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Sample records for activity correlated positively

  1. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre auger

    2007-12-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [1]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and AGN at a distance less than {approx} 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  2. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; García, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PȩKala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-04-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ˜6 × 1019 eV and AGN at a distance less than ˜75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest-energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen Zatsepin Kuz’min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. Positive effects of neurofeedback on autism symptoms correlate with brain activation during imitation and observation.

    PubMed

    Datko, Michael; Pineda, Jaime A; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2017-02-28

    Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training (NFT), an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior. We examined the effects of ≥ 20 h of sensorimotor mu-rhythm-based NFT in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a matched control group of typically developing children (ages 8-17). During an functional magnetic resonance imaging imitation and observation task, the ASD group showed increased activation in regions of the human mirror neuron system following the NFT, as part of a significant interaction between group (ASD vs. controls) and training (pre- vs. post-training). These changes were positively correlated with behavioral improvements in the ASD participants, indicating that mu-rhythm NFT may be beneficial to individuals with ASD.

  4. Positive correlation between type 1 and 2 iodothyronine deiodinases activities in human goiters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Valmara S; Marassi, Michelle P; Rosenthal, Doris; Vaisman, Mário; Corrêa da Costa, Vânia M

    2012-06-01

    Type 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) iodothyronine deiodinases are selenocysteine-containing enzymes that catalyze the deiodination of T4 to T3 in the thyroid and in peripheral tissues. Despite their importance to the plasma T3 pool in human beings, there are few studies about their behavior in human thyroids. In order to better understand iodothyronine deiodinase regulation in the thyroid gland, we studied thyroid tissue samples from follicular adenoma (AD, n = 5), toxic diffuse goiter (TDG, n = 6), nontoxic multinodular goiter (NMG, n = 40), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, n = 8), and surrounding normal tissues (NT, n = 7) from 36 patients submitted to elective thyroidectomy. D1 and D2 activities were determined by quantification of the radioiodine released by ¹²⁵I-rT3 or ¹²⁵I-T4 under standardized conditions, and expressed as pmol rT3 deiodinated per minute and mg protein (pmol rT3 min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ ptn) and fmol T4 deiodinated per minute and mg protein (fmol T4 min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ ptn), respectively. D1 activity detected in TDG and AD tissues were significantly higher than in NT, PTC or NMG samples. D2 activity was also significantly higher in TDG and AD samples than in PTC, NMG, or NT. There was great variability in D1 and D2 enzymatic activities from distinct patients as well as from different areas from the same goiter. There was a positive correlation (P < 0,0001, r = 0.4942) between D1 and D2 activities when all samples were taken into account, suggesting that-in the thyroid-these two iodothyronine deiodinases may have related regulatory mechanisms, even if conditioned by other as yet unknown factors.

  5. Antigenicity of UV radiation-induced murine tumors correlates positively with the level of adenosine deaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, S L; Fidler, I J

    1987-01-01

    The specific activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in 16 murine tumor cell lines derived from seven UV light-induced neoplasms (melanoma and fibrosarcoma) were determined. In each case, the specific activity of ADA correlated positively with the antigenicity of the tumor cells. Highly antigenic cell lines that regress upon introduction into syngeneic hosts had on average 4- to 6-fold higher ADA specific activities than cell lines of low antigenicity that grow progressively in syngeneic hosts. The antigenic differences are probably not related to intracellular cAMP levels, as the level of cAMP differed only 2-fold between the two groups of cell lines.

  6. Mast cells positive to tryptase, endothelial cells positive to protease-activated receptor-2, and microvascular density correlate among themselves in hepatocellular carcinoma patients who have undergone surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ammendola, Michele; Sacco, Rosario; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Piardi, Tullio; Zuccalà, Valeria; Patruno, Rosa; Zullo, Alessandra; Zizzo, Nicola; Nardo, Bruno; Marech, Ilaria; Crovace, Alberto; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Pessaux, Patrick; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2016-01-01

    Background Mast cells (MCs) can stimulate angiogenesis, releasing several proangiogenic cytokines stored in their cytoplasm. In particular MCs can release tryptase, a potent in vivo and in vitro proangiogenic factor via proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Nevertheless, no data are available concerning the relationship between MC density positive to tryptase (MCDPT), endothelial cells positive to PAR-2 forming microvascular density (PAR-2-MVD), and classical MVD (C-MVD) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) angiogenesis. This study analyzed the correlation between MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD, each correlated to the others and to the main clinicopathological features, in early HCC patients who underwent surgery. Methods A series of 53 HCC patients with early stage (stage 0 according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging Classification) were selected and then underwent surgery. Tumor tissue samples were evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis methods in terms of number of MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD. Results A significant correlation between MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD groups, each correlated to the others, was found by Pearson t-test analysis (r ranged from 0.67 to 0.81; P-value ranged from 0.01 to 0.03). No other significant correlation was found. Conclusion Our in vivo pilot data suggest that MCDPT and PAR-2-MVD may play a role in HCC angiogenesis and could be further evaluated as a target of antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:27499640

  7. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  8. Correlates of Long-Term Participation in a Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program for Low-Income Youth: Sustained Involvement and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; McDonough, Meghan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of long-term participation in a positive youth development (PYD) program. Low-income youth (N = 215) age 8-13 of diverse ethnicity participating in a summer physical activity-based PYD program completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the program (year 1) and at the beginning of year 2. Those with lower…

  9. Intensity of macrolide anti-inflammatory activity in J774A.1 cells positively correlates with cellular accumulation and phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    Munić, Vesna; Banjanac, Mihailo; Koštrun, Sanja; Nujić, Krunoslav; Bosnar, Martina; Marjanović, Nikola; Ralić, Jovica; Matijašić, Mario; Hlevnjak, Mario; Eraković Haber, Vesna

    2011-09-01

    Some macrolide antibiotics were reported to inhibit interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE(2)) production by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated J774A.1 cells. Macrolides are also known to accumulate in cells and some were proven inducers of phospholipidosis. In the present study, with a set of 18 mainly 14- and 15-membered macrolides, we have investigated whether these macrolide induced phenomena in J774A.1 cells are connected. In LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cells, the extent of inhibition of proinflammatory markers (IL6 and PGE(2)) by macrolides significantly correlated with their extent of accumulation in cells, as well as with the induction of phospholipidosis, and cytotoxic effects in prolonged culture (with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.78 to 0.93). The effects observed were related to macrolide binding to phospholipids (CHI IAM), number of positively charged centres, and were inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen bond donors. Similar interdependence of effects was obtained with chloroquine and amiodarone, whereas for dexamethasone and indomethacin these effects were not linked. The observed macrolide induced phenomena in J774A.1 cells were reversible and elimination of the macrolides from the culture media prevented phospholipidosis and the development of cytotoxicity in long-term cultures. Based on comparison with known clinical data, we conclude that LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cells in presented experimental setup are not a representative cellular model for the evaluation of macrolide anti-inflammatory potential in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our study shows that, at least in in vitro models, binding to biological membranes may be the crucial factor of macrolide mechanism of action.

  10. Intelligence and Semen Quality Are Positively Correlated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey; Pierce, Arand

    2009-01-01

    Human cognitive abilities inter-correlate to form a positive matrix, from which a large first factor, called "Spearman's g" or general intelligence, can be extracted. General intelligence itself is correlated with many important health outcomes including cardio-vascular function and longevity. However, the important evolutionary question of…

  11. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants’ ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as ‘encouragement’ for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, ‘playfulness’ for amusement, joy, interest, and ‘harmony’ for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions. PMID:28184194

  12. Seeking Positive Experiences Can Produce Illusory Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denrell, Jerker; Le Mens, Gael

    2011-01-01

    Individuals tend to select again alternatives about which they have positive impressions and to avoid alternatives about which they have negative impressions. Here we show how this sequential sampling feature of the information acquisition process leads to the emergence of an illusory correlation between estimates of the attributes of…

  13. Activated β-catenin forces N2A cell-derived neurons back to tumor-like neuroblasts and positively correlates with a risk for human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Feng; Gong, Guangming; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Hu, Die; Yang, Yilin; Hu, Yiqiao

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic malignancy arising from neuroblasts. The mechanisms that regulate the origination of neuroblastoma are still not very clear. In this study, we revealed that 6-bromoindirubin 3'-oxime (BIO), a specific GSK-3β inhibitor, promoted N2A cells-derived neurons to become tumor-like neuroblasts. Moreover, constitutively activated β-catenin (S33Y) also promoted this process, whereas, silencing endogenous expression of β-catenin abolished BIO-induced effects. These results implicated the potential relationship between the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and neuroblastoma formation. Indeed, we found that the amount of β-catenin in nucleus, which indicated the activation of Wnt/β-catnin signaling, was accumulated in human neuroblastoma specimens and positively correlated with clinical risk of neuroblastoma. These results give us a new sight into the neuroblastoma initiation and progression, and provide a potential drug target for neuroblastoma treatment.

  14. Position-sensitive scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Joseph P; Chen, Yan; Müller, Joachim D

    2005-08-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) uses a stationary laser beam to illuminate a small sample volume and analyze the temporal behavior of the fluorescence fluctuations within the stationary observation volume. In contrast, scanning FCS (SFCS) collects the fluorescence signal from a moving observation volume by scanning the laser beam. The fluctuations now contain both temporal and spatial information about the sample. To access the spatial information we synchronize scanning and data acquisition. Synchronization allows us to evaluate correlations for every position along the scanned trajectory. We use a circular scan trajectory in this study. Because the scan radius is constant, the phase angle is sufficient to characterize the position of the beam. We introduce position-sensitive SFCS (PSFCS), where correlations are calculated as a function of lag time and phase. We present the theory of PSFCS and derive expressions for diffusion, diffusion in the presence of flow, and for immobilization. To test PSFCS we compare experimental data with theory. We determine the direction and speed of a flowing dye solution and the position of an immobilized particle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for applications in living cells we present data of enhanced green fluorescent protein measured in the nucleus of COS cells.

  15. Clash of positivities in topological density correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Miguel; Seiler, Erhard

    2005-11-01

    We discuss the apparent conflict between reflection positivity and positivity of the topological susceptibility in two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models and in four-dimensional gauge theories. We pay special attention to the fact that this apparent conflict is already present on the lattice; its resolution puts some nontrivial restrictions on the short-distance behavior of the lattice correlator. It is found that these restrictions can be satisfied both in the case of asymptotic freedom and the dissident scenario of a critical point at finite coupling.

  16. Rotational Alignment Altered by Source Position Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris S.; Heflin, M. B.; Lanyi, G. E.; Sovers, O. J.; Steppe, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the construction of modern Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) the overall rotational alignment is only weakly constrained by the data. Therefore, common practice has been to apply a 3-dimensional No-Net-Rotation (NNR) constraint in order to align an under-construction frame to the ICRF. We present evidence that correlations amongst source position parameters must be accounted for in order to properly align a CRF at the 5-10 (mu)as level of uncertainty found in current work. Failure to do so creates errors at the 10-40 (mu)as level.

  17. Transcriptome Characteristics and Six Alternative Expressed Genes Positively Correlated with the Phase Transition of Annual Cambial Activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weidong; Luo, Zhanshou; Wang, Pengkai; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Renhua; Shi, Jisen

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook), a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22) gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on previous studies, the four stage-specific cambial tissues of Chinese fir were defined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In total, 20 million sequencing reads (3.6 Gb) were obtained using Illumina sequencing from Chinese fir cambium tissue collected at active growth stage, with a mean length of 131 bp and a N50 of 90 bp. SOAPdenovo software was used to assemble 62,895 unigenes. These unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to public protein databases. Expression analysis revealed that the altered expression of six homologous genes (ClWOX1, ClWOX4, ClCLV1-like, ClCLV-like, ClCLE12, and ClPIN1-like) correlated positively with changes in cambial activities; moreover, these six genes might be directly involved in cambial function in Chinese fir. Further, the full-length cDNAs and DNAs for ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 were cloned and analyzed. Conclusions In this study, a large number of tissue/stage-specific unigene sequences were generated from the active growth stage of Chinese fir cambium. Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese fir not only provides extensive genetic resources for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cambial activities in Chinese fir, but also is expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of Chinese fir. This study indicates that ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 could be possible reverse genetic target genes for revealing the molecular mechanisms of cambial activities in Chinese fir. PMID

  18. Urinary Sodium Excretion Has Positive Correlation with Activation of Urinary Renin Angiotensin System and Reactive Oxygen Species in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Kim, Dong Ki; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2014-01-01

    It is not well described the pathophysiology of renal injuries caused by a high salt intake in humans. The authors analyzed the relationship between the 24-hr urine sodium-to-creatinine ratio (24HUna/cr) and renal injury parameters such as urine angiotensinogen (uAGT/cr), monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 (uMCP1/cr), and malondialdehyde-to-creatinine ratio (uMDA/cr) by using the data derived from 226 hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients. At baseline, the 24HUna/cr group or levels had a positive correlation with uAGT/cr and uMDA/cr adjusted for related factors (P<0.001 for each analysis). When we estimated uAGT/cr in the 24HUna/cr groups by ANCOVA, the uAGT/cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr was higher than in patients with <100 mEq/g cr (708 [95% CI, 448-967] vs. 334 [95% CI, 184-483] pg/mg cr, P=0.014). Similarly, uMDA/cr was estimated as 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14-0.21) pM/mg cr in patients with <100 mEq/g cr and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.20-0.33) pM/mg cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr (P=0.016). During the 16-week follow-up period, an increase in urinary sodium excretion predicted an increase in urinary angiotensinogen excretion. In conclusion, high salt intake increases renal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) activation, primarily, and directly or indirectly affects the production of reactive oxygen species through renal RAS activation. PMID:25317016

  19. Comparison of thermal effects of stilbenoid analogs in lipid bilayers using differential scanning calorimetry and molecular dynamics: correlation of thermal effects and topographical position with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Koukoulitsa, Catherine; Durdagi, Serdar; Siapi, Eleni; Villalonga-Barber, Carolina; Alexi, Xanthippi; Steele, Barry R; Micha-Screttas, Maria; Alexis, Michael N; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In previous studies it was shown that cannabinoids (CBs) bearing a phenolic hydroxyl group modify the thermal properties of lipid bilayers more significantly than methylated congeners. These distinct differential properties were attributed to the fact that phenolic hydroxyl groups constitute an anchoring group in the vicinity of the head-group, while the methylated analogs are embedded deeper towards the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayers. In this work the thermal effects of synthetic polyphenolic stilbenoid analogs and their methylated congeners have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to explain the DSC results. Thus, two of their phenolic hydroxyl groups orient in the lipid bilayers in such a way that they anchor in the region of the head-group. In contrast, their methoxy congeners cannot anchor effectively and are embedded deeper in the hydrophobic segment of the lipid bilayers. The MD results explain the fact that hydroxystilbenoid analogs exert more significant effects on the pretransition than their methoxy congeners, especially at low concentrations. To maximize the polar interactions, the two phenolic hydroxyl groups are localized in the vicinity of the head-group region, directing the remaining hydroxy group in the hydrophobic region. This topographical position of stilbenoid analogs forms a mismatch that explains the significant broadening of the width of the phase transition and lowering of the main phase-transition temperature in the lipid bilayers. At high concentrations, hydroxy and nonhydroxy analogs appear to form different domains. The correlation of thermal effects with antioxidant activity is discussed.

  20. Positive Loadings and Factor Correlations from Positive Covariance Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    2004-01-01

    In many instances it is reasonable to assume that the population covariance matrix has positive elements. This assumption implies for the single factor analysis model that the loadings and regression weights for best linear factor prediction are positive. For the multiple factor analysis model where each variable loads on a single factor and a…

  1. Plasmin activity in the porcine airways is enhanced during experimental infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokine levels and is ameliorated by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Lauren K; Fell, Shayne A; Djordjevic, Steven P; Eamens, Graeme J; Jenkins, Cheryl

    2013-05-31

    In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) infection of swine, the host immune response is considered a major driver of lung pathology; however the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are not well understood. The serine protease plasmin is being increasingly recognised as a significant player in inflammatory processes. Here we compare plasmin activity in tracheobronchial lavage fluid (TBLF) from pigs experimentally challenged with Mhp that were either unvaccinated (n=10), or vaccinated with the commercial vaccine Suvaxyn(®) M.hyo (n=10). TBLF collected immediately prior to challenge and at 21 d and 35 d post-challenge was also assayed for levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), and for bacterial load (by qPCR). Clinical signs, pathology, cytokine analyses and qPCR all indicated that vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced disease relative to unvaccinated animals. Plasmin activity increased significantly in TBLF collected at 21 d post-challenge compared to pre-challenge TBLF in unvaccinated (P<0.01), but not vaccinated animals (P>0.05). A significant correlation was observed between bacterial load and plasmin activity in the 21 d (r=0.66; P<0.01) and the 35 d post-challenge samples, (r=0.62; P<0.01). Plasmin activity was also significantly correlated with levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 at 21 d (r=0.78, P<0.0001; r=0.77, P<0.0001; r=0.64, P<0.005) and with TNF-α and IL-1β at 35 d post-challenge (r=0.77, P<0.0001; r=0.74, P<0.0005). Our results indicate that plasminogen is activated to plasmin in the respiratory tract of pigs as part of the host inflammatory response to Mhp infection and that this effect is ameliorated by vaccination.

  2. Sports Participation and Positive Correlates in African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relations among sports participation and positive correlates across African American, Latino, and White girls. Positive correlate variables were self-perceptions (self-worth, body attractiveness, athletic competence), less depression, and participation in extracurricular activities. The sample comprised 372…

  3. Nucleosome positioning in the regulatory region of SV40 chromatin correlates with the activation and repression of early and late transcription during infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Meera Ajeet; Christensen, Kendra; Woods, Benjamin; Dettlaff, Ashley; Perley, Danielle; Scheidegger, Adam; Balakrishnan, Lata; Milavetz, Barry

    2017-03-01

    The location of nucleosomes in SV40 virions and minichromosomes isolated during infection were determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). The patterns of reads within the regulatory region of chromatin from wild-type virions indicated that micrococcal nuclease-resistant nucleosomes were specifically positioned at nt 5223 and nt 363, while in minichromosomes isolated 48 h post-infection we observed nuclease-resistant nucleosomes at nt 5119 and nt 212. The nucleosomes at nt 5223 and nt 363 in virion chromatin would be expected to repress early and late transcription, respectively. In virions from the mutant cs1085, which does not repress early transcription, we found that these two nucleosomes were significantly reduced compared to wild-type virions confirming a repressive role for them. In chromatin from cells infected for only 30min with wild-type virus, we observed a significant reduction in the nucleosomes at nt 5223 and nt 363 indicating that the potential repression by these nucleosomes appeared to be relieved very early in infection.

  4. Correlated Evolution of Nucleotide Positions within Splice Sites in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Stepan; Bazykin, Georgii; Favorov, Alexander; Mironov, Andrey; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs)—short nucleotide sequences flanking introns—are under selection for spliceosome binding, and adhere to consensus sequences. However, non-consensus nucleotides, many of which probably reduce SS performance, are frequent. Little is known about the mechanisms maintaining such apparently suboptimal SSs. Here, we study the correlations between strengths of nucleotides occupying different positions of the same SS. Such correlations may arise due to epistatic interactions between positions (i.e., a situation when the fitness effect of a nucleotide in one position depends on the nucleotide in another position), their evolutionary history, or to other reasons. Within both the intronic and the exonic parts of donor SSs, nucleotides that increase (decrease) SS strength tend to co-occur with other nucleotides increasing (respectively, decreasing) it, consistent with positive epistasis. Between the intronic and exonic parts of donor SSs, the correlations of nucleotide strengths tend to be negative, consistent with negative epistasis. In the course of evolution, substitutions at a donor SS tend to decrease the strength of its exonic part, and either increase or do not change the strength of its intronic part. In acceptor SSs, the situation is more complicated; the correlations between adjacent positions appear to be driven mainly by avoidance of the AG dinucleotide which may cause aberrant splicing. In summary, both the content and the evolution of SSs is shaped by a complex network of interdependences between adjacent nucleotides that respond to a range of sometimes conflicting selective constraints. PMID:26642327

  5. Correlated Evolution of Nucleotide Positions within Splice Sites in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Stepan; Bazykin, Georgii; Favorov, Alexander; Mironov, Andrey; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs)--short nucleotide sequences flanking introns--are under selection for spliceosome binding, and adhere to consensus sequences. However, non-consensus nucleotides, many of which probably reduce SS performance, are frequent. Little is known about the mechanisms maintaining such apparently suboptimal SSs. Here, we study the correlations between strengths of nucleotides occupying different positions of the same SS. Such correlations may arise due to epistatic interactions between positions (i.e., a situation when the fitness effect of a nucleotide in one position depends on the nucleotide in another position), their evolutionary history, or to other reasons. Within both the intronic and the exonic parts of donor SSs, nucleotides that increase (decrease) SS strength tend to co-occur with other nucleotides increasing (respectively, decreasing) it, consistent with positive epistasis. Between the intronic and exonic parts of donor SSs, the correlations of nucleotide strengths tend to be negative, consistent with negative epistasis. In the course of evolution, substitutions at a donor SS tend to decrease the strength of its exonic part, and either increase or do not change the strength of its intronic part. In acceptor SSs, the situation is more complicated; the correlations between adjacent positions appear to be driven mainly by avoidance of the AG dinucleotide which may cause aberrant splicing. In summary, both the content and the evolution of SSs is shaped by a complex network of interdependences between adjacent nucleotides that respond to a range of sometimes conflicting selective constraints.

  6. Altitude is positively correlated to race time during the marathon.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-04-01

    Completing a marathon (42.2 km) is one of the more challenging sports activities. Besides the distance, the ambient conditions of the race (altitude, temperature, etc) can increase the physiological demands of the event. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held and the marathon race time. For this purpose, we sought the race times of 16 popular marathons performed at different altitudes above sea level (range from ≈0 to 2800 meters above sea level). In these competitions, we analyzed the race times of the female and male runners who finished from 21(st) to 100(th) position. We excluded the top 20 male and female finishers from the analysis because elite athletes usually compete in marathons held at low altitudes above sea level. Ambient temperature, the positive cumulative elevation gain, and the number of participants were used as control variables. Finishing time in the marathon was positively correlated with the altitude of the competition for both male (r=0.78; p<0.05) and female participants (r=0.73; p<0.05). On average, each increase of 1000 meters above sea level augmented marathon race time by 10.8±0.6% in men and 12.3±0.7% in women. Compared to race times in the Rotterdam marathon (held at 0 meters above sea level), the time taken to complete the marathon was significantly higher in competitions held at an altitude of over 700 meters. In conclusion, the time taken to complete a marathon strongly depends on the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held. Selecting marathon competitions close to 0 m above sea level is a good strategy to maximize marathon performance.

  7. Confidence and memory: assessing positive and negative correlations.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to learn and remember surely evolved to help animals solve problems in their quest to reproduce and survive. In humans we assume that metacognitive processes also evolved, so that we know when to trust what we remember (i.e., when we have high confidence in our memories) and when not to (when we have low confidence). However this latter feature has been questioned by researchers, with some finding a high correlation between confidence and accuracy in reports from memory and others finding little to no correlation. In two experiments we report a recognition memory paradigm that, using the same materials (categorised lists), permits the study of positive correlations, zero correlations, and negative correlations between confidence and accuracy within the same procedure. We had subjects study words from semantic categories with the five items most frequently produced in norms omitted from the list; later, subjects were given an old/new recognition test and made confidence ratings on their judgements. Although the correlation between confidence and accuracy for studied items was generally positive, the correlation for the five omitted items was negative in some methods of analysis. We pinpoint the similarity between lures and targets as creating inversions between confidence and accuracy in memory. We argue that, while confidence is generally a useful indicant of accuracy in reports from memory, in certain environmental circumstances even adaptive processes can foster illusions of memory. Thus understanding memory illusions is similar to understanding perceptual illusions: Processes that are usually adaptive can go awry under certain circumstances.

  8. GONOME: measuring correlations between GO terms and genomic positions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Stefan M; Bailey, Timothy L; Mattick, John S

    2006-01-01

    Background: Current methods to find significantly under- and over-represented gene ontology (GO) terms in a set of genes consider the genes as equally probable "balls in a bag", as may be appropriate for transcripts in micro-array data. However, due to the varying length of genes and intergenic regions, that approach is inappropriate for deciding if any GO terms are correlated with a set of genomic positions. Results: We present an algorithm – GONOME – that can determine which GO terms are significantly associated with a set of genomic positions given a genome annotated with (at least) the starts and ends of genes. We show that certain GO terms may appear to be significantly associated with a set of randomly chosen positions in the human genome if gene lengths are not considered, and that these same terms have been reported as significantly over-represented in a number of recent papers. This apparent over-representation disappears when gene lengths are considered, as GONOME does. For example, we show that, when gene length is taken into account, the term "development" is not significantly enriched in genes associated with human CpG islands, in contradiction to a previous report. We further demonstrate the efficacy of GONOME by showing that occurrences of the proteosome-associated control element (PACE) upstream activating sequence in the S. cerevisiae genome associate significantly to appropriate GO terms. An extension of this approach yields a whole-genome motif discovery algorithm that allows identification of many other promoter sequences linked to different types of genes, including a large group of previously unknown motifs significantly associated with the terms 'translation' and 'translational elongation'. Conclusion: GONOME is an algorithm that correctly extracts over-represented GO terms from a set of genomic positions. By explicitly considering gene size, GONOME avoids a systematic bias toward GO terms linked to large genes. Inappropriate use of

  9. Overlapping neural correlates of reading emotionally positive and negative adjectives.

    PubMed

    Demirakca, Traute; Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna; Ruf, Matthias; Wokrina, Tim; Ende, Gabriele

    2009-07-03

    Comparison of positive and negative naturally read adjectives to neutral adjectives yielded an overlapping higher BOLD response in the occipital and the orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Superior medial frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus showed higher BOLD response to negative adjectives and inferior frontal gyrus to positive adjectives. The overlap of activated regions and lack of pronounced distinct regions supports the assumption that the processing of negative and positive words mainly takes place in overlapping brain regions.

  10. Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

  11. Positive correlations between corpus callosum thickness and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L; Bilder, Robert M; Thompson, Paul M; Szeszko, Philip R; Hamilton, Liberty; Toga, Arthur W

    2007-10-01

    Callosal morphology is thought to reflect the capacity for inter-hemispheric communication and thus, in addition to other cerebral characteristics, may serve as a neuroanatomical substrate of general intellectual capacity. We applied novel computational mesh-based methods to establish the presence and direction of correlations between intelligence and callosal thickness at high spatial resolution while removing the variance associated with overall brain size. Within healthy subjects (n=62), and within males (n=28) and females (n=34) separately, we observed significant positive correlations between callosal morphology and intelligence measures (full-scale, performance, and verbal). These relationships were pronounced in posterior callosal sections and were confirmed by permutation testing. Significant negative correlations were absent. Positive associations between intelligence and posterior callosal thickness may reflect a more efficient inter-hemispheric information transfer, positively affecting information processing and integration, and thus intellectual performance. At the same time, regional variations in callosal size might also partly reflect the underlying architecture of topographically connected cortical regions relevant for processing higher-order cognitive information. Our findings emphasize the importance of incorporating posterior (callosal) regions into the theories and models proposed to explain the anatomical substrates of intelligence.

  12. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Burress, Edward D; Holcomb, Jordan M; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2016-05-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis.

  13. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids

    PubMed Central

    Burress, Edward D.; Holcomb, Jordan M.; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis. PMID:27293777

  14. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  15. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  16. Positive affect, surprise, and fatigue are correlates of network flexibility.

    PubMed

    Betzel, Richard F; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gold, Joshua I; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-03-31

    Advances in neuroimaging have made it possible to reconstruct functional networks from the activity patterns of brain regions distributed across the cerebral cortex. Recent work has shown that flexible reconfiguration of human brain networks over short timescales supports cognitive flexibility and learning. However, modulating network flexibility to enhance learning requires an understanding of an as-yet unknown relationship between flexibility and brain state. Here, we investigate the relationship between network flexibility and affect, leveraging an unprecedented longitudinal data set. We demonstrate that indices associated with positive mood and surprise are both associated with network flexibility - positive mood portends a more flexible brain while increased levels of surprise portend a less flexible brain. In both cases, these relationships are driven predominantly by a subset of brain regions comprising the somatomotor system. Our results simultaneously suggest a network-level mechanism underlying learning deficits in mood disorders as well as a potential target - altering an individual's mood or task novelty - to improve learning.

  17. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  18. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  19. Hormone activation induces nucleosome positioning in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Belikov, Sergey; Gelius, Birgitta; Almouzni, Geneviève; Wrange, Örjan

    2000-01-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) promoter is induced by glucocorticoid hormone. A robust hormone- and receptor-dependent activation could be reproduced in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The homogeneous response in this system allowed a detailed analysis of the transition in chromatin structure following hormone activation. This revealed two novel findings: hormone activation led to the establishment of specific translational positioning of nucleosomes despite the lack of significant positioning in the inactive state; and, in the active promoter, a subnucleosomal particle encompassing the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding region was detected. The presence of only a single GR-binding site was sufficient for the structural transition to occur. Both basal promoter elements and ongoing transcription were dispensable. These data reveal a stepwise process in the transcriptional activation by glucocorticoid hormone. PMID:10698943

  20. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics. PMID:25332382

  1. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2014-11-28

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics.

  2. Correlated activity supports efficient cortical processing

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chou P.; Cui, Ding; Chen, Yueh-peng; Lin, Chia-pei; Levine, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Visual recognition is a computational challenge that is thought to occur via efficient coding. An important concept is sparseness, a measure of coding efficiency. The prevailing view is that sparseness supports efficiency by minimizing redundancy and correlations in spiking populations. Yet, we recently reported that “choristers”, neurons that behave more similarly (have correlated stimulus preferences and spontaneous coincident spiking), carry more generalizable object information than uncorrelated neurons (“soloists”) in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex. The rarity of choristers (as low as 6% of IT neurons) indicates that they were likely missed in previous studies. Here, we report that correlation strength is distinct from sparseness (choristers are not simply broadly tuned neurons), that choristers are located in non-granular output layers, and that correlated activity predicts human visual search efficiency. These counterintuitive results suggest that a redundant correlational structure supports efficient processing and behavior. PMID:25610392

  3. Correlation analysis of proprioceptive acuity in ipsilateral position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Domkin, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    In order to plan and control movements the central nervous system (CNS) needs to continuously keep track of the state of the musculoskeletal system. Therefore the CNS constantly uses sensory input from mechanoreceptors in muscles, joints and skin to update information about body configuration on different levels of the CNS. On the conscious level, such representations constitute proprioception. Different tests for assessment of proprioceptive acuity have been described. However, it is unclear if the proprioceptive acuity measurements in these tests correlate within subjects. By using both uni- and multivariate analysis we compared proprioceptive acuity in different variants of ipsilateral active and passive limb position-matching and ipsilateral passive limb movement velocity-discrimination in a group of healthy subjects. The analysis of the position-matching data revealed a higher acuity of matching for active movements in comparison to passive ones. The acuity of matching was negatively correlated to movement extent. There was a lack of correlation between proprioceptive acuity measurements in position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

  4. A Study of Some Psychological Correlates of HIV Positive Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James P.; And Others

    In an effort to compare the psychological characteristics of HIV positive veterans who are homeless with those who are not homeless, the psychological test performances of patients referred to the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Houston, Texas were examined. Investigators analyzed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)…

  5. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression.

    PubMed

    Greening, Steven G; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-05-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect.

  6. Spatial Correlates of Lower Treeline Position in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urza, A.; Weisberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Lower and upper treelines jointly determine the distribution of forests in many mountainous regions. Although upper treelines across the world have received extensive scientific attention, generalizable studies of the climate controls of lower treelines are largely absent from ecological literature. Lower treelines are thought to be ultimately limited by plant water balance, and are expected to contract with predicted increases in water deficits. However, where the position of lower treeline is constrained by land use and disturbance rather than by water balance, the distribution of forests will likely be less sensitive to climate changes. In this study, we investigated the relative importance of climate, land use, and disturbance for determining the position of lower treeline in the western US. We developed a moving window method to automate the mapping of lower treelines in the Intermountain West, an arid region encompassing gradients of precipitation (both magnitude and seasonality), growing season length, geology, disturbance history, and land use. We used classification and regression trees to identify climatic thresholds most related to lower treeline position and important effects of land use and disturbance. Preliminary results show that lower treeline is associated with the interaction of soils and seasonal water balance, although the strength of the relationship varies by forest type and region. Furthermore, land use (wood harvest, grazing, and infrastructure development) and disturbance (fire) often coincide with the lower treeline boundary, suggesting that the actual position of lower treeline is partially controlled by secondary constraints. Future work will compare the modeled climate potential of lower treeline to the actual distribution, distinguishing between treelines that are likely at their ecophysiological limit (and thus susceptible to contraction in a warming or drying climate) from those contrained above their climate potential (areas of

  7. Fractal Hierarchy in Isotopic Positional Correlations in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2007-03-01

    From subatomic particles to superclusters of galaxies, nature has nested hierarchial fractal-like organization (R.L. Oldershaw). Earlier I discussed formation of isotopic superlattices due to self organizational dynamics among isotopes (A.A. Berezin, SolidStComm, 1988). Informationally (in spirit of ``Maxwell's demon'' engine), formation of isotopic superlattices can be inferred from Maximum Entropy Principle (C.E. Shannon, E.T. Jaynes). In spite that effects of gravitation for isotopes (due to their nuclear mass difference) are very small, they can, nevertheless, manifest in such subtle effects as gravitationally-induced reduction (collapse) of wave functions (F. Karolyhazy, R. Penrose, A.A. Berezin). Since Planck mass (which is combination of h, G and c) is about 0.02 mg, size of desired isotopic fluctuation should be about 100 mkm (mesoscipic). Experimentally, isotopic correlations, micron and sub-millimeter isotopic fluctuations, isotopic clusters and isotopic fractal-type distribution can be probed by Rayleigh scattering (sampling at various wavelengths) and/or such high electric field effects as hopping conductivity (B. Ya. Shklovsky) in which isotopic clusters act as trapping or scattering centers. Other aspects of purposeful isotopic structuring (isotopic engineering) include isotopic fiber optics (A.A. Berezin) when core and cladding has varied (step or gradual) isotopic content which causes total internal reflection and light confinement.

  8. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  9. Acid phosphatase positional correlations in solid surface fungal cultivation: a fractal interpretation of biochemical differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jones, C L; Lonergan, G T; Mainwaring, D E

    1995-03-28

    Colour image analysis was used to measure the positional correlation between acid phosphatase intracellular concentration and hyphal cellular differentiation which leads to concentric circular zonal activity patterns. Acid phosphatase is strongly implicated in the biochemical control of hyphal branching, and exo-enzyme secretion, such as laccase in fungi, occurs predominately via the hyphal tips. Different concentrations of an organic dye were used to effect substrate induction of the enzyme response, which was shown to be statistically correlated according to a fractal power law (H approximately 0.39). A self-organized critical state for the molecular responsivity of dissipative enzyme expression is hypothesized as an efficient mechanism for hyphal adaptation, also accounting for the underlying biophysics of the observed pattern formations.

  10. FLASH and NPAT positive but not Coilin positive Cajal Bodies correlate with cell ploidy.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno-Borbone, Lucilla; De Cola, Antonella; Vernole, Patrizia; Finos, Livio; Barcaroli, Daniela; Knight, Richard A; Melino, Gerry; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo

    2008-08-01

    Cajal Bodies are one of many specialised organelles contained in the eukaryotic cell nucleus, and are involved in a number of functions, including regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription. In normal diploid cells their number varies between 0 and 4 depending on the cell cycle phase, although in cancer cell lines their number is extremely variable and it has been suggested that it correlates with cell ploidy. Here we show that in mammalian cells, as in Drosophila, two distinct though functionally related bodies exist: a histone gene locus body and a Cajal Body. The first one can be detected using FLASH or NPAT as markers while the second is labelled using antibodies against Coilin. Only the number of FLASH/NPAT histone gene locus bodies correlates with ploidy and only these organelles appear to be regulated during the cell cycle. Finally, we show that the two organelles completely co-localize during the S phase of the cell cycle.

  11. Neuropathologic correlates of activities of daily living in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gad A; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Tekin, Sibel; Vinters, Harry V; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    Functional status, reflected by measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), deteriorates as Alzheimer disease (AD) progresses. Decline in activities of daily living may be mediated by executive and frontal lobe dysfunction. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between activities of daily living and pathologic burden in Alzheimer disease. Twenty two subjects with definite Alzheimer disease were selected from the UCLA ADRC neuropathology database. A total activities of daily living score was derived from the Retrospective Collateral Dementia Interview-Revised (RCDI-R) questionnaire, which was administered to caregivers of autopsied subjects included in the study. Neuritic plaque (NP) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) counts were performed for 8 brain regions. There was a significant positive correlation between total activities of daily living score (higher scores indicate more disability) and mean neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts (r = 0.671, P = 0.001, and r = 0.542, P = 0.009, resp), as well as CA1 and prosubiculum neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts, right and left orbital frontal neuritic plaques counts, and occipital neuritic plaques count. Total activities of daily living score did not correlate with age at death, age at symptom onset, dementia duration, gender, or education. Deteriorating activities of daily living in Alzheimer Disease subjects correlate with greater overall pathologic burden and possibly selectively with involvement of the medial temporal, occipital, and orbital frontal regions.

  12. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Criteria for Formation of Active Personal Position of Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunanbayeva, Magziya Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the problem and the importance of formation of the active personal position of schoolchildren. Active personal position is a complex concept, which includes the ability to a problem solution, the ability to work in a team, the ability to express his or her views. The formation of an active personal position at school is…

  14. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  15. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  16. Protoporphyrin IX Content Correlates with Activity of Photobleaching Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Jose M.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1989-01-01

    Several laboratories have demonstrated recently that photobleaching herbicides such as acifluorfen and oxadiazon cause accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), a photodynamic pigment capable of herbicidal activity. We investigated, in acifluorfen-treated tissues, the in vivo stability of PPIX, the kinetics of accumulation, and the correlation between concentration of PPIX and herbicidal damage. During a 20 hour dark period, PPIX levels rose from barely detectable concentrations to 1 to 2 nanomoles per 50 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledon discs treated with 10 micromolar acifluorfen. When placed in 500 micromoles per square meter per second PAR, PPIX levels decayed logarithmically, with an initial half-life of about 2.5 hours. PPIX levels at each time after exposure to light correlated positively with the cellular damage that occurred during the following 1 hour in both green and yellow (tentoxin-treated) cucumber cotyledon tissues. PPIX levels in discs incubated for 20 hours in darkness correlated positively with the acifluorfen concentration in which they were incubated. In cucumber, the level of herbicidal damage caused by several p-nitrodiphenyl other herbicides, a p-chlorodiphenylether herbicide, and oxadiazon correlated positively with the amount of PPIX induced to accumulate by each of the herbicide treatments. Similar results were obtained with acifluorfen-treated pigweed and velvetleaf primary leaf tissues. In cucumber, PPIX levels increased within 15 and 30 minutes after exposure of discs to 10 micromolar acifluorfen in the dark and light, respectively. These data strengthen the view that PPIX is responsible for all or a major part of the photobleaching activity of acifluorfen and related herbicides. PMID:16666869

  17. Cooperative behavior between oscillatory and excitable units: the peculiar role of positive coupling-frequency correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, Bernard; Peron, Thomas K. DM.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Kurths, Jürgen; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2014-08-01

    We study the collective dynamics of noise-driven excitable elements, so-called active rotators. Crucially here, the natural frequencies and the individual coupling strengths are drawn from some joint probability distribution. Combining a mean-field treatment with a Gaussian approximation allows us to find examples where the infinite-dimensional system is reduced to a few ordinary differential equations. Our focus lies in the cooperative behavior in a population consisting of two parts, where one is composed of excitable elements, while the other one contains only self-oscillatory units. Surprisingly, excitable behavior in the whole system sets in only if the excitable elements have a smaller coupling strength than the self-oscillating units. In this way positive local correlations between natural frequencies and couplings shape the global behavior of mixed populations of excitable and oscillatory elements.

  18. Arylesterase Phenotype-Specific Positive Association Between Arylesterase Activity and Cholinesterase Specific Activity in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yutaka; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Strickland, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cholinesterase (ChE) specific activity is the ratio of ChE activity to ChE mass and, as a biomarker of exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors, has a potential advantage over simple ChE activity. Objective: To examine the association of several potential correlates (serum arylesterase/paraoxonase activity, serum albumin, sex, age, month of blood collection, and smoking) with plasma ChE specific activity. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 cancer-free controls from a nested case-control study, accounting for potential confounding. Results: Arylesterase activity had an independent, statistically significant positive association with ChE specific activity, and its magnitude was the greatest for the arylesterase phenotype corresponding to the QQ PON1192 genotype followed by phenotypes corresponding to QR and RR genotypes. Serum albumin was positively associated with ChE specific activity. Conclusions: Plasma arylesterase activity was positively associated with plasma ChE specific activity. This observation is consistent with protection conferred by a metabolic phenotype resulting in reduced internal dose. PMID:24473115

  19. Correlating Structural and Energetic Changes in Glycine Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Suzanne; Lynch, Joseph W.; Keramidas, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemoelectrical transduction in the nervous system. The mechanism by which the energy of ligand binding leads to current-conducting receptors is poorly understood and may vary among family members. We addressed these questions by correlating the structural and energetic mechanisms by which a naturally occurring M1 domain mutation (α1Q−26′E) enhances receptor activation in homo- and heteromeric glycine receptors. We systematically altered the charge of spatially clustered residues at positions 19′ and 24′, in the M2 and M2-M3 linker domains, respectively, which are known to be critical to efficient receptor activation, on a background of α1Q−26′E. Changes in the durations of single receptor activations (clusters) and conductance were used to determine interaction coupling energies, which we correlated with conformational displacements as measured in pLGIC crystal structures. Presence of the α1Q−26′E enhanced cluster durations and reduced channel conductance in homo- and heteromeric receptors. Strong coupling between α1−26′ and α119′ across the subunit interface suggests an important role in receptor activation. A lack of coupling between α1−26′ and α124′ implies that 24′ mutations disrupt activation via other interactions. A similar lack of energetic coupling between α1−26′ and reciprocal mutations in the β subunit suggests that this subunit remains relatively static during receptor activation. However, the channel effects of α1Q−26′E on α1β receptors suggests at least one α1-α1 interface per pentamer. The coupling-energy change between α1−26′ and α119′ correlates with a local structural rearrangement essential for pLGIC activation, implying it comprises a key energetic pathway in activating glycine receptors and other pLGICs. PMID:25572390

  20. Sparse reconstruction of correlated multichannel activity.

    PubMed

    Peelman, Sem; Van der Herten, Joachim; De Vos, Maarten; Lee, Wen-Shin; Van Huffel, Sabine; Cuyt, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Parametric methods for modeling sinusoidal signals with line spectra have been studied for decades. In general, these methods start by representing each sinusoidal component by means of two complex exponential functions, thereby doubling the number of unknown parameters. Recently, a Hankel-plus-Toeplitz matrix pencil method was proposed which directly models sinusoidal signals with discrete spectral content. Compared to its counterpart, which uses a Hankel matrix pencil, it halves the required number of time-domain samples and reduces the size of the involved linear systems. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to show that this Hankel-plus-Toeplitz matrix pencil also applies to continuous spectra. Secondly, to explore its use in the reconstruction of real-life signals. Promising preliminary results in the reconstruction of correlated multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) activity are presented. A principal component analysis preprocessing step is carried out to exploit the redundancy in the channel domain. Then the reduced signal representation is successfully reconstructed from fewer samples using the Hankel-plus-Toeplitz matrix pencil. The obtained results encourage the future development of this matrix pencil method along the lines of well-established spectral analysis methods.

  1. Fragile phagocytes: FMRP positively regulates engulfment activity.

    PubMed

    Logan, Mary A

    2017-03-06

    Defective immune system function is implicated in autism spectrum disorders, including Fragile X syndrome. In this issue, O'Connor et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607093) demonstrate that phagocytic activity of systemic immune cells is compromised in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Fragile X, highlighting intriguing new mechanistic connections between FMRP, innate immunity, and abnormal development.

  2. Harpagoside variation is positively correlated with temperature in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuting; Li, Jinghui; Zhao, Yunpeng; Chen, Binlong; Fu, Chengxin

    2011-03-09

    Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. is an important Chinese medicinal herb with a history of domestication of over 1000 years. Phytochemical variation of S. ningpoensis in response to environmental gradients remains an attractive topic with both practiceal and theoretical significances. In the current study, HPLC fingerprinting and four major bioactive compounds of S. ningpoensis, that is, harpagoside, angroside C, acteoside, and cinnamic acid, were determined to explore its correlations with climatic, geographic, and soil factors. The present data confirmed the approximate three-group pattern of phytochemical differentiation among the five production regions, the population of Zhejiang (ZJ), the population of Hubei (HB), and the rest three populations of Chongqing, Hunan, and Shaanxi (CQ, HN, and SX). Harpagoside, the dominant bioactive compound of S. ningpoensis, contributed most to the phytochemical differentiation and displayed a significant positive correlation with monthly and annual average temperature and negative correlations with altitude and latitude. It was concluded that harpagoside variation was strongly positively correlated with environmental changes of temperature.

  3. Scale-Free Correlations in Flocking Systems with Position-Based Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huepe, Cristián; Ferrante, Eliseo; Wenseleers, Tom; Turgut, Ali Emre

    2015-02-01

    We consider a model of self-propelled agents with spring-like interactions that depend only on relative positions, and not on relative orientations. We observe that groups of these agents self-organize to achieve collective motion (CM) through a mechanism based on the cascading of self-propulsion energy towards lower elastic modes. By computing the correlation functions of the speed and velocity fluctuations for different group sizes, we show that the corresponding correlation lengths are proportional to the linear size of the group and have no intrinsic length scale. We argue that such scale-free correlations are a natural consequence of the position-based interactions and associated CM dynamics. We hypothesize that this effect, acting in the context of more complex realistic interactions, could be at the origin of the scale-free correlations measured experimentally in flocks of starlings, instead of the previously argued proximity to a critical regime.

  4. Correlation between the Condyle Position and Intra-Extraarticular Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Sevgi; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between different clinical findings and condyle position. Methods: Tenderness on masseter (MM), temporal (TM), lateral pyterigoid (LPM), medial pyterigoid (MPM) and posterior cervical (PSM) muscles, limitation, deviation and deflection in opening of mouth, clicking, crepitating, tenderness on lateral palpation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area for each side of 85 patients were evaluated. Each side of patients was categorized into the clinical findings: no sign and/or symptom of temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMDs), only extraarticular findings and only intraarticular findings, extra and intraarticular findings. Condyle positions of 170 TMJs were determined the narrowest anterior (a) and posterior interarticular distance (p) on mid-sagittal MRIs of condyles and expressed as p/a ratio and these ratio were transformed into logarithmic base e. Spearman’s Correlation was used to investigate the relationship between the condyle position and the clinical findings. The difference between the condyle positions of different groups was tested by T test. Reliability statistic was used to determine intra-observer concordance of two measurements of condylar position. Results: A significant relationship was found between the condyle position and tenderness of PSM. There was no significant difference between the groups in aspect of the condyle position. Occlusion and condyle position correlated with significantly. Conclusions: The inclination of the upper cervical spine and craniocervical angulations can cause the signs and symptoms of TMD and condyle position is not main cause of TMDs alone but it may be effective together with other possible etiological factors synergistically. PMID:21769281

  5. Correlation study of a beam-position monitor and a photon-beam-position monitor in the PLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changbum; Shin, Seunghwan; Hwang, Ilmoon; Lee, Byung-Joon; Joo, Young-Do; Ha, Taekyun; Yoon, Jong Chel; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Kim, Mungyung; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Ilyou; Huang, Jung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The beam stability is one of the most important issues for the user service of the synchrotron radiation facility. After the upgrade of the Pohang Light Source (PLS-II), the electron-beam orbit is maintained within a root-mean-squred (rms) 1- μm range by using an orbit feedback system. However, that does not guarantee the radiation stability at the end of the beamline because unknown factors, such as focusing mirrors and double-crystal monocrometers, are present in the beamline. As a first step to solve this problem, photon-beam-position monitors (PBPMs) are installed in the front ends of the beamline to monitor the radiation stability. If the radiation is stable at the starting point of the beamline, we can move to the other components downstream that make the radiation unstable. In this paper, a correlation study will be presented between the beam-position monitor (BPM) and the PBPM. In addition, the effect of the orbit feedback system on the correlation will be described.

  6. Correlation of Radiographic Mental Foramen Position and Occlusion in Three Different Indian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Verma, P; Bansal, N; Khosa, R; Verma, KG; Sachdev, SK; Patwardhan, N; Garg, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The knowledge of the position of the mental foramen (MF) is important for administering local anaesthesia for diagnostic, surgical or operative procedures. Aims: To determine the shape, position, symmetry of MF and its continuity with the inferior dental canal (IDC) on a digital panoramic view and to find its correlation with Angle's molar relations in three Indian subpopulations. The study also determines the correlation of inter-foramen distance in both genders of three Indian subpopulations. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty digital panoramic radiographs were evaluated from three Indian subpopulations (Punjab, Rajasthan and Northeast [NE]). The assessment of occlusion was based on Angle's molar relationships. The data obtained were statistically analysed. Results: The commonest position of MF in Rajasthan and NE populations was position 4 bilaterally, while in the Punjab population, it was position 3 on the right and position 4 on the left side. The majority of the MF was round in shape, followed by oval. The mean distance between two MF was highest among the Punjab male population and least among the NE female population. The most frequent pattern of MF continuity with IDC was diffuse in Rajasthan population, separated in NE and continuous in Punjab. Correlation between Angle's molar relation with the MF position was significant for Classes I and II but not for Class III. Correlation of inter-foramen distance between genders was highly significant in the NE and Punjab populations. Conclusion: The commonest MF position was aligned with the 1st premolar and between the 1st and 2nd-premolar. PMID:26426182

  7. HIV disclosure patterns, predictors, and psychosocial correlates among HIV positive women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rena; Ratner, Jamie; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kadzirange, Gerard; Woelk, Godfrey; Katzenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure of positive HIV status in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with safer sexual practices and better antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but associations with psychosocial function are unclear. We examined patterns and psychosocial correlates of disclosure in a Zimbabwean community. Two hundred HIV positive women at different stages of initiating ART participated in a cross-sectional study examining actual disclosures, disclosure beliefs, perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, and quality of life. Ninety-seven percent of the women disclosed to at least one person, 78% disclosed to their current husband/partner, with an average disclosure of four persons per woman. The majority (85-98%) of disclosures occurred in a positive manner and 72-95% of the individuals reacted positively. Factors significantly correlated with HIV disclosure to partners included being married, later age at menses, longer duration of HIV since diagnosis, being on ART, being more symptomatic at baseline, ever having used condoms, and greater number of partners in the last year. In multivariate analysis, being married and age at menses predicted disclosure to partners. Positive disclosure beliefs, but not the total number of disclosures, significantly correlated with lower perceived stigma (ρ = 0.44 for personalized subscale and ρ = 0.51 for public subscale, both p<0.0001), higher self-esteem (ρ = 0.15, p=0.04), and fewer depressive symptoms (ρ = -0.14, p=0.05). In conclusion, disclosure of positive HIV status among Zimbabwean women is common and is frequently met with positive reactions. Moreover, positive disclosure beliefs correlate significantly with psychosocial measures, including lower perceived stigma, higher self-esteem, and lower depression.

  8. Positive correlation between serum interleukin-1β and state anger in rugby athletes.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Mirko; Speranza, Lorenza; Franceschelli, Sara; Ialenti, Valentina; Iezzi, Irene; Patruno, Antonia; Rizzuto, Alessia; Robazza, Claudio; De Lutiis, Maria Anna; Felaco, Mario; Grilli, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several studies reported a relationship between immune system activation and anger expression. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore immunitary molecular mechanisms that potentially underlie anger expression. To this end, we applied the Frustration-Aggression Theory in a contact sport model, utilizing the nearing of sporting events to trigger anger feelings. In parallel, we evaluated the activation of immune system at mRNA levels. We enrolled 20 amateur rugby players (age ± SD, 27.2 ± 4.5) who underwent psychological assessment to evaluate anger, with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), before rugby matches; at the same time blood samples were taken to analyze the variations of gene expression by microarray. During the 2 hr before each game, a significant increase was verified in the Rage State (RS) score compared to the score ascertained 72 hr before. At the same time, we found modulation in expression profile, in particular increased expression of gene that encodes interleukin l-β (IL-1β). In a regression analysis, RS score was related to IL-1β, and the potential risk factors age, body mass index, smoking, and drinking. The levels of cytokine were positively and independently related to RS score. Our results suggest that the nearing of sporting event can trigger anger state feelings and activate immune system in rugby players. We propose the IL-1β as a potential biological marker of anger. However, further research is necessary to clarify the correlation between cytokine and anger.

  9. Who takes the lead hand? Correlates of handholding position in lesbian couples.

    PubMed

    Che, Alison; Siemens, Isaac; Fejtek, Monika; Wassersug, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    When couples hold hands, one partner must take the lead hand and the other the following hand position. As potential correlates or predictors of handholding positions within lesbian couples, this article explored differences in height, age, income, who initiated the relationship, who usually initiates sexual intimacy, previous history of partnership with a male, and who has the most "say" in decision-making. Data revealed only 2 significant variables: The taller partner was more likely to have the lead hand, and a woman who had previously been partnered with a male was more likely to take the trailing hand position.

  10. Correlation between sperm DNA fragmentation index and CMA3 positive spermatozoa in globozoospermic patients.

    PubMed

    Hosseinifar, H; Yazdanikhah, S; Modarresi, T; Totonchi, M; Sadighi Gilani, M A; Sabbaghian, M

    2015-05-01

    The absence of the acrosome causes the situation which is called globozoospermia. There are a few studies, mostly as case reports, about correlation between levels of sperm DNA damage in patients with total round-headed spermatozoa. We investigated this correlation as well as CMA3 positive spermatozoa in 20 globozoospermic men (with more than 90% round-headed spermatozoa) attending to Royan Institute. Semen samples divided into three parts to semen analysis, to measure DNA fragmentation index (DFI) using sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and to detect CMA3(+) sperm cells by chromomycin A3 staining and fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that there were significant differences in sperm concentration, total sperm motility, and normal morphology between patients and controls group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the average of DFI and CMA3 positive spermatozoa in patients group significantly increases compared with control group (p < 0.001). A significant correlation between DFI and CMA3(+) in total population was also detected in patients group (r = 0.45, p = 0.046). To our knowledge, this is the largest study about correlation between DNA damage levels and CMA3 positive spermatozoa with round head sperm cells in total globozoospermic men. It seems that the increase in DNA damage may be because of defective sperm DNA compaction, as we detected CMA3 positive sperm cells in these patients.

  11. Correlational Study of Union-Administrator Relationships and Principals' Opportunities to Create Positive School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the strength of correlation between union-administrator relationships and principals' opportunities to create a positive school culture for learning during intent to strike conditions. The goal of this positivist study was to allow for an exploration of the extent to which…

  12. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  13. White-Matter Tract Connecting Anterior Insula to Nucleus Accumbens Correlates with Reduced Preference for Positively Skewed Gambles

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Josiah K.; Pestilli, Franco; Wu, Charlene C.; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Knutson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals sometimes show inconsistent risk preferences, including excessive attraction to gambles featuring small chances of winning large amounts (called “positively skewed” gambles). While functional neuroimaging research indicates that nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anterior insula (AIns) activity inversely predict risky choice, structural connections between these regions have not been described in humans. By combining diffusion-weighted MRI with tractography, we identified the anatomical trajectory of white-matter tracts projecting from the AIns to the NAcc and statistically validated these tracts using Linear Fascicle Evaluation (LiFE) and virtual lesions. Coherence of the right AIns-NAcc tract correlated with reduced preferences for positively skewed gambles. Further, diminished NAcc activity during gamble presentation mediated the association between tract structure and choice. These results identify an unreported tract connecting the AIns to the NAcc in humans and support the notion that structural connections can alter behavior by influencing brain activity as individuals weigh uncertain gains against uncertain losses. PMID:26748088

  14. Tryptophan analogues. 1. Synthesis and antihypertensive activity of positional isomers.

    PubMed

    Safdy, M E; Kurchacova, E; Schut, R N; Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1982-06-01

    A series of tryptophan analogues having the carboxyl function at the beta-position was synthesized and tested for antihypertensive activity. The 5-methoxy analogue 46 exhibited antihypertensive activity in the rat via the oral route and was much more potent than the normal tryptophan analogue. The methyl ester was found to be a critical structural feature for activity.

  15. Associations between selected demographic, biological, school environmental and physical education based correlates, and adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hilland, Toni A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2011-02-01

    The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12-14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students' perceived PE competence and enjoyment.

  16. CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoma: report of four cases with an emphasis on clinicopathological correlations*

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Jorge, Samira Barroso; Gonzaga, Yung Bruno de Mello

    2017-01-01

    The classification of cutaneous lymphomas is multidisciplinary and requires the correlation between clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular diagnostic elements. In this article, we present four different cases of CD30-positive T-cell lymphoma with cutaneous manifestations. We compare cases with definitive diagnosis of papulosis lymphomatoid type C, primary cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma with secondary skin involvement, and mycosis fungoides with large cell transformation, highlighting the importance of clinicopathological correlation to classify these cases. PMID:28225962

  17. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  18. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1991-01-01

    An angular position encoder that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads with beam steering optics that actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface is discussed. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology to the application of angular position sensing.

  19. Positive effects of aerobic exercise on learning and memory functioning, which correlate with hippocampal IGF-1 increase in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Caner; Sisman, Ali Riza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Gencoglu, Celal; Baykara, Basak; Aksu, Ilkay; Uysal, Nazan

    2013-08-09

    It is already known that regular aerobic exercise during adolescent period improves learning and memory in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on learning, memory functioning and IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 is known to have positive effects on cognitive functions in adolescent rats. Exercise group was separated into two different groups. First half was run on a treadmill for 30 min per session at a speed of 8m/min and 0° slope, five times a week for 6 weeks. The second half was given free access to a running wheel (diameter 11.5 cm) which was connected to a digital counter and run on a treadmill for 6 weeks. Learning and memory functioning were found to be positively correlated with the exercise activity. Findings suggest increased neuron density in CA1 hippocampal region and dentate gyrus. Increased IGF-1 level was detected in hippocampus and blood serum, while IGF-1 level in liver tissue did not change with exercise activity. In conclusion, our findings indicate that learning and memory functioning were positively affected by voluntary and involuntary physical exercise which correlated increased hippocampal activity and elevated IGF-1 levels in adolescent rats.

  20. Correlations of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome with Female Sexual Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated how the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) are correlated with the sexual activity of these patients. Materials and Methods A total of 87 patients were included in this study; 18 patients were diagnosed with IC and the other 69 had PBS. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the concept of IC/PBS proposed by the ICS in 2002. Patients were asked to fill in a Bristol female lower urinary tract symptom questionnaire, and symptoms were rated on a scale of from 1 to 4 or 5. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation of pain and urinary symptoms with quality of life and sexual activity. Results The average age of the patients was 51±14.7 years (range, 28-74 years). Age and vulvodynia were positively correlated with one another (r=0.232), and there was a negative correlation between age and dyspareunia (r=-0.302). Among the items regarding IC/PBS and sexual activity, frequency showed a positive correlation with vulvodynia (r=0.258) in addition to an inhibited sex life (r=0.403). Urgency showed a positive correlation with an inhibited sex life (r=0.346). Vulvodynia showed a positive correlation with an inhibited sex life (r=0.259) and dyspareunia (r=0.401). The main symptoms of IC/PBS (frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain) showed a positive correlation with almost all items related to quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusions Frequency, urgency, and various types of pain are negatively correlated with the sexual activity of patients. This suggests that physicians should consider sexual function in the management of patients with IC/PBS. PMID:20414410

  1. What Can We Learn From The Shape Of A Correlation Peak For Position Estimation?

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2009-08-25

    Matched filtering is a robust technique to identify and locate objects in the presence of noise. Traditionally, the amplitude of the correlation peak is used for detection of a match. However, when distinguishing objects that are not significantly different or detecting objects under high noise imaging conditions, the normalized peak amplitude alone may not provide sufficient discrimination. In this paper, we demonstrate that measurements derived from the shape of the correlation peak offer not only higher levels of discrimination but also accurate position estimation. To our knowledge, this is the first time such features have been used in a real-time system, like the National Ignition Facility, where such techniques enable real-time, accurate position estimation and alignment under challenging imaging conditions. It is envisioned that systems utilizing matched filtering will greatly benefit from incorporating additional shape based information.

  2. Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-24

    A method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole. The borehole is logged to determine the bulk density of the formation surrounding the borehole. The core sample is scanned with a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a plurality of cross sections along the core sample. The bulk density log is then compared with the attenuation coefficients to determine the position to which the core sample correlates in the borehole. Alternatively, the borehole can be logged to determine the photoelectric absorption of the formation surrounding the borehole, and this log can be compared with data derived from scanning the core sample with a CAT at two different energy levels.

  3. Robust correlation analyses: false positive and power validation using a new open source matlab toolbox.

    PubMed

    Pernet, Cyril R; Wilcox, Rand; Rousselet, Guillaume A

    2012-01-01

    Pearson's correlation measures the strength of the association between two variables. The technique is, however, restricted to linear associations and is overly sensitive to outliers. Indeed, a single outlier can result in a highly inaccurate summary of the data. Yet, it remains the most commonly used measure of association in psychology research. Here we describe a free Matlab((R)) based toolbox (http://sourceforge.net/projects/robustcorrtool/) that computes robust measures of association between two or more random variables: the percentage-bend correlation and skipped-correlations. After illustrating how to use the toolbox, we show that robust methods, where outliers are down weighted or removed and accounted for in significance testing, provide better estimates of the true association with accurate false positive control and without loss of power. The different correlation methods were tested with normal data and normal data contaminated with marginal or bivariate outliers. We report estimates of effect size, false positive rate and power, and advise on which technique to use depending on the data at hand.

  4. Two-dimensional correlation analysis and waterfall plots for detecting positional fluctuations of spectral changes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Soo Ryeon; Noda, Isao; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Phil Ho; Hwang, Hyonseok; Jung, Young Mee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the potentials and pitfalls of using various waterfall plots, such as conventional waterfall plots, two-dimensional (2D) gradient maps, moving window two-dimensional analysis (MW2D), perturbation-correlation moving window two-dimensional analysis (PCMW2D), and moving window principal component analysis two-dimensional correlation analysis (MWPCA2D), in the detection of the existence of band position shifts. Waterfall plots of the simulated spectral datasets are compared with conventional 2D correlation spectra. Different waterfall plots give different features in differentiating the behaviors of frequency shift versus two overlapped bands. Two-dimensional correlation spectra clearly show the very characteristic cluster pattern for both band position shifts and two overlapped bands. The vivid pattern differences are readily detectable in various waterfalls plots. Various types of waterfall plots of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectra of ethylene glycol, which does not have the actual band shift but only two overlapped bands, and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 2 wt% acetone in a mixed solvent of CHCl(3)/CCl(4) demonstrate that waterfall plots are not able to unambiguously detect the difference between real band shift and two overlapped bands. Thus, the presence or lack of the asynchronous 2D butterfly pattern seems like the most effective diagnostic tool for band shift detection.

  5. Eppur si Muove: Positional and Kinematic Correlations of Satellite Pairs in the Low Z Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Martin, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution.

  6. EPPUR SI MUOVE: POSITIONAL AND KINEMATIC CORRELATIONS OF SATELLITE PAIRS IN THE LOW Z UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Martin, Nicolas; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Neil G.

    2015-05-20

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution.

  7. Ovule positions within linear fruit are correlated with nonrandom mating in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Cunquan; Sun, Yuhan; Sun, Peng; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Zhao, Keqi; Wang, Jinxing; Li, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Post-pollination processes can lead to nonrandom mating among compatible pollen donors. Moreover, morphological patterns of ovule development within linear fruits are reportedly nonrandom and depend on ovule position. However, little is known about the relationship between nonrandom mating and ovule position within linear fruit. Here, we combined controlled pollen competition experiments and paternity analyses on R. pseudoacacia to better understand nonrandom mating and its connection with ovule position. Molecular determination of siring success showed a significant departure from the expected ratio based on each kind of pollen mixture, suggesting a nonrandom mating. Outcrossed pollen grains, which were strongly favored, produced significantly more progeny than other pollen grains. Paternity analyses further revealed that the distribution of offspring produced by one specific pollen source was also nonrandom within linear fruit. The stylar end, which has a higher probability of maturation, produced a significantly higher number of outcrossed offspring than other offspring, suggesting a correlation between pollen source and ovule position. Our results suggested that a superior ovule position exists within the linear fruit in R. pseudoacacia, and the pollen that was strongly favored often preferentially occupies the ovules that were situated in a superior position, which ensured siring success and facilitated nonrandom mating. PMID:27819357

  8. Untangling the positive genetic correlation between rainbow trout growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Vehviläinen, Harri; Kause, Antti; Kuukka-Anttila, Hanna; Koskinen, Heikki; Paananen, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    Explanations for positive and negative genetic correlations between growth and fitness traits are essential for life-history theory and selective breeding. Here, we test whether growth and survival display genetic trade-off. Furthermore, we assess the potential of third-party traits to explain observed genetic associations. First, we estimated genetic correlations of growth and survival of rainbow trout. We then explored whether these associations are explained by genetic correlations with health, body composition and maturity traits. Analysis included 14 traits across life stages and environments. Data were recorded from 249 166 individuals belonging to 10 year classes of a pedigreed population. The results revealed that rapid growth during grow-out was genetically associated with enhanced survival (mean rG = 0.17). This resulted because genotypes with less nematode caused cataract grew faster and were more likely to survive. Fingerling survival was not genetically related to weight or to grow-out survival. Instead, rapid fingerling growth made fish prone to deformations (rG = 0.18). Evolutionary genetics provides a theoretical framework to study variation in genetic correlations. This study demonstrates that genetic correlation patterns of growth and survival can be explained by a set of key explanatory traits recorded at different life stages and that these traits can be simultaneously improved by selective breeding. PMID:23144659

  9. Correlation between Driver Subjective Fatigue and Bus Lateral Position in a Driving Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Mazloumi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Nahvi, Ali; Ashouri, Mohammadreza; Mozaffari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Driver fatigue as a leading cause of death in the transportation industry can impair the driving performance in long-distance driving task. Studies on the links of driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position are still an exploratory issue that requires further investigation. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position in a driving simulator. Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted on 30 professional male bus drivers participated in a two-hour driving session. The driver subjective fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Visual Analogue Scale (F-VAS) at 10-min intervals. Simultaneously, the performance measures of lane drifting as the mean and standard deviation of the bus lateral position (SDLP) were calculated during the simulated driving task. Descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used to describe and analyze the data. Results: Fatigue levels had an increasing trend as the time-on-task of driving increased. Time-on-task of driving had the greatest effect on the fatigue self-evaluation (r = 0.605, p < 0.0001). The results showed a significant correlation between fatigue self-evaluation and bus lateral position (r = 0.567, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: As the time of driving increased, driving performance was affected adversely, as shown by the increase in the SDLP. Even so, the effect of individual differences on driving performance should not be overlooked. This work concludes that predicting the state of a driver fatigue based on the group mean data has some complications for any application. PMID:26396734

  10. Associations between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, M K; Altenburg, T M; Lakerveld, J; Andersen, L F; Stronks, K; Chinapaw, M J; Lien, N

    2015-11-01

    Existing research evidence indicates that children and adolescents of parents with a low socioeconomic position spend more time on sedentary behaviour than their counterparts. However, the mechanisms driving these differences remain poorly understood. The main aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding the association between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth (0-18 years) from developed countries. The literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. A total of 37 studies were included. All but three studies examined screen-based sedentary behaviours only. Methodological quality ranged from low to moderate. Education was the most commonly used indicator of socioeconomic position, followed by income. Socioeconomic position was inversely related to the presence of a TV in the child's bedroom, parental modelling for TV viewing, parental co-viewing and eating meals in front of the TV. We found no/indeterminate evidence for an association between socioeconomic position and rules and regulations about screen time. The findings suggest possible factors that could be targeted in future intervention studies to decrease screen-based sedentary behaviour in lower socioeconomic groups in particular.

  11. No Correlation between Distorted Body Representations Underlying Tactile Distance Perception and Position Sense.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Morcom, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Both tactile distance perception and position sense are believed to require that immediate afferent signals be referenced to a stored representation of body size and shape (the body model). For both of these abilities, recent studies have reported that the stored body representations involved are highly distorted, at least in the case of the hand, with the hand dorsum represented as wider and squatter than it actually is. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in the magnitude of these distortions are shared between tactile distance perception and position sense, as would be predicted by the hypothesis that a single distorted body model underlies both tasks. We used established tasks to measure distortions of the represented shape of the hand dorsum. Consistent with previous results, in both cases there were clear biases to overestimate distances oriented along the medio-lateral axis of the hand compared to the proximo-distal axis. Moreover, within each task there were clear split-half correlations, demonstrating that both tasks show consistent individual differences. Critically, however, there was no correlation between the magnitudes of distortion in the two tasks. This casts doubt on the proposal that a common body model underlies both tactile distance perception and position sense.

  12. No Correlation between Distorted Body Representations Underlying Tactile Distance Perception and Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Matthew R.; Morcom, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Both tactile distance perception and position sense are believed to require that immediate afferent signals be referenced to a stored representation of body size and shape (the body model). For both of these abilities, recent studies have reported that the stored body representations involved are highly distorted, at least in the case of the hand, with the hand dorsum represented as wider and squatter than it actually is. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in the magnitude of these distortions are shared between tactile distance perception and position sense, as would be predicted by the hypothesis that a single distorted body model underlies both tasks. We used established tasks to measure distortions of the represented shape of the hand dorsum. Consistent with previous results, in both cases there were clear biases to overestimate distances oriented along the medio-lateral axis of the hand compared to the proximo-distal axis. Moreover, within each task there were clear split-half correlations, demonstrating that both tasks show consistent individual differences. Critically, however, there was no correlation between the magnitudes of distortion in the two tasks. This casts doubt on the proposal that a common body model underlies both tactile distance perception and position sense. PMID:27917118

  13. The Correlation Between PARP1 and BRCA1 in AR Positive Triple-negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiayan; Jin, Juan; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Shi, Yaqin; Xu, Jing; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression and thus cannot benefit from conventional hormonal or anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Anti-androgen therapy has shown a certain effect on androgen receptor (AR) positive TNBC. The emerging researches have proved that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor is effective in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers. We demonstrated that combination of AR antagonist (bicalutamide) and PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) could inhibit cell viability and induce cell apoptosis significantly whatever in vitro or in vivo setting in AR-positive TNBC. Previous studies have proved that both BRCA1 and PARP1 have close connections with AR in prostate cancer. We explored the correlation among AR, PARP1 and BRCA1 in TNBC for the first time. After BRCA1 overexpression, the expression of AR and PARP1 were decreased in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, AR positively regulated PARP1 while PARP1 also up-regulated AR expression in vitro. We also confirmed BRCA1 expression was negatively correlated with AR and PARP1 in TNBC patients using a tissue microarray with TNBC patient samples. These results suggest that the combination of bicalutamide and PARP inhibitor may be a potential strategy for TNBC patients and merits further evaluation. PMID:27994514

  14. The Correlation Between PARP1 and BRCA1 in AR Positive Triple-negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayan; Jin, Juan; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Shi, Yaqin; Xu, Jing; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression and thus cannot benefit from conventional hormonal or anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Anti-androgen therapy has shown a certain effect on androgen receptor (AR) positive TNBC. The emerging researches have proved that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor is effective in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers. We demonstrated that combination of AR antagonist (bicalutamide) and PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) could inhibit cell viability and induce cell apoptosis significantly whatever in vitro or in vivo setting in AR-positive TNBC. Previous studies have proved that both BRCA1 and PARP1 have close connections with AR in prostate cancer. We explored the correlation among AR, PARP1 and BRCA1 in TNBC for the first time. After BRCA1 overexpression, the expression of AR and PARP1 were decreased in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, AR positively regulated PARP1 while PARP1 also up-regulated AR expression in vitro. We also confirmed BRCA1 expression was negatively correlated with AR and PARP1 in TNBC patients using a tissue microarray with TNBC patient samples. These results suggest that the combination of bicalutamide and PARP inhibitor may be a potential strategy for TNBC patients and merits further evaluation.

  15. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-11-04

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  16. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity. PMID:19887012

  17. Computing Highly Correlated Positions Using Mutual Information and Graph Theory for G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fatakia, Sarosh N.; Costanzi, Stefano; Chow, Carson C.

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a superfamily of seven transmembrane-spanning proteins involved in a wide array of physiological functions and are the most common targets of pharmaceuticals. This study aims to identify a cohort or clique of positions that share high mutual information. Using a multiple sequence alignment of the transmembrane (TM) domains, we calculated the mutual information between all inter-TM pairs of aligned positions and ranked the pairs by mutual information. A mutual information graph was constructed with vertices that corresponded to TM positions and edges between vertices were drawn if the mutual information exceeded a threshold of statistical significance. Positions with high degree (i.e. had significant mutual information with a large number of other positions) were found to line a well defined inter-TM ligand binding cavity for class A as well as class C GPCRs. Although the natural ligands of class C receptors bind to their extracellular N-terminal domains, the possibility of modulating their activity through ligands that bind to their helical bundle has been reported. Such positions were not found for class B GPCRs, in agreement with the observation that there are not known ligands that bind within their TM helical bundle. All identified key positions formed a clique within the MI graph of interest. For a subset of class A receptors we also considered the alignment of a portion of the second extracellular loop, and found that the two positions adjacent to the conserved Cys that bridges the loop with the TM3 qualified as key positions. Our algorithm may be useful for localizing topologically conserved regions in other protein families. PMID:19262747

  18. A Performance Comparison on the Probability Plot Correlation Coefficient Test using Several Plotting Positions for GEV Distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hyunjun; Jung, Younghun; Om, Ju-Seong; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2014-05-01

    It is very important to select the probability distribution in Statistical hydrology. Goodness of fit test is a statistical method that selects an appropriate probability model for a given data. The probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC) test as one of the goodness of fit tests was originally developed for normal distribution. Since then, this test has been widely applied to other probability models. The PPCC test is known as one of the best goodness of fit test because it shows higher rejection powers among them. In this study, we focus on the PPCC tests for the GEV distribution which is widely used in the world. For the GEV model, several plotting position formulas are suggested. However, the PPCC statistics are derived only for the plotting position formulas (Goel and De, In-na and Nguyen, and Kim et al.) in which the skewness coefficient (or shape parameter) are included. And then the regression equations are derived as a function of the shape parameter and sample size for a given significance level. In addition, the rejection powers of these formulas are compared using Monte-Carlo simulation. Keywords: Goodness-of-fit test, Probability plot correlation coefficient test, Plotting position, Monte-Carlo Simulation ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by a grant 'Establishing Active Disaster Management System of Flood Control Structures by using 3D BIM Technique' [NEMA-12-NH-57] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  19. Exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers in Blantyre, Malawi: a correlation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is an important component of child survival and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings like Malawi. In Malawi, children under the age of six months are exclusively breastfed for an average duration of 3.7 months. This falls short of the recommendations by the World Health Organization as well as the Malawi Ministry of Health that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of the child’s life. Understanding factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding duration among HIV-positive mothers is important in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among these mothers. An exploratory study was therefore conducted to determine factors that influence HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Methods This paper is based on data from a longitudinal, descriptive and correlation study that was conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi between May 12, 2009 and March 22, 2010. Theory of Planned Behavior guided the study. A face-to-face survey was utilized to collect data from a convenience sample of 110 HIV-positive mothers who were at least 36 weeks pregnant at baseline. A modified and pre-tested breastfeeding attrition prediction tool was used to measure exclusive breastfeeding beliefs, intentions and external influences at baseline. Data were analyzed using descriptive and association statistics. Additionally, multiple regressions were run to determine significant predictors of HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Results Results revealed high exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers. Prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with normative, control beliefs and negatively associated with positive beliefs

  20. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  1. Dysbiosis of urinary microbiota is positively correlated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengping; Ling, Zongxin; Xiao, Yonghong; Lv, Longxian; Yang, Qing; Wang, Baohong; Lu, Haifeng; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Wei; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-17

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be associated with altered urinary microbiota in female patients. We investigated alterations of urinary microbiota in Chinese female T2DM patients, and explored the associations between urinary microbiota and a patient's fasting blood glucose (FBG), urine glucose (UGLU), age, menstrual status, and body mass index (BMI). Midstream urine was collected from 70 female T2DM patients and 70 healthy females. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform by targeting the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that bacterial diversity was decreased in T2DM patients. Increased Actinobacteria phylum was positively correlated with FBG, UGLU, and BMI; Lactobacillus abundance decreased with age and menopause; and increased Lactobacillus correlated positively with FBG and UGLU. Decreased Akkermansia muciniphila was associated with FBG and UGLU. Escherichia coli abundance did not differ between the two cohorts. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism was reduced in T2DM patients, which were associated with bacterial richness indices such as Chao1 and ACE. Detailed microbiota analysis of well-characterized T2DM patients and healthy controls indicate that Chinese T2DM female patients exhibit dysbiosis of urinary microbiota.

  2. Environmental harshness is positively correlated with intraspecific divergence in mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Dor, Roi; McCain, Christy M; Safran, Rebecca J

    2014-02-01

    Life on Earth is conspicuously more diverse in the tropics. Although this intriguing geographical pattern has been linked to many biotic and abiotic factors, their relative importance and potential interactions are still poorly understood. The way in which latitudinal changes in ecological conditions influence evolutionary processes is particularly controversial, as there is evidence for both a positive and a negative latitudinal gradient in speciation rates. Here, we identify and address some methodological issues (how patterns are analysed and how latitude is quantified) that could lead to such conflicting results. To address these issues, we assemble a comprehensive data set of the environmental correlates of latitude (including climate, net primary productivity and habitat heterogeneity) and combine it with biological, historical and molecular data to explore global patterns in recent divergence events (subspeciation). Surprisingly, we find that the harsher conditions that typify temperate habitats (lower primary productivity, decreased rainfall and more variable and unpredictable temperatures) are positively correlated with greater subspecies richness in terrestrial mammals and birds. Thus, our findings indicate that intraspecific divergence is greater in regions with lower biodiversity, a pattern that is robust to both sampling variation and latitudinal biases in taxonomic knowledge. We discuss possible causal mechanisms for the link between environmental harshness and subspecies richness (faster rates of evolution, greater likelihood of range discontinuities and more opportunities for divergence) and conclude that this pattern supports recent indications that latitudinal gradients of diversity are maintained by simultaneously higher potentials for both speciation and extinction in temperate than tropical regions.

  3. Novel Image-based Methodology for Correlating Fish Position and Local Flow Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightbody, A.; Tytell, E.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2010-12-01

    Simultaneous high-frequency measurements of fish location, simple kinematic parameters such as tail beat frequency and amplitude, and flow characteristics were obtained in an outdoor experimental laboratory facility resembling a natural stream. Experimental tests at each of two flow rates used two native fish species with contrasting habitat preferences (Nocomis biguttatus and Ameiurus nebulosus). Simultaneous single-camera measurements were obtained of surface flow patterns using particle image velocimetry and of fish position by tracking beads attached to the dorsal musculature of each fish. Presented with multiple microhabitats within the vicinity of a rock structure, the fishes chose locations with similar hydraulic characteristics, even though those hydraulic conditions were in different locations at different flow rates. Strong correlations were observed between surface flow characteristics and fish swimming kinematics for all individuals and all flow conditions. In addition, fishes showed a significant positive correlation between tail beat frequency and turbulence intensity, confirming that fish are sensitive to turbulent time-varying flow features. High-resolution observations are a powerful tool to advance the understanding of fish microhabitat usage and quantify how it can be managed using stream restoration techniques.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Dominy, Stephen; Brown, Joseph N.; Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last few years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse. However, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores and that implicate disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, no proteins from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed significant correlations with cognitive scores. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.

  5. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; den Besten, Heidy M W; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-07-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC-UV-MS. The relationship between phytochemical composition, including different types of skeletons and substitutions, and antibacterial properties of extracts was investigated. Extracts rich in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids showed potent antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1% (w/v). Prenylated phenolic compounds were significantly (p<0.01) correlated with the antibacterial properties of the extracts. Furthermore, the position of the prenyl group within the phenolic skeleton also influenced the antibacterial activity. Overall, prenylated phenolics from legume seedlings can serve multiple purposes, e.g. as phytoestrogens they can provide health benefits and as natural antimicrobials they offer preservation of foods.

  6. From degree-correlated to payoff-correlated activity for an optimal resolution of social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-12-01

    An active participation of players in evolutionary games depends on several factors, ranging from personal stakes to the properties of the interaction network. Diverse activity patterns thus have to be taken into account when studying the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we study the weak prisoner's dilemma game, where the activity of each player is determined in a probabilistic manner either by its degree or by its payoff. While degree-correlated activity introduces cascading failures of cooperation that are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs, payoff-correlated activity provides a more nuanced activity profile, which ultimately hinders systemic breakdowns of cooperation. To determine optimal conditions for the evolution of cooperation, we introduce an exponential decay to payoff-correlated activity that determines how fast the activity of a player returns to its default state. We show that there exists an intermediate decay rate at which the resolution of the social dilemma is optimal. This can be explained by the emerging activity patterns of players, where the inactivity of hubs is compensated effectively by the increased activity of average-degree players, who through their collective influence in the network sustain a higher level of cooperation. The sudden drops in the fraction of cooperators observed with degree-correlated activity therefore vanish, and so does the need for the lengthy spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters. The absence of such asymmetric dynamic instabilities thus leads to an optimal resolution of social dilemmas, especially when the conditions for the evolution of cooperation are strongly adverse.

  7. From degree-correlated to payoff-correlated activity for an optimal resolution of social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-12-01

    An active participation of players in evolutionary games depends on several factors, ranging from personal stakes to the properties of the interaction network. Diverse activity patterns thus have to be taken into account when studying the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we study the weak prisoner's dilemma game, where the activity of each player is determined in a probabilistic manner either by its degree or by its payoff. While degree-correlated activity introduces cascading failures of cooperation that are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs, payoff-correlated activity provides a more nuanced activity profile, which ultimately hinders systemic breakdowns of cooperation. To determine optimal conditions for the evolution of cooperation, we introduce an exponential decay to payoff-correlated activity that determines how fast the activity of a player returns to its default state. We show that there exists an intermediate decay rate at which the resolution of the social dilemma is optimal. This can be explained by the emerging activity patterns of players, where the inactivity of hubs is compensated effectively by the increased activity of average-degree players, who through their collective influence in the network sustain a higher level of cooperation. The sudden drops in the fraction of cooperators observed with degree-correlated activity therefore vanish, and so does the need for the lengthy spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters. The absence of such asymmetric dynamic instabilities thus leads to an optimal resolution of social dilemmas, especially when the conditions for the evolution of cooperation are strongly adverse.

  8. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott C.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or the increased affective response to situations with uncertain outcomes, is an important component process of anxiety disorders. Increased IU is observed in panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and is thought to relate to dysfunctional behaviors and thought patterns in these disorders. Identifying what brain systems are associated with IU would contribute to a comprehensive model of anxiety processing, and increase our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. Here, we used a behavioral task, Wall of Faces (WOF), during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which probes both affect and ambiguity, to examine the neural circuitry of IU in fourteen (10 females) college age (18.8 yrs) subjects. All subjects completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), and a measure of neuroticism (i.e. the NEO-N). IUS scores but neither ASI nor NEO-N scores, correlated positively with activation in bilateral insula during affective ambiguity. Thus, the experience of IU during certain types of emotion processing may relate to the degree to which bilateral insula processes uncertainty. Previously observed insula hyperactivity in anxiety disorder individuals may therefore be directly linked to altered processes of uncertainty. PMID:18079060

  9. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott C; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2008-01-10

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or the increased affective response to situations with uncertain outcomes, is an important component process of anxiety disorders. Increased IU is observed in panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and is thought to relate to dysfunctional behaviors and thought patterns in these disorders. Identifying what brain systems are associated with IU would contribute to a comprehensive model of anxiety processing, and increase our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. Here, we used a behavioral task, Wall of Faces (WOFs), during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which probes both affect and ambiguity, to examine the neural circuitry of IU in 14 (10 females) college age (18.8 years) subjects. All subjects completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), and a measure of neuroticism (i.e. the NEO-N). IUS scores but neither ASI nor NEO-N scores, correlated positively with activation in bilateral insula during affective ambiguity. Thus, the experience of IU during certain types of emotion processing may relate to the degree to which bilateral insula processes uncertainty. Previously observed insula hyperactivity in anxiety disorder individuals may therefore be directly linked to altered processes of uncertainty.

  10. Revisiting the correlation between stellar activity and planetary surface gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Oshagh, M.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We re-evaluate the correlation between planetary surface gravity and stellar host activity as measured by the index log (R'HK). This correlation, previously identified by Hartman (2010, ApJ, 717, L138), is now analyzed in light of an extended measurement dataset, roughly three times larger than the original one. Methods: We calculated the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between the two quantities and its associated p-value. The correlation coefficient was calculated for both the full dataset and the star-planet pairs that follow the conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). To do so, we considered effective temperatures both as collected from the literature and from the SWEET-Cat catalog, which provides a more homogeneous and accurate effective temperature determination. Results: The analysis delivers significant correlation coefficients, but with a lower value than those obtained by Hartman (2010). The two datasets are compatible, and we show that a correlation coefficient as high as previously published can arise naturally from a small-number statistics analysis of the current dataset. The correlation is recovered for star-planet pairs selected using the different conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). Remarkably, the usage of SWEET-Cat temperatures led to higher correlation coefficient values. We highlight and discuss the role of the correlation betwen different parameters such as effective temperature and activity index. Several additional effects on top of those discussed previously were considered, but none fully explains the detected correlation. In light of the complex issue discussed here, we encourage the different follow-up teams to publish their activity index values in the form of a log (R'HK) index so that a comparison across stars and instruments can be pursued. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  12. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Jurj, Adriana L; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Matthews, Charles E; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2007-01-01

    Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000), an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework). Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement), history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain-specific. These findings

  13. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Raquel G; Calaça, Isadora C; Celestrini, Deborah M; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P; Costa, Mauricio M; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-10-06

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis.

  14. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Raquel G.; Calaça, Isadora C.; Celestrini, Deborah M.; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P.; Costa, Mauricio M.; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis. PMID:26320188

  15. Neural correlates of an early attentional capture by positive distractor words

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa, José A.; Mercado, Francisco; Albert, Jacobo; Barjola, Paloma; Peláez, Irene; Villalba-García, Cristina; Carretié, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous or automatic attention to emotional distractors has been observed for emotional scenes and faces. In the language domain, however, automatic attention capture by emotional words has been scarcely investigated. In the current event-related potentials study we explored distractor effects elicited by positive, negative and neutral words in a concurrent but distinct target distractor paradigm. Specifically, participants performed a digit categorization task in which task-irrelevant words were flanked by numbers. The results of both temporo-spatial principal component and source location analyses revealed the existence of early distractor effects that were specifically triggered by positive words. At the scalp level, task-irrelevant positive compared to neutral and negative words elicited larger amplitudes in an anterior negative component that peaked around 120 ms. Also, at the voxel level, positive distractor words increased activity in orbitofrontal regions compared to negative words. These results suggest that positive distractor words quickly and automatically capture attentional resources diverting them from the task where attention was voluntarily directed. PMID:25674070

  16. 2D focal-field aberration dependence on time/phase screen position and correlation lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2004-05-01

    For high-frequency annular array transducers used in medical ultrasound imaging, aberrations due to tissue and body wall have a significant effect on energy transfer from the main lobe to the sidelobes of the acoustic field: that is, the aberrations make the total sidelobe level increase. This effect makes the ultrasound image poor when imaging heterogeneous organs. This study performs an analysis of the focal-field quality as a function of time/phase screen z position and time/phase screen correlation length. It establishes some rules of thumb which indicate when the focal-field sidelobe energy is at its highest. It also introduces a simple screen-scaling model which is useful as long as the screen position is not closer to the focus than a certain limit distance. The scaling model allows the real screen at a depth z=zscreen to be treated as a scaled screen at the position z=ztransd. 2D sound fields after 3D propagation from the annular arrays to the focal plane have been simulated using an angular spectrum method. The aberrators are represented by amplitude and phase/time screens.

  17. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  18. Nonexercise muscle tension and behavioral fidgeting are positively correlated with food availability/palatability and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2003-07-01

    While certain measures of energy expenditure such as respiratory quotient and thermogenesis are readily quantifiable using existing animal models, the mechanism for and measurement of energy expenditure via nonexercise activity have not been thoroughly characterized. This low intensity form of physical exertion, associated with involuntary fidgeting and postural changes in man, was quantified in the present studies using passive measurement of muscle tension in rats. In particular, long-term weight loss and gain were induced using diet yoking and feeding of preferred foods in order to assess corresponding changes in locomotor activity and radiotelemetered measures of muscle tension, temperature and global activity. Hind limb muscle tension, but not body temperature, was increased 30-60% by enhancing the availability or palatability of food relative to the decreased muscle tension resulting from limited food availability. Enhancing food availability or palatability also produced a relative 5-15% increase in the amount of telemetered global activity. Importantly, neither diet yoking nor provision of a highly preferred diet altered a precise measure of behavioral locomotor activity. These results suggest that muscle tension and activity-in-place are positively correlated with weight change in the present studies and that these mechanisms of energy expenditure are mobilized by environmental changes in diet composition and meal pattern.

  19. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  20. Observations of geographically correlated orbit errors for TOPEX/Poseidon using the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, E. J.; Haines, B. J.; Mccoll, K. C.; Nerem, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared Global Positioning System (GPS)-based dynamic and reduced-dynamic TOPEX/Poseidon orbits over three 10-day repeat cycles of the ground-track. The results suggest that the prelaunch joint gravity model (JGM-1) introduces geographically correlated errors (GCEs) which have a strong meridional dependence. The global distribution and magnitude of these GCEs are consistent with a prelaunch covariance analysis, with estimated and predicted global rms error statistics of 2.3 and 2.4 cm rms, respectively. Repeating the analysis with the post-launch joint gravity model (JGM-2) suggests that a portion of the meridional dependence observed in JGM-1 still remains, with global rms error of 1.2 cm.

  1. Positive Technology for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Cipresso, Pietro; Repetto, Claudia; Serino, Silvia; Triberti, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Galimberti, Carlo; Graffigna, Guendalina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are widely and rapidly spreading in people's daily lives. But what is the possible role of the mass proliferation of digital devices in supporting healthy living and active ageing? Are they useful in fostering personal growth and individual integration of the elderly, by promoting satisfaction, opportunities for action, and self-expression? Rather, do they enhance automation, impose constraints on personal initiative, and result in compulsive consumption of information? In this chapter, we suggest that possible answers to these questions will be offered by the "Positive Technology" approach, i.e., the scientific and applied approach to using technology so that it improves the quality of our personal experiences through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement. First, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to manipulate the quality of experience with the goal of increasing wellness and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. Then, we classify positive technologies according to their effects on these three features of personal experience - Hedonic: technologies used to induce positive and pleasant experiences; Eudaimonic: technologies used to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences; Social/Interpersonal: technologies used to support and improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations. Finally, we discuss the possible role of positive technologies for healthy living and active ageing by presenting different practical applications of this approach.

  2. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  3. Distributions of positive correlations in sectoral value added growth in the global economic network*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-02-01

    International trade has grown considerably during the process of globalization. Complex supply chains for the production of goods have resulted in an increasingly connected International Trade Network (ITN). Traditionally, direct trade relations between industries have been regarded as mediators of supply and demand spillovers. With increasing network connectivity the question arises if higher-order relations become more important in explaining a national sector's susceptibility to supply and demand changes of its trading partner. In this study we address this question by investigating empirically to what extent the topological properties of the ITN provide information about positive correlations in the production of two industry sectors. We observe that although direct trade relations between industries serve as important indicators for correlations in the industries' value added growth, opportunities of substitution for required production inputs as well as second-order trade relations cannot be neglected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the relation between trade and economic productivity and can serve as a basis for the improvement of crisis spreading models that evaluate contagion threats in the case of a node's failure in the ITN.

  4. The correlation coefficient of GC content of the genome-wide genes is positively correlated with animal evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongli; Hu, Haofu; Meng, Yuhuan; Zheng, Weihao; Ling, Fei; Wang, Jufang; Zhang, Xiquan; Nie, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoning

    2010-09-24

    In this study, we present a new method for evaluating animal evolutionary relationships. We used the GC% levels of genome-wide genes to determine the correlation between the GC% content and evolutionary relationship. The correlation coefficients of the GC% content of the orthologous genes of the paired animal species were calculated for a total of 21 species, and the evolutionary branching dates of these 21 species were derived from fossil records. The correlation coefficient of the GC% content of the orthologous genes of the species pair under study served as an indicator of their evolutionary relationship. Moreover, there was a decreasing linear relationship between the correlation coefficient and evolutionary branching date (R(2)=0.930).

  5. Effective population size is positively correlated with levels of adaptive divergence among annual sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Strasburg, Jared L; Kane, Nolan C; Raduski, Andrew R; Bonin, Aurélie; Michelmore, Richard; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-05-01

    The role of adaptation in the divergence of lineages has long been a central question in evolutionary biology, and as multilocus sequence data sets have become available for a wide range of taxa, empirical estimates of levels of adaptive molecular evolution are increasingly common. Estimates vary widely among taxa, with high levels of adaptive evolution in Drosophila, bacteria, and viruses but very little evidence of widespread adaptive evolution in hominids. Although estimates in plants are more limited, some recent work has suggested that rates of adaptive evolution in a range of plant taxa are surprisingly low and that there is little association between adaptive evolution and effective population size in contrast to patterns seen in other taxa. Here, we analyze data from 35 loci for six sunflower species that vary dramatically in effective population size. We find that rates of adaptive evolution are positively correlated with effective population size in these species, with a significant fraction of amino acid substitutions driven by positive selection in the species with the largest effective population sizes but little or no evidence of adaptive evolution in species with smaller effective population sizes. Although other factors likely contribute as well, in sunflowers effective population size appears to be an important determinant of rates of adaptive evolution.

  6. A position-sensitive twin ionization chamber for fission fragment and prompt neutron correlation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Vidali, M.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2016-09-01

    A twin position-sensitive Frisch grid ionization chamber, intended as a fission fragment detector in experiments to study prompt fission neutron correlations with fission fragment properties, is presented. Fission fragment mass and energies are determined by means of the double kinetic energy technique, based on conservation of mass and linear momentum. The position sensitivity is achieved by replacing each anode plate in the standard twin ionization chamber by a wire plane and a strip anode, both readout by means of resistive charge division. This provides information about the fission axis orientation, which is necessary to reconstruct the neutron emission process in the fully accelerated fragment rest-frame. The energy resolution compared to the standard twin ionization chamber is found not to be affected by the modification. The angular resolution of the detector relative to an arbitrarily oriented axis is better than 7° FWHM. Results on prompt fission neutron angular distributions in 235U(n,f) obtained with the detector in combination with an array of neutron scintillation detectors is presented as a proof of principle.

  7. Bootstrap testing for cross-correlation under low firing activity.

    PubMed

    González-Montoro, Aldana M; Cao, Ricardo; Espinosa, Nelson; Cudeiro, Javier; Mariño, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A new cross-correlation synchrony index for neural activity is proposed. The index is based on the integration of the kernel estimation of the cross-correlation function. It is used to test for the dynamic synchronization levels of spontaneous neural activity under two induced brain states: sleep-like and awake-like. Two bootstrap resampling plans are proposed to approximate the distribution of the test statistics. The results of the first bootstrap method indicate that it is useful to discern significant differences in the synchronization dynamics of brain states characterized by a neural activity with low firing rate. The second bootstrap method is useful to unveil subtle differences in the synchronization levels of the awake-like state, depending on the activation pathway.

  8. Data mining for correlations between diet and Crohn's disease activity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason G; Purcell, Gretchen P

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating condition that affects the entire gastrointestinal tract and often requires aggressive and invasive therapies. Several studies have suggested dietary triggers for disease activity. We have created a web-based tool to allow participants to record both daily food intake and wellness (i.e., disease-specific quality of life). We seek to determine if measurable correlations exist between these events in patients with Crohn's disease. Advanced data mining techniques are employed to find such correlations and the efficacies of chosen techniques are assessed. We tested our web-based system in a pilot study involving 7 participants, and we found that traditional statistical techniques identified diet and disease activity correlations in short-term data sets.

  9. The Magnetoencephalography correlate of EEG POSTS (Positive Occipital Sharp Transients of Sleep)

    PubMed Central

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Wang, Zhong I.; Enatsu, Rei; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Mosher, John C.; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Burgess, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In contrast to EEG, which has guidelines for interpretation and a plethora of textbooks, the full range of activity seen in Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has not been fleshed out. Currently, magnetoencephalographers apply criteria for EEG waveforms to MEG signals based on an assumption that MEG activity should have morphology that is similar to EEG. The purpose of this paper is to show the characteristic MEG profile of Positive Occipital Sharp Transients of Sleep (POSTS) Method Simultaneous MEG-EEG recordings of two cases are shown. Result In the both cases, the morphological features of POSTS in MEG vary, and sometimes mimic epileptic spikes. Conclusion This report raises a caution that a normal variant may have an even more epileptic appearance on MEG than on EEG. Employing the simultaneously recorded EEG to avoid misinterpretation of spikey-looking POSTS in MEG is a natural and prudent practice. PMID:23733086

  10. Correlation Between Fetal Activity and the Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Akashi; Minamide, Etsuko

    1984-01-01

    A total of 14 women recorded fetal movements during one week of their pregnancies, and Brazelton Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale exams were performed on the infants during their first week of life. Correlations were computed between fetal activity and neonatal behavior. (Author/RH)

  11. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  13. Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-18

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

  14. Schizotypal Perceptual Aberrations of Time: Correlation between Score, Behavior and Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances – including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:21267456

  15. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprises at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  16. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprising at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  17. PLAP-1/Asporin Positively Regulates FGF-2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Awata, T; Yamada, S; Tsushima, K; Sakashita, H; Yamaba, S; Kajikawa, T; Yamashita, M; Takedachi, M; Yanagita, M; Kitamura, M; Murakami, S

    2015-10-01

    PLAP-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that is predominantly expressed in the periodontal ligament within periodontal tissue. It was previously revealed that PLAP-1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein 2 and transforming growth factor β activity through direct interactions. However, the interaction between PLAP-1 and other growth factors has not been defined. Here, we revealed that PLAP-1 positively regulates the activity of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), a critical growth factor in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this study, we isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Plap-1(-/-) mice generated in our laboratory. Interestingly, Plap-1(-/-) MEFs exhibited enhanced responses to bone morphogenetic protein 2 but defective responses to FGF-2, and Plap-1 transfection into Plap-1(-/-) MEFs rescued these defective responses. In addition, binding assays revealed that PLAP-1 promotes FGF-2-FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) complex formation by direct binding to FGF-2. Immunocytochemistry analyses revealed colocalization of PLAP-1 and FGF-2 in wild-type MEFs and reduced colocalization of FGF-2 and FGFR1 in Plap-1(-/-) MEFs compared with wild-type MEFs. Taken together, PLAP-1 positively regulates FGF-2 activity through a direct interaction. Extracellular matrix-growth factor interactions have considerable effects; thus, this approach may be useful in several regenerative medicine applications.

  18. Positive correlation between genetic diversity and fitness in a large, well-connected metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Vandewoestijne, Sofie; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Baguette, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background Theory predicts that lower dispersal, and associated gene flow, leads to decreased genetic diversity in small isolated populations, which generates adverse consequences for fitness, and subsequently for demography. Here we report for the first time this effect in a well-connected natural butterfly metapopulation with high population densities at the edge of its distribution range. Results We demonstrate that: (1) lower genetic diversity was coupled to a sharp decrease in adult lifetime expectancy, a key component of individual fitness; (2) genetic diversity was positively correlated to the number of dispersing individuals (indicative of landscape functional connectivity) and adult population size; (3) parameters inferred from capture-recapture procedures (population size and dispersal events between patches) correlated much better with genetic diversity than estimates usually used as surrogates for population size (patch area and descriptors of habitat quality) and dispersal (structural connectivity index). Conclusion Our results suggest that dispersal is a very important factor maintaining genetic diversity. Even at a very local spatial scale in a metapopulation consisting of large high-density populations interconnected by considerable dispersal rates, genetic diversity can be decreased and directly affect the fitness of individuals. From a biodiversity conservation perspective, this study clearly shows the benefits of both in-depth demographic and genetic analyses. Accordingly, to ensure the long-term survival of populations, conservation actions should not be blindly based on patch area and structural isolation. This result may be especially pertinent for species at their range margins, particularly in this era of rapid environmental change. PMID:18986515

  19. Expression of CD44 isoforms in renal cell tumors. Positive correlation to tumor differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Terpe, H. J.; Störkel, S.; Zimmer, U.; Anquez, V.; Fischer, C.; Pantel, K.; Günthert, U.

    1996-01-01

    CD44 isoforms have been implicated in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Primary renal cell tumors (n = 100) of various histopathological differentiation and grading stages were analyzed for expression of CD44 isoforms in comparison with nonmalignant adult and fetal renal tissues. Evaluations were performed by immunohistochemistry using CD44 isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies and by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). In the nonmalignant kidney no CD44 variant isoforms were detected. There was a significant increase in expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and several variant isoforms (CD44v) in the course of tumor differentiation in clear cell carcinomas (n = 68) from stages G1 to G3 (P < 0.0001 for CD44s and isoforms containing CD44-6v, and P < 0.007 for those containing CD44-9v). Also, in chromophilic cell carcinomas (n = 13), CD44 isoform expression correlated with grading; ie, no CD44 expression was detected in G1 tumors, whereas in approximately 50% of the G2 tumors, CD44s, CD44-6v, and CD44-9v isoforms were present. Oncocytomas (n = 8), which are benign renal cell tumors, did not express CD44 isoforms, whereas invasive chromophobe cell carcinomas (n = 11) were positive for CD44s and CD44v isoforms. Transcript analyses by RT-PCR revealed that the upregulated isoforms in the carcinoma cells contained exons 8 to 10 and 3, 8 to 10 in combination from the variant region. In conclusion, expression of variant CD44 isoforms was strongly correlated with grading and appears to mediate a more aggressive phenotype to renal cell tumors. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8579108

  20. Mitral valve repair for active culture positive infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doukas, G; Oc, M; Alexiou, C; Sosnowski, A W; Samani, N J; Spyt, T J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and echocardiographic outcome after mitral valve (MV) repair for active culture positive infective MV endocarditis. Patients and methods Between 1996 and 2004, 36 patients (mean (SD) age 53 (18) years) with positive blood culture up to three weeks before surgery (or positive culture of material removed at operation) and intraoperative evidence of endocarditis underwent MV repair. Staphylococci and streptococci were the most common pathogens. All patients had moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 2.3 (1.0). Follow up was complete (mean 38 (19) months). Results Operative mortality was 2.8% (one patient). At follow up, endocarditis has not recurred. One patient developed severe recurrent MR and underwent valve replacement and one patient had moderate MR. There were two late deaths, both non‐cardiac. Kaplan‐Meier five year freedom from recurrent moderate to severe MR, freedom from repeat operation, and survival were 94 (4)%, 97 (3)%, and 93 (5)%, respectively. At the most recent review the mean NYHA class was 1.17 (0.3) (p < 0.0001). At the latest echocardiographic evaluation, left atrial diameters, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and MV diameter were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with preoperative values. Conclusions MV repair for active culture positive endocarditis is associated with low operative mortality and provides satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection, freedom from repeat operation, and survival. Hence, every effort should be made to repair infected MVs and valves should be replaced only when repair is not possible. PMID:15951395

  1. Mitochondrial Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) Is Present in Human Serum and Is Positively Correlated with HDL-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Genoux, Annelise; Pons, Véronique; Radojkovic, Claudia; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Combes, Guillaume; Rolland, Corinne; Malet, Nicole; Monsarrat, Bernard; Lopez, Frédéric; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial ATP synthase is expressed as a plasma membrane receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). On hepatocytes, apoA-I binds to cell surface ATP synthase (namely ecto-F1-ATPase) and stimulates its ATPase activity, generating extracellular ADP. This production of extracellular ADP activates a P2Y13-mediated HDL endocytosis pathway. Conversely, exogenous IF1, classically known as a natural mitochondrial specific inhibitor of F1-ATPase activity, inhibits ecto-F1-ATPase activity and decreases HDL endocytosis by both human hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. Methodology/Principal Findings Since recent reports also described the presence of IF1 at the plasma membrane of different cell types, we investigated whether IF1 is present in the systemic circulation in humans. We first unambiguously detected IF1 in human serum by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. We then set up a competitive ELISA assay in order to quantify its level in human serum. Analyses of IF1 levels in 100 normolipemic male subjects evidenced a normal distribution, with a median value of 0.49 µg/mL and a 95% confidence interval of 0.22–0.82 µg/mL. Correlations between IF1 levels and serum lipid levels demonstrated that serum IF1 levels are positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and negatively with triglycerides (TG). Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data support the view that, in humans, circulating IF1 might affect HDL levels by inhibiting hepatic HDL uptake and also impact TG metabolism. PMID:21935367

  2. Abdominopelvic hemorrhage: correlation of CT positivity with the subsequent decision to perform blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Chong, Suzanne T; Ellis, James H; Cohan, Richard H; Knoepp, Ursula S; Langley, Travis J; Lau, Darryl; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of computed tomography (CT) on the decision to administer blood transfusions in patients with abdominopelvic hemorrhage (trauma, surgery, invasive procedure, and spontaneous) and to determine the clinical parameters most likely to influence the decision to administer blood transfusions in patients with spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage. In this IRB approved and HIPPA compliant study, retrospective analysis was performed on 298 patients undergoing abdominal and pelvic CT for suspected abdominopelvic hemorrhage and the CT reports and electronic medical records were reviewed. Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated to compare the odds of abdominopelvic hemorrhage and transfusion for categorical and continuous predictors. The presence of abdominopelvic hemorrhage by CT was significantly associated with blood transfusions for trauma patients (p-value <0.0001) only. 106 patients with suspected spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage had the lowest CT positivity rate (n = 23, 21.7%) but the highest blood transfusion rate (n = 62, 58.5%) compared to the patients with abdominopelvic hemorrhage from known preceding causes. In patients with spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage, low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels immediately prior to obtaining the CT study were more predictive for receiving a blood transfusion (p-value <0.0001) than the presence of hemorrhage by CT. CT positivity is strongly correlated with the decision to administer blood transfusions for patients with abdominopelvic hemorrhage from trauma, indicating that CT studies play a significant role in determining the clinical management of trauma patients. For patients with spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage, the decision to transfuse depends not on the CT study but on the patient's hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. CT studies should therefore not be performed for the sole purpose of determining the need for blood transfusion in patients with spontaneous

  3. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. Methods A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants’ exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Results Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (p < .05) associated with methamphetamine use in adulthood, difficulties with mood, and with symptoms of trauma. Results of a hierarchical regression equation found that report of bullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. Conclusions The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV-positive

  4. Increasing Specificity of Correlate Research: Exploring Correlates of Children’s Lunchtime and After-School Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Rebecca M.; Ridley, Kate; Olds, Timothy S.; Dollman, James

    2014-01-01

    Background The lunchtime and after-school contexts are critical windows in a school day for children to be physically active. While numerous studies have investigated correlates of children’s habitual physical activity, few have explored correlates of physical activity occurring at lunchtime and after-school from a social-ecological perspective. Exploring correlates that influence physical activity occurring in specific contexts can potentially improve the prediction and understanding of physical activity. Using a context-specific approach, this study investigated correlates of children’s lunchtime and after-school physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 423 South Australian children aged 10.0–13.9 years (200 boys; 223 girls) attending 10 different schools. Lunchtime and after-school physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Correlates were assessed using purposely developed context-specific questionnaires. Correlated Component Regression analysis was conducted to derive correlates of context-specific physical activity and determine the variance explained by prediction equations. Results The model of boys’ lunchtime physical activity contained 6 correlates and explained 25% of the variance. For girls, the model explained 17% variance from 9 correlates. Enjoyment of walking during lunchtime was the strongest correlate for both boys and girls. Boys’ and girls’ after-school physical activity models explained 20% variance from 14 correlates and 7% variance from the single item correlate, “I do an organised sport or activity after-school because it gets you fit”, respectively. Conclusions Increasing specificity of correlate research has enabled the identification of unique features of, and a more in-depth interpretation of, lunchtime and after-school physical activity behaviour and is a potential strategy for advancing the physical activity correlate research field. The findings of this study could be used to inform

  5. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy.

  6. Basal metabolic rate is positively correlated with parental investment in laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K.; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation capacity (AC) hypothesis for the evolution of endothermy predicts that the maternal basal metabolic rate (BMR) should be positively correlated with the capacity for parental investment. In this study, we provide a unique test of the AC model based on mice from a long-term selection experiment designed to produce divergent levels of BMR. By constructing experimental families with cross-fostered litters, we were able to control for the effect of the mother as well as the type of pup based on the selected lines. We found that mothers with genetically determined high levels of BMR were characterized by higher parental investment capacity, measured as the offspring growth rate. We also found higher food consumption and heavier visceral organs in the females with high BMR. These findings suggested that the high-BMR females have higher energy acquisition abilities. When the effect of the line type of a foster mother was controlled, the pup line type significantly affected the growth rate only in the first week of life, with young from the high-BMR line type growing more rapidly. Our results support the predictions of the AC model. PMID:23282996

  7. Positive Carotenoid Balance Correlates with Greater Reproductive Performance in a Wild Bird

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Rebecca J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Wilkins, Matthew R.; Hubbard, Joanna K.; Marling, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids can confer somatic and reproductive benefits, but most evidence is from captive animal experimentation or single time-point sampling. Another perhaps more informative means by which to assess physiological contributions to animal performance is by tracking an individual's ability to increase or sustain carotenoids or other health-related molecules over time, as these are likely to be temporally variable. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study of North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster), we analyzed within-individual changes in carotenoid concentrations by repeatedly sampling the carotenoid profiles of individuals over the course of the breeding season. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid concentrations of individuals are temporally dynamic and that season-long balance of these molecules, rather than single time-point samples, predict reproductive performance. This was true even when controlling for two important variables associated with reproductive outcomes: (1) timing of breeding and (2) sexually selected plumage coloration, which is itself positively correlated with and concomitantly changes with circulating carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions/Significance While reproduction itself is purported to impose health stress on organisms, these data suggest that free-ranging, high-quality individuals can mitigate such costs, by one or several genetic, environmental (diet), or physiological mechanisms. Moreover, the temporal variations in both health-linked physiological measures and morphological traits we uncover here merit further examination in other species, especially when goals include the estimation of signal information content or the costs of trait expression. PMID:20195540

  8. The diversity and abundance of bacteria inhabiting seafloor lavas positively correlate with rock alteration.

    PubMed

    Santelli, Cara M; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J

    2009-01-01

    Young, basaltic ocean crust exposed near mid-ocean ridge spreading centers present a spatially extensive environment that may be exploited by epi- and endolithic microbes in the deep sea. Geochemical energy released during basalt alteration reactions can theoretically support chemosynthesis, contributing to a trophic base for the ocean crust biome. To examine associations between endolithic microorganisms and basalt alteration processes, we compare the phylogenetic diversity, abundance and community structure of bacteria existing in several young, seafloor lavas from the East Pacific Rise at approximately 9 degrees N that are variably affected by oxidative seawater alteration. The results of 16S rRNA gene analyses and real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements show that the abundance of prokaryotic communities, dominated by the bacterial domain, positively correlates with the extent of rock alteration--the oldest, most altered basalt harbours the greatest microbial biomass. The bacterial community overlap, structure and species richness relative to alteration state is less explicit, but broadly corresponds to sample characteristics (type of alteration products and general alteration state). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the basalt biome may contribute to the geochemical cycling of Fe, S, Mn, C and N in the deep sea.

  9. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  10. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  11. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  12. Structure-activity relationships of alkylxanthines: alkyl chain elongation at the N1- or N7-position decreases cardiotonic activity in the isolated guinea pig heart.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Ohmae, S; Kurita, M; Sawanishi, H; Takagi, K; Miyamoto, K

    1995-10-01

    Relationships between the alkyl substitutions (C1-C6) and cardiac inotropic activities of xanthine derivatives were studied in isolated guinea pig heart muscles. Most of the alkylxanthines exhibited positive inotropic activity on the left atrium, which was increased with an elongation of alkyl chain at the N3-position but decreased by substitution of a long alkyl group at the N1- or N7-position of the xanthine skeleton. Although positive inotropic activity in the right ventricular papillary muscle was also increased by longer alkyl groups at the N3-position, the inotropic activity became negative with an increment in alkyl chain length at the N1- or N7-position. The positive inotropic activity of alkylxanthines was correlated with their inhibitory activity on the phosphodiesterase (PDE) III isoenzyme. Adenosine A1 antagonism and PDE IV inhibitory activity were also partly associated with the inotropic activity because H-89, an inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, diminished the positive inotropic action and potentiated the negative inotropic action. These results indicate that the positive inotropic activity of alkylxanthines becomes weak with elongation of alkyl chains at the N1- and N7-positions; In particular, xanthines having two long alkyl chains show a negative inotropic activity on the right ventricular papillary muscle, an effect that could not be elucidated from their cyclic AMP-dependent action.

  13. Direct evidence that PKCα positively regulates wound re-epithelialization: correlation with changes in desmosomal adhesiveness.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Helen A; Cooper, Nichola H; Ansell, David M; Chiu, Maybo; Merrit, Anita J; Hardman, Matthew J; Garrod, David R

    2012-07-01

    Non-healing wounds cause considerable patient morbidity and represent a significant economic burden. Central to wound repair is re-epithelialization, a crucial process involving the modulation of cell adhesion to allow keratinocyte migration to cover the exposed underlying tissues. The cellular mechanisms regulating the earliest stages of re-epithelialization are unclear. We present the first direct evidence that protein kinase Cα (PKCα) plays an important role in regulating wound re-epithelialization. In PKCα(-/-) mice re-epithelialization is delayed, while in novel bitransgenic mice over-expressing constitutively active PKCα it is accelerated. These effects are not due to changes in keratinocyte proliferation, apoptosis or intrinsic cell motility. Instead, they correlate with changes in desmosomal adhesiveness, delay being preceded by retained desmosomal hyper-adhesiveness and acceleration with a rapid switch to desmosomal Ca(2+) -dependence. We demonstrate mechanistic conservation in acute human wounds where PKCα localizes to wound edge desmosomes, which become Ca(2+) -dependent. However, in chronic wounds PKCα remains cytoplasmic and desmosomes fail to switch from the hyper-adhesive state. These results throw new mechanistic light on the earliest stages of wound re-epithelialization and suggest activation of PKCα as a new therapeutic strategy for non-healing wounds.

  14. Prediction of Spatiotemporal Patterns of Neural Activity from Pairwise Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Marre, O.; El Boustani, S.; Fregnac, Y.; Destexhe, A.

    2009-04-03

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatiotemporal patterns significantly better than Ising models only based on spatial correlations. This increase of predictability was also observed on experimental data recorded in parietal cortex during slow-wave sleep. This approach can also be used to generate surrogates that reproduce the spatial and temporal correlations of a given data set.

  15. CpG methylation at GATA elements in the regulatory region of CCR3 positively correlates with CCR3 transcription.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Tae Gi; Lee, Seol Kyung; Kim, Byung Soo; Kang, Jin Hyun; Park, Choon Sik; Rhim, Tai Youn; Chang, Hun Soo; Kim, Do Jin; Chung, Il Yup

    2012-04-30

    DNA methylation may regulate gene expression by restricting the access of transcription factors. We have previously demonstrated that GATA-1 regulates the transcription of the CCR3 gene by dynamically interacting with both positively and negatively acting GATA elements of high affinity binding in the proximal promoter region including exon 1. Exon 1 has three CpG sites, two of which are positioned at the negatively acting GATA elements. We hypothesized that the methylation of these two CpGs sites might preclude GATA-1 binding to the negatively acting GATA elements and, as a result, increase the availability of GATA-1 to the positively acting GATA element, thereby contributing to an increase in GATA-1-mediated transcription of the gene. To this end, we determined the methylation of the three CpG sites by bisulfate pyrosequencing in peripheral blood eosinophils, cord blood (CB)-derived eosinophils, PBMCs, and cell lines that vary in CCR3 mRNA expression. Our results demonstrated that methylation of CpG sites at the negatively acting GATA elements severely reduced GATA-1 binding and augmented transcription activity in vitro. In agreement, methylation of these CpG sites positively correlated with CCR3 mRNA expression in the primary cells and cell lines examined. Interestingly, methylation patterns of these three CpG sites in CB-derived eosinophils mostly resembled those in peripheral blood eosinophils. These results suggest that methylation of CpG sites at the GATA elements in the regulatory regions fine-tunes CCR3 transcription.

  16. Are the correlates of active school transport context-specific?

    PubMed Central

    Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research consistently indicates that children who engage in active school transport (AST) are more active than their peers who use motorized modes (car or bus). However, studies of the correlates of AST have been conducted predominantly in high-income countries and have yielded mixed findings. Using data from a heterogeneous sample of 12 country sites across the world, we investigated the correlates of AST in 9–11-year olds. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised 6555 children (53.8% girls), who reported their main travel mode to school and the duration of their school trip. Potential individual and neighborhood correlates of AST were assessed with a parent questionnaire adapted from previously validated instruments. Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood variables and the odds of engaging in AST while controlling for the child's school. Site moderated the relationship of seven of these variables with AST; therefore we present analyses stratified by site. RESULTS: The prevalence of AST varied from 5.2 to 79.4% across sites and the school-level intra-class correlation ranged from 0.00 to 0.56. For each site, the final GLMM included a different set of correlates of AST. Longer trip duration (that is, ⩾16 min versus ⩽15 min) was associated with lower odds of AST in eight sites. Other individual and neighborhood factors were associated with AST in three sites or less. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate wide variability in the prevalence and correlates of AST in a large sample of children from twelve geographically, economically and culturally diverse country sites. This suggests that AST interventions should not adopt a ‘one size fits all' approach. Future research should also explore the association between psychosocial factors and AST in different countries. PMID:27152191

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma oxytocin concentrations are positively correlated and negatively predict anxiety in children.

    PubMed

    Carson, D S; Berquist, S W; Trujillo, T H; Garner, J P; Hannah, S L; Hyde, S A; Sumiyoshi, R D; Jackson, L P; Moss, J K; Strehlow, M C; Cheshier, S H; Partap, S; Hardan, A Y; Parker, K J

    2015-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) exerts anxiolytic and prosocial effects in the central nervous system of rodents. A number of recent studies have attempted to translate these findings by investigating the relationships between peripheral (e.g., blood, urinary and salivary) OXT concentrations and behavioral functioning in humans. Although peripheral samples are easy to obtain in humans, whether peripheral OXT measures are functionally related to central OXT activity remains unclear. To investigate a possible relationship, we quantified OXT concentrations in concomitantly collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples from child and adult patients undergoing clinically indicated lumbar punctures or other CSF-related procedures. Anxiety scores were obtained in a subset of child participants whose parents completed psychometric assessments. Findings from this study indicate that plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively predict CSF OXT concentrations (r=0.56, P=0.0064, N=27). Moreover, both plasma (r=-0.92, P=0.0262, N=10) and CSF (r=-0.91, P=0.0335, N=10) OXT concentrations significantly and negatively predicted trait anxiety scores, consistent with the preclinical literature. Importantly, plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively (r=0.96, P=0.0115, N=10) predicted CSF OXT concentrations in the subset of child participants who provided behavioral data. This study provides the first empirical support for the use of blood measures of OXT as a surrogate for central OXT activity, validated in the context of behavioral functioning. These preliminary findings also suggest that impaired OXT signaling may be a biomarker of anxiety in humans, and a potential target for therapeutic development in individuals with anxiety disorders.

  18. [Correlation of brain electrical activity and motivation in healthy people].

    PubMed

    Bogovin, L V; Nakhamchen, D L; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Iu M

    2014-01-01

    Motivation dominates in the structure of the personality and is one of the basic notions which explains the dynamics of the behavior. The literature has little data about neurophysiology of motivation. The aim of the research was to study the correlation between the motivational sphere and electrical activity of the brain at the influence of different provocations. 24 healthy people at the age of 26-36 years were examined. The results of motivation tests turned out to be uniform (the motivation to success was of a moderate or high level, there were mean values of readiness to risk and low motivation to achievement and approval). Multiple correlations between different types of motivation and electrical activity of the brain at rest, at hyperventilation with room temperature air and at isocapnic cold air hyperventilation were revealed.

  19. Correlation of stress and muscle activity of patients with different degrees of temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Caria, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Gomes, Cid Andre Fidelis de Paula; Berzin, Fausto; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Temporomandibular disorder is one of the many different adverse health conditions that can be triggered by stress. Therefore, a biopsychosocial model has been proposed to characterize the multifactorial nature of temporomandibular disorder. The aim of the present study was investigate the correlation of salivary cortisol levels with the activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles of patients with different degrees of temporomandibular disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-nine women between 18 and 40 years of age with a diagnosis of myogenous temporomandibular disorder based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders were evaluated using the Fonseca Index to determine the degree of the disorder. Salivary cortisol levels were determined and surface electromyography was used to evaluate electrical activity in the masticatory muscles. [Results] Positive correlations were found among the degree of temporomandibular disorder, electromyographic activity and salivary cortisol: as women with more severe temporomandibular disorder had greater electrical activity in the muscles analyzed, especially the anterior temporal muscle, and higher levels of cortisol. [Conclusion] Muscle activity was greater among individuals with severe temporomandibular disorder and positive correlations were found among electromyographic activity, salivary cortisol and the degree of temporomandibular disorder severity. PMID:25995595

  20. Diffusional correlations among multiple active sites in a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Carlos; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-04-07

    Simulations of the enzymatic dynamics of a model enzyme containing multiple substrate binding sites indicate the existence of diffusional correlations in the chemical reactivity of the active sites. A coarse-grain, particle-based, mesoscopic description of the system, comprising the enzyme, the substrate, the product and solvent, is constructed to study these effects. The reactive and non-reactive dynamics is followed using a hybrid scheme that combines molecular dynamics for the enzyme, substrate and product molecules with multiparticle collision dynamics for the solvent. It is found that the reactivity of an individual active site in the multiple-active-site enzyme is reduced substantially, and this effect is analyzed and attributed to diffusive competition for the substrate among the different active sites in the enzyme.

  1. Formation and positioning of nucleosomes: Effect of sequence-dependent long-range correlated structural disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillant, C.; Audit, B.; Thermes, C.; Arnéodo, A.

    2006-03-01

    The understanding of the long-range correlations (LRC) observed in DNA sequences is still an open and very challenging problem. In this paper, we start reviewing recent results obtained when exploring the scaling properties of eucaryotic, eubacterial and archaeal genomic sequences using the space-scale decomposition provided by the wavelet transform (WT). These results suggest that the existence of LRC up to distances ˜ 20-30kbp is the signature of the nucleosomal structure and dynamics of the chromatin fiber. Actually the LRC are mainly observed in the DNA bending profiles obtained when using some structural coding of the DNA sequences that accounts for the fluctuations of the local double-helix curvature within the nucleosome complex. Because of the approximate planarity of nucleosomal DNA loops, we then study the influence of the LRC structural disorder on the thermodynamical properties of 2D elastic chains submitted locally to mechanical/topological constraint as loops. The equilibrium properties of the one-loop system are derived numerically and analytically in the quite realistic weak-disorder limit. The LRC are shown to favor the spontaneous formation of small loops, the larger the LRC, the smaller the size of the loop. We further investigate the dynamical behavior of such a loop using the mean first passage time (MFPT) formalism. We show that the typical short-time loop dynamics is superdiffusive in the presence of LRC. For displacements larger than the loop size, we use large-deviation theory to derive a LRC-dependent anomalous-diffusion rule that accounts for the lack of disorder self-averaging. Potential biological implications on DNA loops involved in nucleosome positioning and dynamics in eucaryotic chromatin are discussed.

  2. The presence of the glycolysis operon in SAR11 genomes is positively correlated with ocean productivity.

    PubMed

    Schwalbach, M S; Tripp, H J; Steindler, L; Smith, D P; Giovannoni, S J

    2010-02-01

    Bacteria in the SAR11 clade are highly abundant in marine surface waters, but currently little is known about the carbon compounds that support these large heterotrophic populations. To better understand the carbon requirements of these organisms, we conducted a multiphasic exploration of carbohydrate utilization among SAR11 isolates from the Northeast Pacific Ocean and the Sargasso Sea. A comparison of three SAR11 genomes showed they all lacked a recognizable PTS system, the oxidative portion of the pentose phosphate shunt (zwf-, pgl-), genes for the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (pfk-, pyk-) and Entner-Doudoroff (eda-) pathways of glycolysis. Strain HTCC7211, isolated from an ocean gyre, was missing other glycolysis genes as well. Growth assays, radioisotopes, metagenomics and microarrays were used to test the hypothesis that these isolates might be limited in their abilities to transport and oxidize exogenous carbohydrates. Galactose, fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, ribose and mannose could not serve as carbon sources for the isolates tested. However, differences in glucose utilization were detected between coastal and ocean gyre isolates, with the coastal isolates capable of transporting, incorporating and oxidizing glucose while the open ocean isolate could not. Subsequent microarray analysis of a coastal isolate suggested that an operon encoding a variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway is likely responsible for the observed differences in glucose utilization. Metagenomic analysis indicated this operon is more commonly found in coastal environments and is positively correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations. Our results indicated that glycolysis is a variable metabolic property of SAR11 metabolism and suggest that glycolytic SAR11 are more common in productive marine environments.

  3. A positive correlation between bacterial autoaggregation and biofilm formation in native Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sorroche, Fernando G; Spesia, Mariana B; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Giordano, Walter

    2012-06-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodule formation on roots of alfalfa plants. S. meliloti produces two exopolysaccharides (EPSs), termed EPS I and EPS II, that are both able to promote symbiosis. EPS I and EPS II are secreted in two major fractions that reflect differing degrees of subunit polymerization, designated high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. We reported previously that EPSs are crucial for autoaggregation and biofilm formation in S. meliloti reference strains and isogenic mutants. However, the previous observations were obtained by use of "domesticated" laboratory strains, with mutations resulting from successive passages under unnatural conditions, as has been documented for reference strain Rm1021. In the present study, we analyzed the autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities of native S. meliloti strains isolated from root nodules of alfalfa plants grown in four regions of Argentina. 16S rRNA gene analysis of all the native isolates revealed a high degree of identity with reference S. meliloti strains. PCR analysis of the expR gene of all the isolates showed that, as in the case of reference strain Rm8530, this gene is not interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) element. A positive correlation was found between autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities in these rhizobia, indicating that both processes depend on the same physical adhesive forces. Extracellular complementation experiments using mutants of the native strains showed that autoaggregation was dependent on EPS II production. Our results indicate that a functional EPS II synthetic pathway and its proper regulation are essential for cell-cell interactions and surface attachment of S. meliloti.

  4. Cord Blood Irisin Levels are Positively Correlated with Birth Weight in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung Eun; Park, Kyung-Hee; Filippiaos, Andreas; Dincer, Fadime; Christou, Helen; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Irisin is a novel myokine, secreted from skeletal muscle after exercise. Irisin mediates exercise-related energy expenditure by turning white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT). Thus, irisin is considered as a potential biomarker for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome. However, the physiologic role of irisin in neonates remains to be studied. Objective To evaluate the association of umbilical cord blood irisin levels with gestational age and birth weight categories in neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study of 341 newborns, from 26 to 41 weeks' gestation. We collected umbilical cord blood and analyzed plasma for irisin by ELISA. Results Plasma irisin levels were positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.21, p<0.001), and birth weight Z-score (r=0.18, p<0.001). SGA infants had significantly lower irisin (median [interquartile range] 55.38 [46.56 - 65.72] ng/mL) compared to appropriate for gestational age infants (64.41 [53.87 - 76.76] ng/mL) and large for gestational age infants (68.70 [54.78 - 79.09] ng/mL, p<0.01). The association between SGA and lower irisin remained significant in multivariate analysis independent of gestational age, maternal age, maternal BMI, and gestational diabetes (p=0.03). In singleton infants, irisin was also significantly negatively associated with maternal preeclampsia (p=0.01). Conclusions Our results support the notion that irisin may have a physiologic role in neonates. We speculate that decreased levels of irisin in SGA infants may contribute to the development of catch up growth and metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26303870

  5. A Positive Correlation between Bacterial Autoaggregation and Biofilm Formation in Native Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sorroche, Fernando G.; Spesia, Mariana B.; Zorreguieta, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodule formation on roots of alfalfa plants. S. meliloti produces two exopolysaccharides (EPSs), termed EPS I and EPS II, that are both able to promote symbiosis. EPS I and EPS II are secreted in two major fractions that reflect differing degrees of subunit polymerization, designated high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. We reported previously that EPSs are crucial for autoaggregation and biofilm formation in S. meliloti reference strains and isogenic mutants. However, the previous observations were obtained by use of “domesticated” laboratory strains, with mutations resulting from successive passages under unnatural conditions, as has been documented for reference strain Rm1021. In the present study, we analyzed the autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities of native S. meliloti strains isolated from root nodules of alfalfa plants grown in four regions of Argentina. 16S rRNA gene analysis of all the native isolates revealed a high degree of identity with reference S. meliloti strains. PCR analysis of the expR gene of all the isolates showed that, as in the case of reference strain Rm8530, this gene is not interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) element. A positive correlation was found between autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities in these rhizobia, indicating that both processes depend on the same physical adhesive forces. Extracellular complementation experiments using mutants of the native strains showed that autoaggregation was dependent on EPS II production. Our results indicate that a functional EPS II synthetic pathway and its proper regulation are essential for cell-cell interactions and surface attachment of S. meliloti. PMID:22492433

  6. Physical Activity Measured by Physical Activity Monitoring System Correlates with Glucose Trends Reconstructed from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zecchin, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Dalla Man, Chiara; Manohar, Chinmay; Levine, James A.; Basu, Ananda; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked using, for example, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, have been barely explored. Subjects and Methods In the clinic, 20 control and 19 T1DM subjects were studied for 4 consecutive days. They underwent low-intensity PA sessions daily. PA was tracked by the PA monitoring system (PAMS), a system comprising accelerometers and inclinometers. Variations on glucose dynamics were tracked estimating first- and second-order time derivatives of glucose concentration from CGM via Bayesian smoothing. Short-time effects of PA on glucose dynamics were quantified through the partial correlation function in the interval (0, 60 min) after starting PA. Results Correlation of PA with glucose time derivatives is evident. In T1DM, the negative correlation with the first-order glucose time derivative is maximal (absolute value) after 15 min of PA, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 40–45 min. The negative correlation between the second-order time derivative and PA is maximal after 5 min, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 35–40 min. Control subjects provided similar results but with positive and negative correlation peaks anticipated of 5 min. Conclusions Quantitative information on correlation between mild PA and short-term glucose dynamics was obtained. This represents a preliminary important step toward incorporation of PA information in more realistic physiological models of the glucose–insulin system usable in T1DM simulators, in development of closed-loop artificial pancreas control algorithms, and in CGM-based prediction algorithms for generation of hypoglycemic alerts. PMID

  7. ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 positivity and response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Francesca; Bernasconi, Sergio; Porcu, Luca; Erba, Eugenio; Panini, Nicolò; Fruscio, Robert; Sina, Federica; Torri, Valter; Broggini, Massimo; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic/predictive role of both CD133 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression in human ovarian cancer remains elusive. This is an observational study that investigated the expression of CD133 and of ALDH enzymatic activity in fresh ovarian cancer samples and their association with different clinic-pathological patient' characteristics and explored their possible predictive/prognostic role. We analyzed the expression of CD133 and ALDH enzymatic activity in 108 human ovarian cancer samples. We found that among the total patients analyzed, 13% of them was completely negative for ALDH activity and 26% was negative for CD133 staining. Both markers were variably expressed within the samples and when both studied in the same tumor sample, no statistically significant correlation between ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 expression was found. No statistical significant correlation was found also between the percentage values of positive ALDH and CD133 cells and the number of serial passages patient's cultures underwent, suggesting that these markers do not confer by themselves a self-renewal growth advantage to the cultures. Lower levels of CD133 were associated with higher tumor grade. No correlation with response to therapy, progression free survival and overall survival was found. Our data suggest that neither ALDH enzymatic activity nor CD133 expression provide additional predictive/prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients.

  8. A CORRELATION BETWEEN STELLAR ACTIVITY AND HOT JUPITER EMISSION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, Heather A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard

    2010-09-10

    We present evidence for a correlation between the observed properties of hot Jupiter emission spectra and the activity levels of the host stars measured using Ca II H and K emission lines. We find that planets with dayside emission spectra that are well-described by standard one-dimensional atmosphere models with water in absorption (HD 189733, TrES-1, TrES-3, WASP-4) orbit chromospherically active stars, while planets with emission spectra that are consistent with the presence of a strong high-altitude temperature inversion and water in emission orbit quieter stars. We estimate that active G and K stars have Lyman {alpha} fluxes that are typically a factor of 4-7 times higher than quiet stars with analogous spectral types and propose that the increased UV flux received by planets orbiting active stars destroys the compounds responsible for the formation of the observed temperature inversions. In this paper, we also derive a model-independent method for differentiating between these two atmosphere types using the secondary eclipse depths measured in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands on the Spitzer Space Telescope and argue that the observed correlation is independent of the inverted/non-inverted paradigm for classifying hot Jupiter atmospheres.

  9. [Correlation analysis soil nutrition as sell as yield and active compounds of Coptis teeta].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang; Li, Wanyi; Wang, Yuanzhong; Zhang, Jinyu

    2011-10-01

    The correlations between soil nutrition and yield as well as active compound contents of Coptis teeta were analyzed. The contents of 13 soil factors, rhizome biomass and the content of berberine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine in rhizome of C. teeta were determined, and analyzed by factor analysis (FA) and correlation analysis (CA). FA showed that the first three factors accounted for 86.9% of the total variance. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn correlated with the first factor. The content of organic matter, N, available N, available P, and available K correlated with the second factor. CA showed that yield of C. teeta had a significant positive correlation with available P (r = 0.931) at 0.01 level, and available N (r = 0.703) at 0.05 level. The content of berberine of C. teeta had a significant positive correlation with available P (r = 0.680) at 0.05 level. The yield and berberine content of C. teeta were high in the soil with high contents of available N and available P.

  10. Socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Sarmento, Hugo; Ramos, Madalena; Diniz, José; Costa, Francisco Carreiro da

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (1,076 males, 1,383 females) were categorized into two groups according to recommended physical activities ranging from ≥ 10 or < 10 MET.hours.week-1. Leisure time physical activity data was self-reported, including activities, duration of each session and frequency. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Among men, having a high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.30-2.76; p = 0.001) was associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. For women, middle education levels were associated with physical activity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.85). Moreover, middle socioeconomic status (OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.80-1.91; p = 0.009) was also positively associated with meeting physical activities recommendations in the unadjusted analysis. Men and women had different patterns of socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of physical activity among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account.

  11. [Chronic active hepatitis: clinical, biochemical, and histopathologic correlation].

    PubMed

    Subauste, M C

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study over 26 female patients with chronic active hepatitis was made. The mean age was 39 years old, the mean length of illness of 8 months; 5 patients had positive markers for hepatitis B. Patients were selected with the grade of histological activity: 8 patients had a mild form from disease (2A) and 16 with a severe one (2B). The predominant group was 2B. Severe inflammatory infiltration was the hallmark and multiobulillar necrosis, bridging, eosinophils and hiperplasia of kuppfer cells were found only in this group. Clinical features range from hepatic manifestations to systemic ones. Chronic active hepatitis may present with cholestasis, but the latter is not always related with the grade of activity. Group 2B had elevated aminotransferases and a low concentration for protrobine.

  12. Correlated bursts of activity in the neonatal hippocampus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Leinekugel, Xavier; Khazipov, Rustem; Cannon, Robert; Hirase, Hajime; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Buzsáki, György

    2002-06-14

    The behavior of immature cortical networks in vivo remains largely unknown. Using multisite extracellular and patch-clamp recordings, we observed recurrent bursts of synchronized neuronal activity lasting 0.5 to 3 seconds that occurred spontaneously in the hippocampus of freely moving and anesthetized rat pups. The influence of slow rhythms (0.33 and 0.1 hertz) and the contribution of both gamma-aminobutyric acid A-mediated and glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic signals in the generation of hippocampal bursts was reminiscent of giant depolarizing potentials observed in vitro. This earliest pattern, which diversifies during the second postnatal week, could provide correlated activity for immature neurons and may underlie activity-dependent maturation of the hippocampal network.

  13. Correlation of irradiation data using activation fluences and irradiation temperature.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A new method of correlating radiation damage data is tested using actual measured data taken from the open literature. This method, the activation fluence method, was found to be as accurate as other contemporary models with which it was compared. The new method also has several advantages over the other methods. The method employs a new entity, the activation fluence (time-integrated specific activation rate), as the independent variables in a regression model. Temperature at which the irradiation takes place is also a variable. Although the method was tested for a specific type of damage (change in nil-ductility transition temperature for A302-B steel) it has no inherent restrictions and is limited only by the imagination of the user.

  14. COBAS® TaqMan® MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    PubMed

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: r(s) = -0.940, P < 0.001 and Pearson's correlation coefficient: r(p) = 0.737, P < 0.001). In addition, a correlation was observed between the number of bacteria estimated based on the smear positivity grade and the number of MTB bacilli calculated by the Ct value (r(s) = 0.930, P < 0.001). This study has demonstrated the possible estimation of the smear positivity grade and MGIT TTD using the Ct value of TaqMan MTB, which is based on a real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples.

  15. 'The positive feel': Unpacking the role of positive thinking in people with multiple sclerosis's thinking aloud about staying physically active.

    PubMed

    Hall-McMaster, Samuel M; Treharne, Gareth J; Smith, Catherine M

    2016-12-01

    People with multiple sclerosis experience barriers to physical activity. Thought processes are interwoven with garnering motivation to overcome these barriers. This study investigated in-depth the role of positive thinking in physical activity motivation of two women and two men with multiple sclerosis. Participants thought aloud while completing standardised measures of physical activity, stages of change and self-efficacy, and in response to planned and spontaneous questions. Four themes were formulated using inductive thematic analysis: thoughts about purpose, self-efficacy, the past and reinforcement through positive thinking. These findings have implications for physical activity theories and delivering appropriate physical activity interventions to the multiple sclerosis community.

  16. Metabolic activity of sperm cells: correlation with sperm cell concentration, viability and motility in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Gil, Sílvia; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Taberner, Ester; Piles, Miriam; Sabés, Manel; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2016-10-01

    The resazurin reduction test (RRT) is a useful technique to assess the metabolic rate of sperm cells. RRT depends on the ability of metabolically active cells to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the fluorescent resorufin. The aim of this study was to develop a vital fluorometric method to evaluate metabolic activity of rabbit sperm cells. Twenty-five rabbit males were included in the study. Viability and morphology, motility and metabolic activity were evaluated using an eosin-nigrosin staining, a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and the RRT, respectively. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between RRT and semen parameters. After evaluation, a concentration of 10 × 106 sperm cells/ml was selected for further experiments with RRT. No significant correlation was found between the RRT results and the motility parameters. However, after RRT a significant positive correlation between relative fluorescence units and the percentage of alive spermatozoa (r = 0.62; P = 0.001) and a negative one with the percentage of sperm cells with acrosomic abnormalities (r = -0.45; P < 0.05) were detected. The vital assessment of metabolic rate of sperm cells by RRT could provide more information about semen quality than other routine semen analysis, correlating with sperm viability and acrosome status information.

  17. Visualization of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) activation in living cells.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, Koh; Luo, Zeping; Schaufele, Fred; Peterlin, B Matija

    2015-01-16

    Regulation of transcription elongation by positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) plays a central role in determining the state of cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. In cells, P-TEFb exists in active and inactive forms. Its release from the inactive 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex is a critical step for P-TEFb to activate transcription elongation. However, no good method exists to analyze this P-TEFb equilibrium in living cells. Only inaccurate and labor-intensive cell-free biochemical assays are currently available. In this study, we present the first experimental system to monitor P-TEFb activation in living cells. We created a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to detect interactions between P-TEFb and its substrate, the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. When cells were treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, which releases P-TEFb from the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, they turned green. Other known P-TEFb-releasing agents, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, bromodomain and extraterminal bromodomain inhibitors, and protein kinase C agonists, also scored positive in this assay. Finally, we identified 5'-azacytidine as a new P-TEFb-releasing agent. This release of P-TEFb correlated directly with activation of human HIV and HEXIM1 transcription. Thus, our visualization of P-TEFb activation by fluorescent complementation assay could be used to find new P-TEFb-releasing agents, compare different classes of agents, and assess their efficacy singly and/or in combination.

  18. Positive correlation between replication rate and pathotype of Marek’s disease virus strains in maternal antibody negative chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathotyping of new field strains of MDV requires both a long period of time and a large number of birds. Confirming a positive correlation of virus replication and pathotype may lead to faster and cheaper alternative pathotyping methods or as a screening assay for choosing isolates to be pathotyped....

  19. Dog Walking among Adolescents: Correlates and Contribution to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the association of dog walking with adolescents’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and BMI, and identify correlates of dog walking. METHODS/DESIGN Participants were 12–17 year-olds (n=925) from the Baltimore, MD and Seattle, WA regions. Differences in accelerometer-assessed minutes/day of MVPA and self-reported BMI (percentile) were compared among adolescents (1) without a dog (n=441) and those with a dog who (2) did (≥1 days/week, n=300) or (3) did not (n=184) walk it. Correlates of (1) dog walking (any vs. none) among adolescents with dogs (n=484), and (2) days/week of dog walking among dog walkers (n=300) were investigated. Potential correlates included: demographic, psychosocial, home environment, perceived neighborhood environment, and objective neighborhood environment factors. RESULTS 52% of adolescents lived in a household with a dog, and 62% of those reported dog walking ≥1 day/week. Dog walkers had 4–5 more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog-walkers and non-dog-owners. BMI was not associated with dog walking or ownership. Among households with dogs, adolescents who lived in objectively walkable neighborhoods were 12% more likely to walk their dog than those in less walkable neighborhoods. Among dog walkers, having a multi-family home, college-educated parent, lower perceived traffic safety, higher street connectivity and less mixed use were related to more days/week of dog walking. CONCLUSIONS Dog walkers had 7–8% more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog walkers, and correlates of dog walking were found at multiple levels of influence. Results suggest multilevel interventions that include both environmental and psychosocial components to increase dog walking should be evaluated. PMID:26601644

  20. Intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants correlates positively with plant size and herbivore load but negatively with herbivore damage.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Segura, Carlos; Poelman, Erik H; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gols, Rieta

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific plant diversity can modify the properties of associated arthropod communities and plant fitness. However, it is not well understood which plant traits determine these ecological effects. We explored the effect of intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants on the associated invertebrate community and plant traits. In a common garden experiment, intraspecific diversity among neighbouring plants was manipulated using three plant populations of wild cabbage that differ in foliar glucosinolates. Plants were larger, harboured more herbivores, but were less damaged when plant diversity was increased. Glucosinolate concentration differentially correlated with generalist and specialist herbivore abundance. Glucosinolate composition correlated with plant damage, while in polycultures, variation in glucosinolate concentrations among neighbouring plants correlated positively with herbivore diversity and negatively with plant damage levels. The results suggest that intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry among neighbouring plants is important in determining the structure of the associated insect community and positively affects plant performance.

  1. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-08-28

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  2. Effects of positive mood on probabilistic learning: behavioral and electrophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Bakic, Jasmina; Jepma, Marieke; De Raedt, Rudi; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-12-01

    Whether positive mood can change reinforcement learning or not remains an open question. In this study, we used a probabilistic learning task and explored whether positive mood could alter the way positive versus negative feedback was used to guide learning. This process was characterized both at the behavioral and electro-encephalographic levels. Thirty two participants were randomly allocated either to a positive or a neutral (control) mood condition. Behavioral results showed that while learning performance was balanced between the two groups, participants in the positive mood group had a higher learning rate than participants in the neutral mood group. At the electrophysiological level, we found that positive mood increased the error-related negativity when the stimulus-response associations were deterministic, selectively (as opposed to random or probabilistic). However, it did not influence the feedback-related negativity. These new findings are discussed in terms of an enhanced internal reward prediction error signal after the induction of positive mood when the probability of getting a reward is high.

  3. Correlation between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate.

  4. Non-Stationary Effects and Cross Correlations in Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    In this paper within the framework of the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) we consider the dynamic properties of the solar activity by analyzing the Zurich sunspot numbers. As is well-known astrophysics objects are the non-stationary open systems, whose evolution are the quite individual and have the alternation effects. The main difference of FNS compared to other related methods is the separation of the original signal reflecting the dynamics of solar activity into three frequency bands: system-specific "resonances" and their interferential contributions at lower frequencies, chaotic "random walk" ("irregularity-jump") components at larger frequencies, and chaotic "irregularity-spike" (inertial) components in the highest frequency range. Specific parameters corresponding to each of the bands are introduced and calculated. These irregularities as well as specific resonance frequencies are considered as the information carriers on every hierarchical level of the evolution of a complex natural system with intermittent behavior, consecutive alternation of rapid chaotic changes in the values of dynamic variables on small time intervals with small variations of the values on longer time intervals ("laminar" phases). The jump and spike irregularities are described by power spectra and difference moments (transient structural functions) of the second order. FNS allows revealing the most crucial points of the solar activity dynamics by means of "spikiness" factor. It is shown that this variable behaves as the predictor of crucial changes of the sunspot number dynamics, particularly when the number comes up to maximum value. The change of averaging interval allows revealing the non-stationary effects depending by 11-year cycle and by inside processes in a cycle. To consider the cross correlations between the different variables of solar activity we use the Zurich sunspot numbers and the sequence of corona's radiation energy. The FNS-approach allows extracting the

  5. Immunohistochemical quantitation of oestrogen receptors and proliferative activity in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To evaluate the effect of the duration of formalin fixation and of tumour heterogeneity on quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content (oestrogen receptor index) and proliferative activity (MIB-1 index) in breast cancer. METHODS--Two monoclonal antibodies, MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor, were applied to formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from 25 prospectively collected oestrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas, using a microwave antigen retrieval method. Tumour tissue was allocated systematically to different periods of fixation to ensure minimal intraspecimen variation. The percentages of MIB-1 positive and oestrogen receptor positive nuclei were estimated in fields of vision sampled systematically from the entire specimen and from the whole tumour area of one "representative" cross-section. RESULTS--No correlation was found between the oestrogen receptor and MIB-1 indices and the duration of formalin fixation. The estimated MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor indices in tissue sampled systematically from the entire tumour were closely correlated with estimates obtained in a "representative" section. The intra- and interobserver correlation of the MIB-1 index was good, although a slight systematical error at the second assessment of the intraobserver study was noted. CONCLUSION--Quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content and proliferative activity are not significantly influenced by the period of fixation in formalin, varying from less than four hours to more than 48 hours. The MIB-1 and the oestrogen receptor indices obtained in a "representative" section do not deviate significantly from average indices determined in tissue samples from the entire tumour. Finally, the estimation of MIB-1 index is reproducible, justifying its routine use. PMID:7629289

  6. Positive holes in magnesium oxide - Correlation between magnetic, electric, and dielectric anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batllo, F.; Leroy, R. C.; Parvin, K.; Freund, F.; Freund, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The present magnetic susceptibility investigation of high purity MgO single crystals notes an anomally at 800 K which is associated with increasing electrical conductivity, a rise in static dielectric constant from 9 to 150, and the appearance of a pronounced positive surface charge. These phenomena can be accounted for in terms of peroxy defects which represent self-trapped, spin-paired positive holes at Mg(2+) vacancy sites. The holes begin to decouple their spins above 600 K.

  7. A Stromal Immune Module Correlated with the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, Prognosis and Lymphocyte Infiltration in HER2-Positive Breast Carcinoma Is Inversely Correlated with Hormonal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lae, Marick; Moarii, Matahi; Sadacca, Benjamin; Pinheiro, Alice; Galliot, Marion; Abecassis, Judith; Laurent, Cecile; Reyal, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive breast cancers, the prognosis of which has greatly improved since the introduction of treatments targeting HER2. However, these tumors may display intrinsic or acquired resistance to treatment, and classifiers of HER2-positive tumors are required to improve the prediction of prognosis and to develop novel therapeutic interventions. Methods We analyzed 2893 primary human breast cancer samples from 21 publicly available datasets and developed a six-metagene signature on a training set of 448 HER2-positive BC. We then used external public datasets to assess the ability of these metagenes to predict the response to chemotherapy (Ignatiadis dataset), and prognosis (METABRIC dataset). Results We identified a six-metagene signature (138 genes) containing metagenes enriched in different gene ontologies. The gene clusters were named as follows: Immunity, Tumor suppressors/proliferation, Interferon, Signal transduction, Hormone/survival and Matrix clusters. In all datasets, the Immunity metagene was less strongly expressed in ER-positive than in ER-negative tumors, and was inversely correlated with the Hormonal/survival metagene. Within the signature, multivariate analyses showed that strong expression of the “Immunity” metagene was associated with higher pCR rates after NAC (OR = 3.71[1.28–11.91], p = 0.019) than weak expression, and with a better prognosis in HER2-positive/ER-negative breast cancers (HR = 0.58 [0.36–0.94], p = 0.026). Immunity metagene expression was associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Conclusion The identification of a predictive and prognostic immune module in HER2-positive BC confirms the need for clinical testing for immune checkpoint modulators and vaccines for this specific subtype. The inverse correlation between Immunity and hormone pathways opens research perspectives and deserves further investigation. PMID:28005906

  8. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  9. Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Haas, Verena; Ahnis, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = -0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p < 0.01). Depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress did not correlate with kisspeptin or any other of the investigated hormones (p > 0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in

  10. Position paper - peer review and design verification of selected activities

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, M.D.

    1994-09-01

    Position Paper to develop and document a position on the performance of independent peer reviews on selected design and analysis components of the Title I (preliminary) and Title II (detailed) design phases of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility project.

  11. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD.

  12. Positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlates with the presence of somatostatin receptor subtype 2.

    PubMed Central

    John, M; Meyerhof, W; Richter, D; Waser, B; Schaer, J C; Scherübl, H; Boese-Landgraf, J; Neuhaus, P; Ziske, C; Mölling, K; Riecken, E O; Reubi, J C; Wiedenmann, B

    1996-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is positive in approximately 75% of all patients with neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours. This study aimed to identify specific somatostatin receptor (sstr) subtypes, which are responsible for the in vivo binding of the widely used somatostatin analogue, octreotide in human neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours. Twelve patients underwent SRS with radiolabelled octreotide. After surgical resection, tumour tissues were analysed in vitro for somatostatin and octreotide binding sites by autoradiography. In addition, for the first time, sstr subtype mRNA expression was examined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Tumour tissues from all SRS positive patients were positive by autoradiography. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed most prominently sstr2 expression in scintigraphically positive tumours. Two SRS negative tumours contained in vitro octreotide binding sites as well as high levels of sstr1 and sstr2 mRNAs. Positive SRS is mainly due to sstr2. sstr1, 3, 4, and probably 5 are less important for in vivo octreotide binding. False negative scintigraphic results seem to be influenced by factors independent of the expression of specific sstr. Images Figure 4 PMID:8566856

  13. Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W; Faure, Paul A; Burness, Gary; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by approximately 50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein's phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005-1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity.

  14. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear. PMID:25411452

  15. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear.

  16. Positive association between physical activity and PER3 expression in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Tahara, Yu; Aoki, Natsumi; Fukazawa, Mayuko; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Nakaoka, Takashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates many physiological functions including physical activity and feeding patterns. In addition, scheduled exercise and feeding themselves can affect the circadian clock. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical/feeding activity and expression of clock genes in hair follicle cells in older adults. Twenty adult men (age, 68 ± 7 years, mean ± SE) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to hair follicle cell collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for one week. The timings of breakfast, lunch, and dinner were also recorded. Hair follicle cells were then collected over a 24 h period at 4 h intervals. The amplitude of PER3 expression was positively correlated with moderate and vigorous physical activity (r = 0.582, p = 0.007) and peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.481, p = 0.032), but these correlations were not observed for NR1D1 or NR1D2. No association was noted between meal times and the amplitude or the acrophase for any of these three clock genes. These findings suggest that rhythmic expression of the circadian clock gene PER3 is associated with the amount of daily physical activity and physical fitness in older adults. PMID:28045078

  17. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation).

  18. Electrophysiological correlates of competitor activation predict retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-06-01

    The very act of retrieval modifies the accessibility of memory for knowledge and past events and can also cause forgetting. A prominent theory of such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) holds that retrieval recruits inhibition to overcome interference from competing memories, rendering these memories inaccessible. The present study tested a fundamental tenet of the inhibitory-control account: The competition-dependence assumption. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants engaged in a competitive retrieval task. Competition levels were manipulated within the retrieval task by varying the cue-item associative strength of competing items. In order to temporally separate ERP correlates of competitor activation and target retrieval, memory was probed with the sequential presentation of 2 cues: A category cue, to reactivate competitors, and a target cue. As predicted by the inhibitory-control account, competitors with strong compared with weak cue-competitor association were more susceptible to forgetting. Furthermore, competition-sensitive ERP modulations, elicited by the category cue, were observed over anterior regions and reflected individual differences in ensuing forgetting. The present study demonstrates ERP correlates of the reactivation of tightly bound associated memories (the competitors) and provides support for the inhibitory-control account of RIF.

  19. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism.

  20. Active-passive correlation spectroscopy - A new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    A new active-passive airborne data correlation technique has been developed which allows the validation of existing in-water oceoan color algorithms and the rapid search, identification, and evaluation of new sensor band locations and algorithm wavelength intervals. Thus far, applied only in conjunction with the spectral curvature algorithm (SCA), the active-passive correlation spectroscopy (APCS) technique shows that (1) the usual 490-nm (center-band) chlorophyll SCA could satisfactorily be placed anywhere within the nominal 460-510-nm interval, and (2) two other spectral regions, 645-660 and 680-695 nm, show considerable promise for chlorophyll pigment measurement. Additionally, the APCS method reveals potentially useful wavelength regions (at 600 and about 670 nm) of very low chlorophyll-in-water spectral curvature into which accessory pigment algorithms for phycoerythrin might be carefully positioned. In combination, the APCS and SCA methods strongly suggest that significant information content resides within the seemingly featureless ocean color spectrum.

  1. δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Stimulated in a MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease: Correlation with Myeloperoxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; Pesarico, Ana Paula; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-09-21

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an inducible heme peroxidase responsive to some stress situations. It is already known that its activity is stimulated in neurodegenerative disorders and in the animal model of parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By contrast, the role of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), an essential enzyme for heme synthesis, has not been investigated in the MPTP model. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of striatal δ-ALA-D activity in an acute model of PD, induced by MPTP, in C57Bl/6 mice and its correlation with MPO activity. Animals received four MPTP injections (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (vehicle) to induce a PD model. 7 days after MPTP administration, the motor function was evaluated through rotarod and challenging beam tests in mice. Afterward, mice were killed, and the striata were removed for biochemical analyses. MPTP-treated mice showed impairment in motor skills, such as balance and motor coordination. Furthermore, there was a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase levels in these animals, which characterizes the dopaminergic lesion. Striatal δ-ALA-D activity was stimulated by MPTP, as well as the MPO activity, and a significant positive correlation between δ-ALA-D and MPO activities was also demonstrated. These data suggest that δ-ALA-D activity could be stimulated due to the requirement of heme groups by peroxidases. Therefore, this study demonstrated for the first time the involvement of striatal δ-ALA-D activity in the MPTP model and its correlation with the MPO activity.

  2. Brain activity correlates with emotional perception induced by dynamic avatars.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Hagar; Christensen, Andrea; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A; Malach, Rafael

    2015-11-15

    An accurate judgment of the emotional state of others is a prerequisite for successful social interaction and hence survival. Thus, it is not surprising that we are highly skilled at recognizing the emotions of others. Here we aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of emotion recognition from gait. To this end we created highly controlled dynamic body-movement stimuli based on real human motion-capture data (Roether et al., 2009). These animated avatars displayed gait in four emotional (happy, angry, fearful, and sad) and speed-matched neutral styles. For each emotional gait and its equivalent neutral gait, avatars were displayed at five morphing levels between the two. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while classifying the emotions and the emotional intensity levels expressed by the avatars. Our results revealed robust brain selectivity to emotional compared to neutral gait stimuli in brain regions which are involved in emotion and biological motion processing, such as the extrastriate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the amygdala (AMG). Brain activity in the amygdala reflected emotional awareness: for visually identical stimuli it showed amplified stronger response when the stimulus was perceived as emotional. Notably, in avatars gradually morphed along an emotional expression axis there was a parametric correlation between amygdala activity and emotional intensity. This study extends the mapping of emotional decoding in the human brain to the domain of highly controlled dynamic biological motion. Our results highlight an extensive level of brain processing of emotional information related to body language, which relies mostly on body kinematics.

  3. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  4. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that “attentional” brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction—compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional

  5. Expression Divergence Is Correlated with Sequence Evolution but Not Positive Selection in Conifers.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Yeaman, Sam; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Aitken, Sally N

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary and genomic determinants of sequence evolution in conifers are poorly understood, and previous studies have found only limited evidence for positive selection. Using RNAseq data, we compared gene expression profiles to patterns of divergence and polymorphism in 44 seedlings of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and 39 seedlings of interior spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii) to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shape their genomes and their plastic responses to abiotic stress. We found that rapidly diverging genes tend to have greater expression divergence, lower expression levels, reduced levels of synonymous site diversity, and longer proteins than slowly diverging genes. Similar patterns were identified for the untranslated regions, but with some exceptions. We found evidence that genes with low expression levels had a larger fraction of nearly neutral sites, suggesting a primary role for negative selection in determining the association between evolutionary rate and expression level. There was limited evidence for differences in the rate of positive selection among genes with divergent versus conserved expression profiles and some evidence supporting relaxed selection in genes diverging in expression between the species. Finally, we identified a small number of genes that showed evidence of site-specific positive selection using divergence data alone. However, estimates of the proportion of sites fixed by positive selection (α) were in the range of other plant species with large effective population sizes suggesting relatively high rates of adaptive divergence among conifers.

  6. Stressful life events and psychosocial correlates of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, George; Chouliaras, George; Margoni, Daphne; Korlou, Sophia; Hantzara, Vassiliki; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Liakopoulou, Magda; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of psychiatric and psychosocial correlates with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity in children and adolescents. METHODS A total of 85 pediatric IBD patients (in remission or active state of the disease) and their parents completed a series of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews measuring life events, depression, anxiety, family dysfunction, and parent mental health. Differences between the remission and the IBD active group and the association of any significant variable with the disease activity state were examined. RESULTS Parents of children being in active state of the disease reported more life events (P = 0.005) and stressful life events (P = 0.048) during the past year and more mental health symptoms (P < 0.001), while the children themselves reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms (P = 0.017) compared to the remission group. In the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the only predictor which had a significant positive effect on the probability of the patients being in active state was parent mental health symptoms (OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2-25.8). CONCLUSION Life events, child anxiety and parent mental health symptoms may be important correlates of pediatric IBD activity and targets of thorough assessment and treatment. PMID:27679771

  7. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, J; Czarnoleski, M; François-Krassowska, A; Maciak, S; Pis, T

    2010-12-23

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes, and in mammals only with the sizes of some cell types. Size of mammalian erythrocytes correlated with body mass only within the most taxonomically uniform group of species (rodents and lagomorphs). Cell volume increased with body mass of birds and mammals to less than 0.3 power, indicating that body size evolved mostly by changes in cell number. Our evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms determining cell size relationships in tissues are conservative in birds and amphibians, but less stringent in mammals. The patterns of cell size to body mass relationships we obtained challenge some key assumptions of fractal and cellular models used by allometric theory to explain mass-scaling of metabolism. We suggest that the assumptions in both models are not universal, and that such models need reformulation.

  8. Aging-Related Correlation between Serum Sirtuin 1 Activities and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women, but not in Men

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT) is a main regulator of metabolism and lifespan, and its importance has been implicated in the prevention against aging-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of serum SIRT1 activity according to age and sex, and to investigate how serum SIRT1 activity is correlated with other metabolic parameters in Korean adults. The Biobank of Jeju National University Hospital, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, provided serum samples from 250 healthy adults. Aging- and metabolism-related factors were analyzed in serum, and the data were compared by the stratification of age and sex. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased with age and was significantly lower in men in their fifties and older and in women in their forties and older compared with twenties in men and women, respectively. SIRT1 activities were altered by age and sex. Especially, women in their thirties showed the highest SIRT1 activities. Correlation analysis displayed that SIRT1 activity is positively correlated with serum triglyceride (TG) in men, and with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum TG in women. And, SIRT1 activity was negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in women (r = −0.183, p = 0.039). Positive correlation was observed between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women (r = 0.222, p = 0.027), but not in men. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that serum SIRT1 activities may be utilized as a biomarker of aging. In addition, positive correlation between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women suggests that serum SIRT1 activity may reflect energy expenditure well in human. PMID:28168178

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine and the positive correlation with homeostatic evolution of human being: based on medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2012-08-01

    Adaptation is an eternal theme of biological evolution. The paper aims at exploring the conception of positive correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and human homeostatic evolution based on medical perspective. Discussions mainly involve TCM conforming to natural laws and natural evolution of life, spontaneous harmonization of yin and yang and operating system of human self-healing, modern human immunology and human endogenous immune function in TCM, self-homeostasis of human micro-ecological state and balance mechanism on regulating base in TCM, as well as adaptation-eternal theme of biological evolution and safeguarding adaptability-value of TCM. In perspective of medicine, theory and practice of TCM are in positive correlation with human homeostatic evolution, and what TCM tries to maintain is human intrinsic adaptive capability to disease and nature. Therefore, it is the core value of TCM, which is to be further studied, explored, realized and known to the world.

  10. Primary and multisensory cortical activity is correlated with audiovisual percepts.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Stufflebeam, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion.

  11. Plasma sE-selectin level is positively correlated with neutrophil count and diastolic blood pressure in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Inoue, Seiya; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Shimada, Masaya; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of circulating soluble type of E-selectin (sE-selectin), neutrophil counts and blood pressure are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health check-ups, and selected those who were not diagnosed with or being treated for metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and lipid abnormality according to the health check-ups. We measured their basic clinical parameters including blood pressure and neutrophil count, plasma sE-selectin concentration and lifestyle factors, and assessed their interrelations by multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis. A total of 351 subjects aged 47.5±8.41 (range, 30-64) y were recruited. Significantly correlated with sE-selectin concentration were neutrophil count, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.194, 0.220 and 0.175, respectively). MLR analysis showed that sE-selectin concentration was independently positively related with DBP and neutrophil count, whereas neutrophil count was positively associated with sE-selectin concentration but not DBP. DBP, but not SBP, was independently positively correlated with sE-selectin concentration but not neutrophil count. These results indicate that circulating sE-selectin concentration may be a biomarker for indicating subsequent development of metabolic diseases, in particular CVD, from a healthy state.

  12. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence in HIV-positive women engaged in transactional sex in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate S; Deya, Ruth; Masese, Linnet; Simoni, Jane M; Stoep, Ann Vander; Shafi, Juma; Jaoko, Walter; Hughes, James P; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-11-01

    SummaryWe evaluated the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year by a regular male partner in HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya. This cross-sectional study included HIV-positive women ≥18 years old who reported engagement in transactional sex at the time of enrolment in the parent cohort. We asked 13 questions adapted from the World Health Organization survey on violence against women about physical, sexual, or emotional violence in the past year by the current or most recent emotional partner (index partner). We used standardised instruments to assess socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics as possible correlates of IPV. Associations between IPV and these correlates were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 286/357 women (80.4%) had an index partner, and 52/357 (14.6%, 95% confidence interval 10.9%-18.2%) reported IPV by that partner in the past year. In multivariate analysis, women with severe alcohol problems (adjusted odds ratio 4.39, 1.16-16.61) and those experiencing controlling behaviours by the index partner (adjusted odds ratio 4.98, 2.31-10.74) were significantly more likely to report recent IPV. Recent IPV was common in HIV-positive FSWs. Interventions targeting risk factors for IPV, including alcohol problems and partner controlling behaviours, could help to reduce recurrent violence and negative health outcomes in this key population.

  13. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-01-01

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N0. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N0. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area. PMID:26343683

  14. Prospective Assessment of Optimal Individual Position (Prone Versus Supine) for Breast Radiotherapy: Volumetric and Dosimetric Correlations in 100 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lymberis, Stella C.; Wyngaert, John Keith de; Parhar, Preeti; Chhabra, Arpit M.; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Chang Jengwha; Hochman, Tsivia; Guth, Amber; Roses, Daniel; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Damage to heart and lung from breast radiotherapy is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and lung cancer development. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate which position is best to spare lung and heart from radiotherapy exposure. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive Stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients consented to participate in a research trial that required two computed tomography simulation scans for planning both supine and prone positions. The optimal position was defined as that which best covered the contoured breast and tumor bed while it minimized critical organ irradiation, as quantified by the in-field heart and lung volume. The trial was designed to plan the first 100 patients in each position to study correlations between in-field volumes of organs at risk and dose. Results: Fifty-three left and 47 right breast cancer patients were consecutively accrued to the trial. In all patients, the prone position was optimal for sparing lung volume compared to the supine setup (mean lung volume reduction was 93.5 cc for right and 103.6 cc for left breast cancer patients). In 46/53 (87%) left breast cancer patients best treated prone, in-field heart volume was reduced by a mean of 12 cc and by 1.8 cc for the other 7/53 (13%) patients best treated supine. As predicted, supine-prone differences in in-field volume and mean dose of heart and lung were highly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient for left breast cancer patients was 0.90 for heart and 0.94 for lung and 0.92 for right breast cancer patients for lung). Conclusions: Prone setup reduced the amount of irradiated lung in all patients and reduced the amount of heart volume irradiated in 87% of left breast cancer patients. In-field organ volume is a valid surrogate for predicting dose; the trial continued to the planned target of 400.

  15. Moments of the Position of the Maximum for GUE Characteristic Polynomials and for Log-Correlated Gaussian Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Doussal, Pierre Le

    2016-07-01

    We study three instances of log-correlated processes on the interval: the logarithm of the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) characteristic polynomial, the Gaussian log-correlated potential in presence of edge charges, and the Fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H → 0 (fBM0). In previous collaborations we obtained the probability distribution function (PDF) of the value of the global minimum (equivalently maximum) for the first two processes, using the freezing-duality conjecture (FDC). Here we study the PDF of the position of the maximum x_m through its moments. Using replica, this requires calculating moments of the density of eigenvalues in the β -Jacobi ensemble. Using Jack polynomials we obtain an exact and explicit expression for both positive and negative integer moments for arbitrary β >0 and positive integer n in terms of sums over partitions. For positive moments, this expression agrees with a very recent independent derivation by Mezzadri and Reynolds. We check our results against a contour integral formula derived recently by Borodin and Gorin (presented in the Appendix 1 from these authors). The duality necessary for the FDC to work is proved, and on our expressions, found to correspond to exchange of partitions with their dual. Performing the limit n → 0 and to negative Dyson index β → -2, we obtain the moments of x_m and give explicit expressions for the lowest ones. Numerical checks for the GUE polynomials, performed independently by N. Simm, indicate encouraging agreement. Some results are also obtained for moments in Laguerre, Hermite-Gaussian, as well as circular and related ensembles. The correlations of the position and the value of the field at the minimum are also analyzed.

  16. Energy expenditure during activity in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Correlations with body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G N; Halsey, L G; Pope, E C; Eddington, J D; Houghton, J D R

    2013-10-01

    How animals manage time and expend energy has implications for survivorship. Being able to measure key metabolic costs of animals under natural conditions is therefore an important tool in behavioral ecology. One method for estimating activity-specific metabolic rate is via derived measures of acceleration, often 'overall dynamic body acceleration' (ODBA), recorded by an instrumented acceleration logger. ODBA has been shown to correlate well with rate of oxygen consumption (V˙o2) in a range of species during activity in the laboratory. This study devised a method for attaching acceleration loggers to decapod crustaceans and then correlated ODBA against concurrent respirometry readings to assess accelerometry as a proxy for activity-specific energy expenditure in a model species, the American lobster Homarus americanus. Where the instrumented animals exhibited a sufficient range of activity levels, positive linear relationships were found between V˙o2 and ODBA over 20min periods at a range of ambient temperatures (6, 13 and 20°C). Mixed effect linear models based on these data and morphometrics provided reasonably strong predictive power for estimating activity-specific V˙o2 from ODBA. These V˙o2-ODBA calibrations demonstrate the potential of accelerometry as an effective predictor of behavior-specific metabolic rate of crustaceans in the wild during periods of activity.

  17. Associations among central nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when positive emotions are elicited by looking at a favorite person.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Kimura, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Kanayama, Noriaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Sato, Sayaka; Konagaya, Toshihiro; Nogimori, Tsuyoshi; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies on psychoneuroimmunology have indicated that positive psychological events are related to immune functions; however, limited information is available regarding associations among the central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems when positive emotions are elicited. In the present study, we demonstrated associations among these systems by simultaneously recording brain, endocrine, and immune activities when positive emotions were evoked in participants as they watched films featuring their favorite persons. Interestingly, the activity of peripheral circulating natural killer cells and the peripheral dopamine level were elevated while participants experienced positive emotions, and these values were positively correlated. The following brain regions were significantly activated in the positive condition relative to the control condition: medial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, subcallosal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum. Further, covariate analyses indicated that these brain regions were temporally associated with endocrine and immune activities. These results suggest that while an individual experiences positive emotions, the central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems may be interrelated and attraction for favorite persons may be associated with the activation of the innate immune function via the dopaminergic system.

  18. Regional microbial signatures positively correlate with differential wine phenotypes: evidence for a microbial aspect to terroir

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Many crops display differential geographic phenotypes and sensorial signatures, encapsulated by the concept of terroir. The drivers behind these differences remain elusive, and the potential contribution of microbes has been ignored until recently. Significant genetic differentiation between microbial communities and populations from different geographic locations has been demonstrated, but crucially it has not been shown whether this correlates with differential agricultural phenotypes or not. Using wine as a model system, we utilize the regionally genetically differentiated population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in New Zealand and objectively demonstrate that these populations differentially affect wine phenotype, which is driven by a complex mix of chemicals. These findings reveal the importance of microbial populations for the regional identity of wine, and potentially extend to other important agricultural commodities. Moreover, this suggests that long-term implementation of methods maintaining differential biodiversity may have tangible economic imperatives as well as being desirable in terms of employing agricultural practices that increase responsible environmental stewardship. PMID:26400688

  19. Collecting "Total" Vocational Education and Training Activity. Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, NCVER's Managing Director, Dr Tom Karmel, argues that the submission of vocational education and training student data should be mandated as a condition of registration for all registered training organisations, including private providers. This will ensure a comprehensive data collection that gives a realistic view of…

  20. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  1. Physical properties of naked DNA influence nucleosome positioning and correlate with transcription start and termination sites in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packaged into chromatin structure, where most of DNA is wrapped into nucleosomes. DNA compaction and nucleosome positioning have clear functional implications, since they modulate the accessibility of genomic regions to regulatory proteins. Despite the intensive research effort focused in this area, the rules defining nucleosome positioning and the location of DNA regulatory regions still remain elusive. Results Naked (histone-free) and nucleosomal DNA from yeast were digested by microccocal nuclease (MNase) and sequenced genome-wide. MNase cutting preferences were determined for both naked and nucleosomal DNAs. Integration of their sequencing profiles with DNA conformational descriptors derived from atomistic molecular dynamic simulations enabled us to extract the physical properties of DNA on a genomic scale and to correlate them with chromatin structure and gene regulation. The local structure of DNA around regulatory regions was found to be unusually flexible and to display a unique pattern of nucleosome positioning. Ab initio physical descriptors derived from molecular dynamics were used to develop a computational method that accurately predicts nucleosome enriched and depleted regions. Conclusions Our experimental and computational analyses jointly demonstrate a clear correlation between sequence-dependent physical properties of naked DNA and regulatory signals in the chromatin structure. These results demonstrate that nucleosome positioning around TSS (Transcription Start Site) and TTS (Transcription Termination Site) (at least in yeast) is strongly dependent on DNA physical properties, which can define a basal regulatory mechanism of gene expression. PMID:21981773

  2. Positive feedback of protein kinase C proteolytic activation during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leverrier, Sabrina; Vallentin, Alice; Joubert, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In contrast with protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and PKCepsilon, which are better known for promoting cell survival, PKCdelta is known for its pro-apoptotic function, which is exerted mainly through a caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation pathway. In the present study, we used the rat GH3B6 pituitary adenoma cell line to show that PKCalpha and PKCepsilon are activated and relocalized together with PKCdelta when apoptosis is induced by a genotoxic stress. Proteolytic activation is a crucial step used by the three isoforms since: (1) the catalytic domains of the PKCalpha, PKCepsilon or PKCdelta isoforms (CDalpha, CDepsilon and CDdelta respectively) accumulated, and this accumulation was dependent on the activity of both calpain and caspase; and (2) transient expression of CDalpha, CDepsilon or CDdelta sufficed to induce apoptosis. However, following this initial step of proteolytic activation, the pathways diverge; cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation are induced by CDepsilon and CDdelta, but not by CDalpha. Another interesting finding of the present study is the proteolysis of PKCdelta induced by CDepsilon expression that revealed the existence of a cross-talk between PKC isoforms during apoptosis. Hence the PKC family may participate in the apoptotic process of pituitary adenoma cells at two levels: downstream of caspase and calpain, and via retro-activation of caspase-3, resulting in the amplification of its own proteolytic activation. PMID:12238950

  3. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  4. Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-08

    Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance.

  5. [Depression in protracted simple schizophrenia (on the problem of correlation between positive and negative disorders)].

    PubMed

    Drobizhev, M Iu; Luk'ianova, L L

    1991-01-01

    Three types of depressions were distinguished in sluggish simple schizophrenia: "stupid" (18 cases) " cenesthesiopathic" (20 cases), and "existential" (24 cases). The relationship was established between the manifestations of depressions and characteristic features of defect conditions. It has been established that the structure of depressive phases in sluggish simple schizophrenia includes specific psychopathological signs heralding defect formation and united by the notion "transitory syndrome". The common psychopathological property for the transitory (between positive and negative disorders) syndromes distinguished in all three types of depressive conditions under study is the phenomenon of psychic estrangement--pathology of self-consciousness with disturbed perception of the mental and physical "self", accompanied by sensation of the loss of functions (intellect, energy possibilities, emotionality and so forth). The patients with "stupid" depressions manifest the formation of a ++pseudo-organic defect; those with " cenesthesiopathic" of an asthenic defect, and those with "existential" of a defect by the personality deformity type.

  6. Primary and Multisensory Cortical Activity is Correlated with Audiovisual Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Stufflebeam, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion. PMID:19780040

  7. Does media multitasking always hurt? A positive correlation between multitasking and multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kelvin F H; Wong, Alan C-N

    2012-08-01

    Heavy media multitaskers have been found to perform poorly in certain cognitive tasks involving task switching, selective attention, and working memory. An account for this is that with a breadth-biased style of cognitive control, multitaskers tend to pay attention to various information available in the environment, without sufficient focus on the information most relevant to the task at hand. This cognitive style, however, may not cause a general deficit in all kinds of tasks. We tested the hypothesis that heavy media multitaskers would perform better in a multisensory integration task than would others, due to their extensive experience in integrating information from different modalities. Sixty-three participants filled out a questionnaire about their media usage and completed a visual search task with and without synchronous tones (pip-and-pop paradigm). It was found that a higher degree of media multitasking was correlated with better multisensory integration. The fact that heavy media multitaskers are not deficient in all kinds of cognitive tasks suggests that media multitasking does not always hurt.

  8. Nanoscale Positional Order Correlations: Swarms, Cybotactic Groups, Clusters, and Pretransitional Fluctuations in Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Satyendra; Agra-Kooijman, Dena; Acharya, Bharat

    2012-02-01

    Short-range molecular associations in organic liquids were first described as ``cybotactic'' groups [1] followed by the development of the swarm theory [2] to explain the structure, strong light scattering, and flow behavior of the nematic (N) liquid crystal phase. However, these ideas became inconsequential with the advent of the Oseen-Frank's continuum theory [3]. In 1970, de Vries reinvoked cybotactic groups for the N phase of bis-(4'-n-octyloxybenzal)-2-chloro-l,4-phenylenediamine. These were eventually understood to be SmC pretransitional fluctuations, i.e., small correlated regions of the lower symmetry phase near the transition. Thermotropic biaxial mesophases have resurrected the faith in cybotacticity in the guise of a new word - ``clusters''. Previous x-ray studies of normal organic fluids, and calamitic, lyotropic, and bent-core mesogens show that these clusters fall into three groups depending on the relative contributions of normal liquid structure and pretransitional fluctuations. A comparison with other organic and inorganic fluids will also be made.[4pt] [1] G.W. Stewart, Phys. Rev. 35, 726 (1930).[0pt] [2] L.S. Ornestein and W. Kast, Trans. Farad. Soc. 29, 931 (1933).[0pt] [3] FC Frank, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 25, 19 (1958); W. Oseen, Ark. Mat., Astron. Fys. 19, 1 (1925).

  9. Inorganic lead and calcium interact positively in activation of calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Wisniewski, M; Cabell, L; Audesirk, G

    2000-06-01

    Calmodulin is a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that mediates many of the intracellular actions of Ca2+ ions. The calcium-binding sites of calmodulin consist of four EF-hand motifs; full activation of calmodulin normally occurs when all four sites are occupied by Ca2+. Inorganic lead (PY2+) has been shown to activate calmodulin at total lead concentrations similar to the concentrations of Ca2+ required for activation (Goldstein and Ar, 1983; Habermann et al., 1983), but the free Pb2+ concentrations required for calmodulin activation have not been determined. In addition, it is possible that activation may occur with different sites occupied by different divalent cations, for example Ca2+ and Pb2+. We investigated the ability of free Pb2+, alone or in combination with Ca2+, to activate calmodulin. In aqueous media, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) show increased fluorescence when bound to hydrophobic regions of proteins. This increased fluorescence has been used to monitor the conformational change that occurs during calmodulin activation (LaPorte et al., 1980). In the presence of calmodulin, both Ca2+ and Pb2+ stimulated increased fluorescence of NPN and ANS. Threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations were approximately 100 nM and 450-500 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 100 pM and 400-550 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. Fluorescence was enhanced by combinations of low concentrations of free Ca2+ and Pb2+; for example, as little as 20 pM free Pb2+ enhanced fluorescence in combination with 200 nM free Ca2+. The activity of the PDE1 isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is stimulated by Ca2+/calmodulin (Wang et al., 1990). In the presence of calmodulin, we found that Ca2+ and Pb2+ activated calmodulin-stimulated PDE activity, with threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations of approximately 200 nM and 1200 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 300 pM and 430 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. PDE activity was stimulated by

  10. Position paper on active countermeasures for computer networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.

    2003-07-01

    Computer security professionals have used passive network countermeasures for several years in order to secure computer networks. Passive countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems are effective but their use alone is not enough to protect a network. Active countermeasures offer new ways of protecting a computer network. Corporations and government entities should adopt active network countermeasures as a means of protecting their computer networks.

  11. Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Weis, Tina; Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent) depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

  12. Correlation between in vitro release from topical delivery vehicles and microbicidal activity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Swart, H C; Du Preez, J L; De Villiers, M M; Lötter, A P; Liebenberg, W

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the formulation, stability, in vitro release and microbicidal activity of a cream, emulsion, foot gel, cover stick and after sun spray containing triclosan. Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent with activity against a wide range of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria that has found increasing popular use in personal care products. These products were stable for up to 3 months when stored at 5, 25, and 40 degrees C. Antimicrobial zone inhibition tests showed that that was a liner relationship, R2 > 0.92, between the release of triclosan from these products and the size of the inhibition zones. This means the in vitro/in vivo correlation for these products was good and that release studies can be used to predict the antimicrobial activity of triclosan.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of cryptococcal antigen positivity among AIDS patients--United States, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Jennie; Smith, Rachel M; Chiller, Tom M; Detels, Roger; French, Audrey; Margolick, Joseph; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-07-11

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the leading opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The worldwide burden of CM among persons living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was estimated in 2009 to be 957,900 cases, with approximately 624,700 deaths annually. The high burden of CM globally comes despite the fact that cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable weeks before the onset of symptoms, allowing screening for cryptococcal infection and early treatment to prevent CM and CM-related mortality (2). However, few studies have been conducted in the United States to assess the prevalence of cryptococcal infection. To quantify the prevalence of undiagnosed cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected persons in the United States during 1986-2012, stored sera from 1,872 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study with CD4 T-cell counts <100 cells/µL were screened for CrAg, using the CrAg Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) (Immy, Inc.). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated the overall prevalence of CrAg positivity in this population to be 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2%-3.7%).

  14. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: Evidence for gene–environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits

    PubMed Central

    OPPENHEIMER, CAROLINE W.; HANKIN, BENJAMIN L.; JENNESS, JESSICA L.; YOUNG, JAMI F.; SMOLEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Gene–environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene–environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths’ genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework. PMID:23398761

  15. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: evidence for gene-environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Hankin, Benjamin L; Jenness, Jessica L; Young, Jami F; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Gene-environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene-environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths' genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework.

  16. A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HIGHEST ENERGY COSMIC RAYS AND NEARBY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY FERMI

    SciTech Connect

    Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Bonatto, Charles; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2010-10-10

    We analyze the correlation of the positions of {gamma}-ray sources in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) and the First LAT Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) Catalog (1LAC) with the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, in order to investigate the origin of UHECRs. We find that Galactic sources and blazars identified in the 1FGL are not significantly correlated with UHECRs, while the 1LAC sources display a mild correlation (2.6{sigma} level) on an {approx}2.{sup 0}4 angular scale. When selecting only the 1LAC AGNs closer than 200 Mpc, we find a strong association (5.4{sigma}) between their positions and the directions of UHECRs on an {approx}17{sup 0} angular scale; the probability of the observed configuration being due to an isotropic flux of cosmic rays is 5 x 10{sup -8}. There is also a 5{sigma} correlation with nearby 1LAC sources on a 6.{sup 0}5 scale. We identify seven '{gamma}-ray loud' AGNs which are associated with UHECRs within {approx}17{sup 0} and are likely candidates for the production sites of UHECRs: Centaurus A, NGC 4945, ESO 323-G77, 4C+04.77, NGC 1218, RX J0008.0+1450, and NGC 253. We interpret these results as providing additional support to the hypothesis of the origin of UHECRs in nearby extragalactic objects. As the angular scales of the correlations are large, we discuss the possibility that intervening magnetic fields might be considerably deflecting the trajectories of the particles on their way to Earth.

  17. Activity-brightness Correlations for the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preminger, D. G.; Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the effect of solar features on the variability of the solar irradiance in three different spectral ranges. Our study is based on two solar-cycles' worth of full-disk photometric images from the San Fernando Observatory, obtained with red, blue, and Ca II K-line filters. For each image we measure the photometric sum, Σ, which is the relative contribution of solar features to the disk-integrated intensity of the image. The photometric sums in the red and blue continuum, Σr and Σb, exhibit similar temporal patterns: they are negatively correlated with solar activity, with strong short-term variability, and weak solar-cycle variability. However, the Ca II K-line photometric sum, ΣK, is positively correlated with solar activity and has strong variations on solar-cycle timescales. We show that we can model the variability of the Sun's bolometric flux as a linear combination of Σr and ΣK. We infer that, over solar-cycle timescales, the variability of the Sun's bolometric irradiance is directly correlated with spectral line variability, but inversely correlated with continuum variability. Our blue and red continuum filters are quite similar to the Strömgren b and y filters used to measure stellar photometric variability. We conclude that active stars whose visible continuum brightness varies inversely with activity, as measured by the Ca HK index, are displaying a pattern that is similar to that of the Sun, i.e., radiative variability in the visible continuum that is spot-dominated.

  18. Correlation Between Histologic and Radiographic Reconstruction of Intracochlear Electrode Position in Human Temporal Bones

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Jennifer T.; Burgess, Barbara J.; Zhu, MengYu; Curtin, Hugh D.; Nadol, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    In our laboratory, human temporal bone specimens from patients who in life have undergone cochlear implantation are routinely processed with the implant in situ, embedded in araldite, sectioned at 20 μm and serially photographed during cutting, stained with toluidine blue and mounted on glass slides. From the images, 2D and 3D reconstructions can be made and a very accurate implant insertion depth can be calculated from the 3D reconstructions. However, this method precludes subsequent special stains and further molecular investigations of the tissue including proteomics and immunostaining which is now possible with celloidin embedded tissue. In this study, we correlated measurement of the implant array insertion depth calculated from histologic 3D reconstruction with that measured from 3D radiologic multiplanar reconstruction. Four human temporal bones with cochlear implants underwent post-fixation pre-processing CT imaging with a Siemens Somatom Sensation Scanner. The CT scans from these four bones were downloaded into the Voxar software application, reformatted using the multiplanar reconstruction tool, viewed in three dimensions and measurements of intracochlear insertion lengths of the implants were obtained. The bones were processed routinely for in situ araldite embedding, serial images were made of the block during sectioning, post-processed using PV-Wave® software, aligned with Amira® software, and used to create histologic 3D reconstructions. From these 3D reconstructions, the insertion depth of the electrode array was mathematically calculated. The range of insertion depths was 15.9 mm (case #1) to 26.6 mm (case #4). The two methods, radiographic multiplanar reconstruction and 3D reconstruction, differed by 0.4 – 0.9%. This provides confidence that important localization information about the electrode in situ can be gleaned from CT scans, thereby allowing us to extract the implants prior to processing for celloidin embedment and allow further

  19. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  20. Size controlled protein nanoemulsions for active targeting of folate receptor positive cells.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Nogueira, Eugénia; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Abreu, Ana S; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Härmark, Johan; Hebert, Hans; Guebitz, Georg; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Preto, Ana; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoemulsions were produced by high pressure homogenization with a tri-block copolymer (Poloxamer 407), which presents a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (PPO) and two identical lateral hydrophilic chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG). We observed a linear correlation between tri-block copolymer concentration and size - the use of 5mg/mL of Poloxamer 407 yields nanoemulsions smaller than 100nm. Molecular dynamics and fluorescent tagging of the tri-block copolymer highlight their mechanistic role on the size of emulsions. This novel method enables the fabrication of highly stable albumin emulsions in the nano-size range, highly desirable for controlled drug delivery. Folic Acid (FA)-tagged protein nanoemulsions were shown to promote specific folate receptor (FR)-mediated targeting in FR positive cells. The novel strategy presented here enables the construction of size controlled, functionalized protein-based nanoemulsions with excellent characteristics for active targeting in cancer therapy.

  1. Uniformity and nonuniformity of neural activities correlated to different insight problem solving.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Li, Y; Shang, X; Zhou, Z; Han, L

    2014-06-13

    Previous studies on the neural basis of insight reflected weak consistency except for the anterior cingulate cortex. The present work adopted the semantic and homophonic punny riddle to explore the uniformity and nonuniformity of neural activities correlated to different insight problem solving. Results showed that in the early period of insight solving, the semantic and homophonic punny riddles induced a common N350-500 over the central scalp. However, during -400 to 0 ms before the riddles were solved, the semantic punny riddles induced a positive event-related potential (ERP) deflection over the temporal cortex for retrieving the extensive semantic information, while the homophonic punny riddles induced a positive ERP deflection over the temporal cortex and a negative one in the left frontal cortex which might reflect the semantic and phonological information processing respectively. Our study indicated that different insight problem solving should have the same cognitive process of detecting cognitive conflicts, but have different ways to solve the conflicts.

  2. Correlations of magnetospheric ion composition with geomagnetic and solar activity

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.T.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.

    1982-11-01

    A large ion composition data set consisting of 1-month averages has been assembled for the energy per charge range 0.9--15.9 keV/e. It includes 48 months of data taken by the Ion Composition Experiments on the ESA/GEOS 1 and 2 satellites at or near geostationary orbit. Data were obtained during the rising and maximum phases of the current solar cycle from May 1977 through November 1981 inclusive. Five ion species are routinely identifiable: H/sup +/, He/sup + +/, He/sup +/, O/sup + +/, and O/sup +/, above a limiting density approx.10/sup -3/ ions cm/sup -3/. Ion densities exhibit a number of very striking statistical correlations with one another and with both Kp and solar EUV as measured by F/sub 10.7/. One principal result is that increases in the densities of magnetospheric He/sup +/, O/sup + +/, and O/sup +/ are observed that are apparently due entirely to increased solar EUV fluxes associated with the ring phase of the current solar cycle. There is a marked rise in O/sup +/ density by a factor of approx.8 with increasing geomagnetic activity, but no correpsonding increase in either He/sup +/ or O/sup + +/ and only a small increase in H/sup +/. The He/sup + +//H/sup +/ ratio is found to be remarkably constant at roughly-equal0.01. Contrary to ion density results, little or no variation is found in mean energy. These observations are interpreted in terms of the composition and dynamics of two sources of magnetospheric plasma: the solar wind and the high-latitude topside ionosphere.

  3. Personal, Social, and Game-Related Correlates of Active and Non-Active Gaming Among Dutch Gaming Adolescents: Survey-Based Multivariable, Multilevel Logistic Regression Analyses

    PubMed Central

    de Vet, Emely; Chinapaw, Mai JM; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background Playing video games contributes substantially to sedentary behavior in youth. A new generation of video games—active games—seems to be a promising alternative to sedentary games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. At this time, little is known about correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. Objective The objective of this study was to examine potential personal, social, and game-related correlates of both active and non-active gaming in adolescents. Methods A survey assessing game behavior and potential personal, social, and game-related correlates was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, N=353) recruited via schools. Multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographics (age, sex and educational level of adolescents), were conducted to examine personal, social, and game-related correlates of active gaming ≥1 hour per week (h/wk) and non-active gaming >7 h/wk. Results Active gaming ≥1 h/wk was significantly associated with a more positive attitude toward active gaming (OR 5.3, CI 2.4-11.8; P<.001), a less positive attitude toward non-active games (OR 0.30, CI 0.1-0.6; P=.002), a higher score on habit strength regarding gaming (OR 1.9, CI 1.2-3.2; P=.008) and having brothers/sisters (OR 6.7, CI 2.6-17.1; P<.001) and friends (OR 3.4, CI 1.4-8.4; P=.009) who spend more time on active gaming and a little bit lower score on game engagement (OR 0.95, CI 0.91-0.997; P=.04). Non-active gaming >7 h/wk was significantly associated with a more positive attitude toward non-active gaming (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.3; P=.035), a stronger habit regarding gaming (OR 3.0, CI 1.7-5.3; P<.001), having friends who spend more time on non-active gaming (OR 3.3, CI 1.46-7.53; P=.004), and a more positive image of a non-active gamer (OR 2, CI 1.07–3.75; P=.03). Conclusions Various factors were significantly associated with active gaming ≥1 h/wk and non-active gaming >7 h/wk. Active gaming is most

  4. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in Turkish people: a positive correlation with abdominal obesity in women

    PubMed Central

    Karayaka, Sergul; Mesci, Banu; Oguz, Aytekin; Tamer, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing around the world due to abdominal obesity with altered eating habits and decreased physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for gastroesophagial reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and the prevalence of GERD in patients with MetS. METHODS: Five hundred patients (MetS, n=300 and the control group, n=200) were enrolled in the study. A detailed questionnaire reflux symptoms and behavioral habits was performed. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the subjects were with MetS. GERD rate was significantly higher in the group with MetS compared to subjects without MetS (50.7% vs 26%). Women were more likely to have GERD in both groups (62.6% of women and 28.6% of men ın the MetS group while corresponding rates were 37% vs 16.7% in the control group). Waist circumferences were found to be higher in female MetS patients with GERD. CONCLUSION: GERD is present approximately in every one of the two patients with MetS. Every patient who has MetS should be evaluated in terms of GERD symptoms. PMID:28058320

  5. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances) in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive) to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696) were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade) in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y). Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3%) of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school was associated with

  6. Positive correlation of HIV infection with Giardia intestinalis assemblage B but not with assemblage A in asymptomatic Kenyan children.

    PubMed

    Matey, Elizabeth J; Tokoro, Masaharu; Mizuno, Tetsushi; Matsumura, Takahiro; Nagamoto, Takehiro; Bi, Xiuqiong; Oyombra, Jane A; Sang, Willie K; Songok, Elijah M; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2016-09-24

    A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Giardia intestinalis infection was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. G. intestinalis assemblage B infection was positively correlated with HIV infection [HIV (+), 18.7% vs. HIV (-), 11.7%; P = 0.013], whereas assemblage A infection was not [HIV (+), 4.1% vs. HIV (-), 6.3%; P = 0.510]. Thus, HIV infection is a risk factor for G. intestinalis assemblage B infection but not for assemblage A infection.

  7. Temporal pole activity during understanding other persons' mental states correlates with neuroticism trait.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Asari, Tomoki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-04-30

    Comprehension of other persons' mental states is one of the representative cognitive functions involved in social situations. It has been suggested that this function sometimes recruits emotional processes. The present fMRI study examined the neural mechanisms associated with understanding others' mental states, and the conditions that determine the recruitment of the emotional processes. The false belief paradigm, a traditional behavioral paradigm to investigate comprehension of others, was applied to an event-related fMRI analysis, allowing for the extraction of brain activity time-locked to successful understanding of others' mental states. Prominent brain activity was observed in multiple cortical regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus, and temporal pole. Then, correlational analyses were performed between the activations and individuals' scores of neuroticism, a personality trait that reflects emotional instability in daily life. It was revealed that the neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the activity in the temporal pole region, but not in the other regions. These results suggest that the emotional processes implemented in the temporal pole are recruited during successful understanding of other persons' mental states, and that the recruitment may be modulated by an emotional personality trait of individual subjects.

  8. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Urbain, X; Bech, D; Van Roy, J-P; Géléoc, M; Weber, S J; Huetz, A; Picard, Y J

    2015-02-01

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H3 into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  9. A zero dead-time multi-particle time and position sensitive detector based on correlation between brightness and amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Urbain, X. Bech, D.; Van Roy, J.-P.; Géléoc, M.; Weber, S. J.

    2015-02-15

    A new multi-particle time and position sensitive detector using only a set of microchannel plates, a waveform digitizer, a phosphor screen, and a CMOS camera is described. The assignment of the timing information, as taken from the microchannel plates by fast digitizing, to the positions, as recorded by the camera, is based on the COrrelation between the BRightness of the phosphor screen spots, defined as their integrated intensity and the Amplitude of the electrical signals (COBRA). Tests performed by observing the dissociation of HeH, the fragmentation of H{sub 3} into two or three fragments, and the photo-double-ionization of Xenon atoms are presented, which illustrate the performances of the COBRA detection scheme.

  10. Salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase - temporal and population variability, correlations with drinking and smoking habits and activity towards aldehydes contained in food.

    PubMed

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Dziadek, Marta; Wroczyński, Piotr; Woźnicka, Katarzyna; Wojno, Barbara; Pietrzak, Monika; Wierzchowski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Fluorimetric method based on oxidation of the fluorogenic 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde was applied to evaluate temporal and population variability of the specific activity of salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and the degree of its inactivation in healthy human population. Analyzed was also its dependence on drinking and smoking habits, coffee consumption, and its sensitivity to N-acetylcysteine. Both the specific activity of salivary ALDH and the degree of its inactivation were highly variable during the day, with the highest activities recorded in the morning hours. The activities were also highly variable both intra- and interpersonally, and negatively correlated with age, and this correlation was stronger for the subgroup of volunteers declaring abstinence from alcohol and tobacco. Moderately positive correlations of salivary ALDH specific activity with alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking were also recorded (r(s) ~0.27; p=0.004 and r(s) =0.30; p=0.001, respectively). Moderate coffee consumption correlated positively with the inactivation of salivary ALDH, particularly in the subgroup of non-drinking and non-smoking volunteers. It was found that mechanical stimulation of the saliva flow increases the specific activity of salivary ALDH. The specific activity of the salivary ALDH was strongly and positively correlated with that of superoxide dismutase, and somewhat less with salivary peroxidase. The antioxidant-containing drug N-acetylcysteine increased activity of salivary ALDH presumably by preventing its inactivation in the oral cavity. Some food-related aldehydes, mainly cinnamic aldehyde and anisaldehyde, were excellent substrates of the salivary ALDH3A1 enzyme, while alkenals, particularly those with short chain, were characterized by lower affinity towards this enzyme but high catalytic constants. The protective role of salivary ALDH against aldehydes in food and those found in the cigarette smoke is discussed, as well as its participation in

  11. Interleukin-8 activates coagulation and correlates with survival after talc pleurodesis.

    PubMed

    Montes-Worboys, A; Rodriguez-Portal, J A; Arellano-Orden, E; Digón-Pereiras, J; Rodriguez-Panadero, F

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether interleukin (IL)-8 activates systemic coagulation after talc pleurodesis in malignant pleural effusion (MPE), and whether levels of IL-8 in plasma are related to early death after talc pleurodesis. IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were measured in samples from 231 MPE patients before and after talc pleurodesis. Whole blood from 31 healthy volunteers was incubated with IL-8, TNF-alpha and thromboplastin for 3 h in vitro, and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) levels were measured. The same stimulation of blood samples was repeated using doses of calibrated talc. Nine, 12 and 17 patients died within 7, 10 and 15 days respectively. IL-8 was elevated in 102 patients within 48 h, and thrombotic events were observed in six of those patients. Survival correlated inversely with IL-8 at 24 and 48 h, and a significant correlation was also found between IL-8 and TAT. A positive dose-dependent correlation with TAT production was observed when blood was stimulated with IL-8 in vitro. However, there was no significant response to stimulation with talc, as compared with control blood samples. IL-8 is involved in the activation of coagulation that may occur after talc pleurodesis, and might also be implicated in early death of patients with MPE.

  12. Neostriatal Neuronal Activity Correlates Better with Movement Kinematics under Certain Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Opris, Ioan; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Nelson, Randall J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated how the activity of neostriatal neurons is related to the kinematics of movement when monkeys performed visually and vibratory cued wrist extensions and flexions. Single-unit recordings of 142/236 neostriatal neurons showed pre-movement activity (PMA) in a reaction time task with unpredictable reward. Monkeys were pseudo-randomly (75%) rewarded for correct performance. A regression model was used to determine whether the correlation between neostriatal neuronal activity and the kinematic variables (position, velocity, and acceleration) of wrist movement changes as a function of reward contingency, sensory cues, and movement direction. The coefficients of determination (CoD) representing the proportion of the variance in neuronal activity explained by the regression model on a trial by trial basis, together with their temporal occurrences (time of best regression/correlation, ToC) were compared across sensory modality, movement direction, and reward contingency. The best relationship (correlation) between neuronal activity and movement kinematic variables, given by the average coefficient of determination (CoD), was: (a) greater during trials in which rewards were certain, called “A” trials, as compared with those in which reward was uncertain called (“R”) trials, (b) greater during flexion (Flex) trials as compared with extension (Ext) trials, and (c) greater during visual (VIS) cued trials than during vibratory (VIB) cued trials, for the same type of trial and the same movement direction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that predictability of reward for correct performance is accompanied by faster linkage between neostriatal PMA and the vigor of wrist movement kinematics. Furthermore, the results provide valuable insights for building an upper-limb neuroprosthesis. PMID:27579022

  13. Statistical correlation of low-altitude ENA emissions with geomagnetic activity from IMAGE/MENA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackler, D. A.; Jahn, J.-M.; Perez, J. D.; Pollock, C. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma sheet particles transported Earthward during times of active magnetospheric convection can interact with exospheric/thermospheric neutrals through charge exchange. The resulting Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) are free to leave the influence of the magnetosphere and can be remotely detected. ENAs associated with low-altitude (300-800 km) ion precipitation in the high-latitude atmosphere/ionosphere are termed low-altitude emissions (LAEs). Remotely observed LAEs are highly nonisotropic in velocity space such that the pitch angle distribution at the time of charge exchange is near 90°. The Geomagnetic Emission Cone of LAEs can be mapped spatially, showing where proton energy is deposited during times of varying geomagnetic activity. In this study we present a statistical look at the correlation between LAE flux (intensity and location) and geomagnetic activity. The LAE data are from the MENA imager on the IMAGE satellite over the declining phase of solar cycle 23 (2000-2005). The SYM-H, AE, and Kp indices are used to describe geomagnetic activity. The goal of the study is to evaluate properties of LAEs in ENA images and determine if those images can be used to infer properties of ion precipitation. Results indicate a general positive correlation to LAE flux for all three indices, with the SYM-H showing the greatest sensitivity. The magnetic local time distribution of LAEs is centered about midnight and spreads with increasing activity. The invariant latitude for all indices has a slightly negative correlation. The combined results indicate LAE behavior similar to that of ion precipitation.

  14. Dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ranjit, Nalini; Evans, Martin H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney; Evans, Alexandra E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the dietary and activity correlates of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in middle and high-school children. METHODS Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 15,283 middle and high school children in Texas, USA. Consumption of sodas and consumption of non-carbonated flavored and sports beverages (FSB) were examined separately for their associations with level of (a) unhealthy foods (fried meats, fries, desserts) and (b) healthy foods (vegetables, fruit, and milk) (c) physical activity including usual vigorous physical activity, and participation in organized physical activity, and (d) sedentary activity, including hours spent on TV, the computer, and videogames. RESULTS In both sexes, consumption of soda and FSB were systematically associated with a number of unhealthy dietary practices, as well as with sedentary behaviors. However, consumption of flavored and sports beverages showed significant positive graded associations with several healthy dietary practices and level of physical activity, while soda consumption showed no such associations with healthy behaviors. CONCLUSIONS Consumption of flavored and sports beverages coexists with healthy dietary and physical activity behaviors, suggesting popular misperception of these beverages as consistent with a healthy lifestyle. Assessment and obesity-prevention efforts targeting SSB need to distinguish between flavored and sports beverages from sodas. PMID:20876172

  15. Physical and Social-Motivational Contextual Correlates of Youth Physical Activity in Underresourced Afterschool Programs.

    PubMed

    Zarrett, Nicole; Sorensen, Carl; Cook, Brittany Skiles

    2015-08-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have become increasingly recognized as a key context to support youth daily physical activity (PA) accrual. The purpose of the present study was to assess the physical and social-motivational climate characteristics of ASPs associated with youth PA, and variations in contextual correlates of PA by youth sex. Systematic observations of 7 ASPs serving underserved youth (minority, low income) was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth and a social-motivational climate observation tool founded on self-determination theory. For five program days at each site, teams of two coders conducted continuous observations of youth PA (sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment availability), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and seven motivational climate components (e.g., inclusive). Aligned with previous research, regressions controlling for variations by site indicated that organized PA, provision of portable equipment, and staff PA participation and supervision are key correlates of youth PA. Moreover, as the first study to systematically observe motivational-context characteristics of ASPs, we identified several key modifiable motivational features that are necessary to address in order to increase youth engagement in PA during the out-of-school hours. Among motivational features assessed, "relatedness" components (positive peer relations, inclusive/cooperative activities) were primary correlates of girls' PA. In contrast, all three motivational features specified by self-determination theory (support for autonomy, mastery/competence, and inclusion/relatedness) were correlated with boys' PA. Findings are discussed in terms of policy and practice for understanding strengths and needs of ASPs to effectively engage youth in PA.

  16. Individual Differences in Anticipatory Somatosensory Cortex Activity for Shock is Positively Related with Trait Anxiety and Multisensory Integration

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Steven G.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Mather, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with an exaggerated expectancy of harm, including overestimation of how likely a conditioned stimulus (CS+) predicts a harmful unconditioned stimulus (US). In the current study we tested whether anxiety-associated expectancy of harm increases primary sensory cortex (S1) activity on non-reinforced (i.e., no shock) CS+ trials. Twenty healthy volunteers completed a differential-tone trace conditioning task while undergoing fMRI, with shock delivered to the left hand. We found a positive correlation between trait anxiety and activity in right, but not left, S1 during CS+ versus CS− conditions. Right S1 activity also correlated with individual differences in both primary auditory cortices (A1) and amygdala activity. Lastly, a seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that trial-wise S1 activity was positively correlated with regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), suggesting that higher-order cognitive processes contribute to the anticipatory sensory reactivity. Our findings indicate that individual differences in trait anxiety relate to anticipatory reactivity for the US during associative learning. This anticipatory reactivity is also integrated along with emotion-related sensory signals into a brain network implicated in fear-conditioned responding. PMID:26751483

  17. Correlates of physical activity: why are some people physically active and others not?

    PubMed

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F; Wells, Jonathan C; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Brian W

    2012-07-21

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking of physical activity throughout life. An understanding of correlates and determinants, especially in countries of low and middle income, could reduce the eff ect of future epidemics of inactivity and contribute to effective global prevention of non-communicable diseases.

  18. Facets of dynamic positive affect: differentiating joy, interest, and activation in the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS).

    PubMed

    Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C; Burns, Lawrence R; Kohlmann, Carl-Walter; Hock, Michael

    2003-09-01

    This article proposes the differentiation of Joy, Interest, and Activation in the Positive Affect (PA) scale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; D. Watson, L. A. Clark, & A. Tellegen, 1988). Study 1 analyzed the dynamic course of PA before, during, and after an exam and established the differentiation of the three facets. Study 2 used a multistate-multitrait analysis to confirm this structure. Studies 3-5 used success-failure experiences, speaking tasks, and feedback of exam results to further examine PA facets in affect-arousing settings. All studies provide convincing evidence for the benefit of differentiating three facets of PA in the PANAS: Joy, Interest, and Activation do have distinct and sometimes even opposite courses that make their separation meaningful and rewarding.

  19. Influence of positional correlations on the propagation of waves in a complex medium with polydisperse resonant scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Valentin; Strybulevych, Anatoliy; Page, John H.; Scanlon, Martin G.

    2011-04-01

    We present experimental results on a model system for studying wave propagation in a complex medium exhibiting low-frequency resonances. These experiments enable us to investigate a fundamental question that is relevant for many materials, such as metamaterials, where low-frequency scattering resonances strongly influence the effective medium properties. This question concerns the effect of correlations in the positions of the scatterers on the coupling between their resonances, and hence on wave transport through the medium. To examine this question experimentally, we measure the effective medium wavenumber of acoustic waves in a sample made of bubbles embedded in an elastic matrix over a frequency range that includes the resonance frequency of the bubbles. The effective medium is highly dispersive, showing peaks in the attenuation and the phase velocity as functions of the frequency, which cannot be accurately described using the independent scattering approximation (ISA). This discrepancy may be explained by the effects of the positional correlations of the scatterers, which we show to be dependent on the size of the scatterers. We propose a self-consistent approach for taking this “polydisperse correlation” into account and show that our model better describes the experimental results than the ISA.

  20. Hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation to analyze the market position from data with two qualitative and p-2 quantitative variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginanjar, Irlandia

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of the market position will be easier, efficient, and informative when based on a perceptual map, that can display objects and characteristics. With perceptual map we can identify the information about the objects similarity, the characteristics relationships, and relationship between the object and the characteristics. Characteristics of the object are usually more than two variables, those variables that sometimes are qualitative and some are quantitative. Based on that this paper introduce a method of analysis called hybrid correspondence analysis and correlation (HCAC), this method is the incorporation of correspondence analysis (CA) with biplot of correlation, where the mapped of two qualitative variables is using CA, and for quantitative variables is using correlations. HCAC produces a perceptual map that displays the object, the qualitative characteristics, and quantitative characteristics in a single map, without changing the quantitative data into qualitative data, so that the information obtained is more complete. A reference for mapping quality is counted from the first and second cumulative percent of eigenvalues where resulting from CA.

  1. Wrist skin temperature, motor activity, and body position as determinants of the circadian pattern of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, A; Martinez-Nicolas, A; Salazar, F J; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2012-07-01

    Although the circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern has been extensively studied, the determinants of this rhythm are not fully understood. Peripheral vasodilatation is a regulatory mechanism for BP maintenance. However, it remains to be established whether the increase of nocturnal distal skin temperature associated with heat loss could also reflect the dipping status. For the first time, this paper investigates the relationship between BP and skin wrist temperature (WT), to evaluate whether the WT circadian rhythm can serve as screening procedure to detect dipping/non-dipping BP patterns. In addition, the authors compare the relationship between WT and other variables previously described as determinants of the BP pattern, such as physical activity and body position. Measurements of WT, motor activity, and body position for 5 d, plus ambulatory BP for 24-h during that span, were obtained from 28 diurnally active normotensive volunteers. WT was negatively correlated, whereas activity and body position were positively correlated, with systolic and diastolic BPs. However, these relationships were stronger during the rest than activity phase. In addition, a 78.6% concordance was detected between the observed dips in BP and the predicted BP pattern calculated based on the WT rhythm. Thus, these results suggest that the increase in WT produced by heat loss during the rest phase through peripheral skin blood vessels is the result of blood vessel vasodilatation reflexes in response to a shift from a standing to a supine position, together with shift in the circadian sympathetic/parasympathetic balance (nocturnal parasympathetic activation). In conclusion, WT could be considered as a potential new screening procedure to implement the diagnosis of non-dipping BP pattern.

  2. Examining Cultural Correlates of Active Coping Among African American Female Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Sharma, Sakshi; Knighton, Joi Sheree’; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at a greater risk for exposure to multiple traumatic events and are less likely to seek mental health services than White women. Many women report avoidant and passive coping strategies placing them at an increased risk for lower psychological adjustment. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the role of culturally relevant factors such as spirituality, self-esteem, and social support as significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping among African American female trauma survivors. The study utilized secondary data from the B-WISE project (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) with a sample of 161 community-based African American women with a self-reported history of trauma. Results indicate that participants with higher self-esteem and existential well-being were more likely to cope actively with daily life stressors. However, socio-demographics were not significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping at the multivariate level. Implications for clinical practice are discussed along with the Strong Black Woman (SBW) ideology, which may explain over-reporting of positive attributes such as self-esteem and existential well-being. Limitations of the study and directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:25180071

  3. [Spatial correlation of active mounds locative distribution of Solenopsis invicta Buren polygyne populations].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yong-yue; Li, Ning-dong; Liang, Guang-wen; Zeng, Ling

    2007-01-01

    By using geostatistic method, this paper studied the spatial distribution patterns of the active mounds of Solenopsis invicta Buren polygyne populations in Wuchuan and Shenzhen, and built up the spherical models of the interval distances and semivariances of the mounds. The semivariograms were described at the two directions of east-west and south-north, which were obviously positively correlated to the interval distances, revealing that the active mounds in locative area were space-dependent. The ranges of the 5 spherical models constructed for 5 sampling plots in Wuchuan were 9.1 m, 7.6 m, 23.5 m, 7.5 m and 14.5 m, respectively, with an average of 12.4 m. The mounds of any two plots in this range were significantly correlated. There was a randomicity in the spatial distribution of active mounds, and the randomicity index (Nugget/Sill) was 0.7034, 0.9247, 0.4398, 1.1196 and 0.4624, respectively. In Shenzhen, the relationships between the interval distances and semivariances were described by 7 spherical models, and the ranges were 14.5 m, 11.2 m, 10.8 m, 17.6 m, 11.3 m, 9.9 m and 12.8 m, respectively, with an average of 12.6 m.

  4. TRAIL Death Receptor-4 Expression Positively Correlates With the Tumor Grade in Breast Cancer Patients With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Korcum, Aylin F.; Pestereli, Elif; Erdogan, Gulgun; Karaveli, Seyda; Savas, Burhan; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih V.

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells, and a number of clinical trials have recently been initiated to test the safety and antitumoral potential of TRAIL in cancer patients. Four different receptors have been identified to interact with TRAIL: two are death-inducing receptors (TRAIL-R1 [DR4] and TRAIL-R2 [DR5]), whereas the other two (TRAIL-R3 [DcR1] and TRAIL-R4 [DcR2]) do not induce death upon ligation and are believed to counteract TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity. Because high levels of DcR2 expression have recently been correlated with carcinogenesis in the prostate and lung, this study investigated the importance of TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, taking various prognostic markers into consideration. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 90 breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma using TRAIL and TRAIL receptor-specific antibodies. Age, menopausal status, tumor size, lymph node status, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular tumor extension, presence of an extensive intraductal component, multicentricity, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and CerbB2 expression levels were analyzed with respect to TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression patterns. Results: The highest TRAIL receptor expressed in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma was DR4. Although progesterone receptor-positive patients exhibited lower DR5 expression, CerbB2-positive tissues displayed higher levels of both DR5 and TRAIL expressions. Conclusions: DR4 expression positively correlates with the tumor grade in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma.

  5. Serum levels of autoantibodies against monomeric C-reactive protein are correlated with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Sjöwall, Christopher; Bengtsson, Anders A; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Skogh, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the relation between IgG autoantibodies against human C-reactive protein (anti-CRP) and disease activity measures in serial serum samples from 10 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), of whom four had active kidney involvement during the study period. The presence of anti-CRP was analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cut-off for positive anti-CRP test was set at the 95th centile of 100 healthy blood donor sera. Specificity of the anti-CRP antibody binding was evaluated by preincubating patient sera with either native or monomeric CRP. Disease activity was determined by the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), serum levels of CRP, anti-DNA antibodies, complement components and blood cell counts. Of 50 serum samples, 20 (40%) contained antibodies reactive with monomeric CRP, and 7 of 10 patients were positive on at least one occasion during the study. All patients with active lupus nephritis were positive for anti-CRP at flare. Frequent correlations between anti-CRP levels and disease activity measures were observed in anti-CRP-positive individuals. Accumulated anti-CRP data from all patients were positively correlated with SLEDAI scores and anti-DNA antibody levels, whereas significant inverse relationships were noted for complement factors C1q, C3 and C4, and for lymphocyte counts. This study confirms the high prevalence of anti-CRP autoantibodies in SLE and that the antibody levels are correlated with clinical and laboratory disease activity measures. This indicates that anti-CRP antibodies might have biological functions of pathogenetic interest in SLE. Further prospective clinical studies and experimental studies on effects mediated by anti-CRP antibodies are warranted. PMID:15059271

  6. Enhanced Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi

    2011-01-01

    This is a follow-on study to a 2010 correlation effort. Measured data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. As background, during the wind tunnel test, unexpectedly high inboard loads were encountered, and it was hypothesized at that time that due to changes in the flexbeams over the years, the flexbeam properties used in the analysis needed updating. Boeing Mesa, recently updated these properties. This correlation study uses the updated flexbeam properties. Compared to earlier studies, the following two enhancements are implemented: i) the inboard loads (pitchcase and flexbeam loads) correlation is included for the first time (reliable prediction of the inboard loads is a prerequisite for any future anticipated flight-testing); ii) the number of blade modes is increased to better capture the flap dynamics and the pitchcase-flexbeam dynamics. Also, aerodynamically, both the rolled-up wake model and the more complex, multiple trailer wake model are used, with the latter slightly improving the blade chordwise moment correlation. This sensitivity to the wake model indicates that CFD is needed. Three high-speed experimental cases, one uncontrolled free flap case and two commanded flap cases, are considered. The two commanded flap cases include a 2o flap deflection at 5P case and a 0o flap deflection case. For the free flap case, selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the commanded 2o flap case, the experimental flap variation is approximately matched by increasing the analytical flap hinge stiffness. This increased flap hinge stiffness is retained for the commanded 0o flap case also, which is treated as a free flap case, but with larger flap hinge stiffness. The change in the mid-span and outboard loads correlation due to the updating of the flexbeam properties is not significant. Increasing the number of blade modes results in an

  7. Spatial Correlation Function of the Chandra Selected Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Y.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barger, A. J.; Cowie, L. L.

    2006-01-01

    We present the spatial correlation function analysis of non-stellar X-ray point sources in the Chandra Large Area Synoptic X-ray Survey of Lockman Hole Northwest (CLASXS). Our 9 ACIS-I fields cover a contiguous solid angle of 0.4 deg(exp 2) and reach a depth of 3 x 10(exp -15) erg/square cm/s in the 2-8 keV band. We supplement our analysis with data from the Chandra Deep Field North (CDFN). The addition of this field allows better probe of the correlation function at small scales. A total of 233 and 252 sources with spectroscopic information are used in the study of the CLASXS and CDFN fields respectively. We calculate both redshift-space and projected correlation functions in co-moving coordinates, averaged over the redshift range of 0.1 < z < 3.0, for both CLASXS and CDFN fields for a standard cosmology with Omega(sub Lambda) = 0.73,Omega(sub M) = 0.27, and h = 0.71 (H(sub 0) = 100h km/s Mpc(exp -1). The correlation function for the CLASXS field over scales of 3 Mpc< s < 200 Mpc can be modeled as a power-law of the form xi(s) = (S/SO)(exp - gamma), with gamma = 1.6(sup +0.4 sub -0.3) and S(sub o) = 8.0(sup +.14 sub -1.5) Mpc. The redshift-space correlation function for CDFN on scales of 1 Mpc< s < 100 Mpc is found to have a similar correlation length so = 8.55(sup +0.74 sub -0.74) Mpc, but a shallower slope (gamma = 1.3 +/- 0.1). The real-space correlation functions derived from the projected correlation functions, are found to be tau(sub 0 = 8.1(sup +1.2 sub -2.2) Mpc, and gamma = 2.1 +/- 0.5 for the CLASXS field, and tau(sub 0) = 5.8(sup +.1.0 sub -1.5) Mpc, gamma = 1.38(sup +0.12 sub -0.14 for the CDFN field. By comparing the real- and redshift-space correlation functions in the combined CLASXS and CDFN samples, we are able to estimate the redshift distortion parameter Beta = 0.4 +/- 0.2 at an effective redshift z = 0.94. We compare the correlation functions for hard and soft spectra sources in the CLASXS field and find no significant difference between the

  8. Positive weighing of the other's collective narrative among Jewish and Bedouin-Palestinian teachers in Israel and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Alon; Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Teachers play a pivotal role in the educational discourse around collective narratives, and especially the other's narrative. The study assumed that members of groups entangled in a conflict approach the different modules of the other's narrative distinctively. Jewish and Palestinian teachers, Israeli citizens, answered questionnaires dealing with the narrative of the other, readiness for interethnic contact, negative between-group emotions and preferences for resolutions of the Israeli-Palestinian (I-P) conflict. Positive weighing of the other's narrative among Jewish teachers correlated with high levels of readiness for interethnic contact and low levels of negative between-group emotions, across the various modules of the Palestinian narrative. Preferences for a peaceful resolution of the I-P conflict and rejection of a violent one were noted in two of the modules. Among Palestinian teachers, positive weighing of the other's collective narrative was exclusively noted for the Israeli narrative of the Holocaust, and this stance negatively related to negative between-group emotions and preference for a violent solution of the I-P conflict, and positively related to readiness for interethnic contact and preference of a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Practical implications of these findings for peace education are discussed.

  9. Experimental validation for the determination of particle positions by the correlation coefficient method in digital particle holography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Kang, Bo-seon

    2008-11-10

    The feasibility and the accuracy of the correlation coefficient (CC) method for the determination of particle positions along the optical axis in digital particle holography were verified by validation experiments. A translation system capable of high precision was used to move the particle objects by exact known distances between several different positions. The particle positions along the optical axis were calculated by the CC method and compared with their exact values to obtain the errors of the focus plane determination. The tested particles were two-dimensional (2D) dots in a calibration target along with different-sized glass beads and droplets that reflected and caused a three-dimensional (3D) effect. The results show that the CC method can work well for both the 2D dots and the 3D particles. The effect of other particles on the focus plane determination was also investigated. The CC method can locate the focus plane of particles with high precision, regardless of the existence of other particles.

  10. RXTE Observations of Positive Correlations between the Cyclotron Line Parameters and Luminosity in GX 304-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Richard E.; Kühnel, Matthias; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Markowitz, Alex; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern; Staubert, Rüdiger; Klochkov, Dmitry; Postnov, Konstantin; Goronostaev, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observed four outbursts of the accreting X-ray binary transient source GX 304-1 in 2010 and 2011. During the 2010-2011 observations, the HEXTE cluster A viewing direction was fixed aligned with the PCA field of view and HEXTE cluster B was fixed viewing a background region 1.5 degrees off of the source direction. The cluster A background was successfully estimated from cluster B events, and this made possible the measurement of the ~55 keV cyclotron line and an accurate measurement of the continuum. The cyclotron line energy spans 50 to 60 keV throughout each outburst, implying magnetic fields ranging from 4-5 teraGauss as the scattering region reacts to the varying mass accretion rate. We present results of a detailed 3-100 keV spectral analysis of 69 separate observations, and report a greater than 7 sigma measurement of a positive correlation between cyclotron line parameters (energy, width, and depth) and luminosity, as well as other spectral parameters' correlations with luminosity. The three cyclotron line parameters’ correlations with luminosity show a flattening of the relationships with increasing luminosity, and have been fitted by quasi-spherical accretion and disk accretion models. The width and depth correlation exponents follow directly from the energy correlation exponent with only the assumption that the accretion column is in the subcritical (Coulomb-braking) regime and the energy changes in proportion to the characteristic stopping length of protons. Correlations of all spectral parameters with primary 2-10 keV power law flux reveal the mass accretion rate to be the primary driver of the spectral shape. A large enhancement in the line of sight column density lasting about three days is seen just before periastron in one outburst and a smaller enhancement of similar duration at the same orbital phase is seen in a second outburst, suggesting the presence of a dense structure in the stellar wind.

  11. Positive correlation of airway resistance and serum asymmetric dimethylarginine level in COPD patients with systemic markers of low-grade inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Pak, Krisztian; Papp, Csaba; Keki, Sandor; Szilasi, Magdolna Emma; Mikaczo, Angela; Fodor, Andrea; Szilasi, Maria; Zsuga, Judit

    2017-01-01

    The major feature of COPD is a progressive airflow limitation caused by chronic airway inflammation and consequent airway remodeling. Modified arginase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) pathways are presumed to contribute to the inflammation and fibrosis. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) may shunt L-arginine from the NOS pathway to the arginase one by uncoupling and competitive inhibition of NOS and by enhancing arginase activity. To attest the interplay of these pathways, the relationship between ADMA and airflow limitation, described by airway resistance (Raw), was investigated in a cohort of COPD patients. Every COPD patient willing to give consent to participate (n=74) was included. Case history, laboratory parameters, serum arginine and ADMA, pulmonary function (whole-body plethysmography), and disease-specific quality of life (St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire) were determined. Multiple linear regression was used to identify independent determinants of Raw. The final multiple model was stratified based on symptom control. The log Raw showed significant positive correlation with log ADMA in the whole sample (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: 0.25, P=0.03). This association remained significant after adjusting for confounders in the whole data set (β: 0.42; confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.77; P=0.022) and in the worse-controlled stratum (β: 0.84; CI: 0.25, 1.43; P=0.007). Percent predicted value of forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity showed that significant negative, elevated C-reactive protein exhibited significant positive relationship with Raw in the final model. Positive correlation of Raw with ADMA in COPD patients showing evidence of a systemic low-grade inflammation implies that ADMA contributes to the progression of COPD, probably by shunting L-arginine from the NOS pathway to the arginase one. PMID:28352168

  12. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  13. In Vitro Activities of a New Lipopeptide, HMR 1043, against Susceptible and Resistant Gram-Positive Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bemer, Pascale; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bryskier, Andre; Drugeon, Henri

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of HMR 1043 with those of daptomycin and teicoplanin against gram-positive isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed for 52 strains, 26 parental strains, including staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, and listerial strains, and 26 HMR 1043-resistant mutants obtained from parental strains by using the Szybalski method. Agar dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed by the procedures outlined by the NCCLS. HMR 1043 demonstrated good activity against susceptible and resistant gram-positive bacteria. The activity of HMR 1043 in vitro was less influenced by the presence of calcium ions than that of daptomycin. Susceptibility test breakpoints were not defined because of the poor correlation coefficients obtained with the different disks tested. PMID:12937020

  14. In vitro activities of a new lipopeptide, HMR 1043, against susceptible and resistant gram-positive isolates.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Pascale; Juvin, Marie-Emmanuelle; Bryskier, Andre; Drugeon, Henri

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of HMR 1043 with those of daptomycin and teicoplanin against gram-positive isolates. Susceptibility tests were performed for 52 strains, 26 parental strains, including staphylococcal, streptococcal, enterococcal, and listerial strains, and 26 HMR 1043-resistant mutants obtained from parental strains by using the Szybalski method. Agar dilution and disk diffusion susceptibility tests were performed by the procedures outlined by the NCCLS. HMR 1043 demonstrated good activity against susceptible and resistant gram-positive bacteria. The activity of HMR 1043 in vitro was less influenced by the presence of calcium ions than that of daptomycin. Susceptibility test breakpoints were not defined because of the poor correlation coefficients obtained with the different disks tested.

  15. Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Angela; Baker, Caroline; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Stamper, Lisa W.; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Permar, Sallie R.; Hinde, Katie; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the nutritional and health benefits of breast milk, breast milk can serve as a vector for mother-to-child HIV transmission. Most HIV-infected infants acquire HIV through breastfeeding. Paradoxically, most infants breastfed by HIV-positive women do not become infected. This is potentially attributed to anti-HIV factors in breast milk. Breast milk of HIV-negative women can inhibit HIV infection. However, the HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk from HIV-positive mothers has not been evaluated. In addition, while significant differences in breast milk composition between transmitting and nontransmitting HIV-positive mothers have been correlated with transmission risk, the HIV-inhibitory activity of their breast milk has not been compared. This knowledge may significantly impact the design of prevention approaches in resource-limited settings that do not deny infants of HIV-positive women the health benefits of breast milk. Here, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus humanized mice to evaluate the in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk obtained from HIV-positive transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. We also assessed the species specificity and biochemical characteristics of milk's in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity and its ability to inhibit other modes of HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that breast milk of HIV-positive mothers has potent HIV-inhibitory activity and indicate that breast milk can prevent multiple routes of infection. Most importantly, this activity is unique to human milk. Our results also suggest multiple factors in breast milk may contribute to its HIV-inhibitory activity. Collectively, our results support current recommendations that HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings exclusively breastfeed in combination with antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Approximately 240,000 children become infected with HIV annually, the majority via breastfeeding. Despite daily exposure to virus in breast milk, most infants

  16. Empathy is associated with dynamic change in prefrontal brain electrical activity during positive emotion in children

    PubMed Central

    Light, Sharee N.; Coan, James A.; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Frye, Corrina; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Davidson, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Empathy is the combined ability to interpret the emotional states of others and experience resultant, related emotions. The relation between prefrontal electroencephalographic asymmetry and emotion in infants and children is well known. The relationship between positive emotion (assessed via parent-report), empathy (measured via observation) and second-by-second brain electrical activity (recorded during a pleasurable task) was investigated using a sample of 128 six to ten year olds. Contentment predicted increasing left-sided frontopolar activation (p<.05). Empathic concern and one form of positive empathy predicted increasing right-sided frontopolar activation (ps<.05). A second form of positive empathy predicted increasing left-sided dorsolateral activation (p<.05). This suggests that positive emotion and (negative and positive) empathy predict changes in prefrontal activity in children during a pleasurable task. PMID:19630903

  17. Cognitive ability correlates positively with son birth and predicts cross-cultural variation of the offspring sex ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dama, Madhukar Shivajirao

    2013-06-01

    Human populations show remarkable variation in the sex ratio at birth which is believed to be related to the parental condition. In the present study, the global variation of sex ratio at birth (SRB, proportion of male offspring born) was analyzed with respect to indirect measure of condition, the intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ correlates strongly with lifespan across nations, which makes it a good indicator of health of the large populations. Relation between three standard measures of average national IQ and SRB was studied using multiple linear regression models. Average national IQ was positively correlated with SRB ( r = 0.54 to 0.57, p < 0.001). Further, IQ emerged as a powerful predictor of SRB after controlling for the effects of all the known covariates like fertility, maternal age, polygyny prevalence, wealth, son preference, latitude, low birth weight, and neonatal mortality in the regression models. These results suggest that the striking variation of offspring sex ratio across nations could be caused in part by the difference in general condition of populations.

  18. Correlates of School-Day Physical Activity in Preschool Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Leah E.; Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Peoples, Christina M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among sex, body mass index, motor skill competence (MSC), perceived physical competence (PPC), and school-day physical activity in preschool students (N = 34). Physical activity was assessed by steps accumulated during the school day, while MSC and PPC were assessed with the Test of Gross Motor Development--2nd…

  19. HORIZONTAL FLOWS IN ACTIVE REGIONS FROM RING-DIAGRAM AND LOCAL CORRELATION TRACKING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, S. C.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.; Ravindra, B.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous high-cadence and high spatial resolution Dopplergrams allow us to study subsurface dynamics that may be further extended to explore precursors of visible solar activity on the surface. Since the p-mode power is absorbed in the regions of high magnetic field, the inferences in these regions are often presumed to have large uncertainties. In this paper, using the Dopplergrams from space-borne Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, we compare horizontal flows in a shear layer below the surface and the photospheric layer in and around active regions. The photospheric flows are calculated using the local correlation tracking (LCT) method, while the ring-diagram technique of helioseismology is used to infer flows in the subphotospheric shear layer. We find a strong positive correlation between flows from both methods near the surface. This implies that despite the absorption of acoustic power in the regions of strong magnetic field, the flows inferred from the helioseismology are comparable to those from the surface measurements. However, the magnitudes are significantly different; the flows from the LCT method are smaller by a factor of 2 than the helioseismic measurements. Also, the median difference between the direction of corresponding vectors is 49°.

  20. Correlated activity of cortical neurons survives extensive removal of feedforward sensory input

    PubMed Central

    Shapcott, Katharine A.; Schmiedt, Joscha T.; Saunders, Richard C.; Maier, Alexander; Leopold, David A.; Schmid, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental property of brain function is that the spiking activity of cortical neurons is variable and that some of this variability is correlated between neurons. Correlated activity not due to the stimulus arises from shared input but the neuronal circuit mechanisms that result in these noise correlations are not fully understood. Here we tested in the visual system if correlated variability in mid-level area V4 of visual cortex is altered following extensive lesions of primary visual cortex (V1). To this end we recorded longitudinally the neuronal correlations in area V4 of two behaving macaque monkeys before and after a V1 lesion while the monkeys fixated a grey screen. We found that the correlations of neuronal activity survived the lesions in both monkeys. In one monkey, the correlation of multi-unit spiking signals was strongly increased in the first week post-lesion, while in the second monkey, correlated activity was slightly increased, but not greater than some week-by-week fluctuations observed. The typical drop-off of inter-neuronal correlations with cortical distance was preserved after the lesion. Therefore, as V4 noise correlations remain without feedforward input from V1, these results suggest instead that local and/or feedback input seem to be necessary for correlated activity. PMID:27721468

  1. Vicarious motor activation during action perception: beyond correlational evidence

    PubMed Central

    Avenanti, Alessio; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Neurophysiological and imaging studies have shown that seeing the actions of other individuals brings about the vicarious activation of motor regions involved in performing the same actions. While this suggests a simulative mechanism mediating the perception of others' actions, one cannot use such evidence to make inferences about the functional significance of vicarious activations. Indeed, a central aim in social neuroscience is to comprehend how vicarious activations allow the understanding of other people's behavior, and this requires to use stimulation or lesion methods to establish causal links from brain activity to cognitive functions. In the present work, we review studies investigating the effects of transient manipulations of brain activity or stable lesions in the motor system on individuals' ability to perceive and understand the actions of others. We conclude there is now compelling evidence that neural activity in the motor system is critical for such cognitive ability. More research using causal methods, however, is needed in order to disclose the limits and the conditions under which vicarious activations are required to perceive and understand actions of others as well as their emotions and somatic feelings. PMID:23675338

  2. Effects of active hexose correlated compound on the seasonal variations of immune competence in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Takanari, Jun; Hirayama, Yosuke; Homma, Kohei; Miura, Takehito; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of active hexose correlated compound intake on the immune competence in healthy volunteers. Thirty-four subjects were randomized to receive placebo or active hexose correlated compound at 1.0 g/d for 4 weeks in early winter. Natural killer cell activity was significantly increased in both groups during the study period, the natural killer cell number, however, was not altered in the active hexose correlated compound group while placebo group showed remarkable decline. In addition, the score of immunological vigor, an index of total immune competence, was maintained in the active hexose correlated compound group although that of placebo group lowered during the test period. These results suggested that the continuous active hexose correlated compound intake maintained the immune competence against the seasonal change.

  3. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F.; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5–25 kg/m2), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m2) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30–40, 40–50 and >50 kg/m2, n = 14–15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m2, n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2, n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9–85 kg/m2, n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = −0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating. PMID:26089773

  4. Plasma bile acids show a positive correlation with body mass index and are negatively associated with cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Philip; Hofmann, Tobias; Ahnis, Anne; Elbelt, Ulf; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids may be involved in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of plasma bile acids with body mass index (BMI) and the possible involvement of circulating bile acids in the modulation of physical activity and eating behavior. Blood was obtained in a group of hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2)), underweight (anorexia nervosa, BMI < 17.5 kg/m(2)) and overweight (obesity with BMI 30-40, 40-50 and >50 kg/m(2), n = 14-15/group) and plasma bile acid concentrations assessed. Physical activity and plasma bile acids were measured in a group of patients with anorexia nervosa (BMI 14.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2), n = 43). Lastly, in a population of obese patients (BMI 48.5 ± 0.9 kg/m(2), n = 85), psychometric parameters related to disordered eating and plasma bile acids were assessed. Plasma bile acids showed a positive correlation with BMI (r = 0.26, p = 0.03) in the population of patients with broad range of BMI (9-85 kg/m(2), n = 74). No associations were observed between plasma bile acids and different parameters of physical activity in anorexic patients (p > 0.05). Plasma bile acids were negatively correlated with cognitive restraint of eating (r = -0.30, p = 0.008), while no associations were observed with other psychometric eating behavior-related parameters (p > 0.05) in obese patients. In conclusion, these data may point toward a role of bile acids in the regulation of body weight. Since plasma bile acids are negatively correlated with the cognitive restraint of eating in obese patients, this may represent a compensatory adaptation to prevent further overeating.

  5. Exploring socioecological correlates of active living in retirement village residents.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Andrea; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-01-01

    This study explored individual, social, and built environmental attributes in and outside of the retirement village setting and associations with various active living outcomes including objectively measured physical activity, specific walking behaviors, and social participation. Residents in Perth, Australia (N = 323), were surveyed on environmental perceptions of the village and surrounding neighborhood, self-reported physical activity, and demographic characteristics and wore accelerometers. Managers (N = 32) were surveyed on village characteristics, and objective neighborhood measures were generated in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results indicated that built- and social-environmental attributes within and outside of retirement villages were associated with active living among residents; however, salient attributes varied depending on the specific outcome considered. Findings suggest that locating villages close to destinations is important for walking and that locating them close to previous and familiar neighborhoods is important for social participation. Further understanding and consideration into retirement village designs that promote both walking and social participation are needed.

  6. Cooked garlic and antioxidant activity: Correlation with organosulfur compound composition.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, D A; Nazareno, M A; Fusari, C M; Camargo, A B

    2017-04-01

    The antioxidant properties and the main beneficial organosulphur compounds of home-cooked garlic samples were studied in order to establish relationships between them. Antioxidant activity was tested by free radical scavenging against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(+)), Fe(III) reducing ability (FRAP) and linoleic acid co-oxidation initiated by soybean lipoxygenase in a micelle system. DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays showed the highest activity for raw garlic samples, while β-carotene bleaching assay yielded the highest activity for stir-fried garlic. Pure organosulphur compounds tested by DPPH, FRAP and β-carotene bleaching assays showed that allicin had an antiradical action mechanism, as well as iron reducing capacity; while antioxidant activity was the main mechanism for ajoenes and 2-VD. To our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration that home-cooked garlic retains its antioxidant activity, and, at the same time, elucidates the mechanisms involved in this activity.

  7. Dietary and demographic correlates of serum ß-glucuronidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maruti, Sonia S.; Li, Lin; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Prunty, JoAnn; Schwarz, Yvonne; Li, Shuying S.; King, Irena B.; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2010-01-01

    Background β-glucuronidase, an acid hydrolase that deconjugates glucuronides, may increase cancer risk; however, little is known about factors associated with human β-glucuronidase. Objective To examine whether dietary and demographic factors were associated with serum β-glucuronidase activity. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study among 279 healthy men and women, aged 20-40 years. Diet, categorized by botanical families and nutrient intakes, was assessed from 3-day food records and a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Demographic factors were directly measured or self-reported. Adjusted mean β-glucuronidase activity across categories of exposure variables were calculated by multiple linear regression. Results Higher β-glucuronidase activity was significantly associated with being male, older age (≥30 years), non-Caucasian, overweight (≥ 25 kg/m2), and higher intakes of gamma-tocopherol. Conversely, lower β-glucuronidase activity was significantly associated with higher intakes of calcium, iron, and magnesium. A suggestive decrease in β-glucuronidase activity was observed for the botanical families, Cruciferae, Rutaceae, Compositae, Roseaceae, and Umbelliferae, but tests for trend were not statistically significant. Conclusions Several dietary and nondietary factors were associated with β-glucuronidase activity, however confirmation of these associations are needed. PMID:20099195

  8. Demographic and clinical factors correlating with high levels of psychological distress in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Anita C; Light, Lucia; Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra; Rourke, Sean B; Wobeser, Wendy; Loutfy, Mona R

    2014-01-01

    The concept of psychological distress includes a range of emotional states with symptoms of depression and anxiety and has yet to be reported in HIV-positive women living in Ontario, Canada, who are known to live with contributing factors. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, severity, and correlates of psychological distress among women accessing HIV care participating in the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). The K10 is a 10-item, five-level response scale. K10 values range from 10 to 50 with values less than or equal to 19 categorized as not clinically significant, scores between 20 and 24 as moderate levels, 25-29 as high, and 30-50 as very high psychological distress. Correlates of psychological distress were assessed using the Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Moderate, high, and very high levels of psychological distress were experienced by 16.9, 10.4, and 15.1% of the 337 women in our cohort, respectively, with 57.6% reporting none. Psychological distress levels greater than 19, correlated with being unemployed (vs. employed/student/retired; AOR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.13-0.83), living in a household without their child/children (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.33-4.52), CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm(3) (AOR = 2.07, 95% CI: 0.89-4.80), and to a lesser degree an education of some college or less (vs. completed college or higher; AOR=1.71, 95% CI: 0.99-2.95). Age and ethnicity, a priori variables of interest, did not correlate with psychological distress. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors which shape the demography of women living with HIV in Ontario, low CD4 counts, and losing the opportunity to care for their child/children has a significant relationship with psychological distress. Approaches to manage psychological distress should address and make considerations for the lived experiences of women since they can act as potential barriers to

  9. Social Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in Inactive Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) are often physically inactive. This observation has prompted the search for modifiable constructs derived from established theories that act as correlates of physical activity. This study investigated self efficacy, outcome expectations, impediments, and goal setting as correlates of physical activity in…

  10. Subthalamic, not striatal, activity correlates with basal ganglia downstream activity in normal and parkinsonian monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Deffains, Marc; Iskhakova, Liliya; Katabi, Shiran; Haber, Suzanne N; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) constitute the input stage of the basal ganglia (BG) network and together innervate BG downstream structures using GABA and glutamate, respectively. Comparison of the neuronal activity in BG input and downstream structures reveals that subthalamic, not striatal, activity fluctuations correlate with modulations in the increase/decrease discharge balance of BG downstream neurons during temporal discounting classical condition task. After induction of parkinsonism with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), abnormal low beta (8-15 Hz) spiking and local field potential (LFP) oscillations resonate across the BG network. Nevertheless, LFP beta oscillations entrain spiking activity of STN, striatal cholinergic interneurons and BG downstream structures, but do not entrain spiking activity of striatal projection neurons. Our results highlight the pivotal role of STN divergent projections in BG physiology and pathophysiology and may explain why STN is such an effective site for invasive treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease and other BG-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16443.001 PMID:27552049

  11. Entanglement activation and the robustness of quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Brandao, Fernando G. S. L.

    2007-09-15

    We show that the usefulness of a state as an activator in teleportation protocols is equivalent to the robustness of its entanglement to noise. The robustness of entanglement of a bipartite state {sigma} is linked to the maximum increase in the fidelity of teleportation of any other state when {sigma} is used as an extra resource. On the one hand, this connection gives an operational meaning to the robustness of entanglement. On the other hand, it shows that the activation capability--which has a central role as an operational way of quantifying bound entangled states -- can be estimated experimentally by measuring entanglement witnesses.

  12. Correlation between Antimicrobial, Antioxidant Activity, and Polyphenols of Alkalized/Nonalkalized Cocoa Powders.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Vanja; Milenkovic, Marina; Vidovic, Bojana; Todorovic, Zoran; Sobajic, Sladjana

    2017-04-01

    Many factors can influence antioxidative and antimicrobial characteristics of plant materials. The quality of cocoa as functional food ingredient is influenced through its processing. The main aim of this study was to test if there is difference in polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial activity between nonalkalized and alkalized cocoa powders. To estimate polyphenol and flavonoid content in cocoa samples the spectrophotometric microassays were used. Flavan-3ols were determined with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Antimicrobial activity against 3 Gram positive bacteria, 4 Gram negative bacteria and 1 strain of yeast was determined using broth microdilution method. Total polyphenol content was 1.8 times lower in alkalized cocoa samples than in natural ones. Epicatechin/catechin ratio was changed due to the process of alkalization in favor of catechin (2.21 in natural and 1.45 in alkalized cocoa powders). Combined results of 3 antioxidative tests (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS) were used for calculation of RACI (Relative Antioxidant Capacity Index) and GAS (Global Antioxidant Score) values that were consistently higher in natural than in alkalized cocoa extracts. Obtained results have shown significant correlations between these values and phenolic content (0.929 ≤ r ≤ 0.957, P < 0.01). Antimicrobial activity varied from 5.0 to 25.0 mg/ml (MICs), while Candida albicans was the most sensitive tested microorganism. Cocoa powders subjected to alkalization had significantly reduced content of total and specific phenolic compounds and reduced antioxidant capacity (P < 0.05), but their antimicrobial activity was equal for Gram-positive bacteria or even significantly enhanced for Gram-negative bacteria.

  13. Effect of the kangaroo position on the electromyographic activity of preterm children: a follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the components of the Kangaroo Method (KM) is the adoption of the Kangaroo Position. The skin-to-skin contact and the vertical position the child adopts when in this position may provide sensorial, vestibular and postural stimuli for the newborn. The Kangaroo Position may encourage vestibular stimuli and a flexed posture of the limbs, suggesting the hypothesis that the Kangaroo Position may have an impact on flexor muscle tone. The effect of these stimuli on the motor features of the newborn has not been the subject of much investigation. No study has yet been conducted to determine whether the Kangaroo Position may progressively increase electromyographic activity or whether this increase persists until term-equivalent age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Kangaroo Position on the electromyographic activity of preterm children. Method A follow-up study was carried out between July and November 2011 at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP), Recife-Brazil, using a sample of 30 preterm children. Surface Eletromyography (SEMG) was used to investigate the muscle activity of biceps brachii. The electromyographic readings were taken immediately before (0 h) and after 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, 96 h of application of the Kangaroo Position as well as at the term equivalent age in each baby. Electromyographic activity was analyzed using the Root Mean Square (RMS) and the mean values of the times were analyzed by way of analysis of variance for repeated measures and the Tukey test. Results Electromyographic activity of the biceps brachii varied and increased over the whole 96h period (RMS:0 h = 36.5 and 96 h = 52.9) (F(5.174) = 27.56; p < 0.001) and remained constant thereafter (RMS: term-equivalent age = 54.2). The correlations between the corrected age and the values for electromyographic activity did not show any statistical significance. Conclusion The Kangaroo Position leads to a growing

  14. Correlates of Lifetime Physical Activity in Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lorraine Silver

    2003-01-01

    This study retrospectively examined physical activity patterns across three specific age periods (childhood, teenage, and young adulthood) in a cross sectional sample of young Caucasian undergraduate women (N = 44). All women (mean age = 22.27 plus or minus 3.14 years) completed questionnaire packets assessing transtheoretical model of behavior…

  15. Developmental Associations between Short-Term Variability and Long-Term Changes: Intraindividual Correlation of Positive and Negative Affect in Daily Life and Cognitive Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual notions and empirical evidence suggest that the intraindividual correlation (iCorr) of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) is a meaningful characteristic of affective functioning. PA and NA are typically negatively correlated within-person. Previous research has found that the iCorr of PA and NA is relatively stable over time…

  16. The Effect of Varying Biting Position on Relative Jaw Muscle EMG activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    goal is to protect the temporomandibular joint tissues and therefore minimizes joint force. The second hypothesis is that the system maximizes...modalities for some temporomandibular disorders . Several models have been proposed, but very little experimental work has been accomplished to...tenderness seen in temporomandibular disorder patients. Correlation of wear facet patterns and specific mandibular positions during bruxing with

  17. Correlation and Interaction Visualization of Altmetric Indicators Extracted From Scholarly Social Network Activities: Dimensions and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue Quan; Wu, Hui; Chen, Si Si; Guo, Ji Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background Citation counts for peer-reviewed articles and the impact factor of journals have long been indicators of article importance or quality. In the Web 2.0 era, growing numbers of scholars are using scholarly social network tools to communicate scientific ideas with colleagues, thereby making traditional indicators less sufficient, immediate, and comprehensive. In these new situations, the altmetric indicators offer alternative measures that reflect the multidimensional nature of scholarly impact in an immediate, open, and individualized way. In this direction of research, some studies have demonstrated the correlation between altmetrics and traditional metrics with different samples. However, up to now, there has been relatively little research done on the dimension and interaction structure of altmetrics. Objective Our goal was to reveal the number of dimensions that altmetric indicators should be divided into and the structure in which altmetric indicators interact with each other. Methods Because an article-level metrics dataset is collected from scholarly social media and open access platforms, it is one of the most robust samples available to study altmetric indicators. Therefore, we downloaded a large dataset containing activity data in 20 types of metrics present in 33,128 academic articles from the application programming interface website. First, we analyzed the correlation among altmetric indicators using Spearman rank correlation. Second, we visualized the multiple correlation coefficient matrixes with graduated colors. Third, inputting the correlation matrix, we drew an MDS diagram to demonstrate the dimension for altmetric indicators. For correlation structure, we used a social network map to represent the social relationships and the strength of relations. Results We found that the distribution of altmetric indicators is significantly non-normal and positively skewed. The distribution of downloads and page views follows the Pareto law

  18. Correlations between the Signal Complexity of Cerebral and Cardiac Electrical Activity: A Multiscale Entropy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Feng; Lo, Men-Tzung; Tsao, Jenho; Chang, Yi-Chung; Lin, Chen; Ho, Yi-Lwun

    2014-01-01

    The heart begins to beat before the brain is formed. Whether conventional hierarchical central commands sent by the brain to the heart alone explain all the interplay between these two organs should be reconsidered. Here, we demonstrate correlations between the signal complexity of brain and cardiac activity. Eighty-seven geriatric outpatients with healthy hearts and varied cognitive abilities each provided a 24-hour electrocardiography (ECG) and a 19-channel eye-closed routine electroencephalography (EEG). Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis was applied to three epochs (resting-awake state, photic stimulation of fast frequencies (fast-PS), and photic stimulation of slow frequencies (slow-PS)) of EEG in the 1–58 Hz frequency range, and three RR interval (RRI) time series (awake-state, sleep and that concomitant with the EEG) for each subject. The low-to-high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio of RRI was calculated to represent sympatho-vagal balance. With statistics after Bonferroni corrections, we found that: (a) the summed MSE value on coarse scales of the awake RRI (scales 11–20, RRI-MSE-coarse) were inversely correlated with the summed MSE value on coarse scales of the resting-awake EEG (scales 6–20, EEG-MSE-coarse) at Fp2, C4, T6 and T4; (b) the awake RRI-MSE-coarse was inversely correlated with the fast-PS EEG-MSE-coarse at O1, O2 and C4; (c) the sleep RRI-MSE-coarse was inversely correlated with the slow-PS EEG-MSE-coarse at Fp2; (d) the RRI-MSE-coarse and LF/HF ratio of the awake RRI were correlated positively to each other; (e) the EEG-MSE-coarse at F8 was proportional to the cognitive test score; (f) the results conform to the cholinergic hypothesis which states that cognitive impairment causes reduction in vagal cardiac modulation; (g) fast-PS significantly lowered the EEG-MSE-coarse globally. Whether these heart-brain correlations could be fully explained by the central autonomic network is unknown and needs further exploration. PMID:24498375

  19. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  20. ERBB3 Positively Correlates with Intestinal Stem Cell Markers but Marks a Distinct Non Proliferative Cell Population in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jardé, Thierry; Kass, Lisa; Staples, Margaret; Lescesen, Helen; Carne, Peter; Oliva, Karen; McMurrick, Paul J.; Abud, Helen E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested ERBB3/HER3 may be a useful prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. Tumours with an intestinal stem cell signature have also been shown to be more aggressive. Here, we investigate whether ERBB3 is associated with intestinal stem cell markers in colorectal cancer and if cancer stem cells within tumours are marked by expression of ERBB3. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers (LGR5, EPHB2, CD44s and CD44v6) was assessed by qRT-PCR in primary colorectal tumours (stages 0 to IV) and matched normal tissues from 53 patients. The localisation of ERBB3, EPHB2 and KI-67 within tumours was investigated using co-immunofluorescence. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers were significantly elevated in adenomas and colorectal tumours compared to normal tissue. Positive correlations were found between ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers. However, co-immunofluorescence analysis showed that ERBB3 and EPHB2 marked specific cell populations that were mutually exclusive within tumours with distinct proliferative potentials, the majority of ERBB3+ve cells being non-proliferative. This pattern resembles cellular organisation within normal colonic epithelium where EPHB2 labelled proliferative cells reside at the crypt base and ERBB3+ve cells mark differentiated cells at the top of crypts. Our results show that ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers correlate in colorectal cancers. ERBB3 localises to differentiated cell populations within tumours that are non-proliferative and distinct from cancer stem cells. These data support the concept that tumours contain discrete stem, proliferative and differentiation compartments similar to that present in normal crypts. PMID:26367378

  1. ERBB3 Positively Correlates with Intestinal Stem Cell Markers but Marks a Distinct Non Proliferative Cell Population in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jardé, Thierry; Kass, Lisa; Staples, Margaret; Lescesen, Helen; Carne, Peter; Oliva, Karen; McMurrick, Paul J; Abud, Helen E

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested ERBB3/HER3 may be a useful prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. Tumours with an intestinal stem cell signature have also been shown to be more aggressive. Here, we investigate whether ERBB3 is associated with intestinal stem cell markers in colorectal cancer and if cancer stem cells within tumours are marked by expression of ERBB3. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers (LGR5, EPHB2, CD44s and CD44v6) was assessed by qRT-PCR in primary colorectal tumours (stages 0 to IV) and matched normal tissues from 53 patients. The localisation of ERBB3, EPHB2 and KI-67 within tumours was investigated using co-immunofluorescence. Expression of ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers were significantly elevated in adenomas and colorectal tumours compared to normal tissue. Positive correlations were found between ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers. However, co-immunofluorescence analysis showed that ERBB3 and EPHB2 marked specific cell populations that were mutually exclusive within tumours with distinct proliferative potentials, the majority of ERBB3+ve cells being non-proliferative. This pattern resembles cellular organisation within normal colonic epithelium where EPHB2 labelled proliferative cells reside at the crypt base and ERBB3+ve cells mark differentiated cells at the top of crypts. Our results show that ERBB3 and intestinal stem cell markers correlate in colorectal cancers. ERBB3 localises to differentiated cell populations within tumours that are non-proliferative and distinct from cancer stem cells. These data support the concept that tumours contain discrete stem, proliferative and differentiation compartments similar to that present in normal crypts.

  2. Influence of pelvis position on the activation of abdominal and hip flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Workman, J Chad; Docherty, David; Parfrey, Kevin C; Behm, David G

    2008-09-01

    A pelvic position has been sought that optimizes abdominal muscle activation while diminishing hip flexor activation. Thus, the objective of the study was to investigate the effect of pelvic position and the Janda sit-up on trunk muscle activation. Sixteen male volunteers underwent electromyographic (EMG) testing of their abdominal and hip flexor muscles during a supine isometric double straight leg lift (DSLL) with the feet held approximately 5 cm above a board. The second exercise (Janda sit-up) was a sit-up action where participants simultaneously contracted the hamstrings and the abdominal musculature while holding an approximately 45 degrees angle at the knee. Root mean square surface electromyography was calculated for the Janda sit-up and DSLL under 3 pelvic positions: anterior, neutral, and posterior pelvic tilt. The selected muscles were the upper and lower rectus abdominis (URA, LRA), external obliques, lower abdominal stabilizers (LAS), rectus femoris, and biceps femoris. The Janda sit-up position demonstrated the highest URA and LRA activation and the lowest rectus femoris activation. The Janda sit-up and the posterior tilt were significantly greater (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) than the anterior tilt for the URA and LRA muscles. Activation levels of the URA and LRA in neutral pelvis were significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) less than the Janda sit-up position, but not significantly different from the posterior tilt. No significant differences in EMG activity were found for the external obliques or LAS. No rectus femoris differences were found in the 3 pelvis positions. The results of this study indicate that pelvic position had a significant effect on the activation of selected trunk and hip muscles during isometric exercise, and the activation of the biceps femoris during the Janda sit-up reduced the activation of the rectus femoris while producing high levels of activation of the URA and LRA.

  3. Frequency-specific electrocorticographic correlates of working memory delay period fMRI activity.

    PubMed

    Khursheed, Faraz; Tandon, Nitin; Tertel, Kathrin; Pieters, Thomas A; Disano, Michael A; Ellmore, Timothy M

    2011-06-01

    Electrocorticography (ECoG) and functional MRI (BOLD-fMRI) have been used previously to measure brain activity during working memory delay periods. These studies have separately reported oscillation changes in the theta (4-8 Hz) band and BOLD-fMRI increases during delay periods when information is maintained in memory. However, it is not known how intracranial cortical field potential (CFP) changes relate to BOLD-fMRI responses during delay periods. To answer this question, fMRI was obtained from six epilepsy patients during a visual working memory task. Then, following subdural macroelectrode implant, continuous ECoG was used to record CFPs during the same task. Time-frequency analyses showed delay period gamma band oscillation amplitude increases on electrodes located near fMRI activity, while in the theta band changes were higher for electrodes located away from fMRI activation. The amplitude of the ECoG gamma band response was significantly positively correlated with the fMRI response, while a negative correlation was found for the theta band. The findings are consistent with previous reports of local field potential (LFP) coupling in the gamma band with BOLD-fMRI responses during visual stimulation in monkeys, but are novel in that the relationship reported here persists after the disappearance of visual stimuli while information is being maintained in memory. We conclude that there is a relationship between BOLD-fMRI increases and human working memory delay period gamma oscillation increases and theta decreases. The spectral profile change provides a basis for comparison of working memory delay period BOLD-fMRI with field potential recordings in animals and other human intracranial EEG studies.

  4. The correlation of virulence, pathogenicity, and itraconazole resistance with SAP activity in Candida albicans strains.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenli; Yang, Jing; Pan, Yanwei; Xi, Zhiqin; Qiao, Zusha; Ma, Yan

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between SAP2 activity and drug resistance in Candida albicans was investigated by using itraconazole-resistant and itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans isolates. The precipitation zones were measured to analyze SAP2 activity. Mice were classified into itraconazole-resistant and -sensitive C. albicans isolate groups, and a control group, with their survival and mortality rate being observed over 30 days. The relative expression levels of CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, and SAP2 were measured using RT-PCR. It was found that the secreted aspartyl proteinase activity of itraconazole-resistant C. albicans strains was significantly higher than that of itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans strains (P < 0.001). A significantly higher mortality rate was recorded for mice treated with itraconazole-resistant C. albicans than for mice treated with itraconazole-sensitive C. albicans. In regards to the CDR1, CDR2, and MDR1 genes, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups of mice. Positive correlations between SAP2 and MDR1 and between CDR1 and CDR2 were found. The high expression level of SAP2 may relate to the virulence, pathogenicity, and resistance of C. albicans.

  5. Dynamics of Population Activity in Rat Sensory Cortex: Network Correlations Predict Anatomical Arrangement and Information Content

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Mohammad Mahdi; Adibi, Mehdi; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    To study the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural activity in a cortical population, we implanted a 10 × 10 microelectrode array in the vibrissal cortex of urethane-anesthetized rats. We recorded spontaneous neuronal activity as well as activity evoked in response to sustained and brief sensory stimulation. To quantify the temporal dynamics of activity, we computed the probability distribution function (PDF) of spiking on one electrode given the observation of a spike on another. The spike-triggered PDFs quantified the strength, temporal delay, and temporal precision of correlated activity across electrodes. Nearby cells showed higher levels of correlation at short delays, whereas distant cells showed lower levels of correlation, which tended to occur at longer delays. We found that functional space built based on the strength of pairwise correlations predicted the anatomical arrangement of electrodes. Moreover, the correlation profile of electrode pairs during spontaneous activity predicted the “signal” and “noise” correlations during sensory stimulation. Finally, mutual information analyses revealed that neurons with stronger correlations to the network during spontaneous activity, conveyed higher information about the sensory stimuli in their evoked response. Given the 400-μm-distance between adjacent electrodes, our functional quantifications unravel the spatiotemporal dynamics of activity among nearby and distant cortical columns. PMID:27458347

  6. Patterns of spatio-temporal correlations in the neural activity of the cat motor cortex during trained forelimb movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumya; Putrino, David; Burro, Bianca; Ring, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    In order to study how neurons in the primary motor cortex (MI) are dynamically linked together during skilled movement, we recorded simultaneously from many cortical neurons in cats trained to perform a reaching and retrieval task using their forelimbs. Analysis of task-related spike activity in the MI of the hemisphere contralateral to the reaching forelimb (in identified forelimb or hindlimb representations) recorded through chronically implanted microwires, was followed by pairwise evaluation of temporally correlated activity in these neurons during task performance using shuffle corrected cross-correlograms. Over many months of recording, a variety of task-related modulations of neural activities were observed in individual efferent zones. Positively correlated activity (mainly narrow peaks at zero or short latencies) was seen during task performance frequently between neurons recorded within the forelimb representation of MI, rarely within the hindlimb area of MI, and never between forelimb and hindlimb areas. Correlated activity was frequently observed between neurons with different patterns of task-related activity or preferential activity during different task elements (reaching, feeding, etc.), and located in efferent zones with dissimilar representation as defined by intracortical microstimulation. The observed synchronization of action potentials among selected but functionally varied groups of MI neurons possibly reflects dynamic recruitment of network connections between efferent zones during skilled movement.

  7. Enhancement of figural creativity by motor activation: effects of unilateral hand contractions on creativity are moderated by positive schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Rominger, Christian; Papousek, Ilona; Fink, Andreas; Weiss, Elisabeth M

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is an important trait necessary to achieve innovations in science, economy, arts and daily life. Therefore, the enhancement of creative performance is a significant field of investigation. A recent experiment showed enhanced verbal creativity after unilateral left-hand contractions, which was attributed to elevated activation of the right hemisphere. The present study aimed to extend these findings to the domain of figural creativity. Furthermore, as creativity and positive schizotypy may share some neurobiological underpinnings associated with the right hemisphere, we studied the potential moderating effect of positive schizotypy on the effects of the experimental modification of relative hemispheric activation on creativity. In a gender-balanced sample (20 men and 20 women), squeezing a hand gripper with the left hand enhanced figural creativity on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking compared to squeezing the gripper with the right hand. However, this was only true when positive schizotypy was low. The moderating effect of schizotypy may be produced by relatively greater activity of certain parts of the right hemisphere being a shared neuronal correlate of creativity and positive schizotypy.

  8. Electrodermal activity in depression: clinical and biochemical correlates.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, A M; Coppen, A

    1980-07-01

    Electrodermal activity was measured in a group of depressive patients and normal controls. Those patients classified as endogenous on the Newcastle Scale had significantly lower skin conductance levels than either the non-endogenous patients or controls. The endogenous depressives also contained significantly more non-responders to the experimental stimuli. The lack of responsiveness to external stimulation in non-responders is associated with a significantly lower rate of blood platelet 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake, suggesting that endogenous depressives have biological characteristics that distinguish them from other depressive groups and that electrodermal measures may be useful in the classification of depressive illness.

  9. Activity Changes Induced by Spatio-Temporally Correlated Stimuli in Cultured Cortical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayama, Yuzo; Moriguchi, Hiroyuki; Jimbo, Yasuhiko

    Activity-dependent plasticity probably plays a key role in learning and memory in biological information processing systems. Though long-term potentiation and depression have been extensively studied in the filed of neuroscience, little is known on the mechanisms for integrating these modifications on network-wide activity changes. In this report, we studied effects of spatio-temporally correlated stimuli on the neuronal network activity. Rat cortical neurons were cultured on substrates with 64 embedded micro-electrodes and the evoked responses were extracellularly recorded and analyzed. We compared spatio-temporal patterns of the responses between before and after repetitive application of correlated stimuli. After the correlated stimuli, the networks showed significantly different responses from those in the initial states. The modified activity reflected structures of the repeatedly applied correlated stimuli. The results suggested that spatiotemporally correlated inputs systematically induced modification of synaptic strengths in neuronal networks, which could serve as an underlying mechanism of associative memory.

  10. High Frequency of CD8 Positive Lymphocyte Infiltration Correlates with Lack of Lymph Node Involvement in Early Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Däster, Silvio; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Hirt, Christian; Zlobec, Inti; Delko, Tarik; Nebiker, Christian A.; Soysal, Savas D.; Amicarella, Francesca; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Heberer, Michael; Lugli, Alessandro; Spagnoli, Giulio C.; Kettelhack, Christoph; Terracciano, Luigi; Oertli, Daniel; von Holzen, Urs; Tornillo, Luigi; Droeser, Raoul A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims. A trend towards local excision of early rectal cancers has prompted us to investigate if immunoprofiling might help in predicting lymph node involvement in this subgroup. Methods. A tissue microarray of 126 biopsies of early rectal cancer (T1 and T2) was stained for several immunomarkers of the innate and the adaptive immune response. Patients' survival and nodal status were analyzed and correlated with infiltration of the different immune cells. Results. Of all tested markers, only CD8 (P = 0.005) and TIA-1 (P = 0.05) were significantly more frequently detectable in early rectal cancer biopsies of node negative as compared to node positive patients. Although these two immunomarkers did not display prognostic effect “per se,” CD8+ and, marginally, TIA-1 T cell infiltration could predict nodal involvement in univariate logistic regression analysis (OR 0.994; 95% CI 0.992–0.996; P = 0.009 and OR 0.988; 95% CI 0.984–0.994; P = 0.05, resp.). An algorithm significantly predicting the nodal status in early rectal cancer based on CD8 together with vascular invasion and tumor border configuration could be calculated (P < 0.00001). Conclusion. Our data indicate that in early rectal cancers absence of CD8+ T-cell infiltration helps in predicting patients' nodal involvement. PMID:25609852

  11. Menstruation does not cause anemia: endometrial thickness correlates positively with erythrocyte count and hemoglobin concentration in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Kathryn B H; Nenko, Ilona; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2006-01-01

    Menstruation has often been cited as a risk factor for iron-deficiency anemia. This study tested whether normal, premenopausal women's luteal endometrial thickness (ET) was associated with their red blood cell count (RBC) and hemoglobin concentrations (Hg), and therefore whether a high ET put women at risk for anemia. Endometrial thickness can be considered a reasonable proxy for menstrual blood loss in normal women. Twenty-six healthy women from the Mogielica Human Ecology Study Site in Poland, aged 20-40 years (29 +/- 5.3 years, mean +/- SD), were selected. Subjects' ET was measured by transvaginal ultrasound in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and their red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentrations were measured by fasting morning blood samples. Controlling for day of ET measurement, RBC and Hg were positively correlated with ET (r(2) = 0.24, P = 0.05; r(2) = 0.25, P = 0.04, respectively). We propose that, contrary to popular understanding, a thicker endometrium suggests greater iron reserves, rather than greater risk for anemia, in healthy women.

  12. Enhancement of myofibrillar proteolysis following infusion of amino acid mixture correlates positively with elevation of core body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Ippei; Mikura, Mayumi; Nishimura, Masuhiro; Doi, Masako; Kawano, Yuichi; Nakayama, Mitsuo

    2008-12-01

    Administration of an amino acid (AA) mixture stimulates muscle protein synthesis and elevates core body temperature (T(b)), as characteristically found under anesthetic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that not only AA given, but also AA produced by degradation of endogenous muscular protein are provided for muscle protein synthesis, which is further reflected in T(b) modifications. Rats were intravenously administered an AA mixture or saline in combination with the anesthetic propofol or lipid emulsion. We measured plasma 3-methylhistidine (MeHis) concentrations as an index of myofibrillar protein degradation, rectal temperature and mRNA expression of atrogin-1, MuRF-1 and ubiquitin in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of rats following 3 h infusion of test solutions. T(b) did not differ significantly between conscious groups, but was higher in the AA group than in the saline group among anesthetized rats. Plasma MeHis concentrations were higher in the AA group than in the saline group under both conditions. Plasma MeHis levels correlated positively with T(b) of rats under both conditions. AA administration decreased mRNA levels of atrogin-1 and ubiquitin in gastrocnemius muscle and all mRNA levels in soleus muscle. These results suggest that AA administration enhances myofibrillar protein degradation and that the change is a determinant of T(b) modification by AA administration. However, the mechanisms underlying AA administration-associated enhancement of myofibrillar proteolysis remains yet to be determined.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis reveals positive correlations between adaptations to diverse hosts in a group of pathogen-like herbivores.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Daniel A; Hardy, Nate B; Morse, Geoffrey E; Stocks, Ian C; Okusu, Akiko; Normark, Benjamin B

    2015-10-01

    A jack of all trades can be master of none-this intuitive idea underlies most theoretical models of host-use evolution in plant-feeding insects, yet empirical support for trade-offs in performance on distinct host plants is weak. Trade-offs may influence the long-term evolution of host use while being difficult to detect in extant populations, but host-use evolution may also be driven by adaptations for generalism. Here we used host-use data from insect collection records to parameterize a phylogenetic model of host-use evolution in armored scale insects, a large family of plant-feeding insects with a simple, pathogen-like life history. We found that a model incorporating positive correlations between evolutionary changes in host performance best fit the observed patterns of diaspidid presence and absence on nearly all focal host taxa, suggesting that adaptations to particular hosts also enhance performance on other hosts. In contrast to the widely invoked trade-off model, we advocate a "toolbox" model of host-use evolution in which armored scale insects accumulate a set of independent genetic tools, each of which is under selection for a single function but may be useful on multiple hosts.

  14. Early Foetal Loss Correlates Positively with Seroconversion against Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in High-Producing Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; López-Gatius, F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to examine (i) the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subs paratuberculosis (MAP) in a high-producing dairy herd with clinical symptoms of bovine paratuberculosis, (ii) MAP seroconversion and seronegativation dynamics in the herd and (iii) possible relationships between MAP infection status and herd reproductive performance. One single blood test per cow was performed early post-partum on a monthly basis from day 10-40 post-partum during the first year of the study in 519 cows belonging to a commercial dairy herd. A subset of 111 cows that became pregnant during the study was tested again 60-200 days later during the early foetal period, immediately after the first confirmation of gestation at 58-64 days post-AI. Logistic regression analysis indicated no effect of any independent variable on MAP seropositivity and conception rate 28-34 days post-AI. MAP seropositivity was not a factor affecting the anoestrous, subfertility and early foetal loss rates. In the subset of 111 cows, animals that seroconverted had a 3.9 times greater risk of suffering from early foetal loss (30.3%, 10/33) than the remaining pregnant animals (10.3%, 8/78), (95% confidence interval: 1.11-13.4; p = 0.003). In conclusion, early foetal loss was positively correlated with seroconversion to MAP. Reproductive performance was not impaired by MAP infection.

  15. Outburst of GX304-1 Monitored with INTEGRAL: Positive Correlation Between the Cyclotron Line Energy and Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klochkov, D.; Doroshenko, V.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Ferrigno, C.; Kretschmar, P.; Caballero, I.; Wilms, J.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Pottschmidt, I.; Rothschild, R. E.; Pilhlhofer, G.

    2012-01-01

    Context. X-ray spectra of many accreting pulsars exhibit significant variations as a function of flux and thus of mass accretion rate. In some of these pulsars, the centroid energy of the cyclotron line(s), which characterizes the magnetic field strength at the site of the X-ray emission, has been found to vary systematically with flux. Aims. GX304-1 is a recently established cyclotron line source with a line energy around 50 keV. Since 2009, the pulsar shows regular outbursts with the peak flux exceeding one Crab. We analyze the INTEGRAL observations of the source during its outburst in January-February 2012. Methods. The observations covered almost the entire outburst, allowing us to measure the source's broad-band X-my spectrum at different flux levels. We report on the variations in the spectral parameters with luminosity and focus on the variations in the cyclotron line. Results. The centroid energy of the line is found to be positively correlated with the luminosity. We interpret this result as a manifestation of the local sub-Eddington (sub-critical) accretion regime operating in the source.

  16. Correlation of Positive and Negative Reciprocity Fails to Confer an Evolutionary Advantage: Phase Transitions to Elementary Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-10-01

    Economic experiments reveal that humans value cooperation and fairness. Punishing unfair behavior is therefore common, and according to the theory of strong reciprocity, it is also directly related to rewarding cooperative behavior. However, empirical data fail to confirm that positive and negative reciprocity are correlated. Inspired by this disagreement, we determine whether the combined application of reward and punishment is evolutionarily advantageous. We study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to the three elementary strategies of defection, rewarding, and punishment, a fourth strategy that combines the latter two competes for space. We find rich dynamical behavior that gives rise to intricate phase diagrams where continuous and discontinuous phase transitions occur in succession. Indirect territorial competition, spontaneous emergence of cyclic dominance, as well as divergent fluctuations of oscillations that terminate in an absorbing phase are observed. Yet, despite the high complexity of solutions, the combined strategy can survive only in very narrow and unrealistic parameter regions. Elementary strategies, either in pure or mixed phases, are much more common and likely to prevail. Our results highlight the importance of patterns and structure in human cooperation, which should be considered in future experiments.

  17. LXR activation inhibits chemokine-induced CD4-positive lymphocyte migration.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Daniel; Vasic, Dusica; Heinz, Philipp; Bach, Helga; Durst, Renate; Hausauer, Angelina; Hombach, Vinzenz; Marx, Nikolaus

    2010-07-01

    Migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes into the vessel wall is a critical step in atherogenesis. Recent data suggest that CD4-positive lymphocytes express the nuclear transcription factors Liver-X-Receptor (LXR) alpha and beta with an effect of LXR activators on TH1-cytokine release from these cells. However, the role of LXR in lymphocyte migration remains currently unexplored. Therefore, the present study investigated whether LXR activation might modulate chemokine-induced migration of these cells. Stimulation of CD4-positive lymphocytes with SDF-1 leads to a 2.5 +/- 0.8-fold increase in cell migration (P < 0.05; n = 12). Pretreatment of cells with the LXR activator T0901317 reduces this effect in a concentration-dependent manner to a maximal 0.9 +/- 0.4-fold induction at 1 micromol/L T0901317 (P < 0.05 compared to SDF-1-treated cells; n = 12). Similar results were obtained with the LXR activator GW3965. The effect of LXR activators on CD4-positive lymphocyte migration was mediated through an early inhibition of chemokine-induced PI-3 kinase activity as determined by PI-3 kinase activity assays. Downstream, T0901317 inhibited activation of the small GTPase Rac and phosphorylation of the myosin light chain (MLC). Moreover, LXR activator treatment reduced f-actin formation as well as ICAM3 translocation to the uropod of the cell, thus interfering with two important steps in T cell migration. Transfection of CD4-positive lymphocytes with LXRalpha/beta siRNA abolished T0901317 inhibitory effect on MLC phosphorylation and ICAM3 translocation. LXR activation by T0901317 or GW3965 inhibits chemokine-induced migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes. Given the crucial importance of chemokine-induced T cell migration in early atherogenesis, LXR activators may be promising tools to modulate this effect.

  18. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  19. False-positive liver scans due to portal hypertension: correlation with percutaneous transhepatic portograms in 33 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Takayasu, K.; Moriyama, N.; Suzuki, M.; Yamada, T.; Fukutake, T.; Shima, Y.; Kobayashi, C.; Musha, H.; Okuda, K.

    1983-04-01

    Tc-99m-phytate scanning of the liver and percutaneous transhepatic catheterization of the portal vein were performed in 33 patients--26 with cirrhosis, 3 with chronic active hepatitis, 2 with idiopathic portal hypertension, and 2 with unresolved acute hepatitis. A discrete defect in the porta hepatis area was seen in 6 of 28 patients who had portal vein pressure above 200 mm H2O. In 5 of the 6 patients with a false-positive scan, the umbilical portion of the left portal vein branch was dilated (larger than 25 x 20 mm) on the portogram, with or without a patent paraumbilical vein. The anatomical basis of this phenomenon is discussed, and it is suggested that this area be given special attention.

  20. Possible correlation between levansucrase production and probiotic activity of Bacillus sp. isolated from honey and honey bee.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Abdelhamid A; Elattal, Nouran A; Amin, Magdy A; Ali, Amal E; Mansour, Nahla M; Awad, Ghada E A; Awad, Hassan M; Esawy, Mona A

    2017-04-01

    Five bacterial isolates from honey and bee gut were selected based on their high levansucrase activity and levan yield which were strongly positively correlated. All isolates showed good tolerance to temperature up to 70 °C, to NaCl up to 3 M and to 0.1% H2O2. They maintained over 59 and 64% survival at pH 9.0 and 2.0 respectively, but showed varying tolerance to 0.1% bile salts and pancreatic enzymes. Most isolates were susceptible to widely used antibiotics, but demonstrated diverse antimicrobial activity. Non hemolytic isolates were identified on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing as Bacillus subtilis HMNig-2 and B. subtilis MENO2 with 97% homology. They exhibited promising probiotic characteristics and achieved highest levansucrase activity of 94.1 and 81.5 U/mL respectively. Both exhibited highest biofilm formation ability in static microtiter plate assay. Also, they achieved 34 and 26% adhesion respectively to Caco-2cells and had highest free radical scavenging activity of 30.8 and 26.2% respectively. The levans of the two isolates showed good antimicrobial activity against some pathogens and exhibited positive prebiotic effect (prebiotic index >1) with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus reuteri. Results suggest a correlation between levansucrase production, levan yield and pre-probiotic activities of the studied strains.

  1. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a “basal” state (at 1.5 × 106 K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  2. Effect of Knee Position on Quadriceps Muscle Force Steadiness and Activation Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Allen, Eric J.; Williams, Glenn N.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the effect of knee position on quadriceps force steadiness and activation strategies. Methods Quadriceps force steadiness was evaluated in twenty-two volunteers at two knee positions by testing their ability to regulate submaximal force. Muscle activation strategies were studied in both time and frequency domains using surface electromyography. Results Quadriceps force fluctuations and the associated agonist and antagonist activity were significantly higher at 90° than at 30° of flexion (P < 0.05). The quadriceps median frequency recorded at 30° was significantly higher than at 90° of flexion (P < 0.05). Regression analyses revealed that force steadiness was related to quadriceps activation and median frequency (P < 0.001), but not to hamstring coactivation (P > 0.05). Discussion The results indicate that knee position significantly affects quadriceps force steadiness and activation strategies. This finding may have important implications for designing a force control testing protocol and interpreting test results. PMID:21404288

  3. Sex differences in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats: positive correlation between LTP and contextual learning.

    PubMed

    Maren, S; De Oca, B; Fanselow, M S

    1994-10-24

    Three experiments investigated sex differences in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and Pavlovian fear conditioning in rats. Experiment 1 revealed a robust sex difference in the magnitude of LTP induced at perforant path synapses in the dentate gyrus of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. This sex difference in LTP was evident in rats of 35 and 60 days of age and was not the result of pre-LTP sex differences in perforant path synaptic transmission; 20-day-old rats did not show LTP. An analysis of field potentials evoked during LTP induction revealed a sex difference in the magnitude of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation that was highly correlated with the magnitude of LTP. Experiment 2 showed that males condition more fear, measured as freezing, to the contextual conditional stimuli (CSs) of a conditioning chamber compared to their female counterparts. This sex difference in conditional freezing was apparent with both low and high unconditional stimulus (US, footshock) intensities. Experiment 3 revealed that the enhanced fear conditioning in males was specific to contextual CSs, and consisted of a more rapid rate of conditioning. Together, these experiments reveal a positive correlation between the magnitude of hippocampal LTP and a form of learning that depends on the hippocampus. Furthermore, they suggest a neural basis for sex differences in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks.

  4. Activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems and baseline arterial blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Sidorova, P V; Pavlov, S V; Makhnev, V P; Korenek, V V; Reva, N V; Amstislavskaya, T G

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to identify possible associations between individual balances in the activity of the positive and negative reinforcement motivation systems using a method based on emotional modulation of the startle reaction (EMSR) by motivationally significant emotionally positive and negative contextual visual stimuli and measures of cardiovascular system activity. Studies were performed using healthy males (mean age 30.29 +/- 9.8 years) with normal and first-episode excessive increases in arterial blood pressure (systolic blood pressure to greater than 140 mmHg, diastolic to greater than 90 mmHg). Cluster analysis of EMSR data identified groups of individuals with different activity profiles for the positive and negative reinforcement systems. Groups of subjects with changes in the balance of activity towards a lower level of positive reinforcement system activity (smaller startle reflexes to positive contextual stimuli) or a higher level of negative reinforcement system activity (larger startle reactions to threatening contextual stimuli) showed significantly greater baseline SBP and DBP. The possible mechanisms of the modulatory influences of the balance of system activities on autonomic vascular regulatory processes are discussed.

  5. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries.

  6. Situational Motivation and Perceived Intensity: Their Interaction in Predicting Changes in Positive Affect from Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Eva; Fortier, Michelle S.

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that affective experiences surrounding physical activity can contribute to the proper self-regulation of an active lifestyle. Motivation toward physical activity, as portrayed by self-determination theory, has been linked to positive affect, as has the intensity of physical activity, especially of a preferred nature. The purpose of this experimental study was to examine the interaction between situational motivation and intensity [i.e., ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)] in predicting changes in positive affect following an acute bout of preferred physical activity, namely, running. Fourty-one female runners engaged in a 30-minute self-paced treadmill run in a laboratory context. Situational motivation for running, pre- and post-running positive affect, and RPE were assessed via validated self-report questionnaires. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed a significant interaction effect between RPE and introjection (P < .05) but not between RPE and identified regulation or intrinsic motivation. At low levels of introjection, the influence of RPE on the change in positive affect was considerable, with higher RPE ratings being associated with greater increases in positive affect. The implications of the findings in light of SDT principles as well as the potential contingencies between the regulations and RPE in predicting positive affect among women are discussed. PMID:22778914

  7. Correlation between skin temperature and heart rate during exercise and recovery, and the influence of body position in these variables in untrained women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Cunha, Raphael Martins; Rosa, Claudio; Antunes, Natacha Sousa; Felisberto, Ivo Miguel Vieira; Vilaça-Alves, José; Reis, Victor Machado

    2016-03-01

    It was known that the thermal response varies according to some variables. Until now, there are no studies that have investigated the relationship of skin temperature and heart rate during and after the workout, either the thermal behavior during postural changes. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of skin temperature and heart rate, during exercise and up to an hour of recovery (with postural change), performed in two different intensities sessions (70% and 85% of 10 repetitions maximum) and observe the correlation between them. Method: This was a short longitudinal study, carried out with women aged from 18 to 30 years. A sample of 31 untrained women, aged 18 and 30 was used. The volunteers were randomized into two groups: Biceps Group (BG), with 15 women, and Quadriceps Group (QG) with 16 women. Results: During and after completion of the exercise session, there was a significant reduction in skin temperature on the active muscles in both groups (BG and QG), with similar thermal responses for the two intensities studied (70% and 85%) to the minute 15 (which marks the end of the recovery in the standing position). From minute 15 to minute 20-60, the skin temperature increases abruptly and significantly, returning to levels close to those observed before exercise. Conclusion: There were no statistical differences in thermal response to exercises in 70% or 85% of 10RM. There is a negative correlation between heart rate and skin temperature when untrained women perform anaerobic exercise. It was observed that after a change of posture (from a standing position to a sitting posture) skin temperature increased abruptly and significantly.

  8. Calpain-controlled detachment of major glycoproteins from the cytoskeleton regulates adhesive properties of activated phosphatidylserine-positive platelets.

    PubMed

    Artemenko, Elena O; Yakimenko, Alena O; Pichugin, Alexey V; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2016-02-15

    In resting platelets, adhesive membrane glycoproteins are attached to the cytoskeleton. On strong activation, phosphatidylserine(PS)-positive and -negative platelet subpopulations are formed. Platelet activation is accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangement, although the glycoprotein attachment status in these two subpopulations is not clear. We developed a new, flow cytometry-based, single-cell approach to investigate attachment of membrane glycoproteins to the cytoskeleton in cell subpopulations. In PS-negative platelets, adhesive glycoproteins integrin αIIbβ3, glycoprotein Ib and, as shown for the first time, P-selectin were associated with the cytoskeleton. In contrast, this attachment was disrupted in PS-positive platelets; it was retained to some extent only in the small convex regions or 'caps'. It correlated with the degradation of talin and filamin observed only in PS-positive platelets. Calpain inhibitors essentially prevented the disruption of membrane glycoprotein attachment in PS-positive platelets, as well as talin and filamin degradation. With the suggestion that detachment of glycoproteins from the cytoskeleton may affect platelet adhesive properties, we investigated the ability of PS-positive platelets to resist shear-induced breakaway from the immobilized fibrinogen. Shear rates of 500/s caused PS-positive platelet breakaway, but their adhesion stability increased more than 10-fold after pretreatment of the platelets with calpain inhibitor. In contrast, the ability of PS-positive platelets to adhere to immobilized von Willebrand's factor at 100/s was low, but this was not affected by the preincubation of platelets with a calpain inhibitor. Our data suggest that calpain-controlled detachment of membrane glycoproteins is a new mechanism that is responsible for the loss of ability of the procoagulant platelets to resist detachment from thrombi by high shear stress.

  9. Geomagnetic activity during the previous day is correlated with increased consumption of sucrose during subsequent days: is increased geomagnetic activity aversive?

    PubMed

    Galic, M A; Persinger, M A

    2004-06-01

    In five separate blocks over a period of several months for 33 female rats the amount of geomagnetic activity during the day before ad libitum access to 10% sucrose or water was positively correlated with the volume of sucrose consumed per 24-hr. period. The strength of the correlation (.62 to .77) declined over the subsequent 10 days from between .12 to -.18 and resembled an extinction curve. In a subsequent experiment four rats exposed to 5 nT to 8 nT, 0.5-Hz magnetic fields that ceased for 30 min. once every 4 hr. for 4 days consumed 11% more sucrose than the four rats exposed to no field. We suggest that the initial consumption of 10% sucrose may have been reinforced because it diminished the aversive physiological effects associated with the increased geomagnetic activity. However, over the subsequent days, as geomagnetic activity decreased or habituation occurred, negative reinforcement did not maintain this behavior.

  10. Breadth and Intensity of Youth Activity Involvement as Contexts for Positive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Research has linked youth activity involvement to positive development. However, past studies have confounded at least two separable dimensions of involvement: breadth (number of activities) and intensity (participation frequency). Theory and the limited available evidence suggest that these dimensions may make independent contributions to…

  11. Positive Behavior Interventions and Support in a Physical Activity Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in a summer camp. The camp provided physical activity opportunities to underserved children attending a summer program at a local, rural public school. Certified physical education teachers led activity stations. Participants in…

  12. Physical Activity and Psychological Benefits. International Society of Sport Psychology Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    International Society of Sport Psychology clarifies the psychological benefits of physical activity, noting the positive relationship between physical activity level and mental health. Exercise can reduce anxiety, decrease depression levels, reduce neuroticism and anxiety, reduce stress, and have beneficial emotional effects for both sexes across…

  13. Alignment of Hands-On STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in…

  14. Testicular volume is inversely correlated with nurturing-related brain activity in human fathers.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Hackett, Patrick D; Rilling, James K

    2013-09-24

    Despite the well-documented benefits afforded the children of invested fathers in modern Western societies, some fathers choose not to invest in their children. Why do some men make this choice? Life History Theory offers an explanation for variation in parental investment by positing a trade-off between mating and parenting effort, which may explain some of the observed variance in human fathers' parenting behavior. We tested this hypothesis by measuring aspects of reproductive biology related to mating effort, as well as paternal nurturing behavior and the brain activity related to it. Both plasma testosterone levels and testes volume were independently inversely correlated with paternal caregiving. In response to viewing pictures of one's own child, activity in the ventral tegmental area--a key component of the mesolimbic dopamine reward and motivation system--predicted paternal caregiving and was negatively related to testes volume. Our results suggest that the biology of human males reflects a trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort, as indexed by testicular size and nurturing-related brain function, respectively.

  15. Is spinal excitability of the triceps surae mainly affected by muscle activity or body position?

    PubMed

    Cattagni, T; Martin, A; Scaglioni, G

    2014-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine how muscle activity and body orientation contribute to the triceps surae spinal transmission modulation, when moving from a sitting to a standing position. Maximal Hoffmann-reflex (Hmax) and motor potential (Mmax) were evoked in the soleus (SOL), medial and lateral gastrocnemius in 10 male subjects and in three conditions, passive sitting, active sitting and upright standing, with the same SOL activity in active sitting and upright standing. Moreover volitional wave (V) was evoked in the two active conditions (i.e., active sitting and upright standing). The results showed that SOL Hmax/Mmax was lower in active sitting than in passive sitting, while for the gastrocnemii it was not significantly altered. For the three plantar flexors, Hmax/Mmax was lower in upright standing than in active sitting, whereas V/Mmax was not modulated. SOL H-reflex is therefore affected by the increase in muscle activity and change in body orientation, while, in the gastrocnemii, it was only affected by a change in posture. In conclusion, passing from a sitting to a standing position affects the Hmax/Mmax of the whole triceps surae, but the mechanisms responsible for this change differ among the synergist muscles. The V/Mmax does not change when upright stance is assumed. This means that the increased inhibitory activity in orthostatic position is compensated by an increased excitatory inflow to the α-motoneurons of central and/or peripheral origin.

  16. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species.

    PubMed

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  17. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  18. Urine Toxicology Screen in Multiple Sleep Latency Test: The Correlation of Positive Tetrahydrocannabinol, Drug Negative Patients, and Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Dzodzomenyo, Samuel; Stolfi, Adrienne; Splaingard, Deborah; Earley, Elizabeth; Onadeko, Oluwole; Splaingard, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Drugs can influence results of multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT). We sought to identify the effect of marijuana on MSLT results in pediatric patients evaluated for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Methods: This is a retrospective study of urine drug screens performed the morning before MSLT in 383 patients < 21 years old referred for EDS. MSLT results were divided into those with (1) (−) urine drug screens, (2) urine drug screens (+) for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) alone or THC plus other drugs, and (3) urine drug screens (+) for drugs other than THC. Groups were compared with Fisher exact tests or one-way ANOVA. Results: 38 (10%) urine drug tests were (+): 14 for THC and 24 for other drugs. Forty-three percent of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy, 0% consistent with idiopathic hypersomnia, 29% other, and 29% normal. This was statistically different from those with (−) screens (24% narcolepsy, 20% idiopathic hypersomnia, 6% other, 50% normal), and those (+) for drugs other than THC (17% narcolepsy, 33% idiopathic hypersomnia, 4% other, 46% normal (p = 0.01). Six percent (6/93) of patients with MSLT findings consistent with narcolepsy were drug screen (+) for THC; 71% of patients with drug screen (+) for THC had multiple sleep onset REM periods (SOREMS). There were no (+) urine drug screens in patients < 13 years old. Conclusion: Many pediatric patients with (+) urine drug screens for THC met MSLT criteria for narcolepsy or had multiple SOREMs. Drug screening is important in interpreting MSLT findings for children ≥ 13 years. Citation: Dzodzomenyo S, Stolfi A, Splaingard D, Earley E, Onadeko O, Splaingard M. Urine toxicology screen in multiple sleep latency test: the correlation of positive tetrahydrocannabinol, drug negative patients, and narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(2):93–99. PMID:25348245

  19. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  20. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  1. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  2. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…

  3. Elm1 kinase activates the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4

    PubMed Central

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Orrico, Maria I.L.; Hofmann, Astrid; Ibrahim, Bashar

    2010-01-01

    Budding yeast asymmetric cell division relies upon the precise coordination of spindle orientation and cell cycle progression. The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a surveillance mechanism that prevents cells with misoriented spindles from exiting mitosis. The cortical kinase Kin4 acts near the top of this network. How Kin4 kinase activity is regulated and maintained in respect to spindle positional cues remains to be established. Here, we show that the bud neck–associated kinase Elm1 participates in Kin4 activation and SPOC signaling by phosphorylating a conserved residue within the activation loop of Kin4. Blocking Elm1 function abolishes Kin4 kinase activity in vivo and eliminates the SPOC response to spindle misalignment. These findings establish a novel function for Elm1 in the coordination of spindle positioning with cell cycle progression via its control of Kin4. PMID:20855503

  4. Elm1 kinase activates the spindle position checkpoint kinase Kin4.

    PubMed

    Caydasi, Ayse Koca; Kurtulmus, Bahtiyar; Orrico, Maria I L; Hofmann, Astrid; Ibrahim, Bashar; Pereira, Gislene

    2010-09-20

    Budding yeast asymmetric cell division relies upon the precise coordination of spindle orientation and cell cycle progression. The spindle position checkpoint (SPOC) is a surveillance mechanism that prevents cells with misoriented spindles from exiting mitosis. The cortical kinase Kin4 acts near the top of this network. How Kin4 kinase activity is regulated and maintained in respect to spindle positional cues remains to be established. Here, we show that the bud neck-associated kinase Elm1 participates in Kin4 activation and SPOC signaling by phosphorylating a conserved residue within the activation loop of Kin4. Blocking Elm1 function abolishes Kin4 kinase activity in vivo and eliminates the SPOC response to spindle misalignment. These findings establish a novel function for Elm1 in the coordination of spindle positioning with cell cycle progression via its control of Kin4.

  5. Adaptability and Prediction of Anticipatory Muscular Activity Parameters to Different Movements in the Sitting Position.

    PubMed

    Chikh, Soufien; Watelain, Eric; Faupin, Arnaud; Pinti, Antonio; Jarraya, Mohamed; Garnier, Cyril

    2016-08-01

    Voluntary movement often causes postural perturbation that requires an anticipatory postural adjustment to minimize perturbation and increase the efficiency and coordination during execution. This systematic review focuses specifically on the relationship between the parameters of anticipatory muscular activities and movement finality in sitting position among adults, to study the adaptability and predictability of anticipatory muscular activities parameters to different movements and conditions in sitting position in adults. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Springer-Link, Engineering Village, and EbscoHost. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to retain the most rigorous and specific studies, yielding 76 articles, Seventeen articles were excluded at first reading, and after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 23 were retained. In a sitting position, central nervous system activity precedes movement by diverse anticipatory muscular activities and shows the ability to adapt anticipatory muscular activity parameters to the movement direction, postural stability, or charge weight. In addition, these parameters could be adapted to the speed of execution, as found for the standing position. Parameters of anticipatory muscular activities (duration, order, and amplitude of muscle contractions constituting the anticipatory muscular activity) could be used as a predictive indicator of forthcoming movement. In addition, this systematic review may improve methodology in empirical studies and assistive technology for people with disabilities.

  6. Structure-activity relationships of 4-position diamine quinoline methanols as intermittent preventative treatment (IPT) against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Milner, Erin; Gardner, Sean; Moon, Jay; Grauer, Kristina; Auschwitz, Jennifer; Bathurst, Ian; Caridha, Diana; Gerena, Lucia; Gettayacamin, Montip; Johnson, Jacob; Kozar, Michael; Lee, Patricia; Leed, Susan; Li, Qigui; McCalmont, William; Melendez, Victor; Roncal, Norma; Sciotti, Richard; Smith, Bryan; Sousa, Jason; Tungtaeng, Anchalee; Wipf, Peter; Dow, Geoffrey

    2011-09-22

    A library of diamine quinoline methanols were designed based on the mefloquine scaffold. The systematic variation of the 4-position amino alcohol side chain led to analogues that maintained potency while reducing accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the mechanism of action remains elusive, these data indicate that the 4-position side chain is critical for activity and that potency (as measured by IC(90)) does not correlate with accumulation in the CNS. A new lead compound, (S)-1-(2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinolin-4-yl)-2-(2-(cyclopropylamino)ethylamino)ethanol (WR621308), was identified with single dose efficacy and substantially lower permeability across MDCK cell monolayers than mefloquine. This compound could be appropriate for intermittent preventative treatment (IPTx) indications or other malaria treatments currently approved for mefloquine.

  7. Alignment of Hands-on STEM Engagement Activities with Positive STEM Dispositions in Secondary School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Rhonda; Knezek, Gerald; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-12-01

    This study examines positive dispositions reported by middle school and high school students participating in programs that feature STEM-related activities. Middle school students participating in school-to-home hands-on energy monitoring activities are compared to middle school and high school students in a different project taking part in activities such as an after-school robotics program. Both groups are compared and contrasted with a third group of high school students admitted at the eleventh grade to an academy of mathematics and science. All students were assessed using the same science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) dispositions instrument. Findings indicate that the after-school group whose participants self-selected STEM engagement activities, and the self-selected academy of mathematics and science group, each had highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to those of STEM professionals, while a subset of the middle school whole-classroom energy monitoring group that reported high interest in STEM as a career, also possessed highly positive STEM dispositions comparable to the STEM Professionals group. The authors conclude that several different kinds of hands-on STEM engagement activities are likely to foster or maintain positive STEM dispositions at the middle school and high school levels, and that these highly positive levels of dispositions can be viewed as a target toward which projects seeking to interest mainstream secondary students in STEM majors in college and STEM careers, can hope to aspire. Gender findings regarding STEM dispositions are also reported for these groups.

  8. Electromyographic activity of preterm newborns in the kangaroo position: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Rafael Moura; Cabral Filho, José Eulálio; Diniz, Kaísa Trovão; Souza Lima, Geisy Maria; Vasconcelos, Danilo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the electromyographic activity of preterm newborns placed in the kangaroo position with the activity of newborns not placed in this position. Design A cohort study. Setting A Kangaroo Unit sector and a Nursery sector in a secondary and tertiary care at a mother-child hospital in Recife, Brazil. Participants Preterm infants of gestational age 27–34 weeks (n=38) and term infants (n=39). Primary and secondary outcome measures Surface electromyography was used to investigate muscle activity in the brachial biceps at rest. 3 groups were designed: (1) preterm newborns in the kangaroo position (PT-KAN), where the newborn remains in a vertical position, lying face down, with limbs flexed, dressed in light clothes, maintaining skin-to-skin contact with the adult's thorax. Her electromyographic activity was recorded at 0 h (immediately before starting this position), and then at 48 h after the beginning of the position (but newborns were kept in the kangaroo position for 8–12 h per day) and at term equivalent age (40±1 weeks); (2) preterm newborns not in the kangaroo position (PT-NKAN), in which measurements were made at 0 h and 48 h; and (3) term newborns (T), in which measurements were made at 24 h of chronological age. Results The Root Mean Square (RMS) values showed significant differences among groups (F(5,108)=56.69; p<0.001). The multiple comparisons showed that RMS was greater at 48 h compared to 0 h in the preterm group in the kangaroo position, but not in the group not submitted in the kangaroo position. The RMS in the term equivalent aged group in the kangaroo position was also greater when compared with those in the term group. Conclusions The kangaroo position increases electromyographic activity in the brachial biceps of preterm newborns and those who have reached the age equivalent to term. PMID:25351598

  9. Relative spatial positions of tryptophan and cationic residues in helical membrane-active peptides determine their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rekdal, Øystein; Haug, Bengt Erik; Kalaaji, Manar; Hunter, Howard N; Lindin, Inger; Israelsson, Ingrid; Solstad, Terese; Yang, Nannan; Brandl, Martin; Mantzilas, Dimitrios; Vogel, Hans J

    2012-01-02

    The cytotoxic activity of 10 analogs of the idealized amphipathic helical 21-mer peptide (KAAKKAA)3, where three of the Ala residues at different positions have been replaced with Trp residues, has been investigated. The peptide's cytotoxic activity was found to be markedly dependent upon the position of the Trp residues within the hydrophobic sector of an idealized α-helix. The peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector displayed no antitumor activity, whereas those peptides with two or three Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector exhibited high cytotoxic activity when tested against three different cancer cell lines. Dye release experiments revealed that in contrast to the peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector, the peptides with Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector induced a strong permeabilizing activity from liposomes composed of a mixture of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine and negatively charged phosphatidylserine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPS)) (2:1) but not from liposomes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, POPC. Fluorescence blue shift and quenching experiments revealed that Trp residues inserted deeper into the hydrophobic environment of POPC/POPS liposomes for peptides with high cytotoxic activity. Through circular dichroism studies, a correlation between the cytotoxic activity and the α-helical propensity was established. Structural studies of one inactive and two active peptides in the presence of micelles using NMR spectroscopy showed that only the active peptides adopted highly coiled to helical structures when bound to a membrane surface.

  10. Elevated calpain activity in acute myelogenous leukemia correlates with decreased calpastatin expression

    PubMed Central

    Niapour, M; Farr, C; Minden, M; Berger, S A

    2012-01-01

    Calpains are intracellular cysteine proteases that have crucial roles in many physiological and pathological processes. Elevated calpain activity has been associated with many pathological states. Calpain inhibition can be protective or lethal depending on the context. Previous work has shown that c-myc transformation regulates calpain activity by suppressing calpastatin, the endogenous negative regulator of calpain. Here, we have investigated calpain activity in primary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) blast cells. Calpain activity was heterogeneous and greatly elevated over a wide range in AML blast cells, with no correlation to FAB classification. Activity was particularly elevated in the CD34+CD38− enriched fraction compared with the CD34+CD38+ fraction. Treatment of the cells with the specific calpain inhibitor, PD150606, induced significant apoptosis in AML blast cells but not in normal equivalent cells. Sensitivity to calpain inhibition correlated with calpain activity and preferentially targeted CD34+CD38− cells. There was no correlation between calpain activity and p-ERK levels, suggesting the ras pathway may not be a major contributor to calpain activity in AML. A significant negative correlation existed between calpain activity and calpastatin, suggesting calpastatin is the major regulator of activity in these cells. Analysis of previously published microarray data from a variety of AML patients demonstrated a significant negative correlation between calpastatin and c-myc expression. Patients who achieved a complete remission had significantly lower calpain activity than those who had no response to treatment. Taken together, these results demonstrate elevated calpain activity in AML, anti-leukemic activity of calpain inhibition and prognostic potential of calpain activity measurement. PMID:22829235

  11. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and physical activity for older adults.

    PubMed

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J; Proctor, David N; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Minson, Christopher T; Nigg, Claudio R; Salem, George J; Skinner, James S

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this Position Stand is to provide an overview of issues critical to understanding the importance of exercise and physical activity in older adult populations. The Position Stand is divided into three sections: Section 1 briefly reviews the structural and functional changes that characterize normal human aging, Section 2 considers the extent to which exercise and physical activity can influence the aging process, and Section 3 summarizes the benefits of both long-term exercise and physical activity and shorter-duration exercise programs on health and functional capacity. Although no amount of physical activity can stop the biological aging process, there is evidence that regular exercise can minimize the physiological effects of an otherwise sedentary lifestyle and increase active life expectancy by limiting the development and progression of chronic disease and disabling conditions. There is also emerging evidence for significant psychological and cognitive benefits accruing from regular exercise participation by older adults. Ideally, exercise prescription for older adults should include aerobic exercise, muscle strengthening exercises, and flexibility exercises. The evidence reviewed in this Position Stand is generally consistent with prior American College of Sports Medicine statements on the types and amounts of physical activity recommended for older adults as well as the recently published 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. All older adults should engage in regular physical activity and avoid an inactive lifestyle.

  12. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Barnett, Lisa M.; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A.; Papadopoulos, Nicole V.; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children’s physical activity (34–166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126–558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428–750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors. PMID

  13. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and their correlates in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rachel A; Downing, Katherine; Rinehart, Nicole J; Barnett, Lisa M; May, Tamara; McGillivray, Jane A; Papadopoulos, Nicole V; Skouteris, Helen; Timperio, Anna; Hinkley, Trina

    2017-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder affects up to 2.5% of children and is associated with harmful health outcomes (e.g. obesity). Low levels of physical activity and high levels of sedentary behaviors may contribute to harmful health outcomes. To systematically review the prevalence and correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, electronic databases (PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, Medline) were searched from inception to November 2015. The review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42014013849). Peer-reviewed, English language studies were included. Two reviewers screened potentially relevant articles. Outcomes of interest were physical activity and sedentary behaviour levels and their potential correlates. Data were collected and analysed in 2015. Of 35 included studies, 15 reported physical activity prevalence, 10 reported physical activity correlates, 18 reported sedentary behavior prevalence, and 10 reported sedentary behavior correlates. Estimates of children's physical activity (34-166 mins/day, average 86 mins/day) and sedentary behavior (126-558 mins/day in screen time, average 271 mins/day; 428-750 mins/day in total sedentary behavior, average 479 mins/day) varied across studies. Age was consistently inversely associated, and sex inconsistently associated with physical activity. Age and sex were inconsistently associated with sedentary behavior. Sample sizes were small. All but one of the studies were classified as having high risk of bias. Few correlates have been reported in sufficient studies to provide overall estimates of associations. Potential correlates in the physical environment remain largely unexamined. This review highlights varying levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Research is needed to consistently identify the correlates of these behaviors. There is a critical need for interventions to support healthy levels of these behaviors.

  14. Comparison of muscle activation using various hand positions during the push-up exercise.

    PubMed

    Cogley, Robert M; Archambault, Teasha A; Fibeger, Jon F; Koverman, Mandy M; Youdas, James W; Hollman, John H

    2005-08-01

    Popular fitness literature suggests that varied hand placements during push-ups may isolate different muscles. Scientific literature, however, offers scant evidence that varied hand placements elicit different muscle responses. This study examined whether different levels of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the pectoralis major and triceps brachii muscles are required to perform push-ups from each of 3 different hand positions: shoulder width base, wide base, and narrow base hand placements. Forty subjects, 11 men and 29 women, performed 1 repetition of each push-up. The EMG activity for subjects' dominant arm pectoralis major and triceps brachii was recorded using surface electrodes. The EMG activity was greater in both muscle groups during push-ups performed from the narrow base hand position compared with the wide base position (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, if a goal is to induce greater muscle activation during exercise, then push-ups should be performed with hands in a narrow base position compared with a wide base position.

  15. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  16. Role of Positional Hydrophobicity in the Leishmanicidal Activity of Magainin 2

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Esther; Saugar, José María; Matsuzaki, Katsumi; Rivas, Luis

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of membrane-active antimicrobial peptides as new alternatives against pathogens with multiantibiotic resistance requires the design of better analogues. Among the different physicochemical parameters involved in the optimization of linear antimicrobial peptides, positional hydrophobicity has recently been incorporated. This takes into consideration the concept of the topological distribution of hydrophobic residues throughout the sequence rather than the classical concept of hydrophobicity as a global parameter of the peptide, calculated as the summation of the individual hydrophobicities of the residues. In order to assess the contribution of this parameter to the leishmanicidal mechanisms of magainin 2 analogues, the activities of two of these analogues, MG-H1 (GIKKFLHIIWKFIKAFVGEIMNS) and MG-H2 (IIKKFLHSIWKFGKAFVGEIMNI), which have similar charges, amino acid compositions, and hydrophobicities but different positional hydrophobicities, against Leishmania donovani promastigotes were assayed (T. Tachi, R. F. Epand, R. M. Epand, and K. Matsuzaki, Biochemistry 41:10723-10731, 2002). The activities were compared with that of the parental peptide, F5W-magainin 2 (GIGKWLHSAKKFGKAFVGEIMNS). The three peptides were active at micromolar concentrations, in the order MG-H2 > MG-H1 > F5W-magainin 2. These activities differ from their hemolytic and bactericidal activities. The results demonstrate that positional hydrophobicity, which reflects the presence of short stretches of sequences rich in hydrophobic amino acids, plays an important role in the activities of leishmanicidal peptides. PMID:15273109

  17. Influence of hip position and gender on active hip internal and external rotation.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, G G; Hoenig, K J; Lepley, J E; Papanek, P E

    1998-09-01

    A general lack of descriptive details exists for measurements of hip rotation range of motion. This study was designed to establish the influence of gender and hip flexion position on active range of motion of the hip in external and internal rotation. Sixty (39 females and 21 males) healthy college-age (21.8 +/- 1.7 years) subjects were studied. Hip rotation of the dominant leg of each subject was measured in the prone (hip near 0 degree of flexion) and seated (hip near 90 degrees of flexion) positions using a standard goniometer. Data were analyzed using an analysis of variance model. Pearson's r statistics were used to determine the degree of association between measurements of hip rotation made seated vs. prone. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between mean hip external rotation (ER) measured seated (36 +/- 7 degrees) and mean hip ER measured prone (45 +/- 10 degrees). Conversely, mean hip internal rotation (IR) measured seated (33 +/- 7 degrees) was not statistically different than mean hip IR measured prone (36 +/- 9 degrees). Females had statistically more active hip internal and external rotation than males (p < 0.05). A moderate degree of association existed between measurements of hip ER taken in the prone vs. seated position (r = 0.57, p < 0.05). For IR, the degree of association between the two measurement positions was slightly higher (r = 0.72, p < 0.05). Unlike the amount of active hip internal rotation which showed little difference between measurements made prone vs. seated, our data indicate that measurement position had a significant effect on the amount of active range of motion of the hip in ER. These findings are clinically significant for they stress the importance of documenting measurement position. They also stress the need for representative norms to be established for each hip position and gender.

  18. Cortical activity differs between position- and force-control knee extension tasks.

    PubMed

    Poortvliet, Peter C; Tucker, Kylie J; Finnigan, Simon; Scott, Dion; Sowman, Paul; Hodges, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    Neural control differs between position- and force-control tasks as evident from divergent effects of fatigue and pain. Unlike force-control tasks, position-control tasks focus on a postural goal to maintain a joint angle. Cortical involvement is suggested to be less during postural control, but whether this differs between position- and force-control paradigms remains unclear. Coherence estimates the functional communication between spatially distinct active regions within the cortex (cortico-cortical coherence; CCC) and between the cortex and muscles (corticomuscular coherence; CMC). We investigated whether cortical involvement differed between force-control and more posturally focused, position-control tasks. Seventeen adults performed position- and force-control knee extensor efforts at a submaximal load (10 % maximum voluntary contraction). Surface electromyography was recorded from the right knee extensor and flexor muscles and brain activity using electroencephalography (EEG). CCC and CMC in the beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (30-45 Hz) frequency bands were calculated between combinations of intra- and inter-hemispheric pairs of electrodes, and between four EEG electrodes that approximated the left motor cortical area, and right knee extensor EMG, respectively. Differences in EEG power and muscle activity were also calculated. CCC was greater across distributed regions in the force-control task. Beta EEG power in the left hemisphere was higher for the position-control task. Although averaged CMC data differed between tasks, there was no task difference for individual CMC data. Muscle activity and force did not differ between tasks. The results demonstrate differential cortical contributions to control force- versus position-control tasks. This might contribute to differences in performance outcomes of these tasks that have been shown previously.

  19. p21-activated kinase 4 regulates mitotic spindle positioning and orientation.

    PubMed

    Bompard, Guillaume; Morin, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    During mitosis, microtubules (MTs) are massively rearranged into three sets of highly dynamic MTs that are nucleated from the centrosomes to form the mitotic spindle. Tight regulation of spindle positioning in the dividing cell and chromosome alignment at the center of the metaphase spindle are required to ensure perfect chromosome segregation and to position the cytokinetic furrow that will specify the two daughter cells. Spindle positioning requires regulation of MT dynamics, involving depolymerase activities together with cortical and kinetochore-mediated pushing and pulling forces acting on astral MTs and kinetochore fibres. These forces rely on MT motor activities. Cortical pulling forces exerted on astral MTs depend upon dynein/dynactin complexes and are essential in both symmetric and asymmetric cell division. A well-established spindle positioning pathway regulating the cortical targeting of dynein/dynactin involves the conserved LGN (Leu-Gly-Asn repeat-enriched-protein) and NuMA (microtubule binding nuclear mitotic apparatus protein) complex. Spindle orientation is also regulated by integrin-mediated cell adhesion and actin retraction fibres that respond to mechanical stress and are influenced by the microenvironment of the dividing cell. Altering the capture of astral MTs or modulating pulling forces affects spindle position, which can impair cell division, differentiation and embryogenesis. In this general scheme, the activity of mitotic kinases such as Auroras and Plk1 (Polo-like kinase 1) is crucial. Recently, the p21-activated kinases (PAKs) emerged as novel important players in mitotic progression. In our recent article, we demonstrated that PAK4 regulates spindle positioning in symmetric cell division. In this commentary, and in light of recent published studies, we discuss how PAK4 could participate in the regulation of mechanisms involved in spindle positioning and orientation.

  20. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions. I. Intrinsic dimension and correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Kevin R.; Li, Jimmy J.; Delouille, Véronique; De Visscher, Ruben; Watson, Fraser; Hero, Alfred O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The flare productivity of an active region is observed to be related to its spatial complexity. Mount Wilson or McIntosh sunspot classifications measure such complexity but in a categorical way, and may therefore not use all the information present in the observations. Moreover, such categorical schemes hinder a systematic study of an active region's evolution for example. Aims: We propose fine-scale quantitative descriptors for an active region's complexity and relate them to the Mount Wilson classification. We analyze the local correlation structure within continuum and magnetogram data, as well as the cross-correlation between continuum and magnetogram data. Methods: We compute the intrinsic dimension, partial correlation, and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) of image patches of continuum and magnetogram active region images taken from the SOHO-MDI instrument. We use masks of sunspots derived from continuum as well as larger masks of magnetic active regions derived from magnetogram to analyze separately the core part of an active region from its surrounding part. Results: We find relationships between the complexity of an active region as measured by its Mount Wilson classification and the intrinsic dimension of its image patches. Partial correlation patterns exhibit approximately a third-order Markov structure. CCA reveals different patterns of correlation between continuum and magnetogram within the sunspots and in the region surrounding the sunspots. Conclusions: Intrinsic dimension has the potential to distinguish simple from complex active regions. These results also pave the way for patch-based dictionary learning with a view toward automatic clustering of active regions.

  1. Correlation between vitamin D levels and muscle fatigue risk factors based on physical activity in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Al-Eisa, Einas S; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship of serum vitamin D levels with physical activity, obesity, muscle fatigue biomarkers, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in healthy older adults. Methods A total of 85 healthy older subjects aged 64–96 years were recruited in this study. Based on estimated energy expenditure scores, the participants were classified into three groups: inactive (n=25), moderate (n=20), and physically active (n=35). Serum 25(OH)D (25-hydroxy vitamin D) levels, metabolic syndrome parameters, TAC activity, muscle fatigue biomarkers (Ca, creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline), physical activity, body fatness, and fatigue score (visual analog scale) were estimated using immunoassay techniques and prevalidated questionnaires, respectively. Results Physical activity was estimated in 64.6% of the participants. Males showed higher physical activity (42.5%) compared to females (26.25%). Compared to participants with lower activity, significant reduction in body mass index, waist circumference, hips, fasting blood sugar, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were observed in moderate and physically active participants. Also, significant increase in the levels of serum 25(OH)D concentrations, calcium, and TAC activity along with reduction in the levels of muscle fatigue biomarkers: creatine kinase, lactic acid dehydrogenase, troponin I, hydroxyproline, and fatigue scores (visual analog scale) were reported in physically active participants compared to those of lower physical activity. In all participants, serum 25(OH)D concentrations correlated positively with Ca, TAC, physical activity scores, and negatively with body mass index, lipid profile, fatigue scores (visual analog scale), and muscle fatigue biomarkers. Stepwise regression analysis showed that serum 25(OH)D concentrations, physical activity, Ca, TAC, and demographic parameters explained

  2. Correlation between the Physical Activity Level and Grade Point Averages of Faculty of Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imdat, Yarim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…

  3. Active nucleosome positioning beyond intrinsic biophysics is revealed by in vitro reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Korber, Philipp

    2012-04-01

    Genome-wide nucleosome maps revealed well-positioned nucleosomes as a major theme in eukaryotic genome organization. Promoter regions often show a conserved pattern with an NDR (nucleosome-depleted region) from which regular nucleosomal arrays emanate. Three mechanistic contributions to such NDR-array-organization and nucleosome positioning in general are discussed: DNA sequence, DNA binders and DNA-templated processes. Especially, intrinsic biophysics of DNA sequence preferences for nucleosome formation was prominently suggested to explain the majority of nucleosome positions ('genomic code for nucleosome positioning'). Nonetheless, non-histone factors that bind DNA with high or low specificity, such as transcription factors or remodelling enzymes respectively and processes such as replication, transcription and the so-called 'statistical positioning' may be involved too. Recently, these models were tested for yeast by genome-wide reconstitution. DNA sequence preferences as probed by SGD (salt gradient dialysis) reconstitution generated many NDRs, but only few individual nucleosomes, at their proper positions, and no arrays. Addition of a yeast extract and ATP led to dramatically more in vivo-like nucleosome positioning, including regular arrays for the first time. This improvement depended essentially on the extract and ATP but not on transcription or replication. Nucleosome occupancy and close spacing were maintained around promoters, even at lower histone density, arguing for active packing of nucleosomes against the 5' ends of genes rather than statistical positioning. A first extract fractionation identified a direct, specific, necessary, but not sufficient role for the RSC (remodels the structure of chromatin) remodelling enzyme. Collectively, nucleosome positioning in yeast is actively determined by factors beyond intrinsic biophysics, and in steady-state rather than at equilibrium.

  4. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L.; Ventuneac, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission—including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants—they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission. PMID:26348322

  5. EEG Σ and slow-wave activity during NREM sleep correlate with overnight declarative and procedural memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Holz, Johannes; Piosczyk, Hannah; Feige, Bernd; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Baglioni, Chiara; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies suggest that sleep-specific brain activity patterns such as sleep spindles and electroencephalographic slow-wave activity contribute to the consolidation of novel memories. The generation of both sleep spindles and slow-wave activity relies on synchronized oscillations in a thalamo-cortical network that might be implicated in synaptic strengthening (spindles) and downscaling (slow-wave activity) during sleep. This study further examined the association between electroencephalographic power during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the spindle (sigma, 12-16 Hz) and slow-wave frequency range (0.1-3.5 Hz) and overnight memory consolidation in 20 healthy subjects (10 men, 27.1 ± 4.6 years). We found that both electroencephalographic sigma power and slow-wave activity were positively correlated with the pre-post-sleep consolidation of declarative (word list) and procedural (mirror-tracing) memories. These results, although only correlative in nature, are consistent with the view that processes of synaptic strengthening (sleep spindles) and synaptic downscaling (slow-wave activity) might act in concert to promote synaptic plasticity and the consolidation of both declarative and procedural memories during sleep.

  6. Computer Aided Prediction of Biological Activity Spectra: Study of Correlation between Predicted and Observed Activities for Coumarin-4-Acetic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Basanagouda, M.; Jadhav, V. B.; Kulkarni, M. V.; Rao, R. Nagendra

    2011-01-01

    Coumarin-4-acetic acids have been synthesized from various phenols and citric acid under Pechmann cyclisation conditions. All the compounds have been evaluated for antiinflammatory and analgesic activity in acute models. Compounds have also been evaluated for their ulcerogenic potential. Using the computer program, prediction of activity spectra for substances, prediction results and their Pharma Expert software, we have found a correlation between the observed and predicted antiinflammatory activity. PMID:22131629

  7. Slowing of Hippocampal Activity Correlates with Cognitive Decline in Early Onset Alzheimer's Disease. An MEG Study with Virtual Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Engels, Marjolein M A; Hillebrand, Arjan; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Stam, Cornelis J; Scheltens, Philip; van Straaten, Elisabeth C W

    2016-01-01

    Pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) starts in the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Because of their deep location, activity from these areas is difficult to record with conventional electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG). The purpose of this study was to explore hippocampal activity in AD patients and healthy controls using "virtual MEG electrodes". We used resting-state MEG recordings from 27 early onset AD patients [age 60.6 ± 5.4, 12 females, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) range: 19-28] and 26 cognitively healthy age- and gender-matched controls (age 61.8 ± 5.5, 14 females). Activity was reconstructed using beamformer-based virtual electrodes for 78 cortical regions and 6 hippocampal regions. Group differences in peak frequency and relative power in six frequency bands were identified using permutation testing. For the patients, spearman correlations between the MMSE scores and peak frequency or relative power were calculated. Moreover, receiver operator characteristic curves were plotted to estimate the diagnostic accuracy. We found a lower hippocampal peak frequency in AD compared to controls, which, in the patients, correlated positively with MMSE [r(25) = 0.61; p < 0.01] whereas hippocampal relative theta power correlated negatively with MMSE [r(25) = -0.54; p < 0.01]. Cortical peak frequency was also lower in AD in association areas. Furthermore, cortical peak frequency correlated positively with MMSE [r(25) = 0.43; p < 0.05]. In line with this finding, relative theta power was higher in AD across the cortex, and relative alpha and beta power was lower in more circumscribed areas. The average cortical relative theta power was the best discriminator between AD and controls (sensitivity 82%; specificity 81%). Using beamformer-based virtual electrodes, we were able to detect hippocampal activity in AD. In AD, this hippocampal activity is slowed, and correlates better with cognition than the (slowed) activity in cortical areas. On the other

  8. Evaluation development for a physical activity positive youth development program for girls.

    PubMed

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; Cole, Amy N; Montgomery, Anna K

    2016-04-01

    Girls on the Run (GOTR) is an after school program for girls in third through fifth grade which utilizes a physical activity based positive youth development curriculum that culminates with completing a 5K run. Unfortunately, there is little empirical data documenting GOTR participant changes that align with the curriculum and describe the evaluation process. Therefore, this study presents an evaluation of GOTR consisting of three main processes: curriculum content analysis and stakeholder focus groups (N=11) to identify key outcomes of the program; community-based participatory research to collaborate with program personnel to further identify important outcomes; and the design and pilot testing of an instrument (N=104) for assessing changes in the theoretically grounded outcomes over time. Findings demonstrated a positive collaborative process that led to important information to be used for an impact evaluation of Girls on the Run and for future evaluation development efforts for physical activity based positive youth development.

  9. Positive atopy patch test reaction to Malassezia furfur in atopic dermatitis correlates with a T helper 2-like peripheral blood mononuclear cells response.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Catharina; Eshaghi, Hojjat; Linder, Maria Tengvall; Jakobson, Eva; Scheynius, Annika

    2002-06-01

    The yeast Malassezia furfur belongs to the normal cutaneous flora, but is also a triggering allergen that can contribute to atopic dermatitis. To illuminate the effect of circulating allergen-specific T cells in atopic dermatitis, the peripheral mononuclear cell response was correlated with the in vivo skin prick test and atopy patch test reactivity to M. furfur. None of 16 healthy controls showed any positive in vivo reaction. The 40 atopic dermatitis patients, of whom 18 had serum IgE reactivity to M. furfur, were subdivided according to their in vivo reaction to M. furfur extract into three groups: skin prick test positive/atopy patch test positive (n = 12), skin prick test positive/atopy patch test negative (n = 12), and skin prick test negative/atopy patch test negative (n = 16). The skin prick test positive/atopy patch test positive and the skin prick test positive/atopy patch test negative groups had a significantly higher peripheral mononuclear cell stimulation index than the healthy controls. Interestingly, the stimulation index values in the skin prick test positive/atopy patch test positive group were significantly higher than in the skin prick test positive/atopy patch test negative group. In the M. furfur skin prick test positive atopic dermatitis patients (n = 24) a correlation was found between stimulation index and the M. furfur atopy patch test reactions, but not between stimulation index and M. furfur-specific serum IgE levels. Skin prick test positive and/or atopy patch test positive reactions to the recombinant M. furfur allergens rMal f 1, rMal f 5, and rMal f 6 were observed in 7, 14, and 16 of the 40 atopic dermatitis patients, respectively. Further, there was a correlation between production of the T helper 2-related cytokines interleukins 4, 5, and 13 and stimulation index to M. furfur extract, but not between the T helper 1-related interferon-gamma and stimulation index to M. furfur extract. Our data strongly suggest a relationship between

  10. Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

  11. Towards an Understanding of Flow and Other Positive Experience Phenomena within Outdoor and Adventurous Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boniface, Margaret R.

    2000-01-01

    People involved in adventurous activities frequently experience positive phenomena termed peak experience, peak performance, and "flow." Characteristics of these phenomena are compared, along with factors influencing the ability to experience such peak moments. Csikszentmihalyi's flow models are examined with regard to perceived levels…

  12. Research on acupuncture points and cortical functional activation position in cats by infrared imaging detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuwang; Sha, Zhanyou; Wang, Shuhai; Wen, Huanming

    2007-12-01

    The research of the brain cognition is mainly to find out the activation position in brain according to the stimulation at present in the world. The research regards the animals as the experimental objects and explores the stimulation response on the cerebral cortex of acupuncture. It provides a new method, which can detect the activation position on the creatural cerebral cortex directly by middle-far infrared imaging. According to the theory of local temperature situation, the difference of cortical temperature maybe associate with the excitement of cortical nerve cells, the metabolism of local tissue and the local hemal circulation. Direct naked detection of temperature variety on cerebral cortex is applied by middle and far infrared imaging technology. So the activation position is ascertained. The effect of stimulation response is superior to other indirect methods. After removing the skulls on the head, full of cerebral cortex of a cat are exposed. By observing the infrared images and measuring the temperatures of the visual cerebral cortex during the process of acupuncturing, the points are used to judge the activation position. The variety in the cortical functional sections is corresponding to the result of the acupuncture points in terms of infrared images and temperatures. According to experimental results, we know that the variety of a cortical functional section is corresponding to a special acupuncture point exactly.

  13. Assessing the Positive Influence of Music Activities in Community Development Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a framework for assessing the positive influence of music activities in community development programs. It examines hybrid music, health and rich media approaches to creative case study with the purpose of developing more compelling evidence based advocacy that examines the claims of a causal link. This preliminary study…

  14. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Socio-Economic Position and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidlow, Christopher; Johnston, Lynne Halley; Crone, Diane; Ellis, Naomi; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present review was to examine epidemiological evidence to determine if there is strong evidence of a positive gradient of increasing physical activity across the socio-economic strata, and how relationships are affected by socio-economic measurement. Design: Systematic review. Method: A search of major databases was…

  15. Physical Activity and Positive Youth Development: Impact of a School-Based Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Kristine A.; Hicks, Katherine; Thompson, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Background: Protective factors associated with positive youth development predict health and education outcomes. This study explored trends in these protective factors and in physical activity among low-income students, and determined the impact of a school-based youth development program on these trends. Methods: This study used a…

  16. Students' Use of Extra-Curricular Activities for Positional Advantage in Competitive Job Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulin, Nicolas; Bangerter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    With the rise of mass higher education, competition between graduates in the labour market is increasing. Students are aware that their degree will not guarantee them a job and realise they should add value and distinction to their credentials to achieve a positional advantage. Participation in extra-curricular activities (ECAs) is one such…

  17. Plasma Lactoferrin Levels Positively Correlate with Insulin Resistance despite an Inverse Association with Total Adiposity in Lean and Severely Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pouliot, Yves; Lamarche, Benoît; Beaulieu, Jean-François; Hould, Frédéric S.; Richard, Denis; Tchernof, André; Levy, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Context Lactoferrin (Lf) is an important protein found on mucosal surfaces, within neutrophils and various cells, and in biological fluids. It displays multiple functions, including iron-binding as well as antimicrobial, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Although Lf ingestion has been suggested to cause adiposity reduction in murine models and humans, its relationship with insulin resistance (IR) has not been studied thoroughly. Objective To establish the association between circulating Lf levels, glucose status and blood lipid/lipoprotein profile. Methods Two independent cohorts were examined: lean to moderately obese women admitted for gynecological surgery (n = 53) and severely obese subjects undergoing biliopancreatic diversion (n = 62). Results Although body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass were negatively associated with Lf, IR (assessed by the HOMA-IR index) was positively and independently associated with plasma Lf concentrations of the first cohort of lean to moderately obese women. These observations were validated in the second cohort in view of the positive correlation between plasma Lf concentrations and the HOMA-IR index, but without a significant association with the body mass index (BMI) of severely obese subjects. In subsamples of severely obese subjects matched for sex, age and BMI, but with either relatively low (1.89 ± 0.73) or high (13.77 ± 8.81) IR states (according to HOMA-IR), higher plasma Lf levels were noted in insulin-resistant vs insulin-sensitive subjects (P<0.05). Finally, Lf levels were significantly higher in lean to moderately obese women than in severely obese subjects (P<0.05). Conclusion Our findings revealed that plasma Lf levels are strongly associated with IR independently of total adiposity, which suggests an intriguing Lf regulation mechanism in conditions of obesity and IR. PMID:27902700

  18. Neural substrates associated with evaluative processing during co-activation of positivity and negativity: a PET investigation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Young Chul; An, Suk Kyoon; Seok, Jeong Ho; Kim, Jae Seung; Oh, Seung Jun; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2006-10-01

    Affective symmetries, such as the positivity offset and negativity bias, have been postulated to be attributable to distinct activation functions of the positive and negative affect systems. We investigated the neural substrates that are engaged when the positive and negative affect systems undergo parallel and integrative processing. Eleven subjects were scanned using H(2)(15)O PET during choosing the subjective feeling produced by a stimulation pair of pictures or words. Four different conditions were designed for contrast: pure positivity, pure negativity, positivity offset, and negativity bias. The dorsolateral prefrontal activation was associated with positivity offset and negativity bias condition, whereas the ventromedial prefrontal activation, together with limbic and subcortical activations, was associated with pure positivity and pure negativity condition. The results indicated that positivity offset and negativity bias are not merely due to asymmetric activations of the positive and negative systems, but integrative processing of higher neocortical levels is involved.

  19. Expression of the RelB transcription factor correlates with the activation of human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Clark, G J; Gunningham, S; Troy, A; Vuckovic, S; Hart, D N J

    1999-01-01

    The RelB gene product is a member of the nuclear factor (NF)-κB family of transcription factors. It has been identified recently within mouse antigen-presenting cells and human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Disruption of the mouse RelB gene is accompanied, amongst other phenotypes, by abnormalities in the antigen-presenting cell lineages. In order to define RelB expression during human DC differentiation, we have analysed RelB mRNA by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction and RelB protein by intracellular staining in CD34+ precursors and different types of DC preparations. RelB mRNA was not detected in CD34+ precursor populations. Fresh blood DC (lineage−human leucocyte antigen-DR+ (lin−HLA-DR+)) lacked RelB mRNA and cytoplasmic RelB protein but a period of in vitro culture induced RelB expression in blood DC. Purified Langerhans’ cells (LC) (CD1a+ HLA-DR+) failed to express RelB mRNA. Immunocytochemical staining identified RelB protein in human skin epithelium. RelB protein was expressed in a very few CD1a+, CD83+ or CMRF-44+ dermal DC but was not present in CD1a+ LC. Tonsil DC (lin−HLA-DR+ CMRF-44+) were positive for RelB mRNA and RelB protein. Intestinal DC (HLA-DR+) also lacked immunoreactive RelB protein. The majority of interdigitating CD83+, CMRF-44+, CMRF-56+ or p55+ DC located in paracortical T-lymphocyte areas of lymph node and tonsil contained RelB protein. The expression of RelB mRNA and RelB protein correlates with the activated phase of blood DC and the postmigration cell (activated) stage of tissue DC development. PMID:10540217

  20. Activity of the Aurora kinase inhibitor VX-680 against Bcr/Abl-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemias.

    PubMed

    Fei, Fei; Stoddart, Sonia; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2010-05-01

    The emergence of resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors due to point mutations in Bcr/Abl is a challenging problem for Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph-positive) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, especially for those with the T315I mutation, against which neither nilotinib or dasatinib shows significant activity. VX-680 is a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor active against all Bcr/Abl proteins but has not been extensively examined in preclinical models of Ph-positive ALL. Here, we have tested VX-680 for the treatment of Bcr/Abl-positive ALL when leukemic cells are protected by the presence of stroma. Under these conditions, VX-680 showed significant effects on primary human Ph-positive ALL cells both with and without the T315I mutation, including ablation of tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of Bcr/Abl, decreased viability, and induction of apoptosis. However, drug treatment of human Ph-positive ALL cells for 3 days followed by drug removal allowed the outgrowth of abnormal cells 21 days later, and on culture of mouse Bcr/Abl ALL cells on stroma with lower concentrations of VX-680, drug-resistant cells emerged. Combined treatment of human ALL cells lacking the T315I mutation with both VX-680 and dasatinib caused significantly more cytotoxicity than each drug alone. We suggest that use of VX-680 together with a second effective drug as first-line treatment for Ph-positive ALL is likely to be safer and more useful than second-line treatment with VX-680 as monotherapy for drug-resistant T315I Ph-positive ALL.

  1. The Correlation of Active and Passive Microwave Outputs for the Skylab S-193 Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the correlation analysis of the Skylab S-193 13.9 GHz Radiometer/Scatterometer data. Computer analysis of the S-193 data shows more than 50 percent of the radiometer and scatterometer data are uncorrelated. The correlation coefficients computed for the data gathered over various ground scenes indicates the desirability of using both active and passive sensors for the determination of various Earth phenomena.

  2. Advanced human carotid plaque progression correlates positively with flow shear stress using follow-up scan data: an in vivo MRI multi-patient 3D FSI study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun; Canton, Gador; Yuan, Chun; Ferguson, Marina; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Tang, Dalin

    2010-09-17

    Although it has been well-accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and early progression correlate negatively with flow wall shear stresses (FSS), increasing evidence suggests mechanisms governing advanced plaque progression are not well understood. Fourteen patients were scanned 2-4 times at 18 month intervals using a histologically validated multi-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol to acquire carotid plaque progression data. Thirty-two scan pairs (baseline and follow-up scans) were formed with slices matched for model construction and analysis. 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models were constructed and plaque wall stress (PWS) and flow shear stress (FSS) were obtained from all matching lumen data points (400-1000 per plaque; 100 points per matched slice) to quantify correlations with plaque progression measured by vessel wall thickness increase (WTI). Using FSS and PWS data from follow-up scan, 21 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant positive correlation between WTI and FSS (positive/negative/no significance ratio=21/8/3), and 26 out of 32 scan pairs showed a significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS (positive/negative/no significance ratio=2/26/4). The mean FSS value of lipid core nodes (n=5294) from all 47 plaque models was 63.5dyn/cm(2), which was 45% higher than that from all normal vessel nodes (n=27553, p<0.00001). The results from this intensive FSI study indicate that flow shear stress from follow-up scan correlates positively with advanced plaque progression which is different from what has been observed in plaque initiation and early-stage progression. It should be noted that the correlation results do not automatically lead to any causality conclusions.

  3. B-lymphocyte activating factor levels are increased in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis and inversely correlated with ANCA titer.

    PubMed

    Bader, Lucius; Koldingsnes, Wenche; Nossent, Johannes

    2010-09-01

    Circulating autoantibodies against neutrophils (ANCA) are a distinctive finding in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). B-lymphocyte activating factor (BAFF) promotes autoantibody production by increasing B cell survival and proliferation. We investigated serum BAFF levels (s-BAFF) in a WG patient cohort in relation to ANCA titers and disease activity. Baseline data were obtained in twenty-two WG patients (55% female, age 44 years, disease duration 1 year). S-BAFF was determined by capture ELISA and associations between s-BAFF, clinical (Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) and Disease Extent Index (DEI)) and biochemical (C-reactive protein (CRP), IgG and ANCA) disease measures were analysed in a cross sectional as well as longitudinal analysis. S-BAFF was increased in WG patients compared to healthy controls (1.8 vs. 0.55 ng/ml, p < 0.01). S-BAFF was higher in ANCA negative than ANCA-positive WG sera (2.16 vs. 1.29 ng/ml, p < 0.01), correlated independently and inversely with ANCA levels (Rs -0.48, p < 0.01) but did not correlate with CRP, BVAS, DEI or VDI scores. Individual s-BAFF profiles were stable over time in 68% of patients. The finding of a negative correlation between ANCA levels and s-BAFF that is independent of steroid treatment indicates that BAFF does not directly drive ANCA production in WG.

  4. Serum Apolipoprotein A-I and Large High-Density Lipoprotein Particles Are Positively Correlated with FEV1 in Atopic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Maryann; Cuento, Rosemarie A.; Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Weir, Nargues A.; Sampson, Maureen; Fontana, Joseph R.; MacDonald, Sandra; Moss, Joel; Manganiello, Vincent; Remaley, Alan T.; Levine, Stewart J.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Although lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoprotein particles are important modulators of inflammation, varying relationships exist between these parameters and asthma. Objectives: To determine whether serum lipids and apolipoproteins correlate with the severity of airflow obstruction in subjects with atopy and asthma. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from 154 atopic and nonatopic subjects without asthma, and 159 subjects with atopy and asthma. Serum lipid and lipoprotein levels were quantified using standard diagnostic assays and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Airflow obstruction was assessed by FEV1% predicted. Measurements and Main Results: Serum lipid levels correlated with FEV1 only in the subjects with atopy and asthma. Serum levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) were positively correlated with FEV1 in subjects with atopy and asthma, whereas a negative correlation existed between FEV1 and serum levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and the apoB/apoA-I ratio. NMR spectroscopy identified a positive correlation between FEV1 and HDLNMR particle size, as well as the concentrations of large HDLNMR particles and total IDLNMR (intermediate-density lipoprotein) particles in subjects with atopy and asthma. In contrast, LDLNMR particle size and concentrations of LDLNMR and VLDLNMR (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles were negatively correlated with FEV1 in subjects with atopy and asthma. Conclusions: In subjects with atopy and asthma, serum levels of apoA-I and large HDLNMR particles are positively correlated with FEV1, whereas serum triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and apoB are associated with more severe airflow obstruction. These results may facilitate future studies to assess whether apoA-I and large HDLNMR particles can reduce airflow obstruction and disease severity in asthma. PMID:25692941

  5. [Antimicrobial spectrum of dalbavancin. Mechanism of action and in vitro activity against Gram-positive microorganisms].

    PubMed

    Cercenado, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    Because of the increase in bacterial resistance, there is a need for new antimicrobial agents. Dalbavancin is a semisynthetic glycopeptide that inhibits the late stages of bacterial cell wall synthesis in the same way as vancomycin, but in addition, its lipophilic side chain anchors dalbavancin to the cellular membrane and allows enhanced activity compared with that of vancomycin. Dalbavancin possesses a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, being 4-8 times more potent than vancomycin. The spectrum of dalbavancin includes staphylococci, enterococci, streptococci, and anaerobic Gram-positive cocci and bacilli. It is active against different species of multiresistant microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and penicillin-resistant viridans streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although it shows in vitro activity against Enterococcus spp., it is inactive against isolates expressing the VanA phenotype of vancomycin resistance. It also shows slow bactericidal activity against S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Streptococcus pyogenes. In general, the MIC90 (minimum inhibitory concentration 90%) against the majority of the microorganisms is 0.06mg/L and, more than 98% of the isolates that have been tested are inhibited at concentrations of ≤ 0.12mg/L. Dalbavancin is an interesting addition to the therapeutic armamentarium for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms, including multidrug-resistant isolates.

  6. Theoretical analysis of the relationship between positive/negative cooperativity and enzyme activation/inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Min

    2009-09-01

    Cooperativity is one of the "paradigms" in enzyme kinetics and molecular biology. But the classical textbook treatment of enzyme kinetics always indeed separates the concepts of positive/negative cooperativity from enzyme activation/inhibition, at least partially. Few theoretical analysis of their relationship has been discussed, although its experimental investigations might date back at least to 1970s. In the present paper, we try to apply the change of free energy as a connective parameter for investigating the relationship between positive/negative cooperativity and enzyme activation/inhibition through several classic equilibrium binding models. It is explicitly shown that the terms of positive/negative cooperativity could be equivalently regarded as enzyme activation/inhibition of the saturation function induced by the substrate molecule itself rather than any other additional effectors. Moreover, both the degree of cooperativity phenomenon and the degree of enzyme activation/inhibition monotonically increase with the change of free energy. Note that this result is quite different from the idea of relating cooperativity to the concepts of "substrate activation/inhibition", which is identified when at high substrate concentrations the reaction rate decreases instead of tending towards the maximum velocity, since it always needs a second substrate molecule.

  7. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hui; Su, Rina; Song, Yilin; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM.

  8. Positive Correlation between Enhanced Expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB with Insulin Resistance in Placentae of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Hui; Wang, Chen; Lin, Li; Ma, Jingmei; Yang, Huixia

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a critical factor of the pathophysiology of Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Studies on key organs involved in IR, such as livers and adipose tissues, showed that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can regulate insulin sensitivity. As a maternal-fetal interface with multi-functions, placentae could contribute to the development of IR for GDM. Thus, we investigated the expressions of TLR4/Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) in term placentae from 33 GDM women and 36 healthy pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance, evaluated local and systemic IR and furthermore identified the association between placental TLR4 and IR. TLR4 protein was expressed in various cells of term placenta, particularly in syncytiotrophoblast of villi. Compared with normal pregnancy, the expression of TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway increased in the placenta of GDM (p<0.05), and these differences were more pronounced in the maternal section of the placenta and the syncytiotrophoblast of villi. In addition, more severe IR was observed in the placenta of GDM patients than the control group, evidenced with higher pIRS-1(ser312) (p<0.001) and lower IRS-1 (p<0.05) as well as pAkt proteins (p<0.01). The expression of TLR4 in placentae is positively correlated with local IR (pIRS-1: r = 0.76, p <0.001 and pAkt: r = -0.47, p <0.001) and maternal fasting (r = 0.42, p <0.01), one-hour (r = 0.52, p <0.01) and two-hour glucose (r = 0.54, p <0.01) at OGTT. We found an that enhanced expression of the TLR4-MyD88-NF-kB pathway occurs in GDM placentae, which positively correlates with heightened local IR in placentae and higher maternal hyperglycemia. The TLR4/MyD88/NF-kB pathway may play a potential role in the development of IR in placentae of GDM. PMID:27340831

  9. Low-temperature leaf photosynthesis of a Miscanthus germplasm collection correlates positively to shoot growth rate and specific leaf area

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Xiurong; Kørup, Kirsten; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Petersen, Karen Koefoed; Prade, Thomas; Jeżowski, Stanisław; Ornatowski, Szymon; Górynowicz, Barbara; Spitz, Idan; Lærke, Poul Erik; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The C4 perennial grass miscanthus has been found to be less sensitive to cold than most other C4 species, but still emerges later in spring than C3 species. Genotypic differences in miscanthus were investigated to identify genotypes with a high cold tolerance at low temperatures and quick recovery upon rising temperatures to enable them to exploit the early growing season in maritime cold climates. Suitable methods for field screening of cold tolerance in miscanthus were also identified. Methods Fourteen genotypes of M. sacchariflorus, M. sinensis, M. tinctorius and M. × giganteus were selected and grown under warm (24 °C) and cold (14 °C) conditions in a controlled environment. Dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence, specific leaf area (SLA) and net photosynthetic rate at a photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) of 1000 μmol m–2 s–1 (A1000) were measured. Photosynthetic light and CO2 response curves were obtained from 11 of the genotypes, and shoot growth rate was measured under field conditions. Key Results A positive linear relationship was found between SLA and light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat) across genotypes, and also between shoot growth rate under cool field conditions and A1000 at 14 °C in a climate chamber. When lowering the temperature from 24 to 14 °C, one M. sacchariflorus exhibited significantly higher Asat and maximum photosynthetic rate in the CO2 response curve (Vmax) than other genotypes at 14 °C, except M. × giganteus ‘Hornum’. Several genotypes returned to their pre-chilling A1000 values when the temperature was increased to 24 °C after 24 d growth at 14 °C. Conclusions One M. sacchariflorus genotype had similar or higher photosynthetic capacity than M. × giganteus, and may be used for cultivation together with M. × giganteus or for breeding new interspecies hybrids with improved traits for temperate climates. Two easily measured variables, SLA and shoot growth rate, may be useful for

  10. Positive And Negative Feedback Loops Coupled By Common Transcription Activator And Repressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielewiesiuk, Jan; Łopaciuk, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Dynamical systems consisting of two interlocked loops with negative and positive feedback have been studied using the linear analysis of stability and numerical solutions. Conditions for saddle-node bifurcation were formulated in a general form. Conditions for Hopf bifurcations were found in a few symmetrical cases. Auto-oscillations, when they exist, are generated by the negative feedback repressive loop. This loop determines the frequency and amplitude of oscillations. The positive feedback loop of activation slightly modifies the oscillations. Oscillations are possible when the difference between Hilll's coefficients of the repression and activation is sufficiently high. The highly cooperative activation loop with a fast turnover slows down or even makes the oscillations impossible. The system under consideration can constitute a component of epigenetic or enzymatic regulation network.

  11. Correlation between deep cervical flexor muscle thickness at rest and sternocleidomastoid activity during the craniocervical flexion test.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ono, Koji; Kurozumi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between the thickness of the deep cervical flexor muscles (longus capitis and longus colli) at rest and sternocleidomastoid activity during the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT). Thirteen healthy males participated in this study. The thickness of the deep cervical flexor muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging in a relaxed supine position. Activity of the sternocleidomastoid was measured by electromyography during the CCFT at five incremental levels (22, 24, 26, 28, and 30 mm Hg). Correlations between normalized muscle thickness relative to body mass index and sternocleidomastoid activity were determined. Significant negative correlations were observed between normalized muscle thickness and activity of the sternocleidomastoid at 26 (r = -0.622, P = 0.023) and 28 mmHg (r = -0.653, P = 0.015). Individuals with smaller deep cervical flexor muscles exhibited increased activity in the sternocleidomastoid during the CCFT.

  12. Cortical current density oscillations in the motor cortex are correlated with muscular activity during pedaling exercise.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S; Rouffet, D M; Billaut, F; Strüder, H K

    2013-01-03

    Despite modern imaging techniques, assessing and localizing changes in brain activity during whole-body exercise is still challenging. Using an active electroencephalography (EEG) system in combination with source localization algorithms, this study aimed to localize brain cortical oscillations patterns in the motor cortex and to correlate these with surface electromyography (EMG)-detected muscular activity during pedaling exercise. Eight subjects performed 2-min isokinetic (90 rpm) cycling bouts at intensities ranging from 1 to 5 Wkg(-1) body mass on a cycle ergometer. These bouts were interspersed by a minimum of 2 min of passive rest to limit to development of peripheral muscle fatigue. Brain cortical activity within the motor cortex was analyzed using a 32-channel active EEG system combined with source localization algorithms. EMG activity was recorded from seven muscles on each lower limb. EEG and EMG activity revealed comparatively stable oscillations across the different exercise intensities. More importantly, the oscillations in cortical activity within the motor cortex were significantly correlated with EMG activity during the high-intensity cycling bouts. This study demonstrates that it is possible to localize oscillations in brain cortical activity during moderate- to high-intensity cycling exercise using EEG in combination with source localization algorithms, and that these oscillations match the activity of the active muscles in time and amplitude. Results of this study might help to further evaluate the effects of central vs. peripheral fatigue during exercise.

  13. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI.

  14. Local and thalamic origins of correlated ongoing and sensory-evoked cortical activities

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Kashi Malina, Katayun; Mohar, Boaz; Rappaport, Akiva N.; Lampl, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Thalamic inputs of cells in sensory cortices are outnumbered by local connections. Thus, it was suggested that robust sensory response in layer 4 emerges due to synchronized thalamic activity. To investigate the role of both inputs in the generation of correlated cortical activities, we isolated the thalamic excitatory inputs of cortical cells by optogenetically silencing cortical firing. In anaesthetized mice, we measured the correlation between isolated thalamic synaptic inputs of simultaneously patched nearby layer 4 cells of the barrel cortex. Here we report that in contrast to correlated activity of excitatory synaptic inputs in the intact cortex, isolated thalamic inputs exhibit lower variability and asynchronous spontaneous and sensory-evoked inputs. These results are further supported in awake mice when we recorded the excitatory inputs of individual cortical cells simultaneously with the local field potential in a nearby site. Our results therefore indicate that cortical synchronization emerges by intracortical coupling. PMID:27615520

  15. Physical activity correlates with neurological impairment and disability in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Snook, Erin M; Wynn, Daniel R; Vollmer, Timothy

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the correlation of physical activity with neurological impairment and disability in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Eighty individuals with MS wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed the Symptom Inventory (SI), Performance Scales (PS), and Expanded Disability Status Scale. There were large negative correlations between the accelerometer and SI (r = -0.56; rho = -0.58) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (r = -0.60; rho = -0.69) and a moderate negative correlation between the accelerometer and PS (r = -0.39; rho = -0.48) indicating that physical activity was associated with reduced neurological impairment and disability. Such findings provide a preliminary basis for using an accelerometer and the SI and PS as outcome measures in large-scale prospective and experimental examinations of the effect of physical activity behavior on disability and dependence in MS.

  16. Air pollution/working activity correlation: a case study in a dental hospital.

    PubMed

    Santarsiero, Anna; Fuselli, Sergio; Morlino, Roberta; Minniti, Gianluca; De Felice, Marco; Ortolani, Emanuela

    2011-02-01

    The paper deals with a multidimensional approach demonstrating a direct link between the entity of ongoing dentistry activity (number and kind of interventions) and specific pollution components. Simultaneously indoor/outdoor air concentrations of a set of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and activity variables, describing the amount and nature of ongoing dentistry activities, were monitored over a year at a dental hospital located in an urban area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to single out mutually orthogonal pollution components which were then correlated to "pathology" factors arising from the analysis of dentistry activity indexes. The use of a multidimensional perspective allowed us to obtain a statistically significant model of the link between level of pollution and dentistry activity. In particular, the correlation approach linking pollution results to pathological variables allows us to establish a causative link even in the presence of sub-threshold concentrations of pollutants.

  17. The divide within: Older active ICT users position themselves against different 'Others'.

    PubMed

    Kania-Lundholm, Magdalena; Torres, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Although research into older people's internet usage patterns is rapidly growing, their understandings of digital technologies, particularly in relation to how these are informed by their understandings of aging and old age, remain unexplored. This is the case because research on older active ICT users tends to regard old age as an empirically interesting part of the life-course as opposed to a theoretically profuse source of information about why and how older people engage with digital technologies. This article explores - through focus group interviews with 30 older adults (aged 66-89) - the ways in which the social position of old age is used by older active ICT users in order to make sense of how and why they engage with these technologies. In this article, positioning theory is used to shed light on how the older people interviewed positioned themselves as 'active older users' in the interviews. The analysis brings to the fore the divide that older people themselves create as they discursively position themselves against different types of ICT users and non-users (young and old) when describing how and why they engage with digital technologies.

  18. Influence Of Scapular Position On The Core Musculature Activation In The Prone Plank Exercise.

    PubMed

    Cortell-Tormo, Juan M; García-Jaén, Miguel; Chulvi-Medrano, Iván; Hernández-Sánchez, Sergio; Lucas-Cuevas, Ángel G; Tortosa-Martínez, Juan

    2016-10-26

    Prone plank is a widely used exercise in core stability training. Research has shown that pelvic tilt plays an important role on the electromyographical (EMG) activation of core musculature. However, the influence of scapular position on EMG activation is currently unknown. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of scapular position on the core muscles during a prone plank. Surface electromyography of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO) and erector spinae (ES) was collected in fifteen participants (10 men, 5 women). Four variations of the prone plank were evaluated: scapular abduction with anterior (ABANT) and posterior (ABRET) pelvic tilt; and scapular adduction with anterior (ADANT) and posterior (ADRET) pelvic tilt. Individual muscle EMG and overall EMG for each plank exercise was analyzed. Joint positions were controlled with a 2D kinematic analysis. Ratings of perceived effort (RPE) were also registered. ADRET resulted in higher overall EMG activity compared to ABANT (p=0.04) and ADANT (p=0.04). Moreover, ADRET resulted in greater EMG activity compared to ADANT, ABANT, and ABRET for EO (p=0.000; p=0.000; p=0.035), IO (p=0.000; p=0.000; p=0.005) and ES (p=0.019; p=0.001; p=0.014). Regarding RA, ADRET was significantly higher compared to ADANT (p=0.002) and ABANT (p=0.005). Finally, ADRET provoked a higher RPE compared to ABANT (p=0.000), ABRET (p=0.001) and ADANT (p=0.015). These findings demonstrate the influence of the scapular and pelvic position on the EMG response of the core muscle groups analyzed in this study, and highlight the greater contribution of these muscles to the postural stabilizing demands during posterior pelvic tilt positions, particularly when the scapulae are in adduction.

  19. Gaze and hand position effects on finger-movement-related human brain activation.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

    2009-02-01

    Humans commonly use their hands to move and to interact with their environment by processing visual and proprioceptive information to determine the location of a goal-object and the initial hand position. It remains elusive, however, how the human brain fully uses this sensory information to generate accurate movements. In monkeys, it appears that frontal and parietal areas use and combine gaze and hand signals to generate movements, whereas in humans, prior work has separately assessed how the brain uses these two signals. Here we investigated whether and how the human brain integrates gaze orientation and hand position during simple visually triggered finger tapping. We hypothesized that parietal, frontal, and subcortical regions involved in movement production would also exhibit modulation of movement-related activation as a function of gaze and hand positions. We used functional MRI to measure brain activation while healthy young adults performed a visually cued finger movement and fixed gaze at each of three locations and held the arm in two different configurations. We found several areas that exhibited activation related to a mixture of these hand and gaze positions; these included the sensory-motor cortex, supramarginal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, superior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate, and left cerebellum. We also found regions within the left insula, left cuneus, left midcingulate gyrus, left putamen, and right tempo-occipital junction with activation driven only by gaze orientation. Finally, clusters with hand position effects were found in the cerebellum bilaterally. Our results indicate that these areas integrate at least two signals to perform visual-motor actions and that these could be used to subserve sensory-motor transformations.

  20. Moderate physical activity correlates with elevated leptin in physically active 10-12-year-old boys with normal BMI.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Antonio; Stefanelli, Claudio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Saar, Meeli; Purge, Priit

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relations between physical activity of differing intensity and duration with body energy-balance hormone leptin in 10-12-year-old boys (N = 94) who participated in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity at least four to five times per week. The boys reported their physical activity using a questionnaire. They had normal body mass index (BMI, kg/ m2), and were at Tanner Stage 2 of development. Boys were divided into three subgroups by leptin levels: normal serum leptin (M +/- .5 SD, n = 44, 1.2-3.9 ng/ml), low leptin (< or = M - .5 SD; n = 31, < 1.2 ng/ml), and high leptin (> or = M + .5 SD; n = 19, > 3.9 ng/ml). There were significant differences between subgroups in anthropometric parameters and serum leptin levels, but not in physical activity. A significant correlation was found between leptin and moderate physical activity of at least five times per week for at least 30 minutes each time in the high leptin group (r = .61). In conclusion, the correlations between physical activity and leptin are weak; only moderate physical activity was correlated with leptin levels in the high leptin

  1. Use of Cellular Decapping Activators by Positive-Strand RNA Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Jungfleisch, Jennifer; Blasco-Moreno, Bernat; Díez, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses have evolved multiple strategies to not only circumvent the hostile decay machinery but to trick it into being a priceless collaborator supporting viral RNA translation and replication. In this review, we describe the versatile interaction of positive-strand RNA viruses and the 5′-3′ mRNA decay machinery with a focus on the viral subversion of decapping activators. This highly conserved viral trickery is exemplified with the plant Brome mosaic virus, the animal Flock house virus and the human hepatitis C virus. PMID:28009841

  2. Finding Biomass Degrading Enzymes Through an Activity-Correlated Quantitative Proteomics Platform (ACPP).

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyan; Delafield, Daniel G; Wang, Zhe; You, Jianlan; Wu, Si

    2017-04-01

    The microbial secretome, known as a pool of biomass (i.e., plant-based materials) degrading enzymes, can be utilized to discover industrial enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Proteomics approaches have been applied to discover novel enzyme candidates through comparing protein expression profiles with enzyme activity of the whole secretome under different growth conditions. However, the activity measurement of each enzyme candidate is needed for confident "active" enzyme assignments, which remains to be elucidated. To address this challenge, we have developed an Activity-Correlated Quantitative Proteomics Platform (ACPP) that systematically correlates protein-level enzymatic activity patterns and protein elution profiles using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. The ACPP optimized a high performance anion exchange separation for efficiently fractionating complex protein samples while preserving enzymatic activities. The detected enzymatic activity patterns in sequential fractions using microplate-based assays were cross-correlated with protein elution profiles using a customized pattern-matching algorithm with a correlation R-score. The ACPP has been successfully applied to the identification of two types of "active" biomass-degrading enzymes (i.e., starch hydrolysis enzymes and cellulose hydrolysis enzymes) from Aspergillus niger secretome in a multiplexed fashion. By determining protein elution profiles of 156 proteins in A. niger secretome, we confidently identified the 1,4-α-glucosidase as the major "active" starch hydrolysis enzyme (R = 0.96) and the endoglucanase as the major "active" cellulose hydrolysis enzyme (R = 0.97). The results demonstrated that the ACPP facilitated the discovery of bioactive enzymes from complex protein samples in a high-throughput, multiplexing, and untargeted fashion. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  3. Finding Biomass Degrading Enzymes Through an Activity-Correlated Quantitative Proteomics Platform (ACPP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongyan; Delafield, Daniel G.; Wang, Zhe; You, Jianlan; Wu, Si

    2017-01-01

    The microbial secretome, known as a pool of biomass (i.e., plant-based materials) degrading enzymes, can be utilized to discover industrial enzyme candidates for biofuel production. Proteomics approaches have been applied to discover novel enzyme candidates through comparing protein expression profiles with enzyme activity of the whole secretome under different growth conditions. However, the activity measurement of each enzyme candidate is needed for confident "active" enzyme assignments, which remains to be elucidated. To address this challenge, we have developed an Activity-Correlated Quantitative Proteomics Platform (ACPP) that systematically correlates protein-level enzymatic activity patterns and protein elution profiles using a label-free quantitative proteomics approach. The ACPP optimized a high performance anion exchange separation for efficiently fractionating complex protein samples while preserving enzymatic activities. The detected enzymatic activity patterns in sequential fractions using microplate-based assays were cross-correlated with protein elution profiles using a customized pattern-matching algorithm with a correlation R-score. The ACPP has been successfully applied to the identification of two types of "active" biomass-degrading enzymes (i.e., starch hydrolysis enzymes and cellulose hydrolysis enzymes) from Aspergillus niger secretome in a multiplexed fashion. By determining protein elution profiles of 156 proteins in A. niger secretome, we confidently identified the 1,4-α-glucosidase as the major "active" starch hydrolysis enzyme (R = 0.96) and the endoglucanase as the major "active" cellulose hydrolysis enzyme (R = 0.97). The results demonstrated that the ACPP facilitated the discovery of bioactive enzymes from complex protein samples in a high-throughput, multiplexing, and untargeted fashion.

  4. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in mononuclear leukocytes of 13 mammalian species correlates with species-specific life span.

    PubMed Central

    Grube, K; Bürkle, A

    1992-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a eukaryotic posttranslational modification of proteins that is strongly induced by the presence of DNA strand breaks and plays a role in DNA repair and the recovery of cells from DNA damage. We compared poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP; EC 2.4.2.30) activities in Percoll gradient-purified, permeabilized mononuclear leukocytes from mammalian species of different maximal life span. Saturating concentrations of a double-stranded octameric oligonucleotide were applied to provide a direct and maximal stimulation of PARP. Our results on 132 individuals from 13 different species yield a strong positive correlation between PARP activity and life span (r = 0.84; P << 0.001), with human cells displaying approximately 5 times the activity of rat cells. Intraspecies comparisons with both rat and human cells from donors of all age groups revealed some decline of PARP activity with advancing age, but it was only weakly correlated. No significant polymer degradation was detectable under our assay conditions, ruling out any interference by poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity. By Western blot analysis of mononuclear leukocytes from 11 species, using a crossreactive antiserum directed against the extremely well-conserved NAD-binding domain, no correlation between the amount of PARP protein and the species' life spans was found, suggesting a greater specific enzyme activity in longer-lived species. We propose that a higher poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation capacity in cells from long-lived species might contribute to the efficient maintenance of genome integrity and stability over their longer life span. Images PMID:1465394

  5. Fucosylation of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 by FUT1 correlates with lysosomal positioning and autophagic flux of breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Keng-Poo; Ho, Ming-Yi; Cho, Huan-Chieh; Yu, John; Hung, Jung-Tung; Yu, Alice Lin-Tsing

    2016-01-01

    Alpha1,2-fucosyltransferases, FUT1 and FUT2, which transfer fucoses onto the terminal galactose of N-acetyl-lactosamine via α1,2-linkage have been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers. A few studies have shown the involvement of FUT1 substrates in tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, LAMP-1, has been reported to carry alpha1,2-fucosylated Lewis Y (LeY) antigens in breast cancer cells, however, the biological functions of LeY on LAMP-1 remain largely unknown. Whether or not its family member, LAMP-2, displays similar modifications and functions as LAMP-1 has not yet been addressed. In this study, we have presented evidence supporting that both LAMP-1 and 2 are substrates for FUT1, but not FUT2. We have also demonstrated the presence of H2 and LeY antigens on LAMP-1 by a targeted nanoLC-MS3 and the decreased levels of fucosylation on LAMP-2 by MALDI-TOF analysis upon FUT1 knockdown. In addition, we found that the expression of LeY was substantial in less invasive ER+/PR+/HER− breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and T47D) but negligible in highly invasive triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, of which LeY levels were correlated with the levels of LeY carried by LAMP-1 and 2. Intriguingly, we also observed a striking change in the subcellular localization of lysosomes upon FUT1 knockdown from peripheral distribution of LAMP-1 and 2 to a preferential perinuclear accumulation. Besides that, knockdown of FUT1 led to an increased rate of autophagic flux along with diminished activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and enhanced autophagosome–lysosome fusion. This may be associated with the predominantly perinuclear distribution of lysosomes mediated by FUT1 knockdown as lysosomal positioning has been reported to regulate mTOR activity and autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of FUT1, which leads to the perinuclear localization of LAMP-1 and 2, is correlated with

  6. Fucosylation of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 by FUT1 correlates with lysosomal positioning and autophagic flux of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Keng-Poo; Ho, Ming-Yi; Cho, Huan-Chieh; Yu, John; Hung, Jung-Tung; Yu, Alice Lin-Tsing

    2016-08-25

    Alpha1,2-fucosyltransferases, FUT1 and FUT2, which transfer fucoses onto the terminal galactose of N-acetyl-lactosamine via α1,2-linkage have been shown to be highly expressed in various types of cancers. A few studies have shown the involvement of FUT1 substrates in tumor cell proliferation and migration. Lysosome-associated membrane protein 1, LAMP-1, has been reported to carry alpha1,2-fucosylated Lewis Y (LeY) antigens in breast cancer cells, however, the biological functions of LeY on LAMP-1 remain largely unknown. Whether or not its family member, LAMP-2, displays similar modifications and functions as LAMP-1 has not yet been addressed. In this study, we have presented evidence supporting that both LAMP-1 and 2 are substrates for FUT1, but not FUT2. We have also demonstrated the presence of H2 and LeY antigens on LAMP-1 by a targeted nanoLC-MS(3) and the decreased levels of fucosylation on LAMP-2 by MALDI-TOF analysis upon FUT1 knockdown. In addition, we found that the expression of LeY was substantial in less invasive ER+/PR+/HER- breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and T47D) but negligible in highly invasive triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells, of which LeY levels were correlated with the levels of LeY carried by LAMP-1 and 2. Intriguingly, we also observed a striking change in the subcellular localization of lysosomes upon FUT1 knockdown from peripheral distribution of LAMP-1 and 2 to a preferential perinuclear accumulation. Besides that, knockdown of FUT1 led to an increased rate of autophagic flux along with diminished activity of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and enhanced autophagosome-lysosome fusion. This may be associated with the predominantly perinuclear distribution of lysosomes mediated by FUT1 knockdown as lysosomal positioning has been reported to regulate mTOR activity and autophagy. Taken together, our results suggest that downregulation of FUT1, which leads to the perinuclear localization of LAMP-1 and 2, is correlated with increased

  7. Brain activation related to combinations of gaze position, visual input, and goal-directed hand movements.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Patrick; Wu, Min; Sanes, Jerome N

    2011-06-01

    Humans reach to and acquire objects by transforming visual targets into action commands. How the brain integrates goals specified in a visual framework to signals into a suitable framework for an action plan requires clarification whether visual input, per se, interacts with gaze position to formulate action plans. To further evaluate brain control of visual-motor integration, we assessed brain activation, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Humans performed goal-directed movements toward visible or remembered targets while fixating gaze left or right from center. We dissociated movement planning from performance using a delayed-response task and manipulated target visibility by its availability throughout the delay or blanking it 500 ms after onset. We found strong effects of gaze orientation on brain activation during planning and interactive effects of target visibility and gaze orientation on movement-related activation during performance in parietal and premotor cortices (PM), cerebellum, and basal ganglia, with more activation for rightward gaze at a visible target and no gaze modulation for movements directed toward remembered targets. These results demonstrate effects of gaze position on PM and movement-related processes and provide new information how visual signals interact with gaze position in transforming visual inputs into motor goals.

  8. Structure activity studies of nociceptin/orphanin FQ(1-13)-NH2 derivatives modified in position 5.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Remo; Marzola, Erika; Trapella, Claudio; Pacifico, Salvatore; Cerlesi, Maria Camilla; Malfacini, Davide; Ferrari, Federica; Bird, Mark Francis; Lambert, David George; Salvadori, Severo; Calo, Girolamo

    2015-04-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) is a heptadecapeptide acting as the endogenous ligand of the N/OFQ peptide receptor (NOP). N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 is the shortest N/OFQ sequence maintaining the same potency and efficacy as the natural peptide. Thus N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 was used as chemical template for investigating the structure activity relationship of threonine in position 5. 28 [X(5)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 derivatives, in which Thr was substituted with natural and unnatural residues, were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically for their effects at the human NOP receptor. Two different functional assays were used: agonist stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding in cell membranes and calcium mobilization in whole cells co-expressing chimeric G proteins. All [X(5)]N/OFQ(1-13)-NH2 derivatives behaved as full NOP agonists showing large differences in their potency. There was an excellent correlation between the results obtained in the two assays. The results of this study suggest that: position 5 does not play a pivotal role in receptor activation; the secondary alcoholic function of Thr is not important for receptor binding; side chain size, lipo/hydrophilic balance as well as hydrogen bond capability are also not crucial for receptor binding; an aliphatic amino function positively charged with at least 3 carbon atom distance from the peptide backbone has a huge disrupting effect on receptor binding. In conclusion this study demonstrates that a simple ethyl side chain as in compound 23 is sufficient in N/OFQ position 5 for maintaining bioactivity.

  9. Phosphorylation of human Jak3 at tyrosines 904 and 939 positively regulates its activity.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hanyin; Ross, Jeremy A; Frost, Jeffrey A; Kirken, Robert A

    2008-04-01

    Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (Jak3) is essential for signaling by interleukin-2 (IL-2) family cytokines and proper immune function. Dysfunctional regulation of Jak3 may result in certain disease states. However, the molecular mechanisms governing Jak3 activation are not fully understood. In this study, we used a functional-proteomics approach to identify two novel tyrosine phosphorylation sites within Jak3, Y904 and Y939, which are conserved among Jak family proteins. By using phosphospecific antibodies, both residues were observed to be rapidly induced by stimulation of cells with IL-2 or other gammac cytokines. Mechanistic studies indicated that Y904 and Y939 regulate Jak3 activities. A phenylalanine substitution at either site greatly reduced Jak3 kinase activity in vitro and its ability to phosphorylate signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) in vivo, suggesting that phosphorylation of these previously unrecognized residues positively regulates Jak3 activity. Y904 and Y939 were required for optimal ATP usage by Jak3, while phosphorylation of Y939 preferentially promoted Stat5 activity in intact cells. Together, these findings demonstrate positive functional roles for two novel Jak3 phosphoregulatory sites which may be similarly important for other Jak family members. Identification of these sites also provides new therapeutic opportunities to modulate Jak3 function.

  10. An Analysis of Muscle Activities of Healthy Women during Pilates Exercises in a Prone Position.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-In; Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Jemyung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Haroo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study analyzed the activities of the back and hip muscles during Pilates exercises conducted in a prone position. [Subjects] The subjects were 18 healthy women volunteers who had practiced at a Pilates center for more than three months. [Methods] The subjects performed three Pilates exercises. To examine muscle activity during the exercises, 8-channel surface electromyography (Noraxon USA, Inc., Scottsdale, AZ) was used. The surface electrodes were attached to the bilateral latissimus dorsi muscle, multifidus muscle, gluteus maximus, and semitendinous muscle. Three Pilates back exercises were compared: (1) double leg kick (DLK), (2) swimming (SW), and (3) leg beat (LB). Electrical muscle activation was normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess the differences in activation levels among the exercises. [Results] The activity of the multifidus muscle was significantly high for the SW (52.3±11.0, 50.9±9.8) and LB exercises(51.8±12.8, 48.3±13.9) and the activity of the semitendinosus muscle was higher for the LB exercise (49.2±8.7, 52.9±9.3) than for the DLK and SW exercises. [Conclusion] These results may provide basic material for when Pilates exercises are performed in a prone position and may be useful information on clinical Pilates for rehabilitation programs.

  11. Resilient appliance-therapy treatment outcome in patients with TMD pain correlated to MRI-determined changes in condyle position.

    PubMed

    Limchaichana, Napat; Nilsson, Håkan; Petersson, Arne; Ekberg, EwaCarin

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study if changes in condyle position in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients could be a factor that is affected by resilient appliance therapy and if it influences the treatment outcome. The study investigated 48 patients randomly assigned to a treatment group (T group = 21 patients, using resilient appliance) or a control group (C group = 27 patients, using nonoccluding appliance). Changes in the condyle-fossa relationship (with and without the appliance) were determined in an MRI examination. Ten weeks after treatment, the treatment outcome was measured. The results showed that with the appliance, change in condyle position occurred in 76% of the T group and 22% of the C group (p < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent (67%) of the T group and 44% of the C group experienced a successful treatment outcome. Treatment outcome was not related to changes in condyle position in patients with TMD pain.

  12. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and its correlation with CD4 count in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive adults--a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dev, Nishanth; Sahoo, Ratnakar; Kulshreshtha, Bindu; Gadpayle, A K; Sharma, S C

    2015-11-01

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients is reported to be high in those with severe immune deficiency. However, there is paucity of literature in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive population. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and study its correlation with CD4 count in this population. In this cross-sectional study, patients presenting to the antiretroviral therapy clinic were screened with thyroid function tests, including thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody levels at the time of diagnosis. Two hundred and twenty-five HIV-positive and an equal number of healthy volunteers were enrolled. The mean (SD) CD4 count in the study group was 147.1 (84) and 70.7% had advanced immune deficiency with CD4 count <200 cells/µL. The overall prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 75.5% in the study group and 16% in the control group. Subclinical hypothyroidism was the commonest abnormality noted in almost 53%. Significant correlation was observed between CD4 count and thyroid stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine levels (r = -0.86, r = 0.77, and r = 0.84, respectively, p < 0.0001 for all). The present study demonstrated high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in HIV-positive patients. The dysfunction is subclinical in most cases and correlates well with declining CD4 counts.

  13. C/EBP β mRNA expression is upregulated and positively correlated with the expression of TNIP1/TNFAIP3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Tian; Chen, Yan; Shi, Xiaowei; Li, Jian; Hao, Fei; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β) has important roles in numerous signaling pathways. The expression of the majority of regulators and target gene products of C/EBP β, including tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3) and TNFAIP3-interacting protein 1 (TNIP1), are upregulated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether C/EBP β expression is associated with SLE pathogenesis and correlates with TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 expression. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to assess the expression of C/EBP β, TNIP1, and TNFAIP3 mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 20 patients with SLE and 20 healthy controls. Spearman's rank test was used to determine the correlation between C/EBP β expression and SLE disease activity, and that between C/EBP β expression and TNIP1/TNFAIP3 expression in PBMCs from patients with SLE. C/EBP β mRNA expression was markedly increased in patients with SLE compared with healthy controls. The expression of C/EBP β was positively correlated with the SLE disease activity index and negatively correlated with the serum level of complement components C3 and C4. In addition, C/EBP β mRNA expression was increased in PBMCs from SLE patients that were positive for antinuclear, anti-Smith and anti-nRNP antibodies, compared with the antibody negative SLE patients. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of C/EBP β in patients with SLE was positively correlated with TNIP1 and TNFAIP3 expression. The results of the current study suggest that the increased expression of C/EBP β in PBMCs and the interaction between C/EBP β and TNIP1/TNFAIP3 may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:27698734

  14. Positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with survival rates of NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yujin; Wang, Liancong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Guan; Wang, Yuezhen; Lai, Xiaojing; Li, Jianqiang

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality. This study aimed to investigate the prognostic and predictive importance of p53, c-erbB2 and multidrug resistance proteins (MRP) expression and its correlation with clinicopathological characteristics of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins in 152 tumor samples from resected primary NSCLCs was detected by immunohistochemical staining. The correlation of proteins, survival and clinicopathological characteristics was investigated in 152 patients undergoing potentially curative surgery. The positive rates of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression were 53.9 (82/152), 44.1 (67/152) and 43.4% (66/152), respectively. Overall survival rates of patients were markedly correlated with the overexpression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins. One, 2- and 3-year survival rates of patients exhibiting a positive expression of these proteins were 72.6, 54.8 and 32.2%, respectively. These rates were lower compared with those of patients with a negative expression of these proteins (92.1, 78.5 and 63.4%) (P=0.02, 0.01 or 0.00, respectively). Results of Cox's regression analysis showed that c-erbB2 expression and cell differentiation were independent prognostic factors in patients with NSCLC. These findings suggest that the positive expression of p53, c-erbB2 and MRP proteins is correlated with the survival rates of NSCLC patients. Detection of positive p53, c-erbB2 and MRP expression may be a useful predictive indicator of prognosis. Positive c-erbB2 expression is an independent prognostic factor, with a potential to be used as a predictive indicator of chemotherapy efficacy in NSCLC patients.

  15. Behavioral correlates between daily activity and sociality in wild and captive origin African lions

    PubMed Central

    Dunston, Emma J.; Abell, Jackie; Freire, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Study of behavioral correlations within and across populations has long been of interest to ethologists. An exploration of behavioral correlations between sociality and behavior of African lions (Panthera leo) was undertaken to examine if this approach is better able to reveal important aspects of lion behavior not easily discernible by looking at these behaviors separately. Resting behavior and received play interactions were correlated in 2 captive-origin prides and one wild pride, attributable to the involvement of cubs and sub-adults. Direct and exploratory movement was negatively correlated with groom centrality in 2 of the 3 prides, due to adults engaging in high levels of both of these activities. Exploration of these behavioral correlations highlighted the differences between age-groups in activity and sociality, facilitating the understanding of the complex behavior and interactions of lions. In addition, the finding of similar behavioral correlations between captive-origin and the wild prides provides confidence in the suitability if captive-origin candidates for ex-situ release. This is imperative to ensure the success of sub-groups and prides under an ex-situ reintroduction program. PMID:27829977

  16. Behavioral correlates between daily activity and sociality in wild and captive origin African lions.

    PubMed

    Dunston, Emma J; Abell, Jackie; Freire, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Study of behavioral correlations within and across populations has long been of interest to ethologists. An exploration of behavioral correlations between sociality and behavior of African lions (Panthera leo) was undertaken to examine if this approach is better able to reveal important aspects of lion behavior not easily discernible by looking at these behaviors separately. Resting behavior and received play interactions were correlated in 2 captive-origin prides and one wild pride, attributable to the involvement of cubs and sub-adults. Direct and exploratory movement was negatively correlated with groom centrality in 2 of the 3 prides, due to adults engaging in high levels of both of these activities. Exploration of these behavioral correlations highlighted the differences between age-groups in activity and sociality, facilitating the understanding of the complex behavior and interactions of lions. In addition, the finding of similar behavioral correlations between captive-origin and the wild prides provides confidence in the suitability if captive-origin candidates for ex-situ release. This is imperative to ensure the success of sub-groups and prides under an ex-situ reintroduction program.

  17. Individual Public Transportation Accessibility is Positively Associated with Self-Reported Active Commuting

    PubMed Central

    Djurhuus, Sune; Hansen, Henning Sten; Aadahl, Mette; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active commuters have lower risk of chronic disease. Understanding which of the, to some extent, modifiable characteristics of public transportation that facilitate its use is thus important in a public health perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the association between individual public transportation accessibility and self-reported active commuting, and whether the associations varied with commute distance, age, and gender. Methods: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred twenty-eight commuters in The Capital Region of Denmark reported self-reported time spent either walking or cycling to work or study each day and the distance to work or study. Data were obtained from the Danish National Health Survey collected in February to April 2010. Individual accessibility by public transportation was calculated using a multi-modal network in a GIS. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the association between accessibility, expressed as access area, and being an active commuter. Results: Public transport accessibility area based on all stops within walking and cycling distance was positively associated with being an active commuter. Distance to work, age, and gender modified the associations. Residing within 10 km commute distance and in areas of high accessibility was associated with being an active commuter and meeting the recommendations of physical activity. For the respondents above 29 years, individual public transportation accessibility was positively associated with being an active commuter. Women having high accessibility had significantly higher odds of being an active commuter compared to having a low accessibility. For men, the associations were insignificant. Conclusion: This study extends the knowledge about the driving forces of using public transportation for commuting by examining the individual public transportation accessibility. Findings suggest that transportation accessibility supports active commuting and planning

  18. Bactericidal Activity and Mechanism of Photoirradiated Polyphenols against Gram-Positive and -Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Kirika; Sheng, Hong; Ikai, Hiroyo; Kanno, Taro; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-09-09

    The bactericidal effect of various types of photoirradiated polyphenols against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria was evaluated in relation to the mode of action. Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans) and Gram-negative bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) suspended in a 1 mg/mL polyphenol aqueous solution (caffeic acid, gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate, and proanthocyanidin) were exposed to LED light (wavelength, 400 nm; irradiance, 260 mW/cm(2)) for 5 or 10 min. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid exerted the highest bactericidal activity followed by gallic acid and proanthocyanidin against both Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. It was also demonstrated that the disinfection treatment induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA, which suggests that polyphenols are incorporated into bacterial cells. The present study suggests that blue light irradiation of polyphenols could be a novel disinfection treatment.

  19. Passive damping to enhance active positioning of a prototype lithography platen

    SciTech Connect

    Segalman, D.J.; Kipp, R.L.; Gregory, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    A viscoelastic tuned-mass damper was used to suppress specific structural modes of a prototype lithography platen. The platen is magnetically levitated and it is repositioned and held in position by a closed-loop feedback control system. Important capabilities of the platen control system are precise positioning and rapid repositioning, which tend to require high frequency bandwidth. The high bandwidth excites structural vibration modes which are disruptive to the control system. The present work was to develop and demonstrate a means to suppress these modes using passive vibration damping techniques. The motivation is to increase the robustness of the platen positioning and control system by reducing unwanted modal accelerations excited by high control system bandwidth. Activities performed and discussed in this paper include the analytical design of viscoelastic tuned-mass dampers and the demonstration/testing of their effectiveness on the platen while levitated and controlled.

  20. Bronchodilator activity of xanthine derivatives substituted with functional groups at the 1- or 7-position.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Kurita, M; Sakai, R; Konno, K; Sanae, F; Ohshima, T; Takagi, K; Hasegawa, T; Iwasaki, N

    1993-05-14

    Xanthine derivatives with several functional groups at the 1- or 7-position were synthesized, and their pharmacological activities in guinea pigs were studied. In general, the in vitro tracheal relaxant action and positive chronotropic action of 3-propylxanthines were increased by substitutions with nonpolar functional groups at the 1-position, but decreased by any substitution at the 7-position. On the other hand, because positive chronotropic actions of substituents with allyl, aminoalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, and normal alkyl groups were much less than tracheal muscle became very high with substitutions of 3'-butenyl, (dimethylamino)ethyl, 2'-ethoxyethyl, 3'-methoxypropyl, and n-propyl groups at the 1-position and of 2'-ethoxyethyl, 2'-oxopropyl, and n-propyl groups at the 7-position, compared with theophylline and the corresponding unsubstituted xanthines, 3-propylxanthine and 1-methyl-3-propylxanthine. When compounds were intraduodenally administered to the guinea pig, 1-(2'-ethoxyethyl)-, 1-(3'-methoxypropyl)-, 1-(3'-butenyl)-, and 1-[(dimethylamino)-ethyl]-3-propylxanthines, 1-methyl-7-(2'-oxopropyl)-3-propylxanthine, and denbufylline (1,3-di-n-butyl-7-(2'-oxopropyl)xanthine) effectively inhibited the acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm without heart stimulation or central nervous system-stimulation at the effective dosage range. Particularly, the bronchodilatory effect of 1-(2'-ethoxyethyl)-3-propylxanthine was much stronger and more continuous than those of theophylline and pentoxifylline. On the other hand, there were certain relationships among the in vitro tracheal relaxant activities of these compounds, their affinities for adenosine (A1) receptors in the brain membrane, and their inhibition of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the tracheal muscle. The affinity for A2 receptors of these compounds was very low or negligible. This suggests that both the action on A1 receptors or interaction with adenosine and the cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitory activity contribute

  1. Statistical modelling of higher-order correlations in pools of neural activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montani, Fernando; Phoka, Elena; Portesi, Mariela; Schultz, Simon R.

    2013-07-01

    Simultaneous recordings from multiple neural units allow us to investigate the activity of very large neural ensembles. To understand how large ensembles of neurons process sensory information, it is necessary to develop suitable statistical models to describe the response variability of the recorded spike trains. Using the information geometry framework, it is possible to estimate higher-order correlations by assigning one interaction parameter to each degree of correlation, leading to a (2N-1)-dimensional model for a population with N neurons. However, this model suffers greatly from a combinatorial explosion, and the number of parameters to be estimated from the available sample size constitutes the main intractability reason of this approach. To quantify the extent of higher than pairwise spike correlations in pools of multiunit activity, we use an information-geometric approach within the framework of the extended central limit theorem considering all possible contributions from higher-order spike correlations. The identification of a deformation parameter allows us to provide a statistical characterisation of the amount of higher-order correlations in the case of a very large neural ensemble, significantly reducing the number of parameters, avoiding the sampling problem, and inferring the underlying dynamical properties of the network within pools of multiunit neural activity.

  2. Multilabel image classification via high-order label correlation driven active learning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bang; Wang, Yang; Chen, Fang

    2014-03-01

    Supervised machine learning techniques have been applied to multilabel image classification problems with tremendous success. Despite disparate learning mechanisms, their performances heavily rely on the quality of training images. However, the acquisition of training images requires significant efforts from human annotators. This hinders the applications of supervised learning techniques to large scale problems. In this paper, we propose a high-order label correlation driven active learning (HoAL) approach that allows the iterative learning algorithm itself to select the informative example-label pairs from which it learns so as to learn an accurate classifier with less annotation efforts. Four crucial issues are considered by the proposed HoAL: 1) unlike binary cases, the selection granularity for multilabel active learning need to be fined from example to example-label pair; 2) different labels are seldom independent, and label correlations provide critical information for efficient learning; 3) in addition to pair-wise label correlations, high-order label correlations are also informative for multilabel active learning; and 4) since the number of label combinations increases exponentially with respect to the number of labels, an efficient mining method is required to discover informative label correlations. The proposed approach is tested on public data sets, and the empirical results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  3. Significant positive correlation between sunshine and lactase nonpersistence in Europe may implicate both in similarly altering risks for some diseases.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Andrew; Leighton, Henry; Burstein, Barry; Shrier, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Decreasing latitude and increasing frequency of population lactase nonpersistence have been reported to diminish risks for several diseases, but the reason for overlap has not been explained. We evaluate, relationships between calculated national annual ultraviolet light B (UVB) exposure, latitude, and national lactose digestion frequencies. Annual UVB exposure and latitude were based on weighted averages from several cities in different countries. Lactase distribution status was based on published data that have been used previously to derive relations with diseases. We compare univariate regression analyses (r(2)(adj), slope) of percentage of lactase nonpersistence with UVB or latitude. We determine, differences between European and non-European sources by multiregression analysis of independent variables. Correlation between UVB and latitude is high (r(2) = 0.89), and between percentage of lactase nonpersistence and either latitude or UVB the correlation is moderately strong with r(2) = 0.51 and 0.46, respectively, with P ≤ 0.01 for both. A more detailed analysis shows that correlations between percentage of lactase nonpersistence and UVB are only significant in Europe, r(2) = 0.59, P < 0.001, whereas outside Europe: r(2) = 0.06, P = 0.16. These relationships raise hypothetical explanations to account for the observed overlap in similar risk modification by the 2 variables.

  4. Real world navigation independence in the early blind correlates with differential brain activity associated with virtual navigation.

    PubMed

    Halko, Mark A; Connors, Erin C; Sánchez, Jaime; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-06-01

    Navigating is a complex cognitive task that places high demands on spatial abilities, particularly in the absence of sight. Significant advances have been made in identifying the neural correlates associated with various aspects of this skill; however, how the brain is able to navigate in the absence of visual experience remains poorly understood. Furthermore, how neural network activity relates to the wide variability in navigational independence and skill in the blind population is also unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the neural correlates of audio-based navigation within a large scale, indoor virtual environment in early profoundly blind participants with differing levels of spatial navigation independence (assessed by the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale). Performing path integration tasks in the virtual environment was associated with activation within areas of a core network implicated in navigation. Furthermore, we found a positive relationship between Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scores and activation within right temporal parietal junction during the planning and execution phases of the task. These findings suggest that differential navigational ability in the blind may be related to the utilization of different brain network structures. Further characterization of the factors that influence network activity may have important implications regarding how this skill is taught in the blind community.

  5. Phosphoserine phosphatase activity is elevated and correlates negatively with plasma d-serine concentration in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Yuji; Sekine, Masae; Fujii, Kumiko; Watanabe, Takashi; Okayasu, Hiroaki; Takano, Yumiko; Shinozaki, Takahiro; Aoki, Akiko; Akiyama, Kazufumi; Homma, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2016-03-30

    The pathophysiology of schizophrenia may involve N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. D-3serine and glycine are endogenous l-serine-derived NMDAR co-agonists. We hypothesized that the l-serine synthesis pathway could be involved in schizophrenia. We measured the activity of phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP), a rate-limiting enzyme in l-serine synthesis, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 54 patients with schizophrenia and 49 normal control subjects. Plasma amino acid (l-serine, d-serine, glycine, glutamine, and glutamate) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Peripheral blood mRNA expression levels of PHGDH, PSAT1, PSP, and SR, determined by quantitative real-time PCR were compared between patients and controls. PSP activity was higher in patients than in controls, especially in male patients. In male patients, the plasma l-serine concentration was higher than that in controls. In patients, PSP activity was negatively correlated with plasma d-serine and glycine levels. Furthermore, PSP activity was positively correlated with plasma l-serine concentration. These results were statistically significant only in male patients. PSP, PSAT1, and PHGDH mRNA levels were lower in patients than in controls, except when the PHGDH expression level was compared with ACTB expression. In summary, we found the l-serine synthesis system to be altered in patients with schizophrenia, especially in male patients.

  6. Right frontopolar cortex activity correlates with reliability of retrospective rating of confidence in short-term recognition memory performance.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Osamu; Miura, Naoki; Watanabe, Jobu; Takemoto, Atsushi; Uchida, Shinya; Sugiura, Motoaki; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2010-11-01

    Human memory systems contain self-monitoring mechanisms for evaluating their progress. People can change their learning strategy on the basis of confidence in their performance at that time. However, it has not been fully understood how the brain is engaged in reliable rating of confidence in past recognition memory performance. We measured the brain activity by fMRI while healthy subjects performed a visual short-term recognition memory test and then rated their confidence in their answers as high, middle, or low. As shown previously, their behavioral performance in the confidence rating widely varied; some showed a positive confidence-recognition correlation (i.e., "rate reliably") while others did not. Among brain regions showing greater activity during rating their confidence relative to during a control, non-metamemory task (discriminating brightness of words), only a posterior-dorsal part of the right frontopolar cortex exhibited higher activity as the confidence level better correlated with actual recognition memory performance. These results suggest that activation in the right frontopolar cortex is key to a reliable, retrospective rating of confidence in short-term recognition memory performance.

  7. Extensive Evolutionary Changes in Regulatory Element Activity during Human Origins Are Associated with Altered Gene Expression and Positive Selection

    PubMed Central

    Fedrigo, Olivier; Babbitt, Courtney C.; Wortham, Matthew; Tewari, Alok K.; London, Darin; Song, Lingyun; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Margulies, Elliott H.; Wray, Gregory A.; Furey, Terrence S.; Crawford, Gregory E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS) sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species. PMID:22761590

  8. Siblings of Individuals with Smith-Magenis Syndrome: An Investigation of the Correlates of Positive and Negative Behavioural Traits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moshier, M. S.; York, T. P.; Silberg, J. L.; Elsea, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects approximately one out of 25 000 births worldwide. To date, no research has been conducted to investigate how having an individual with SMS in a family is a positive or negative influence on siblings. Methods: To investigate this question we conducted a study…

  9. Positively Valenced Stimuli Facilitate Creative Novel Metaphoric Processes by Enhancing Medial Prefrontal Cortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Beeman, Mark; Faust, Miriam; Mashal, Nira

    2013-01-01

    A metaphor is a figure of speech in which a subject is symbolic of another unrelated object. In the present study, we examined neural patterns associated with both novel unfamiliar and conventional familiar metaphoric processing, and how these patterns are modulated by affective valence. Prior to fMRI scanning, participants received a list of word pairs (novel unfamiliar metaphors as well as conventional familiar metaphors) and were asked to denote the valence (positive, negative, or neutral) of each word pair. During scanning, participants had to decide whether the word pairs formed meaningful or meaningless expressions. Results indicate that participants were faster and more accurate at deciding that positively valenced metaphors were meaningful compared to neutral metaphors. These behavioral findings were accompanied by increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and the right inferior parietal lobe (RIPL). Specifically, positively valenced novel unfamiliar metaphors elicited activation in these brain regions in addition to the left superior temporal gyrus when compared to neutral novel metaphors. We also found that the mPFC and PCC mediated the processing of positively valenced metaphors when compared to negatively valenced metaphors. Positively valenced conventional metaphors, however, elicited different neural signatures when contrasted with either neutral or negatively valenced conventional metaphors. Together, our results indicate that positively valenced stimuli facilitate creative metaphoric processes (specifically novel metaphoric processes) by mediating attention and cognitive control processes required for the access, integration, and selection of semantic associations via modulation of the mPFC. The present study is important for the development of neural accounts of emotion-cognition interactions required for creativity, language, and successful social functioning in general. PMID:23637686

  10. The correlation between muscle activity of the quadriceps and balance and gait in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dae Jung; Park, Seung Kyu; Uhm, Yo Han; Park, Sam Heon; Chun, Dong Whan; Kim, Je Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between quadriceps muscle activity and balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-five stroke patients (30 males 25 females; mean age 58.7 years; stroke duration 4.82 months; Korean mini-mental state examination score 26.4) participated in this study. MP100 surface electromyography, BioRescue, and LUKOtronic were used to measure the quadriceps muscle activity, balance, and gait, respectively. [Results] There was a significant correlation between quadriceps muscle activity (vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction) and balance (limits of stability) and gait (gait velocity) but there was none between vastus lateralis % reference voluntary contraction, vastus medialis % reference voluntary contraction. [Conclusion] An increase in quadriceps muscle activity will improve balance and gait ability. To improve function in stroke patients, training is needed to strengthen the quadriceps muscles. PMID:27630416

  11. Activity, diffusion, and correlations in a two-dimensional conserved stochastic sandpile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Cunha, S. D.; da Silva, L. R.; Viswanathan, G. M.; Dickman, Ronald

    2014-08-01

    We perform large-scale simulations of a two-dimensional restricted height conserved stochastic sandpile, focusing on particle diffusion and mobility, and spatial correlations. Quasistationary (QS) simulations yield the critical particle density to high precision [pc = 0.7112687(2)], and show that the diffusion constant scales in the same manner as the activity density, as found previously in the one-dimensional case. Short-time scaling is characterized by subdiffusive behavior (mean-square displacement ˜ tγ with γ < 1), which is easily understood as a consequence of the initial decay of activity, ρ(t) ˜ t-δ, with γ = 1 - δ. We verify that at criticality, the activity-activity correlation function C\\left(r\\right)\\sim {{r}^{-\\beta /{{\

  12. False positive RNA binding activities after Ni-affinity purification from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Milojevic, Tetyana; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Romeo, Alessandra; Djinović-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-06-01

    A His-tag is often added by means of recombinant DNA technology to a heterologous protein of interest, which is then over-produced in Escherchia coli and purified by one-step immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC). Owing to the presence of 24 histidines at the C-termini of the hexameric E. coli RNA chaperone Hfq, the protein co-purifies with His-tagged proteins of interest. As Hfq can bind to distinct RNA substrates with high affinity, its presence can obscure studies performed with (putative) RNA binding activities purified by IMAC. Here, we present results for a seemingly positive RNA-binding activity, exemplifying that false-positive results can be avoided if the protein of interest is either subjected to further purification step(s) or produced in an E. coli hfq- strain.

  13. Decreased Gaq expression in T cells correlates with enhanced cytokine production and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiao; Yu, Bing; Qian, Hongyan; Duan, Lihua; Shi, Guixiu

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant T cell immune responses appear central to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that Gαq, the alpha subunit of Gq, regulates T and B cell immune responses, promoting autoimmunity. To address whether Gαq contributes to the pathogenesis of SLE, Gαq mRNA expression was studied using real time-PCR in PBMCs and T cells from SLE patients as well as age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Our results showed that Gαq mRNA expression was decreased in PBMCs and T cells from SLE patients compared to healthy individuals. Correlation analyses showed that Gαq expression in T cells from SLE patients was associated with disease severity (as per SLE Disease Activity Index), the presence of lupus nephritis, and expression of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines. In keeping with clinical results, T-helper cell subsets (Th1, Th2 and Th17) were over-represented in Gαq knockout mice. In addition, Gαq expression in SLE T cells was negatively correlated with the expression of Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic gene, and positively correlated with the expression of Bax, a pro-apoptotic gene. These data suggest that reduced Gαq levels in T cells may promote enhanced and prolonged T cell activation, contributing to the clinical manifestations of SLE. PMID:27965465

  14. Triazolopyridine ethers as potent, orally active mGlu2 positive allosteric modulators for treating schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Mendi A; Marcin, Lawrence R; Christopher Zusi, F; Gentles, Robert; Ding, Min; Pearce, Bradley C; Easton, Amy; Kostich, Walter A; Seager, Matthew A; Bourin, Clotilde; Bristow, Linda J; Johnson, Kim A; Miller, Regina; Hogan, John; Whiterock, Valerie; Gulianello, Michael; Ferrante, Meredith; Huang, Yanling; Hendricson, Adam; Alt, Andrew; Macor, John E; Bronson, Joanne J

    2017-01-15

    Triazolopyridine ethers with mGlu2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) activity are disclosed. The synthesis, in vitro activity, and metabolic stability data for a series of analogs is provided. The effort resulted in the discovery of a potent, selective, and brain penetrant lead molecule BMT-133218 ((+)-7m). After oral administration at 10mg/kg, BMT-133218 demonstrated full reversal of PCP-stimulated locomotor activity and prevented MK-801-induced working memory deficits in separate mouse models. Also, reversal of impairments in executive function were observed in rat set-shifting studies at 3 and 10mg/kg (p.o.). Extensive plasma protein binding as the result of high lipophilicity likely limited activity at lower doses. Optimized triazolopyridine ethers offer utility as mGlu2 PAMs for the treatment of schizophrenia and merit further preclinical investigation.

  15. Participant Perceptions of Character Concepts in a Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program.

    PubMed

    Riciputi, Shaina; McDonough, Meghan H; Ullrich-French, Sarah

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs often aim to foster character development. This study examined youth perspectives of character development curricula and the impact these activities have on their lives within and beyond the program. This case study examined youth from low-income families in a physical activity-based summer PYD program that integrated one character concept (respect, caring, responsibility, trust) in each of 4 weeks. Participants (N = 24) included a cross section of age, gender, ethnicity, and past program experience. Semi-structured interviews were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis and constant comparative methods. Thirteen themes were grouped in four categories: building highquality reciprocal relationships; intrapersonal improvement; moral reasoning and understanding; and rejection, resistance, and compliance. The findings provide participant-centered guidance for understanding youth personal and social development through physical activity in ways that are meaningful to participants, which is particularly needed for youth in low-income communities with limited youth programming.

  16. Markers of Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Correlation with Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gangduo; Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Papalardo, Elizabeth; Ansari, G.A.S.; Khan, M. Firoze

    2010-01-01

    Objective Free radical-mediated reactions have been implicated as contributors in a number of autoimmune disease (ADs) including SLE. However, potential of oxidative/nitrosative stress in eliciting an autoimmune response, or in disease prognosis and pathogenesis in humans remains largely unexplored. This study investigates the status and contribution of oxidative/nitrosative stress in SLE. Methods Sera from 72 SLE patients with various SLE scores [SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI)] and 36 age- and gender-matched controls were evaluated for oxidative/nitrosative stress markers, such as anti-malondialdehyde (MDA)- and anti-4-hydroxynonenal (HNE)-protein adduct antibodies, MDA-/HNE-protein adducts, superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitrotyrosine and iNOS. Results Serum analysis showed significantly higher levels of both anti-MDA-/anti-HNE-protein adduct antibodies and MDA-/HNE-protein adducts in SLE patients. Interestingly, our data showed not only increased number of subjects positive for anti-MDA- or anti-HNE-protein antibodies, but also greater increases in both these antibodies in SLE patients with greater SLEDAI (≥ 6), which were significantly higher than the lower SLEDAI group (<6). Data also showed a significant correlation between anti-MDA or anti-HNE antibodies and SLEDAI (r = 0.734 and 0.647 for anti-MDA and anti-HNE antibodies, respectively) suggesting a possible causal relationship between these antibodies and SLE. Furthermore, sera from SLE patients had lower levels of SOD, and higher levels of iNOS and nitrotyrosine. Conclusion Our findings support an association between oxidative/nitrosative stress and SLE. Stronger response in samples with higher SLEDAI suggests that oxidative/nitrosative stress markers may be useful in evaluating the progression of SLE as well as in elucidating the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. PMID:20201076

  17. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis.

  18. Structure-Activity Analysis of Gram-positive Bacterium-producing Lasso Peptides with Anti-mycobacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Inokoshi, Junji; Koyama, Nobuhiro; Miyake, Midori; Shimizu, Yuji; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Lariatin A, an 18-residue lasso peptide encoded by the five-gene cluster larABCDE, displays potent and selective anti-mycobacterial activity. The structural feature is an N-terminal macrolactam ring, through which the C-terminal passed to form the rigid lariat-protoknot structure. In the present study, we established a convergent expression system by the strategy in which larA mutant gene-carrying plasmids were transformed into larA-deficient Rhodococcus jostii, and generated 36 lariatin variants of the precursor protein LarA to investigate the biosynthesis and the structure-activity relationships. The mutational analysis revealed that four amino acid residues (Gly1, Arg7, Glu8, and Trp9) in lariatin A are essential for the maturation and production in the biosynthetic machinery. Furthermore, the study on structure-activity relationships demonstrated that Tyr6, Gly11, and Asn14 are responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity, and the residues at positions 15, 16 and 18 in lariatin A are critical for enhancing the activity. This study will not only provide a useful platform for genetically engineering Gram-positive bacterium-producing lasso peptides, but also an important foundation to rationally design more promising drug candidates for combatting tuberculosis. PMID:27457620

  19. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior.

  20. Modifications in activation of lower limb muscles as a function of initial foot position in cycling.

    PubMed

    Padulo, Johnny; Powell, Douglas W; Ardigò, Luca P; Viggiano, Davide

    2015-08-01

    Cyclic movements, such as walking/cycling, require the activity of spinal-circuits, the central-pattern-generators (CPG). To our knowledge little work has been done to investigate the activation of these circuits, e.g., the muscular and kinematic activity during cycling initiation. This study aims to detail the muscle output properties as a function of the initial lower limb-position using a simple cycling paradigm. Therefore, subjects were required to pedal on a cycle-ergometer in seated position starting at different-crank-angles (0-150°). Surface-electromyography was recorded from the gluteus major (GL), vastus lateralis (VL), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM), while crank position was recorded using a linear-encoder. Gluteus major peak-activity (PA) occurred at 65.0±12.4° when starting with 0° initial crank position (ICP), while occurred maximally at 110.5±2.9 when starting with 70° ICP. Vastus lateralis PA occurred at 40.7±8.8° with 0° ICP, whereas with 70° ICP PA occurred at 103.4±4.0°. Similarly, GM PA occurred at 112.0±10.7° with 0° ICP, whereas with 70° ICP PA occurred at 142.5±4.2° PA. Gluteus major and gastrocnemius medialis showed similar PA phase shifts, which may suggest they are controlled by same local circuitry, in agreement with their common spinal origin, i.e., motoneurons pool in S1-S2.

  1. TNF activation of NF-κB is essential for development of single-positive thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    NF-κB activation has been implicated at multiple stages of thymic development of T cells, during which it is thought to mediate developmental signals originating from the T cell receptor (TCR). However, the Card11–Bcl10–Malt1 (CBM) complex that is essential for TCR activation of NF-κB in peripheral T cells is not required for thymocyte development. It has remained unclear whether the TCR activates NF-κB independent of the CBM complex in thymocyte development or whether another NF-κB activating receptor is involved. In the present study, we generated mice in which T cells lacked expression of both catalytic subunits of the inhibitor of κB kinase (IKK) complex, IKK1 and IKK2, to investigate this question. Although early stages of T cell development were unperturbed, maturation of CD4 and CD8 single-positive (SP) thymocytes was blocked in mice lacking IKK1/2 in the T cell lineage. We found that IKK1/2-deficient thymocytes were specifically sensitized to TNF-induced cell death in vitro. Furthermore, the block in thymocyte development in IKK1/2-deficient mice could be rescued by blocking TNF with anti-TNF mAb or by ablation of TNFRI expression. These experiments reveal an essential role for TNF activation of NF-κB to promote the survival and development of single positive T cells in the thymus. PMID:27432943

  2. Parvalbumin-Positive Inhibitory Interneurons Oppose Propagation But Favor Generation of Focal Epileptiform Activity.

    PubMed

    Sessolo, Michele; Marcon, Iacopo; Bovetti, Serena; Losi, Gabriele; Cammarota, Mario; Ratto, Gian Michele; Fellin, Tommaso; Carmignoto, Giorgio

    2015-07-01

    Parvalbumin (Pv)-positive inhibitory interneurons effectively control network excitability, and their optogenetic activation has been reported to block epileptic seizures. An intense activity in GABAergic interneurons, including Pv interneurons, before seizures has been described in different experimental models of epilepsy, raising the hypothesis that an increased GABAergic inhibitory signal may, under certain conditions, initiate seizures. It is therefore unclear whether the activity of Pv interneurons enhances or opposes epileptiform activities. Here we use a mouse cortical slice model of focal epilepsy in which the epileptogenic focus can be identified and the role of Pv interneurons in the generation and propagation of seizure-like ictal events is accurately analyzed by a combination of optogenetic, electrophysiological, and imaging techniques. We found that a selective activation of Pv interneurons at the focus failed to block ictal generation and induced postinhibitory rebound spiking in pyramidal neurons, enhancing neuronal synchrony and promoting ictal generation. In contrast, a selective activation of Pv interneurons distant from the focus blocked ictal propagation and shortened ictal duration at the focus. We revealed that the reduced ictal duration was a direct consequence of the ictal propagation block, probably by preventing newly generated afterdischarges to travel backwards to the original focus of ictal initiation. Similar results were obtained upon individual Pv interneuron activation by intracellular depolarizing current pulses. The functional dichotomy of Pv interneurons here described opens new perspectives to our understanding of how local inhibitory circuits govern generation and spread of focal epileptiform activities.

  3. Relations between Physical Activity and Behavioral and Perceptual Correlates among Midwestern College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Nehl, Eric; Agley, Jon; Ma, Shang-Min

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Given the inconsistent findings in the literature, the authors' purpose in this study was to examine the associations between physical activity and behavioral and perceptional correlates, such as binge drinking, cigarette smoking, fruit or vegetable consumption, and weight perceptions, among midwestern college students. Participants and…

  4. The Geriatric Hand: Correlation of Hand-Muscle Function and Activity Restriction in Elderly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle…

  5. Physical and Social-Motivational Contextual Correlates of Youth Physical Activity in Underresourced Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrett, Nicole; Sorensen, Carl; Cook, Brittany Skiles

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have become increasingly recognized as a key context to support youth daily physical activity (PA) accrual. The purpose of the present study was to assess the physical and social-motivational climate characteristics of ASPs associated with youth PA, and variations in contextual correlates of PA by youth sex. Systematic…

  6. No Evidence for Activity Correlations in the Radial Velocities of Kapteyn’s Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglada-Escudé, G.; Tuomi, M.; Arriagada, P.; Zechmeister, M.; Jenkins, J. S.; Ofir, A.; Dreizler, S.; Gerlach, E.; Marvin, C. J.; Reiners, A.; Jeffers, S. V.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, S. S.; Amado, P. J.; Rodríguez-López, C.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Morin, J.; Crane, J. D.; Shectman, S. A.; Díaz, M. R.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Jones, H. R. A.

    2016-10-01

    Stellar activity may induce Doppler variability at the level of a few m s-1 which can then be confused by the Doppler signal of an exoplanet orbiting the star. To first order, linear correlations between radial velocity measurements and activity indices have been proposed to account for any such correlation. The likely presence of two super-Earths orbiting Kapteyn’s star was reported in Anglada-Escudé et al., but this claim was recently challenged by Robertson et al., who argued for evidence of a rotation period (143 days) at three times the orbital period of one of the proposed planets (Kapteyn’s b, P = 48.6 days) and the existence of strong linear correlations between its Doppler signal and activity data. By re-analyzing the data using global statistics and model comparison, we show that such a claim is incorrect given that (1) the choice of a rotation period at 143 days is unjustified, and (2) the presence of linear correlations is not supported by the data. We conclude that the radial velocity signals of Kapteyn’s star remain more simply explained by the presence of two super-Earth candidates orbiting it. We note that analysis of time series of activity indices must be executed with the same care as Doppler time series. We also advocate for the use of global optimization procedures and objective arguments, instead of claims based on residual analyses which are prone to biases and incorrect interpretations.

  7. Motivational Correlates of Physical Activity in Persons with an Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Y.; Korsensky, O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to systematically retrieve, examine and discuss scientific studies focusing on motivational correlates that both contribute to, and can be assumed to be effects of, participation in sport, recreation, or health-related physical activities in persons with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: A systematic…

  8. The geriatric hand: correlation of hand-muscle function and activity restriction in elderly.

    PubMed

    Incel, Nurgul Arinci; Sezgin, Melek; As, Ismet; Cimen, Ozlem Bolgen; Sahin, Gunsah

    2009-09-01

    On the basis of the importance of hand manipulation in activities of daily living (ADL), deterioration of hand function because of various factors reduces quality and independence of life of the geriatric population. The aim of this study was to identify age-induced changes in manual function and to quantify the correlations between hand-muscle function and activity restriction in the geriatric age group, through grip and pinch measurements and a set of questionnaires. Twenty-four geriatric (aged 65-79 years) volunteers participated in the study. Bilateral grip and pinch strengths have been recorded. To document impairment of manual functions, self-estimated hand function, Duruöz and Dreiser hand indices, Geriatrics-Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (GERI-AIMS) manual dexterity questionnaires have been completed. Activity restriction and quality of life of these patients were inquired with short form (SF)-36 and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores. Grip and pinch strengths correlated best with Duruöz and Dreiser indices. Similarly, SF-36 and IADL had higher correlation coefficients for Duruöz and Dreiser indices. A very good correlation between IADL and SF-36 was calculated too. Male and female participants revealed statistically significant differences for grip and pinch strengths as well as self-estimated hand function and SF-36. Another result was that none of our parameters, including grip strength and SF-36 had differed significantly between the 65-70 and 70-79 years age subgroups. However, grip strength displayed statistically significant lower values when compared with young adult mean values of a previous study. Our data in this study support the hypothesis that hand-muscle function correlates with functional dependency in the elderly. Manual function can be determined by grip strength in addition to multiple available functional tools. In this study, Dreiser and Duruöz hand function indices were the best to correlate with ADL and

  9. Correlation between dielectric property by dielectrophoretic levitation and growth activity of cells exposed to electric field.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, Masaru; Hirota, Yusuke

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a system analyzing cell activity by the dielectrophoresis method. Our previous studies revealed a correlation between the growth activity and dielectric property (Re[K(ω)]) of mouse hybridoma 3-2H3 cells using dielectrophoretic levitation. Furthermore, it was clarified that the differentiation activity of many stem cells could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)] without differentiation induction. In this paper, 3-2H3 cells exposed to an alternating current (AC) electric field or a direct current (DC) electric field were cultivated, and the influence of damage by the electric field on the growth activity of the cells was examined. To evaluate the activity of the cells by measuring the Re[K(ω)], the correlation between the growth activity and the Re[K(ω)] of the cells exposed to the electric field was examined. The relations between the cell viability, growth activity, and Re[K(ω)] in the cells exposed to the AC electric field were obtained. The growth activity of the cells exposed to the AC electric field could be evaluated by the Re[K(ω)]. Furthermore, it was found that the adverse effects of the electric field on the cell viability and the growth activity were smaller in the AC electric field than the DC electric field.

  10. Nonequilibrium dynamics of active matter with correlated noise: A dynamical renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-03-01

    Biology is rife with examples of active materials - soft matter systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states by energy input at the micro scale. For example, solutions of active micron scale swimmers produce active fluids showing phenomena reminiscent of turbulent convection at low Reynolds number; cytoskeletal networks driven by endogenous molecular motors produce active solids whose mechanics and low frequency strain fluctuations depend sensitively on motor activity. One hallmark of these systems is that they are driven at the micro scale by temporally correlated forces. In this talk, we study how correlated noise at the micro scale leads to novel long wavelength and long time scale dynamics at the macro scale in a simple model system. Specifically, we study the fluctuations of a ϕ4 scalar field obeying model A dynamics and driven by noise with a finite correlation time τ. We show that the effective dynamical system at long length and time scales is driven by white noise with a renormalized amplitude and renormalized transport coefficients. We discuss the implications of this result for a broad class of active matter systems driven at the micro scale by colored noise.

  11. Oscillatory pallidal local field potential activity inversely correlates with limb dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Paul; Oliviero, Antonio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Insola, Angelo; Mazzone, Paolo; Brown, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Levodopa induced dyskinesias (LIDs) are poorly understood and yet are a major cause of disability in Parkinson's disease (PD). The activity of neurons in the basal ganglia of patients with PD tends to be strongly synchronized at frequencies under 30 Hz, leading to oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs). As dopaminergic therapy acutely suppresses this synchronization, we investigated whether this suppression may contribute to LIDs. Accordingly, we sought an inverse correlation between oscillatory synchronization and dyskinesia activity across time. To this end, we recorded pallidal LFPs in two Parkinsonian subjects exhibiting LIDs following surgery for deep brain stimulation. We correlated LFP power with simultaneously recorded EMG from the dyskinetic contralateral upper limb. We found highly significant inverse correlations between the oscillatory LFP activity under 30 Hz and dyskinetic EMG (maximum r = -0.65, P < 0.001 and r = -0.33, P < 0.001 for activities over 13-30 Hz in each subject). The inverse relationship between oscillatory pallidal LFP activity and dyskinetic EMG was maintained over time periods of a few seconds and was focal. This observation links the suppression of oscillatory synchronization in the pallidum with dyskinetic muscle activity in PD.

  12. Antioxidant activity via DPPH, gram-positive and gram-negative antimicrobial potential in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Mahmood, Fazal; Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Fazal, Hina; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2014-10-01

    Edible mushrooms (EMs) are nutritionally rich source of proteins and essential amino acids. In the present study, the antioxidant activity via 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and antimicrobial potential in EMs (Pleurotus ostreatus, Morchella esculenta, P. ostreatus (Black), P. ostreatus (Yellow) and Pleurotus sajor-caju) were investigated. The DPPH radical scavenging activity revealed that the significantly higher activity (66.47%) was observed in Morchella esculenta at a maximum concentration. Similarly, the dose-dependent concentrations (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 µg) were also used for other four EMs. Pleurotus ostreatus exhibited 36.13% activity, P. ostreatus (Black (B)) exhibited 30.64%, P. ostreatus (Yellow (Y)) exhibited 40.75% and Pleurotus sajor-caju exhibited 47.39% activity at higher concentrations. Furthermore, the antimicrobial potential were investigated for its toxicity against gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia, Erwinia carotovora and Agrobacterium tumifaciens), gram-positive bacterial strains (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus atrophaeus and Staphylococcus aureus) and a fungal strain (Candida albicans) in comparison with standard antibiotics. Antimicrobial screening revealed that the ethanol extract of P. ostreatus was active against all microorganism tested except E. coli. Maximum zone of inhibition (13 mm) was observed against fungus and A. tumifaciens. P. sajor-caju showed best activities (12.5 mm) against B. subtilis, B. atrophaeus and K. pneumonia. P. ostreatus (Y) showed best activities against P. aeroginosa (21.83 mm), B. atrophaeus (20 mm) and C. albicans (21 mm). P. ostreatus (B) exhibited best activities against C. albicans (16 mm) and slightly lower activities against all other microbes except S. typhi. M. esculenta possess maximum activities in terms of inhibition zone against all microorganisms tested except S. typhi.

  13. Design and synthesis of new dihydrotestosterone derivative with positive inotropic activity.

    PubMed

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Betty, Sarabia Alcocer

    2015-03-01

    There are several reports which indicate that some steroid derivatives have inotropic activity; nevertheless, the cellular site and mechanism of action of steroid derivatives at cardiovascular level is very confusing. In order, to clarify these phenomena in this study, two dihydrotestosterone derivatives (compounds 5 and 10) were synthesized with the objective of to evaluate its biological activity on left ventricular pressure and characterize their molecular mechanism. In the first stage, the Langendorff technique was used to measure changes on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in an isolated rat heart model in absence or presence of the steroid derivatives. Additionally, to characterize the molecular mechanism involved in the inotropic activity induced by the compound 5 was evaluated by measuring left ventricular pressure in absence or presence of following compounds; nifedipine, flutamide, indomethacin, prazosin, isoproterenol, propranolol and metoprolol. The results showed that the compound 5 significantly increased the perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in comparison with dihydrotestosterone, compound 10 and the control conditions. Other data indicate that 5 increase left ventricular pressure in a dose-dependent manner (0.001-100 nM); nevertheless, this phenomenon was significantly inhibited only by propranolol or metoprolol at a dose of 1 nM. These data suggest that positive inotropic activity induced by the compound 5 is through β1-adrenergic receptor however, this effect was independent of cAMP levels. This phenomenon is a particularly interesting because the positive inotropic activity induced by this steroid derivative involves a molecular mechanism different in comparison with other positive inotropic drugs.

  14. Are secular correlations between sunspots, geomagnetic activity, and global temperature significant?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.J.; Mursula, K.; Tsai, V.C.; Perkins, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have led to speculation that solar-terrestrial interaction, measured by sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, has played an important role in global temperature change over the past century or so. We treat this possibility as an hypothesis for testing. We examine the statistical significance of cross-correlations between sunspot number, geomagnetic activity, and global surface temperature for the years 1868-2008, solar cycles 11-23. The data contain substantial autocorrelation and nonstationarity, properties that are incompatible with standard measures of cross-correlational significance, but which can be largely removed by averaging over solar cycles and first-difference detrending. Treated data show an expected statistically- significant correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity, Pearson p < 10-4, but correlations between global temperature and sunspot number (geomagnetic activity) are not significant, p = 0.9954, (p = 0.8171). In other words, straightforward analysis does not support widely-cited suggestions that these data record a prominent role for solar-terrestrial interaction in global climate change. With respect to the sunspot-number, geomagnetic-activity, and global-temperature data, three alternative hypotheses remain difficult to reject: (1) the role of solar-terrestrial interaction in recent climate change is contained wholly in long-term trends and not in any shorter-term secular variation, or, (2) an anthropogenic signal is hiding correlation between solar-terrestrial variables and global temperature, or, (3) the null hypothesis, recent climate change has not been influenced by solar-terrestrial interaction. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Parks, S; Housemann, R; Brownson, R

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: Few studies have analysed the rates and correlates of physical activity in economically and geographically diverse populations. Objectives were to examine: (1) urban-rural differences in physical activity by several demographic, geographical, environmental, and psychosocial variables, (2) patterns in environmental and policy factors across urban-rural setting and socioeconomic groups, (3) socioeconomic differences in physical activity across the same set of variables, and (4) possible correlations of these patterns with meeting of physical activity recommendations. Design: A cross sectional study with an over sampling of lower income adults was conducted in 1999–2000. Setting: United States. Participants: 1818 United States adults. Main results: Lower income residents were less likely than higher income residents to meet physical activity recommendations. Rural residents were least likely to meet recommendations; suburban residents were most likely to meet recommendations. Suburban, higher income residents were more than twice as likely to meet recommendations than rural, lower income residents. Significant differences across income levels and urban/rural areas were found for those reporting neighbourhood streets, parks, and malls as places to exercise; fear of injury, being in poor health, or dislike as barriers to exercise and those reporting encouragement from relatives as social support for exercise. Evidence of a positive dose-response relation emerged between number of places to exercise and likelihood to meet recommendations for physical activity. Conclusions: Both income level and urban rural status were important predictors of adults' likelihood to meet physical activity recommendations. In addition, environmental variables vary in importance across socioeconomic status and urban-rural areas. PMID:12490645

  16. Investigation on positive correlation of increased brain iron deposition with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease by using quantitative MR R2' mapping.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zhan, Chuanjia; Zhao, Lingyun; Wang, Jianzhi; Tian, Qing; Wang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    Brain iron deposition has been proposed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of brain iron accumulation with the severity of cognitive impairment in patients with AD by using quantitative MR relaxation rate R2' measurements. Fifteen patients with AD, 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, and 30 healthy volunteers underwent 1.5T MR multi-echo T2 mapping and T2* mapping for the measurement of transverse relaxation rate R2' (R2'=R2*-R2). We statistically analyzed the R2' and iron concentrations of bilateral hippocampus (HP), parietal cortex (PC), frontal white matter (FWM), putamen (PU), caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus (TH), red nucleus (RN), substantia nigra (SN), and dentate nucleus (DN) of the cerebellum for the correlation with the severity of dementia. Two-tailed t-test, Student-Newman-Keuls test (ANOVA) and linear correlation test were used for statistical analysis. In 30 healthy volunteers, the R2' values of bilateral SN, RN, PU, CN, globus pallidus (GP), TH, and FWM were measured. The correlation with the postmortem iron concentration in normal adults was analyzed in order to establish a formula on the relationship between regional R2' and brain iron concentration. The iron concentration of regions of interest (ROI) in AD patients and controls was calculated by this formula and its correlation with the severity of AD was analyzed. Regional R2' was positively correlated with regional brain iron concentration in normal adults (r=0.977, P<0.01). Iron concentrations in bilateral HP, PC, PU, CN, and DN of patients with AD were significantly higher than those of the controls (P<0.05); Moreover, the brain iron concentrations, especially in parietal cortex and hippocampus at the early stage of AD, were positively correlated with the severity of patients' cognitive impairment (P<0.05). The higher the R2' and iron concentrations were, the more severe the cognitive

  17. Functional efficacy of adenosine A2A receptor agonists is positively correlated to their receptor residence time

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dong; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The adenosine A2A receptor belongs to the superfamily of GPCRs and is a promising therapeutic target. Traditionally, the discovery of novel agents for the A2A receptor has been guided by their affinity for the receptor. This parameter is determined under equilibrium conditions, largely ignoring the kinetic aspects of the ligand-receptor interaction. The aim of this study was to assess the binding kinetics of A2A receptor agonists and explore a possible relationship with their functional efficacy. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We set up, validated and optimized a kinetic radioligand binding assay (a so-called competition association assay) at the A2A receptor from which the binding kinetics of unlabelled ligands were determined. Subsequently, functional efficacies of A2A receptor agonists were determined in two different assays: a novel label-free impedance-based assay and a more traditional cAMP determination. KEY RESULTS A simplified competition association assay yielded an accurate determination of the association and dissociation rates of unlabelled A2A receptor ligands at their receptor. A correlation was observed between the receptor residence time of A2A receptor agonists and their intrinsic efficacies in both functional assays. The affinity of A2A receptor agonists was not correlated to their functional efficacy. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study indicates that the molecular basis of different agonist efficacies at the A2A receptor lies within their different residence times at this receptor. PMID:22324512

  18. No correlation between NF1 mutation position and risk of optic pathway glioma in 77 unrelated NF1 patients.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Sonja; Piro, Rosario M; Waszak, Sebastian M; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Witt, Olaf; Korbel, Jan O; Lichter, Peter; Schuhmann, Martin U; Pfister, Stefan M; Tabori, Uri; Mautner, Victor F; Jones, David T W

    2016-05-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common monogenic disorder whereby affected individuals are predisposed to developing CNS tumors, including optic pathway gliomas (OPGs, occurring in ~15 to 20 % of cases). So far, no definite genotype-phenotype correlation determining NF1 patients at risk for tumor formation has been described, although enrichment for mutations in the 5' region of the NF1 gene in OPG patients has been suggested. We used whole exome sequencing, targeted sequencing, and copy number analysis to screen 77 unrelated NF1 patients with (n = 41) or without (n = 36; age ≥10 years) optic pathway glioma for germline NF1 alterations. We identified germline NF1 mutations in 69 of 77 patients (90 %), but no genotype-phenotype correlation was observed. Our data using a larger patient cohort did not confirm the previously reported clustering of mutations in the 5' region of the NF1 gene in patients with OPG. Thus, NF1 mutation location should not currently be used as a clinical criterion to assess the risk of developing OPGs.

  19. Serum calcium is positively correlated with fasting plasma glucose and insulin resistance, independent of parathyroid hormone, in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Toru; Kanazawa, Ippei; Takaoka, Shin; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2011-09-01

    Patients with primary hyperparathyroidism have impaired glucose tolerance more often than do controls, and parathyroid resection sometimes improves this derangement. However, it is unclear whether serum calcium (Ca) or parathyroid hormone (PTH) is more strongly related to impaired glucose metabolism in subjects without primary hyperparathyroidism. In this cross-sectional study, we examined patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (271 men and 209 women) and analyzed the relationships between serum concentrations of Ca or intact PTH and DM-related variables. Simple regression analyses showed that the level of serum Ca was significantly and positively correlated with the levels of fasting plasma glucose, immunoreactive insulin, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance in men (P < .05), but not in women. In contrast, intact PTH was not significantly correlated with DM-related parameters in either sex. Multiple regression analyses showed that the significant and positive correlations between serum Ca vs fasting plasma glucose and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance in men still remained after adjustment for intact PTH as well as age, body weight, height, creatinine, albumin, phosphate, bone metabolic markers, and estradiol (P < .05). Serum Ca level is positively associated with impaired glucose metabolism, independent of PTH or bone metabolism, in men with type 2 DM.

  20. Higher-order correlations in common input shapes the output spiking activity of a neural population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montangie, Lisandro; Montani, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Recent neurophysiological experiments suggest that populations of neurons use a computational scheme in which spike timing is regulated by common non-Gaussian inputs across neurons. The presence of beyond-pairwise correlations in the neuronal inputs and the spiking outputs following a non-Gaussian statistics elicits the need of developing a new theoretical framework taking into account the complexity of synchronous activity patterns. To this end, we quantify the amount of higher-order correlations in the common neuronal inputs and outputs of a population of neurons. We provide a novel formalism, of easy numerical implementation, that can capture the subtle changes of the inputs heterogeneities. Within our approach, correlations across neurons arise from q-Gaussian inputs into threshold neurons and higher-order correlations in the spiking outputs activity are quantified by the parameter q. We present an exhaustive analysis of how input statistics are transformed in this threshold process into output statistics, and we show under which conditions higher-order correlations can lead to either bigger or smaller number of synchronized spikes in the neural population outputs.

  1. Cdc42 activation couples spindle positioning to first polar body formation in oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chunqi; Benink, Héléne A; Cheng, Daye; Montplaisir, Véronique; Wang, Ling; Xi, Yanwei; Zheng, Pei-Pei; Bement, William M; Liu, X Johné

    2006-01-24

    During vertebrate egg maturation, cytokinesis initiates after one pole of the bipolar metaphase I spindle attaches to the oocyte cortex, resulting in the formation of a polar body and the mature egg. It is not known what signal couples the spindle pole positioning to polar body formation. We approached this question by drawing an analogy to mitotic exit in budding yeast, as asymmetric spindle attachment to the appropriate cortical region is the common regulatory cue. In budding yeast, the small G protein Cdc42 plays an important role in mitotic exit following the spindle pole attachment . We show here that inhibition of Cdc42 activation blocks polar body formation. The oocytes initiate anaphase but fail to properly form and direct a contractile ring. Endogenous Cdc42 is activated at the spindle pole-cortical contact site immediately prior to polar body formation. The cortical Cdc42 activity zone, which directly overlays the spindle pole, is circumscribed by a cortical RhoA activity zone; the latter defines the cytokinetic contractile furrow . As the RhoA ring contracts during cytokinesis, the Cdc42 zone expands, maintaining its complementary relationship with the RhoA ring. Cdc42 signaling may thus be an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that couples spindle positioning to asymmetric cytokinesis.

  2. Laser-Machined Shape Memory Alloy Sensors for Position Feedback in Active Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Alexander T.; Park, Byong-Ho; Liang, David H.; Niemeyer, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-based interventions are a form of minimally invasive surgery that can decrease hospitalization time and greatly lower patient morbidity compared to traditional methods. However, percutaneous catheter procedures are hindered by a lack of precise tip manipulation when actuation forces are transmitted over the length of the catheter. Active catheters with local shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuation can potentially provide the desired manipulation of a catheter tip, but hysteresis makes it difficult to control the actuators. A method to integrate small-volume, compliant sensors on an active catheter to provide position feedback for control would greatly improve the viability of SMA-based active catheters. In this work, we describe the design, fabrication, and performance of resistance-based position sensors that are laser-machined from superelastic SMA tubing. Combining simple material models and rapid prototyping, we can develop sensors of appropriate stiffness and sensitivity with simple modifications in sensor geometry. The sensors exhibit excellent linearity over the operating range and are designed to be easily integrated onto an active catheter substrate. PMID:19759806

  3. Impact of the initial tropospheric zenith path delay on precise point positioning convergence during active conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalita, J. Z.; Rzepecka, Z.

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the key factors that influence the convergence time of the precise point positioning (PPP) method. Current models do not allow for the fixing of the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving the difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here, we present an analysis of several PPP result-sets using the tropospheric parameter’s nominal value adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS, and ZERO-WET. The last variant assumes a zero value for the initial wet part of the zenith delay. The PPP results are subtracted from a solution based on the final tropospheric product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). Several days exhibiting the most active tropospheric conditions were selected for each of the 7 stations located in the mid-latitude Central European region. During the active days, application of the VMF1 model increases the resulting height component’s quality by about 33–36% when compared to the GPT2w and MOPS. The respective improvement in VMF1 latitude and longitude components is 27% and 15%. The average relative deterioration in the result standard deviations between active and calm tropospheric conditions reaches about 20–30% of the former. We discuss the impact of the initial tropospheric parameter’s variance and bias on positioning. In addition, we compare the results with those of other studies over the impact of active tropospheric conditions on the PPP method.

  4. Heme Oxygenase Activity Correlates with Serum Indices of Iron Homeostasis in Healthy Nonsmokers

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Andrew J.; Schreinemachers, Dina M.

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirmed such participation of HO in iron homeostasis of humans. Carbon monoxide produced through HO activity will bind to hemoglobin in circulating erythrocytes, and therefore, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) can be used as an index of HO activity. Using the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we tested the postulate that HO activity correlates with serum indices of iron homeostasis in healthy nonsmokers. The investigation included 844 lifetime nonsmokers (586 females) 18 years of age and older in the study population. Significant correlations were demonstrated between COHb and several indices of iron homeostasis including serum levels of both ferritin and iron and percentage iron saturation of transferrin. There was no significant association between COHb and hemoglobin, the largest repository of heme in the human body, which functions as the substrate for HO. We conclude that HO activity contributes to human iron homeostasis with significant correlations between COHb and serum ferritin and iron levels and percentage iron saturation of transferrin. PMID:27199547

  5. NF-κB activity is inversely correlated to RNF11 expression in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pranski, Elaine; Van Sanford, Carson D; Dalal, Nirjari; Orr, Adam L; Karmali, Dipan; Cooper, Deborah S; Gearing, Marla; Lah, James J; Levey, Allan I; Betarbet, Ranjita

    2013-06-28

    RING finger protein 11 (RNF11), a negative regulator of NF-κB signaling pathway, colocalizes with α-synuclein and is sequestered in Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD). Since persistent NF-κB activation is reported in PD, in this report we investigated if RNF11 expression level is correlated to activated NF-κB in PD. We examined RNF11 expression levels in correlation to phospho-p65, a marker for activated NF-κB, in control and PD brain tissue from cerebral cortex. In addition we performed double immunofluorescence labeling experiments to confirm this correlation. Our investigations demonstrated that the neuronal RNF11 expression was down-regulated in PD and was usually associated with increased expression of phospho-p65. Double labeling confirmed that loss of neuronal RNF11 was linked to increased phospho-p65 expression, suggesting that persistent presence of NF-κB activation could be due to decreased levels of its