obtain compensators for suppressing the vibrations of a 10-bay vertical truss structure, a component typical of what may be used to build a large space structure. For the design process the plant dynamic characteristics of the structure were determined experimentally using an identification method. The resulting compensators were implemented on a digital computer and tested for their ability to suppress the first bending mode response of the 10-bay vertical truss. Time histories of the measured motion are presented, and modal damping obtained during the experiments are compared with analytical predictions. The advantages and disadvantages of using the various design methods are discussed.

  5. Pre-treatment urea breath test results predict the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yung-Chih; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Huang, Shih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment 13C-urea breath test (UBT) results with H pylori density and efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients with active duodenal ulcer and H pylori infection were recruited. H pylori density was histologically graded according to the Sydney system. Each patient received lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) for 1 week. According to pre-treatment UBT values, patients were allocated into low ( < 16‰), intermediate (16‰-35‰), and high ( > 35‰) UBT groups. RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between pre-treatment UBT results and H pylori density (P < 0.001). H pylori eradication rates were 94.9%, 94.4% and 81.6% in the low, intermediate and high UBT groups, respectively (per protocol analysis, P = 0.11). When patients were assigned into two groups (UBT results ≤ 35‰ and > 35‰), the eradication rates were 94.7% and 81.6%, respectively (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The intragastric bacterial load of H pylori can be evaluated by UBT, and high pre-treatment UBT results can predict an adverse outcome of eradication therapy. PMID:15052680

  6. LISA Pathfinder Discharge Working Group: Activities, Results, and Lessons Learned for LISA/NGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, T.; Bergner, P.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Brandt, N.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) entrusted Astrium GmbH to identify the root cause and corrective measures for the shortcomings of the LISA Pathfinder discharge system baseline that were identified during the system level testing in the torsion pendulum at the University of Trento. The main goal was to maximize the discharge system robustness under the given constraint to minimize the impact on manufacturing and the AIT process of the existing flight hardware. Astrium GmbH set-up a dedicated discharge working group (DWG) for 9 months, bringing together the expertise of surface scientists (DLR Stuttgart, Uni Würzburg, Uni Modena, BEAR Trieste) with the existing significant knowledge in the LTP community (Uni Trento, Imperial College London, CGS, Selex Galileo, TWT GmbH, ESA). The findings resulted in a recommendation to modify the baseline discharge system of LISA Pathfinder, including the definition of dedicated manufacturing and AIT requirements. These findings have relevance also for LISA/NGO, since they allow for a significantly more robust discharge system design.

  7. Airborne gamma radiation measurements of soil moisture during FIFE: Activities and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peck, Eugene L.

    1992-01-01

    Soil moisture measurements were obtained during the summer of 1987 and 1989 near Manhattan, Kansas, using the National Weather Service (NWS) airborne gamma radiation system. A network of 24 flight lines were established over the research area. Airborne surveys were flown daily during two intensive field campaigns. The data collected was sufficient to modify the NWS standard operational method for estimating soil moisture for the Field Experiment (FIFE) flight lines. The average root mean square error of the soil moisture estimates for shorter FIFE flight lines was found to be 2.5 percent, compared with a reported value of 3.9 percent for NWS flight lines. Techniques were developed to compute soil moisture estimates for portions of the flight lines. Results of comparisons of the airborne gamma radiation soil moisture estimates with those obtained using the NASA Pushbroom Microwave Radiation (PBMR) system and hydrological model are presented. The airborne soil moisture measurements, and real averages computed using all remotely sensed and ground data, have been in support of the research of the many FIFE investigators whose overall goal was the upscale integration of models and the application of satellite remote sensing.

  8. Tetramerization-defects of p53 result in aberrant ubiquitylation and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Lang, Valérie; Pallara, Chiara; Zabala, Amaia; Lobato-Gil, Sofia; Lopitz-Otsoa, Fernando; Farrás, Rosa; Hjerpe, Roland; Torres-Ramos, Monica; Zabaleta, Lorea; Blattner, Christine; Hay, Ronald T; Barrio, Rosa; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Aillet, Fabienne

    2014-07-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 regulates the expression of genes involved in cell cycle progression, senescence and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effect of single point mutations in the oligomerization domain (OD) on tetramerization, transcription, ubiquitylation and stability of p53. As predicted by docking and molecular dynamics simulations, p53 OD mutants show functional defects on transcription, Mdm2-dependent ubiquitylation and 26S proteasome-mediated degradation. However, mutants unable to form tetramers are well degraded by the 20S proteasome. Unexpectedly, despite the lower structural stability compared to WT p53, p53 OD mutants form heterotetramers with WT p53 when expressed transiently or stably in cells wild type or null for p53. In consequence, p53 OD mutants interfere with the capacity of WT p53 tetramers to be properly ubiquitylated and result in changes of p53-dependent protein expression patterns, including the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and PUMA under basal and adriamycin-induced conditions. Importantly, the patient derived p53 OD mutant L330R (OD1) showed the more severe changes in p53-dependent gene expression. Thus, in addition to the well-known effects on p53 stability, ubiquitylation defects promote changes in p53-dependent gene expression with implications on some of its functions. PMID:24816189

  9. MHD activity in the ISX-B tokamak: experimental results and theoretical interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Carreras, B.A.; Dunlap, J.L.; Bell, J.D.; Charlton, L.A.; Cooper, W.A.; Dory, R.A.; Hender, T.C.; Hicks, H.R.; Holmes, J.A.; Lynch, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    The observed spectrum of MHD fluctuations in the ISX-B tokamak is clearly dominated by the n=1 mode when the q=1 surface is in the plasma. This fact agrees well with theoretical predictions based on 3-D resistive MHD calculations. They show that the (m=1; n=1) mode is then the dominant instability. It drives other n=1 modes through toroidal coupling and n>1 modes through nonlinear couplings. These theoretically predicted mode structures have been compared in detail with the experimentally measured wave forms (using arrays of soft x-ray detectors). The agreement is excellent. More detailed comparisons between theory and experiment have required careful reconstructions of the ISX-B equilibria. The equilibria so constructed have permitted a precise evaluation of the ideal MHD stability properties of ISX-B. The present results indicate that the high ..beta.. ISX-B equilibria are marginally stable to finite eta ideal MHD modes. The resistive MHD calculations also show that at finite ..beta.. there are unstable resistive pressure driven modes.

  10. Myosin7a Deficiency Results in Reduced Retinal Activity Which Is Improved by Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Pasqualina; Sommella, Andrea; Marrocco, Elena; Di Vicino, Umberto; Polishchuk, Elena; Garrido, Marina Garcia; Seeliger, Mathias W.; Polishchuk, Roman; Auricchio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in MYO7A cause autosomal recessive Usher syndrome type IB (USH1B), one of the most frequent conditions that combine severe congenital hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa. A promising therapeutic strategy for retinitis pigmentosa is gene therapy, however its pre-clinical development is limited by the mild retinal phenotype of the shaker1 (sh1−/−) murine model of USH1B which lacks both retinal functional abnormalities and degeneration. Here we report a significant, early-onset delay of sh1−/− photoreceptor ability to recover from light desensitization as well as a progressive reduction of both b-wave electroretinogram amplitude and light sensitivity, in the absence of significant loss of photoreceptors up to 12 months of age. We additionally show that subretinal delivery to the sh1−/− retina of AAV vectors encoding the large MYO7A protein results in significant improvement of sh1−/− photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium ultrastructural anomalies which is associated with improvement of recovery from light desensitization. These findings provide new tools to evaluate the efficacy of experimental therapies for USH1B. In addition, although AAV vectors expressing large genes might have limited clinical applications due to their genome heterogeneity, our data show that AAV-mediated MYO7A gene transfer to the sh1−/− retina is effective. PMID:23991031

  11. Active experiments in modifying spacecraft potential: Results from ATS-5 and ATS-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, R. C.; Whipple, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    The processing of data from onboard spacecraft instruments are described. The modification of spacecraft potentials is reviewed. Analysis of this data yielded the following results: (1) electron emission (E approximately 10 electron-volts) did not perturb the status of a satellite at low potential the absolute value of phi approximately 50 volts by more than 50 volts (the ATS 5 low energy limit), (2) emission of a low energy plasma (E approximatey 10 volts) does not change low potentials (the absolute value of phi approximately 5 volts) by more than a few volts (ATS 6 low energy resolution), (3) when ATS 6 entered eclipse in the presence of a high energy plasma (10 keV), the neutralizer suppressed any rise in the absolute value of phi (within a few volts resolution), (4) when the electron emitter on ATS 5 operated, it served to discharge negative potentials from thousands to hundreds of volts, and (5) when the neutralizer on ATS 6 was operated, it served to discharge kilovolt potentials to below 50 volts. Low altitude (100 - 300 km) experiments with KV electron beams are studied. Differential charging was eliminated by the operation of the main thruster on ATS 6 clamped on the spacecraft at -5 volts.

  12. Physical activity as a protective factor against depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community: result from a national cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wen-Jin; Tan, Ji-Ping; Yi, Fang; Zou, Yong-Ming; Gao, Ya; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Wang, Lu-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity is generally considered to be effective in reducing the prevalence of depression and promoting remission of its symptoms. However, large-scale epidemiological research on this issue is lacking in older Chinese adults. We performed a nationwide epidemiological survey to determine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in older Chinese veterans in the community, with adjustment for potential confounders. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 9,676 community-dwelling older Chinese veterans. Depressive symptoms were identified using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Physical activity was self-reported using a one-year physical activity questionnaire. Information about covariates was obtained by questionnaire-based interview. Relationships between study variables and symptoms of depression were estimated using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Results The median age was 82.29 (interquartile range 80.25–84.60) years. In total, 81.84% of the study participants engaged in physical activity that was predominantly light in intensity. In unadjusted analyses, physical activity was associated with a significantly decreased likelihood of depressive symptoms (5.43% versus 18.83%, P<0.0001). Multivariate logistic regression with adjustment and controlling for confounders, physical activity was still inversely associated with depressive symptoms and was the only independent protective factor (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.44–0.72, P<0.0001) among the associated factors in this study. In a univariate general linear model, there was a significant difference in Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score between subjects participating in active physical activity and those who did not (F=59.07, P<0.0001). Conclusion This study found an inverse relationship between physical activity and symptoms of depression in older Chinese veterans in

  13. An analytical model for hot-gas defrosting of a cylindrical coil cooler. Part 2: Model results and conclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mutawa, N.K.; Sherif, S.A.

    1998-10-01

    The experimental work conducted in a companion investigation (ASHRAE RP-622) has documented the energy penalty associated with using hot-gas defrosting in industrial freezers. This penalty is realized by the large amount of the defrost heat input being transferred to the refrigerated space due to the evaporation of the melt and sublimation of frost (latent heat), as compared with the smaller amount that is utilized to melt the frost. Part of this penalty is also attributed to the residual heat that goes into the refrigerant during the defrosting process. This heat has to be extracted from the system during the refrigeration portion of the R/D cycle. The work described in this paper attempts to model the hot-gas defrosting process and quantify the effects of the different factors that influence it.

  14. The status of the CABRI test program: Recent results and future activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, F.; Gonnier, Ch.; Papin, J.

    1997-01-01

    The first five CABRI experiments of the REP-Na series, all with UO2 fuel and up to a maximum local burnup of 64 GWd/t, have been examined and analyzed and are now reasonably well understood. In March 1996, the first MOX test with a 3 cycle irradiated fuel at 47 GWd/t radially averaged, local maximum burnup has been successfully performed. The rod did not fail and detailed examinations are being obtained and still in progress presently. The available results and findings are presented in this paper. Three experiments of the REP-Na test matrix are still to be performed, REP-Na7, a 4 cycle MOX test, is scheduled in November 1996. The last two experiments, REP-Na 8 the key experiment of the UO2 matrix, and REP-Na 9, a 2 cycle MOX fuel test, will be performed during the first half of 1997. The CABRI tests made with sodium cooling have a good representativity of reactor conditions during some tens of milliseconds. For better simulation on a longer time range, a project study has been undertaken in view of the implementation of a pressurized-water loop into the CABRI reactor. The design of this loop and the performance parameters of the upgraded driver core of CABRI is presented. Finally, the planning of the CABRI transformation and the outlines of the future test matrix is given. The most optimistic estimation allows to predict that the first tests under prototypical test conditions could be performed before the end of 1999.

  15. Insensitivity of astrocytes to interleukin 10 signaling following peripheral immune challenge results in prolonged microglial activation in the aged brain.

    PubMed

    Norden, Diana M; Trojanowski, Paige J; Walker, Frederick R; Godbout, Jonathan P

    2016-08-01

    Immune-activated microglia from aged mice produce exaggerated levels of cytokines. Despite high levels of microglial interleukin (IL)-10 in the aged brain, neuroinflammation was prolonged and associated with depressive-like deficits. Because astrocytes respond to IL-10 and, in turn, attenuate microglial activation, we investigated if astrocyte-mediated resolution of microglial activation was impaired with age. Here, aged astrocytes had a dysfunctional profile with higher glial fibrillary acidic protein, lower glutamate transporter expression, and significant cytoskeletal re-arrangement. Moreover, aged astrocytes had reduced expression of growth factors and IL-10 receptor-1 (IL-10R1). After in vivo lipopolysaccharide immune challenge, aged astrocytes had a molecular signature associated with reduced responsiveness to IL-10. This IL-10 insensitivity of aged astrocytes resulted in a failure to induce IL-10R1 and transforming growth factor β and resolve microglial activation. In addition, adult astrocytes reduced microglial activation when co-cultured ex vivo, whereas aged astrocytes did not. Consistent with the aging studies, IL-10R(KO) astrocytes did not augment transforming growth factor β after immune challenge and failed to resolve microglial activation. Collectively, a major cytokine-regulatory loop between activated microglia and astrocytes is impaired in the aged brain. PMID:27318131

  16. Preliminary Results of Ancillary Safety Analyses Supporting TREAT LEU Conversion Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brunett, A. J.; Fei, T.; Strons, P. S.; Papadias, D. D.; Hoffman, E. A.; Kontogeorgakos, D. C.; Connaway, H. M.; Wright, A. E.

    2015-10-01

    Report (FSAR) [3]. Depending on the availability of historical data derived from HEU TREAT operation, results calculated for the LEU core are compared to measurements obtained from HEU TREAT operation. While all analyses in this report are largely considered complete and have been reviewed for technical content, it is important to note that all topics will be revisited once the LEU design approaches its final stages of maturity. For most safety significant issues, it is expected that the analyses presented here will be bounding, but additional calculations will be performed as necessary to support safety analyses and safety documentation. It should also be noted that these analyses were completed as the LEU design evolved, and therefore utilized different LEU reference designs. Preliminary shielding, neutronic, and thermal hydraulic analyses have been completed and have generally demonstrated that the various LEU core designs will satisfy existing safety limits and standards also satisfied by the existing HEU core. These analyses include the assessment of the dose rate in the hodoscope room, near a loaded fuel transfer cask, above the fuel storage area, and near the HEPA filters. The potential change in the concentration of tramp uranium and change in neutron flux reaching instrumentation has also been assessed. Safety-significant thermal hydraulic items addressed in this report include thermally-induced mechanical distortion of the grid plate, and heating in the radial reflector.

  17. On the Falsity of Certain Conclusions Commonly Drawn from Applying Bell's Theorem to Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Jagdish

    2002-04-01

    The conclusions arrived at in a mathematical theorem are necessarily supported by the results of any given physical experiment, if the physical conditions prevailing in the experiment do satisfy all the premises of the theorem in question. In case the experimental results (R) do, indeed, contradict the prediction of a particular theorem (T), it becomes pertinent to find out from the LOGICAL ANGLE what the WHOLE SET (S) of premises is. If S contains only one sharply defined premise that is not satisfied, one may claim that to be the cause of the discrepancy between R and the prediction from T. Otherwise, the situation is much more complex. It is argued in this paper that many simplistic conclusions such as Einstein lost, Bohr won are not warranted (in connection with the application of Bells theorem to Physics experiments). Rather, something else (suggested by the authors theory of the Foundations of Reality, and elaborated in this article) appears more plausible.

  18. Pain and Return to Daily Activities after Uterine Artery Embolization and Hysterectomy in the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids: Results from the Randomized EMMY Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Hehenkamp, Wouter J.K. Volkers, Nicole A.; Birnie, Erwin; Reekers, Jim A.; Ankum, Willem M.

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) and hysterectomy for symptomatic uterine fibroids by means of a randomized controlled trial. The present paper analyses short-term outcomes, i.e., pain and return to daily activities. Methods. Patients were randomized (1:1) to UAE or hysterectomy. Pain was assessed during admission and after discharge, both quantitatively and qualitatively, using a numerical rating scale and questionnaires. Time to return to daily activities was assessed by questionnaire. Results. Seventy-five patients underwent hysterectomy and 81 patients underwent UAE. UAE patients experienced significantly less pain during the first 24 hr after treatment (p = 0.012). Non-white patients had significantly higher pain scores. UAE patients returned significantly sooner to daily activities than hysterectomy patients (for paid work: 28.1 versus 63.4 days; p < 0.001). In conclusion, pain appears to be less after UAE during hospital stay. Return to several daily activities was in favor of UAE in comparison with hysterectomy.

  19. Shuttle near-field environmental impacts - Conclusions and observations for launching at other locations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koller, A. M., Jr.; Knott, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Near field and far field environmental monitoring activities extending from the first launch of the Space Shuttle at the Kennedy Space Center have provided a database from which conclusions can now be drawn for short term, acute effects of launch and, to a lesser degree, long term cumulative effects on the natural environment. Data for the first 15 launches of the Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center Pad 39A are analyzed for statistical significance and reduced to graphical presentations of individual and collective disposition isopleths, summarization of observed environmental impacts (e.g., vegetation damage, fish kills), and supporting data from specialized experiments and laboratory analyses. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the near field environment at Pad A, the effects on the lagoonal complex, and the relationships of these data and conclusions to upcoming operations at Complex 39 Pad B where the environment is significantly different. The paper concludes with a subjective evaluation of the likely impacts at Vandenberg Space Launch Complex 6 for the first Shuttle launch next year.

  20. The effect of tongue position and resulting vertical dimension on masticatory muscle activity. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Valdés, C; Gutiérrez, M; Falace, D; Astaburuaga, F; Manns, A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare the tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis and masseter muscles between two tongue positions, (b) compare the vertical dimension (VD) resulting from each tongue position and (c) determine the influence of the VD on the tonic EMG activity for each tongue position. Thirty-three healthy dental students with natural dentition and bilateral molar support, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, with no prior history of oro-facial injury, or current or past pain in the jaw, mouth, or tongue participated in the study. Tonic masseteric and temporalis EMG activities were recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were instructed to passively place the tongue either on the anterior hard palate or in the floor of the mouth. At each tongue position, the resulting EMG and VD were recorded. No significant difference in EMG activity was found for either the masseter (P-value = 0·5376) or temporalis muscle (P-value = 0·7410), between the two tongue positions. However, there was a significant difference in the VD resulting from the two different tongue positions, being greater with the tongue placed in the floor of the mouth. There was no statistically significant correlation between VD and EMG activity for both tongue positions. In spite of the lack of difference in the effect of both tongue positions on the masseteric and temporalis EMG activity, an increment of the VD was registered for the floor of mouth-tongue position. However, VD was not correlated with EMG activity for both tongue positions. PMID:23855557

  1. Secondary data analyses of conclusions drawn by the program implementers of a positive youth development program in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Siu, Andrew M H; Shek, Daniel T L

    2010-01-01

    The Tier 2 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is designed for adolescents with significant psychosocial needs, and its various programs are designed and implemented by social workers (program implementers) for specific student groups in different schools. Using subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (Form C) at 207 schools, the program implementers were asked to aggregate data and write down five conclusions (n = 1,035) in their evaluation reports. The conclusions stated in the evaluation reports were further analyzed via secondary data analyses in this study. Results showed that the participants regarded the Tier 2 Program as a success, and was effective in enhancing self-understanding, interpersonal skills, and self-management. They liked the experiential learning approach and activities that are novel, interesting, diversified, adventure-based, and outdoor in nature. They also liked instructors who were friendly, supportive, well-prepared, and able to bring challenges and give positive recognition. Most of the difficulties encountered in running the programs were related to time constraints, clashes with other activities, and motivation of participants. Consistent with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 2 Program was well received by the participants and that it was beneficial to the development of the program participants. PMID:20155239

  2. The 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report: Development and Major Conclusions.

    PubMed

    Millen, Barbara E; Abrams, Steve; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Anderson, Cheryl Am; Brenna, J Thomas; Campbell, Wayne W; Clinton, Steven; Hu, Frank; Nelson, Miriam; Neuhouser, Marian L; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Story, Mary; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-05-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) is published every 5 y jointly by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the USDA and provides a framework for US-based food and nutrition programs, health promotion and disease prevention initiatives, and research priorities. Summarized in this report are the methods, major conclusions, and recommendations of the Scientific Report of the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC). Early in the process, the DGAC developed a conceptual model and formulated questions to examine nutritional risk and determinants and impact of dietary patterns in relation to numerous health outcomes among individuals aged ≥2 y. As detailed in the report, an expansive, transparent, and comprehensive process was used to address each question, with multiple opportunities for public input included. Consensus was reached on all DGAC's findings, including each conclusion and recommendation, and the entire report. When research questions were answered by original systematic literature reviews and/or with existing, high-quality expert reports, the quality and strength of the evidence was formally graded. The report was organized around the following 5 themes: 1) food and nutrient intakes and health: current status and trends; 2) dietary patterns, foods and nutrients, and health outcomes; 3) diet and physical activity behavior change; 4) food and physical activity environments; and 5) food sustainability and food safety. The following 3 cross-cutting topics were addressed: 1) sodium, 2) saturated fat, and 3) added sugars. Physical activity recommendations from recent expert reports were endorsed. The overall quality of the American diet was assessed to identify overconsumed and underconsumed nutrients of public health concern. Common food characteristics of healthy dietary patterns were determined. Features of effective interventions to change individual and population diet and physical activity behaviors in clinical, public

  3. Impact of aspirin dose on adenosine diphosphate-mediated platelet activities. Results of an in vitro pilot investigation.

    PubMed

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Thano, Estela; Rollini, Fabiana; Patel, Ronakkumar; Wilson, Ryan E; Muñiz-Lozano, Ana; Franchi, Francesco; Darlington, Andrew; Desai, Bhaloo; Guzman, Luis A; Bass, Theodore A; Angiolillo, Dominick J

    2013-10-01

    Different aspirin dosing regimens have been suggested to impact outcomes when used in combination with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12 receptor antagonists. Prior investigations have shown that not only aspirin, but also potent ADP P2Y12 receptor blockade can inhibit thromboxane A2-mediated platelet activation. The impact of aspirin dosing on ADP mediated platelet activities is unknown and represents the aim of this in vitro pilot pharmacodynamic (PD) investigation. Twenty-six patients with stable coronary artery disease on aspirin 81 mg/day and P2Y12 naïve were enrolled. PD assessments were performed at baseline, while patients were on 81 mg/day aspirin and after switching to 325 mg/day for 7 ± 2 days with and without escalating concentrations (vehicle, 1, 3, and 10 μM) of prasugrel's active metabolite (P-AM). PD assays included flow cytometric assessment of VASP to define the platelet reactivity index (PRI) and the Multiplate Analyzer (MEA) using multiple agonists [ADP, ADP + prostaglandin (PGE1), arachidonic acid (AA), and collagen]. Escalating P-AM concentrations showed incremental platelet P2Y12 inhibition measured by VASP-PRI (p<0.001). However, there were no differences according to aspirin dosing regimen at any P-AM concentration (vehicle: p=0.899; 1 μM: p=0.888; 3 μM: p=0.524; 10 μM: p=0.548). Similar findings were observed in purinergic markers assessed by MEA (ADP and ADP+PGE1). P-AM addition significantly reduced AA and collagen induced platelet aggregation (p<0.001 for all measures), irrespective of aspirin dose. In conclusion, aspirin dosing does not appear to affect PD measures of ADP-mediated platelet reactivity irrespective of the degree of P2Y12 receptor blockade. P2Y12 receptor blockade modulates platelet reactivity mediated by alternative activators. PMID:23884248

  4. Jumping to the wrong conclusions? An investigation of the mechanisms of reasoning errors in delusions.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Suzanne; Thompson, Claire; Hurley, James; Medin, Evelina; Butler, Lucy; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa

    2014-10-30

    Understanding how people with delusions arrive at false conclusions is central to the refinement of cognitive behavioural interventions. Making hasty decisions based on limited data ('jumping to conclusions', JTC) is one potential causal mechanism, but reasoning errors may also result from other processes. In this study, we investigated the correlates of reasoning errors under differing task conditions in 204 participants with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis who completed three probabilistic reasoning tasks. Psychotic symptoms, affect, and IQ were also evaluated. We found that hasty decision makers were more likely to draw false conclusions, but only 37% of their reasoning errors were consistent with the limited data they had gathered. The remainder directly contradicted all the presented evidence. Reasoning errors showed task-dependent associations with IQ, affect, and psychotic symptoms. We conclude that limited data-gathering contributes to false conclusions but is not the only mechanism involved. Delusions may also be maintained by a tendency to disregard evidence. Low IQ and emotional biases may contribute to reasoning errors in more complex situations. Cognitive strategies to reduce reasoning errors should therefore extend beyond encouragement to gather more data, and incorporate interventions focused directly on these difficulties. PMID:24958065

  5. Results of MAGDAS activities at "UN/Nigeria Workshop on ISWI" (Abuja) and of "MAGDAS School" (Lagos)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, G.; Yumoto, K.; Rabiu, A.; Ikeda, A.; Abe, S.; Magdas Group

    2011-12-01

    We report on the results of MAGDAS activities during "UN/Nigeria Workshop on ISWI" (Abuja, October 2011) and on the results of "ISWI/MAGDAS School on Litho-Space Weather" (Lagos, August 2011). MAGDAS School and ISWI Workshop both represent the ongoing effort of the MAGDAS Project (PI: Prof. K. Yumoto, Kyushu Univ., Japan) to facilitate "Capacity Building" in developing nations, especially in Africa.

  6. Distant activity of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014: Ground-based results during the Rosetta pre-landing phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snodgrass, Colin; Jehin, Emmanuel; Manfroid, Jean; Opitom, Cyrielle; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Tozzi, Gian Paolo; Faggi, Sara; Yang, Bin; Knight, Matthew M.; Conn, Blair C.; Lister, Tim; Hainaut, Olivier; Bramich, D. M.; Lowry, Stephen C.; Rozek, Agata; Tubiana, Cecilia; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie

    2016-04-01

    Context. As the ESA Rosetta mission approached, orbited, and sent a lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, a large campaign of ground-based observations also followed the comet. Aims: We constrain the total activity level of the comet by photometry and spectroscopy to place Rosetta results in context and to understand the large-scale structure of the comet's coma pre-perihelion. Methods: We performed observations using a number of telescopes, but concentrate on results from the 8 m VLT and Gemini South telescopes in Chile. We use R-band imaging to measure the dust coma contribution to the comet's brightness and UV-visible spectroscopy to search for gas emissions, primarily using VLT/FORS. In addition we imaged the comet in near-infrared wavelengths (JHK) in late 2014 with Gemini-S/Flamingos-2. Results: We find that the comet was already active in early 2014 at heliocentric distances beyond 4 au. The evolution of the total activity (measured by dust) followed previous predictions. No gas emissions were detected despite sensitive searches. Conclusions: The comet maintains a similar level of activity from orbit to orbit, and is in that sense predictable, meaning that Rosetta results correspond to typical behaviour for this comet. The gas production (for CN at least) is highly asymmetric with respect to perihelion, as our upper limits are below the measured production rates for similar distances post-perihelion in previous orbits. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 592.C-0924, 093.C-0593, 094.C-0054, and at Gemini South under GS-2014B-Q-15 and GS-2014B-Q-76.

  7. 26 CFR 1.527-5 - Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization. 1.527-5 Section 1.527-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers'...

  8. 26 CFR 1.527-5 - Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization. 1.527-5 Section 1.527-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers'...

  9. 26 CFR 1.527-5 - Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization. 1.527-5 Section 1.527-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers'...

  10. Early results of the soil moisture active passive Marena Oklahoma in situ sensor testbed (SMAP-MOISST)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission (SMAP) is an upcoming NASA mission to monitor surface soil mositure. Key to the success of this mission is the calibration and validation of the resulting product. As part of the calibration and validation program for SMAP, an ambitious intercomparison stud...

  11. 26 CFR 1.527-5 - Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... example, if a political organization pays a personal legal obligation of a candidate for public office... individual or political organization. 1.527-5 Section 1.527-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... § 1.527-5 Activities resulting in gross income to an individual or political organization. (a)...

  12. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  13. An Internet- and Mobile-Based Tailored Intervention to Enhance Maintenance of Physical Activity After Cardiac Rehabilitation: Short-Term Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wangberg, Silje C

    2014-01-01

    the difference was not significant (Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=0.823, P=.38, r=.17). At 3 months after discharge, the tailored intervention group (n=7) had a significantly higher median level of overall physical activity (median 5613.0, IQR 2828.0) than the control group (n=12, median 1356.0, IQR 2937.0; Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=1.397, P=.02, r=.33). The median adherence was 45.0 (95% CI 0.0-169.8) days for the tailored group and 111.0 (95% CI 45.1-176.9) days for the control group; however, the difference was not significant (P=.39). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in stage of change, self-efficacy, social support, perceived tailoring, anxiety, or depression. Conclusions Because of the small sample size and the high attrition rate at the follow-up visits, we cannot make conclusions regarding the efficacy of our approach, but the results indicate that the tailored version of the intervention may have contributed to the long-term higher physical activity maintained after cardiac rehabilitation by participants receiving the tailored intervention compared with those receiving the nontailored intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01223170; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01223170 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Nch4ldcL). PMID:24618349

  14. Loss of EZH2 results in precocious mammary gland development and activation of STAT5-dependent genes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kyung Hyun; Oh, Sumin; Kang, Keunsoo; Hensel, Tim; Robinson, Gertraud W; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2015-10-15

    Establishment and differentiation of mammary alveoli during pregnancy are controlled by prolactin through the transcription factors STAT5A and STAT5B (STAT5), which also regulate temporal activation of mammary signature genes. This study addressed the question whether the methyltransferase and transcriptional co-activator EZH2 controls the differentiation clock of mammary epithelium. Ablation of Ezh2 from mammary stem cells resulted in precocious differentiation of alveolar epithelium during pregnancy and the activation of mammary-specific STAT5 target genes. This coincided with enhanced occupancy of these loci by STAT5, EZH1 and RNA Pol II. Limited activation of differentiation-specific genes was observed in mammary epithelium lacking both EZH2 and STAT5, suggesting a modulating but not mandatory role for STAT5. Loss of EZH2 did not result in overt changes in genome-wide and gene-specific H3K27me3 profiles, suggesting compensation through enhanced EZH1 recruitment. Differentiated mammary epithelia did not form in the combined absence of EZH1 and EZH2. Transplantation experiments failed to demonstrate a role for EZH2 in the activity of mammary stem and progenitor cells. In summary, while EZH1 and EZH2 serve redundant functions in the establishment of H3K27me3 marks and the formation of mammary alveoli, the presence of EZH2 is required to control progressive differentiation of milk secreting epithelium during pregnancy. PMID:26250110

  15. In Praise of a Model but Not Its Conclusions: Commentary on Cooper, Catmur, and Heyes (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertenthal, Bennett I.; Scheutz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cooper et al. (this issue) develop an interactive activation model of spatial and imitative compatibilities that simulates the key results from Catmur and Heyes (2011) and thus conclude that both compatibilities are mediated by the same processes since their single model can predict all the results. Although the model is impressive, the…

  16. Dosimetric results in treatments of neuroblastoma and neuroendocrine tumors with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine with implications for the activity to administer

    SciTech Connect

    Mínguez, Pablo; Genollá, José; Guayambuco, Sonía; Delgado, Alejandro; Fombellida, José Cruz

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The aim was to investigate whole-body and red marrow absorbed doses in treatments of neuroblastoma (NB) and adult neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) with {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and to propose a simple method for determining the activity to administer when dosimetric data for the individual patient are not available. Methods: Nine NB patients and six NET patients were included, giving in total 19 treatments as four patients were treated twice. Whole-body absorbed doses were determined from dose-rate measurements and planar gamma-camera imaging. For six NB and five NET treatments, red marrow absorbed doses were also determined using the blood-based method. Results: Dosimetric data from repeated administrations in the same patient were consistent. In groups of NB and NET patients, similar whole-body residence times were obtained, implying that whole-body absorbed dose per unit of administered activity could be reasonably well described as a power function of the patient mass. For NB, this functional form was found to be consistent with dosimetric data from previously published studies. The whole-body to red marrow absorbed dose ratio was similar among patients, with values of 1.4 ± 0.6–1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NB treatments and between 1.5 ± 0.6 and 1.7 ± 0.7 (1 standard deviation) in NET treatments. Conclusions: The consistency of dosimetric results between administrations for the same patient supports prescription of the activity based on dosimetry performed in pretreatment studies, or during the first administration in a fractionated schedule. The expressions obtained for whole-body absorbed doses per unit of administered activity as a function of patient mass for NB and NET treatments are believed to be a useful tool to estimate the activity to administer at the stage when the individual patient biokinetics has not yet been measured.

  17. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  18. Effectiveness of a Worksite Social & Physical Environment Intervention on Need for Recovery, Physical Activity and Relaxation; Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Coffeng, Jennifer K.; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Duijts, Saskia F. A.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Mechelen, Willem; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of a worksite social and physical environment intervention on need for recovery (i.e., early symptoms of work-related mental and physical fatigue), physical activity and relaxation. Also, the effectiveness of the separate interventions was investigated. Methods In this 2×2 factorial design study, 412 office employees from a financial service provider participated. Participants were allocated to the combined social and physical intervention, to the social intervention only, to the physical intervention only or to the control group. The primary outcome measure was need for recovery. Secondary outcomes were work-related stress (i.e., exhaustion, detachment and relaxation), small breaks, physical activity (i.e., stair climbing, active commuting, sport activities, light/moderate/vigorous physical activity) and sedentary behavior. Outcomes were measured by questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Multilevel analyses were performed to investigate the effects of the three interventions. Results In all intervention groups, a non-significant reduction was found in need for recovery. In the combined intervention (n = 92), exhaustion and vigorous physical activities decreased significantly, and small breaks at work and active commuting increased significantly compared to the control group. The social intervention (n = 118) showed a significant reduction in exhaustion, sedentary behavior at work and a significant increase in small breaks at work and leisure activities. In the physical intervention (n = 96), stair climbing at work and active commuting significantly increased, and sedentary behavior at work decreased significantly compared to the control group. Conclusion None of the interventions was effective in improving the need for recovery. It is recommended to implement the social and physical intervention among a population with higher baseline values of need for recovery. Furthermore, the intervention

  19. Active social participation and mortality risk among older people in Japan: results from a nationally representative sample.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Yuka; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    A large literature suggests that active social participation contributes to the well-being of older people. Japan provides a compelling context to test this hypothesis due to its rapidly growing elderly population and the phenomenal health of the population. Using the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examines how social participation, measured by group membership, is related to the risk of overall mortality among Japanese elders aged 65 and older. Results from Cox proportional hazards models show that group affiliation confers advantages against mortality risk, even after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, physical health measures, and family relationship variables. In particular, activities geared more toward self-development, such as postretirement employment and lifelong learning, are strongly associated with lower levels of mortality. Findings suggest that continued social participation at advanced ages produces positive health consequences, highlighting the importance of active aging in achieving successful aging in the Japanese context. PMID:25651580

  20. Modification of the activity of some C cycle hydrolases in soils afforested with Populus alba L. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorita, Félix; García-Campos, Elena; Gil-Sotres, Fernando; Leirós, Mā Carmen; Trasar-Cepeda, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Since 1992 a large part of the agricultural land in Galicia (NW Spain) has disappeared as a result of the EU policy of providing grants and aid for transforming marginal land into forest terrain. In Galicia, this policy (EU Regulation 2080/1992) has mainly been applied to good quality agricultural land rather than to marginal land. As a result, the land has undergone a change in use, so that previously good quality agricultural land is now planted with various species of trees, usually of young age. Despite the large area of land transformed, until now the environmental cost of such changes has not been evaluated. Taking into account that one of the possible environmental effects derived from land transformation is changes in emissions of CO2 (a major greenhouse gas), it is therefore essential to evaluate any possible modifications undergone in such soils, with special attention given to biochemical properties, i.e. the properties that determine edaphic metabolism. With this aim, we are currently investigating the effect of afforestation on diverse biochemical properties, including the activity of hydrolytic enzymes involved in the C, N, P and S cycles, in a large number of afforested soils, planted with different trees and located in different areas throughout Galicia. In each case, an agricultural soil located close to the afforested soil, but under the original land use (usually maize cropped soils or pasture soils), is also collected and analysed, and the results obtained for afforested soils compared with those for the corresponding agricultural soils. Here we report some preliminary results on modifications in the activities of some C cycle hydrolases in six soils now planted with poplars, Populus alba L, but originally cropped with maize. Samples of all soils were collected in autumn, after harvesting and before any other agricultural activities were carried out. In all cases, the upper 10 cm of the soils were collected. The soils were sieved (4 mm) prior to

  1. Impacts Of Radiatively-Active Aerosols On Mars’ Current Climate: Simulation Results With The NASA ARC Mars GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.; Herin, B.; Laamoumi, F.; Wilson, R. J.; Schaeffer, J.

    2010-10-01

    Recent upgrades to the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) Mars general circulation model (GCM) include a fundamentally new and modernized radiative transfer package which permits radiative effects and interactions of suspended atmospheric aerosols (e.g., water ice clouds, water vapor, dust, and their mutual interactions) to influence the net diabatic heating rate within the atmosphere. Such aerosols are critically important in determining the nature of atmospheric thermal structure and hence the overall climate of the planet. Our Mars GCM simulations indicate that radiatively-active water ice clouds profoundly affect the seasonal and annual mean climate in a variety of ways. In particular, preliminary results suggest that the bulk thermal structure and resultant (i.e., balanced) circulation patterns are strongly modified near the surface and aloft. Generally speaking, we find a bulk warming of the atmosphere in upper layers, a cooling of the atmosphere in the lower and near-surface regions, and, increases in the mean pole-to-equator temperature contrasts (i.e., stronger mean polar vortices). A variety of results from our baseline and control simulations (i.e., where the radiative/physical effects are examined in isolation and when combined) will be presented. Comparisons with MGS/TES and MRO/MCS measurements indicate better agreement between the model's simulated climate compared to that observed. Using a state-of-the-art Mars GCM, these results highlight important effects radiatively-active aerosols have on physical and dynamical processes active in the current climate of Mars.

  2. AMPK Activation through Mitochondrial Regulation Results in Increased Substrate Oxidation and Improved Metabolic Parameters in Models of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Foretz, Marc; Li, Wei; Nguyen, Henry; Li, Yingwu; Pan, Alison; Uy, Gerald; Gross, Lisa; Baltgalvis, Kristen; Yung, Stephanie L.; Gururaja, Tarikere; Kinoshita, Taisei; Owyang, Alexander; Smith, Ira J.; McCaughey, Kelly; White, Kathy; Godinez, Guillermo; Alcantara, Raniel; Choy, Carmen; Ren, Hong; Basile, Rachel; Sweeny, David J.; Xu, Xiang; Issakani, Sarkiz D.; Carroll, David C.; Goff, Dane A.; Shaw, Simon J.; Singh, Rajinder; Boros, Laszlo G.; Laplante, Marc-André; Marcotte, Bruno; Kohen, Rita; Viollet, Benoit; Marette, André; Payan, Donald G.; Kinsella, Todd M.; Hitoshi, Yasumichi

    2013-01-01

    Modulation of mitochondrial function through inhibiting respiratory complex I activates a key sensor of cellular energy status, the 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK results in the mobilization of nutrient uptake and catabolism for mitochondrial ATP generation to restore energy homeostasis. How these nutrient pathways are affected in the presence of a potent modulator of mitochondrial function and the role of AMPK activation in these effects remain unclear. We have identified a molecule, named R419, that activates AMPK in vitro via complex I inhibition at much lower concentrations than metformin (IC50 100 nM vs 27 mM, respectively). R419 potently increased myocyte glucose uptake that was dependent on AMPK activation, while its ability to suppress hepatic glucose production in vitro was not. In addition, R419 treatment of mouse primary hepatocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis in an AMPK-dependent fashion. We have performed an extensive metabolic characterization of its effects in the db/db mouse diabetes model. In vivo metabolite profiling of R419-treated db/db mice showed a clear upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. Additionally, analyses performed using both 13C-palmitate and 13C-glucose tracers revealed that R419 induces complete oxidation of both glucose and palmitate to CO2 in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, confirming that the compound increases mitochondrial function in vivo. Taken together, our results show that R419 is a potent inhibitor of complex I and modulates mitochondrial function in vitro and in diabetic animals in vivo. R419 may serve as a valuable molecular tool for investigating the impact of modulating mitochondrial function on nutrient metabolism in multiple tissues and on glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animal models. PMID:24339975

  3. Recurrent Selection for Transgene Activity Levels in Maize Results in Proxy Selection for a Native Gene with the Same Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Anastasia L.; Schroder, Megan N.; Scott, M. Paul

    2016-01-01

    High activity levels of a transgene can be very useful, making a transgene easier to evaluate for safety and efficacy. High activity levels can also increase the economic benefit of the production of high value proteins in transgenic plants. The goal of this research is to determine if recurrent selection for activity of a transgene will result in higher activity, and if selection for activity of a transgene controlled by a native promoter will also increase protein levels of the native gene with the same promoter. To accomplish this goal we used transgenic maize containing a construct encoding green fluorescent protein controlled by the promoter for the maize endosperm-specific 27kDa gamma zein seed storage protein. We carried out recurrent selection for fluorescence intensity in two breeding populations. After three generations of selection, both selected populations were significantly more fluorescent and had significantly higher levels of 27kDa gamma zein than the unselected control populations. These higher levels of the 27kDa gamma zein occurred independently of the presence of the transgene. The results show that recurrent selection can be used to increase activity of a transgene and that selection for a transgene controlled by a native promoter can increase protein levels of the native gene with the same promoter via proxy selection. Moreover, the increase in native gene protein level is maintained in the absence of the transgene, demonstrating that proxy selection can be used to produce non-transgenic plants with desired changes in gene expression. PMID:26895451

  4. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  5. Regulation of the fishing activities in the lagoon of Venice, Italy: Results from a socio-economic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Paulo A. L. D.; Silvestri, Silvia; Pellizzato, Michele; Boatto, Vasco

    2008-10-01

    In the last years, the overall fish industry in the lagoon of Venice has shown a gradual decline. In order to better understand this process, we carry out a socio-economic questionnaire next to the fisherman population. Questionnaire contains significant qualitative and quantitative data that allow us to evaluate the social and the cultural profile of the respondents, including information with respect to the different technological fishing characteristics involved, type and amount of the species harvested as well as the overall productivity of the activity. Furthermore, the questionnaire contains an economic valuation exercise so as to assess in monetary terms the preferences of the fishermen with respect to different alternative policy options that may characterize a future regulation of this economic activity. Estimation results show that fishermen welcome any regulation initiative that is characterized by: (1) banning all fishing activities during the night, (2) allocating fishing concessions areas to each fishermen in a way that minimize the distance between the fishing area and the harbor, and (3) by introducing of a labeling mechanism that certifies the origin of the product. Moreover, the underlying economic valuation mechanism reveals to sensitive to respondent's motivational profile, including the overall trust and confidence that fisherman community places on the current institutional bodies. This result reveals to be of particular significance when attempting the design of an efficient, widely supported regulation of the fishing activity in the lagoon of Venice.

  6. Jumping to the wrong conclusions? An investigation of the mechanisms of reasoning errors in delusions

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Suzanne; Thompson, Claire; Hurley, James; Medin, Evelina; Butler, Lucy; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Freeman, Daniel; Fowler, David; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Garety, Philippa

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how people with delusions arrive at false conclusions is central to the refinement of cognitive behavioural interventions. Making hasty decisions based on limited data (‘jumping to conclusions’, JTC) is one potential causal mechanism, but reasoning errors may also result from other processes. In this study, we investigated the correlates of reasoning errors under differing task conditions in 204 participants with schizophrenia spectrum psychosis who completed three probabilistic reasoning tasks. Psychotic symptoms, affect, and IQ were also evaluated. We found that hasty decision makers were more likely to draw false conclusions, but only 37% of their reasoning errors were consistent with the limited data they had gathered. The remainder directly contradicted all the presented evidence. Reasoning errors showed task-dependent associations with IQ, affect, and psychotic symptoms. We conclude that limited data-gathering contributes to false conclusions but is not the only mechanism involved. Delusions may also be maintained by a tendency to disregard evidence. Low IQ and emotional biases may contribute to reasoning errors in more complex situations. Cognitive strategies to reduce reasoning errors should therefore extend beyond encouragement to gather more data, and incorporate interventions focused directly on these difficulties. PMID:24958065

  7. Correlation of In Vivo and In Vitro Assay Results for Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Green Tea Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Abd-ElSalam, Heba-Alla H; Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad; Nassar, Noha; Zaazaa, Hala E; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2016-07-01

    Green tea (GT)-derived catechins; epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in particular are commonly used nutraceuticals for their free-radical scavenging activity (FRSA). The influence of photodegradation on the protective power of GT nutracenticals against oxidative stress was thoroughly explored. Photodegradation of GT extracts was carried out and monitored using orthogonal stability-indicating testing protocol; in vitro and in vivo assays. Total polyphenol content (TPC) and FRSA were determined spectrophotometrically while EGCG was selectively monitored using SPE-HPLC. In vivo assessment of photodegraded samples was investigated via measuring a number of biomarkers for hepatic oxidative stress and apoptosis (caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, nitric oxide, mitogen-activated protein kinase, glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, nuclear factor kappa beta, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor) as well as liver damage (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) in serum of rats previously subjected to oxidative stress. Results showed complete degradation of EGCG in photodegraded green tea samples with no correlation with either TPC or FRSA. On the other hand, in vivo assay results revealed not only loss of activity but formation of harmful pro-oxidants. Photostability was found crucial for the protective effect of GT extract against lead acetate insult. Results confirmed that careful design of quality control protocols requires correlation of chemical assays to bioassays to verify efficacy, stability, and most importantly safety of nutraceuticals. PMID:27275932

  8. Adalimumab effectively reduces the rate of anterior uveitis flares in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis: results of a prospective open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Rudwaleit, M; Rødevand, E; Holck, P; Vanhoof, J; Kron, M; Kary, S; Kupper, H

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of adalimumab on the frequency of anterior uveitis (AU) flares in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: We determined the history of ophthalmologist-diagnosed AU in 1250 patients with active AS who were enrolled in a multinational, open-label, uncontrolled clinical study of treatment with adalimumab, 40 mg every other week for up to 20 weeks. All AU flares were documented throughout the adalimumab treatment period plus 70 days. We compared the rates of AU flares per 100 patient years (PYs) reported during the year before adalimumab treatment with rates during adalimumab treatment, in total and by patient subgroups. Results: The AU flare rates before adalimumab treatment were 15/100 PYs in all patients (n = 1250), 68.4/100 PYs in 274 patients with a history of AU flares, 176.9/100 PYs in 106 patients with a recent history of AU flares, 192.9/100 PYs in 28 patients with symptomatic AU at baseline and 129.1/100 PYs in 43 patients with a history of chronic uveitis. During adalimumab treatment, the rate of AU flares was reduced by 51% in all patients, by 58% in 274 patients with a history of AU, by 68% in 106 patients with a recent history of AU, by 50% in 28 patients with symptomatic AU at baseline and by 45% in 43 patients with chronic uveitis. AU flares during adalimumab treatment were predominantly mild. Two patients with periods of high AS disease activity had new-onset AU during the treatment period. Conclusions: Results of this prospective open-label study suggest that adalimumab had a substantial preventive effect on AU flares in patients with active AS, including patients with a recent history of AU flares. Clinical trials: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00478660. PMID:18662932

  9. Cannabis cue-induced brain activation correlates with drug craving in limbic and visual salience regions: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Charboneau, Evonne J; Dietrich, Mary S; Park, Sohee; Cao, Aize; Watkins, Tristan J; Blackford, Jennifer U; Benningfield, Margaret M; Martin, Peter R; Buchowski, Maciej S; Cowan, Ronald L

    2013-11-30

    Craving is a major motivator underlying drug use and relapse but the neural correlates of cannabis craving are not well understood. This study sought to determine whether visual cannabis cues increase cannabis craving and whether cue-induced craving is associated with regional brain activation in cannabis-dependent individuals. Cannabis craving was assessed in 16 cannabis-dependent adult volunteers while they viewed cannabis cues during a functional MRI (fMRI) scan. The Marijuana Craving Questionnaire was administered immediately before and after each of three cannabis cue-exposure fMRI runs. FMRI blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity was determined in regions activated by cannabis cues to examine the relationship of regional brain activation to cannabis craving. Craving scores increased significantly following exposure to visual cannabis cues. Visual cues activated multiple brain regions, including inferior orbital frontal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal pole, and occipital cortex. Craving scores at baseline and at the end of all three runs were significantly correlated with brain activation during the first fMRI run only, in the limbic system (including amygdala and hippocampus) and paralimbic system (superior temporal pole), and visual regions (occipital cortex). Cannabis cues increased craving in cannabis-dependent individuals and this increase was associated with activation in the limbic, paralimbic, and visual systems during the first fMRI run, but not subsequent fMRI runs. These results suggest that these regions may mediate visually cued aspects of drug craving. This study provides preliminary evidence for the neural basis of cue-induced cannabis craving and suggests possible neural targets for interventions targeted at treating cannabis dependence. PMID:24035535

  10. Broken Robustness Analysis: How to make proper climate change conclusions in contradictory multimodal measurement contexts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, V.

    2015-12-01

    Philosophers of science discuss how multiple modes of measurement can generate evidence for the existence and character of a phenomenon (Horwich 1982; Hacking 1983; Franklin and Howson 1984; Collins 1985; Sober 1989; Trout 1993; Culp 1995; Keeley 2002; Staley 2004; Weber 2005; Keyser 2012). But how can this work systematically in climate change measurement? Additionally, what conclusions can scientists and policy-makers draw when different modes of measurement fail to be robust by producing contradictory results? First, I present a new technical account of robust measurement (RAMP) that focuses on the physical independence of measurement processes. I detail how physically independent measurement processes "check each other's results." (This account is in contrast to philosophical accounts of robustness analysis that focus on independent model assumptions or independent measurement products or results.) Second, I present a puzzle about contradictory and divergent climate change measures, which has consistently re-emerged in climate measurement. This discussion will focus on land, drilling, troposphere, and computer simulation measures. Third, to systematically solve this climate measurement puzzle, I use RAMP in the context of drought measurement in order to generate a classification of measurement processes. Here, I discuss how multimodal precipitation measures—e.g., measures of precipitation deficit like the Standard Precipitation Index vs. air humidity measures like the Standardized Relative Humidity Index--can help with the classification scheme of climate change measurement processes. Finally, I discuss how this classification of measures can help scientists and policy-makers draw effective conclusions in contradictory multimodal climate change measurement contexts.

  11. 39 CFR 953.11 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law... PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAILABILITY § 953.11 Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law shall be submitted orally or in writing at the conclusion of...

  12. 39 CFR 953.11 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law... PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAILABILITY § 953.11 Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law shall be submitted orally or in writing at the conclusion of...

  13. 39 CFR 953.11 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law... PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAILABILITY § 953.11 Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law shall be submitted orally or in writing at the conclusion of...

  14. 39 CFR 953.11 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law... PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAILABILITY § 953.11 Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law shall be submitted orally or in writing at the conclusion of...

  15. 39 CFR 953.11 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law... PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO MAILABILITY § 953.11 Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law shall be submitted orally or in writing at the conclusion of...

  16. Factor IX Amagasaki: A new mutation in the catalytic domain resulting in the loss of both coagulant and esterase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Toshiyuki; Iwanaga, Sadaaki ); Sakai, Toshiyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsuhiko; Naka, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazukuni; Yoshioka, Akira; Fukui, Hiromu ); Mitsui, Kotoko; Kamiya, Kensyu; Umeyama, Hideaki )

    1991-11-26

    Factor IX Amagasaki (AMG) is a naturally occurring mutant of factor IX having essentially no coagulant activity, even though normal levels of antigen are detected in plasma. Factor IX AMG was purified from the patient's plasma by immunoaffinity chromatography with an anti-factor IX monoclonal antibody column. Factor IX AMG was cleaved normally by factor VIIa-tissue factor complex, yielding a two-chain factor IXa. Amino acid composition and sequence analysis of one of the tryptic peptides isolated from factor IX AMG revealed that Gly-311 had been replaced by Glu. The authors identified a one-base substitution of guanine to adenine in exon VIII by amplifying exon VIII using the polymerase chain reaction method and sequencing the product. This base mutation also supported the replacement of Gly-311 by Glu. In the purified system, factor IXa AMG did not activate for factor X in the presence of factor VIII, phospholipids, and Ca{sup 2+}, and no esterase activity toward Z-Arg-p-nitrobenzyl ester was observed. The model building of the serine protease domain of factor IXa suggests that the Gly-311 {yields} Glu exchange would disrupt the specific conformational state in the active site environment, resulting in the substrate binding site not forming properly. This is the first report to show the experimental evidence for importance of a highly conserved Gly-142 (chymotrypsinogen numbering) located in the catalytic site of mammalian serine proteases so far known.

  17. Optogenetics in Mice Performing a Visual Discrimination Task: Measurement and Suppression of Retinal Activation and the Resulting Behavioral Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Danskin, Bethanny; Denman, Daniel; Valley, Matthew; Ollerenshaw, Douglas; Williams, Derric; Groblewski, Peter; Reid, Clay; Olsen, Shawn; Waters, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetic techniques are used widely to perturb and interrogate neural circuits in behaving animals, but illumination can have additional effects, such as the activation of endogenous opsins in the retina. We found that illumination, delivered deep into the brain via an optical fiber, evoked a behavioral artifact in mice performing a visually guided discrimination task. Compared with blue (473 nm) and yellow (589 nm) illumination, red (640 nm) illumination evoked a greater behavioral artifact and more activity in the retina, the latter measured with electrical recordings. In the mouse, the sensitivity of retinal opsins declines steeply with wavelength across the visible spectrum, but propagation of light through brain tissue increases with wavelength. Our results suggest that poor retinal sensitivity to red light was overcome by relatively robust propagation of red light through brain tissue and stronger illumination of the retina by red than by blue or yellow light. Light adaptation of the retina, via an external source of illumination, suppressed retinal activation and the behavioral artifact without otherwise impacting behavioral performance. In summary, long wavelength optogenetic stimuli are particularly prone to evoke behavioral artifacts via activation of retinal opsins in the mouse, but light adaptation of the retina can provide a simple and effective mitigation of the artifact. PMID:26657323

  18. Awareness and correlates of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women: results from an internet-based cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although considerable evidence has demonstrated that physical activity is associated with breast cancer prevention, few studies have assessed the level of awareness of this association. Awareness is a key first step to successful of behavior change. Increasing awareness may contribute to promote physical activity and prevent breast cancer at the population level. The present study examined the prevalence and correlates of awareness about the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention among Japanese women. Methods 1,000 Japanese women aged 20–69 years (mean age: 44.3 ± 13.4 years) who responded to an internet-based cross-sectional survey. Awareness of the role of physical activity in breast cancer prevention, knowledge of breast cancer (symptom, risk factor, screening), exposure to information about physical activity and cancer, a self-reported physical activity, and sociodemographic variables (age, marital status, having a child, education level, employment status, and household income) were obtained. Force-entry logistic regression analysis was used. Results The prevalence of awareness was 31.5% (95% CI: 28.6-34.4). Factors significantly associated with awareness included sociodemographic variables, exposure to information, and knowledge of breast cancer. Being married (AOR, 95% CI: 1.75, 1.05–2.92) was positively related to awareness, while having children (0.65, 0.36–0.86) was negatively related. College graduates or those with higher levels of education (1.50, 1.01–2.22) were significantly more likely to be aware than those who had not graduated high school. Moreover, exposure to information (2.11, 1.51–2.95), and high knowledge of symptoms (2.43, 1.75–3.36) were positively associated with awareness. Finally, low knowledge of risk factors (0.30, 0.22–0.40) was negatively associated with awareness. Conclusions Japanese women through internet-based study were poorly aware of the role of physical activity in breast

  19. Modulation of the Hormone Setting by Rhodococcus fascians Results in Ectopic KNOX Activation in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Depuydt, Stephen; Doležal, Karel; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Moritz, Thomas; Holsters, Marcelle; Vereecke, Danny

    2008-01-01

    The biotrophic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians has a profound impact on plant development and a common aspect of the symptomatology is the deformation of infected leaves. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the serrated leaf margins formed upon infection resemble the leaf phenotype of transgenic plants with ectopic expression of KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) genes. Through transcript profiling, we demonstrate that class-I KNOX genes are transcribed in symptomatic leaves. Functional analysis revealed that BREVIPEDICELLUS/KNOTTED-LIKE1 and mainly SHOOT MERISTEMLESS were essential for the observed leaf dissection. However, these results also positioned the KNOX genes downstream in the signaling cascade triggered by R. fascians infection. The much faster activation of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR5 and the establishment of homeostatic and feedback mechanisms to control cytokinin (CK) levels support the overrepresentation of this hormone in infected plants due to the secretion by the pathogen, thereby placing the CK response high up in the cascade. Hormone measurements show a net decrease of tested CKs, indicating either that secretion by the bacterium and degradation by the plant are in balance, or, as suggested by the strong reaction of 35S:CKX plants, that other CKs are at play. At early time points of the interaction, activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase presumably installs a local hormonal setting favorable for meristematic activity that provokes leaf serrations. The results are discussed in the context of symptom development, evasion of plant defense, and the establishment of a specific niche by R. fascians. PMID:18184732

  20. Long-term Results of a First-Generation Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Young, Active Patients.

    PubMed

    Ranawat, Chitranjan S; Ranawat, Amar S; Ramteke, Alankar A; Nawabi, Danyal; Meftah, Morteza

    2016-03-01

    The survivorship of total hip arthroplasty in younger patients is dependent on the wear characteristics of the bearing surfaces. Long-term results with conventional polyethylene in young patients show a high failure rate. This study assessed the long-term results of a first-generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HCLPE) in uncemented total hip arthroplasty in young, active patients. Between 1999 and 2003, 112 total hip arthroplasty procedures performed in 91 patients with an average University of California Los Angeles activity score of 8 and mean age of 53 years (range, 24-65 years) were included from a prospective database. In all patients, a 28-mm metal femoral head on annealed HCLPE (Crossfire; Stryker, Mahwah, New Jersey) was used. At minimum 10-year follow-up (11.5±0.94 years), Kaplan-Meier survivorship was 97% for all failures (1 periprosthetic infection and 1 late dislocation) and 100% for mechanical failure (no revisions for osteolysis or loosening). This study showed low revision rates for wear-related failure and superior survivorship in young, active patients. Oxidation causing failure of the locking mechanism has not been a problem with Crossfire for up to 10 years. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(2):e225-e229.]. PMID:26811959

  1. Results of community deliberation about social impacts of ecological restoration: comparing public input of self-selected versus actively engaged community members.

    PubMed

    Harris, Charles C; Nielsen, Erik A; Becker, Dennis R; Blahna, Dale J; McLaughlin, William J

    2012-08-01

    Participatory processes for obtaining residents' input about community impacts of proposed environmental management actions have long raised concerns about who participates in public involvement efforts and whose interests they represent. This study explored methods of broad-based involvement and the role of deliberation in social impact assessment. Interactive community forums were conducted in 27 communities to solicit public input on proposed alternatives for recovering wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest US. Individuals identified by fellow residents as most active and involved in community affairs ("AE residents") were invited to participate in deliberations about likely social impacts of proposed engineering and ecological actions such as dam removal. Judgments of these AE participants about community impacts were compared with the judgments of residents motivated to attend a forum out of personal interest, who were designated as self-selected ("SS") participants. While the magnitude of impacts rated by SS participants across all communities differed significantly from AE participants' ratings, in-depth analysis of results from two community case studies found that both AE and SS participants identified a large and diverse set of unique impacts, as well as many of the same kinds of impacts. Thus, inclusion of both kinds of residents resulted in a greater range of impacts for consideration in the environmental impact study. The case study results also found that the extent to which similar kinds of impacts are specified by AE and SS group members can differ by type of community. Study results caution against simplistic conclusions drawn from this approach to community-wide public participation. Nonetheless, the results affirm that deliberative methods for community-based impact assessment involving both AE and SS residents can provide a more complete picture of perceived impacts of proposed restoration activities. PMID:22615108

  2. Results of Community Deliberation About Social Impacts of Ecological Restoration: Comparing Public Input of Self-Selected Versus Actively Engaged Community Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Charles C.; Nielsen, Erik A.; Becker, Dennis R.; Blahna, Dale J.; McLaughlin, William J.

    2012-08-01

    Participatory processes for obtaining residents' input about community impacts of proposed environmental management actions have long raised concerns about who participates in public involvement efforts and whose interests they represent. This study explored methods of broad-based involvement and the role of deliberation in social impact assessment. Interactive community forums were conducted in 27 communities to solicit public input on proposed alternatives for recovering wild salmon in the Pacific Northwest US. Individuals identified by fellow residents as most active and involved in community affairs ("AE residents") were invited to participate in deliberations about likely social impacts of proposed engineering and ecological actions such as dam removal. Judgments of these AE participants about community impacts were compared with the judgments of residents motivated to attend a forum out of personal interest, who were designated as self-selected ("SS") participants. While the magnitude of impacts rated by SS participants across all communities differed significantly from AE participants' ratings, in-depth analysis of results from two community case studies found that both AE and SS participants identified a large and diverse set of unique impacts, as well as many of the same kinds of impacts. Thus, inclusion of both kinds of residents resulted in a greater range of impacts for consideration in the environmental impact study. The case study results also found that the extent to which similar kinds of impacts are specified by AE and SS group members can differ by type of community. Study results caution against simplistic conclusions drawn from this approach to community-wide public participation. Nonetheless, the results affirm that deliberative methods for community-based impact assessment involving both AE and SS residents can provide a more complete picture of perceived impacts of proposed restoration activities.

  3. Preliminary results of 2009 pandemic influenza surveillance in the United States using the Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jhung, Michael A.; Davidson, Heidi; McIntyre, Anne; Gregg, William J.; Dasgupta, Sharoda; D’Mello, Tiffany; White, Victoria; Fowlkes, Ashley; Brammer, Lynnette; Finelli, Lyn

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Jhung et al. (2011) Preliminary results of 2009 pandemic influenza surveillance in the United States using the Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting Activity. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 321–327. Background  To augment established influenza surveillance systems in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists implemented the Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting Activity (AHDRA) in August 2009. The AHDRA was designed to meet increased demands for timely and detailed information describing illness severity during the 2009 H1N1 influenza A (pH1N1) pandemic response. Objectives  We describe the implementation of AHDRA and provide preliminary results from this new surveillance activity. Methods  All 50 US states were asked to report influenza‐associated hospitalizations and deaths to AHDRA each week using either a laboratory‐confirmed or syndromic surveillance definition. Aggregate counts were used to calculate age‐specific weekly and cumulative rates per 100 000, and laboratory‐confirmed reports were used to estimate the age distribution of pH1N1 influenza‐associated hospitalizations and deaths. Results  From August 30, 2009, through April 6, 2010, AHDRA identified 41 689 laboratory‐confirmed influenza‐associated hospitalizations and 2096 laboratory‐confirmed influenza‐associated deaths. Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting Activity rates peaked earlier than hospitalization and death rates seen in previous influenza seasons with other surveillance systems, and the age distribution of cases revealed a tendency for hospitalizations and deaths to occur in persons <65 years for age. Conclusions  Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting Activity laboratory‐confirmed reports provided important information during the 2009 pandemic response. Aggregate Hospitalization and Death Reporting

  4. The DOSIS and DOSIS 3D Experiments onboard the International Space Station - Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes; Kortmann, Onno

    2012-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems experienced in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The DOSTELs measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 18th 2009 to June 16th 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the DOSIS-3D experiment. The hardware will be launched with the Soyuz 30S flight to the ISS on May 15th 2012 and activated approximately ten days later. Data will be transferred from the DOSTEL units to ground via the EPM rack which is activated approximately every four weeks for this action. First Results for the active DOSIS-3D measurements such as count rate profiles

  5. Decomposition of old organic matter as a result of deeper active layers in a snow depth manipulation experiment.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Nicole S; Taneva, Lina; Trumbore, Susan E; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2010-07-01

    A snow addition experiment in moist acidic tussock tundra at Toolik Lake, Alaska, increased winter snow depths 2-3 m, and resulted in a doubling of the summer active layer depth. We used radiocarbon (Delta(14)C) to (1) determine the age of C respired in the deep soils under control and deepened active layer conditions (deep snow drifts), and (2) to determine the impact of increased snow and permafrost thawing on surface CO(2) efflux by partitioning respiration into autotrophic and heterotrophic components. Delta(14)C signatures of surface respiration were higher in the deep snow areas, reflecting a decrease in the proportion of autotrophic respiration. The radiocarbon age of soil pore CO(2) sampled near the maximum mid-July thaw depth was approximately 1,000 years in deep snow treatment plots (45-55 cm thaw depth), while CO(2) from the ambient snow areas was approximately 100 years old (30-cm thaw depth). Heterotrophic respiration Delta(14)C signatures from incubations were similar between the two snow depths for the organic horizon and were extremely variable in the mineral horizon, resulting in no significant differences between treatments in either month. Radiocarbon ages of heterotrophically respired C ranged from <50 to 235 years BP in July mineral soil samples and from 1,525 to 8,300 years BP in August samples, suggesting that old soil C in permafrost soils may be metabolized upon thawing. In the surface fluxes, this old C signal is obscured by the organic horizon fluxes, which are significantly higher. Our results indicate that, as permafrost in tussock tundra ecosystems of arctic Alaska thaws, carbon buried up to several thousands of years ago will become an active component of the carbon cycle, potentially accelerating the rise of CO(2) in the atmosphere. PMID:20084398

  6. Addition of niclosamide to palladium(II) saccharinate complex of terpyridine results in enhanced cytotoxic activity inducing apoptosis on cancer stem cells of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Didem; Cevatemre, Buse; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Ari, Ferda; Yilmaz, Veysel Turan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-09-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the core signaling pathways of cancer stem cells (CSCs). It is re-activated in CSCs and plays essential role in the survival, self-renewal and proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of palladium(II) complex which is formulated as [PdCl(terpy)](sac)2H2O and its combination with niclosamide which is an inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway associated with breast cancer stem cells. Characteristic cell surface markers (CD44(+)/CD24(-)) were determined by flow cytometry in CSCs. ATP viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity. The mode of cell death was evaluated morphologically using fluorescence microscopy and biochemically using M30 ELISA assay as well as performing qPCR. Our study demonstrated that the combination of niclosamide (1.5 μM) and Pd(II) complex (12.5, 25 and 50 μM) at 48 h has enhanced cytotoxic activity resulted from the induction of apoptosis (indicated by the presence of pyknotic nuclei, increments in M30 and over expression of proapoptotic genes of TNFRSF10A and FAS). Importantly, the addition of niclosamide resulted in the suppression of autophagy (proved by the decrease in ATG5 gene levels) that might have contributed to the enhanced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, the application of this combination may be regarded as a novel and effective approach for the treatment of breast cancer due to its promising cytotoxic effect on cancer stem cells that cause recurrence of the disease. PMID:26234907

  7. Charpy impact test results of four low activation ferritic alloys irradiated at 370{degrees}C to 15 DPA

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S.

    1996-10-01

    Miniature CVN specimens of four low activation ferritic alloys have been impact tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 15 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens indicates that degradation in the impact behavior occurs in each of these four alloys. The 9Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X and the similar alloy F82H with 7.8Cr-2W appear most promising for further consideration as candidate structural materials in fusion energy system applications. These two alloys exhibit a small DBTT shift to higher temperatures but show increased absorbed energy on the upper shelf.

  8. Activation of macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by diclofenac results in the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 protein and the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Samir S; Botting, Regina M; Joshi, Amrish N; Seed, Michael P; Colville-Nash, Paul R

    2009-07-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible isoform of the COX family of enzymes central to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Induction of COX-2 is mediated by many endogenous and exogenous molecules that include pro-inflammatory cytokines and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It has been demonstrated that COX-2 can also be induced by diclofenac in cultured J774.2 macrophages. This induction was delayed compared to COX-2 induced by LPS and paracetamol selectively inhibited activity of this protein. The aim of the present study was to determine the transcription factor involved in the production of COX-2 after treatment of J774.2 cells with 500 microM diclofenac. Pre-treatment of cells with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) antagonists GW9662 (0.1-1 microM) or biphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (100-200 microM) resulted in reduction of the induction of COX-2 by diclofenac, but not by LPS. Induction of COX-2 by the PPAR-gamma agonist 15deoxyDelta(12,14)prostaglandin J(2) was also reduced when the cells were pre-treated with the PPAR-gamma antagonists BADGE or GW9662. On the other hand, pre-treatment of cells with the nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-kappaB) Super-repressor IkappaBalpha (150-600 nM) reduced the induction of COX-2 by LPS, but not by diclofenac. We, therefore, have identified that PPAR-gamma activation is a requirement for COX-2 induction after diclofenac stimulation of J774.2 cells. These results along with the finding that treatment of J774.2 macrophages with diclofenac resulted in the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta suggest that the diclofenac-induced COX-2 protein may possess anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:19219624

  9. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -First Mission Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Kortmann, Onno; Labrenz, Johannes; Reitz, Guenther

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the DLR experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists in a first part of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory. The second part are two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSIS Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. After the successful installation the active part has been activated on the 18th July 2009. Each of the DOSTEL units consists of two 6.93 cm PIPS silicon detectors forming a telescope with an opening angle of 120. The two DOSTELs are mounted with their telescope axis perpendicular to each other to investigate anisotropies of the radiation field inside the COLUMBUS module especially during the passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and during Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The data from the DOSTEL units are transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated

  10. Active layer thickness and thaw subsidence in permafrost terrain: results from long-term observations near Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Nelson, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    Patterns of active-layer thickness (ALT) on the North Slope of Alaska are highly variable, both spatially and temporally. Although geographic patterns of ALT repeat themselves from year to year, ALT is an integrated response to a large number of parameters. Thaw penetration into an ice-rich layer at the base of the active layer is accompanied by loss of volume (thaw consolidation) and results in subsidence at the ground surface. Differential thaw settlement occurs annually in permafrost environments as the layer of annual thaw (the active layer) develops. Significant ice segregation can occur at the bottom of the active layer during "cold" periods, due predominantly to freezing from below in the autumn and winter. This study examines trends in seasonal thawing of soils and vertical movements of the ground surface associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table in the Barrow region. The core thaw depth data set consists of ALT measurements conducted under the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program. The Barrow CALM site, represented by a regular 1 km2 grid, was established in the early 1990s. The reported ALT observations were initiated in 1992 and are measured annually in late August. Additional ALT measurements are available from a series of 10 x 10 meter plots established in 1962 as part of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research program at Barrow. Annual observations were made between 1962 and 1970. Measurements were reestablished in 1991 under the CALM program, following the original methodology. Field investigations to track interannual vertical movements associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table were initiated in 2003. Measurements continue annually at several CRREL plots representative of different elements of the tundra landscape. Observations were made at the end of the thawing season using Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) technology. Results from

  11. The 420K LEKTI variant alters LEKTI proteolytic activation and results in protease deregulation: implications for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fortugno, Paola; Furio, Laetitia; Teson, Massimo; Berretti, Matteo; El Hachem, May; Zambruno, Giovanna; Hovnanian, Alain; D'Alessio, Marina

    2012-10-01

    Lymphoepithelial Kazal-type related inhibitor (LEKTI) is a multidomain serine protease inhibitor which plays a central role in skin permeability barrier and allergy. Loss-of-function mutations in the LEKTI encoding gene SPINK5 cause Netherton syndrome, a rare and severe genetic skin disease with a profound skin barrier defect and atopic manifestations. Several studies also reported genetic association between the multifactorial disease atopic dermatitis (AD) and a frequent and non-conservative LEKTI variant, E420K, in different populations. Here, we provide evidence that the 420K variant impacts on LEKTI function by increasing the likelihood of furin-dependent LEKTI precursor cleavage within the linker region D6-D7. This results in the reversal of the cleavage priorities for LEKTI proteolytic activation and prevents the formation of the LEKTI fragment D6D9 known to display the strongest inhibitory activity against kallikrein (KLK) 5-mediated desmoglein-1 (DSG1) degradation. Using in situ and gel zymographies, we show that the modification of the subtle balance in LEKTI inhibitory fragments leads to enhanced KLK5, KLK7 and elastase-2 (ELA-2) activities in 420KK epidermis. By immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses, we found that increased epidermal protease activity correlates with reduced DSG1 protein expression and accelerated profilaggrin proteolysis. All changes determined by the presence of residue 420K within the LEKTI sequence likely contribute to defective skin barrier permeability. Remarkably, LEKTI 420KK epidermis displays an increased expression of the proallergic cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). This is the first functional evidence supporting association studies which identified the 420K LEKTI variant as a predisposing factor to AD, in combination with other genetic and environmental factors. PMID:22730493

  12. Results of PRISMA/FFIORD extended mission and applicability to future formation flying and active debris removal missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delpech, Michel; Berges, Jean-Claude; Karlsson, Thomas; Malbet, Fabien

    2013-07-01

    CNES performed several experiments during the extended PRISMA mission which started in August 2011. A first session in October 2011 addressed two objectives: 1) demonstrate angles-only navigation to rendezvous with a non-cooperative object; 2) exercise transitions between RF-based and vision-based control during final formation acquisition. A complementary experiment in September 2012 mimicked some future astrometry mission and implemented the manoeuvres required to point the two satellite axis to a celestial target and maintain it fixed during some observation period. In the first sections, the paper presents the experiment motivations, describes its main design features including the guidance and control algorithms evolutions and provides a synthesis of the most significant results along with a discussion of the lessons learned. In the last part, the paper evokes the applicability of these experiment results to some active debris removal mission concept that is currently being studied.

  13. Jumping to Conclusions, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Delusional Beliefs in First Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Falcone, M. Aurora; Murray, Robin M.; Wiffen, Benjamin D. R.; O’Connor, Jennifer A.; Russo, Manuela; Kolliakou, Anna; Stilo, Simona; Taylor, Heather; Gardner-Sood, Poonam; Paparelli, Alessandra; Jichi, Fatima; Di Forti, Marta; David, Anthony S.; Freeman, Daniel; Jolley, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: The “jumping to conclusions” (JTC) data-gathering bias is implicated in the development and maintenance of psychosis but has only recently been studied in first episode psychosis (FEP). In this study, we set out to establish the relationship of JTC in FEP with delusions and neuropsychological functioning. Methods: One hundred and eight FEP patients and 101 age-matched controls completed assessments of delusions, general intelligence (IQ), working memory (WM), and JTC (the probabilistic reasoning “beads” task). Results: Half the FEP participants jumped to conclusions on at least 1 task, compared with 25% of controls (OR range 2.1 to 3.9; 95% CI range 1.5 to 8.0, P values ≤ .02). JTC was associated with clinical, but not nonclinical delusion severity, and with neuropsychological functioning, irrespective of clinical status. Both IQ and delusion severity, but not WM, were independently associated with JTC in the FEP group. Conclusions: JTC is present in FEP. The specific association of JTC with clinical delusions supports a state, maintaining role for the bias. The associations of JTC with neuropsychological functioning indicate a separable, trait aspect to the bias, which may confer vulnerability to psychosis. The work has potential to inform emerging interventions targeting reasoning biases in early psychosis. PMID:25053654

  14. Preliminary clinical results: an analyzing tool for 2D optical imaging in detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi Aizudin Bin Radin Nasirudin, Radin; Meier, Reinhard; Ahari, Carmen; Sievert, Matti; Fiebich, Martin; Rummeny, Ernst J.; No"l, Peter B.

    2011-03-01

    Optical imaging (OI) is a relatively new method in detecting active inflammation of hand joints of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). With the high number of people affected by this disease especially in western countries, the availability of OI as an early diagnostic imaging method is clinically highly relevant. In this paper, we present a newly in-house developed OI analyzing tool and a clinical evaluation study. Our analyzing tool extends the capability of existing OI tools. We include many features in the tool, such as region-based image analysis, hyper perfusion curve analysis, and multi-modality image fusion to aid clinicians in localizing and determining the intensity of inflammation in joints. Additionally, image data management options, such as the full integration of PACS/RIS, are included. In our clinical study we demonstrate how OI facilitates the detection of active inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. The preliminary clinical results indicate a sensitivity of 43.5%, a specificity of 80.3%, an accuracy of 65.7%, a positive predictive value of 76.6%, and a negative predictive value of 64.9% in relation to clinical results from MRI. The accuracy of inflammation detection serves as evidence to the potential of OI as a useful imaging modality for early detection of active inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. With our in-house developed tool we extend the usefulness of OI imaging in the clinical arena. Overall, we show that OI is a fast, inexpensive, non-invasive and nonionizing yet highly sensitive and accurate imaging modality.-

  15. Activities with Goto 45-CM Reflector at Bosscha Observatory, Lembang, Indonesia: Results and Aspects for Future Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malasan, H. L.

    In 1989 a 45-cm telescope of a cassegrainian type was installed, tested and commissioned at the Bosscha Observatory, Institut Teknologi Bandung. It was immediately put into use for UBV photometric observations of close binary systems. While the main function of the telescope was for photometric observations, the versatile design inherent to a reflector made possible to include a spectrograph which spectral dispersion could match the MK spectral classification. Activities related both to education and research conducted using this reflector since its installation comprise of scientific (photometry, spectroscopy, imagery) and experiment in instrumentation (fiber-fed spectrograph, CCD camera insitu testing). An important side result of the photometric observations is atmospheric study based on long-term atmospheric extionction coefficients. A multidiscipline approach, involving meteorologist and mathematiciants, on the study of natural and antrophogenic pollution of the atmosphere over Lembang has been recently undertaken. At present the telescope is, however, suffered from obsolete technology in its control functions. This has hampered it to be utilized fully, and therefore a plan to upgrade and extend the capability of the telescope has been made. The background, activities and results with emphasize to the collaborative work will be presented. Aspects for future development of the telescope and its auxiliary instruments will be discussed.

  16. 10 CFR 2.1209 - Findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... conclusions of law. Each party shall file written post-hearing proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law on the contentions addressed in an oral hearing under § 2.1207 or a written hearing under § 2.1208... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings of fact and conclusions of law. 2.1209 Section...

  17. 20 CFR 725.417 - Action at the conclusion of conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

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  18. 20 CFR 725.417 - Action at the conclusion of conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  19. 20 CFR 725.417 - Action at the conclusion of conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  20. 20 CFR 725.417 - Action at the conclusion of conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

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  1. 20 CFR 725.417 - Action at the conclusion of conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Action at the conclusion of conference. 725... § 725.417 Action at the conclusion of conference. (a) At the conclusion of a conference, the district....414. The district director may also notify additional operators of their potential liability...

  2. 39 CFR 964.14 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  3. 10 CFR 2.1209 - Findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Findings of fact and conclusions of law. 2.1209 Section 2... Procedures for NRC Adjudications § 2.1209 Findings of fact and conclusions of law. Each party shall file written post-hearing proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law on the contentions addressed in...

  4. 30 CFR 44.31 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS Hearings § 44.31 Proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and orders. After... each party may file proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and rule or order, together with...

  5. 39 CFR 964.14 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  6. 43 CFR 4.842 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

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  7. 30 CFR 44.31 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  8. 30 CFR 44.31 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  9. 43 CFR 4.842 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

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  10. 49 CFR 386.57 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law.

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    2011-10-01

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  11. 30 CFR 44.31 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions, and orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  12. 49 CFR 386.57 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

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  13. 39 CFR 963.17 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  14. 39 CFR 963.17 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  15. 49 CFR 386.57 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law. 386... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS General Rules and Hearings § 386.57 Proposed findings of fact, conclusions... proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and supporting reasons therefor. If the administrative...

  16. 43 CFR 4.842 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions... Posthearing Procedures § 4.842 Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law. Within 30 days after the... of fact and conclusions of law together with supporting briefs. Such proposals and briefs shall...

  17. 39 CFR 964.14 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law... findings of fact and conclusions of law. (a) Each party to a proceeding, except one who fails to answer the..., submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, orders and supporting reasons either in oral...

  18. 49 CFR 386.57 - Proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law. 386... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS PROCEEDINGS General Rules and Hearings § 386.57 Proposed findings of fact, conclusions... proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, and supporting reasons therefor. If the administrative...

  19. 10 CFR 2.1209 - Findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Findings of fact and conclusions of law. 2.1209 Section 2... ISSUANCE OF ORDERS Informal Hearing Procedures for NRC Adjudications § 2.1209 Findings of fact and conclusions of law. Each party shall file written post-hearing proposed findings of fact and conclusions...

  20. 39 CFR 963.17 - Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proposed findings of fact and conclusions of law... findings of fact and conclusions of law. (a) Each party who participates in the hearing may, unless the presiding officer orders otherwise, submit proposed findings of fact, conclusions of law, orders,...