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Sample records for activity correlated positively

  1. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Collaboration, The Pierre auger

    2007-12-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [1]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than {approx} 6 x 10{sup 19} eV and AGN at a distance less than {approx} 75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  2. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Auger Collaboration; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argirò, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Bäcker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Benzvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Blümer, H.; Boháčová, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceição, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Donato, C.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; de Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; Del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; Dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; Duvernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Erdmann, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; San Luis, P. Facal; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipčič, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; García, B.; García Gámez, D.; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Gomez Albarracin, F.; Gómez Berisso, M.; Gómez Herrero, R.; Gonçalves, P.; Gonçalves Do Amaral, M.; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalez, J. G.; González, M.; Góra, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutiérrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hörandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovský, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Iarlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kégl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koang, D.-H.; Krieger, A.; Krömer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; López, R.; Lopez Agüera, A.; Lozano Bahilo, J.; García, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Manceñido, M. E.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martínez, J.; Martínez Bravo, O.; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafá, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nožka, L.; Oehlschläger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; PȩKala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Rivière, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Rodriguez Rojo, J.; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodríguez-Frías, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouillé-D'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Rovero, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sánchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovánek, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; de Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smiałkowski, A.; Šmída, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijärvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Taşcău, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tomé, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdés; Valiño, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vázquez, R. A.; Veberič, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villaseñor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczyńska, B.; Wilczyński, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    2008-04-01

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The correlation has maximum significance for cosmic rays with energy greater than ˜6 × 1019 eV and AGN at a distance less than ˜75 Mpc. We have confirmed the anisotropy at a confidence level of more than 99% through a test with parameters specified a priori, using an independent data set. The observed correlation is compatible with the hypothesis that cosmic rays with the highest-energies originate from extra-galactic sources close enough so that their flux is not significantly attenuated by interaction with the cosmic background radiation (the Greisen Zatsepin Kuz’min effect). The angular scale of the correlation observed is a few degrees, which suggests a predominantly light composition unless the magnetic fields are very weak outside the thin disk of our galaxy. Our present data do not identify AGN as the sources of cosmic rays unambiguously, and other candidate sources which are distributed as nearby AGN are not ruled out. We discuss the prospect of unequivocal identification of individual sources of the highest-energy cosmic rays within a few years of continued operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  3. Positive correlation between drowsiness and prefrontal activation during a simulated speed-control driving task.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao

    2014-11-12

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between drowsiness and prefrontal activation during simulated driving tasks using a wireless portable near-infrared spectroscopy device. Participants drove from start to goal along default routes with either intentional control of their driving speed (speed-control group) or not (speed-free group). Drowsiness level was assessed using a five-item Likert-type questionnaire. The behavioral data indicated longer driving time in the speed-control group than in the speed-free group, whereas no difference in the number of errors was found between the two groups. Importantly, the speed-control group showed a significant positive correlation between the drowsiness score and left prefrontal activation, whereas the speed-free group did not. The results suggest that drowsy individuals may show increased prefrontal activation as compensatory efforts to maintain the desired level of performance in tasks that require deliberate control of behaviors. Furthermore, the present study shows that near-infrared spectroscopy may provide us with a possibility to examine the state of drowsiness during daily-life operations.

  4. Positive effects of neurofeedback on autism symptoms correlate with brain activation during imitation and observation.

    PubMed

    Datko, Michael; Pineda, Jaime A; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2017-02-28

    Autism has been characterized by atypical task-related brain activation and functional connections, coinciding with deficits in sociocommunicative abilities. However, evidence of the brain's experience-dependent plasticity suggests that abnormal activity patterns may be reversed with treatment. In particular, neurofeedback training (NFT), an intervention based on operant conditioning resulting in self-regulation of brain electrical oscillations, has shown increasing promise in addressing abnormalities in brain function and behavior. We examined the effects of ≥ 20 h of sensorimotor mu-rhythm-based NFT in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and a matched control group of typically developing children (ages 8-17). During an functional magnetic resonance imaging imitation and observation task, the ASD group showed increased activation in regions of the human mirror neuron system following the NFT, as part of a significant interaction between group (ASD vs. controls) and training (pre- vs. post-training). These changes were positively correlated with behavioral improvements in the ASD participants, indicating that mu-rhythm NFT may be beneficial to individuals with ASD.

  5. Positive correlation between type 1 and 2 iodothyronine deiodinases activities in human goiters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Valmara S; Marassi, Michelle P; Rosenthal, Doris; Vaisman, Mário; Corrêa da Costa, Vânia M

    2012-06-01

    Type 1 (D1) and 2 (D2) iodothyronine deiodinases are selenocysteine-containing enzymes that catalyze the deiodination of T4 to T3 in the thyroid and in peripheral tissues. Despite their importance to the plasma T3 pool in human beings, there are few studies about their behavior in human thyroids. In order to better understand iodothyronine deiodinase regulation in the thyroid gland, we studied thyroid tissue samples from follicular adenoma (AD, n = 5), toxic diffuse goiter (TDG, n = 6), nontoxic multinodular goiter (NMG, n = 40), papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC, n = 8), and surrounding normal tissues (NT, n = 7) from 36 patients submitted to elective thyroidectomy. D1 and D2 activities were determined by quantification of the radioiodine released by ¹²⁵I-rT3 or ¹²⁵I-T4 under standardized conditions, and expressed as pmol rT3 deiodinated per minute and mg protein (pmol rT3 min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ ptn) and fmol T4 deiodinated per minute and mg protein (fmol T4 min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ ptn), respectively. D1 activity detected in TDG and AD tissues were significantly higher than in NT, PTC or NMG samples. D2 activity was also significantly higher in TDG and AD samples than in PTC, NMG, or NT. There was great variability in D1 and D2 enzymatic activities from distinct patients as well as from different areas from the same goiter. There was a positive correlation (P < 0,0001, r = 0.4942) between D1 and D2 activities when all samples were taken into account, suggesting that-in the thyroid-these two iodothyronine deiodinases may have related regulatory mechanisms, even if conditioned by other as yet unknown factors.

  6. Antigenicity of UV radiation-induced murine tumors correlates positively with the level of adenosine deaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Aukerman, S L; Fidler, I J

    1987-01-01

    The specific activities of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in 16 murine tumor cell lines derived from seven UV light-induced neoplasms (melanoma and fibrosarcoma) were determined. In each case, the specific activity of ADA correlated positively with the antigenicity of the tumor cells. Highly antigenic cell lines that regress upon introduction into syngeneic hosts had on average 4- to 6-fold higher ADA specific activities than cell lines of low antigenicity that grow progressively in syngeneic hosts. The antigenic differences are probably not related to intracellular cAMP levels, as the level of cAMP differed only 2-fold between the two groups of cell lines.

  7. Financial remuneration is positively correlated with the number of clinical activities: an example from diabetes management in Alberta community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Bharadia, Rajan; Lorenz, Kathleen; Cor, Ken; Simpson, Scot H

    2017-02-27

    To determine whether use of a compensation plan to remunerate pharmacists for clinical pharmacy services was associated with the number of diabetes management activities provided. Alberta pharmacists were asked about compensation plan use and frequency they provide a list of 80 diabetes management activities. A total of 168 community pharmacists responded to the survey. When compensation plan use, diabetes-specific training, practice characteristics and additional authorizations were incorporated into a factorial ANOVA, pharmacists who used the compensation plan reported a mean of 42.9 (95% CI 39.4 to 46.4) diabetes management activities, while those who did not reported a mean of 29.9 (95% CI 21.4 to 38.4) activities (P = 0.016). After considering other important influencing factors, use of the compensation plan is positively correlated with the number of diabetes management activities pharmacists provided. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Prospective slice-by-slice motion correction reduces false positive activations in fMRI with task-correlated motion.

    PubMed

    Schulz, J; Siegert, T; Bazin, P-L; Maclaren, J; Herbst, M; Zaitsev, M; Turner, R

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that slice-by-slice prospective motion correction at 7T using an optical tracking system reduces the rate of false positive activations in an fMRI group study with a paradigm that involves task-correlated motion. Brain activation during right leg movement was measured using a block design on 15 volunteers, with and without prospective motion correction. Clearly erroneous activations were compared between both cases, at the individual level. Additionally, conventional group analysis was performed. The number of falsely activated voxels with T-values higher than 5 was reduced by 48% using prospective motion correction alone, without additional retrospective realignment. In the group analysis, the statistical power was increased - the peak T-value was 26% greater, and the number of voxels in the cluster representing the right leg was increased by a factor of 9.3. Slice-by-slice prospective motion correction in fMRI studies with task-correlated motion can substantially reduce false positive activations and increase statistical power. © 2013.

  9. Mast cells positive to tryptase, endothelial cells positive to protease-activated receptor-2, and microvascular density correlate among themselves in hepatocellular carcinoma patients who have undergone surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ammendola, Michele; Sacco, Rosario; Sammarco, Giuseppe; Piardi, Tullio; Zuccalà, Valeria; Patruno, Rosa; Zullo, Alessandra; Zizzo, Nicola; Nardo, Bruno; Marech, Ilaria; Crovace, Alberto; Gadaleta, Cosmo Damiano; Pessaux, Patrick; Ranieri, Girolamo

    2016-01-01

    Background Mast cells (MCs) can stimulate angiogenesis, releasing several proangiogenic cytokines stored in their cytoplasm. In particular MCs can release tryptase, a potent in vivo and in vitro proangiogenic factor via proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Nevertheless, no data are available concerning the relationship between MC density positive to tryptase (MCDPT), endothelial cells positive to PAR-2 forming microvascular density (PAR-2-MVD), and classical MVD (C-MVD) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) angiogenesis. This study analyzed the correlation between MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD, each correlated to the others and to the main clinicopathological features, in early HCC patients who underwent surgery. Methods A series of 53 HCC patients with early stage (stage 0 according to the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Staging Classification) were selected and then underwent surgery. Tumor tissue samples were evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry and image analysis methods in terms of number of MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD. Results A significant correlation between MCDPT, PAR-2-MVD, and C-MVD groups, each correlated to the others, was found by Pearson t-test analysis (r ranged from 0.67 to 0.81; P-value ranged from 0.01 to 0.03). No other significant correlation was found. Conclusion Our in vivo pilot data suggest that MCDPT and PAR-2-MVD may play a role in HCC angiogenesis and could be further evaluated as a target of antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:27499640

  10. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  11. Correlates of Long-Term Participation in a Physical Activity-Based Positive Youth Development Program for Low-Income Youth: Sustained Involvement and Psychosocial Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; McDonough, Meghan H.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined correlates of long-term participation in a positive youth development (PYD) program. Low-income youth (N = 215) age 8-13 of diverse ethnicity participating in a summer physical activity-based PYD program completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the program (year 1) and at the beginning of year 2. Those with lower…

  12. Intensity of macrolide anti-inflammatory activity in J774A.1 cells positively correlates with cellular accumulation and phospholipidosis.

    PubMed

    Munić, Vesna; Banjanac, Mihailo; Koštrun, Sanja; Nujić, Krunoslav; Bosnar, Martina; Marjanović, Nikola; Ralić, Jovica; Matijašić, Mario; Hlevnjak, Mario; Eraković Haber, Vesna

    2011-09-01

    Some macrolide antibiotics were reported to inhibit interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE(2)) production by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated J774A.1 cells. Macrolides are also known to accumulate in cells and some were proven inducers of phospholipidosis. In the present study, with a set of 18 mainly 14- and 15-membered macrolides, we have investigated whether these macrolide induced phenomena in J774A.1 cells are connected. In LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cells, the extent of inhibition of proinflammatory markers (IL6 and PGE(2)) by macrolides significantly correlated with their extent of accumulation in cells, as well as with the induction of phospholipidosis, and cytotoxic effects in prolonged culture (with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.78 to 0.93). The effects observed were related to macrolide binding to phospholipids (CHI IAM), number of positively charged centres, and were inversely proportional to the number of hydrogen bond donors. Similar interdependence of effects was obtained with chloroquine and amiodarone, whereas for dexamethasone and indomethacin these effects were not linked. The observed macrolide induced phenomena in J774A.1 cells were reversible and elimination of the macrolides from the culture media prevented phospholipidosis and the development of cytotoxicity in long-term cultures. Based on comparison with known clinical data, we conclude that LPS-stimulated J774A.1 cells in presented experimental setup are not a representative cellular model for the evaluation of macrolide anti-inflammatory potential in clinical trials. Nevertheless, our study shows that, at least in in vitro models, binding to biological membranes may be the crucial factor of macrolide mechanism of action.

  13. The decreased frequency of SIGIRR-positive CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of patients with SLE and its correlation with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dao-Yang; Su, Chao; Chen, Gui-Mei; Pan, Hai-Feng; Wang, Feng-Mei; Liu, Gui-Ling; Hao, Li; Wang, De-Guang; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-02-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that Single immunoglobulin interleukin-1 receptor related protein (SIGIRR), a member of the IL-1R family acting as a negative regulator of TLR/IL-1R signaling, affects autoimmune responses in animal model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, the role of SIGIRR in the pathogenesis of human SLE has not been widely explored. In this study, we analyzed the frequency of SIGIRR-positive CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients and its correlation with disease activity as well as the clinical data. Circulating SIGIRR-positive CD4+ T cells were quantified in 51 SLE patients and 38 healthy controls by using flow cytometer. Results showed that the percentages of SIGIRR-positive CD4+ T cells were decreased in the PBMCs of SLE patients compared with healthy controls (Z = -5.49, P < 0.001). The frequency of SIGIRR-positive CD4 + T cells were also significantly decreased in SLE patients with nephritis than those without nephritis (Z = -3.71, P < 0.001). In addition, there was significant correlation between the percentages of SIGIRR-positive CD4+ T cells and SLEDAI score (r s = -0.74, P < 0.001), 24-hour urine protein (r s = -0.62, P < 0.001), Scr (r s = -0.65, P < 0.001), ESR (r s = -0.60, P < 0.001), C3 (r s = 0.53, P < 0.001) as well as C4 (r s = 0.52, P < 0.001). However, there was no correlation between the proportion of SIGIRR-positive CD4+ T cells and glucocorticoid dose (P = 0.59). In summary, decreased numbers of SIGIRR-positive CD4+ T cells in SLE patients and its correlation with SLEDAI score as well as the clinical data suggest that SIGIRR may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  14. Intelligence and Semen Quality Are Positively Correlated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey; Pierce, Arand

    2009-01-01

    Human cognitive abilities inter-correlate to form a positive matrix, from which a large first factor, called "Spearman's g" or general intelligence, can be extracted. General intelligence itself is correlated with many important health outcomes including cardio-vascular function and longevity. However, the important evolutionary question of…

  15. Intelligence and Semen Quality Are Positively Correlated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arden, Rosalind; Gottfredson, Linda S.; Miller, Geoffrey; Pierce, Arand

    2009-01-01

    Human cognitive abilities inter-correlate to form a positive matrix, from which a large first factor, called "Spearman's g" or general intelligence, can be extracted. General intelligence itself is correlated with many important health outcomes including cardio-vascular function and longevity. However, the important evolutionary question of…

  16. EEG Correlates of Ten Positive Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Yu, Jianwen; Song, Mengdi; Yu, Chun; Wang, Fei; Sun, Pei; Wang, Daifa; Zhang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Compared with the well documented neurophysiological findings on negative emotions, much less is known about positive emotions. In the present study, we explored the EEG correlates of ten different positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love). A group of 20 participants were invited to watch 30 short film clips with their EEGs simultaneously recorded. Distinct topographical patterns for different positive emotions were found for the correlation coefficients between the subjective ratings on the ten positive emotions per film clip and the corresponding EEG spectral powers in different frequency bands. Based on the similarities of the participants’ ratings on the ten positive emotions, these emotions were further clustered into three representative clusters, as ‘encouragement’ for awe, gratitude, hope, inspiration, pride, ‘playfulness’ for amusement, joy, interest, and ‘harmony’ for love, serenity. Using the EEG spectral powers as features, both the binary classification on the higher and lower ratings on these positive emotions and the binary classification between the three positive emotion clusters, achieved accuracies of approximately 80% and above. To our knowledge, our study provides the first piece of evidence on the EEG correlates of different positive emotions. PMID:28184194

  17. The positive correlation of the CCL2-CCR2 axis with the disease activity may indicate the fundamental role in the pathogenesis of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jingfang; Yang, Xi; Zeng, Qi; Yang, Linglan; Cheng, Bin; Tao, Xiaoan

    2016-01-01

    The important roles of CCL2 and its receptor CCR2 had been reported in a series of inflammatory disorders. However, few studies investigated the potential role of CCL2/CCR2 axis in oral lichen planus (OLP). Therefore, this study aimed to detect the expression of CCL2 and CCR2 in OLP lesions and compare their changes before and after treatment. CCL2 and CCR2 expression was investigated using immunohistochemical staining and real-time RT-PCR in 32 patients with OLP and eight controls. Moreover, changes in their expression after treatment with triamcinolone acetonide were assessed in lesions from three patients. CCL2+ and CCR2+ cells were few in the controls and remarkably increased in the epithelial and subepithelial layers of lesions (n = 32, all P < 0.001). However, the densities of CCL2+ and CCR2+ cells were not significantly different between reticular (n = 12) and erythematous/erosive lesions (n = 20), although they significantly decreased after treatment (627.7 ± 108.2 vs. 258.3 ± 148.3, P = 0.017; 1034.7 ± 74.6 vs. 648 ± 77.6, P = 0.003, respectively). CCL2+/CCR2+ cell numbers were positively correlated with disease activity (correlation coefficient, 0.588; P < 0.001; correlation coefficient, 0.409; P = 0.02, respectively). The results of this study indicated that the CCL2-CCR2 axis was involved in the pathogenesis of OLP and was positively correlated with disease activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Activated β-catenin forces N2A cell-derived neurons back to tumor-like neuroblasts and positively correlates with a risk for human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Feng; Gong, Guangming; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Yan; Hu, Die; Yang, Yilin; Hu, Yiqiao

    2012-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonic malignancy arising from neuroblasts. The mechanisms that regulate the origination of neuroblastoma are still not very clear. In this study, we revealed that 6-bromoindirubin 3'-oxime (BIO), a specific GSK-3β inhibitor, promoted N2A cells-derived neurons to become tumor-like neuroblasts. Moreover, constitutively activated β-catenin (S33Y) also promoted this process, whereas, silencing endogenous expression of β-catenin abolished BIO-induced effects. These results implicated the potential relationship between the Wnt/β-catenin signaling and neuroblastoma formation. Indeed, we found that the amount of β-catenin in nucleus, which indicated the activation of Wnt/β-catnin signaling, was accumulated in human neuroblastoma specimens and positively correlated with clinical risk of neuroblastoma. These results give us a new sight into the neuroblastoma initiation and progression, and provide a potential drug target for neuroblastoma treatment.

  19. Seeking Positive Experiences Can Produce Illusory Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denrell, Jerker; Le Mens, Gael

    2011-01-01

    Individuals tend to select again alternatives about which they have positive impressions and to avoid alternatives about which they have negative impressions. Here we show how this sequential sampling feature of the information acquisition process leads to the emergence of an illusory correlation between estimates of the attributes of…

  20. Seeking Positive Experiences Can Produce Illusory Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denrell, Jerker; Le Mens, Gael

    2011-01-01

    Individuals tend to select again alternatives about which they have positive impressions and to avoid alternatives about which they have negative impressions. Here we show how this sequential sampling feature of the information acquisition process leads to the emergence of an illusory correlation between estimates of the attributes of…

  1. Position-sensitive scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Joseph P; Chen, Yan; Müller, Joachim D

    2005-08-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) uses a stationary laser beam to illuminate a small sample volume and analyze the temporal behavior of the fluorescence fluctuations within the stationary observation volume. In contrast, scanning FCS (SFCS) collects the fluorescence signal from a moving observation volume by scanning the laser beam. The fluctuations now contain both temporal and spatial information about the sample. To access the spatial information we synchronize scanning and data acquisition. Synchronization allows us to evaluate correlations for every position along the scanned trajectory. We use a circular scan trajectory in this study. Because the scan radius is constant, the phase angle is sufficient to characterize the position of the beam. We introduce position-sensitive SFCS (PSFCS), where correlations are calculated as a function of lag time and phase. We present the theory of PSFCS and derive expressions for diffusion, diffusion in the presence of flow, and for immobilization. To test PSFCS we compare experimental data with theory. We determine the direction and speed of a flowing dye solution and the position of an immobilized particle. To demonstrate the feasibility of the technique for applications in living cells we present data of enhanced green fluorescent protein measured in the nucleus of COS cells.

  2. Clash of positivities in topological density correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Miguel; Seiler, Erhard

    2005-11-01

    We discuss the apparent conflict between reflection positivity and positivity of the topological susceptibility in two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models and in four-dimensional gauge theories. We pay special attention to the fact that this apparent conflict is already present on the lattice; its resolution puts some nontrivial restrictions on the short-distance behavior of the lattice correlator. It is found that these restrictions can be satisfied both in the case of asymptotic freedom and the dissident scenario of a critical point at finite coupling.

  3. Rotational Alignment Altered by Source Position Correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Chris S.; Heflin, M. B.; Lanyi, G. E.; Sovers, O. J.; Steppe, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    In the construction of modern Celestial Reference Frames (CRFs) the overall rotational alignment is only weakly constrained by the data. Therefore, common practice has been to apply a 3-dimensional No-Net-Rotation (NNR) constraint in order to align an under-construction frame to the ICRF. We present evidence that correlations amongst source position parameters must be accounted for in order to properly align a CRF at the 5-10 (mu)as level of uncertainty found in current work. Failure to do so creates errors at the 10-40 (mu)as level.

  4. Anti-C1q antibodies in nephritis: correlation between titres and renal disease activity and positive predictive value in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Marto, N; Bertolaccini, M; Calabuig, E; Hughes, G; Khamashta, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibodies to complement 1q (anti-C1q) and investigate the correlation between anti-C1q titres and renal disease in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods: 151 SLE patients were studied. In patients with biopsy proven lupus nephritis (n = 77), activity of renal disease was categorised according to the BILAG renal score. Sera were tested for anti-C1q by enzyme immunoassay. Serum samples were randomly selected from 83 SLE patients who had no history of renal disease, and the positive and negative predictive value of the antibodies was studied. Results: Patients with active lupus nephritis (BILAG A or B) had a higher prevalence of anti-C1q than those with no renal disease (74% v 32%; relative risk (RR) = 2.3 (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 3.3)) (p<0.0001). There was no significant difference in anti-C1q prevalence between SLE without nephritis and SLE with non-active nephritis (BILAG C or D) (32% v 53%, p = 0.06) or between active and non-active nephritis (74% v 53%, p = 0.06). Patients with nephritis had higher anti-C1q levels than those without nephritis (36.0 U/ml (range 4.9 to 401.0) v 7.3 U/ml (4.9 to 401.0)) (p<0.001). Anti-C1q were found in 33 of 83 patients (39%) without history of renal disease. Nine of the 33 patients with anti-C1q developed lupus nephritis. The median renal disease-free interval was nine months. One patient with positive anti-C1q was diagnosed as having hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome during follow up. Conclusions: Anti-C1q in SLE are associated with renal involvement. Monitoring anti-C1q and their titres in SLE patients could be important for predicting renal flares. PMID:15286009

  5. Transcriptome Characteristics and Six Alternative Expressed Genes Positively Correlated with the Phase Transition of Annual Cambial Activities in Chinese Fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weidong; Luo, Zhanshou; Wang, Pengkai; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zheng, Renhua; Shi, Jisen

    2013-01-01

    Background The molecular mechanisms that govern cambial activity in angiosperms are well established, but little is known about these molecular mechanisms in gymnosperms. Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook), a diploid (2n  = 2x  = 22) gymnosperm, is one of the most important industrial and commercial timber species in China. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in cambium tissue of Chinese fir. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on previous studies, the four stage-specific cambial tissues of Chinese fir were defined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In total, 20 million sequencing reads (3.6 Gb) were obtained using Illumina sequencing from Chinese fir cambium tissue collected at active growth stage, with a mean length of 131 bp and a N50 of 90 bp. SOAPdenovo software was used to assemble 62,895 unigenes. These unigenes were further functionally annotated by comparing their sequences to public protein databases. Expression analysis revealed that the altered expression of six homologous genes (ClWOX1, ClWOX4, ClCLV1-like, ClCLV-like, ClCLE12, and ClPIN1-like) correlated positively with changes in cambial activities; moreover, these six genes might be directly involved in cambial function in Chinese fir. Further, the full-length cDNAs and DNAs for ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 were cloned and analyzed. Conclusions In this study, a large number of tissue/stage-specific unigene sequences were generated from the active growth stage of Chinese fir cambium. Transcriptome sequencing of Chinese fir not only provides extensive genetic resources for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying cambial activities in Chinese fir, but also is expected to be an important foundation for future genetic studies of Chinese fir. This study indicates that ClWOX1 and ClWOX4 could be possible reverse genetic target genes for revealing the molecular mechanisms of cambial activities in Chinese fir. PMID

  6. Urinary Sodium Excretion Has Positive Correlation with Activation of Urinary Renin Angiotensin System and Reactive Oxygen Species in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Kim, Dong Ki; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Lim, Chun Soo

    2014-01-01

    It is not well described the pathophysiology of renal injuries caused by a high salt intake in humans. The authors analyzed the relationship between the 24-hr urine sodium-to-creatinine ratio (24HUna/cr) and renal injury parameters such as urine angiotensinogen (uAGT/cr), monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 (uMCP1/cr), and malondialdehyde-to-creatinine ratio (uMDA/cr) by using the data derived from 226 hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients. At baseline, the 24HUna/cr group or levels had a positive correlation with uAGT/cr and uMDA/cr adjusted for related factors (P<0.001 for each analysis). When we estimated uAGT/cr in the 24HUna/cr groups by ANCOVA, the uAGT/cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr was higher than in patients with <100 mEq/g cr (708 [95% CI, 448-967] vs. 334 [95% CI, 184-483] pg/mg cr, P=0.014). Similarly, uMDA/cr was estimated as 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14-0.21) pM/mg cr in patients with <100 mEq/g cr and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.20-0.33) pM/mg cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr (P=0.016). During the 16-week follow-up period, an increase in urinary sodium excretion predicted an increase in urinary angiotensinogen excretion. In conclusion, high salt intake increases renal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) activation, primarily, and directly or indirectly affects the production of reactive oxygen species through renal RAS activation. PMID:25317016

  7. Comparison of thermal effects of stilbenoid analogs in lipid bilayers using differential scanning calorimetry and molecular dynamics: correlation of thermal effects and topographical position with antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Koukoulitsa, Catherine; Durdagi, Serdar; Siapi, Eleni; Villalonga-Barber, Carolina; Alexi, Xanthippi; Steele, Barry R; Micha-Screttas, Maria; Alexis, Michael N; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Mavromoustakos, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    In previous studies it was shown that cannabinoids (CBs) bearing a phenolic hydroxyl group modify the thermal properties of lipid bilayers more significantly than methylated congeners. These distinct differential properties were attributed to the fact that phenolic hydroxyl groups constitute an anchoring group in the vicinity of the head-group, while the methylated analogs are embedded deeper towards the hydrophobic region of the lipid bilayers. In this work the thermal effects of synthetic polyphenolic stilbenoid analogs and their methylated congeners have been studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to explain the DSC results. Thus, two of their phenolic hydroxyl groups orient in the lipid bilayers in such a way that they anchor in the region of the head-group. In contrast, their methoxy congeners cannot anchor effectively and are embedded deeper in the hydrophobic segment of the lipid bilayers. The MD results explain the fact that hydroxystilbenoid analogs exert more significant effects on the pretransition than their methoxy congeners, especially at low concentrations. To maximize the polar interactions, the two phenolic hydroxyl groups are localized in the vicinity of the head-group region, directing the remaining hydroxy group in the hydrophobic region. This topographical position of stilbenoid analogs forms a mismatch that explains the significant broadening of the width of the phase transition and lowering of the main phase-transition temperature in the lipid bilayers. At high concentrations, hydroxy and nonhydroxy analogs appear to form different domains. The correlation of thermal effects with antioxidant activity is discussed.

  8. Plasmin activity in the porcine airways is enhanced during experimental infection with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, is positively correlated with proinflammatory cytokine levels and is ameliorated by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Woolley, Lauren K; Fell, Shayne A; Djordjevic, Steven P; Eamens, Graeme J; Jenkins, Cheryl

    2013-05-31

    In Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) infection of swine, the host immune response is considered a major driver of lung pathology; however the underlying inflammatory mechanisms are not well understood. The serine protease plasmin is being increasingly recognised as a significant player in inflammatory processes. Here we compare plasmin activity in tracheobronchial lavage fluid (TBLF) from pigs experimentally challenged with Mhp that were either unvaccinated (n=10), or vaccinated with the commercial vaccine Suvaxyn(®) M.hyo (n=10). TBLF collected immediately prior to challenge and at 21 d and 35 d post-challenge was also assayed for levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6), and for bacterial load (by qPCR). Clinical signs, pathology, cytokine analyses and qPCR all indicated that vaccinated pigs had significantly reduced disease relative to unvaccinated animals. Plasmin activity increased significantly in TBLF collected at 21 d post-challenge compared to pre-challenge TBLF in unvaccinated (P<0.01), but not vaccinated animals (P>0.05). A significant correlation was observed between bacterial load and plasmin activity in the 21 d (r=0.66; P<0.01) and the 35 d post-challenge samples, (r=0.62; P<0.01). Plasmin activity was also significantly correlated with levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 at 21 d (r=0.78, P<0.0001; r=0.77, P<0.0001; r=0.64, P<0.005) and with TNF-α and IL-1β at 35 d post-challenge (r=0.77, P<0.0001; r=0.74, P<0.0005). Our results indicate that plasminogen is activated to plasmin in the respiratory tract of pigs as part of the host inflammatory response to Mhp infection and that this effect is ameliorated by vaccination.

  9. Pooling and Correlated Neural Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Robert J.; Trousdale, James; Josić, Krešimir

    2009-01-01

    Correlations between spike trains can strongly modulate neuronal activity and affect the ability of neurons to encode information. Neurons integrate inputs from thousands of afferents. Similarly, a number of experimental techniques are designed to record pooled cell activity. We review and generalize a number of previous results that show how correlations between cells in a population can be amplified and distorted in signals that reflect their collective activity. The structure of the underlying neuronal response can significantly impact correlations between such pooled signals. Therefore care needs to be taken when interpreting pooled recordings, or modeling networks of cells that receive inputs from large presynaptic populations. We also show that the frequently observed runaway synchrony in feedforward chains is primarily due to the pooling of correlated inputs. PMID:20485451

  10. Pseudocholinesterase in gestational diabetes: positive correlation with LDL and negative correlation with triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Cocelli, Lütfiye Pirbudak; Dikensoy, Ebru; Cicek, Hulya; Ibar, Yelda; Kul, Seval; Balat, Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    Low pseudocholinesterase (PChE) activity accompanies pregnancy, liver disease, renal failure, and certain drug therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship among PChE and plasma insulin levels, lipid profile, and inflammatory response ingestational diabetes. This study included 165 women aged 20–40 years. Subjects were divided into four groups as follows:Control group, 29 non-pregnant healthy women; GroupNGT, 61 healthy pregnant women (normal glucose tolerance);Group GD, 62 pregnant women with gestational diabetes; and Group AGT, 13 pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance. Gestational ages were between 34 and 40 weeks. Plasma PChE, triglyceride, high-/lowdensity lipoprotein (HDL, LDL), glycated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) levels were measured in all subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in plasma PChE, insulin, and LDL levels between the groups. Plasma triglyceride, HbA1c, WBC, and CRP levels were significantly higher in Group GD and Group AGT compared to the other groups (P\\0.000). There was a positive correlation between increased PChE and LDL,while a negative correlation was observed between PChE and triglyceride in Group GD. There was a positive correlation between increased CRP and HbA1c and a negative correlation among CRP and LDL and triglyceride in Group GD. PChE activity was not significantly different between the groups. However, there was a positive correlation between PChE and LDL levels in pregnant women with GD, suggesting that LDL levels in pregnant women with GD may help to predict the risk of prolonged apnea in situations in which PChE activity cannot be measured.

  11. Sports Participation and Positive Correlates in African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relations among sports participation and positive correlates across African American, Latino, and White girls. Positive correlate variables were self-perceptions (self-worth, body attractiveness, athletic competence), less depression, and participation in extracurricular activities. The sample comprised 372…

  12. Sports Participation and Positive Correlates in African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine relations among sports participation and positive correlates across African American, Latino, and White girls. Positive correlate variables were self-perceptions (self-worth, body attractiveness, athletic competence), less depression, and participation in extracurricular activities. The sample comprised 372…

  13. Nucleosome positioning in the regulatory region of SV40 chromatin correlates with the activation and repression of early and late transcription during infection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Meera Ajeet; Christensen, Kendra; Woods, Benjamin; Dettlaff, Ashley; Perley, Danielle; Scheidegger, Adam; Balakrishnan, Lata; Milavetz, Barry

    2017-03-01

    The location of nucleosomes in SV40 virions and minichromosomes isolated during infection were determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). The patterns of reads within the regulatory region of chromatin from wild-type virions indicated that micrococcal nuclease-resistant nucleosomes were specifically positioned at nt 5223 and nt 363, while in minichromosomes isolated 48 h post-infection we observed nuclease-resistant nucleosomes at nt 5119 and nt 212. The nucleosomes at nt 5223 and nt 363 in virion chromatin would be expected to repress early and late transcription, respectively. In virions from the mutant cs1085, which does not repress early transcription, we found that these two nucleosomes were significantly reduced compared to wild-type virions confirming a repressive role for them. In chromatin from cells infected for only 30min with wild-type virus, we observed a significant reduction in the nucleosomes at nt 5223 and nt 363 indicating that the potential repression by these nucleosomes appeared to be relieved very early in infection.

  14. Correlated Evolution of Nucleotide Positions within Splice Sites in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Stepan; Bazykin, Georgii; Favorov, Alexander; Mironov, Andrey; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs)--short nucleotide sequences flanking introns--are under selection for spliceosome binding, and adhere to consensus sequences. However, non-consensus nucleotides, many of which probably reduce SS performance, are frequent. Little is known about the mechanisms maintaining such apparently suboptimal SSs. Here, we study the correlations between strengths of nucleotides occupying different positions of the same SS. Such correlations may arise due to epistatic interactions between positions (i.e., a situation when the fitness effect of a nucleotide in one position depends on the nucleotide in another position), their evolutionary history, or to other reasons. Within both the intronic and the exonic parts of donor SSs, nucleotides that increase (decrease) SS strength tend to co-occur with other nucleotides increasing (respectively, decreasing) it, consistent with positive epistasis. Between the intronic and exonic parts of donor SSs, the correlations of nucleotide strengths tend to be negative, consistent with negative epistasis. In the course of evolution, substitutions at a donor SS tend to decrease the strength of its exonic part, and either increase or do not change the strength of its intronic part. In acceptor SSs, the situation is more complicated; the correlations between adjacent positions appear to be driven mainly by avoidance of the AG dinucleotide which may cause aberrant splicing. In summary, both the content and the evolution of SSs is shaped by a complex network of interdependences between adjacent nucleotides that respond to a range of sometimes conflicting selective constraints.

  15. Correlated Evolution of Nucleotide Positions within Splice Sites in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Stepan; Bazykin, Georgii; Favorov, Alexander; Mironov, Andrey; Gelfand, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Splice sites (SSs)—short nucleotide sequences flanking introns—are under selection for spliceosome binding, and adhere to consensus sequences. However, non-consensus nucleotides, many of which probably reduce SS performance, are frequent. Little is known about the mechanisms maintaining such apparently suboptimal SSs. Here, we study the correlations between strengths of nucleotides occupying different positions of the same SS. Such correlations may arise due to epistatic interactions between positions (i.e., a situation when the fitness effect of a nucleotide in one position depends on the nucleotide in another position), their evolutionary history, or to other reasons. Within both the intronic and the exonic parts of donor SSs, nucleotides that increase (decrease) SS strength tend to co-occur with other nucleotides increasing (respectively, decreasing) it, consistent with positive epistasis. Between the intronic and exonic parts of donor SSs, the correlations of nucleotide strengths tend to be negative, consistent with negative epistasis. In the course of evolution, substitutions at a donor SS tend to decrease the strength of its exonic part, and either increase or do not change the strength of its intronic part. In acceptor SSs, the situation is more complicated; the correlations between adjacent positions appear to be driven mainly by avoidance of the AG dinucleotide which may cause aberrant splicing. In summary, both the content and the evolution of SSs is shaped by a complex network of interdependences between adjacent nucleotides that respond to a range of sometimes conflicting selective constraints. PMID:26642327

  16. Activation of ABA Receptors Gene GhPYL9-11A Is Positively Correlated with Cotton Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengzhen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yanyan; Meng, Zhigang; Yan, Rong; Zhu, Tao; Wang, Yuan; Kang, Shujing; Ali Abid, Muhammad; Malik, Waqas; Sun, Guoqing; Guo, Sandui; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    The sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) by its receptors, pyrabactin resistance-like proteins (PYLs), is considered a most important factor in activating the ABA signal pathway in response to abiotic stress. However, it is still unknown which PYL is the crucial ABA receptor mediating response to drought stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Here, we reported the identification and characterization of highly induced ABA receptor GhPYL9-11A in response to drought in cotton. It is observed that GhPYL9-11A was highly induced by ABA treatment. GhPYL9-11A binds to protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) in an ABA-independent manner. Moreover, the GhPYL-11A-PP2C interactions are partially disrupted by mutations, proline (P84) and histidine (H111), in the gate-latch region. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GhPYL9-11A plants were hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and early seedling stage. Further, the increased in root growth and up regulation of drought stress-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis as compared to wild type confirmed the potential role of GhPYL9-11A in abiotic stress tolerance. Consistently, the expression level of GhPYL9-11A is on average higher in drought-tolerant cotton cultivars than in drought-sensitive cottons under drought treatment. In conclusion, the manipulation of GhPYL9-11A expression could be a useful strategy for developing drought-tolerant cotton cultivars. PMID:28878793

  17. Altitude is positively correlated to race time during the marathon.

    PubMed

    Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-04-01

    Completing a marathon (42.2 km) is one of the more challenging sports activities. Besides the distance, the ambient conditions of the race (altitude, temperature, etc) can increase the physiological demands of the event. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held and the marathon race time. For this purpose, we sought the race times of 16 popular marathons performed at different altitudes above sea level (range from ≈0 to 2800 meters above sea level). In these competitions, we analyzed the race times of the female and male runners who finished from 21(st) to 100(th) position. We excluded the top 20 male and female finishers from the analysis because elite athletes usually compete in marathons held at low altitudes above sea level. Ambient temperature, the positive cumulative elevation gain, and the number of participants were used as control variables. Finishing time in the marathon was positively correlated with the altitude of the competition for both male (r=0.78; p<0.05) and female participants (r=0.73; p<0.05). On average, each increase of 1000 meters above sea level augmented marathon race time by 10.8±0.6% in men and 12.3±0.7% in women. Compared to race times in the Rotterdam marathon (held at 0 meters above sea level), the time taken to complete the marathon was significantly higher in competitions held at an altitude of over 700 meters. In conclusion, the time taken to complete a marathon strongly depends on the altitude of the city in which the marathon is held. Selecting marathon competitions close to 0 m above sea level is a good strategy to maximize marathon performance.

  18. Correlation between condylar position and different sagittal skeletal facial types.

    PubMed

    Paknahad, Maryam; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Abbaszade, Hajar

    2016-09-01

    Condylar position may play a key role in the stability of orthodontic treatment of patients presenting with different skeletal patterns. The aim of the present study was to assess via cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) correlations between condylar position and sagittal skeletal relationship. Condylar positions in CBCT images of 20 patients presenting with a Class I skeletal pattern, 20 with a Class II skeletal pattern, and 20 with a Class III skeletal pattern were evaluated retrospectively. The χ (2) test was used to assess the correlation between condylar position and sagittal skeletal relationships. The condyles were anteriorly positioned in patients with Class II skeletal pattern in comparison with those with Class I and III skeletal patterns. No significant differences in condylar position between Class I and Class III subjects were detected. A significant correlation between condylar position and sagittal skeletal patterns was observed in the present study. This relationship should be considered when planning and carrying out the appropriate orthodontic treatment for temporomandibular anomalies.

  19. Confidence and memory: assessing positive and negative correlations.

    PubMed

    Roediger, Henry L; DeSoto, K Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to learn and remember surely evolved to help animals solve problems in their quest to reproduce and survive. In humans we assume that metacognitive processes also evolved, so that we know when to trust what we remember (i.e., when we have high confidence in our memories) and when not to (when we have low confidence). However this latter feature has been questioned by researchers, with some finding a high correlation between confidence and accuracy in reports from memory and others finding little to no correlation. In two experiments we report a recognition memory paradigm that, using the same materials (categorised lists), permits the study of positive correlations, zero correlations, and negative correlations between confidence and accuracy within the same procedure. We had subjects study words from semantic categories with the five items most frequently produced in norms omitted from the list; later, subjects were given an old/new recognition test and made confidence ratings on their judgements. Although the correlation between confidence and accuracy for studied items was generally positive, the correlation for the five omitted items was negative in some methods of analysis. We pinpoint the similarity between lures and targets as creating inversions between confidence and accuracy in memory. We argue that, while confidence is generally a useful indicant of accuracy in reports from memory, in certain environmental circumstances even adaptive processes can foster illusions of memory. Thus understanding memory illusions is similar to understanding perceptual illusions: Processes that are usually adaptive can go awry under certain circumstances.

  20. GONOME: measuring correlations between GO terms and genomic positions

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Stefan M; Bailey, Timothy L; Mattick, John S

    2006-01-01

    Background: Current methods to find significantly under- and over-represented gene ontology (GO) terms in a set of genes consider the genes as equally probable "balls in a bag", as may be appropriate for transcripts in micro-array data. However, due to the varying length of genes and intergenic regions, that approach is inappropriate for deciding if any GO terms are correlated with a set of genomic positions. Results: We present an algorithm – GONOME – that can determine which GO terms are significantly associated with a set of genomic positions given a genome annotated with (at least) the starts and ends of genes. We show that certain GO terms may appear to be significantly associated with a set of randomly chosen positions in the human genome if gene lengths are not considered, and that these same terms have been reported as significantly over-represented in a number of recent papers. This apparent over-representation disappears when gene lengths are considered, as GONOME does. For example, we show that, when gene length is taken into account, the term "development" is not significantly enriched in genes associated with human CpG islands, in contradiction to a previous report. We further demonstrate the efficacy of GONOME by showing that occurrences of the proteosome-associated control element (PACE) upstream activating sequence in the S. cerevisiae genome associate significantly to appropriate GO terms. An extension of this approach yields a whole-genome motif discovery algorithm that allows identification of many other promoter sequences linked to different types of genes, including a large group of previously unknown motifs significantly associated with the terms 'translation' and 'translational elongation'. Conclusion: GONOME is an algorithm that correctly extracts over-represented GO terms from a set of genomic positions. By explicitly considering gene size, GONOME avoids a systematic bias toward GO terms linked to large genes. Inappropriate use of

  1. Latent TGF-β1 is compartmentalized between blood and seminal plasma of HIV-positive men and its activation in semen is negatively correlated with viral load and immune activation.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Jessica K; Osborne, Brendan J W; Sheth, Prameet M; Nazli, Aisha; Dizzell, Sara; Huibner, Sanja; Kovacs, Colin; Verschoor, Chris P; Bowdish, Dawn M; Kaul, Rupert; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-02-01

    Semen is the primary medium for sexual transmission of HIV-1 and contains high concentrations of TGF-β1, but its role in regulating HIV-mediated immune activation is unclear. TGF-β1 and sCD14 were compared in blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP) from HIV-uninfected and infected, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive and ART-treated men and in THP-1 cells following exposure to HIV-1. The relationship between TGF-β1 and sCD14 was determined by Spearman correlation. Active and latent forms of TGF-β1 were compartmentalized between BP and SP. Highest active TGF-β1 levels were present in SP of ART-naïve chronic-infected men and decreased following ART treatment. Latent TGF-β1 was upregulated in BP following HIV infection, and highest levels were observed in BP of acute-infected men. Similar expression trends were observed between latent TGF-β1 and sCD14 in BP. A significant negative correlation was observed between active TGF-β1, sCD14, and semen viral load in ART-naive men. TGF-β1 is compartmentalized between blood and semen, possibly co-expressed with sCD14 by activated monocytes/macrophages in BP as a result of HIV infection. Conversion of latent TGF-β1 into its active form could contribute to regulation of viral load and immune activation in the male genital tract, but depends on the stage of infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Overlapping neural correlates of reading emotionally positive and negative adjectives.

    PubMed

    Demirakca, Traute; Herbert, Cornelia; Kissler, Johanna; Ruf, Matthias; Wokrina, Tim; Ende, Gabriele

    2009-07-03

    Comparison of positive and negative naturally read adjectives to neutral adjectives yielded an overlapping higher BOLD response in the occipital and the orbitofrontal cortex (gyrus rectus). Superior medial frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate gyrus showed higher BOLD response to negative adjectives and inferior frontal gyrus to positive adjectives. The overlap of activated regions and lack of pronounced distinct regions supports the assumption that the processing of negative and positive words mainly takes place in overlapping brain regions.

  3. Neural Correlates of Attitude Change Following Positive and Negative Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Junko; Ide, Hiroko; Kabashima, Ikuo; Kadota, Hiroshi; Takano, Kouji; Kansaku, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Understanding changes in attitudes towards others is critical to understanding human behaviour. Neuropolitical studies have found that the activation of emotion-related areas in the brain is linked to resilient political preferences, and neuroeconomic research has analysed the neural correlates of social preferences that favour or oppose consideration of intrinsic rewards. This study aims to identify the neural correlates in the prefrontal cortices of changes in political attitudes toward others that are linked to social cognition. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments have presented videos from previous electoral campaigns and television commercials for major cola brands and then used the subjects' self-rated affinity toward political candidates as behavioural indicators. After viewing negative campaign videos, subjects showing stronger fMRI activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex lowered their ratings of the candidate they originally supported more than did those with smaller fMRI signal changes in the same region. Subjects showing stronger activation in the medial prefrontal cortex tended to increase their ratings more than did those with less activation. The same regions were not activated by viewing negative advertisements for cola. Correlations between the self-rated values and the neural signal changes underscore the metric representation of observed decisions (i.e., whether to support or not) in the brain. This indicates that neurometric analysis may contribute to the exploration of the neural correlates of daily social behaviour. PMID:19503749

  4. Positive correlations between corpus callosum thickness and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L; Bilder, Robert M; Thompson, Paul M; Szeszko, Philip R; Hamilton, Liberty; Toga, Arthur W

    2007-10-01

    Callosal morphology is thought to reflect the capacity for inter-hemispheric communication and thus, in addition to other cerebral characteristics, may serve as a neuroanatomical substrate of general intellectual capacity. We applied novel computational mesh-based methods to establish the presence and direction of correlations between intelligence and callosal thickness at high spatial resolution while removing the variance associated with overall brain size. Within healthy subjects (n=62), and within males (n=28) and females (n=34) separately, we observed significant positive correlations between callosal morphology and intelligence measures (full-scale, performance, and verbal). These relationships were pronounced in posterior callosal sections and were confirmed by permutation testing. Significant negative correlations were absent. Positive associations between intelligence and posterior callosal thickness may reflect a more efficient inter-hemispheric information transfer, positively affecting information processing and integration, and thus intellectual performance. At the same time, regional variations in callosal size might also partly reflect the underlying architecture of topographically connected cortical regions relevant for processing higher-order cognitive information. Our findings emphasize the importance of incorporating posterior (callosal) regions into the theories and models proposed to explain the anatomical substrates of intelligence.

  5. Serum YKL-40 Level Positively Correlates With Uterine Leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenping; Wang, Jing; Wei, Hongyi

    2016-11-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (ULMs) are the most common benign tumors in premenopausal women associated with major tissue fibrosis. It has been suggested that inflammatory response is associated with the development of ULM. YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein present in serum of healthy participants, and its levels are increased in several human inflammatory diseases. However, the association between YKL-40 and ULM has not been reported. The aim of this study was to identify whether serum YKL-40 levels correlate with ULM. Premenopausal women with ULM (n = 61) and leiomyoma-free control women (n = 45) were recruited for this study. Serum YKL-40 levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlations were assessed by Spearman rank correlation test. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was used to define the optimal cutoff value for predicting ULM. We found that serum YKL-40 levels in patients with ULM were significantly higher than in healthy controls (P < .001). Positive correlation was also observed between serum YKL-40 levels and leiomyoma weight (r = .92; P < .001). Moreover, ROC curves yielded robust area under the curve value (0.94) accompanied by high sensitivity (82.0%) and specificity (91.1%) in distinguishing patients with ULM from healthy controls. These findings suggest that elevated serum YKL-40 levels are associated with the existence of ULM, and YKL-40 might be a potential adjunct biomarker for diagnosis of ULM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Intimate partner violence and correlates in pregnant HIV positive Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Ezechi, Oliver Chukwujekwu; Gab-Okafor, Chidinma; Onwujekwe, Dan I; Adu, Rosemary A; Amadi, Eva; Herbertson, Ebiere

    2009-11-01

    To determine the prevalence, types and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in pregnant Nigerian living with HIV. Cross sectional study. HIV positive pregnant women. A large HIV comprehensive treatment centre. A cross sectional study of 652 HIV positive pregnant Nigerians seen at Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Lagos, Nigeria over a 24 months period. Prevalence of intimate partner violence after HIV diagnosis. Among the women interviewed, 423 (65.8%) reported abuse. In 74.0% of abused women, the abuse started after HIV diagnosis. Though having a HIV negative spouse and disclosure of HIV status were associated with abuse, only having a HIV negative partner retained its association with IPV (OR 3.1; CI 2.4-5.3) after controlling for confounding variables. Sixty-two (9.6%) women have not disclosed their HIV status because of fear of rejection. Verbal abuse (51.7%), threat of violence in 97 (22.9%) and sexual deprivation in 91 (21.5%) were the common forms of abuse reported. IPV is common among HIV positive pregnant Nigerians; with a threefold increased risk in women in HIV serodiscordant relationship.

  7. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids

    PubMed Central

    Burress, Edward D.; Holcomb, Jordan M.; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis. PMID:27293777

  8. Body size is negatively correlated with trophic position among cyprinids.

    PubMed

    Burress, Edward D; Holcomb, Jordan M; Bonato, Karine Orlandi; Armbruster, Jonathan W

    2016-05-01

    Body size has many ecological and evolutionary implications that extend across multiple levels of organization. Body size is often positively correlated with species traits such as metabolism, prey size and trophic position (TP) due to physiological and mechanical constraints. We used stable isotope analysis to quantify TP among minnows across multiple assemblages that differed in their species composition, diversity and food web structure. Body size significantly predicted TP across different lineages and assemblages, and indicated a significant negative relationship. The observed negative relationship between body size and TP is contrary to conventional knowledge, and is likely to have arisen owing to highly clade-specific patterns, such that clades consist of either large benthic species or small pelagic species. Cyprinids probably subvert the physiological and mechanical constraints that generally produce a positive relationship between body size and TP using anatomical modifications and by consuming small-bodied prey, respectively. The need for herbivorous cyprinids to digest cellulose-rich foods probably selected for larger bodies to accommodate longer intestinal tracts and thereby to facilitate digestion of nutrient-poor resources, such as algae. Therefore, body size and TP are likely to have coevolved in cyprinids in association with specialization along the benthic to pelagic resource axis.

  9. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  10. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  11. Positive affect, surprise, and fatigue are correlates of network flexibility.

    PubMed

    Betzel, Richard F; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Gold, Joshua I; Bassett, Danielle S

    2017-03-31

    Advances in neuroimaging have made it possible to reconstruct functional networks from the activity patterns of brain regions distributed across the cerebral cortex. Recent work has shown that flexible reconfiguration of human brain networks over short timescales supports cognitive flexibility and learning. However, modulating network flexibility to enhance learning requires an understanding of an as-yet unknown relationship between flexibility and brain state. Here, we investigate the relationship between network flexibility and affect, leveraging an unprecedented longitudinal data set. We demonstrate that indices associated with positive mood and surprise are both associated with network flexibility - positive mood portends a more flexible brain while increased levels of surprise portend a less flexible brain. In both cases, these relationships are driven predominantly by a subset of brain regions comprising the somatomotor system. Our results simultaneously suggest a network-level mechanism underlying learning deficits in mood disorders as well as a potential target - altering an individual's mood or task novelty - to improve learning.

  12. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  13. Discursive Positionings and Emotions in Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their…

  14. Discursive positionings and emotions in modelling activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daher, Wajeeh

    2015-11-01

    Mathematical modelling is suggested as an activity through which students engage in meaningful mathematics. In the current research, the modelling activity of a group of four seventh-grade students was analysed using the discursive analysis framework. The research findings show that the positionings and emotions of the group members during their participation in the modelling activity changed as the activity proceeded. Overall, it can be said that three of the four group members acted as insiders, while the fourth acted as an outsider, and only, towards the end of the group's work on the activity, he acted as an insider. Moreover, the research findings point at four factors that affected the group members' positionings and emotions during the modelling activity: the member's characteristics, the member's history of learning experiences, the activity characteristics and the modelling phases. Furthermore, the different positionings of the group members in the different modelling phases were accompanied by different emotions experienced by them, where being an insider and a collaborator resulted in positive emotions, while being an outsider resulted in negative emotions.

  15. Student Positioning within Groups During Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, S. M.

    2002-02-01

    Positioning theory was used in my interpretation of the social interactions between Year 6 children during science activities. By examining the unproductive journey taken by students in one female dyad as they interacted with students in both mixed-gender and same-gender groups, it was possible to consider how gender, status and power relations intersected during opportunities for science learning. In this context, positioning theory was helpful in making visible that which is usually invisible to both teachers and researchers.

  16. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics. PMID:25332382

  17. Vorticity, defects and correlations in active turbulence.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2014-11-28

    We describe a numerical investigation of a continuum model of an active nematic, concentrating on the regime of active turbulence. Results are presented for the effect of three parameters, activity, elastic constant and rotational diffusion constant, on the order parameter and flow fields. Defects and distortions in the director field act as sources of vorticity, and thus vorticity is strongly correlated to the director field. In particular, the characteristic length of decay of vorticity and order parameter correlations is controlled by the defect density. By contrast, the decay of velocity correlations is determined by a balance between activity and dissipation. We highlight the role of microscopic flow generation mechanisms in determining the flow patterns and characteristic scales of active turbulence and contrast the behaviour of extensile and contractile active nematics.

  18. Sports Participation and Positive Correlates in African American, Latino, and White Girls

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to examine relations among sports participation and positive correlates across African American, Latino, and white girls. Positive correlate variables were self-perceptions (self-worth, body attractiveness, athletic competence), less depression, and participation in extracurricular activities. Methods The sample comprised 372 girls (mean age = 12.03 years). Data were analyzed using multiple-sample structural equation models, controlling for age and income. Results Across all ethnic groups, greater sports participation was significantly related to higher self-worth, body attractiveness, and athletic competence, and to more extracurricular activity. Among Latino and white girls only, greater sports participation also was related to less depression. There were significant age and income influences on the positive correlates. Conclusions Findings confirm the existence of significant relationships between organized sports participation and positive correlates among early adolescent African American, Latino, and white girls. Despite a few ethnic differences in relationships, the current study revealed more similarities than differences. PMID:26692758

  19. Correlation analysis of solar constant, solar activity and cosmic ray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utomo, Y. S.

    2017-04-01

    Actually, solar constant is not constant but fluctuated by ±1.5% of their average value. Solar constant indicates that the value is not constant but varies with time. Such variation is correlated with solar activity and cosmic ray. Correlation analysis shows a strong correlation between solar activity and cosmic ray and between solar activity and solar constant. Solar activity indicates by sunspot number. Correlations between solar constant variations and sunspot number variations were found to be higher than ones between variations in cosmic ray and solar constant. It was also found a positive correlation between solar constant and sunspot number, with correlation coefficient about +0.77/month and +0.95/year. In other hand, negative correlation between solar constant and cosmic ray flux i.e. -0.50/month and -0.62/year were found for monthly and yearly data respectively. A similar result was also found for the relationship between solar activity and cosmic ray flux with a negative correlation, i.e. -0.61/month and -0.69/year. When solar activities decrease, the clouds cover rate increase due to secondary ions produced by cosmic rays. The increase in the cloud cover rate causes the decrease in solar constant value and solar radiation on the earth’s surface. Solar constant plays an important role in the planning and technical analysis of equipment utilizing solar energy.

  20. Global Positioning System Multipath Reduction with Correlator Beamforming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-14

    GPS MULTIPATH REDUCTION WITH CORRELATOR BEAMFORMING THESIS Jason M. Barhorst, Captain, USAF AFIT-ENG-14-M-10 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...in the United States. AFIT-ENG-14-M-10 GPS MULTIPATH REDUCTION WITH CORRELATOR BEAMFORMING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical...March 2014 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENG-14-M-10 GPS MULTIPATH REDUCTION WITH CORRELATOR

  1. Correlates of US adult physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sydney A; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H; Evenson, Kelly R

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns may be differentially associated with socio-demographic and health measures. We explored correlates of day-to-day patterns over a week in accelerometer measured physical activity and sedentary behavior to inform intervention development. Cross-sectional study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adult participants (≥20 years) in 2003-2006 wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Accelerometer data from 7236 participants were used to derive latent classes describing day-to-day patterns over a week of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Correlates of each pattern were identified using multinomial logistic regression from 21 potential variables grouped into four domains: socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history. Older age, female sex, higher body mass index, and history of chronic disease were consistently associated with lower odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. In contrast, being employed, speaking Spanish at home, and having better self-rated health were associated with higher odds of being in a more active compared to the least active class. Correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were identified from all domains (socio-demographic, acculturation, cardiovascular, and health history). Most correlates that were positively associated with physical activity were negatively associated with sedentary behavior. Better understanding of the correlates of physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns can inform interventions to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Personality correlates of adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

    PubMed

    Moran, Alicia M; Everhart, Daniel Erik; Davis, Claude Ervin; Wuensch, Karl L; Lee, Daniel O; Demaree, Heath A

    2011-12-01

    Adherence with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been problematic. Understanding the factors associated with nonadherence may assist with psychosocial interventions. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adherence and three measures of personality and coping strategies. Ratings on the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system (BIS/BAS) scales, the ways of coping inventory, and a broad personality measure (mini-IPIP) were analyzed with a binary logistic regression among 63 subjects, adult men (31) and women (32), diagnosed with OSA. Data from the CPAP device was obtained following initial 30 days at minimum, with adherence defined as >4 h/night on 70% of nights. Elevated BIS was the strongest predictor of nonadherence (r = -.452, p < .01), followed by neuroticism. The regression correctly classified 73% of participants as adherent or nonadherent. Nonadherence is associated with elevated BIS scores and neuroticism, which indicates that personality factors play a role in determining adherence to CPAP. Although more research is needed to draw firm conclusions, the differences noted in BIS may also point toward differences in neurophysiological function. The BIS scale may be a useful tool for predicting nonadherence and assist with the development of intervention strategies that will increase adherence.

  3. Correlated activity supports efficient cortical processing

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chou P.; Cui, Ding; Chen, Yueh-peng; Lin, Chia-pei; Levine, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Visual recognition is a computational challenge that is thought to occur via efficient coding. An important concept is sparseness, a measure of coding efficiency. The prevailing view is that sparseness supports efficiency by minimizing redundancy and correlations in spiking populations. Yet, we recently reported that “choristers”, neurons that behave more similarly (have correlated stimulus preferences and spontaneous coincident spiking), carry more generalizable object information than uncorrelated neurons (“soloists”) in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex. The rarity of choristers (as low as 6% of IT neurons) indicates that they were likely missed in previous studies. Here, we report that correlation strength is distinct from sparseness (choristers are not simply broadly tuned neurons), that choristers are located in non-granular output layers, and that correlated activity predicts human visual search efficiency. These counterintuitive results suggest that a redundant correlational structure supports efficient processing and behavior. PMID:25610392

  4. Polarization-correlated photons from a positively charged quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Y.; Bennett, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Polarized cross-correlation spectroscopy on a quantum dot charged with a single hole shows the sequential emission of photons with common circular polarization. This effect is visible without magnetic field, but becomes more pronounced as the field along the quantization axis is increased. We interpret the data in terms of electron dephasing in the X+ state caused by the Overhauser field of nuclei in the dot. We predict the correlation time scale can be increased by accelerating the emission rate with cavity QED.

  5. Correlation analysis of proprioceptive acuity in ipsilateral position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

    PubMed

    Djupsjöbacka, Mats; Domkin, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    In order to plan and control movements the central nervous system (CNS) needs to continuously keep track of the state of the musculoskeletal system. Therefore the CNS constantly uses sensory input from mechanoreceptors in muscles, joints and skin to update information about body configuration on different levels of the CNS. On the conscious level, such representations constitute proprioception. Different tests for assessment of proprioceptive acuity have been described. However, it is unclear if the proprioceptive acuity measurements in these tests correlate within subjects. By using both uni- and multivariate analysis we compared proprioceptive acuity in different variants of ipsilateral active and passive limb position-matching and ipsilateral passive limb movement velocity-discrimination in a group of healthy subjects. The analysis of the position-matching data revealed a higher acuity of matching for active movements in comparison to passive ones. The acuity of matching was negatively correlated to movement extent. There was a lack of correlation between proprioceptive acuity measurements in position-matching and velocity-discrimination.

  6. A Study of Some Psychological Correlates of HIV Positive Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, James P.; And Others

    In an effort to compare the psychological characteristics of HIV positive veterans who are homeless with those who are not homeless, the psychological test performances of patients referred to the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Houston, Texas were examined. Investigators analyzed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)…

  7. [Positive exercise test in hypertensive patients correlated with coronary angiography].

    PubMed

    Rosado, J; de los Santos, C; Iturralde, P; Pérez, G; Romero, L; Colín, L; González Hermosillo, A; Casanova, J M

    1991-01-01

    With the purpose of evaluate the state of the coronary arteries in hypertensive patients with positive exercise test, 82 patients were selected, 50 male and 32 female with mean age of 56.9 +/- 13.2 years. Angiography was normal in 25 patients thirteen patients had a single coronary arteries narrow of less than 50% and 44 cases with significant coronary arteries lesions of more than 50%. The parameters obtained in the exercise test are not significant for statistic purposes. Systolic hypertension or flat response was more frequent in the group with advanced coronary lesions with a predicted positive value in coronary obstructions of 66 and 75%. We conclude that 70% of hypertensive patients have obstructive coronary lesions of some degree.

  8. Spatial Correlates of Lower Treeline Position in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urza, A.; Weisberg, P.

    2015-12-01

    Lower and upper treelines jointly determine the distribution of forests in many mountainous regions. Although upper treelines across the world have received extensive scientific attention, generalizable studies of the climate controls of lower treelines are largely absent from ecological literature. Lower treelines are thought to be ultimately limited by plant water balance, and are expected to contract with predicted increases in water deficits. However, where the position of lower treeline is constrained by land use and disturbance rather than by water balance, the distribution of forests will likely be less sensitive to climate changes. In this study, we investigated the relative importance of climate, land use, and disturbance for determining the position of lower treeline in the western US. We developed a moving window method to automate the mapping of lower treelines in the Intermountain West, an arid region encompassing gradients of precipitation (both magnitude and seasonality), growing season length, geology, disturbance history, and land use. We used classification and regression trees to identify climatic thresholds most related to lower treeline position and important effects of land use and disturbance. Preliminary results show that lower treeline is associated with the interaction of soils and seasonal water balance, although the strength of the relationship varies by forest type and region. Furthermore, land use (wood harvest, grazing, and infrastructure development) and disturbance (fire) often coincide with the lower treeline boundary, suggesting that the actual position of lower treeline is partially controlled by secondary constraints. Future work will compare the modeled climate potential of lower treeline to the actual distribution, distinguishing between treelines that are likely at their ecophysiological limit (and thus susceptible to contraction in a warming or drying climate) from those contrained above their climate potential (areas of

  9. Correlation between antiferromagnetic interface coupling and positive exchange bias

    SciTech Connect

    Nogues, J.; Leighton, C.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2000-01-01

    The induced moment in antiferromagnetic (AFM)-ferromagnetic (FM) (FeF{sub 2}-Fe and MnF{sub 2}-Fe) bilayers has been studied from the shift along the magnetization axis of the exchange-biased hysteresis loops. The magnetization shift depends strongly on the cooling field and microstructure of the AFM layer. The shift for small cooling fields can be opposite to the cooling field, indicating that, in some cases, the presence of the FM layer induces an antiferromagnetic coupling at the interface. Samples with negative magnetization shifts (antiferromagnetic coupling) exhibit large changes in exchange bias H{sub E} as a function of cooling field and positive exchange bias. Samples with positive magnetization shifts (ferromagnetic coupling) show almost no change in H{sub E} with cooling field and the exchange bias field remains always negative. These results confirm the theoretical assumption that an antiferromagnetic interface coupling is necessary to observe positive exchange bias. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  10. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression

    PubMed Central

    Greening, Steven G.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Williamson, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect. PMID:23482626

  11. The neural correlates of regulating positive and negative emotions in medication-free major depression.

    PubMed

    Greening, Steven G; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2014-05-01

    Depressive cognitive schemas play an important role in the emergence and persistence of major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study adapted emotion regulation techniques to reflect elements of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and related psychotherapies to delineate neurocognitive abnormalities associated with modulating the negative cognitive style in MDD. Nineteen non-medicated patients with MDD and 19 matched controls reduced negative or enhanced positive feelings elicited by emotional scenes while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although both groups showed significant emotion regulation success as measured by subjective ratings of affect, the controls were significantly better at modulating both negative and positive emotion. Both groups recruited regions of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) when regulating negative emotions. Only in controls was this accompanied by reduced activity in sensory cortices and amygdala. Similarly, both groups showed enhanced activity in VLPFC and ventral striatum when enhancing positive affect; however, only in controls was ventral striatum activity correlated with regulation efficacy. The results suggest that depression is associated with both a reduced capacity to achieve relief from negative affect despite recruitment of ventral and dorsal prefrontal cortical regions implicated in emotion regulation, coupled with a disconnect between activity in reward-related regions and subjective positive affect.

  12. Measuring dynamic bipolarity in positive and negative activation.

    PubMed

    Vautier, Stéphane; Raufaste, Eric

    2003-03-01

    The dynamic bipolarity of the positive and negative affective activation, measured with the PANAS scales, was studied using a pre-post design with an intervening experiment. The correlations between (a) the initial positive and negative constructs and (b) the respective change scores were estimated, random and systematic error being removed owing to a convenient structural equation modeling technique. Results demonstrated that a moderate perturbation may induce a medium correlation between latent change scores. Both strict dynamic independence and bipolarity were rejected. This result highlights the importance of individual differences in the way people perceive their affective changes. It is concluded that the PANAS two-factor model of affect provides only an approximate view of the structure and dynamics of mood.

  13. The correlates of dietary intake among HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Spiegelman, D; Rimm, E; Gorbach, S L

    2001-12-01

    Dietary adequacy, as distinct from weight loss, has not been examined thoroughly in a diverse cohort of HIV-infected individuals. An analysis was undertaken to determine the correlates of inadequate dietary intake among HIV-infected adults. In a cross-sectional study of 463 men and 170 women (aged 21-70 y) with HIV infection, dietary adequacy was evaluated by using 3-d diet records. Among nondieting males, whites had higher energy intakes than did nonwhites. Injection drug users consumed less energy than did nonusers. Among nondieting females, only the absence of nausea and vomiting was marginally associated with higher energy intakes. Inadequate energy intake, which occurred in 38% of this population, was independently associated with female sex among nondieters. A significant proportion of the study cohort (52%) was consuming less than the recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A. Inadequate protein intake, found in 11% of the study population, occurred more often in females, those without a caregiving adult in the household, and individuals with reduced appetite. A considerable proportion of the participants (23%) reported that they were dieting to lose weight. Dietary inadequacy was strongly correlated with being in the sociodemographic groups that are at heightened risk of adverse clinical outcomes. It may be worthwhile to study dietary intake as a potential determinant of the clinical outcomes of HIV infection.

  14. Identifying Crucial Parameter Correlations Maintaining Bursting Activity

    PubMed Central

    Doloc-Mihu, Anca; Calabrese, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental and computational studies suggest that linearly correlated sets of parameters (intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons) allow central pattern-generating networks to produce and maintain their rhythmic activity regardless of changing internal and external conditions. To determine the role of correlated conductances in the robust maintenance of functional bursting activity, we used our existing database of half-center oscillator (HCO) model instances of the leech heartbeat CPG. From the database, we identified functional activity groups of burster (isolated neuron) and half-center oscillator model instances and realistic subgroups of each that showed burst characteristics (principally period and spike frequency) similar to the animal. To find linear correlations among the conductance parameters maintaining functional leech bursting activity, we applied Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to each of these four groups. PCA identified a set of three maximal conductances (leak current, Leak; a persistent K current, K2; and of a persistent Na+ current, P) that correlate linearly for the two groups of burster instances but not for the HCO groups. Visualizations of HCO instances in a reduced space suggested that there might be non-linear relationships between these parameters for these instances. Experimental studies have shown that period is a key attribute influenced by modulatory inputs and temperature variations in heart interneurons. Thus, we explored the sensitivity of period to changes in maximal conductances of Leak, K2, and P, and we found that for our realistic bursters the effect of these parameters on period could not be assessed because when varied individually bursting activity was not maintained. PMID:24945358

  15. Fractal Hierarchy in Isotopic Positional Correlations in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, Alexander A.

    2007-03-01

    From subatomic particles to superclusters of galaxies, nature has nested hierarchial fractal-like organization (R.L. Oldershaw). Earlier I discussed formation of isotopic superlattices due to self organizational dynamics among isotopes (A.A. Berezin, SolidStComm, 1988). Informationally (in spirit of ``Maxwell's demon'' engine), formation of isotopic superlattices can be inferred from Maximum Entropy Principle (C.E. Shannon, E.T. Jaynes). In spite that effects of gravitation for isotopes (due to their nuclear mass difference) are very small, they can, nevertheless, manifest in such subtle effects as gravitationally-induced reduction (collapse) of wave functions (F. Karolyhazy, R. Penrose, A.A. Berezin). Since Planck mass (which is combination of h, G and c) is about 0.02 mg, size of desired isotopic fluctuation should be about 100 mkm (mesoscipic). Experimentally, isotopic correlations, micron and sub-millimeter isotopic fluctuations, isotopic clusters and isotopic fractal-type distribution can be probed by Rayleigh scattering (sampling at various wavelengths) and/or such high electric field effects as hopping conductivity (B. Ya. Shklovsky) in which isotopic clusters act as trapping or scattering centers. Other aspects of purposeful isotopic structuring (isotopic engineering) include isotopic fiber optics (A.A. Berezin) when core and cladding has varied (step or gradual) isotopic content which causes total internal reflection and light confinement.

  16. Chemerin levels are positively correlated with abdominal visceral fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Young; Lee, Duk C; Chu, Sang H; Jeon, Justin Y; Lee, Mi K; Im, Jee A; Lee, Ji W

    2012-07-01

    Chemerin, a recently discovered adipocytokine, may be linked to obesity and obesity-associated metabolic complications. However, the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and chemerin is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between serum chemerin levels and body composition as measured by computed tomography (CT). We recruited 173 men and women without histories of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Biomarkers of metabolic risk factors and body composition by computed tomography were assessed. Serum chemerin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Chemerin levels correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, abdominal visceral fat area, blood pressure, fasting insulin, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglyceride, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. By stepwise multiple regression analysis, abdominal visceral fat area, blood pressure and total cholesterol levels independently affected chemerin levels. Abdominal visceral fat accumulation, blood pressure and lipid profile were significantly associated with serum chemerin levels. Our findings suggest that chemerin may be a mediator that links visceral obesity to cardiovascular risk factors. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. TISSUE FACTOR-POSITIVE MONOCYTES IN CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE: CORRELATION WITH BIOMARKERS OF HAEMOLYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Yamaja Setty, B. N.; Key, Nigel S.; Rao, A Koneti; Gayen-Betal, Suhita; Krishnan, Suba; Dampier, Carlton D.; Stuart, Marie J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Tissue Factor (TF) initiates thrombin generation, and whole blood TF (WBTF) is elevated in sickle cell disease (SCD). We sought to identify the presence of TF-positive monocytes in SCD and their relationship with the other coagulation markers including WBTF, microparticle-associated TF, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complexes and D-dimer. Whether major SCD-related pathobiological processes, including haemolysis, inflammation and endothelial activation, contribute to the coagulation abnormalities was also studied. The cohort comprised children with SCD (18 HbSS, 12 HbSC, mean age 3.6 years). We demonstrated elevated levels of TF-positive monocytes in HbSS, which correlated with WBTF, TAT and D-Dimer (p=0.02 to p=0.0003). While TF-positive monocytes, WBTF, TAT and D-dimer correlated with several biomarkers of haemolysis, inflammation and endothelial activation in univariate analyses, in multiple regression models the haemolytic markers (reticulocytes and lactate dehydrogenase) contributed exclusively to the association with all four coagulant markers evaluated. The demonstration that haemolysis is the predominant operative pathology in the associated perturbations of coagulation in HbSS at a young age provides additional evidence for the early use of therapeutic agents, such as hydroxycarbamide to reduce the haemolytic component of this disease. PMID:22360627

  18. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  19. Neighborhood environment and psychosocial correlates of adults' physical activity.

    PubMed

    Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Chapman, James E; Slymen, Donald J; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2012-04-01

    There is growing interest in identifying neighborhood environment factors related to physical activity. This study aimed to examine whether objective built (e.g., residential density) and perceived (e.g., aesthetics) environment factors around adults' residence are correlates of their physical activity and reported walking behavior after accounting for known psychosocial (e.g., self-efficacy, barriers to physical activity) and demographic correlates of physical activity. Objective built environment characteristics were created through network buffers around individual participants (n = 2199) selected from neighborhoods differing on walkability characteristics and household income. Participants wore accelerometers to obtain a more objective measure of overall physical activity and self-reported on leisure and transportation-related walking, perceptions of neighborhood environment, psychosocial factors related to physical activity, and demographic factors. Census-level demographic factors were also considered. Retail floor area ratio, a metric combining land use mix and pedestrian design factors, was the environmental factor most related to accelerometry-measured physical activity and self-reported transportation-related walking after accounting for psychosocial and demographic factors. Street connectivity was also related to transportation-related walking, whereas perceived aesthetics was positively related to leisure walking. Environmental factors, particularly the availability of proximal nonresidential destinations designed for pedestrian access, were related to adults' physical activity and walking after accounting for psychosocial and demographic correlates, including reasons for residential selection.

  20. Acid phosphatase positional correlations in solid surface fungal cultivation: a fractal interpretation of biochemical differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jones, C L; Lonergan, G T; Mainwaring, D E

    1995-03-28

    Colour image analysis was used to measure the positional correlation between acid phosphatase intracellular concentration and hyphal cellular differentiation which leads to concentric circular zonal activity patterns. Acid phosphatase is strongly implicated in the biochemical control of hyphal branching, and exo-enzyme secretion, such as laccase in fungi, occurs predominately via the hyphal tips. Different concentrations of an organic dye were used to effect substrate induction of the enzyme response, which was shown to be statistically correlated according to a fractal power law (H approximately 0.39). A self-organized critical state for the molecular responsivity of dissipative enzyme expression is hypothesized as an efficient mechanism for hyphal adaptation, also accounting for the underlying biophysics of the observed pattern formations.

  1. FLASH and NPAT positive but not Coilin positive Cajal Bodies correlate with cell ploidy.

    PubMed

    Bongiorno-Borbone, Lucilla; De Cola, Antonella; Vernole, Patrizia; Finos, Livio; Barcaroli, Daniela; Knight, Richard A; Melino, Gerry; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo

    2008-08-01

    Cajal Bodies are one of many specialised organelles contained in the eukaryotic cell nucleus, and are involved in a number of functions, including regulation of replication-dependent histone gene transcription. In normal diploid cells their number varies between 0 and 4 depending on the cell cycle phase, although in cancer cell lines their number is extremely variable and it has been suggested that it correlates with cell ploidy. Here we show that in mammalian cells, as in Drosophila, two distinct though functionally related bodies exist: a histone gene locus body and a Cajal Body. The first one can be detected using FLASH or NPAT as markers while the second is labelled using antibodies against Coilin. Only the number of FLASH/NPAT histone gene locus bodies correlates with ploidy and only these organelles appear to be regulated during the cell cycle. Finally, we show that the two organelles completely co-localize during the S phase of the cell cycle.

  2. Neuropathologic correlates of activities of daily living in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gad A; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Tekin, Sibel; Vinters, Harry V; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    Functional status, reflected by measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), deteriorates as Alzheimer disease (AD) progresses. Decline in activities of daily living may be mediated by executive and frontal lobe dysfunction. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between activities of daily living and pathologic burden in Alzheimer disease. Twenty two subjects with definite Alzheimer disease were selected from the UCLA ADRC neuropathology database. A total activities of daily living score was derived from the Retrospective Collateral Dementia Interview-Revised (RCDI-R) questionnaire, which was administered to caregivers of autopsied subjects included in the study. Neuritic plaque (NP) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) counts were performed for 8 brain regions. There was a significant positive correlation between total activities of daily living score (higher scores indicate more disability) and mean neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts (r = 0.671, P = 0.001, and r = 0.542, P = 0.009, resp), as well as CA1 and prosubiculum neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts, right and left orbital frontal neuritic plaques counts, and occipital neuritic plaques count. Total activities of daily living score did not correlate with age at death, age at symptom onset, dementia duration, gender, or education. Deteriorating activities of daily living in Alzheimer Disease subjects correlate with greater overall pathologic burden and possibly selectively with involvement of the medial temporal, occipital, and orbital frontal regions.

  3. [Correlation of allergy positivity for the tests of gramineas between tribes and species].

    PubMed

    Riggioni, O; Montiel, M; Fonseca, J; Jaramillo, O; Carvajal, E; Rosencwaig, P; Colmenares, A

    1994-04-01

    In a sample of 190 Costa Rican allergic patients and 100 non atopic subjects there was a positive correlation of positivities in skin prick tests to individual Poaceae species and to the Tribe. The exceptions were Panicum maximun, Panicum molle, and Holcus lanatus, because they presented higher individual positivities. A table of correlations among tribes is included. Skin prick tests for Poaceae pollens should be organized by tribes to prevent a 25% of false negative cases.

  4. Psychosocial and environmental correlates of active commuting for university students.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Sallis, James F

    2010-08-01

    To examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of active commuting to university (ACU) and explore its association with overall physical activity among college students. The sample included 518 students (mean 22.4 years; 59.7% female) from two universities in Valencia, Spain. Weekly estimations of energy expenditure from ACU and total physical activity were obtained. Socio-economic status, self-efficacy, barriers to active transport, access to car and motorbike, access to public transport, walking and cycling facilities and distance to university were assessed. Data were collected April and May of 2009, using a self-administered survey. A structural equation model was used to analyze associations among variables. ACU was inversely correlated with access to private motorized transport (car or motorbike). Perception of physical self-efficacy and walking and cycling facilities were positively associated with ACU, while planning/psychosocial barriers were negatively associated. Multivariate modelling explained 19% of variance in ACU. ACU was not related to total daily physical activity. Both psychological and environmental variables were significant correlates of ACU. Present findings provide an empirical basis for interventions to increase active transport among university students. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Positive selection on the gene RNASEL: correlation between patterns of evolution and function.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Xin; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-10-01

    RNASEL is a 2-5A-dependent endoribonuclease that is a component of the interferon-induced 2-5A system, which plays a crucial role in the antiviral and apoptotic activities of interferons. In humans, many polymorphic sites within the RNASEL gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Here, we obtained coding sequences for the RNASEL gene from 11 primates and found evidence that positive selection has operated on the C-terminal endoribonuclease domain and the N-terminal ankyrin repeats domain of the protein, domains that directly interact with virus (i.e., ankyrin repeats are responsible for receiving environmental signals, and the endoribonuclease catalyses the destruction of the pathogenic viral RNA). To extend this finding, we studied variation within this gene in modern human populations by resequencing alleles from 144 individuals representing four separate populations. Interestingly, the frequency of the 541D allele shows a negative association with the incidence rate of prostate cancer in worldwide populations, and haplotypes containing the 541D polymorphisms demonstrate signatures of positive selection. RNASEL variants having the 541D haplotype likely have a greater ability to defend against infections by viruses, thus the loss of this activity may be associated with the development of prostate cancer. We provide evidence that positive selection has operated on the RNASEL gene, and its evolution is correlated with its function in pathogen defense and cancer association.

  6. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Correlation of Smart Active Flap Rotor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi; Straub, Friedrich

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict SMART active trailing edge flap rotor loads is explored in this study. Full-scale wind tunnel data recently acquired in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with analytical results from CAMRAD II. For the 5-bladed rotor, two high-speed forward flight cases are considered, namely, a 0 deg flap deflection case and a 5P, 2 deg flap deflection case. Overall, the correlation is reasonable, with the following exceptions: the torsion moment frequency and the chordwise bending moment are under predicted. In general, the effect of the 5P, 2 deg flap motion is captured by the analysis, though there is over prediction in the neighborhood of the 105 deg and 120 deg azimuthal locations. Changes to the flexbeam torsion stiffness are also briefly considered in this study, as this stiffness will be updated in the future. Finally, the indication is that compressibility effects are important, and this suggests that computational fluid dynamics might improve the current correlation.

  8. ERP Energy and Cognitive Activity Correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael Jay; Vendemia, Jennifer M. C.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a novel analysis approach for high-density event related scalp potential (ERP) data where the integrated channel-power is used to attain an energy density functional state for channel-clusters of neurophysiological significance. The method is applied to data recorded during a two-stimulus, directed lie paradigm and shows that deceptive responses emit between 8% and 10% less power. A time course analysis of these cognitive activity measures over posterior and anterior regions of the cortex suggests that neocortical interactions, reflecting the differing workload demands during executive and semantic processes, take about 50% longer for the case of deception. These results suggest that the proposed method may provide a useful tool for the analysis of ERP correlates of high-order cognitive functioning. We also report on a possible equivalence between the energy functional distribution and near-infrared signatures that have been measured with other modalities.

  9. Criteria for Formation of Active Personal Position of Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunanbayeva, Magziya Sh.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the problem and the importance of formation of the active personal position of schoolchildren. Active personal position is a complex concept, which includes the ability to a problem solution, the ability to work in a team, the ability to express his or her views. The formation of an active personal position at school is…

  10. EEG-correlated fMRI of human alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Laufs, H; Kleinschmidt, A; Beyerle, A; Eger, E; Salek-Haddadi, A; Preibisch, C; Krakow, K

    2003-08-01

    Electroencephalography-correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG/fMRI) can be used to identify blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes associated with both physiological and pathological EEG events. Here, we implemented continuous and simultaneous EEG/fMRI to identify BOLD signal changes related to spontaneous power fluctuations in the alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz), the dominant EEG pattern during relaxed wakefulness. Thirty-two channels of EEG were recorded in 10 subjects during eyes-closed rest inside a 1.5-T magnet resonance (MR) scanner using an MR-compatible EEG recording system. Functional scanning by echoplanar imaging covered almost the entire cerebrum every 4 s. Off-line MRI artifact subtraction software was applied to obtain continuous EEG data during fMRI acquisition. The average alpha power over 1-s epochs was derived at several electrode positions using a Fast Fourier Transform. The power time course was then convolved with a canonical hemodynamic response function, down-sampled, and used for statistical parametric mapping of associated signal changes in the image time series. At all electrode positions studied, a strong negative correlation of parietal and frontal cortical activity with alpha power was found. Conversely, only sparse and nonsystematic positive correlation was detected. The relevance of these findings is discussed in view of the current theories on the generation and significance of the alpha rhythm and the related functional neuroimaging findings.

  11. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  12. Positive aspects of caregiving and its correlates in caregivers of schizophrenia: a study from north India.

    PubMed

    Kate, N; Grover, S; Kulhara, P; Nehra, R

    2013-06-01

    OBJECTIVE. To study the positive aspects of caregiving and its correlates in primary caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. METHODS. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers were evaluated. Regarding the caregivers, their positive aspects of caregiving were assessed on the Scale for Positive Aspects of Caregiving Experience (SPACE). To examine the correlates of positive aspects of caregiving, they were also assessed on the Family Burden Interview (FBI) Schedule, the Involvement Evaluation Questionnaire (IEQ), coping checklist, the Social Support Questionnaire, the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (Hindi version), the WHO Quality of Life-Spirituality, Religiousness and Personal Beliefs Scale, as well as the General Health Questionnaire-12. The patients were assessed on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. RESULTS. On the SPACE, the highest mean score was seen in the domain of motivation for the caregiving role (2.7), followed by that of caregiver satisfaction (2.4) and caregiver gains (2.3). The mean score was least for the domain of self-esteem and social aspect of caring (1.9). The SPACE domain of caregiver satisfaction correlated negatively with many aspects of burden as assessed by FBI Schedule and coping as assessed by the coping checklist; whereas the self-esteem and social aspect of caring domain correlated positively with worrying-urging II domain and the total IEQ score. No significant correlations between the SPACE and socio-demographics as well as most of the clinical variables were noted. Motivation for the caregiving had a positive correlation with the PANSS negative symptom scale. Multiple correlations were found between the SPACE and quality of life, suggesting that higher positive caregiving experience was associated with better quality of life in caregivers. CONCLUSION. Caregivers of patients with schizophrenia do enjoy positive aspects of

  13. Protoporphyrin IX Content Correlates with Activity of Photobleaching Herbicides

    PubMed Central

    Becerril, Jose M.; Duke, Stephen O.

    1989-01-01

    Several laboratories have demonstrated recently that photobleaching herbicides such as acifluorfen and oxadiazon cause accumulation of protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), a photodynamic pigment capable of herbicidal activity. We investigated, in acifluorfen-treated tissues, the in vivo stability of PPIX, the kinetics of accumulation, and the correlation between concentration of PPIX and herbicidal damage. During a 20 hour dark period, PPIX levels rose from barely detectable concentrations to 1 to 2 nanomoles per 50 cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cotyledon discs treated with 10 micromolar acifluorfen. When placed in 500 micromoles per square meter per second PAR, PPIX levels decayed logarithmically, with an initial half-life of about 2.5 hours. PPIX levels at each time after exposure to light correlated positively with the cellular damage that occurred during the following 1 hour in both green and yellow (tentoxin-treated) cucumber cotyledon tissues. PPIX levels in discs incubated for 20 hours in darkness correlated positively with the acifluorfen concentration in which they were incubated. In cucumber, the level of herbicidal damage caused by several p-nitrodiphenyl other herbicides, a p-chlorodiphenylether herbicide, and oxadiazon correlated positively with the amount of PPIX induced to accumulate by each of the herbicide treatments. Similar results were obtained with acifluorfen-treated pigweed and velvetleaf primary leaf tissues. In cucumber, PPIX levels increased within 15 and 30 minutes after exposure of discs to 10 micromolar acifluorfen in the dark and light, respectively. These data strengthen the view that PPIX is responsible for all or a major part of the photobleaching activity of acifluorfen and related herbicides. PMID:16666869

  14. Positive correlation between PEDF expression levels and macrophage density in the human prostate

    PubMed Central

    Nelius, Thomas; Samathanam, Christina; Martinez-Marin, Dalia; Gaines, Natalie; Stevens, Jessica; Hickson, Johnny; de Riese, Werner; Filleur, Stéphanie

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND In this study, we investigated the capacity of PEDF to modulate the recruitment and the differentiation of monocytes/macrophages both in vitro and in human prostate. METHODS Using Boyden chambers, we assessed PEDF effect on the migration of monocytes and chemically-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Normal, prostatitis and prostate cancer specimens were retrospectively selected and examined by immunohistochemistry for PEDF expression and infiltration of immune CD68+macrophagic cells. PEDF expression and macrophage density were then correlated with each other and clinicopathological parameters. M1 and M2 differentiation markers were quantified by qRT-PCR, western blotting and ELISA. RESULTS In chemotaxis, PEDF induced the migration of monocytes/macrophages. In immunohistochemistry, macrophages were markedly increased in prostatitis and malignant compared to normal tissues. PEDF was expressed at variable levels in the stroma and epithelium. PEDF mRNA was down-regulated in both prostate cancer and prostatitis compared to normal tissues. In correlation studies, macrophage density and PEDF expression were respectively positively and negatively associated with prostate size. Most importantly, PEDF expression positively correlated with macrophage density. Finally, PEDF stimulated the expression of iNOS, IL12 and TNFα; and inhibited IL10 and arginase 1 in mouse and human macrophages confirming a M1-type differentiation. CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that PEDF acts directly on monocytes/macrophages by inducing their migration and differentiation into M1-type cells. These findings suggest a possible role of macrophages in PEDF anti-tumor properties and may support further development of PEDF-based anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23038613

  15. Arylesterase Phenotype-Specific Positive Association Between Arylesterase Activity and Cholinesterase Specific Activity in Human Serum

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Yutaka; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Strickland, Paul T.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cholinesterase (ChE) specific activity is the ratio of ChE activity to ChE mass and, as a biomarker of exposure to cholinesterase inhibitors, has a potential advantage over simple ChE activity. Objective: To examine the association of several potential correlates (serum arylesterase/paraoxonase activity, serum albumin, sex, age, month of blood collection, and smoking) with plasma ChE specific activity. Methods: We analyzed data from 195 cancer-free controls from a nested case-control study, accounting for potential confounding. Results: Arylesterase activity had an independent, statistically significant positive association with ChE specific activity, and its magnitude was the greatest for the arylesterase phenotype corresponding to the QQ PON1192 genotype followed by phenotypes corresponding to QR and RR genotypes. Serum albumin was positively associated with ChE specific activity. Conclusions: Plasma arylesterase activity was positively associated with plasma ChE specific activity. This observation is consistent with protection conferred by a metabolic phenotype resulting in reduced internal dose. PMID:24473115

  16. Cooperative behavior between oscillatory and excitable units: the peculiar role of positive coupling-frequency correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, Bernard; Peron, Thomas K. DM.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Kurths, Jürgen; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2014-08-01

    We study the collective dynamics of noise-driven excitable elements, so-called active rotators. Crucially here, the natural frequencies and the individual coupling strengths are drawn from some joint probability distribution. Combining a mean-field treatment with a Gaussian approximation allows us to find examples where the infinite-dimensional system is reduced to a few ordinary differential equations. Our focus lies in the cooperative behavior in a population consisting of two parts, where one is composed of excitable elements, while the other one contains only self-oscillatory units. Surprisingly, excitable behavior in the whole system sets in only if the excitable elements have a smaller coupling strength than the self-oscillating units. In this way positive local correlations between natural frequencies and couplings shape the global behavior of mixed populations of excitable and oscillatory elements.

  17. Correlating Structural and Energetic Changes in Glycine Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Suzanne; Lynch, Joseph W.; Keramidas, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemoelectrical transduction in the nervous system. The mechanism by which the energy of ligand binding leads to current-conducting receptors is poorly understood and may vary among family members. We addressed these questions by correlating the structural and energetic mechanisms by which a naturally occurring M1 domain mutation (α1Q−26′E) enhances receptor activation in homo- and heteromeric glycine receptors. We systematically altered the charge of spatially clustered residues at positions 19′ and 24′, in the M2 and M2-M3 linker domains, respectively, which are known to be critical to efficient receptor activation, on a background of α1Q−26′E. Changes in the durations of single receptor activations (clusters) and conductance were used to determine interaction coupling energies, which we correlated with conformational displacements as measured in pLGIC crystal structures. Presence of the α1Q−26′E enhanced cluster durations and reduced channel conductance in homo- and heteromeric receptors. Strong coupling between α1−26′ and α119′ across the subunit interface suggests an important role in receptor activation. A lack of coupling between α1−26′ and α124′ implies that 24′ mutations disrupt activation via other interactions. A similar lack of energetic coupling between α1−26′ and reciprocal mutations in the β subunit suggests that this subunit remains relatively static during receptor activation. However, the channel effects of α1Q−26′E on α1β receptors suggests at least one α1-α1 interface per pentamer. The coupling-energy change between α1−26′ and α119′ correlates with a local structural rearrangement essential for pLGIC activation, implying it comprises a key energetic pathway in activating glycine receptors and other pLGICs. PMID:25572390

  18. Correlation Between Galaxy Mergers and AGN Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jueun

    2012-05-01

    Using deep images taken at Maidanak 1.5m telescope, at McDonald 2.1m telescope and Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Dupont 2.5m telescope, we investigated the fraction of galaxy mergers in hosts of 39 luminous AGN which are brighter than M = -22 mag and nearer than z = 0.3. We found that 16 to 17 of 39 AGN host galaxies show the evidence of mergers like tidal tail, shell, gravitationally disturbed features via careful visual inspection. We also studied with the merging fraction of a control sample, SDSS Stripe82 early type galaxies of which surface brightness limit and bulge magnitude are similar to that of the AGN sample. Our result is that merging fraction of the AGN sample is higher than that of early type galaxy samples in the whole range of bulge magnitude. This result implies that AGN activity may be correlated with merging. We also investigated the detailed morphology of merging feature. At least 1/4 of control samples having a tidal and tidal+dust feature show shell structures. On the other hand only one (5.9%) of AGN sample classified as merger shows shell structures, and almost all merging AGNs show tidal tail features. From point of view that tidal tail can appear at the early stage of merging, and shell can appear at the late stage of mergers, expected by simulation study, this result suggests that AGN might be evolved into early-type galaxies after merging.

  19. Sparse reconstruction of correlated multichannel activity.

    PubMed

    Peelman, Sem; Van der Herten, Joachim; De Vos, Maarten; Lee, Wen-Shin; Van Huffel, Sabine; Cuyt, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Parametric methods for modeling sinusoidal signals with line spectra have been studied for decades. In general, these methods start by representing each sinusoidal component by means of two complex exponential functions, thereby doubling the number of unknown parameters. Recently, a Hankel-plus-Toeplitz matrix pencil method was proposed which directly models sinusoidal signals with discrete spectral content. Compared to its counterpart, which uses a Hankel matrix pencil, it halves the required number of time-domain samples and reduces the size of the involved linear systems. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to show that this Hankel-plus-Toeplitz matrix pencil also applies to continuous spectra. Secondly, to explore its use in the reconstruction of real-life signals. Promising preliminary results in the reconstruction of correlated multichannel electroencephalographic (EEG) activity are presented. A principal component analysis preprocessing step is carried out to exploit the redundancy in the channel domain. Then the reduced signal representation is successfully reconstructed from fewer samples using the Hankel-plus-Toeplitz matrix pencil. The obtained results encourage the future development of this matrix pencil method along the lines of well-established spectral analysis methods.

  20. Correlation of positive prostate sextant biopsy locations to sites of positive surgical margins in radical prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Borboroglu, P G; Amling, C L

    2001-06-01

    To investigate whether sextant location of positive prostate biopsy predicts the site of positive surgical margins (PSM) at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with clinical stage T1c prostate cancer. A retrospective query of the Center for Prostate Disease Research (CPDR) database at our institution identified 456 patients with clinical stage T1c prostate cancer who underwent standard sextant prostate biopsy prior to RP. Each biopsy was submitted separately for pathologic analysis according to sextant location. The sextant location of positive biopsies was compared to the sites of PSM after RP. PSM were found in 129 of 456 (28%) RP specimens. The incidence of PSM at the prostate apex in patients with a positive or negative apical sextant biopsy was similar (9 and 8% respectively, p>0.05). The incidence of PSM at the prostate base in patients with a positive or negative sextant biopsy of the prostate base was also the same (7% in both groups, p>0.05). As the number of positive biopsy cores on one side of the prostate increased (0, 1, 2, and 3) so did the chance of an ipsilateral PSM (5.4, 16.2, 35.7 and 45.0%, respectively; p<0.005). Positive sextant biopsy location (apex and base) does not correlate with site of PSM at RP. However, ipsilateral PSM are more likely as the number of positive sextant biopsies on that side increases. While pathologic processing of biopsy specimens according to longitudinal prostate location (base, mid and apex) is probably unnecessary, the number of positive biopsies on a given side may be useful preoperative information.

  1. Fragile phagocytes: FMRP positively regulates engulfment activity.

    PubMed

    Logan, Mary A

    2017-03-06

    Defective immune system function is implicated in autism spectrum disorders, including Fragile X syndrome. In this issue, O'Connor et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201607093) demonstrate that phagocytic activity of systemic immune cells is compromised in a Drosophila melanogaster model of Fragile X, highlighting intriguing new mechanistic connections between FMRP, innate immunity, and abnormal development.

  2. Stochastic noise reduction upon complexification: positively correlated birth-death type systems.

    PubMed

    Rooman, Marianne; Albert, Jaroslav; Duerinckx, Mitia

    2014-08-07

    Cell systems consist of a huge number of various molecules that display specific patterns of interactions, which have a determining influence on the cell׳s functioning. In general, such complexity is seen to increase with the complexity of the organism, with a concomitant increase of the accuracy and specificity of the cellular processes. The question thus arises how the complexification of systems - modeled here by simple interacting birth-death type processes - can lead to a reduction of the noise - described by the variance of the number of molecules. To gain understanding of this issue, we investigated the difference between a single system containing molecules that are produced and degraded, and the same system - with the same average number of molecules - connected to a buffer. We modeled these systems using Itō stochastic differential equations in discrete time, as they allow straightforward analytical developments. In general, when the molecules in the system and the buffer are positively correlated, the variance on the number of molecules in the system is found to decrease compared to the equivalent system without a buffer. Only buffers that are too noisy themselves tend to increase the noise in the main system. We tested this result on two model cases, in which the system and the buffer contain proteins in their active and inactive state, or protein monomers and homodimers. We found that in the second test case, where the interconversion terms are non-linear in the number of molecules, the noise reduction is much more pronounced; it reaches up to 20% reduction of the Fano factor with the parameter values tested in numerical simulations on an unperturbed birth-death model. We extended our analysis to two arbitrary interconnected systems, and found that the sum of the noise levels in the two systems generally decreases upon interconnection if the molecules they contain are positively correlated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The correlation between direction and amount of retrusive movement and condyle position and joint space.

    PubMed

    Kiseri, Burim; Dayan, Süleyman Çağatay; Yıldız, Melih; Sülün, Tonguç

    2017-06-03

    The direction and amount of retrusive movement may be correlated with the amount of joint space and the maximum intercuspal position of the condyle. The aim of this study was to identify any such correlation using an ultrasonic jaw motion analyzer and digital volumetric tomographic (DVT) scans. Thirty-five dental students were selected as subjects. DVT scans were obtained using a next-generation i-CAT CBCT unit, and the direction and amount of retrusive movement were measured with a 3-D analyzer. Spearman Rho correlation tests showed no correlation between the amount of retrusive movement and the condyle position and joint space on either the right or left side. There is sufficient reason to suggest that retrusive movement of the condyle does not occur in isolation but is influenced by glenoid fossa bone morphology.

  4. Nonlocal imaging of a reflective object using positive and negative correlations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Jie; Li, Ming-Fei; Wu, Ling-An

    2015-09-01

    The Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) effect is a classical intensity correlation effect, but it is also widely used in the quantum optics regime, and has led to many important breakthroughs in both basic and applied physics, among which ghost imaging (GI) has aroused particular interest. In this article, the positive and negative intensity correlations in HBT correlation are analyzed, based on which we describe experiments on thermal light nonlocal imaging of a reflective object using the positive and negative correlations of correspondence imaging. An improvement of 16.3% in the signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed image has been achieved, indicating that this method may have promising potential in future GI applications where noise is a serious problem and smaller sampling numbers are necessary.

  5. Harpagoside variation is positively correlated with temperature in Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuting; Li, Jinghui; Zhao, Yunpeng; Chen, Binlong; Fu, Chengxin

    2011-03-09

    Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. is an important Chinese medicinal herb with a history of domestication of over 1000 years. Phytochemical variation of S. ningpoensis in response to environmental gradients remains an attractive topic with both practiceal and theoretical significances. In the current study, HPLC fingerprinting and four major bioactive compounds of S. ningpoensis, that is, harpagoside, angroside C, acteoside, and cinnamic acid, were determined to explore its correlations with climatic, geographic, and soil factors. The present data confirmed the approximate three-group pattern of phytochemical differentiation among the five production regions, the population of Zhejiang (ZJ), the population of Hubei (HB), and the rest three populations of Chongqing, Hunan, and Shaanxi (CQ, HN, and SX). Harpagoside, the dominant bioactive compound of S. ningpoensis, contributed most to the phytochemical differentiation and displayed a significant positive correlation with monthly and annual average temperature and negative correlations with altitude and latitude. It was concluded that harpagoside variation was strongly positively correlated with environmental changes of temperature.

  6. Scale-Free Correlations in Flocking Systems with Position-Based Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huepe, Cristián; Ferrante, Eliseo; Wenseleers, Tom; Turgut, Ali Emre

    2015-02-01

    We consider a model of self-propelled agents with spring-like interactions that depend only on relative positions, and not on relative orientations. We observe that groups of these agents self-organize to achieve collective motion (CM) through a mechanism based on the cascading of self-propulsion energy towards lower elastic modes. By computing the correlation functions of the speed and velocity fluctuations for different group sizes, we show that the corresponding correlation lengths are proportional to the linear size of the group and have no intrinsic length scale. We argue that such scale-free correlations are a natural consequence of the position-based interactions and associated CM dynamics. We hypothesize that this effect, acting in the context of more complex realistic interactions, could be at the origin of the scale-free correlations measured experimentally in flocks of starlings, instead of the previously argued proximity to a critical regime.

  7. Correlation between the Condyle Position and Intra-Extraarticular Clinical Findings of Temporomandibular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sener, Sevgi; Akgunlu, Faruk

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between different clinical findings and condyle position. Methods: Tenderness on masseter (MM), temporal (TM), lateral pyterigoid (LPM), medial pyterigoid (MPM) and posterior cervical (PSM) muscles, limitation, deviation and deflection in opening of mouth, clicking, crepitating, tenderness on lateral palpation of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area for each side of 85 patients were evaluated. Each side of patients was categorized into the clinical findings: no sign and/or symptom of temporomandibular dysfunctions (TMDs), only extraarticular findings and only intraarticular findings, extra and intraarticular findings. Condyle positions of 170 TMJs were determined the narrowest anterior (a) and posterior interarticular distance (p) on mid-sagittal MRIs of condyles and expressed as p/a ratio and these ratio were transformed into logarithmic base e. Spearman’s Correlation was used to investigate the relationship between the condyle position and the clinical findings. The difference between the condyle positions of different groups was tested by T test. Reliability statistic was used to determine intra-observer concordance of two measurements of condylar position. Results: A significant relationship was found between the condyle position and tenderness of PSM. There was no significant difference between the groups in aspect of the condyle position. Occlusion and condyle position correlated with significantly. Conclusions: The inclination of the upper cervical spine and craniocervical angulations can cause the signs and symptoms of TMD and condyle position is not main cause of TMDs alone but it may be effective together with other possible etiological factors synergistically. PMID:21769281

  8. Toward a downconversion source of positively spectrally correlated and decorrelated telecom photon pairs.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Thomas; Kolenderski, Piotr; Jennewein, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Frequency correlation (or decorrelation) of photon pairs is of great importance in long-range quantum communications and photonic quantum computing. We experimentally characterize a spontaneous parametric downconversion source, based on a β-barium borate crystal cut for type-II phase matching at 1550 nm, which has the capability to emit photons with positive or no spectral correlations. Our system employs a carefully designed detection method exploiting two InGaAs detectors.

  9. Sociodemographic and environmental correlates of active commuting in rural America.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jessie X; Wen, Ming; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated participation rates in 3 modes of active commuting (AC) and their sociodemographic and physical environmental correlates in rural America. The 2000 Census supplemented with other data sets were used to analyze AC rates in percentage of workers walking, biking, and taking public transportation to work in 14,209 nonmetropolitan rural tracts identified by RUCA codes, including 4,067 small rural and 10,142 town-micropolitan rural tracts. Sociodemographic and physical environmental variables were correlated with 3 AC modes simultaneously using Seemingly Unrelated Regression for nonmetro rural, and for small rural and town-micropolitan rural separately. The average AC rates in rural tracts were 3.63%, 0.26%, and 0.56% for walking, biking, and public transportation to work, respectively, with small rural tracts having a higher rate of walking but lower rates of biking and public transportation to work than town-micropolitan tracts. In general, better economic well-being was negatively associated with AC but percentage of college-educated was a positive correlate. Population density was positively associated with AC but greenness and proximity to parks were negative correlates. However, significant differences existed for different AC modes, and between small rural and town-micropolitan rural tracts. Sociodemographic factors explained more variance in AC than physical environmental factors but the detailed relationships were complex, varying by AC mode and by degree of rurality. Any strategy to promote AC in rural America needs to be sensitive to the population size of the area and assessed in a comprehensive manner to avoid a "one size fits all" approach. © 2014 National Rural Health Association.

  10. Correlation study of a beam-position monitor and a photon-beam-position monitor in the PLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changbum; Shin, Seunghwan; Hwang, Ilmoon; Lee, Byung-Joon; Joo, Young-Do; Ha, Taekyun; Yoon, Jong Chel; Kim, Ghyung Hwa; Kim, Mungyung; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Ilyou; Huang, Jung-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The beam stability is one of the most important issues for the user service of the synchrotron radiation facility. After the upgrade of the Pohang Light Source (PLS-II), the electron-beam orbit is maintained within a root-mean-squred (rms) 1- μm range by using an orbit feedback system. However, that does not guarantee the radiation stability at the end of the beamline because unknown factors, such as focusing mirrors and double-crystal monocrometers, are present in the beamline. As a first step to solve this problem, photon-beam-position monitors (PBPMs) are installed in the front ends of the beamline to monitor the radiation stability. If the radiation is stable at the starting point of the beamline, we can move to the other components downstream that make the radiation unstable. In this paper, a correlation study will be presented between the beam-position monitor (BPM) and the PBPM. In addition, the effect of the orbit feedback system on the correlation will be described.

  11. HIV disclosure patterns, predictors, and psychosocial correlates among HIV-positive women in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rena; Ratner, Jamie; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kadzirange, Gerard; Woelk, Godfrey; Katzenstein, David

    2011-01-01

    Disclosure of positive HIV status in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with safer sexual practices and better antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but associations with psychosocial function are unclear. We examined patterns and psychosocial correlates of disclosure in a Zimbabwean community. Two hundred HIV positive women at different stages of initiating ART participated in a cross-sectional study examining actual disclosures, disclosure beliefs, perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, and quality of life. Ninety-seven percent of the women disclosed to at least one person, 78% disclosed to their current husband/partner, with an average disclosure of 4.0 persons per woman. The majority (85–98%) of disclosures occurred in a positive manner and 72–95% of the individuals reacted positively. Factors significantly correlated with HIV disclosure to partners included being married, later age at menses, longer duration of HIV since diagnosis, being on ART, being more symptomatic at baseline, ever having used condoms, and greater number of partners in the last year. In multivariate analysis, being married and age at menses predicted disclosure to partners. Positive disclosure beliefs, but not the total number of disclosures, significantly correlated with lower perceived stigma (rho=0.44 for personalized subscale and rho=0.51 for public subscale, both p<0.0001), higher self-esteem (rho=0.15, p=0.04), and fewer depressive symptoms (rho=−0.14, p=0.05). In conclusion, disclosure of positive HIV status among Zimbabwean women is common and is frequently met with positive reactions. Moreover, positive disclosure beliefs correlate significantly with psychosocial measures, including lower perceived stigma, higher self-esteem, and lower depression. PMID:21902570

  12. HIV disclosure patterns, predictors, and psychosocial correlates among HIV positive women in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rena; Ratner, Jamie; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Kadzirange, Gerard; Woelk, Godfrey; Katzenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Disclosure of positive HIV status in Sub-Saharan Africa has been associated with safer sexual practices and better antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, but associations with psychosocial function are unclear. We examined patterns and psychosocial correlates of disclosure in a Zimbabwean community. Two hundred HIV positive women at different stages of initiating ART participated in a cross-sectional study examining actual disclosures, disclosure beliefs, perceived stigma, self-esteem, depression, and quality of life. Ninety-seven percent of the women disclosed to at least one person, 78% disclosed to their current husband/partner, with an average disclosure of four persons per woman. The majority (85-98%) of disclosures occurred in a positive manner and 72-95% of the individuals reacted positively. Factors significantly correlated with HIV disclosure to partners included being married, later age at menses, longer duration of HIV since diagnosis, being on ART, being more symptomatic at baseline, ever having used condoms, and greater number of partners in the last year. In multivariate analysis, being married and age at menses predicted disclosure to partners. Positive disclosure beliefs, but not the total number of disclosures, significantly correlated with lower perceived stigma (ρ = 0.44 for personalized subscale and ρ = 0.51 for public subscale, both p<0.0001), higher self-esteem (ρ = 0.15, p=0.04), and fewer depressive symptoms (ρ = -0.14, p=0.05). In conclusion, disclosure of positive HIV status among Zimbabwean women is common and is frequently met with positive reactions. Moreover, positive disclosure beliefs correlate significantly with psychosocial measures, including lower perceived stigma, higher self-esteem, and lower depression.

  13. Correlation of Radiographic Mental Foramen Position and Occlusion in Three Different Indian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Verma, P; Bansal, N; Khosa, R; Verma, KG; Sachdev, SK; Patwardhan, N; Garg, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The knowledge of the position of the mental foramen (MF) is important for administering local anaesthesia for diagnostic, surgical or operative procedures. Aims: To determine the shape, position, symmetry of MF and its continuity with the inferior dental canal (IDC) on a digital panoramic view and to find its correlation with Angle's molar relations in three Indian subpopulations. The study also determines the correlation of inter-foramen distance in both genders of three Indian subpopulations. Subjects and Methods: One hundred and twenty digital panoramic radiographs were evaluated from three Indian subpopulations (Punjab, Rajasthan and Northeast [NE]). The assessment of occlusion was based on Angle's molar relationships. The data obtained were statistically analysed. Results: The commonest position of MF in Rajasthan and NE populations was position 4 bilaterally, while in the Punjab population, it was position 3 on the right and position 4 on the left side. The majority of the MF was round in shape, followed by oval. The mean distance between two MF was highest among the Punjab male population and least among the NE female population. The most frequent pattern of MF continuity with IDC was diffuse in Rajasthan population, separated in NE and continuous in Punjab. Correlation between Angle's molar relation with the MF position was significant for Classes I and II but not for Class III. Correlation of inter-foramen distance between genders was highly significant in the NE and Punjab populations. Conclusion: The commonest MF position was aligned with the 1st premolar and between the 1st and 2nd-premolar. PMID:26426182

  14. Positive correlation between serum interleukin-1β and state anger in rugby athletes.

    PubMed

    Pesce, Mirko; Speranza, Lorenza; Franceschelli, Sara; Ialenti, Valentina; Iezzi, Irene; Patruno, Antonia; Rizzuto, Alessia; Robazza, Claudio; De Lutiis, Maria Anna; Felaco, Mario; Grilli, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Recently, several studies reported a relationship between immune system activation and anger expression. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore immunitary molecular mechanisms that potentially underlie anger expression. To this end, we applied the Frustration-Aggression Theory in a contact sport model, utilizing the nearing of sporting events to trigger anger feelings. In parallel, we evaluated the activation of immune system at mRNA levels. We enrolled 20 amateur rugby players (age ± SD, 27.2 ± 4.5) who underwent psychological assessment to evaluate anger, with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2 (STAXI-2), before rugby matches; at the same time blood samples were taken to analyze the variations of gene expression by microarray. During the 2 hr before each game, a significant increase was verified in the Rage State (RS) score compared to the score ascertained 72 hr before. At the same time, we found modulation in expression profile, in particular increased expression of gene that encodes interleukin l-β (IL-1β). In a regression analysis, RS score was related to IL-1β, and the potential risk factors age, body mass index, smoking, and drinking. The levels of cytokine were positively and independently related to RS score. Our results suggest that the nearing of sporting event can trigger anger state feelings and activate immune system in rugby players. We propose the IL-1β as a potential biological marker of anger. However, further research is necessary to clarify the correlation between cytokine and anger.

  15. Who takes the lead hand? Correlates of handholding position in lesbian couples.

    PubMed

    Che, Alison; Siemens, Isaac; Fejtek, Monika; Wassersug, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    When couples hold hands, one partner must take the lead hand and the other the following hand position. As potential correlates or predictors of handholding positions within lesbian couples, this article explored differences in height, age, income, who initiated the relationship, who usually initiates sexual intimacy, previous history of partnership with a male, and who has the most "say" in decision-making. Data revealed only 2 significant variables: The taller partner was more likely to have the lead hand, and a woman who had previously been partnered with a male was more likely to take the trailing hand position.

  16. Correlation between sperm DNA fragmentation index and CMA3 positive spermatozoa in globozoospermic patients.

    PubMed

    Hosseinifar, H; Yazdanikhah, S; Modarresi, T; Totonchi, M; Sadighi Gilani, M A; Sabbaghian, M

    2015-05-01

    The absence of the acrosome causes the situation which is called globozoospermia. There are a few studies, mostly as case reports, about correlation between levels of sperm DNA damage in patients with total round-headed spermatozoa. We investigated this correlation as well as CMA3 positive spermatozoa in 20 globozoospermic men (with more than 90% round-headed spermatozoa) attending to Royan Institute. Semen samples divided into three parts to semen analysis, to measure DNA fragmentation index (DFI) using sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and to detect CMA3(+) sperm cells by chromomycin A3 staining and fluorescent microscopy. Our results showed that there were significant differences in sperm concentration, total sperm motility, and normal morphology between patients and controls group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the average of DFI and CMA3 positive spermatozoa in patients group significantly increases compared with control group (p < 0.001). A significant correlation between DFI and CMA3(+) in total population was also detected in patients group (r = 0.45, p = 0.046). To our knowledge, this is the largest study about correlation between DNA damage levels and CMA3 positive spermatozoa with round head sperm cells in total globozoospermic men. It seems that the increase in DNA damage may be because of defective sperm DNA compaction, as we detected CMA3 positive sperm cells in these patients.

  17. Correlational Study of Union-Administrator Relationships and Principals' Opportunities to Create Positive School Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to investigate the strength of correlation between union-administrator relationships and principals' opportunities to create a positive school culture for learning during intent to strike conditions. The goal of this positivist study was to allow for an exploration of the extent to which…

  18. Correlation of 3D volumetric positioning errors and temperature distributions: theory and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, O.; Bach, P.; Yang, J.; Wang, C.

    2006-11-01

    In a real machine shop environment and under various spindle loads, the machine thermal expansion may cause large 3D volumetric positioning errors. With an intelligent controller, it is possible to compensate these errors provide that the relations between the 3D volumetric positioning errors and the temperature distribution were measured. A laser vector measurement technique developed by Optodyne was used for a quick measurement of 3D volumetric positioning errors of a CNC machining center under various spindle loads, machine movement and ambient conditions. Correlation calculations were used to determine the key temperatures and the various positioning errors. Preliminary results showed that large machine temperature changes caused somewhat small straightness error changes but large squareness error changes. Using the measured position errors, several error maps could be generated. Compensation tables at an actual thermal state can be interpolated to achieve higher accuracy at various thermal loadings.

  19. ERP Correlates of Letter Identity and Letter Position Are Modulated by Lexical Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergara-Martinez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gomez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created…

  20. Tryptophan analogues. 1. Synthesis and antihypertensive activity of positional isomers.

    PubMed

    Safdy, M E; Kurchacova, E; Schut, R N; Vidrio, H; Hong, E

    1982-06-01

    A series of tryptophan analogues having the carboxyl function at the beta-position was synthesized and tested for antihypertensive activity. The 5-methoxy analogue 46 exhibited antihypertensive activity in the rat via the oral route and was much more potent than the normal tryptophan analogue. The methyl ester was found to be a critical structural feature for activity.

  1. White-Matter Tract Connecting Anterior Insula to Nucleus Accumbens Correlates with Reduced Preference for Positively Skewed Gambles

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Josiah K.; Pestilli, Franco; Wu, Charlene C.; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Knutson, Brian

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals sometimes show inconsistent risk preferences, including excessive attraction to gambles featuring small chances of winning large amounts (called “positively skewed” gambles). While functional neuroimaging research indicates that nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and anterior insula (AIns) activity inversely predict risky choice, structural connections between these regions have not been described in humans. By combining diffusion-weighted MRI with tractography, we identified the anatomical trajectory of white-matter tracts projecting from the AIns to the NAcc and statistically validated these tracts using Linear Fascicle Evaluation (LiFE) and virtual lesions. Coherence of the right AIns-NAcc tract correlated with reduced preferences for positively skewed gambles. Further, diminished NAcc activity during gamble presentation mediated the association between tract structure and choice. These results identify an unreported tract connecting the AIns to the NAcc in humans and support the notion that structural connections can alter behavior by influencing brain activity as individuals weigh uncertain gains against uncertain losses. PMID:26748088

  2. High molecular weight adiponectin correlates positively with myeloperoxidase in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, P; Rauch, U; Stratmann, B; Goldin-Lang, P; Antoniak, S; Bobbert, T; Schultheiss, H P; Tschoepe, D

    2008-11-01

    Adiponectin (APN) is present in human plasma as a low molecular weight (LMW), a middle molecular weight (MMW) and a high molecular weight form (HMW). As a support to determine properties such as anti-atherogenic or atherogenic effects, recent clinical studies suppose to determine the ratio of each APN multimer to total APN but not the absolute plasma concentration of APN. In the present study, the correlation of APN and its multimers with myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme with pro-inflammatory properties, was examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. MPO and APN serum levels were assessed in 49 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the beginning and at the end of an anti-diabetic treatment. After treatment a significant increase in the ratio of HMW to total APN (from 0.43+/-0.16 to 0.59+/-0.14, p<0.05) was found. Before treatment, HMW-APN was correlated positively with MPO (r=0.314, p<0.05). Moreover, a positive correlation was observed between the increased HMW ratio and MPO during treatment (r=0.304, p<0.05). HMW-APN correlates positively with MPO in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, HMW-APN may exert possible pro-inflammatory effects in type 2 diabetes.

  3. Associations between selected demographic, biological, school environmental and physical education based correlates, and adolescent physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hilland, Toni A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J

    2011-02-01

    The study investigated associations between selected physical activity correlates among 299 adolescents (90 boys, age 12-14 years) from 3 English schools. Physical activity was assessed by self-report and accelerometry. Correlates represented biological, predisposing, and demographic factors as described in the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model. Boys engaged in more self-reported (p < .01) and accelerometer assessed physical activity than girls (p = .02). Positive associations between sex (male), BMI, Perceived PE Ability, Perceived PE Worth, number of enrolled students, and physical activity outcomes were evident (p < .05). School-based physical activity promotion should emphasize sex-specific enhancement of students' perceived PE competence and enjoyment.

  4. Serum aldosterone is correlated positively to parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Brunaud, Laurent; Germain, Adeline; Zarnegar, Rasa; Rancier, Marc; Alrasheedi, Saud; Caillard, Cecile; Ayav, Ahmet; Weryha, George; Mirallie, Eric; Bresler, Laurent

    2009-12-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, mechanisms underlying this association are currently unclear. As there is clear evidence of the independent role of aldosterone on the cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to evaluate aldosterone levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. A prospective study of 134 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism before and 3 months after parathyroidectomy. Pre-operative serum aldosterone and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were correlated positively in all patients (.238; P = .005). In the 62 patients (46%) that were not on antihypertensive medications, this correlation was stronger (.441; P = .0003). In the 72 patients (54%) treated with at least 1 antihypertensive medication, no correlation between preoperative aldosterone and PTH serum levels was observed. By multivariate analysis, pre-operative PTH level (.409; P = .005) was an independent predictor of aldosterone. Pre-operative PTH level >100 ng/L was an independent predictor of abnormally elevated plasma aldosterone level (odds ratio 3.5; P = .01). At 3 months after parathyroidectomy, no correlation was observed between postoperative PTH and aldosterone levels. Aldosterone is correlated positively to preoperative PTH levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Aldosterone might be a key mediator of cardiovascular symptoms in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

  5. Gray matter volume correlates of global positive alcohol expectancy in non-dependent adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Jaime S.; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Matuskey, David; Bednarski, Sarah R.; Erdman, Emily; Farr, Olivia M.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use and misuse is known to involve structural brain changes. Numerous imaging studies have examined changes in gray matter (GM) volumes in dependent drinkers, but there is little information on whether non-dependent drinking is associated with structural changes and whether these changes are related to psychological factors – such as alcohol expectancy – that influence drinking behavior. We used voxel based morphometry (VBM) to examine whether the global positive scale of alcohol expectancy, as measured by the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire AEQ-3, is associated with specific structural markers and whether such markers are associated with drinking behavior in 113 adult non-dependent drinkers (66 women). Alcohol expectancy is positively correlated with GM volume of left precentrral gyrus (PCG) in men and women combined and bilateral superior frontal gyri (SFG) in women, and negatively correlated with GM volume of the right ventral putamen in men. Furthermore, mediation analyses showed that the GM volume of PCG mediate the correlation of alcohol expectancy and the average number of drinks consumed per occasion and monthly total number of drinks in the past year. When recent drinking was directly accounted for in multiple regressions, GM volume of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC) correlated positively with alcohol expectancy in the combined sample. To our knowledge, these results are the first to identify the structural brain correlates of alcohol expectancy and its mediation of drinking behaviors. These findings suggest that more studies are needed to investigate increased GM volume in the frontal cortices as a neural correlate of alcohol expectancy. PMID:23461484

  6. CD30-positive cutaneous lymphoma: report of four cases with an emphasis on clinicopathological correlations*

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Thiago Jeunon de Sousa; Jorge, Samira Barroso; Gonzaga, Yung Bruno de Mello

    2017-01-01

    The classification of cutaneous lymphomas is multidisciplinary and requires the correlation between clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular diagnostic elements. In this article, we present four different cases of CD30-positive T-cell lymphoma with cutaneous manifestations. We compare cases with definitive diagnosis of papulosis lymphomatoid type C, primary cutaneous anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma, systemic anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma with secondary skin involvement, and mycosis fungoides with large cell transformation, highlighting the importance of clinicopathological correlation to classify these cases. PMID:28225962

  7. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  8. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  9. Laser optical disk position encoder with active heads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1991-01-01

    An angular position encoder that minimizes the effects of eccentricity and other misalignments between the disk and the read stations by employing heads with beam steering optics that actively track the disk in directions along the disk radius and normal to its surface is discussed. The device adapts features prevalent in optical disk technology to the application of angular position sensing.

  10. Correlation Between the Position of the Hyoid Bone on Lateral Cephalographs and Formant Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Macari, Anthony T; Ziade, Georges; Turfe, Zaahir; Chidiac, Alissar; Alam, Elie; Hamdan, Abdul-Latif

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the F1, F2, F3, and F4 during sustained vowels /ɑ/, /i/, /o/, /u/. Prospective cross-sectional study. Fifty-two consecutive patients aged between 9 years and 38 years were invited to participate in this study. Linear measurements included linear vertical distance from the hyoid bone to the sella turcica (H-S); linear vertical distance from the hyoid bone to the posterior nasal spine (H-PNS); linear measure from the hyoid bone to the most anterior point of the cervical vertebra C3 (H-C3); and linear vertical distance from the hyoid bone to the mandibular plane (H-MP). The results showed a moderate and statistically significant correlation between the average fundamental frequency for the vowel /ɑ/ and H-C3, H-S, and H-PNS and another moderate negative correlation between F3 and F4, and the vertical position of the hyoid bone H-C3 and H-S. For the vowel /i/, there was a moderate negative correlation between F1, F3, and F4 and H-S and also a moderate negative correlation between F3 and F4 and H-C3. For the vowel /o/, there was a moderate negative correlation between F4 and H-S and H-PNS. For the vowel /u/, only F4 correlated significantly with H-S. There is a moderate correlation between the high formants, mostly F4, and the cephalo-caudal position of the hyoid bone. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Active temperature and velocity correlations produced by a swimmer suspension.

    PubMed

    Parra-Rojas, C; Soto, R

    2013-05-01

    The agitation produced in a fluid by a suspension of microswimmers in the low Reynolds number limit is studied. In this limit, swimmers are modeled as force dipoles all with equal strength. The agitation is characterized by the active temperature defined, as in kinetic theory, as the mean square velocity, and by the equal-time spatial correlations. Considering the phase in which the swimmers are homogeneously and isotropically distributed in the fluid, it is shown that the active temperature and velocity correlations depend on a single scalar correlation function of the dipole-dipole correlation function. By making a simple medium-range order model, in which the dipole-dipole correlation function is characterized by a single correlation length k(0)(-1) it is possible to make quantitative predictions. It is found that the active temperature depends on the system size, scaling as L(4-d) at large correlation lengths Lcorrelations decay as 1/r for small correlation lengths, while at large correlation lengths the transverse correlation function becomes negative at maximum separation r~L/2, an effect that disappears as the system increases in size.

  12. Positive effects of aerobic exercise on learning and memory functioning, which correlate with hippocampal IGF-1 increase in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Cetinkaya, Caner; Sisman, Ali Riza; Kiray, Muge; Camsari, Ulas Mehmet; Gencoglu, Celal; Baykara, Basak; Aksu, Ilkay; Uysal, Nazan

    2013-08-09

    It is already known that regular aerobic exercise during adolescent period improves learning and memory in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on learning, memory functioning and IGF-1 levels. IGF-1 is known to have positive effects on cognitive functions in adolescent rats. Exercise group was separated into two different groups. First half was run on a treadmill for 30 min per session at a speed of 8m/min and 0° slope, five times a week for 6 weeks. The second half was given free access to a running wheel (diameter 11.5 cm) which was connected to a digital counter and run on a treadmill for 6 weeks. Learning and memory functioning were found to be positively correlated with the exercise activity. Findings suggest increased neuron density in CA1 hippocampal region and dentate gyrus. Increased IGF-1 level was detected in hippocampus and blood serum, while IGF-1 level in liver tissue did not change with exercise activity. In conclusion, our findings indicate that learning and memory functioning were positively affected by voluntary and involuntary physical exercise which correlated increased hippocampal activity and elevated IGF-1 levels in adolescent rats.

  13. Correlations of Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome with Female Sexual Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyun Suk

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We investigated how the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) are correlated with the sexual activity of these patients. Materials and Methods A total of 87 patients were included in this study; 18 patients were diagnosed with IC and the other 69 had PBS. The diagnosis was made on the basis of the concept of IC/PBS proposed by the ICS in 2002. Patients were asked to fill in a Bristol female lower urinary tract symptom questionnaire, and symptoms were rated on a scale of from 1 to 4 or 5. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to analyze the correlation of pain and urinary symptoms with quality of life and sexual activity. Results The average age of the patients was 51±14.7 years (range, 28-74 years). Age and vulvodynia were positively correlated with one another (r=0.232), and there was a negative correlation between age and dyspareunia (r=-0.302). Among the items regarding IC/PBS and sexual activity, frequency showed a positive correlation with vulvodynia (r=0.258) in addition to an inhibited sex life (r=0.403). Urgency showed a positive correlation with an inhibited sex life (r=0.346). Vulvodynia showed a positive correlation with an inhibited sex life (r=0.259) and dyspareunia (r=0.401). The main symptoms of IC/PBS (frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain) showed a positive correlation with almost all items related to quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusions Frequency, urgency, and various types of pain are negatively correlated with the sexual activity of patients. This suggests that physicians should consider sexual function in the management of patients with IC/PBS. PMID:20414410

  14. Correlative Studies in Clinical Trials: A Position Statement From the International Thyroid Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Bible, Keith C.; Cote, Gilbert J.; Demeure, Michael J.; Elisei, Rossella; Jhiang, Sissy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Patients with progressive thyroid cancer in distant metastatic sites represent a population with a need for new therapeutic options. Aspiring to improve the treatment of such patients, the objective of this position statement from the International Thyroid Oncology Group (ITOG) is to clarify the importance of incorporating high-quality correlative studies into clinical trials. Participants: ITOG was formed to develop and support high-quality multicenter and multidisciplinary clinical trials for patients with aggressive forms of thyroid cancer. The Correlative Sciences Committee of the ITOG focuses on the quality and types of correlative studies included in ITOG-associated clinical trials. Evidence: This document represents expert consensus from ITOG regarding this issue based on extensive collective experience in clinical and translational trials informed by basic science. Consensus Process: The Correlative Studies Committee identified an international writing group representative of diverse specialties, including basic sciences. Drafts were reviewed by all members of the writing group, the larger committee, and the ITOG board. After consideration of all comments by the writing group and modification of the document, the final document was then approved by the authors and the ITOG board. Conclusions: High-quality correlative studies, which include variety in the types of correlates, should be intrinsic to the design of thyroid cancer clinical trials to offer the best opportunity for each study to advance treatment for patients with advanced and progressive thyroid cancer. PMID:26418285

  15. Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-24

    A method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole. The borehole is logged to determine the bulk density of the formation surrounding the borehole. The core sample is scanned with a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a plurality of cross sections along the core sample. The bulk density log is then compared with the attenuation coefficients to determine the position to which the core sample correlates in the borehole. Alternatively, the borehole can be logged to determine the photoelectric absorption of the formation surrounding the borehole, and this log can be compared with data derived from scanning the core sample with a CAT at two different energy levels.

  16. What Can We Learn From The Shape Of A Correlation Peak For Position Estimation?

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2009-08-25

    Matched filtering is a robust technique to identify and locate objects in the presence of noise. Traditionally, the amplitude of the correlation peak is used for detection of a match. However, when distinguishing objects that are not significantly different or detecting objects under high noise imaging conditions, the normalized peak amplitude alone may not provide sufficient discrimination. In this paper, we demonstrate that measurements derived from the shape of the correlation peak offer not only higher levels of discrimination but also accurate position estimation. To our knowledge, this is the first time such features have been used in a real-time system, like the National Ignition Facility, where such techniques enable real-time, accurate position estimation and alignment under challenging imaging conditions. It is envisioned that systems utilizing matched filtering will greatly benefit from incorporating additional shape based information.

  17. Correlates of the positive psychological byproducts of cancer: Role of family caregivers and informational support.

    PubMed

    Litzelman, Kristin; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Lin, Chun Cheih; Han, Xuesong

    2017-02-21

    Experiencing a life-threatening illness such as cancer can elicit both negative (e.g., distress) and positive (e.g., growth) psychological responses. The present study sought to determine the correlates of four positive psychological byproducts in cancer survivors: becoming a stronger person, coping better with life's challenges, making positive changes in life, and adopting healthier habits. Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from the Medical Expenditures Panel Survey (MEPS) Experiences with Cancer Survivorship Supplement (Yabroff et al., 2012). Cancer survivors (N = 785) reported their sociodemographic and cancer-related characteristics. Descriptive statistics were utilized to summarize cancer survivor characteristics, including demographic factors, cancer factors, and stressors and resources related to cancer. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed to assess the independent association of the stressors and resources with each psychological response, controlling for covariates. All analyses were weighted to account for the complex sampling design of the MEPS. In multivariable analyses, those with a family caregiver were 50% more likely to report better coping with challenges, and around 70% were more likely to report making positive changes in life or adopting healthier habits because of their cancer. Receiving informational support from healthcare providers was also consistently associated with positive byproducts (odds ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.0). Few of the stressors were associated with positive byproducts: having insurance problems due to cancer was positively associated with becoming a stronger person, and work limitations were associated with making positive changes in life; those who reported high perceived chances of recurrence were less likely to report becoming a stronger person. Having a family caregiver and receiving detailed informational support from healthcare providers were associated with reporting positive experiences

  18. Active control of a flexible structure using a modal positive position feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poh, S.; Baz, A.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a new Modal Positive Position Feedback (MPPF) strategy in controlling the vibration of a complex flexible structure using a single piezo-electric active structural member is demonstrated. The control strategy generates its control forces by manipulating only the modal position signals of the structure to provide a damping action to undamped modes. This is in contrast to conventional modal controllers that rely in their operation on negative feedback of both the modal position and velocity. The proposed strategy is very simple to design and implement as it designs the controller at the uncoupled modal level and utilizes simple first order filters to achieve the Positive Position Feedback effect. The performance of the new strategy is enhanced by augmenting it with a time sharing strategy to share a small number of actuators between larger number of modes. The effectiveness of the new strategy is validated experimentally on a flexible box-type structure that has four bays and its first two bending modes are 2.015 and 6.535 Hz respectively. A single piezo-electric actuator is utilized as an active structural member to control several transverse bending modes of the structure. The performance of the active control system is determined in the time and the frequency domains. The results are compared with those obtained when using the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) of Meirovitch. The experimental results suggest the potential of the proposed strategy as a viable means for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures in real time.

  19. Active control of a flexible structure using a modal positive position feedback controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poh, S.; Baz, A.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of a new Modal Positive Position Feedback (MPPF) strategy in controlling the vibration of a complex flexible structure using a single piezo-electric active structural member is demonstrated. The control strategy generates its control forces by manipulating only the modal position signals of the structure to provide a damping action to undamped modes. This is in contrast to conventional modal controllers that rely in their operation on negative feedback of both the modal position and velocity. The proposed strategy is very simple to design and implement as it designs the controller at the uncoupled modal level and utilizes simple first order filters to achieve the Positive Position Feedback effect. The performance of the new strategy is enhanced by augmenting it with a time sharing strategy to share a small number of actuators between larger number of modes. The effectiveness of the new strategy is validated experimentally on a flexible box-type structure that has four bays and its first two bending modes are 2.015 and 6.535 Hz, respectively. A single piezo-electric actuator is utilized as an active structural member to control several transverse bending modes of the structure. The performance of the active control system is determined in the time and the frequency domains. The results are compared with those obtained when using the Independent Modal Space Control (IMSC) of Meirovitch. The experimental results suggest the potential of the proposed strategy as a viable means for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures in real time.

  20. Monotonic quantum-to-classical transition enabled by positively correlated biphotons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Chen, Guo-Qun; Jing, Hui; Ren, Changliang; Zhao, Pei; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Lu, Pei-Xiang

    2017-06-01

    Multiparticle interference is a fundamental phenomenon in the study of quantum mechanics. It was discovered in a recent experiment [Y.-S. Ra et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 1227 (2013), 10.1073/pnas.1206910110] that spectrally uncorrelated biphotons exhibited a nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in a four-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference. In this work, we consider the same scheme with spectrally correlated photons. By theoretical calculation and numerical simulation, we found the transition not only can be nonmonotonic with negatively correlated or uncorrelated biphotons, but also can be monotonic with positively correlated biphotons. The fundamental reason for this difference is that the HOM-type multiphoton interference is a differential-frequency interference. Our study may shed new light on understanding the role of frequency entanglement in multiphoton behavior.

  1. Robust Correlation Analyses: False Positive and Power Validation Using a New Open Source Matlab Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Pernet, Cyril R.; Wilcox, Rand; Rousselet, Guillaume A.

    2012-01-01

    Pearson’s correlation measures the strength of the association between two variables. The technique is, however, restricted to linear associations and is overly sensitive to outliers. Indeed, a single outlier can result in a highly inaccurate summary of the data. Yet, it remains the most commonly used measure of association in psychology research. Here we describe a free Matlab(R) based toolbox (http://sourceforge.net/projects/robustcorrtool/) that computes robust measures of association between two or more random variables: the percentage-bend correlation and skipped-correlations. After illustrating how to use the toolbox, we show that robust methods, where outliers are down weighted or removed and accounted for in significance testing, provide better estimates of the true association with accurate false positive control and without loss of power. The different correlation methods were tested with normal data and normal data contaminated with marginal or bivariate outliers. We report estimates of effect size, false positive rate and power, and advise on which technique to use depending on the data at hand. PMID:23335907

  2. Two-dimensional correlation analysis and waterfall plots for detecting positional fluctuations of spectral changes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Soo Ryeon; Noda, Isao; Lee, Chang-Hee; Lee, Phil Ho; Hwang, Hyonseok; Jung, Young Mee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the potentials and pitfalls of using various waterfall plots, such as conventional waterfall plots, two-dimensional (2D) gradient maps, moving window two-dimensional analysis (MW2D), perturbation-correlation moving window two-dimensional analysis (PCMW2D), and moving window principal component analysis two-dimensional correlation analysis (MWPCA2D), in the detection of the existence of band position shifts. Waterfall plots of the simulated spectral datasets are compared with conventional 2D correlation spectra. Different waterfall plots give different features in differentiating the behaviors of frequency shift versus two overlapped bands. Two-dimensional correlation spectra clearly show the very characteristic cluster pattern for both band position shifts and two overlapped bands. The vivid pattern differences are readily detectable in various waterfalls plots. Various types of waterfall plots of temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectra of ethylene glycol, which does not have the actual band shift but only two overlapped bands, and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of 2 wt% acetone in a mixed solvent of CHCl(3)/CCl(4) demonstrate that waterfall plots are not able to unambiguously detect the difference between real band shift and two overlapped bands. Thus, the presence or lack of the asynchronous 2D butterfly pattern seems like the most effective diagnostic tool for band shift detection. © 2011 Society for Applied Spectroscopy

  3. Positive correlations between presence of gram negative enteric rods and Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Carlos M; López, Mayra A; Guzmán, Isabel C

    2011-01-01

    The association between Gram negative enteric rods and Porphyromonas gingivalis in periodontal diseases has received little attention in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between Gram negative enteric rods, Porphyromonas gingivalis and clinical parameters of periodontal disease. The prevalence of Gram-negative enteric rods and P. gingivalis were examined in patients with chronic periodontitis. Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests were used to determine differences in clinical variables versus the presence or absence of both microorganisms. Correlations of both organisms and clinical data were determined using Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Gram-negative enteric rods and P. gingivalis were detected in 20 (26.3%) and 51 (67.1%) subjects, respectively. A total 17 (22.4%) individuals harbored both microorganisms studied. There were significantly positive correlations between enteric rods and presence of P. gingivalis (r=0.531, P<.0001). Both microorganisms were significantly and positively correlated with probing depth, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing (P<0.0001). The mean probing depth (mm) of the sampled sites was significantly deeper in patients with presence of P. gingivalis and Gram-negative enteric rods. This study suggests that the presence of Gram negative enteric rods and P. gingivalis is related to adverse periodontal conditions. These results could have an impact on periodontal treatment and should be taken into account in the mechanical and antimicrobial treatment of periodontal disease in some populations.

  4. Robust correlation analyses: false positive and power validation using a new open source matlab toolbox.

    PubMed

    Pernet, Cyril R; Wilcox, Rand; Rousselet, Guillaume A

    2012-01-01

    Pearson's correlation measures the strength of the association between two variables. The technique is, however, restricted to linear associations and is overly sensitive to outliers. Indeed, a single outlier can result in a highly inaccurate summary of the data. Yet, it remains the most commonly used measure of association in psychology research. Here we describe a free Matlab((R)) based toolbox (http://sourceforge.net/projects/robustcorrtool/) that computes robust measures of association between two or more random variables: the percentage-bend correlation and skipped-correlations. After illustrating how to use the toolbox, we show that robust methods, where outliers are down weighted or removed and accounted for in significance testing, provide better estimates of the true association with accurate false positive control and without loss of power. The different correlation methods were tested with normal data and normal data contaminated with marginal or bivariate outliers. We report estimates of effect size, false positive rate and power, and advise on which technique to use depending on the data at hand.

  5. EPPUR SI MUOVE: POSITIONAL AND KINEMATIC CORRELATIONS OF SATELLITE PAIRS IN THE LOW Z UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Martin, Nicolas; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Neil G.

    2015-05-20

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution.

  6. Eppur si Muove: Positional and Kinematic Correlations of Satellite Pairs in the Low Z Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Famaey, Benoit; Lewis, Geraint F.; Ibata, Neil G.; Martin, Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    We have recently shown that pairs of satellite galaxies located diametrically opposite to each other around their host possess predominantly anti-correlated velocities. This is consistent with a scenario in which ≳50% of satellite galaxies belong to kinematically coherent rotating planar structures. Here we extend this analysis, examining satellites of giant galaxies drawn from an SDSS photometric redshift catalog. We find that there is a ∼17% overabundance (>3σ significance) of candidate satellites at positions diametrically opposite to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite. We show that ΛCDM cosmological simulations do not possess this property when contamination is included. After subtracting contamination, we find ∼2 times more satellites diametrically opposed to a spectroscopically confirmed satellite than at 90° from it, at projected distances ranging from 100 to 150 kpc from the host. This independent analysis thus strongly supports our previous results on anti-correlated velocities. We also find that those satellite pairs with anti-correlated velocities have a strong preference (∼3:1) to align with the major axis of the host whereas those with correlated velocities display the opposite behavior. We finally show that repeating a similar analysis to Ibata et al. with same-side satellites is generally hard to interpret, but is not inconsistent with our previous results when strong quality cuts are applied on the sample. This addresses all of the concerns recently raised by Cautun et al., who did not uncover any flaw in our previous analysis, but may simply have hinted at the physical extent of planar satellite structures by pointing out that the anti-correlation signal weakens at radii >150 kpc. All these unexpected positional and kinematic correlations strongly suggest that a substantial fraction of satellite galaxies are causally linked in their formation and evolution.

  7. Ovule positions within linear fruit are correlated with nonrandom mating in Robinia pseudoacacia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Cunquan; Sun, Yuhan; Sun, Peng; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Zhao, Keqi; Wang, Jinxing; Li, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Post-pollination processes can lead to nonrandom mating among compatible pollen donors. Moreover, morphological patterns of ovule development within linear fruits are reportedly nonrandom and depend on ovule position. However, little is known about the relationship between nonrandom mating and ovule position within linear fruit. Here, we combined controlled pollen competition experiments and paternity analyses on R. pseudoacacia to better understand nonrandom mating and its connection with ovule position. Molecular determination of siring success showed a significant departure from the expected ratio based on each kind of pollen mixture, suggesting a nonrandom mating. Outcrossed pollen grains, which were strongly favored, produced significantly more progeny than other pollen grains. Paternity analyses further revealed that the distribution of offspring produced by one specific pollen source was also nonrandom within linear fruit. The stylar end, which has a higher probability of maturation, produced a significantly higher number of outcrossed offspring than other offspring, suggesting a correlation between pollen source and ovule position. Our results suggested that a superior ovule position exists within the linear fruit in R. pseudoacacia, and the pollen that was strongly favored often preferentially occupies the ovules that were situated in a superior position, which ensured siring success and facilitated nonrandom mating. PMID:27819357

  8. Untangling the positive genetic correlation between rainbow trout growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Vehviläinen, Harri; Kause, Antti; Kuukka-Anttila, Hanna; Koskinen, Heikki; Paananen, Tuija

    2012-01-01

    Explanations for positive and negative genetic correlations between growth and fitness traits are essential for life-history theory and selective breeding. Here, we test whether growth and survival display genetic trade-off. Furthermore, we assess the potential of third-party traits to explain observed genetic associations. First, we estimated genetic correlations of growth and survival of rainbow trout. We then explored whether these associations are explained by genetic correlations with health, body composition and maturity traits. Analysis included 14 traits across life stages and environments. Data were recorded from 249 166 individuals belonging to 10 year classes of a pedigreed population. The results revealed that rapid growth during grow-out was genetically associated with enhanced survival (mean rG = 0.17). This resulted because genotypes with less nematode caused cataract grew faster and were more likely to survive. Fingerling survival was not genetically related to weight or to grow-out survival. Instead, rapid fingerling growth made fish prone to deformations (rG = 0.18). Evolutionary genetics provides a theoretical framework to study variation in genetic correlations. This study demonstrates that genetic correlation patterns of growth and survival can be explained by a set of key explanatory traits recorded at different life stages and that these traits can be simultaneously improved by selective breeding. PMID:23144659

  9. Expression of Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Positively Correlates with Survival of Urothelial Bladder Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Brożyna, Anna A.; Siekiera, Jerzy; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D3 shows tumoristatic and anticancer effects by acting through the vitamin D receptor (VDR), while hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 at position 1α by CYP27B1 is an essential step in its activation. The expression of both the VDR and CYP27B1 has been found in many normal and cancer tissues, but there is a lack of information about its expression in human bladder cancers. The aim of the present research was to examine whether the expression of the VDR and CYP27B1 in bladder cancer was related to the prognostic markers and disease outcome. We analyzed VDR and CYP27B1 in samples of tumor and normal tissues obtained from 71 urinary bladder cancer patients. The highest VDR immunostaining was found in normal epithelium and was significantly lower in bladder cancer cells (p < 0.001 with Mann–Whitney U test). VDR expression was lowest in more advanced (pT2b–pT4) (p = 0.005 with Mann–Whitney U test) and metastasizing cancers (p < 0.05 and p = 0.004 with Mann–Whitney U test for nuclear and cytoplasmic VDR immunostaining, respectively). The lack of cytoplasmic and nuclear VDR was also related to shorter overall survival (for cytoplasmic VDR immunolocalization 13.3 vs. 55.3 months of survival, HR = 1.92, p = 0.04 and for nuclear VDR immunostaining 13.5 vs. 55.3 months of survival, HR = 2.47, p = 0.002 with Mantel-Cox test). In cases with the lack of high cytoplasmic VDR staining the non-classic differentiations (NDs) was observed in higher percentage of tumor area. CYP27B1 expression was lower in cancer cells than in normal epithelial cells (p = 0.03 with Mann–Whitney U test), but its expression did not correlate with tumor stage (pT), metastasizing, grade, mitotic activity or overall survival. In conclusion, expression of the VDR and CYP27B1 are deregulated in urothelial bladder cancers. Although our results showing a relationship between the decreased VDR expression and prognostic markers and survival time indicate potential usefulness of VDR as a new

  10. Correlation between Driver Subjective Fatigue and Bus Lateral Position in a Driving Simulator

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Mazloumi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Nahvi, Ali; Ashouri, Mohammadreza; Mozaffari, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Driver fatigue as a leading cause of death in the transportation industry can impair the driving performance in long-distance driving task. Studies on the links of driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position are still an exploratory issue that requires further investigation. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position in a driving simulator. Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was conducted on 30 professional male bus drivers participated in a two-hour driving session. The driver subjective fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Visual Analogue Scale (F-VAS) at 10-min intervals. Simultaneously, the performance measures of lane drifting as the mean and standard deviation of the bus lateral position (SDLP) were calculated during the simulated driving task. Descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used to describe and analyze the data. Results: Fatigue levels had an increasing trend as the time-on-task of driving increased. Time-on-task of driving had the greatest effect on the fatigue self-evaluation (r = 0.605, p < 0.0001). The results showed a significant correlation between fatigue self-evaluation and bus lateral position (r = 0.567, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: As the time of driving increased, driving performance was affected adversely, as shown by the increase in the SDLP. Even so, the effect of individual differences on driving performance should not be overlooked. This work concludes that predicting the state of a driver fatigue based on the group mean data has some complications for any application. PMID:26396734

  11. Correlation between Driver Subjective Fatigue and Bus Lateral Position in a Driving Simulator.

    PubMed

    Gharagozlou, Faramarz; Mazloumi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Nahvi, Ali; Ashouri, Mohammadreza; Mozaffari, Hamed

    2015-08-01

    Driver fatigue as a leading cause of death in the transportation industry can impair the driving performance in long-distance driving task. Studies on the links of driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position are still an exploratory issue that requires further investigation. This study aimed to determine the correlation between the driver subjective fatigue and the bus lateral position in a driving simulator. This descriptive-analytical research was conducted on 30 professional male bus drivers participated in a two-hour driving session. The driver subjective fatigue was assessed by the Fatigue Visual Analogue Scale (F-VAS) at 10-min intervals. Simultaneously, the performance measures of lane drifting as the mean and standard deviation of the bus lateral position (SDLP) were calculated during the simulated driving task. Descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation coefficient were used to describe and analyze the data. Fatigue levels had an increasing trend as the time-on-task of driving increased. Time-on-task of driving had the greatest effect on the fatigue self-evaluation (r = 0.605, p < 0.0001). The results showed a significant correlation between fatigue self-evaluation and bus lateral position (r = 0.567, p < 0.0001). As the time of driving increased, driving performance was affected adversely, as shown by the increase in the SDLP. Even so, the effect of individual differences on driving performance should not be overlooked. This work concludes that predicting the state of a driver fatigue based on the group mean data has some complications for any application.

  12. Correlating data from different sensors to increase the positive predictive value of alarms: an empiric assessment.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Yuval; O'Connor, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Alarm fatigue from high false alarm rate is a well described phenomenon in the intensive care unit (ICU). Progress to further reduce false alarms must employ a new strategy. Highly sensitive alarms invariably have a very high false alarm rate. Clinically useful alarms have a high Positive-Predictive Value. Our goal is to demonstrate one approach to suppressing false alarms using an algorithm that correlates information across sensors and replicates the ways that human evaluators discriminate artifact from real signal. After obtaining IRB approval and waiver of informed consent, a set of definitions, (hypovolemia, left ventricular shock, tamponade, hemodynamically significant ventricular tachycardia, and hemodynamically significant supraventricular tachycardia), were installed in the monitors in a 10 bed cardiothoracic ICU and evaluated over an 85 day study period. The logic of the algorithms was intended to replicate the logic of practitioners, and correlated information across sensors in a way similar to that used by practitioners. The performance of the alarms was evaluated via a daily interview with the ICU attending and review of the tracings recorded over the previous 24 hours in the monitor. True alarms and false alarms were identified by an expert clinician, and the performance of the algorithms evaluated using the standard definitions of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Between 1 and 221 instances of defined events occurred over the duration of the study, and the positive predictive value of the definitions varied between 4.1% and 84%. Correlation of information across alarms can suppress artifact, increase the positive predictive value of alarms, and can employ more sophisticated definitions of alarm events than present single-sensor based systems.

  13. Neural correlates of positive and negative performance feedback in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Drueke, Barbara; Weichert, Lydia; Forkmann, Thomas; Mainz, Verena; Gauggel, Siegfried; Boecker, Maren

    2015-04-16

    Recent studies with younger adults have shown that performance feedback can serve as a reward, and it elicits reward-related brain activations. This study investigated whether performance feedback is processed similarly in younger and older adults and whether there are differential aging effects for positive and negative performance feedback. We used event-related fMRI in a choice reaction-time task and provided performance feedback after each trial. Although younger and older adults differed in task-related activation, they showed comparable reward-related activation. Positive performance feedback elicited the strongest striatal and amygdala activation, which was reflected behaviorally in slightly faster reaction times. These results suggest that performance feedback serves as a reward in both younger and older adults.

  14. ER and HER2 expression are positively correlated in HER2 non-overexpressing breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor-α (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity are inversely correlated by standard criteria. However, we investigated the quantitative relation between ER and HER2 expression at both RNA and protein levels in HER2+ve and HER2-ve breast carcinomas. Methods ER and HER2 levels were assessed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and (for HER2) fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) in formalin-fixed primary breast cancers from 448 patients in the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Adjuvant Breast Cancer Trial (ABC) tamoxifen-only arm. Relations at the RNA level were assessed in 1,139 TransATAC tumors. Results ER and HER2 RNA levels were negatively correlated as expected in HER2+ve (IHC 3+ and/or FISH-amplified) tumors (r = -0.45; P = 0.0028). However, in HER2-ve tumors (ER+ve and ER-ve combined), a significant positive correlation was found (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001), HER2 RNA levels being 1.74-fold higher in ER+ve versus ER-ve tumors. This correlation was maintained in the ER+veHER2-ve subgroup (r = 0.24; P = 0.0023) and confirmed in this subgroup in 1,139 TransATAC tumours (r = 0.25; P < 0.0001). The positive relation extended to IHC-detected ER in ABC: mean ± 95% confidence interval (CI) H-scores were 90 ± 19 and 134 ± 19 for 0 and 1+ HER2 IHC categories, respectively (P = 0.0013). A trend toward lower relapse-free survival (RFS) was observed in patients with the lowest levels of ER and HER2 RNA levels within the ER+veHER2-ve subgroup both for ABC and TransATAC cohorts. Conclusions ER and HER2 expression is positively correlated in HER2-ve tumors. The distinction between HER2+ve and HER2-ve is greater in ER-ve than in ER+ve tumors. These findings are important to consider in clinical trials of anti-HER2 and anti-endocrine therapy in HER2-ve disease. Trial Registration Clinical trial identifier: ISRCTN31514446. PMID:22417870

  15. Social learning and innovation are positively correlated in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Julie; Goodyer, William; Lefebvre, Louis

    2007-04-01

    When animals show both frequent innovation and fast social learning, new behaviours can spread more rapidly through populations and potentially increase rates of natural selection and speciation, as proposed by A.C. Wilson in his behavioural drive hypothesis. Comparative work on primates suggests that more innovative species also show more social learning. In this study, we look at intra-specific variation in innovation and social learning in captive wild-caught pigeons. Performances on an innovative problem-solving task and a social learning task are positively correlated in 42 individuals. The correlation remains significant when the effects of neophobia on the two abilities are removed. Neither sex nor dominance rank are associated with performance on the two tasks. Free-flying flocks of urban pigeons are able to solve the innovative food-finding problem used on captive birds, demonstrating it is within the range of their natural capacities. Taken together with the comparative literature, the positive correlation between innovation and social learning suggests that the two abilities are not traded-off.

  16. Positive mood enhances reward-related neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Nusslock, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Although behavioral research has shown that positive mood leads to desired outcomes in nearly every major life domain, no studies have directly examined the effects of positive mood on the neural processes underlying reward-related affect and goal-directed behavior. To address this gap, participants in the present fMRI study experienced either a positive (n = 20) or neutral (n = 20) mood induction and subsequently completed a monetary incentive delay task that assessed reward and loss processing. Consistent with prediction, positive mood elevated activity specifically during reward anticipation in corticostriatal neural regions that have been implicated in reward processing and goal-directed behavior, including the nucleus accumbens, caudate, lateral orbitofrontal cortex and putamen, as well as related paralimbic regions, including the anterior insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These effects were not observed during reward outcome, loss anticipation or loss outcome. Critically, this is the first study to report that positive mood enhances reward-related neural activity. Our findings have implications for uncovering the neural mechanisms by which positive mood enhances goal-directed behavior, understanding the malleability of reward-related neural activity, and developing targeted treatments for psychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in reward processing. PMID:26833919

  17. Positive expression of Lin28 is correlated with poor survival in gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoyang; Shen, Jiangguo; Xie, Shuduo; Jiang, Zhinong; Huang, Liming; Wang, Linbo

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of Lin28 in gastric carcinoma and to assess its clinical significance. The expression level of Lin28 was assessed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in 10 surgically resected gastric carcinoma and corresponding normal tissues, and by immunohistochemical staining in surgically resected gastric carcinoma tissues of 229 patients, including 215 curative resection patients and 14 palliative resection patients. The expression level of Lin28 mRNA in gastric carcinoma tissues and corresponding normal tissues had no statistically significant difference. In curative resection patients, Lin28 protein expression was positive in 99 of 215 (46.0 %) gastric carcinoma tissues. In palliative resection patients, Lin28 protein expression was positive in 4 of 14 (28.6 %) gastric carcinoma tissues. In R0 patients, Lin28 protein positive expression was correlated with poor outcome (P = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, the Lin28 protein positive expression was a significant independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.024; HR, 1,768; 95 % CI 1.077-2.903). Our results indicate that Lin28 was expressed in both gastric carcinoma and corresponding normal tissues. Lin28 protein positive expression served as an independent prognostic factor.

  18. Associations between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, M K; Altenburg, T M; Lakerveld, J; Andersen, L F; Stronks, K; Chinapaw, M J; Lien, N

    2015-11-01

    Existing research evidence indicates that children and adolescents of parents with a low socioeconomic position spend more time on sedentary behaviour than their counterparts. However, the mechanisms driving these differences remain poorly understood. The main aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence regarding the association between socioeconomic position and correlates of sedentary behaviour among youth (0-18 years) from developed countries. The literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. A total of 37 studies were included. All but three studies examined screen-based sedentary behaviours only. Methodological quality ranged from low to moderate. Education was the most commonly used indicator of socioeconomic position, followed by income. Socioeconomic position was inversely related to the presence of a TV in the child's bedroom, parental modelling for TV viewing, parental co-viewing and eating meals in front of the TV. We found no/indeterminate evidence for an association between socioeconomic position and rules and regulations about screen time. The findings suggest possible factors that could be targeted in future intervention studies to decrease screen-based sedentary behaviour in lower socioeconomic groups in particular.

  19. Interpretation of positive social events in social phobia: an examination of cognitive correlates and diagnostic distinction.

    PubMed

    Laposa, Judith M; Cassin, Stephanie E; Rector, Neil A

    2010-03-01

    Research suggests that individuals with social phobia fear positive social events and interpret them in a negative fashion that serves to maintain anxiety. To better elucidate the nature and role of interpretation of positive events in social phobia, two studies were conducted. Study 1 examined symptom and cognitive correlates of negative interpretation of positive social events. Participants with DSM-IV diagnosed generalized social phobia (GSP) completed a measure of interpretation of positive social events (IPES) in relation to a range of symptom and cognition measures of social anxiety. Results indicated that perfectionism and a measure tapping interpersonal fears associated with social anxiety were significantly predictive of IPES scores. Study 2 examined IPES scores in clinical participants with GSP, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PD/A), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and non-anxious controls. Results indicated that individuals with GSP scored higher on the IPES than those with PD/A, GAD and controls, but did not differ from OCD. These findings suggest that negative interpretation of positive events is a distinct and characteristic feature of social phobia with significant associations with other cognitive risk factors for the disorder. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Correlation Between PARP1 and BRCA1 in AR Positive Triple-negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiayan; Jin, Juan; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Shi, Yaqin; Xu, Jing; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression and thus cannot benefit from conventional hormonal or anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Anti-androgen therapy has shown a certain effect on androgen receptor (AR) positive TNBC. The emerging researches have proved that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor is effective in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers. We demonstrated that combination of AR antagonist (bicalutamide) and PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) could inhibit cell viability and induce cell apoptosis significantly whatever in vitro or in vivo setting in AR-positive TNBC. Previous studies have proved that both BRCA1 and PARP1 have close connections with AR in prostate cancer. We explored the correlation among AR, PARP1 and BRCA1 in TNBC for the first time. After BRCA1 overexpression, the expression of AR and PARP1 were decreased in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, AR positively regulated PARP1 while PARP1 also up-regulated AR expression in vitro. We also confirmed BRCA1 expression was negatively correlated with AR and PARP1 in TNBC patients using a tissue microarray with TNBC patient samples. These results suggest that the combination of bicalutamide and PARP inhibitor may be a potential strategy for TNBC patients and merits further evaluation. PMID:27994514

  1. Positive Symptoms of Psychosis Correlate With Expression of Ubiquitin Proteasome Genes in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bousman, Chad A.; Chana, Gursharan; Glatt, Stephen J.; Chandler, Sharon D.; May, Todd; Lohr, James; Kremen, William S.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Everall, Ian P.

    2015-01-01

    Several brain- and blood-based gene expression studies in patients with psychotic disorders (e.g., schizophrenia) have identified genes in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) pathway as putative biomarkers. However, to date an examination of the UPS pathway in the broader context of symptom severity in psychosis has not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between clinical scores on the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS–SANS) and expression of 43 highly annotated genes within the UPS pathway in blood from patients with psychosis. A sample of 19 psychotic patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (n = 13) or bipolar disorder (n = 6) were recruited. Pearson's partial correlations, adjusting for gender, ethnicity, age, education, medication, smoking, and past 6-month substance use, were performed between each of the selected UPS genes and both scales. Significant Bonferroni-adjusted positive associations were observed between SAPS scores and two ubiquitin conjugation genes (i.e., UBE2K, SIAH2), while a negative association was observed with one deubiquitination gene (i.e., USP2). No gene expression levels were significantly associated with scores on the SANS after correction for multiple testing. Our findings suggest that dysregulation of the UPS, specifically ubiquitin conjugation and deubiquitination, may point to a possible underlying biological mechanism for severity of positive but not negative symptoms. PMID:20552680

  2. No Correlation between Distorted Body Representations Underlying Tactile Distance Perception and Position Sense.

    PubMed

    Longo, Matthew R; Morcom, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Both tactile distance perception and position sense are believed to require that immediate afferent signals be referenced to a stored representation of body size and shape (the body model). For both of these abilities, recent studies have reported that the stored body representations involved are highly distorted, at least in the case of the hand, with the hand dorsum represented as wider and squatter than it actually is. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in the magnitude of these distortions are shared between tactile distance perception and position sense, as would be predicted by the hypothesis that a single distorted body model underlies both tasks. We used established tasks to measure distortions of the represented shape of the hand dorsum. Consistent with previous results, in both cases there were clear biases to overestimate distances oriented along the medio-lateral axis of the hand compared to the proximo-distal axis. Moreover, within each task there were clear split-half correlations, demonstrating that both tasks show consistent individual differences. Critically, however, there was no correlation between the magnitudes of distortion in the two tasks. This casts doubt on the proposal that a common body model underlies both tactile distance perception and position sense.

  3. No Correlation between Distorted Body Representations Underlying Tactile Distance Perception and Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Matthew R.; Morcom, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Both tactile distance perception and position sense are believed to require that immediate afferent signals be referenced to a stored representation of body size and shape (the body model). For both of these abilities, recent studies have reported that the stored body representations involved are highly distorted, at least in the case of the hand, with the hand dorsum represented as wider and squatter than it actually is. Here, we investigated whether individual differences in the magnitude of these distortions are shared between tactile distance perception and position sense, as would be predicted by the hypothesis that a single distorted body model underlies both tasks. We used established tasks to measure distortions of the represented shape of the hand dorsum. Consistent with previous results, in both cases there were clear biases to overestimate distances oriented along the medio-lateral axis of the hand compared to the proximo-distal axis. Moreover, within each task there were clear split-half correlations, demonstrating that both tasks show consistent individual differences. Critically, however, there was no correlation between the magnitudes of distortion in the two tasks. This casts doubt on the proposal that a common body model underlies both tactile distance perception and position sense. PMID:27917118

  4. The Correlation Between PARP1 and BRCA1 in AR Positive Triple-negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayan; Jin, Juan; Yang, Fang; Sun, Zijia; Zhang, Wenwen; Shi, Yaqin; Xu, Jing; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) expression and thus cannot benefit from conventional hormonal or anti-HER2 targeted therapies. Anti-androgen therapy has shown a certain effect on androgen receptor (AR) positive TNBC. The emerging researches have proved that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor is effective in BRCA1-deficient breast cancers. We demonstrated that combination of AR antagonist (bicalutamide) and PARP inhibitor (ABT-888) could inhibit cell viability and induce cell apoptosis significantly whatever in vitro or in vivo setting in AR-positive TNBC. Previous studies have proved that both BRCA1 and PARP1 have close connections with AR in prostate cancer. We explored the correlation among AR, PARP1 and BRCA1 in TNBC for the first time. After BRCA1 overexpression, the expression of AR and PARP1 were decreased in mRNA and protein levels. Additionally, AR positively regulated PARP1 while PARP1 also up-regulated AR expression in vitro. We also confirmed BRCA1 expression was negatively correlated with AR and PARP1 in TNBC patients using a tissue microarray with TNBC patient samples. These results suggest that the combination of bicalutamide and PARP inhibitor may be a potential strategy for TNBC patients and merits further evaluation.

  5. Individual, Social, and Environmental Correlates of Active Transportation Patterns in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Perchoux, Camille; Enaux, Christophe; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Menai, Mehdi; Charreire, Hélène; Salze, Paul; Weber, Christiane; Hercberg, Serge; Feuillet, Thierry; Hess, Franck; Roda, Célina; Simon, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were (1) to define physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) patterns in daily life contexts (work, leisure, and transportation) in French working women from NutriNet-Santé web-cohort and (2) to identify pattern(s) of active transportation and their individual, social, and environmental correlates. 23,432 participants completed two questionnaires to evaluate PA and SB in daily life contexts and individual representations of residential neighborhood and transportation modes. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed which identified 6 distinct movement behavior patterns: (i) active occupation, high sedentary leisure, (ii) sedentary occupation, low leisure, (iii) sedentary transportation, (iv) sedentary occupation and leisure, (v) active transportation, and (vi) active leisure. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed to identify correlates of the “active transportation” cluster. The perceived environmental characteristics positively associated with “active transportation” included “high availability of destinations around home,” “presence of bicycle paths,” and “low traffic.” A “positive image of walking/cycling,” the “individual feeling of being physically active,” and a “high use of active transport modes by relatives/friends” were positively related to “active transportation,” identified as a unique pattern regarding individual and environmental correlates. Identification of PA and SB context-specific patterns will help to understand movement behaviors' complexity and to design interventions to promote active transportation in specific subgroups. PMID:28717653

  6. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-11-04

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  7. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity. PMID:19887012

  8. Positive cross correlations in a three-terminal quantum dot with ferromagnetic contacts.

    PubMed

    Cottet, A; Belzig, W; Bruder, C

    2004-05-21

    We study current fluctuations in an interacting three-terminal quantum dot with ferromagnetic leads. For appropriately polarized contacts, the transport through the dot is governed by dynamical spin blockade, i.e., a spin-dependent bunching of tunneling events not present in the paramagnetic case. This leads, for instance, to positive zero-frequency cross correlations of the currents in the output leads even in the absence of spin accumulation on the dot. We include the influence of spin-flip scattering and identify favorable conditions for the experimental observation of this effect with respect to polarization of the contacts and tunneling rates.

  9. Observing Power-Law Dynamics of Position-Velocity Correlation in Anomalous Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afek, Gadi; Coslovsky, Jonathan; Courvoisier, Arnaud; Livneh, Oz; Davidson, Nir

    2017-08-01

    In this Letter, we present a measurement of the phase-space density distribution (PSDD) of ultracold 87Rb atoms performing 1D anomalous diffusion. The PSDD is imaged using a direct tomographic method based on Raman velocity selection. It reveals that the position-velocity correlation function Cx v(t ) builds up on a time scale related to the initial conditions of the ensemble and then decays asymptotically as a power law. We show that the decay follows a simple scaling theory involving the power-law asymptotic dynamics of position and velocity. The generality of this scaling theory is confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations of two distinct models of anomalous diffusion.

  10. Brazilian Propolis: Correlation Between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salomão, Kelly; Pereira, Paulo Roberto S.; Campos, Leila C.; Borba, Cintia M.; Cabello, Pedro H.; Marcucci, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    The chemical composition of ethanol extracts from samples of Brazilian propolis (EEPs) determined by HPLC and their activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebisiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, Sporothrix schenckii and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were determined. Based on the predominant botanical origin in the region of samples' collection, the 10 extracts were separated into three groups: A (B. dracunculifolia + Auraucaria spp), B (B. dracunculifolia) and C (Araucaria spp). Analysis by the multiple regression of all the extracts together showed a positive correlation, higher concentrations leading to higher biological effect, of S. aureus with p-coumaric acid (PCUM) and 3-(4-hydroxy-3-(oxo-butenyl)-phenylacrylic acid (DHCA1) and of trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with 3,5-diprenyl-4-hydroxycinnamic acid derivative 4 (DHCA4) and 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-2H-1-benzopyran (DCBEN). When the same approach was employed for each group, due to the small number of observations, the statistical test gave unreliable results. However, an overall analysis revealed for group A an association of S. aureus with caffeic acid (CAF) and dicaffeoylquinic acid 3 (CAFQ3), of S. pneumoniae with CAFQ3 and monocaffeoylquinic acid 2 (CAFQ2) and of T. cruzi also with CAFQ3. For group B, a higher activity against S. pneumoniae was associated DCBEN and for T. cruzi with CAF. For group C no association was observed between the anitmicrobial effect and any component of the extracts. The present study reinforces the relevance of PCUM and derivatives, especially prenylated ones and also of caffeolyquinic acids, on the biological activity of Brazilian propolis. PMID:18830454

  11. Computing Highly Correlated Positions Using Mutual Information and Graph Theory for G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Fatakia, Sarosh N.; Costanzi, Stefano; Chow, Carson C.

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a superfamily of seven transmembrane-spanning proteins involved in a wide array of physiological functions and are the most common targets of pharmaceuticals. This study aims to identify a cohort or clique of positions that share high mutual information. Using a multiple sequence alignment of the transmembrane (TM) domains, we calculated the mutual information between all inter-TM pairs of aligned positions and ranked the pairs by mutual information. A mutual information graph was constructed with vertices that corresponded to TM positions and edges between vertices were drawn if the mutual information exceeded a threshold of statistical significance. Positions with high degree (i.e. had significant mutual information with a large number of other positions) were found to line a well defined inter-TM ligand binding cavity for class A as well as class C GPCRs. Although the natural ligands of class C receptors bind to their extracellular N-terminal domains, the possibility of modulating their activity through ligands that bind to their helical bundle has been reported. Such positions were not found for class B GPCRs, in agreement with the observation that there are not known ligands that bind within their TM helical bundle. All identified key positions formed a clique within the MI graph of interest. For a subset of class A receptors we also considered the alignment of a portion of the second extracellular loop, and found that the two positions adjacent to the conserved Cys that bridges the loop with the TM3 qualified as key positions. Our algorithm may be useful for localizing topologically conserved regions in other protein families. PMID:19262747

  12. Common history at the origin of the position-function correlation in transcriptional regulators in archaea and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rueda, E; Collado-Vides, J

    2001-09-01

    Regulatory proteins in Escherichia coli with a helix-turn-helix (HTH) DNA binding motif show a position-function correlation such that repressors have this motif predominantly at the N terminus, whereas activators have the motif at the C-terminus extreme. Using this initial collection we identified by sequence comparison the exhaustive set of transcriptional regulators in 17 bacterial and 6 archaeal genomes. This enlarged set shows the same position-function correlation. The main question we address is whether this correlation is the result of common origin in evolution or the result of convergence. Evidence is presented supporting a common history at the origin of this correlation. We show the existence of a supergroup of eight repressor protein families sharing a conserved extended sequence comprising the classic HTH. Two of these repressor families (MarR and AsnC) originated before the divergence of Archaea and Bacteria. They are proposed at the origin of HTH-bearing transcriptional regulators currently present in Bacteria. The group of LysR proteins, with the HTH also at the N terminus, offers a control to the argument, since it shows clearly distinctive structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. This group of activator proteins, suggested to have originated within the Bacteria, has an advantageous gene organization to facilitate its horizontal transfer-used to conquer some Archaea-as well as negative autoregulation convenient for homeostasis, all of which agrees with this being the largest family in Bacteria. These results suggest that if shuffling of motifs occurred in Bacteria, it occurred only early in the history of these proteins, as opposed to what is observed in eukaryotic regulators.

  13. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  14. Draft position paper on knowledge management in space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Jeanne; Moura, Denis

    2003-01-01

    As other fields of industry, space activities are facing the challenge of Knowledge Management and the International Academy of Astronautics decided to settle in 2002 a Study Group to analyse the problem and issue general guidelines. This communication presents the draft position paper of this group in view to be discussed during the 2003 IAF Congress.

  15. Exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers in Blantyre, Malawi: a correlation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is an important component of child survival and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings like Malawi. In Malawi, children under the age of six months are exclusively breastfed for an average duration of 3.7 months. This falls short of the recommendations by the World Health Organization as well as the Malawi Ministry of Health that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of the child’s life. Understanding factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding duration among HIV-positive mothers is important in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among these mothers. An exploratory study was therefore conducted to determine factors that influence HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Methods This paper is based on data from a longitudinal, descriptive and correlation study that was conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi between May 12, 2009 and March 22, 2010. Theory of Planned Behavior guided the study. A face-to-face survey was utilized to collect data from a convenience sample of 110 HIV-positive mothers who were at least 36 weeks pregnant at baseline. A modified and pre-tested breastfeeding attrition prediction tool was used to measure exclusive breastfeeding beliefs, intentions and external influences at baseline. Data were analyzed using descriptive and association statistics. Additionally, multiple regressions were run to determine significant predictors of HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Results Results revealed high exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers. Prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with normative, control beliefs and negatively associated with positive beliefs

  16. A Performance Comparison on the Probability Plot Correlation Coefficient Test using Several Plotting Positions for GEV Distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Hyunjun; Jung, Younghun; Om, Ju-Seong; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2014-05-01

    It is very important to select the probability distribution in Statistical hydrology. Goodness of fit test is a statistical method that selects an appropriate probability model for a given data. The probability plot correlation coefficient (PPCC) test as one of the goodness of fit tests was originally developed for normal distribution. Since then, this test has been widely applied to other probability models. The PPCC test is known as one of the best goodness of fit test because it shows higher rejection powers among them. In this study, we focus on the PPCC tests for the GEV distribution which is widely used in the world. For the GEV model, several plotting position formulas are suggested. However, the PPCC statistics are derived only for the plotting position formulas (Goel and De, In-na and Nguyen, and Kim et al.) in which the skewness coefficient (or shape parameter) are included. And then the regression equations are derived as a function of the shape parameter and sample size for a given significance level. In addition, the rejection powers of these formulas are compared using Monte-Carlo simulation. Keywords: Goodness-of-fit test, Probability plot correlation coefficient test, Plotting position, Monte-Carlo Simulation ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This research was supported by a grant 'Establishing Active Disaster Management System of Flood Control Structures by using 3D BIM Technique' [NEMA-12-NH-57] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, National Emergency Management Agency of Korea.

  17. From degree-correlated to payoff-correlated activity for an optimal resolution of social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-12-01

    An active participation of players in evolutionary games depends on several factors, ranging from personal stakes to the properties of the interaction network. Diverse activity patterns thus have to be taken into account when studying the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we study the weak prisoner's dilemma game, where the activity of each player is determined in a probabilistic manner either by its degree or by its payoff. While degree-correlated activity introduces cascading failures of cooperation that are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs, payoff-correlated activity provides a more nuanced activity profile, which ultimately hinders systemic breakdowns of cooperation. To determine optimal conditions for the evolution of cooperation, we introduce an exponential decay to payoff-correlated activity that determines how fast the activity of a player returns to its default state. We show that there exists an intermediate decay rate at which the resolution of the social dilemma is optimal. This can be explained by the emerging activity patterns of players, where the inactivity of hubs is compensated effectively by the increased activity of average-degree players, who through their collective influence in the network sustain a higher level of cooperation. The sudden drops in the fraction of cooperators observed with degree-correlated activity therefore vanish, and so does the need for the lengthy spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters. The absence of such asymmetric dynamic instabilities thus leads to an optimal resolution of social dilemmas, especially when the conditions for the evolution of cooperation are strongly adverse.

  18. From degree-correlated to payoff-correlated activity for an optimal resolution of social dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-12-01

    An active participation of players in evolutionary games depends on several factors, ranging from personal stakes to the properties of the interaction network. Diverse activity patterns thus have to be taken into account when studying the evolution of cooperation in social dilemmas. Here we study the weak prisoner's dilemma game, where the activity of each player is determined in a probabilistic manner either by its degree or by its payoff. While degree-correlated activity introduces cascading failures of cooperation that are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs, payoff-correlated activity provides a more nuanced activity profile, which ultimately hinders systemic breakdowns of cooperation. To determine optimal conditions for the evolution of cooperation, we introduce an exponential decay to payoff-correlated activity that determines how fast the activity of a player returns to its default state. We show that there exists an intermediate decay rate at which the resolution of the social dilemma is optimal. This can be explained by the emerging activity patterns of players, where the inactivity of hubs is compensated effectively by the increased activity of average-degree players, who through their collective influence in the network sustain a higher level of cooperation. The sudden drops in the fraction of cooperators observed with degree-correlated activity therefore vanish, and so does the need for the lengthy spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters. The absence of such asymmetric dynamic instabilities thus leads to an optimal resolution of social dilemmas, especially when the conditions for the evolution of cooperation are strongly adverse.

  19. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  20. Race and Sex Differences in College Student Physical Activity Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Raedeke, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To assess sex/race differences on psychosocial correlates of physical activity among college students. Methods: Survey research protocol. Results: Students (n = 636) exercised an average of 3.5 days per week, with black females being the least active. Across subgroups, health/fitness was rated as the most important motive for exercise,…

  1. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott C.; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2009-01-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or the increased affective response to situations with uncertain outcomes, is an important component process of anxiety disorders. Increased IU is observed in panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and is thought to relate to dysfunctional behaviors and thought patterns in these disorders. Identifying what brain systems are associated with IU would contribute to a comprehensive model of anxiety processing, and increase our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. Here, we used a behavioral task, Wall of Faces (WOF), during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which probes both affect and ambiguity, to examine the neural circuitry of IU in fourteen (10 females) college age (18.8 yrs) subjects. All subjects completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), and a measure of neuroticism (i.e. the NEO-N). IUS scores but neither ASI nor NEO-N scores, correlated positively with activation in bilateral insula during affective ambiguity. Thus, the experience of IU during certain types of emotion processing may relate to the degree to which bilateral insula processes uncertainty. Previously observed insula hyperactivity in anxiety disorder individuals may therefore be directly linked to altered processes of uncertainty. PMID:18079060

  2. Intolerance of uncertainty correlates with insula activation during affective ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Alan; Matthews, Scott C; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2008-01-10

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU), or the increased affective response to situations with uncertain outcomes, is an important component process of anxiety disorders. Increased IU is observed in panic disorder (PD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and is thought to relate to dysfunctional behaviors and thought patterns in these disorders. Identifying what brain systems are associated with IU would contribute to a comprehensive model of anxiety processing, and increase our understanding of the neurobiology of anxiety disorders. Here, we used a behavioral task, Wall of Faces (WOFs), during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which probes both affect and ambiguity, to examine the neural circuitry of IU in 14 (10 females) college age (18.8 years) subjects. All subjects completed the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS), Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI), and a measure of neuroticism (i.e. the NEO-N). IUS scores but neither ASI nor NEO-N scores, correlated positively with activation in bilateral insula during affective ambiguity. Thus, the experience of IU during certain types of emotion processing may relate to the degree to which bilateral insula processes uncertainty. Previously observed insula hyperactivity in anxiety disorder individuals may therefore be directly linked to altered processes of uncertainty.

  3. Revisiting the correlation between stellar activity and planetary surface gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueira, P.; Oshagh, M.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Santos, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    Aims: We re-evaluate the correlation between planetary surface gravity and stellar host activity as measured by the index log (R'HK). This correlation, previously identified by Hartman (2010, ApJ, 717, L138), is now analyzed in light of an extended measurement dataset, roughly three times larger than the original one. Methods: We calculated the Spearman rank correlation coefficient between the two quantities and its associated p-value. The correlation coefficient was calculated for both the full dataset and the star-planet pairs that follow the conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). To do so, we considered effective temperatures both as collected from the literature and from the SWEET-Cat catalog, which provides a more homogeneous and accurate effective temperature determination. Results: The analysis delivers significant correlation coefficients, but with a lower value than those obtained by Hartman (2010). The two datasets are compatible, and we show that a correlation coefficient as high as previously published can arise naturally from a small-number statistics analysis of the current dataset. The correlation is recovered for star-planet pairs selected using the different conditions proposed by Hartman (2010). Remarkably, the usage of SWEET-Cat temperatures led to higher correlation coefficient values. We highlight and discuss the role of the correlation betwen different parameters such as effective temperature and activity index. Several additional effects on top of those discussed previously were considered, but none fully explains the detected correlation. In light of the complex issue discussed here, we encourage the different follow-up teams to publish their activity index values in the form of a log (R'HK) index so that a comparison across stars and instruments can be pursued. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. Novel Image-based Methodology for Correlating Fish Position and Local Flow Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightbody, A.; Tytell, E.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2010-12-01

    Simultaneous high-frequency measurements of fish location, simple kinematic parameters such as tail beat frequency and amplitude, and flow characteristics were obtained in an outdoor experimental laboratory facility resembling a natural stream. Experimental tests at each of two flow rates used two native fish species with contrasting habitat preferences (Nocomis biguttatus and Ameiurus nebulosus). Simultaneous single-camera measurements were obtained of surface flow patterns using particle image velocimetry and of fish position by tracking beads attached to the dorsal musculature of each fish. Presented with multiple microhabitats within the vicinity of a rock structure, the fishes chose locations with similar hydraulic characteristics, even though those hydraulic conditions were in different locations at different flow rates. Strong correlations were observed between surface flow characteristics and fish swimming kinematics for all individuals and all flow conditions. In addition, fishes showed a significant positive correlation between tail beat frequency and turbulence intensity, confirming that fish are sensitive to turbulent time-varying flow features. High-resolution observations are a powerful tool to advance the understanding of fish microhabitat usage and quantify how it can be managed using stream restoration techniques.

  5. Dysbiosis of urinary microbiota is positively correlated with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengping; Ling, Zongxin; Xiao, Yonghong; Lv, Longxian; Yang, Qing; Wang, Baohong; Lu, Haifeng; Zheng, Li; Jiang, Ping; Wang, Wei; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-17

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) may be associated with altered urinary microbiota in female patients. We investigated alterations of urinary microbiota in Chinese female T2DM patients, and explored the associations between urinary microbiota and a patient's fasting blood glucose (FBG), urine glucose (UGLU), age, menstrual status, and body mass index (BMI). Midstream urine was collected from 70 female T2DM patients and 70 healthy females. Microbial diversity and composition were analyzed using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform by targeting the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. We found that bacterial diversity was decreased in T2DM patients. Increased Actinobacteria phylum was positively correlated with FBG, UGLU, and BMI; Lactobacillus abundance decreased with age and menopause; and increased Lactobacillus correlated positively with FBG and UGLU. Decreased Akkermansia muciniphila was associated with FBG and UGLU. Escherichia coli abundance did not differ between the two cohorts. Carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism was reduced in T2DM patients, which were associated with bacterial richness indices such as Chao1 and ACE. Detailed microbiota analysis of well-characterized T2DM patients and healthy controls indicate that Chinese T2DM female patients exhibit dysbiosis of urinary microbiota.

  6. Environmental harshness is positively correlated with intraspecific divergence in mammals and birds.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Dor, Roi; McCain, Christy M; Safran, Rebecca J

    2014-02-01

    Life on Earth is conspicuously more diverse in the tropics. Although this intriguing geographical pattern has been linked to many biotic and abiotic factors, their relative importance and potential interactions are still poorly understood. The way in which latitudinal changes in ecological conditions influence evolutionary processes is particularly controversial, as there is evidence for both a positive and a negative latitudinal gradient in speciation rates. Here, we identify and address some methodological issues (how patterns are analysed and how latitude is quantified) that could lead to such conflicting results. To address these issues, we assemble a comprehensive data set of the environmental correlates of latitude (including climate, net primary productivity and habitat heterogeneity) and combine it with biological, historical and molecular data to explore global patterns in recent divergence events (subspeciation). Surprisingly, we find that the harsher conditions that typify temperate habitats (lower primary productivity, decreased rainfall and more variable and unpredictable temperatures) are positively correlated with greater subspecies richness in terrestrial mammals and birds. Thus, our findings indicate that intraspecific divergence is greater in regions with lower biodiversity, a pattern that is robust to both sampling variation and latitudinal biases in taxonomic knowledge. We discuss possible causal mechanisms for the link between environmental harshness and subspecies richness (faster rates of evolution, greater likelihood of range discontinuities and more opportunities for divergence) and conclude that this pattern supports recent indications that latitudinal gradients of diversity are maintained by simultaneously higher potentials for both speciation and extinction in temperate than tropical regions.

  7. Body position effects on sternocleidomastoid and masseter EMG pattern activity in patients undergoing occlusal splint therapy.

    PubMed

    Ormeño, G; Miralles, R; Santander, H; Casassus, R; Ferrer, P; Palazzi, C; Moya, H

    1997-10-01

    This study was conducted in order to determine the effects of body position on electromyographic (EMG) activity of sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles, in 15 patients with myogenic cranio-cervical-mandibular dysfunction undergoing occlusal splint therapy. EMG activity was recorded by placing surface electrodes on the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles (contralateral to the habitual sleeping side of each patient). EMG activity at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching was recorded in the following body positions: standing, supine and lateral decubitus. In the sternocleidomastoid muscle significant higher EMG activities at rest and during swallowing were recorded in the lateral decubitus position, whereas during maximal voluntary clenching EMG activity did not change. In the masseter muscle significant higher EMG activity during maximal voluntary clenching in a standing position was observed, whereas EMG activity at rest and during swallowing did not change. The opposite pattern of EMG activity supports the idea that there may exist a differential modulation of the motor neuron pools of the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles, of peripheral and/or central origin. This suggests that the presence of parafunctional habits and body position could be closely correlated with the clinical symptomatology in these muscles in patients with myogenic craniomandibular dysfunction.

  8. The position of prenylation of isoflavonoids and stilbenoids from legumes (Fabaceae) modulates the antimicrobial activity against Gram positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Araya-Cloutier, Carla; den Besten, Heidy M W; Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-07-01

    The legume plant family (Fabaceae) is a potential source of antimicrobial phytochemicals. Molecular diversity in phytochemicals of legume extracts was enhanced by germination and fungal elicitation of seven legume species, as established by RP-UHPLC-UV-MS. The relationship between phytochemical composition, including different types of skeletons and substitutions, and antibacterial properties of extracts was investigated. Extracts rich in prenylated isoflavonoids and stilbenoids showed potent antibacterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.1% (w/v). Prenylated phenolic compounds were significantly (p<0.01) correlated with the antibacterial properties of the extracts. Furthermore, the position of the prenyl group within the phenolic skeleton also influenced the antibacterial activity. Overall, prenylated phenolics from legume seedlings can serve multiple purposes, e.g. as phytoestrogens they can provide health benefits and as natural antimicrobials they offer preservation of foods.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Dominy, Stephen; Brown, Joseph N.; Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last few years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse. However, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores and that implicate disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, no proteins from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed significant correlations with cognitive scores. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.

  10. Type IIB human skeletal muscle fibers positively correlate with bone mineral density irrespective to age.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Wing-Hoi; Lee, Wing-Sze; Qin, Ling; Tang, Ning; Hung, Vivian Wing-Yin; Leung, Kwok-Sui

    2010-11-01

    Age-associated decrease in type IIA/B human skeletal muscle fibers was detected in human biopsies in our previous study. The relationship between change in muscle fiber typing and bone mineral density (BMD) is, however, unknown either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate their correlation using human muscle biopsies. Forty human subjects aged (53.4 ± 20.2) years were recruited. Histomorphometric parameters of their muscle biopsies were measured by ATPase staining and image analysis, including average area percentage, fiber number percentage, mean fiber area, and area percentage of connective tissues. Hip and spine BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Partial correlation with adjusting age was performed. Type IIB muscle fiber was found positively correlated with hip BMD irrespective to age and demonstrated significantly stronger relationship with BMD among all fiber types, in terms of its cross-sectional area (r = 0.380, P = 0.029) and size (r = 0.389, P = 0.025). Type IIA muscle fibers associated with hip BMD in mean fiber area only (r = 0.420, P = 0.015). Type IIB muscle fiber may play an important role in maintaining bone quality. This may also be a relatively more sensitive fiber type of sarcopenia and osteoporosis. These findings further consolidate the muscle-bone relationship.

  11. Serum leptin level has a positive correlation with BMI and creatinine clearance in CAPD patients.

    PubMed

    Seirafian, S; Momeni, A; Taheri, S; Mortazavi, M; Paknahad, Z

    2012-01-01

    In a cross sectional study, 75 patients (42 males and 33 females) on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were enrolled from October 2007 to February 2008. Serum levels of leptin, albumin, triglyceride, dialysis adequacy (total KT/V), renal creatinine clearance (Cr Cl), mid arm circumference and demographic findings were measured in all patients. The mean age of patients was 53±14.76. The history of hemodialysis was seen in 23 patients. Mean serum leptin level in women and men were 27±23µg/l and 16±13µg/l, respectively. A significant correlation of serum leptin level with body mass index (BMI) (p<0.001) and renal Cr Cl (p<0.001) was found. There was no significant correlation of serum leptin level with KT/V, duration of renal failure, serum triglycerides (TG), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and mid arm circumference (p>0.05). To our knowledge, this is probably the first study to report that serum leptin level has a direct positive correlation with renal Cr Cl in CAPD patients. This may explain the increase in mortality in patients with lower serum leptin levels (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 25).

  12. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Jurj, Adriana L; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Matthews, Charles E; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2007-01-01

    Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000), an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework). Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement), history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain-specific. These findings

  13. Positive and negative aspects of well-being as correlates of breast reconstruction decision.

    PubMed

    Zycinska, Jolanta; Gruszczynska, Ewa; Choteborska, Alina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the role of positive and negative aspects of well-being in a breast reconstruction decision, described in terms of the trans-theoretical model of change (TTM). The study comprised 216 women after total mastectomy in the cross-sectional design. The positive aspects of well-being were measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Generalised Self-Efficacy Scale; the negative aspects were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (T-Anxiety scale). The multinomial logistic regression analyses were implemented, and the action stage was chosen as a relevant category. McFadden's pseudo R-squared for positive, negative and combined aspects of well-being models equalled 0.28, 0.13 and 0.27, respectively. For the first model, the differential effects were observed for well-being, age and relationship status (54 % correctly classified cases), whereas for the model with negative aspects-only age and well-being (44 % correctly classified cases). For a model combining two aspects of well-being, the pattern was similar to the one observed for positive well-being (53 % correctly classified cases). The likelihood of classifying women in the action stage rather than in the pre-contemplation stage was determined by three variables: being in a relationship, better well-being and younger age. For the contemplation stage, the same relations were obtained for well-being and age. Finally, for the preparation stage, the well-being effect disappeared. The results suggest that positive rather than negative aspects of well-being, after control for sociodemographic variables, may be significant correlates of breast reconstruction decision.

  14. Greater positive schizotypy relates to reduced N100 activity during rejection scenes.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, Preethi; Onwumere, Juliana; Wilson, Daniel; Sumich, Alexander; Castro, Antonio; Kumari, Veena; Kuipers, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Social anxiety due to rejection sensitivity (RS) exacerbates psychosis-like experiences in the general population. While reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity during social rejection in high schizotypy has suggested self-distancing from rejection, earlier stages of mental processing such as feature encoding could also contribute to psychosis-like experiences. This study aimed to determine the stage of mental processing of social rejection that relates to positive schizotypy. Forty-one healthy participants were assessed for schizotypy and RS. Event-related potential amplitudes (ERPs) were measured at frontal, temporal and parieto-occipital sites and their cortical sources (dACC, temporal pole and lingual gyrus) at early (N100) and late (P300 and late slow wave, LSW) timeframes during rejection, acceptance and neutral scenes. ERPs were compared between social interaction types. Correlations were performed between positive schizotypy (defined as the presence of perceptual aberrations, hallucinatory experiences and magical thinking), RS and ERPs during rejection. Amplitude was greater during rejection than acceptance or neutral conditions at the dACC-P300, parieto-occipital-P300, dACC-LSW and frontal-LSW. RS correlated positively with positive schizotypy. Reduced dACC N100 activity during rejection correlated with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Reduced dACC N100 activity and greater RS independently predicted positive schizotypy. An N100 deficit that indicates reduced feature encoding of rejection scenes increases with greater positive schizotypy and RS. Higher RS shows that a greater tendency to misattribute ambiguous social situations as rejecting also increases with positive schizotypy. These two processes, namely primary bottom-up sensory processing and secondary misattribution of rejection, combine to increase psychosis-like experiences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Death attitudes and positive coping in Spanish nursing undergraduates: a cross-sectional and correlational study.

    PubMed

    Edo-Gual, Montserrat; Monforte-Royo, Cristina; Aradilla-Herrero, Amor; Tomás-Sábado, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    To analyse the relationship between death attitudes, emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem in a sample of nursing undergraduates. The death attitudes held by nursing students may influence the care they offer to end-of-life patients and their families. Emotional intelligence, resilience and self-esteem are important social and emotional competencies for coping positively with death and dying. Cross-sectional and correlational study. Participants were 760 nursing undergraduates from four nursing schools in Spain. Data were collected in 2013-2014. The students responded anonymously to a self-report questionnaire that gathered socio-demographic data and which assessed the following aspects: fear of death (Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale), death anxiety (Death Anxiety Inventory-Revised), perceived emotional intelligence (Trait Meta-Mood Scale, with its three dimensions: attention, clarity and repair), resilience (Brief Resilient Coping Scale) and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). In addition to descriptive statistics, analyses of variance, mean differences, correlations and regression analyses were computed. Linear regression analysis indicated that attention to feelings, resilience and self-esteem are the significant predictors of death anxiety. The results show that death anxiety and fear of death are modulated by social and emotional competencies associated with positive coping. The training offered to future nurses should include not only scientific knowledge and technical skills but also strategies for developing social and emotional competencies. In this way, they will be better equipped to cope positively and constructively with the suffering and death they encounter at work, thus helping them to offer compassionate patient-centred care and minimising the distress they experience in the process. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Raquel G; Calaça, Isadora C; Celestrini, Deborah M; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P; Costa, Mauricio M; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-10-06

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis.

  17. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase activity and intracellular distribution correlate with aggressiveness and invasiveness of human breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Raquel G.; Calaça, Isadora C.; Celestrini, Deborah M.; Correia-Carneiro, Ana Helena P.; Costa, Mauricio M.; Zancan, Patricia; Sola-Penna, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as hexokinase and phosphofructokinase, have been reported to be upregulated in many cancer types. Here, we evaluated these two enzymes in 54 breast cancer samples collected from volunteers subjected to mastectomy, and the results were correlated with the prognosis markers commonly used. We found that both enzymes positively correlate with the major markers for invasiveness and aggressiveness. For invasiveness, the enzymes activities increase in parallel to the tumor size. Moreover, we found augmented activities for both enzymes when the samples were extirpated from patients presenting lymph node involvement or occurrence of metastasis. For aggressiveness, we stained the samples for the estrogen and progesterone receptors, HER-2, p53 and Ki-67. The enzyme activities positively correlated with all markers but Ki-67. Finally, we conclude that these enzymes are good markers for breast cancer prognosis. PMID:26320188

  18. Multicontextual Correlates of Adolescent Leisure-Time Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Wall, Melanie M.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is influenced by many factors. MVPA-promotion interventions would fare better if these multiple determinants were better understood. Purpose To simultaneously assess overall and relative contributions of factors from personal, family, friend, school, and neighborhood contexts to adolescent MVPA. It was hypothesized that: (1) key correlates would emerge in each context; (2) factors from more- versus less-proximal contexts would relate more strongly to MVPA. Methods Students in grades 6–12 (n=2793; mean age=14.4 [SD=2.0] years; 53% girls) were recruited from 20 Minnesota public schools in 2009–2010 to participate in the Eating and Activity in Teens 2010 study. Regression analyses conducted in 2013 examined factors related to weekly MVPA. Data were collected from adolescent participants, their parents and friends, school teachers and administrators, and GIS sources. Results Fifty multicontextual factors explained 25% of MVPA variance for boys and 27% for girls. Personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy) were most predictive of MVPA, followed by social factors (e.g., support for PA); environmental factors (e.g., access to PA resources) were least predictive of adolescent PA. Gender differences emerged for several predictors (e.g., in mutually adjusted analyses, MVPA among girls, but not boys, related positively to distance to trails and MVPA among female friends and fathers, and related negatively to perceived barriers). Conclusions Stronger linkages exist between adolescent MVPA and more-proximal (personal, family, and friend) factors compared to more-distal (school and neighborhood) factors, suggesting the importance of working with adolescents, their families, and friends to promote PA. PMID:24842737

  19. Identification of sequence motifs in oligonucleotides whose presence is correlated with antisense activity.

    PubMed

    Matveeva, O V; Tsodikov, A D; Giddings, M; Freier, S M; Wyatt, J R; Spiridonov, A N; Shabalina, S A; Gesteland, R F; Atkins, J F

    2000-08-01

    Design of antisense oligonucleotides targeting any mRNA can be much more efficient when several activity-enhancing motifs are included and activity-decreasing motifs are avoided. This conclusion was made after statistical analysis of data collected from >1000 experiments with phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotides. Highly significant positive correlation between the presence of motifs CCAC, TCCC, ACTC, GCCA and CTCT in the oligonucleotide and its antisense efficiency was demonstrated. In addition, negative correlation was revealed for the motifs GGGG, ACTG, AAA and TAA. It was found that the likelihood of activity of an oligonucleotide against a desired mRNA target is sequence motif content dependent.

  20. Identification of sequence motifs in oligonucleotides whose presence is correlated with antisense activity

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, O. V.; Tsodikov, A. D.; Giddings, M.; Freier, S. M.; Wyatt, J. R.; Spiridonov, A. N.; Shabalina, S. A.; Gesteland, R. F.; Atkins, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    Design of antisense oligonucleotides targeting any mRNA can be much more efficient when several activity-enhancing motifs are included and activity-decreasing motifs are avoided. This conclusion was made after statistical analysis of data collected from >1000 experiments with phosphorothioate-modified oligonucleotides. Highly significant positive correlation between the presence of motifs CCAC, TCCC, ACTC, GCCA and CTCT in the oligonucleotide and its antisense efficiency was demonstrated. In addition, negative correlation was revealed for the motifs GGGG, ACTG, AAA and TAA. It was found that the likelihood of activity of an oligonucleotide against a desired mRNA target is sequence motif content dependent. PMID:10908347

  1. Neural correlates of an early attentional capture by positive distractor words

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa, José A.; Mercado, Francisco; Albert, Jacobo; Barjola, Paloma; Peláez, Irene; Villalba-García, Cristina; Carretié, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Exogenous or automatic attention to emotional distractors has been observed for emotional scenes and faces. In the language domain, however, automatic attention capture by emotional words has been scarcely investigated. In the current event-related potentials study we explored distractor effects elicited by positive, negative and neutral words in a concurrent but distinct target distractor paradigm. Specifically, participants performed a digit categorization task in which task-irrelevant words were flanked by numbers. The results of both temporo-spatial principal component and source location analyses revealed the existence of early distractor effects that were specifically triggered by positive words. At the scalp level, task-irrelevant positive compared to neutral and negative words elicited larger amplitudes in an anterior negative component that peaked around 120 ms. Also, at the voxel level, positive distractor words increased activity in orbitofrontal regions compared to negative words. These results suggest that positive distractor words quickly and automatically capture attentional resources diverting them from the task where attention was voluntarily directed. PMID:25674070

  2. Predictors of Physical Activity in Positive Deviant Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spurr, Shelley; Bally, Jill; Trinder, Krista

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to examine the predictors of PA in positive deviant adolescents in comparison to average or underachieving adolescents on the same criterion. A survey of Canadian adolescents aged 13-20 (N=603), based on a multidimensional wellness model and an ecological model, provided the data for a multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of PA in positive deviant adolescents defined as having higher than average levels of PA. Significant predictors of PA for positive deviant girls were recreational time, an increased sense of wellness, age, and family support (explaining 47.7% of variance for girls). Within the positive deviant group, older girls were less active than younger girls. For positive deviant boys, use of recreational time was the only significant predictor of PA (explaining 5.9% of the variance). Wellness as a significant predictor of PA in positive deviant adolescent girls is a new and unique finding. The measurement of wellness in this study was a composite score of the physical, social, and psychological developmental dimensions of adolescent lives. Pediatric nurses may wish to consider a multidimensional wellness approach, family support, and recreation time as major foci of PA interventions in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 2D focal-field aberration dependence on time/phase screen position and correlation lengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Näsholm, Sven Peter

    2004-05-01

    For high-frequency annular array transducers used in medical ultrasound imaging, aberrations due to tissue and body wall have a significant effect on energy transfer from the main lobe to the sidelobes of the acoustic field: that is, the aberrations make the total sidelobe level increase. This effect makes the ultrasound image poor when imaging heterogeneous organs. This study performs an analysis of the focal-field quality as a function of time/phase screen z position and time/phase screen correlation length. It establishes some rules of thumb which indicate when the focal-field sidelobe energy is at its highest. It also introduces a simple screen-scaling model which is useful as long as the screen position is not closer to the focus than a certain limit distance. The scaling model allows the real screen at a depth z=zscreen to be treated as a scaled screen at the position z=ztransd. 2D sound fields after 3D propagation from the annular arrays to the focal plane have been simulated using an angular spectrum method. The aberrators are represented by amplitude and phase/time screens.

  4. Environmental correlates of children's physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Settles, Barbara H

    2014-01-01

    To examine the individual, parental, and neighborhood environment correlates of children's physical activity and risk of obesity. Secondary data of 1514 children drawn from the Delaware Survey of Children's Health were used for analysis. A conceptual framework was developed based on the Social Determinants of Health and Environmental Health Promotion model and tested using structural equation modeling. Findings confirmed that parental support on physical activity and a favorable neighborhood environment predicted children's physical activity. However, the risk of overweight and obesity was not associated with parental support of physical activity and children's physical activity. Future preventive practice requires a multifaceted approach incorporating both individual and environmental changes.

  5. Human masticatory muscle activity and jaw position under experimental stress.

    PubMed

    Tsai, C-M; Chou, S-L; Gale, E N; McCall, W D

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether stress induced a consistent pattern of increased electromyographic (EMG) activity in different masticatory muscles, and whether stress produced changes in jaw position. Thirty-five dental students at Taipei Medical College volunteered for this study. Mental arithmetic was used to create a stress condition and relaxation instruction was used to help relax the subjects. Subjects were asked to evaluate the stress they felt under each experimental condition with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Surface electrodes were used to monitor the EMG activities of the right masseter, right posterior temporalis and suprahyoid muscles. A kinesiograph was used to observe the jaw position. Data collected before mental arithmetic or relaxation monitored the baseline level. The VAS means were significantly increased during the stress condition and significantly decreased following relaxation, compared with the baseline. There was also a significant increase in EMG activity of all three muscles during mental arithmetic compared with baseline; different patterns of increased EMG activity were noticed in the three muscles under a continuous stress condition. Under stress, the incidence of tooth contact at intercuspal position was also increased.

  6. Correlation of Respiratory Activity of Contralateral Diaphragm Muscles for Evaluation of Recovery Following Hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Dow, Douglas E.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.; Mantilla, Carlos B.

    2014-01-01

    Respiration is impaired by disruption of the central drive for inspiration to the diaphragm muscle (DIAm). Some function may recover involving nerve regeneration, reinnervation or neuroplasticity. A research animal model involves inducing hemiparesis of the DIAm and monitoring any recovery under different conditions. Methods to accurately track the level of functional recovery are needed. In this study, an algorithm was developed and tested to quantify the relative amount of electromyogram (EMG) activity that temporally correlated for an experimental (EXP) hemi-DIAm with its intact contralateral hemi-DIAm. An average rectified value (ARV) trace was calculated. A template was formed of the ARV trace of the intact hemi-DIAm, with higher positive values corresponding with periods of inspirations and lower negative values corresponding with quiet periods. This template was multiplied by the EXP ARV trace to reward (more positive) periods of correlating activity, and punish (more negative) periods of high activity on the EXP side that corresponded with quiet periods on the intact side. The average integrated value was the index of correlating contralateral activity (ICCA). A negative ICCA value indicated no net correlation of activity, and a positive value indicated a net correlation of activity. The algorithm was tested on rats having the conditions of control or hemi-paresis induced by denervatation (DNV), tetrodotoxin administration (TTX) or cervical spinal hemi-section (SH). Control had high positive ICCA values, and DNV had negative values. TTX maintained negative ICCA values at 3, 7 and 14 days, indicating a lack of functional recovery. SH maintained negative values at 3 and 7 days, but a subset had positive values at 14 days indicating some functional recovery. PMID:19965125

  7. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  8. Nonexercise muscle tension and behavioral fidgeting are positively correlated with food availability/palatability and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Heinrichs, Stephen C

    2003-07-01

    While certain measures of energy expenditure such as respiratory quotient and thermogenesis are readily quantifiable using existing animal models, the mechanism for and measurement of energy expenditure via nonexercise activity have not been thoroughly characterized. This low intensity form of physical exertion, associated with involuntary fidgeting and postural changes in man, was quantified in the present studies using passive measurement of muscle tension in rats. In particular, long-term weight loss and gain were induced using diet yoking and feeding of preferred foods in order to assess corresponding changes in locomotor activity and radiotelemetered measures of muscle tension, temperature and global activity. Hind limb muscle tension, but not body temperature, was increased 30-60% by enhancing the availability or palatability of food relative to the decreased muscle tension resulting from limited food availability. Enhancing food availability or palatability also produced a relative 5-15% increase in the amount of telemetered global activity. Importantly, neither diet yoking nor provision of a highly preferred diet altered a precise measure of behavioral locomotor activity. These results suggest that muscle tension and activity-in-place are positively correlated with weight change in the present studies and that these mechanisms of energy expenditure are mobilized by environmental changes in diet composition and meal pattern.

  9. Correlation between mass and volume of collected blood with positivity of blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Neves, Lariessa; Marra, Alexandre Rodrigues; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; dos Santos, Maura Cristina; Zulin, Flávia; da Silva, Patrícia Candido; de Moura, Natália Ariede; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Pasternak, Jacyr; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Edmond, Michael B; Martino, Marines Dalla Valle

    2015-08-28

    The collection of blood cultures is an extremely important method in the management of patients with suspected infection. Microbiology laboratories should monitor blood culture collection. Over an 8-month period we developed a prospective, observational study in an adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We correlated the mass contained in the blood vials with blood culture positivity and we also verified the relationship between the mass of blood and blood volume collected for the diagnosis of bloodstream infection (BSI), as well as we explored factors predicting positive blood cultures. We evaluated 345 patients with sepsis, severe sepsis or septic shock for whom blood culture bottles were collected for the diagnosis of BSI. Of the 55 patients with BSI, 40.0% had peripheral blood culture collection only. BSIs were classified as nosocomial in 34.5%. In the multivariate model, the blood culture mass (in grams) remained a significant predictor of positivity, with an odds ratio 1.01 (i.e., for each additional 1 mL of blood collected there was a 1% increase in positivity; 95% CI 1.01-1.02, p = 0.001; Nagelkerke R Square [R(2)] = 0.192). For blood volume collected, the adjusted odds ratio was estimated at 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03, p < 0.001; R(2) = 0.199). For each set of collected blood cultures beyond one set, the adjusted odds ratio was estimated to be 1.27 (95% CI: 1.14-1.41, p < 0.001; R(2) = 0.221). Our study was a quality improvement project that showed that microbiology laboratories can use the weight of blood culture bottles to determine if appropriate volume has been collected to improve the diagnosis of BSI.

  10. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  11. Position Information Encoded by Population Activity in Hierarchical Visual Areas.

    PubMed

    Majima, Kei; Sukhanov, Paul; Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2017-01-01

    Neurons in high-level visual areas respond to more complex visual features with broader receptive fields (RFs) compared to those in low-level visual areas. Thus, high-level visual areas are generally considered to carry less information regarding the position of seen objects in the visual field. However, larger RFs may not imply loss of position information at the population level. Here, we evaluated how accurately the position of a seen object could be predicted (decoded) from activity patterns in each of six representative visual areas with different RF sizes [V1-V4, lateral occipital complex (LOC), and fusiform face area (FFA)]. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses while human subjects viewed a ball randomly moving in a two-dimensional field. To estimate population RF sizes of individual fMRI voxels, RF models were fitted for individual voxels in each brain area. The voxels in higher visual areas showed larger estimated RFs than those in lower visual areas. Then, the ball's position in a separate session was predicted by maximum likelihood estimation using the RF models of individual voxels. We also tested a model-free multivoxel regression (support vector regression, SVR) to predict the position. We found that regardless of the difference in RF size, all visual areas showed similar prediction accuracies, especially on the horizontal dimension. Higher areas showed slightly lower accuracies on the vertical dimension, which appears to be attributed to the narrower spatial distributions of the RF centers. The results suggest that much position information is preserved in population activity through the hierarchical visual pathway regardless of RF sizes and is potentially available in later processing for recognition and behavior.

  12. Positive Technology for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Cipresso, Pietro; Repetto, Claudia; Serino, Silvia; Triberti, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Galimberti, Carlo; Graffigna, Guendalina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are widely and rapidly spreading in people's daily lives. But what is the possible role of the mass proliferation of digital devices in supporting healthy living and active ageing? Are they useful in fostering personal growth and individual integration of the elderly, by promoting satisfaction, opportunities for action, and self-expression? Rather, do they enhance automation, impose constraints on personal initiative, and result in compulsive consumption of information? In this chapter, we suggest that possible answers to these questions will be offered by the "Positive Technology" approach, i.e., the scientific and applied approach to using technology so that it improves the quality of our personal experiences through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement. First, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to manipulate the quality of experience with the goal of increasing wellness and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. Then, we classify positive technologies according to their effects on these three features of personal experience - Hedonic: technologies used to induce positive and pleasant experiences; Eudaimonic: technologies used to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences; Social/Interpersonal: technologies used to support and improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations. Finally, we discuss the possible role of positive technologies for healthy living and active ageing by presenting different practical applications of this approach.

  13. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  14. Observations of geographically correlated orbit errors for TOPEX/Poseidon using the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, E. J.; Haines, B. J.; Mccoll, K. C.; Nerem, R. S.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared Global Positioning System (GPS)-based dynamic and reduced-dynamic TOPEX/Poseidon orbits over three 10-day repeat cycles of the ground-track. The results suggest that the prelaunch joint gravity model (JGM-1) introduces geographically correlated errors (GCEs) which have a strong meridional dependence. The global distribution and magnitude of these GCEs are consistent with a prelaunch covariance analysis, with estimated and predicted global rms error statistics of 2.3 and 2.4 cm rms, respectively. Repeating the analysis with the post-launch joint gravity model (JGM-2) suggests that a portion of the meridional dependence observed in JGM-1 still remains, with global rms error of 1.2 cm.

  15. Sleep continuity is positively correlated with sleep duration in laboratory nighttime sleep recordings.

    PubMed

    Kishi, Akifumi; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Natelson, Benjamin H; Bender, Amy M; Palombini, Luciana O; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Ayappa, Indu; Rapoport, David M

    2017-01-01

    Sleep duration varies widely across individuals and appears to be trait-like. Differences in the stability of underlying sleep processes may underlie this phenomenon. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we examined the relationship between sleep duration and sleep continuity in baseline polysomnography (PSG) recordings from three independently collected datasets: 1) 134 healthy controls (ages 37 ± 13 years) from the São Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study, who spent one night in a sleep laboratory, 2) 21 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients who were treated with continuous positive airway pressure for at least 2 months (45 ± 12 years, respiratory disturbance index <15), who spent one night in a sleep laboratory with previous experience of multiple PSG studies, and 3) 62 healthy controls (28 ± 6 years) who, as part of larger experiments, spent 2 consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. For each dataset, we used total sleep time (TST) to separate subjects into those with shorter sleep (S-TST) and those with longer sleep (L-TST). In all three datasets, survival curves of continuous sleep segments showed greater sleep continuity in L-TST than in S-TST. Correlation analyses with TST as a continuous variable corroborated the results; and the results also held true after controlling for age. There were no significant differences in baseline waking performance and sleepiness between S-TST and L-TST. In conclusion, in both healthy controls and treated OSA patients, sleep continuity was positively correlated with sleep duration. These findings suggest that S-TST may differ from L-TST in processes underlying sleep continuity, shedding new light on mechanisms underlying individual differences in sleep duration.

  16. Sleep continuity is positively correlated with sleep duration in laboratory nighttime sleep recordings

    PubMed Central

    Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Bender, Amy M.; Palombini, Luciana O.; Bittencourt, Lia; Tufik, Sergio; Ayappa, Indu; Rapoport, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep duration varies widely across individuals and appears to be trait-like. Differences in the stability of underlying sleep processes may underlie this phenomenon. To investigate underlying mechanisms, we examined the relationship between sleep duration and sleep continuity in baseline polysomnography (PSG) recordings from three independently collected datasets: 1) 134 healthy controls (ages 37 ± 13 years) from the São Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study, who spent one night in a sleep laboratory, 2) 21 obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients who were treated with continuous positive airway pressure for at least 2 months (45 ± 12 years, respiratory disturbance index <15), who spent one night in a sleep laboratory with previous experience of multiple PSG studies, and 3) 62 healthy controls (28 ± 6 years) who, as part of larger experiments, spent 2 consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. For each dataset, we used total sleep time (TST) to separate subjects into those with shorter sleep (S-TST) and those with longer sleep (L-TST). In all three datasets, survival curves of continuous sleep segments showed greater sleep continuity in L-TST than in S-TST. Correlation analyses with TST as a continuous variable corroborated the results; and the results also held true after controlling for age. There were no significant differences in baseline waking performance and sleepiness between S-TST and L-TST. In conclusion, in both healthy controls and treated OSA patients, sleep continuity was positively correlated with sleep duration. These findings suggest that S-TST may differ from L-TST in processes underlying sleep continuity, shedding new light on mechanisms underlying individual differences in sleep duration. PMID:28394943

  17. The correlation coefficient of GC content of the genome-wide genes is positively correlated with animal evolutionary relationships.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongli; Hu, Haofu; Meng, Yuhuan; Zheng, Weihao; Ling, Fei; Wang, Jufang; Zhang, Xiquan; Nie, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoning

    2010-09-24

    In this study, we present a new method for evaluating animal evolutionary relationships. We used the GC% levels of genome-wide genes to determine the correlation between the GC% content and evolutionary relationship. The correlation coefficients of the GC% content of the orthologous genes of the paired animal species were calculated for a total of 21 species, and the evolutionary branching dates of these 21 species were derived from fossil records. The correlation coefficient of the GC% content of the orthologous genes of the species pair under study served as an indicator of their evolutionary relationship. Moreover, there was a decreasing linear relationship between the correlation coefficient and evolutionary branching date (R(2)=0.930).

  18. Distributions of positive correlations in sectoral value added growth in the global economic network*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maluck, Julian; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-02-01

    International trade has grown considerably during the process of globalization. Complex supply chains for the production of goods have resulted in an increasingly connected International Trade Network (ITN). Traditionally, direct trade relations between industries have been regarded as mediators of supply and demand spillovers. With increasing network connectivity the question arises if higher-order relations become more important in explaining a national sector's susceptibility to supply and demand changes of its trading partner. In this study we address this question by investigating empirically to what extent the topological properties of the ITN provide information about positive correlations in the production of two industry sectors. We observe that although direct trade relations between industries serve as important indicators for correlations in the industries' value added growth, opportunities of substitution for required production inputs as well as second-order trade relations cannot be neglected. Our results contribute to a better understanding of the relation between trade and economic productivity and can serve as a basis for the improvement of crisis spreading models that evaluate contagion threats in the case of a node's failure in the ITN.

  19. 2D:4D finger ratio positively correlates with total cerebral cortex in males.

    PubMed

    Darnai, Gergely; Plózer, Enikő; Perlaki, Gábor; Orsi, Gergely; Nagy, Szilvia Anett; Horváth, Réka; Schwarcz, Attila; Kovács, Norbert; Altbäcker, Anna; Janszky, József; Clemens, Zsófia

    2016-02-26

    Although there is evidence that the ratio of 2nd-4th digit length (2D:4D) correlates with prenatal testosterone level, psychological and health traits only two studies have assessed the relationship with brain morphological features. Here we investigated the association between the 2D:4D ratio and several brain subvolumes. Seventy-five subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 were included in the study. The length of the 2nd and 4th digits were measured with an electronic vernier caliper while MRI measurements were performed on a Siemens Magnetom Trio Tim (3T) system. Freesurfer software suite was used for volumetric segmentation. Finger ratio significantly positively correlated with total cerebral cortex, total cerebellar white matter and total cerebellar cortex in males but not in females. Our results indicate that prenatal testosterone, as estimated by the 2D:4D ratio has an effect on adult brain morphology in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Positively Correlates with Symptoms in Functional Dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Fumio; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujikawa, Yoshiko; Nagami, Yasuaki; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Toshio; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-12-01

    In patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), mild duodenal inflammation correlates with increased mucosal permeability. Enteric glial cells can produce glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) to repair disrupted epithelial barrier function. We examined the role of duodenal GDNF in FD pathophysiology and its association with dyspeptic symptoms. Duodenal biopsies taken from FD patients and control subjects were used for analysis. GDNF protein expression and localization were examined. Cellular infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells was measured. We also examined the intercellular space between the adjacent epithelial cells at the apical junction complex using transmission electron microscopy. In FD patients, expression of GDNF protein was significantly increased compared with controls, 107.3 (95.3-136.7) versus 49.3 (38.0-72.6) pg/mg protein (median (interquartile range), p = 0.006), respectively. GDNF was localized in enteric glial cells, eosinophils, and epithelial cells. The number of eosinophils was significantly greater in FD patients than in controls, 1039 (923-1181) versus 553 (479-598) cells/mm(2) (p = 0.021), respectively. The intercellular space was dilated at the adherent junction in FD patients compared to control patients, 32.4 (29.8-34.8) versus 22.0 (19.9-26.1) nm (p = 0.002), respectively. Intercellular distance positively correlated with the frequency of postprandial fullness and early satiation (p = 0.001, r = 0.837 and p = 0.009, r = 0.693, respectively). Expression of GDNF correlated with epigastric burning (p = 0.041, r = 0.552). Increased expression of duodenal GDNF might be involved in FD pathophysiology and symptom perception.

  1. Bootstrap testing for cross-correlation under low firing activity.

    PubMed

    González-Montoro, Aldana M; Cao, Ricardo; Espinosa, Nelson; Cudeiro, Javier; Mariño, Jorge

    2015-06-01

    A new cross-correlation synchrony index for neural activity is proposed. The index is based on the integration of the kernel estimation of the cross-correlation function. It is used to test for the dynamic synchronization levels of spontaneous neural activity under two induced brain states: sleep-like and awake-like. Two bootstrap resampling plans are proposed to approximate the distribution of the test statistics. The results of the first bootstrap method indicate that it is useful to discern significant differences in the synchronization dynamics of brain states characterized by a neural activity with low firing rate. The second bootstrap method is useful to unveil subtle differences in the synchronization levels of the awake-like state, depending on the activation pathway.

  2. S100B: Correlation with Active Vitiligo Depigmentation.

    PubMed

    Birlea, Stanca A

    2017-07-01

    Vitiligo, the most common depigmenting disorder, is caused by immune destruction of melanocytes by cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. One weakness in vitiligo management is the lack of an assessment method for active depigmentation. Beginning with reports about increased S100B levels in different inflammatory and tissue damage processes, Speeckaert et al. explored correlations between the S100B dynamics and vitiligo activity, identifying high circulating S100B levels in patients with active depigmentation which were strongly correlated with the extent of affected skin surface. These authors have proposed S100B as a potential disease activity marker in vitiligo. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer of unknown primary originating from oropharyngeal carcinomas are strongly correlated to HPV positivity.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Pamela; Assmann, Gerald; Mollenhauer, Martin; Jung, Andreas; Sotlar, Karl; Kirchner, Thomas; Ihrler, Stephan

    2012-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been identified as a distinct entity within squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. It is associated with special characteristics and is preponderantly restricted to palatial tonsils and base of tongue. These primary locations have for long been associated with the clinical situation of cancer of unknown primary (CUP). In order to investigate the putative relationship between CUP and HPV, we investigated 26 patients who initially presented as CUP and were finally diagnosed with carcinomas of these two locations. Twenty-one cases proved to be positive for high-risk HPV. Primary carcinomas were small and frequently presented in a submucosal location. HPV-positive carcinomas, presented more often in women, showed atypical basaloid differentiation and correlated to cystic lymph node metastases. This study demonstrates an over-representation of HPV-associated OSCC in patients who were initially diagnosed with CUP. This finding indicates a strong relationship between HPV-association and CUP in OSCC. The frequent manifestation as CUP is presumably caused by the unusual predisposition for small size and submucosal location combined with early lymphatic metastization. In order not to miss clinically occult carcinomas, consequent interdisciplinary cooperation in combination with meticulous histological workup is mandatory.

  4. Effective population size is positively correlated with levels of adaptive divergence among annual sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Strasburg, Jared L; Kane, Nolan C; Raduski, Andrew R; Bonin, Aurélie; Michelmore, Richard; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2011-05-01

    The role of adaptation in the divergence of lineages has long been a central question in evolutionary biology, and as multilocus sequence data sets have become available for a wide range of taxa, empirical estimates of levels of adaptive molecular evolution are increasingly common. Estimates vary widely among taxa, with high levels of adaptive evolution in Drosophila, bacteria, and viruses but very little evidence of widespread adaptive evolution in hominids. Although estimates in plants are more limited, some recent work has suggested that rates of adaptive evolution in a range of plant taxa are surprisingly low and that there is little association between adaptive evolution and effective population size in contrast to patterns seen in other taxa. Here, we analyze data from 35 loci for six sunflower species that vary dramatically in effective population size. We find that rates of adaptive evolution are positively correlated with effective population size in these species, with a significant fraction of amino acid substitutions driven by positive selection in the species with the largest effective population sizes but little or no evidence of adaptive evolution in species with smaller effective population sizes. Although other factors likely contribute as well, in sunflowers effective population size appears to be an important determinant of rates of adaptive evolution.

  5. A position-sensitive twin ionization chamber for fission fragment and prompt neutron correlation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göök, A.; Geerts, W.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Oberstedt, S.; Vidali, M.; Zeynalov, Sh.

    2016-09-01

    A twin position-sensitive Frisch grid ionization chamber, intended as a fission fragment detector in experiments to study prompt fission neutron correlations with fission fragment properties, is presented. Fission fragment mass and energies are determined by means of the double kinetic energy technique, based on conservation of mass and linear momentum. The position sensitivity is achieved by replacing each anode plate in the standard twin ionization chamber by a wire plane and a strip anode, both readout by means of resistive charge division. This provides information about the fission axis orientation, which is necessary to reconstruct the neutron emission process in the fully accelerated fragment rest-frame. The energy resolution compared to the standard twin ionization chamber is found not to be affected by the modification. The angular resolution of the detector relative to an arbitrarily oriented axis is better than 7° FWHM. Results on prompt fission neutron angular distributions in 235U(n,f) obtained with the detector in combination with an array of neutron scintillation detectors is presented as a proof of principle.

  6. Effective Population Size Is Positively Correlated with Levels of Adaptive Divergence among Annual Sunflowers

    PubMed Central

    Strasburg, Jared L.; Kane, Nolan C.; Raduski, Andrew R.; Bonin, Aurélie; Michelmore, Richard; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2011-01-01

    The role of adaptation in the divergence of lineages has long been a central question in evolutionary biology, and as multilocus sequence data sets have become available for a wide range of taxa, empirical estimates of levels of adaptive molecular evolution are increasingly common. Estimates vary widely among taxa, with high levels of adaptive evolution in Drosophila, bacteria, and viruses but very little evidence of widespread adaptive evolution in hominids. Although estimates in plants are more limited, some recent work has suggested that rates of adaptive evolution in a range of plant taxa are surprisingly low and that there is little association between adaptive evolution and effective population size in contrast to patterns seen in other taxa. Here, we analyze data from 35 loci for six sunflower species that vary dramatically in effective population size. We find that rates of adaptive evolution are positively correlated with effective population size in these species, with a significant fraction of amino acid substitutions driven by positive selection in the species with the largest effective population sizes but little or no evidence of adaptive evolution in species with smaller effective population sizes. Although other factors likely contribute as well, in sunflowers effective population size appears to be an important determinant of rates of adaptive evolution. PMID:20952500

  7. Data mining for correlations between diet and Crohn's disease activity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jason G; Purcell, Gretchen P

    2006-01-01

    Crohn's disease is a debilitating condition that affects the entire gastrointestinal tract and often requires aggressive and invasive therapies. Several studies have suggested dietary triggers for disease activity. We have created a web-based tool to allow participants to record both daily food intake and wellness (i.e., disease-specific quality of life). We seek to determine if measurable correlations exist between these events in patients with Crohn's disease. Advanced data mining techniques are employed to find such correlations and the efficacies of chosen techniques are assessed. We tested our web-based system in a pilot study involving 7 participants, and we found that traditional statistical techniques identified diet and disease activity correlations in short-term data sets.

  8. Weed abundance is positively correlated with native plant diversity in grasslands of southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Martín-Forés, Irene; Guerin, Greg R; Lowe, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Weeds are commonly considered a threat to biodiversity, yet interactions between native and exotic species in grasslands are poorly understood and reported results vary depending on the spatial scale of study, the factors controlled for and the response variables analysed. We tested whether weed presence and abundance is related to declines in biodiversity in Australian grasslands. We employed existing field data from 241 plots along a disturbance gradient and correlated species richness, cover and Shannon diversity for natives and exotics, controlling for seasonal rainfall, climatic gradients and nutrient status. We found no negative relationships in terms of emergent diversity metrics and occupation of space, indeed, many positive relationships were revealed. When split by land-use, differences were found along the disturbance gradient. In high-moderately disturbed grasslands associated with land-uses such as cropping and modified pastures, positive associations were enhanced. Tolerance and facilitation mechanisms may be involved, such as complementary roles through different life history strategies: the exotic flora was dominated mainly by annual grasses and herbs whereas the native flora represented more diverse growth-forms with a higher proportion of perennials. The positive relationships existing between native and exotic plant species in high-moderately disturbed grasslands of South Australia are most likely due to facilitation through different strategies in occupation of space given that the effect of habitat suitability was controlled for by including environmental and disturbance factors. Consequently, although particular weeds may negatively impact biodiversity, this cannot be generalised and management focusing on general weed eradication in grasslands might be ineffectual.

  9. Local heterozygosity-fitness correlations with global positive effects on fitness in threespine stickleback.

    PubMed

    Lieutenant-Gosselin, Mélissa; Bernatchez, Louis

    2006-08-01

    The complex interactions between genetic diversity and evolution have important implications in many biological areas including conservation, speciation, and mate choice. A common way to study these interactions is to look at heterozygosity-fitness correlations (HFCs). Until recently, HFCs based on noncoding markers were believed to result primarily from global inbreeding effects. However, accumulating theoretical and empirical evidence shows that HFCs may often result from genes being linked to the markers used (local effect). Moreover, local effect HFCs could differ from global inbreeding effects in their direction and occurrence. Consequently, the investigation of the structure and consequences of local HFCs is emerging as a new important goal in evolutionary biology. In this study of a wild threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) population, we first tested the presence of significant positive or negative local effects of heterozygosity at 30 microsatellites loci on five fitness components: survival, mating success, territoriality, length, and body condition. Then, we evaluated the direction and shape of total impact of local HFCs, and estimated the magnitude of the impacts on fitness using regression coefficients and selection differentials. We found that multilocus heterozygosity was not a reliable estimator of individual inbreeding coefficient, which supported the relevance of single-locus based analyses. Highly significant and temporally stable local HFCs were observed. These were mainly positive, but negative effects of heterozygosity were also found. Strong and opposite effects of heterozygosity are probably present in many populations, but may be blurred in HFC analyses looking for global effects only. In this population, both negative and positive HFCs are apparently driving mate preference by females, which is likely to contribute to the maintenance of both additive and nonadditive genetic variance.

  10. Correlation Between Fetal Activity and the Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishikawa, Akashi; Minamide, Etsuko

    1984-01-01

    A total of 14 women recorded fetal movements during one week of their pregnancies, and Brazelton Neonatal Behavorial Assessment Scale exams were performed on the infants during their first week of life. Correlations were computed between fetal activity and neonatal behavior. (Author/RH)

  11. Early and late components of EEG delay activity correlate differently with scene working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Ellmore, Timothy M; Ng, Kenneth; Reichert, Chelsea P

    2017-01-01

    Sustained and elevated activity during the working memory delay period has long been considered the primary neural correlate for maintaining information over short time intervals. This idea has recently been reinterpreted in light of findings generated from multiple neural recording modalities and levels of analysis. To further investigate the sustained or transient nature of activity, the temporal-spectral evolution (TSE) of delay period activity was examined in humans with high density EEG during performance of a Sternberg working memory paradigm with a relatively long six second delay and with novel scenes as stimuli. Multiple analyses were conducted using different trial window durations and different baseline periods for TSE computation. Sensor level analyses revealed transient rather than sustained activity during delay periods. Specifically, the consistent finding among the analyses was that high amplitude activity encompassing the theta range was found early in the first three seconds of the delay period. These increases in activity early in the delay period correlated positively with subsequent ability to distinguish new from old probe scenes. Source level signal estimation implicated a right parietal region of transient early delay activity that correlated positively with working memory ability. This pattern of results adds to recent evidence that transient rather than sustained delay period activity supports visual working memory performance. The findings are discussed in relation to synchronous and desynchronous intra- and inter-regional neural transmission, and choosing an optimal baseline for expressing temporal-spectral delay activity change.

  12. Active vibration control of a sandwich plate by non-collocated positive position feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Giovanni; Amabili, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The active vibration control of a free rectangular sandwich plate by using the Positive Position Feedback (PPF) algorithm was experimentally investigated in a previous study. Four normal modes were controlled by four nearly collocated couples of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. The experimental results of the control showed some limitation, especially in the Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) configuration. This was attributed to the specific type of sensors and their conditioning, as well as to the phase shifts present in the vibration at different points of the structure. An alternative approach is here undertaken by abandoning the configuration of quasi-perfect collocation between sensor and actuator. The positioning of the piezoelectric patches is still led by the strain energy value distribution on the plate; each couple of sensor and actuator is now placed on the same face of the plate but in two distinct positions, opposed and symmetrical with respect to the geometric center of the plate. Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) PPF is tested and the transfer function parameters of the controller are tuned according to the measured values of modal damping. Then the participation matrices necessary for the MIMO control algorithm are determined by means of a completely experimental procedure. PPF is able to mitigate the vibration of the first four natural modes, in spite of the rigid body motions due to the free boundary conditions. The amplitude reduction achieved with the non-collocated configuration is much larger than the one obtained with the nearby collocated one. The phase lags were addressed in the MIMO algorithm by correction phase delays, further increasing the performance of the controller.

  13. Dynamic positioning system based on active disturbance rejection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhengling; Guo, Chen; Fan, Yunsheng

    2015-08-01

    A dynamically positioned vessel, by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the certifying class societies (DNV, ABS, LR, etc.), is defined as a vessel that maintains its position and heading (fixed location or pre-determined track) exclusively by means of active thrusters. The development of control technology promotes the upgrading of dynamic positioning (DP) systems. Today there are two different DP systems solutions available on the market: DP system based on PID regulator and that based on model-based control. Both systems have limited disturbance rejection capability due to their design principle. In this paper, a new DP system solution is proposed based on Active Disturbance Rejection Control (ADRC) technology. This technology is composed of Tracking-Differentiator (TD), Extended State Observer (ESO) and Nonlinear Feedback Combination. On one hand, both TD and ESO can act as filters and can be used in place of conventional filters; on the other hand, the total disturbance of the system can be estimated and compensated by ESO, which therefore enhances the system's disturbance rejection capability. This technology's advantages over other methods lie in two aspects: 1) This method itself can not only achieve control objectives but also filter noisy measurements without other specialized filters; 2) This method offers a new useful approach to suppress the ocean disturbance. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. The Magnetoencephalography correlate of EEG POSTS (Positive Occipital Sharp Transients of Sleep)

    PubMed Central

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Wang, Zhong I.; Enatsu, Rei; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Mosher, John C.; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.; Burgess, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In contrast to EEG, which has guidelines for interpretation and a plethora of textbooks, the full range of activity seen in Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has not been fleshed out. Currently, magnetoencephalographers apply criteria for EEG waveforms to MEG signals based on an assumption that MEG activity should have morphology that is similar to EEG. The purpose of this paper is to show the characteristic MEG profile of Positive Occipital Sharp Transients of Sleep (POSTS) Method Simultaneous MEG-EEG recordings of two cases are shown. Result In the both cases, the morphological features of POSTS in MEG vary, and sometimes mimic epileptic spikes. Conclusion This report raises a caution that a normal variant may have an even more epileptic appearance on MEG than on EEG. Employing the simultaneously recorded EEG to avoid misinterpretation of spikey-looking POSTS in MEG is a natural and prudent practice. PMID:23733086

  15. Positive and negative correlations between confidence and accuracy for the same events in recognition of categorized lists.

    PubMed

    Desoto, K Andrew; Roediger, Henry L

    2014-03-01

    Different researchers have reported positive, null, and negative relationships between confidence and accuracy in reports from memory. One possible reason for this paradox is the variety of materials used across experiments, but the two experiments reported in this article show that positive and negative confidence-accuracy correlations can be observed using a single procedure and the same materials. Subjects studied words from semantic categories and then took a recognition test while making confidence ratings. For previously studied items, positive correlations between confidence and accuracy were obtained using three different measures. Yet when confidence-accuracy correlations were assessed for unstudied items from studied categories, the correlations were zero or negative. The critical factors in determining when negative correlations will be found are the similarity of lures to presented items and the type of analysis used. These results indicate that one should be cautious about relying on confidence of recognition when rememberers must decide among highly similar events.

  16. Don't worry, be active: positive affect and habitual physical activity.

    PubMed

    Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Leslie, Eva; Berk, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The aim of ths study was to examine the association between habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect. This cross-sectional study included 276 women aged 20 +, from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Habitual physical activity and other lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire, concurrent with anthropometric assessments. Physical activity was categorized as very active, moderately active or sedentary. Positive and negative affect scores were derived from the validated 20 item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) self-report and were categorized into tertiles. There was a pattern of lower positive affect scores for lower levels of physical activity. With very active as the reference category, the odds for having a positive affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially lower for those who were moderately active (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28-1.01) and sedentary (OR = 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.75). Associations were sustained after adjusting for body mass index and polypharmacy (OR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.26-0.96 and OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.72, respectively). These associations were not explained by age, negative affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between physical activity and negative affect scores. This study reports that higher positive affect scores, encompassing emotions such as interest, excitement, enthusiasm and alertness, are associated with higher levels of habitual physical activity. These observations warrant further investigations into possible mechanistic interplay between neurobiological and psychosocial factors that underpin this association.

  17. Exploring psychosocial correlates of physical activity among children and adolescents with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Maldonado, Inês; Peralta, Miguel; Santos, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    To enhance physical activity of children with spina bifida, it is important to investigate the correlates of physical activity to support the development of interventions to promote active lifestyles. This study aimed to identify psychosocial correlates of physical activity among children and adolescents with spina bifida. A survey was conducted with 31 students (15 boys), aged 10-17 years with spina bifida. A questionnaire was used to collect data of physical activity, demographic and psychosocial variables (attitudes, sports goal orientation and perceptions). Unadjusted and adjusted binary logistic regressions were performed to examine the relationship of psychosocial factors and physical activity participation. Data were collected in 2013. Only 38.7% reported to participate in both organized and non-organized physical activity. Results showed no relationship between participation in organized and non-organized physical activity and psychosocial correlates. The result of the adjusted regression analysis show that perception of competence (OR = 9.55, 1.06-85.99, p < 0.05) was the only variable positively associated with participation in non-organized physical activity. Most of the participants reported that they did not participate in physical activity regularly. Psychosocial variables were not related with physical activity, except perception of competence. Studies with bigger samples are needed, focused on the same and in others factors to identify the predictors of physical activity of young people with spina bifida. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ERP correlates of letter identity and letter position are modulated by lexical frequency

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Martínez, Marta; Perea, Manuel; Gómez, Pablo; Swaab, Tamara Y.

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of letter position is a key aspect in all recently proposed models of visual-word recognition. We analyzed the impact of lexical frequency on letter position assignment by examining the temporal dynamics of lexical activation induced by pseudowords extracted from words of different frequencies. For each word (e.g., BRIDGE), we created two pseudowords: A transposed-letter (TL: BRIGDE) and a replaced-letter pseudoword (RL: BRITGE). ERPs were recorded while participants read words and pseudowords in two tasks: Semantic categorization (Experiment 1) and lexical decision (Experiment 2). For high-frequency stimuli, similar ERPs were obtained for words and TL-pseudowords, but the N400 component to words was reduced relative to RL-pseudowords, indicating less lexical/semantic activation. In contrast, TL- and RL-pseudowords created from low-frequency stimuli elicited similar ERPs. Behavioral responses in the lexical decision task paralleled this asymmetry. The present findings impose constraints on computational and neural models of visual-word recognition. PMID:23454070

  19. PLAP-1/Asporin Positively Regulates FGF-2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Awata, T; Yamada, S; Tsushima, K; Sakashita, H; Yamaba, S; Kajikawa, T; Yamashita, M; Takedachi, M; Yanagita, M; Kitamura, M; Murakami, S

    2015-10-01

    PLAP-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that is predominantly expressed in the periodontal ligament within periodontal tissue. It was previously revealed that PLAP-1 negatively regulates bone morphogenetic protein 2 and transforming growth factor β activity through direct interactions. However, the interaction between PLAP-1 and other growth factors has not been defined. Here, we revealed that PLAP-1 positively regulates the activity of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), a critical growth factor in tissue homeostasis and repair. In this study, we isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Plap-1(-/-) mice generated in our laboratory. Interestingly, Plap-1(-/-) MEFs exhibited enhanced responses to bone morphogenetic protein 2 but defective responses to FGF-2, and Plap-1 transfection into Plap-1(-/-) MEFs rescued these defective responses. In addition, binding assays revealed that PLAP-1 promotes FGF-2-FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) complex formation by direct binding to FGF-2. Immunocytochemistry analyses revealed colocalization of PLAP-1 and FGF-2 in wild-type MEFs and reduced colocalization of FGF-2 and FGFR1 in Plap-1(-/-) MEFs compared with wild-type MEFs. Taken together, PLAP-1 positively regulates FGF-2 activity through a direct interaction. Extracellular matrix-growth factor interactions have considerable effects; thus, this approach may be useful in several regenerative medicine applications.

  20. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T. (Inventor); Book, Michael L. (Inventor); Bryan, Thomas C. (Inventor); Bell, Joseph L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprising at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  1. Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A Global Positioning System Synchronized Active Light Autonomous Docking System (GPSSALADS) for automatically docking a chase vehicle with a target vehicle comprises at least one active light emitting target which is operatively attached to the target vehicle. The target includes a three-dimensional array of concomitantly flashing lights which flash at a controlled common frequency. The GPSSALADS further comprises a visual tracking sensor operatively attached to the chase vehicle for detecting and tracking the target vehicle. Its performance is synchronized with the flash frequency of the lights by a synchronization means which is comprised of first and second internal clocks operatively connected to the active light target and visual tracking sensor, respectively, for providing timing control signals thereto, respectively. The synchronization means further includes first and second Global Positioning System receivers operatively connected to the first and second internal clocks, respectively, for repeatedly providing simultaneous synchronization pulses to the internal clocks, respectively. In addition, the GPSSALADS includes a docking process controller means which is operatively attached to the chase vehicle and is responsive to the visual tracking sensor for producing commands for the guidance and propulsion system of the chase vehicle.

  2. Correlated gene expression supports synchronous activity in brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Richiardi, Jonas; Altmann, Andre; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; Chang, Catie; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Lemaître, Hervé; Mann, Karl F.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Spanagel, Rainer; Ströhle, Andreas; Schumann, Gunter; Hawrylycz, Mike; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Greicius, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    During rest, brain activity is synchronized between different regions widely distributed throughout the brain, forming functional networks. However, the molecular mechanisms supporting functional connectivity remain undefined. We show that functional brain networks defined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging can be recapitulated by using measures of correlated gene expression in a post mortem brain tissue data set. The set of 136 genes we identify is significantly enriched for ion channels. Polymorphisms in this set of genes significantly affect resting-state functional connectivity in a large sample of healthy adolescents. Expression levels of these genes are also significantly associated with axonal connectivity in the mouse. The results provide convergent, multimodal evidence that resting-state functional networks correlate with the orchestrated activity of dozens of genes linked to ion channel activity and synaptic function. PMID:26068849

  3. Mitral valve repair for active culture positive infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Doukas, G; Oc, M; Alexiou, C; Sosnowski, A W; Samani, N J; Spyt, T J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical and echocardiographic outcome after mitral valve (MV) repair for active culture positive infective MV endocarditis. Patients and methods Between 1996 and 2004, 36 patients (mean (SD) age 53 (18) years) with positive blood culture up to three weeks before surgery (or positive culture of material removed at operation) and intraoperative evidence of endocarditis underwent MV repair. Staphylococci and streptococci were the most common pathogens. All patients had moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (MR). Mean New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was 2.3 (1.0). Follow up was complete (mean 38 (19) months). Results Operative mortality was 2.8% (one patient). At follow up, endocarditis has not recurred. One patient developed severe recurrent MR and underwent valve replacement and one patient had moderate MR. There were two late deaths, both non‐cardiac. Kaplan‐Meier five year freedom from recurrent moderate to severe MR, freedom from repeat operation, and survival were 94 (4)%, 97 (3)%, and 93 (5)%, respectively. At the most recent review the mean NYHA class was 1.17 (0.3) (p < 0.0001). At the latest echocardiographic evaluation, left atrial diameters, left ventricular end diastolic diameter, and MV diameter were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with preoperative values. Conclusions MV repair for active culture positive endocarditis is associated with low operative mortality and provides satisfactory freedom from recurrent infection, freedom from repeat operation, and survival. Hence, every effort should be made to repair infected MVs and valves should be replaced only when repair is not possible. PMID:15951395

  4. Double-positive Goodpasture's syndrome with concomitant active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kashif, Waqar; Yaqub, Sonia; Mahmood, Syed Faisal; Patel, Junaid

    2013-07-01

    Anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease usually presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, and, when accompanied with pulmonary hemorrhage, it is called Goodpasture's syndrome. Anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) may co-exist with anti-GBM antibodies. In most of these "double positive" cases, ANCA is specific for myeloperoxidase (p-ANCA). We report a rare case of a critically ill patient c-ANCA-associated double-positive Goodpasture's syndrome with concomitant tuberculosis that was successfully treated with immunosuppression, plasmapheresis and anti-tuberculous therapy (ATT). A 32-year-old gentleman with a 15 pack-year smoking history presented with massive hemoptysis, respiratory failure and oliguria. Laboratory investigation revealed anemia, elevated creatinine and active urinary sediment. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous corticosteroids were started. Bronchoscopy showed alveolar hemorrhage and smears from bronchial lavage from both lungs were positive for acid fast bacillus (AFB). Vasculitis work-up revealed high titers of c-ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies. Kidney biopsy revealed crescents in >50% glomeruli on light microscopy. Immunofluorescence showed linear deposition of IgG and C3. The patient received pulse methylprednisone for three days followed by oral prednisone and ATT. In addition, he also underwent nine sessions of plasmapheresis. Oral Cyclophosphamide was added on Day 10. The patient showed remarkable recovery as his lung fields cleared and his kidney function got stabilized. Cyclophosphamide was continued for three months and then switched to azathioprine. At six months, the creatinine is 1.2 mg/dL, with minimal proteinuria and a normal chest X-ray. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only reported case of double-positive Goodpasture's syndrome (c-ANCA and anti GBM) with active tuberculosis treated successfully.

  5. Potential beneficial effect of some adipokines positively correlated with the adipose tissue content on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Sawicka, Magdalena; Janowska, Joanna; Chudek, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Obesity is a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. However, in the case of heart failure, obese and overweight patients have a more favourable prognosis compared to patients who have a normal body weight. This phenomenon is referred to as the "obesity paradox," and it is explained by, among others, a positive effect of adipokines produced by adipose tissue, particularly by the tissue located in the direct vicinity of the heart and blood vessels. The favourable effect on the cardiovascular system is mostly associated with adiponectin and omentin, but the levels of these substances are reduced in obese patients. Among the adipokines which levels are positively correlated with the adipose tissue content, favourable activity is demonstrated by apelin, progranulin, chemerin, TNF-α (tumour necrosis factor-)α, CTRP-3 (C1q/tumour necrosis factor (TNF) related protein), leptin, visfatin and vaspin. This activity is associated with the promotion of regeneration processes in the damaged myocardium, formation of new blood vessels, reduction of the afterload, improvement of metabolic processes in cardiomyocytes and myocardial contractile function, inhibition of apoptosis and fibrosis of the myocardium, as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atheromatous effects. The potential use of these properties in the treatment of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease, as well as in pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypertension and the limitation of the loss of cardiomyocytes during cardioplegia-requiring cardiosurgical procedures, is studied. The most advanced studies focus on analogues of apelin and progranulin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis in Primary Sjögren Syndrome: Correlation Between Low Ankle Brachial Index and Autoantibodies Positivity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ana Beatriz Andrêo; Dardin, Luciana Paula; Minali, Paulo Alexandre; Czapkowsky, Adriano; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Trevisani, Virginia Fernandes Moça

    2016-09-01

    Primary Sjögren syndrome is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease. The delay in diagnosis allows the establishment of a chronic inflammatory state, which makes primary Sjögren syndrome an interesting model for the study of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate subclinical atherosclerosis in 49 patients with Sjögren syndrome using noninvasive methods. We assessed traditional risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and family history of atherosclerosis. Patients with prior cardiovascular events and a history of atherosclerosis were excluded. Clinical and laboratory features were recorded, as well as the European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Activity Index calculation. The atherosclerosis evaluation was done by carotid intima-media thickness, measured by ultrasonography, and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Fifteen patients (31%) had at least 1 traditional risk factor, and 65.3% had a European League Against Rheumatism Sjögren's Syndrome Activity Index score from mild to moderate. Only 2 patients had increased carotid intima-media thickness. However, 59% presented ABI alterations. Multiple correspondence analysis showed a clear correlation between low ABI and the positivity of autoantibodies (antinuclear antibodies, anti-SSA, rheumatoid factor). The subgroup of patients with positive autoantibodies showed low ABI, which may represent a higher risk of early atherosclerosis and indicate the need for more careful monitoring in this group.

  7. Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.

    PubMed

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-18

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.

  8. Schizotypal Perceptual Aberrations of Time: Correlation between Score, Behavior and Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Arzy, Shahar; Mohr, Christine; Molnar-Szakacs, Istvan; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances – including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS) similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum. PMID:21267456

  9. Critical mingling and universal correlations in model binary active liquids

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Nicolas; Bartolo, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Ensembles of driven or motile bodies moving along opposite directions are generically reported to self-organize into strongly anisotropic lanes. Here, building on a minimal model of self-propelled bodies targeting opposite directions, we first evidence a critical phase transition between a mingled state and a phase-separated lane state specific to active particles. We then demonstrate that the mingled state displays algebraic structural correlations also found in driven binary mixtures. Finally, constructing a hydrodynamic theory, we single out the physical mechanisms responsible for these universal long-range correlations typical of ensembles of oppositely moving bodies. PMID:28656963

  10. Critical mingling and universal correlations in model binary active liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, Nicolas; Bartolo, Denis

    2017-06-01

    Ensembles of driven or motile bodies moving along opposite directions are generically reported to self-organize into strongly anisotropic lanes. Here, building on a minimal model of self-propelled bodies targeting opposite directions, we first evidence a critical phase transition between a mingled state and a phase-separated lane state specific to active particles. We then demonstrate that the mingled state displays algebraic structural correlations also found in driven binary mixtures. Finally, constructing a hydrodynamic theory, we single out the physical mechanisms responsible for these universal long-range correlations typical of ensembles of oppositely moving bodies.

  11. Positive correlation between genetic diversity and fitness in a large, well-connected metapopulation

    PubMed Central

    Vandewoestijne, Sofie; Schtickzelle, Nicolas; Baguette, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Background Theory predicts that lower dispersal, and associated gene flow, leads to decreased genetic diversity in small isolated populations, which generates adverse consequences for fitness, and subsequently for demography. Here we report for the first time this effect in a well-connected natural butterfly metapopulation with high population densities at the edge of its distribution range. Results We demonstrate that: (1) lower genetic diversity was coupled to a sharp decrease in adult lifetime expectancy, a key component of individual fitness; (2) genetic diversity was positively correlated to the number of dispersing individuals (indicative of landscape functional connectivity) and adult population size; (3) parameters inferred from capture-recapture procedures (population size and dispersal events between patches) correlated much better with genetic diversity than estimates usually used as surrogates for population size (patch area and descriptors of habitat quality) and dispersal (structural connectivity index). Conclusion Our results suggest that dispersal is a very important factor maintaining genetic diversity. Even at a very local spatial scale in a metapopulation consisting of large high-density populations interconnected by considerable dispersal rates, genetic diversity can be decreased and directly affect the fitness of individuals. From a biodiversity conservation perspective, this study clearly shows the benefits of both in-depth demographic and genetic analyses. Accordingly, to ensure the long-term survival of populations, conservation actions should not be blindly based on patch area and structural isolation. This result may be especially pertinent for species at their range margins, particularly in this era of rapid environmental change. PMID:18986515

  12. Expression of CD44 isoforms in renal cell tumors. Positive correlation to tumor differentiation.

    PubMed Central

    Terpe, H. J.; Störkel, S.; Zimmer, U.; Anquez, V.; Fischer, C.; Pantel, K.; Günthert, U.

    1996-01-01

    CD44 isoforms have been implicated in tumor progression and embryogenesis. Primary renal cell tumors (n = 100) of various histopathological differentiation and grading stages were analyzed for expression of CD44 isoforms in comparison with nonmalignant adult and fetal renal tissues. Evaluations were performed by immunohistochemistry using CD44 isoform-specific monoclonal antibodies and by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). In the nonmalignant kidney no CD44 variant isoforms were detected. There was a significant increase in expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and several variant isoforms (CD44v) in the course of tumor differentiation in clear cell carcinomas (n = 68) from stages G1 to G3 (P < 0.0001 for CD44s and isoforms containing CD44-6v, and P < 0.007 for those containing CD44-9v). Also, in chromophilic cell carcinomas (n = 13), CD44 isoform expression correlated with grading; ie, no CD44 expression was detected in G1 tumors, whereas in approximately 50% of the G2 tumors, CD44s, CD44-6v, and CD44-9v isoforms were present. Oncocytomas (n = 8), which are benign renal cell tumors, did not express CD44 isoforms, whereas invasive chromophobe cell carcinomas (n = 11) were positive for CD44s and CD44v isoforms. Transcript analyses by RT-PCR revealed that the upregulated isoforms in the carcinoma cells contained exons 8 to 10 and 3, 8 to 10 in combination from the variant region. In conclusion, expression of variant CD44 isoforms was strongly correlated with grading and appears to mediate a more aggressive phenotype to renal cell tumors. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8579108

  13. Mitochondrial Inhibitory Factor 1 (IF1) Is Present in Human Serum and Is Positively Correlated with HDL-Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Genoux, Annelise; Pons, Véronique; Radojkovic, Claudia; Roux-Dalvai, Florence; Combes, Guillaume; Rolland, Corinne; Malet, Nicole; Monsarrat, Bernard; Lopez, Frédéric; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Martinez, Laurent O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial ATP synthase is expressed as a plasma membrane receptor for apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein component in High Density Lipoproteins (HDL). On hepatocytes, apoA-I binds to cell surface ATP synthase (namely ecto-F1-ATPase) and stimulates its ATPase activity, generating extracellular ADP. This production of extracellular ADP activates a P2Y13-mediated HDL endocytosis pathway. Conversely, exogenous IF1, classically known as a natural mitochondrial specific inhibitor of F1-ATPase activity, inhibits ecto-F1-ATPase activity and decreases HDL endocytosis by both human hepatocytes and perfused rat liver. Methodology/Principal Findings Since recent reports also described the presence of IF1 at the plasma membrane of different cell types, we investigated whether IF1 is present in the systemic circulation in humans. We first unambiguously detected IF1 in human serum by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. We then set up a competitive ELISA assay in order to quantify its level in human serum. Analyses of IF1 levels in 100 normolipemic male subjects evidenced a normal distribution, with a median value of 0.49 µg/mL and a 95% confidence interval of 0.22–0.82 µg/mL. Correlations between IF1 levels and serum lipid levels demonstrated that serum IF1 levels are positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and negatively with triglycerides (TG). Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these data support the view that, in humans, circulating IF1 might affect HDL levels by inhibiting hepatic HDL uptake and also impact TG metabolism. PMID:21935367

  14. The Distribution of Active Force Generators Controls Mitotic Spindle Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, Stephan W.; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Hyman, Anthony A.

    2003-07-01

    During unequal cell divisions a mitotic spindle is eccentrically positioned before cell cleavage. To determine the basis of the net force imbalance that causes spindle displacement in one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we fragmented centrosomes with an ultraviolet laser. Analysis of the mean and variance of fragment speeds suggests that the force imbalance is due to a larger number of force generators pulling on astral microtubules of the posterior aster relative to the anterior aster. Moreover, activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) α subunits is required to generate these astral forces.

  15. Correlates of lifestyle: physical activity among South Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis F; Miller, Arlene Michaels

    2013-01-01

    South Asian immigrants are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, but little is known about their physical activity patterns. In this cross-sectional study, 110 participants were recruited to describe lifestyle physical activity behavior of this at-risk population. Education (p = .042), global health (p = .045), and self-efficacy (p = .000) had significant positive independent effects on leisure-time physical activity. Depression (p = .035) and waist circumference (p = .012) had significant negative independent effects, and frequency of experiencing discrimination a significant positive independent effect (p = .007) on daily step counts. Culture-sensitive physical activity interventions need to target South Asian Indian immigrants who are less educated, in poor health, concerned about racial discrimination, and have low self-efficacy.

  16. Increasing Specificity of Correlate Research: Exploring Correlates of Children’s Lunchtime and After-School Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Rebecca M.; Ridley, Kate; Olds, Timothy S.; Dollman, James

    2014-01-01

    Background The lunchtime and after-school contexts are critical windows in a school day for children to be physically active. While numerous studies have investigated correlates of children’s habitual physical activity, few have explored correlates of physical activity occurring at lunchtime and after-school from a social-ecological perspective. Exploring correlates that influence physical activity occurring in specific contexts can potentially improve the prediction and understanding of physical activity. Using a context-specific approach, this study investigated correlates of children’s lunchtime and after-school physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 423 South Australian children aged 10.0–13.9 years (200 boys; 223 girls) attending 10 different schools. Lunchtime and after-school physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Correlates were assessed using purposely developed context-specific questionnaires. Correlated Component Regression analysis was conducted to derive correlates of context-specific physical activity and determine the variance explained by prediction equations. Results The model of boys’ lunchtime physical activity contained 6 correlates and explained 25% of the variance. For girls, the model explained 17% variance from 9 correlates. Enjoyment of walking during lunchtime was the strongest correlate for both boys and girls. Boys’ and girls’ after-school physical activity models explained 20% variance from 14 correlates and 7% variance from the single item correlate, “I do an organised sport or activity after-school because it gets you fit”, respectively. Conclusions Increasing specificity of correlate research has enabled the identification of unique features of, and a more in-depth interpretation of, lunchtime and after-school physical activity behaviour and is a potential strategy for advancing the physical activity correlate research field. The findings of this study could be used to inform

  17. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. Methods A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants’ exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Results Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (p < .05) associated with methamphetamine use in adulthood, difficulties with mood, and with symptoms of trauma. Results of a hierarchical regression equation found that report of bullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. Conclusions The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV-positive

  18. The impact of childhood bullying among HIV-positive men: psychosocial correlates and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2013-04-01

    While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants' exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (p<.05) associated with methamphetamine use in adulthood, difficulties with mood, and with symptoms of trauma. Results of a hierarchical regression equation found that report of bullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV-positive populations. Copyright © 2012

  19. Abdominopelvic hemorrhage: correlation of CT positivity with the subsequent decision to perform blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Chong, Suzanne T; Ellis, James H; Cohan, Richard H; Knoepp, Ursula S; Langley, Travis J; Lau, Darryl; Khalatbari, Shokoufeh

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of computed tomography (CT) on the decision to administer blood transfusions in patients with abdominopelvic hemorrhage (trauma, surgery, invasive procedure, and spontaneous) and to determine the clinical parameters most likely to influence the decision to administer blood transfusions in patients with spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage. In this IRB approved and HIPPA compliant study, retrospective analysis was performed on 298 patients undergoing abdominal and pelvic CT for suspected abdominopelvic hemorrhage and the CT reports and electronic medical records were reviewed. Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated to compare the odds of abdominopelvic hemorrhage and transfusion for categorical and continuous predictors. The presence of abdominopelvic hemorrhage by CT was significantly associated with blood transfusions for trauma patients (p-value <0.0001) only. 106 patients with suspected spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage had the lowest CT positivity rate (n = 23, 21.7%) but the highest blood transfusion rate (n = 62, 58.5%) compared to the patients with abdominopelvic hemorrhage from known preceding causes. In patients with spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage, low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels immediately prior to obtaining the CT study were more predictive for receiving a blood transfusion (p-value <0.0001) than the presence of hemorrhage by CT. CT positivity is strongly correlated with the decision to administer blood transfusions for patients with abdominopelvic hemorrhage from trauma, indicating that CT studies play a significant role in determining the clinical management of trauma patients. For patients with spontaneous abdominopelvic hemorrhage, the decision to transfuse depends not on the CT study but on the patient's hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. CT studies should therefore not be performed for the sole purpose of determining the need for blood transfusion in patients with spontaneous

  20. Prediction of Spatiotemporal Patterns of Neural Activity from Pairwise Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Marre, O.; El Boustani, S.; Fregnac, Y.; Destexhe, A.

    2009-04-03

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatiotemporal patterns significantly better than Ising models only based on spatial correlations. This increase of predictability was also observed on experimental data recorded in parietal cortex during slow-wave sleep. This approach can also be used to generate surrogates that reproduce the spatial and temporal correlations of a given data set.

  1. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  2. Are the correlates of active school transport context-specific?

    PubMed Central

    Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Broyles, S T; Denstel, K D; Church, T S; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous research consistently indicates that children who engage in active school transport (AST) are more active than their peers who use motorized modes (car or bus). However, studies of the correlates of AST have been conducted predominantly in high-income countries and have yielded mixed findings. Using data from a heterogeneous sample of 12 country sites across the world, we investigated the correlates of AST in 9–11-year olds. METHODS: The analytical sample comprised 6555 children (53.8% girls), who reported their main travel mode to school and the duration of their school trip. Potential individual and neighborhood correlates of AST were assessed with a parent questionnaire adapted from previously validated instruments. Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) were used to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood variables and the odds of engaging in AST while controlling for the child's school. Site moderated the relationship of seven of these variables with AST; therefore we present analyses stratified by site. RESULTS: The prevalence of AST varied from 5.2 to 79.4% across sites and the school-level intra-class correlation ranged from 0.00 to 0.56. For each site, the final GLMM included a different set of correlates of AST. Longer trip duration (that is, ⩾16 min versus ⩽15 min) was associated with lower odds of AST in eight sites. Other individual and neighborhood factors were associated with AST in three sites or less. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate wide variability in the prevalence and correlates of AST in a large sample of children from twelve geographically, economically and culturally diverse country sites. This suggests that AST interventions should not adopt a ‘one size fits all' approach. Future research should also explore the association between psychosocial factors and AST in different countries. PMID:27152191

  3. The diversity and abundance of bacteria inhabiting seafloor lavas positively correlate with rock alteration.

    PubMed

    Santelli, Cara M; Edgcomb, Virginia P; Bach, Wolfgang; Edwards, Katrina J

    2009-01-01

    Young, basaltic ocean crust exposed near mid-ocean ridge spreading centers present a spatially extensive environment that may be exploited by epi- and endolithic microbes in the deep sea. Geochemical energy released during basalt alteration reactions can theoretically support chemosynthesis, contributing to a trophic base for the ocean crust biome. To examine associations between endolithic microorganisms and basalt alteration processes, we compare the phylogenetic diversity, abundance and community structure of bacteria existing in several young, seafloor lavas from the East Pacific Rise at approximately 9 degrees N that are variably affected by oxidative seawater alteration. The results of 16S rRNA gene analyses and real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements show that the abundance of prokaryotic communities, dominated by the bacterial domain, positively correlates with the extent of rock alteration--the oldest, most altered basalt harbours the greatest microbial biomass. The bacterial community overlap, structure and species richness relative to alteration state is less explicit, but broadly corresponds to sample characteristics (type of alteration products and general alteration state). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the basalt biome may contribute to the geochemical cycling of Fe, S, Mn, C and N in the deep sea.

  4. Positive Carotenoid Balance Correlates with Greater Reproductive Performance in a Wild Bird

    PubMed Central

    Safran, Rebecca J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Wilkins, Matthew R.; Hubbard, Joanna K.; Marling, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background Carotenoids can confer somatic and reproductive benefits, but most evidence is from captive animal experimentation or single time-point sampling. Another perhaps more informative means by which to assess physiological contributions to animal performance is by tracking an individual's ability to increase or sustain carotenoids or other health-related molecules over time, as these are likely to be temporally variable. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field study of North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster), we analyzed within-individual changes in carotenoid concentrations by repeatedly sampling the carotenoid profiles of individuals over the course of the breeding season. Our results demonstrate that carotenoid concentrations of individuals are temporally dynamic and that season-long balance of these molecules, rather than single time-point samples, predict reproductive performance. This was true even when controlling for two important variables associated with reproductive outcomes: (1) timing of breeding and (2) sexually selected plumage coloration, which is itself positively correlated with and concomitantly changes with circulating carotenoid concentrations. Conclusions/Significance While reproduction itself is purported to impose health stress on organisms, these data suggest that free-ranging, high-quality individuals can mitigate such costs, by one or several genetic, environmental (diet), or physiological mechanisms. Moreover, the temporal variations in both health-linked physiological measures and morphological traits we uncover here merit further examination in other species, especially when goals include the estimation of signal information content or the costs of trait expression. PMID:20195540

  5. Positional correlative anatomy of invertebrate model organisms increases efficiency of TEM data production.

    PubMed

    Kolotuev, Irina

    2014-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an important tool for studies in cell biology, and is essential to address research questions from bacteria to animals. Recent technological innovations have advanced the entire field of TEM, yet classical techniques still prevail for most present-day studies. Indeed, the majority of cell and developmental biology studies that use TEM do not require cutting-edge methodologies, but rather fast and efficient data generation. Although access to state-of-the-art equipment is frequently problematic, standard TEM microscopes are typically available, even in modest research facilities. However, a major unmet need in standard TEM is the ability to quickly prepare and orient a sample to identify a region of interest. Here, I provide a detailed step-by-step method for a positional correlative anatomy approach to flat-embedded samples. These modifications make the TEM preparation and analytic procedures faster and more straightforward, supporting a higher sampling rate. To illustrate the modified procedures, I provide numerous examples addressing research questions in Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila. This method can be equally applied to address questions of cell and developmental biology in other small multicellular model organisms.

  6. Basal metabolic rate is positively correlated with parental investment in laboratory mice

    PubMed Central

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K.; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation capacity (AC) hypothesis for the evolution of endothermy predicts that the maternal basal metabolic rate (BMR) should be positively correlated with the capacity for parental investment. In this study, we provide a unique test of the AC model based on mice from a long-term selection experiment designed to produce divergent levels of BMR. By constructing experimental families with cross-fostered litters, we were able to control for the effect of the mother as well as the type of pup based on the selected lines. We found that mothers with genetically determined high levels of BMR were characterized by higher parental investment capacity, measured as the offspring growth rate. We also found higher food consumption and heavier visceral organs in the females with high BMR. These findings suggested that the high-BMR females have higher energy acquisition abilities. When the effect of the line type of a foster mother was controlled, the pup line type significantly affected the growth rate only in the first week of life, with young from the high-BMR line type growing more rapidly. Our results support the predictions of the AC model. PMID:23282996

  7. Examination marks of male university students positively correlate with finger length ratios (2D:4D).

    PubMed

    Romano, Maria; Leoni, Barbara; Saino, Nicola

    2006-02-01

    Intersexual and intrasexual variation in second to fourth digit length (2D:4D) in humans may result from differential exposure to fetal testosterone. 2D:4D predicts several physiological, psychological and performance traits in adulthood. These relationships may reflect the 'pleiotropic' effects of testosterone on development of digits and diverse organ systems, which are expressed in adulthood. We hypothesized that 2D:4D also predicts academic success of students. 2D:4D of right hand positively predicted examination marks of males from two three-year degree courses (TYDCs). Marks of females did not covary with 2D:4D. Males from the two TYDCs differed in 2D:4D. The present results thus add to the rapidly accumulating literature on 2D:4D showing correlations with phenotypic traits in humans. If testosterone affects 2D:4D and intellectual performance, our results suggest that testosterone levels are under stabilizing selection because of effects on performance traits documented in previous studies and antagonistic effects on intellectual performance (present study).

  8. Correlation retina in standard 0.6μm: application in positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubreton, Olivier; Voon, Lew F. L. Y.; Lamalle, Bernard; Cathebras, Guy; Gorria, Patrick; Bellach, Benaissa

    2003-04-01

    We have designed and fabricated a programmable retina that is capable of recognizing patterns stored in memory in real-time. Each of the pixels of the retina is composed of a photodiode and an electronic device used during the programming phase to digitize the image of the pattern to recognize into a binary image stored in latches. The array of pixels is thus partitioned into two complementary disjoint sub-sets with all the photodiodes of the same sub-set connected together in order to obtain the sum total of the currents. During the analysis phase, an optical correlation between the projected image and the reference binary image memorized in the circuit is done. The result is read-out as two voltages representing the following two currents: a "white" current proportional to the luminous flux falling on the photodiodes pertaining to the "white" part of the binary reference image and a "black" current corresponding to the black part. By comparing these two voltages to expected values, a shift of the pattern or a difference between the observed and programmed pattern can be detected. The retina has been fabricated in standard 0.6μm CMOS technology with three layers of metal from Austria Micro Systems. It consists of a 100×100 pixels image sensor. We present here an application of this sensor for industrial positioning system.

  9. Correlation of lysozyme activity and stability in the presence of Hofmeister series anions.

    PubMed

    Garajová, Katarína; Balogová, Anna; Dušeková, Eva; Sedláková, Dagmar; Sedlák, Erik; Varhač, Rastislav

    2017-03-01

    Enzymatic activity and stability of lysozyme in the presence of salts have been studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The effect of sodium salts of sulfate, acetate, chloride, bromide, thiocyanate, and perchlorate on lysozyme properties depends on anion concentration as well as on position of anion in the Hofmeister series. Kosmotropic anions (sulfate and acetate) increase stability and activate the enzyme while chaotropic anions (bromide, thiocyanate and perchlorate) including chloride decrease stability and inhibits the enzyme activity. Strong correlation between stability and activity of lysozyme suggest the interdependence of these enzyme properties in the presence of salts. The fact that the properties of lysozyme correlate with partition coefficients of anions at hydrocarbon surface clearly indicates that Hofmeister effect of anions is mediated by their interactions with nonpolar parts of the enzyme surface despite its high positive net charge at studied conditions. The efficiency of the anions in affecting both activity and stability of lysozyme also correlates with other anion-related parameters most notably with polarizability of monovalent anions. The presented work points to a critical role of interaction of anions with nonpolar protein surface for the Hofmeister effect. Moreover, the simultaneous investigation of protein stability and activity, in the relation with the Hofmeister effect, provides important information regarding stability/rigidity of enzyme structure for its catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  11. Direct evidence that PKCα positively regulates wound re-epithelialization: correlation with changes in desmosomal adhesiveness.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Helen A; Cooper, Nichola H; Ansell, David M; Chiu, Maybo; Merrit, Anita J; Hardman, Matthew J; Garrod, David R

    2012-07-01

    Non-healing wounds cause considerable patient morbidity and represent a significant economic burden. Central to wound repair is re-epithelialization, a crucial process involving the modulation of cell adhesion to allow keratinocyte migration to cover the exposed underlying tissues. The cellular mechanisms regulating the earliest stages of re-epithelialization are unclear. We present the first direct evidence that protein kinase Cα (PKCα) plays an important role in regulating wound re-epithelialization. In PKCα(-/-) mice re-epithelialization is delayed, while in novel bitransgenic mice over-expressing constitutively active PKCα it is accelerated. These effects are not due to changes in keratinocyte proliferation, apoptosis or intrinsic cell motility. Instead, they correlate with changes in desmosomal adhesiveness, delay being preceded by retained desmosomal hyper-adhesiveness and acceleration with a rapid switch to desmosomal Ca(2+) -dependence. We demonstrate mechanistic conservation in acute human wounds where PKCα localizes to wound edge desmosomes, which become Ca(2+) -dependent. However, in chronic wounds PKCα remains cytoplasmic and desmosomes fail to switch from the hyper-adhesive state. These results throw new mechanistic light on the earliest stages of wound re-epithelialization and suggest activation of PKCα as a new therapeutic strategy for non-healing wounds. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Correlations among impairment, daily activities and thinking operations after stroke.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Shadi; Lyden, Patrick D; Kamali, Mohamad; Fahimi, Malahat Akbar

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that ADL tests dependent on cortical functions could be used to assess outcome in stroke patients. 27 right-handed stroke patients were evaluated on National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Barthel Index (BI), Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) Scale and thinking process items of Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA). Correlations between thinking process subtests of LOTCA and different items of NIHSS such as consciousness, arm movement, aphasia, ataxia and inattention was significant. Spearman correlation of thinking process and BI tasks showed no relationship, although Structured Riska of thinking process evaluation was correlated to both self-care and mobility areas of the BI. Thinking process was strongly related to IADL total score (p = 0.004). The total NIHSS correlated significantly with BI and IADL total scores. Higher-order functions, such as categorization, sorting and reasoning, are related to IADL performance which depends on complicated cognitive abilities. In contrast, the BI depends heavily on motoric function, and does not correlate with higher-order functions. Further confirmation is needed, but our data suggest that commonly used IADL tests could serve to as valid, reliable tests of cognitive impairment and recovery in stroke victims.

  13. Structure-activity relationships of alkylxanthines: alkyl chain elongation at the N1- or N7-position decreases cardiotonic activity in the isolated guinea pig heart.

    PubMed

    Sanae, F; Ohmae, S; Kurita, M; Sawanishi, H; Takagi, K; Miyamoto, K

    1995-10-01

    Relationships between the alkyl substitutions (C1-C6) and cardiac inotropic activities of xanthine derivatives were studied in isolated guinea pig heart muscles. Most of the alkylxanthines exhibited positive inotropic activity on the left atrium, which was increased with an elongation of alkyl chain at the N3-position but decreased by substitution of a long alkyl group at the N1- or N7-position of the xanthine skeleton. Although positive inotropic activity in the right ventricular papillary muscle was also increased by longer alkyl groups at the N3-position, the inotropic activity became negative with an increment in alkyl chain length at the N1- or N7-position. The positive inotropic activity of alkylxanthines was correlated with their inhibitory activity on the phosphodiesterase (PDE) III isoenzyme. Adenosine A1 antagonism and PDE IV inhibitory activity were also partly associated with the inotropic activity because H-89, an inhibitor of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, diminished the positive inotropic action and potentiated the negative inotropic action. These results indicate that the positive inotropic activity of alkylxanthines becomes weak with elongation of alkyl chains at the N1- and N7-positions; In particular, xanthines having two long alkyl chains show a negative inotropic activity on the right ventricular papillary muscle, an effect that could not be elucidated from their cyclic AMP-dependent action.

  14. Correlation between preoperative magnetic resonance spectroscopic data on high grade gliomas and morphology of Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nafe, Reinhold; Herminghaus, Sebastian; Raab, Peter; Wagner, Sabine; Pilatus, Ulrich; Schlote, Wolfgang; Zanella, Friedhelm; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2003-06-01

    To investigate possible statistical correlations between metabolic data from preoperative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1HMRS) and morphology of proliferating tumor cell nuclei in anaplastic gliomas and glioblastomas. Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei in paraffin sections of surgical specimens from 36 patients (7 anaplastic gliomas, World Health Organization grade 3; 29 glioblastomas, World Health Organization grade 4) were investigated by means of a digital image analysis system. Stringent inclusion criteria were formulated for all cases with respect to histologic quality and spectroscopic examination. As morphometric variables, nuclear area, shape variables (roundness factor, size-invariate Fourier amplitudes) and density of Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei per reference area were determined. Correlation analysis according to Spearman revealed a significant positive correlation between the total creatine (TCR) peak and nuclear area (P = .005). This correlation was also found within the glioblastoma group (P = .019). There was also a significant negative correlation of nuclear area with the ratio between choline and TCR in all cases (P = .014) and within the glioblastoma group (P = .046). No significant correlation of spectroscopic data was found with nuclear shape or density of Ki-67-positive tumor cell nuclei. The results demonstrate a correlation between spectroscopic data and morphology of proliferating tumor cell nuclei (nuclear size) in high grade gliomas. This study is part of a detailed investigation of the interrelationship between preoperative 1HMRS and quantitative histomorphology of gliomas.

  15. Adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on parent-adolescent positivity and negativity: Implications for genotype-environment correlation.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David

    2016-02-01

    We examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and nonpassive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. The findings indicated that nonpassive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father-adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than in families with younger adolescents, and that passive gene-environment correlation played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed.

  16. [Correlation of brain electrical activity and motivation in healthy people].

    PubMed

    Bogovin, L V; Nakhamchen, D L; Kolosov, V P; Perel'man, Iu M

    2014-01-01

    Motivation dominates in the structure of the personality and is one of the basic notions which explains the dynamics of the behavior. The literature has little data about neurophysiology of motivation. The aim of the research was to study the correlation between the motivational sphere and electrical activity of the brain at the influence of different provocations. 24 healthy people at the age of 26-36 years were examined. The results of motivation tests turned out to be uniform (the motivation to success was of a moderate or high level, there were mean values of readiness to risk and low motivation to achievement and approval). Multiple correlations between different types of motivation and electrical activity of the brain at rest, at hyperventilation with room temperature air and at isocapnic cold air hyperventilation were revealed.

  17. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma oxytocin concentrations are positively correlated and negatively predict anxiety in children.

    PubMed

    Carson, D S; Berquist, S W; Trujillo, T H; Garner, J P; Hannah, S L; Hyde, S A; Sumiyoshi, R D; Jackson, L P; Moss, J K; Strehlow, M C; Cheshier, S H; Partap, S; Hardan, A Y; Parker, K J

    2015-09-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) exerts anxiolytic and prosocial effects in the central nervous system of rodents. A number of recent studies have attempted to translate these findings by investigating the relationships between peripheral (e.g., blood, urinary and salivary) OXT concentrations and behavioral functioning in humans. Although peripheral samples are easy to obtain in humans, whether peripheral OXT measures are functionally related to central OXT activity remains unclear. To investigate a possible relationship, we quantified OXT concentrations in concomitantly collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples from child and adult patients undergoing clinically indicated lumbar punctures or other CSF-related procedures. Anxiety scores were obtained in a subset of child participants whose parents completed psychometric assessments. Findings from this study indicate that plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively predict CSF OXT concentrations (r=0.56, P=0.0064, N=27). Moreover, both plasma (r=-0.92, P=0.0262, N=10) and CSF (r=-0.91, P=0.0335, N=10) OXT concentrations significantly and negatively predicted trait anxiety scores, consistent with the preclinical literature. Importantly, plasma OXT concentrations significantly and positively (r=0.96, P=0.0115, N=10) predicted CSF OXT concentrations in the subset of child participants who provided behavioral data. This study provides the first empirical support for the use of blood measures of OXT as a surrogate for central OXT activity, validated in the context of behavioral functioning. These preliminary findings also suggest that impaired OXT signaling may be a biomarker of anxiety in humans, and a potential target for therapeutic development in individuals with anxiety disorders.

  18. CpG methylation at GATA elements in the regulatory region of CCR3 positively correlates with CCR3 transcription.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Tae Gi; Lee, Seol Kyung; Kim, Byung Soo; Kang, Jin Hyun; Park, Choon Sik; Rhim, Tai Youn; Chang, Hun Soo; Kim, Do Jin; Chung, Il Yup

    2012-04-30

    DNA methylation may regulate gene expression by restricting the access of transcription factors. We have previously demonstrated that GATA-1 regulates the transcription of the CCR3 gene by dynamically interacting with both positively and negatively acting GATA elements of high affinity binding in the proximal promoter region including exon 1. Exon 1 has three CpG sites, two of which are positioned at the negatively acting GATA elements. We hypothesized that the methylation of these two CpGs sites might preclude GATA-1 binding to the negatively acting GATA elements and, as a result, increase the availability of GATA-1 to the positively acting GATA element, thereby contributing to an increase in GATA-1-mediated transcription of the gene. To this end, we determined the methylation of the three CpG sites by bisulfate pyrosequencing in peripheral blood eosinophils, cord blood (CB)-derived eosinophils, PBMCs, and cell lines that vary in CCR3 mRNA expression. Our results demonstrated that methylation of CpG sites at the negatively acting GATA elements severely reduced GATA-1 binding and augmented transcription activity in vitro. In agreement, methylation of these CpG sites positively correlated with CCR3 mRNA expression in the primary cells and cell lines examined. Interestingly, methylation patterns of these three CpG sites in CB-derived eosinophils mostly resembled those in peripheral blood eosinophils. These results suggest that methylation of CpG sites at the GATA elements in the regulatory regions fine-tunes CCR3 transcription.

  19. [Correlation Between Functional Groups and Radical Scavenging Activities of Acidic Polysaccharides from Dendrobium].

    PubMed

    Liao, Ying; Yuan, Wen-yu; Zheng, Wen-ke; Luo, Ao-xue; Fan, Yi-jun

    2015-11-01

    To compare the radical scavenging activity of five different acidic polysaccharides, and to find the correlation with the functional groups. Alkali extraction method and Stepwise ethanol precipitation method were used to extract and concentrate the five Dendrobium polysaccharides, and to determine the contents of sulfuric acid and uronic acid of each kind of acidic polysaccharides, and the scavenging activity to ABTS+ radical and hydroxyl radical. Functional group structures were examined by FTIR Spectrometer. Five kinds of Dendrobium polysaccharides had different ability of scavenging ABTS+ free radical and hydroxyl free radical. Moreover, the study had shown that five kinds of antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharides had obvious correlation withuronic acid and sulfuric acid. The antioxidant activity of each sample was positively correlated with the content of uronic acid, and negatively correlated with the content of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid can inhibit the antioxidant activity of acidic polysaccharide but uronic acid can enhance the free radical scavenging activity. By analyzing the structure characteristics of five acidic polysaccharides, all samples have similar structures, however, Dendrobium denneanum, Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium officinale which had β configuration have higher antioxidant activity than Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium fimbriatum which had a configuration.

  20. Diffusional correlations among multiple active sites in a single enzyme.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Carlos; Kapral, Raymond

    2014-04-07

    Simulations of the enzymatic dynamics of a model enzyme containing multiple substrate binding sites indicate the existence of diffusional correlations in the chemical reactivity of the active sites. A coarse-grain, particle-based, mesoscopic description of the system, comprising the enzyme, the substrate, the product and solvent, is constructed to study these effects. The reactive and non-reactive dynamics is followed using a hybrid scheme that combines molecular dynamics for the enzyme, substrate and product molecules with multiparticle collision dynamics for the solvent. It is found that the reactivity of an individual active site in the multiple-active-site enzyme is reduced substantially, and this effect is analyzed and attributed to diffusive competition for the substrate among the different active sites in the enzyme.

  1. Relationship between gluteal muscle activation and upper extremity kinematics and kinetics in softball position players.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-03-01

    As the biomechanical literature concerning softball pitching is evolving, there are no data to support the mechanics of softball position players. Pitching literature supports the whole kinetic chain approach including the lower extremity in proper throwing mechanics. The purpose of this project was to examine the gluteal muscle group activation patterns and their relationship with shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics during the overhead throwing motion of softball position players. Eighteen Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association softball players (19.2 ± 1.0 years; 68.9 ± 8.7 kg; 168.6 ± 6.6 cm) who were listed on the active playing roster volunteered. Electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic data were collected while players caught a simulated hit or pitched ball and perform their position throw. Pearson correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between non-throwing gluteus maximus during the phase of maximum external rotation to maximum internal rotation (MIR) and elbow moments at ball release (r = -0.52). While at ball release, trunk flexion and rotation both had a positive relationship with shoulder moments at MIR (r = 0.69, r = 0.82, respectively) suggesting that the kinematic actions of the pelvis and trunk are strongly related to the actions of the shoulder during throwing.

  2. Circulating ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development.

    PubMed

    Úri, Katalin; Fagyas, Miklós; Kertész, Attila; Borbély, Attila; Jenei, Csaba; Bene, Orsolya; Csanádi, Zoltán; Paulus, Walter J; Édes, István; Papp, Zoltán; Tóth, Attila; Lizanecz, Erzsébet

    2016-10-01

    It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2) elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) n=47). ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24.8±0.8 U/ml) than that in healthy volunteers (16.2±0.8 U/ml, p=0.01). ACE2 activity further increased in HFrEF patients (43.9±2.1 U/ml, p=0.001) but not in HFpEF patients (24.6±1.9 U/ml) when compared with hypertensive patients. Serum ACE2 activity negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function in HFrEF, but not in hypertensive, HFpEF or healthy populations. Serum ACE2 activity had a fair diagnostic value to differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF patients in this study. Serum ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development: it increases when hypertension develops and further increases when the cardiovascular disease further progresses to systolic dysfunction, suggesting that ACE2 metabolism plays a role in these processes. In contrast, serum ACE2 activity does not change when hypertension progresses to HFpEF, suggesting a different pathomechanism for HFpEF, and proposing a biomarker-based identification of these HF forms. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Correlation of stress and muscle activity of patients with different degrees of temporomandibular disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tosato, Juliana de Paiva; Caria, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Gomes, Cid Andre Fidelis de Paula; Berzin, Fausto; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Temporomandibular disorder is one of the many different adverse health conditions that can be triggered by stress. Therefore, a biopsychosocial model has been proposed to characterize the multifactorial nature of temporomandibular disorder. The aim of the present study was investigate the correlation of salivary cortisol levels with the activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles of patients with different degrees of temporomandibular disorder. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-nine women between 18 and 40 years of age with a diagnosis of myogenous temporomandibular disorder based on the Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders were evaluated using the Fonseca Index to determine the degree of the disorder. Salivary cortisol levels were determined and surface electromyography was used to evaluate electrical activity in the masticatory muscles. [Results] Positive correlations were found among the degree of temporomandibular disorder, electromyographic activity and salivary cortisol: as women with more severe temporomandibular disorder had greater electrical activity in the muscles analyzed, especially the anterior temporal muscle, and higher levels of cortisol. [Conclusion] Muscle activity was greater among individuals with severe temporomandibular disorder and positive correlations were found among electromyographic activity, salivary cortisol and the degree of temporomandibular disorder severity. PMID:25995595

  4. Criterion distances and correlates of active transportation to school in Belgian older adolescents.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet; Deforche, Benedicte

    2010-12-08

    Since physical activity levels in older adolescents have the potential to be increased by stimulating active transportation to school (ATS), the most important correlates of ATS should be determined before developing interventions, especially in those adolescents for whom the distance to school is feasible for active commuting. The main aims of this study were to determine criterion distances for ATS in Belgian older adolescents, to examine multidimensional correlates of ATS in adolescents living within a feasible distance from school and to investigate the associations of ATS with total physical activity and with other physical activities besides ATS. In total, 1281 older adolescents (17-18 years) from 20 general secondary schools in East- and West-Flanders completed a questionnaire on physical activity behaviors, demographic factors and psychosocial and physical environmental correlates of physical activity. Distance to school was objectively measured using Routenet online route planner. In total, 58.4% of the participants commuted actively to school. The criterion distance for ATS could be set at eight kilometers for cycling and two kilometers for walking. For those adolescents living within a feasible distance for ATS, gender, smoking status, walkability of the neighborhood and social modeling were associated with transportation mode choice. ATS was positively associated with total physical activity, but not significantly related to min/week of other physical activities. For older adolescents living within eight kilometers of their school, interventions taking into account the correlates found to be related to ATS could possibly be effective to enhance ATS and to increase total physical activity levels. In the context of the overall physical activity decline in adolescence, also interventions targeting physical activity behaviors of adolescents living further away from school might be needed, but these interventions should probably emphasize alternative

  5. Physical Activity Measured by Physical Activity Monitoring System Correlates with Glucose Trends Reconstructed from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zecchin, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Dalla Man, Chiara; Manohar, Chinmay; Levine, James A.; Basu, Ananda; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked using, for example, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, have been barely explored. Subjects and Methods In the clinic, 20 control and 19 T1DM subjects were studied for 4 consecutive days. They underwent low-intensity PA sessions daily. PA was tracked by the PA monitoring system (PAMS), a system comprising accelerometers and inclinometers. Variations on glucose dynamics were tracked estimating first- and second-order time derivatives of glucose concentration from CGM via Bayesian smoothing. Short-time effects of PA on glucose dynamics were quantified through the partial correlation function in the interval (0, 60 min) after starting PA. Results Correlation of PA with glucose time derivatives is evident. In T1DM, the negative correlation with the first-order glucose time derivative is maximal (absolute value) after 15 min of PA, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 40–45 min. The negative correlation between the second-order time derivative and PA is maximal after 5 min, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 35–40 min. Control subjects provided similar results but with positive and negative correlation peaks anticipated of 5 min. Conclusions Quantitative information on correlation between mild PA and short-term glucose dynamics was obtained. This represents a preliminary important step toward incorporation of PA information in more realistic physiological models of the glucose–insulin system usable in T1DM simulators, in development of closed-loop artificial pancreas control algorithms, and in CGM-based prediction algorithms for generation of hypoglycemic alerts. PMID

  6. The presence of the glycolysis operon in SAR11 genomes is positively correlated with ocean productivity.

    PubMed

    Schwalbach, M S; Tripp, H J; Steindler, L; Smith, D P; Giovannoni, S J

    2010-02-01

    Bacteria in the SAR11 clade are highly abundant in marine surface waters, but currently little is known about the carbon compounds that support these large heterotrophic populations. To better understand the carbon requirements of these organisms, we conducted a multiphasic exploration of carbohydrate utilization among SAR11 isolates from the Northeast Pacific Ocean and the Sargasso Sea. A comparison of three SAR11 genomes showed they all lacked a recognizable PTS system, the oxidative portion of the pentose phosphate shunt (zwf-, pgl-), genes for the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas (pfk-, pyk-) and Entner-Doudoroff (eda-) pathways of glycolysis. Strain HTCC7211, isolated from an ocean gyre, was missing other glycolysis genes as well. Growth assays, radioisotopes, metagenomics and microarrays were used to test the hypothesis that these isolates might be limited in their abilities to transport and oxidize exogenous carbohydrates. Galactose, fucose, rhamnose, arabinose, ribose and mannose could not serve as carbon sources for the isolates tested. However, differences in glucose utilization were detected between coastal and ocean gyre isolates, with the coastal isolates capable of transporting, incorporating and oxidizing glucose while the open ocean isolate could not. Subsequent microarray analysis of a coastal isolate suggested that an operon encoding a variant of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway is likely responsible for the observed differences in glucose utilization. Metagenomic analysis indicated this operon is more commonly found in coastal environments and is positively correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations. Our results indicated that glycolysis is a variable metabolic property of SAR11 metabolism and suggest that glycolytic SAR11 are more common in productive marine environments.

  7. Predicting residue contacts using pragmatic correlated mutations method: reducing the false positives.

    PubMed

    Kundrotas, Petras J; Alexov, Emil G

    2006-11-16

    Predicting residues' contacts using primary amino acid sequence alone is an important task that can guide 3D structure modeling and can verify the quality of the predicted 3D structures. The correlated mutations (CM) method serves as the most promising approach and it has been used to predict amino acids pairs that are distant in the primary sequence but form contacts in the native 3D structure of homologous proteins. Here we report a new implementation of the CM method with an added set of selection rules (filters). The parameters of the algorithm were optimized against fifteen high resolution crystal structures with optimization criterion that maximized the confidentiality of the predictions. The optimization resulted in a true positive ratio (TPR) of 0.08 for the CM without filters and a TPR of 0.14 for the CM with filters. The protocol was further benchmarked against 65 high resolution structures that were not included in the optimization test. The benchmarking resulted in a TPR of 0.07 for the CM without filters and to a TPR of 0.09 for the CM with filters. Thus, the inclusion of selection rules resulted to an overall improvement of 30%. In addition, the pair-wise comparison of TPR for each protein without and with filters resulted in an average improvement of 1.7. The methodology was implemented into a web server http://www.ces.clemson.edu/compbio/recon that is freely available to the public. The purpose of this implementation is to provide the 3D structure predictors with a tool that can help with ranking alternative models by satisfying the largest number of predicted contacts, as well as it can provide a confidence score for contacts in cases where structure is known.

  8. Cord Blood Irisin Levels are Positively Correlated with Birth Weight in Newborn Infants

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung Eun; Park, Kyung-Hee; Filippiaos, Andreas; Dincer, Fadime; Christou, Helen; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Irisin is a novel myokine, secreted from skeletal muscle after exercise. Irisin mediates exercise-related energy expenditure by turning white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown adipose tissue (BAT). Thus, irisin is considered as a potential biomarker for obesity and metabolic syndrome. Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) have increased risk for metabolic syndrome. However, the physiologic role of irisin in neonates remains to be studied. Objective To evaluate the association of umbilical cord blood irisin levels with gestational age and birth weight categories in neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study of 341 newborns, from 26 to 41 weeks' gestation. We collected umbilical cord blood and analyzed plasma for irisin by ELISA. Results Plasma irisin levels were positively correlated with gestational age (r=0.21, p<0.001), and birth weight Z-score (r=0.18, p<0.001). SGA infants had significantly lower irisin (median [interquartile range] 55.38 [46.56 - 65.72] ng/mL) compared to appropriate for gestational age infants (64.41 [53.87 - 76.76] ng/mL) and large for gestational age infants (68.70 [54.78 - 79.09] ng/mL, p<0.01). The association between SGA and lower irisin remained significant in multivariate analysis independent of gestational age, maternal age, maternal BMI, and gestational diabetes (p=0.03). In singleton infants, irisin was also significantly negatively associated with maternal preeclampsia (p=0.01). Conclusions Our results support the notion that irisin may have a physiologic role in neonates. We speculate that decreased levels of irisin in SGA infants may contribute to the development of catch up growth and metabolic syndrome later in life. PMID:26303870

  9. A Positive Correlation between Bacterial Autoaggregation and Biofilm Formation in Native Sinorhizobium meliloti Isolates from Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sorroche, Fernando G.; Spesia, Mariana B.; Zorreguieta, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodule formation on roots of alfalfa plants. S. meliloti produces two exopolysaccharides (EPSs), termed EPS I and EPS II, that are both able to promote symbiosis. EPS I and EPS II are secreted in two major fractions that reflect differing degrees of subunit polymerization, designated high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. We reported previously that EPSs are crucial for autoaggregation and biofilm formation in S. meliloti reference strains and isogenic mutants. However, the previous observations were obtained by use of “domesticated” laboratory strains, with mutations resulting from successive passages under unnatural conditions, as has been documented for reference strain Rm1021. In the present study, we analyzed the autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities of native S. meliloti strains isolated from root nodules of alfalfa plants grown in four regions of Argentina. 16S rRNA gene analysis of all the native isolates revealed a high degree of identity with reference S. meliloti strains. PCR analysis of the expR gene of all the isolates showed that, as in the case of reference strain Rm8530, this gene is not interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) element. A positive correlation was found between autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities in these rhizobia, indicating that both processes depend on the same physical adhesive forces. Extracellular complementation experiments using mutants of the native strains showed that autoaggregation was dependent on EPS II production. Our results indicate that a functional EPS II synthetic pathway and its proper regulation are essential for cell-cell interactions and surface attachment of S. meliloti. PMID:22492433

  10. Cerebral blood flow velocity positively correlates with brain volumes in long-term remitted depression.

    PubMed

    Desmidt, Thomas; Andersson, Frédéric; Brizard, Bruno; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Patat, Frédéric; Gissot, Valérie; Belzung, Catherine; El-Hage, Wissam; Camus, Vincent

    2017-09-20

    Mechanisms involved in brain changes observed in major depression have been poorly investigated in clinical populations. Changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) have been found in depressed patients and constitute a potential mechanism by which brain volume varies in depression. We have tested the association of cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) as assessed with Transcranial Doppler (TCD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) as assessed with Arterial Spin Labeling Magnetic Resonance Imaging (ASL-MRI) with Total Brain Volume (TBV) and the volume of seven subcortical regions, in currently depressed and long-term remitted patients. In addition, we have evaluated other potential confounders for the association depression/brain volume, including dimensional symptoms of depression, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and antidepressants. Seventy-five individuals were recruited, divided in 3 equal groups (currently depressed, remitted individuals and healthy controls) and were submitted to clinical assessment, MRI and Transcranial Doppler. CBFV was positively correlated with TBV, Hippocampus and Thalamus volume, but only in remitted patients, who tend to have larger brains compared to both currently depressed and controls. CVRF were negatively associated with brain volumes in the 3 groups and antidepressant use was associated with larger Thalamus. We found no association between brain volumes and CBF as assessed with ASL-MRI, anhedonia, anxiety or psychomotor retardation. Greater CBFV may be a physiological mechanism by which brain is enlarged in remitted patients. Future studies should consider CBFV, CVRF and antidepressants as possible confounders for the association depression/brain volumes, especially in remitted patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A positive correlation between bacterial autoaggregation and biofilm formation in native Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sorroche, Fernando G; Spesia, Mariana B; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Giordano, Walter

    2012-06-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that elicits nodule formation on roots of alfalfa plants. S. meliloti produces two exopolysaccharides (EPSs), termed EPS I and EPS II, that are both able to promote symbiosis. EPS I and EPS II are secreted in two major fractions that reflect differing degrees of subunit polymerization, designated high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. We reported previously that EPSs are crucial for autoaggregation and biofilm formation in S. meliloti reference strains and isogenic mutants. However, the previous observations were obtained by use of "domesticated" laboratory strains, with mutations resulting from successive passages under unnatural conditions, as has been documented for reference strain Rm1021. In the present study, we analyzed the autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities of native S. meliloti strains isolated from root nodules of alfalfa plants grown in four regions of Argentina. 16S rRNA gene analysis of all the native isolates revealed a high degree of identity with reference S. meliloti strains. PCR analysis of the expR gene of all the isolates showed that, as in the case of reference strain Rm8530, this gene is not interrupted by an insertion sequence (IS) element. A positive correlation was found between autoaggregation and biofilm formation abilities in these rhizobia, indicating that both processes depend on the same physical adhesive forces. Extracellular complementation experiments using mutants of the native strains showed that autoaggregation was dependent on EPS II production. Our results indicate that a functional EPS II synthetic pathway and its proper regulation are essential for cell-cell interactions and surface attachment of S. meliloti.

  12. Formation and positioning of nucleosomes: Effect of sequence-dependent long-range correlated structural disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillant, C.; Audit, B.; Thermes, C.; Arnéodo, A.

    2006-03-01

    The understanding of the long-range correlations (LRC) observed in DNA sequences is still an open and very challenging problem. In this paper, we start reviewing recent results obtained when exploring the scaling properties of eucaryotic, eubacterial and archaeal genomic sequences using the space-scale decomposition provided by the wavelet transform (WT). These results suggest that the existence of LRC up to distances ˜ 20-30kbp is the signature of the nucleosomal structure and dynamics of the chromatin fiber. Actually the LRC are mainly observed in the DNA bending profiles obtained when using some structural coding of the DNA sequences that accounts for the fluctuations of the local double-helix curvature within the nucleosome complex. Because of the approximate planarity of nucleosomal DNA loops, we then study the influence of the LRC structural disorder on the thermodynamical properties of 2D elastic chains submitted locally to mechanical/topological constraint as loops. The equilibrium properties of the one-loop system are derived numerically and analytically in the quite realistic weak-disorder limit. The LRC are shown to favor the spontaneous formation of small loops, the larger the LRC, the smaller the size of the loop. We further investigate the dynamical behavior of such a loop using the mean first passage time (MFPT) formalism. We show that the typical short-time loop dynamics is superdiffusive in the presence of LRC. For displacements larger than the loop size, we use large-deviation theory to derive a LRC-dependent anomalous-diffusion rule that accounts for the lack of disorder self-averaging. Potential biological implications on DNA loops involved in nucleosome positioning and dynamics in eucaryotic chromatin are discussed.

  13. ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 positivity and response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Francesca; Bernasconi, Sergio; Porcu, Luca; Erba, Eugenio; Panini, Nicolò; Fruscio, Robert; Sina, Federica; Torri, Valter; Broggini, Massimo; Damia, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    The prognostic/predictive role of both CD133 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) expression in human ovarian cancer remains elusive. This is an observational study that investigated the expression of CD133 and of ALDH enzymatic activity in fresh ovarian cancer samples and their association with different clinic-pathological patient' characteristics and explored their possible predictive/prognostic role. We analyzed the expression of CD133 and ALDH enzymatic activity in 108 human ovarian cancer samples. We found that among the total patients analyzed, 13% of them was completely negative for ALDH activity and 26% was negative for CD133 staining. Both markers were variably expressed within the samples and when both studied in the same tumor sample, no statistically significant correlation between ALDH enzymatic activity and CD133 expression was found. No statistical significant correlation was found also between the percentage values of positive ALDH and CD133 cells and the number of serial passages patient's cultures underwent, suggesting that these markers do not confer by themselves a self-renewal growth advantage to the cultures. Lower levels of CD133 were associated with higher tumor grade. No correlation with response to therapy, progression free survival and overall survival was found. Our data suggest that neither ALDH enzymatic activity nor CD133 expression provide additional predictive/prognostic information in ovarian cancer patients.

  14. A CORRELATION BETWEEN STELLAR ACTIVITY AND HOT JUPITER EMISSION SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, Heather A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard

    2010-09-10

    We present evidence for a correlation between the observed properties of hot Jupiter emission spectra and the activity levels of the host stars measured using Ca II H and K emission lines. We find that planets with dayside emission spectra that are well-described by standard one-dimensional atmosphere models with water in absorption (HD 189733, TrES-1, TrES-3, WASP-4) orbit chromospherically active stars, while planets with emission spectra that are consistent with the presence of a strong high-altitude temperature inversion and water in emission orbit quieter stars. We estimate that active G and K stars have Lyman {alpha} fluxes that are typically a factor of 4-7 times higher than quiet stars with analogous spectral types and propose that the increased UV flux received by planets orbiting active stars destroys the compounds responsible for the formation of the observed temperature inversions. In this paper, we also derive a model-independent method for differentiating between these two atmosphere types using the secondary eclipse depths measured in the 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands on the Spitzer Space Telescope and argue that the observed correlation is independent of the inverted/non-inverted paradigm for classifying hot Jupiter atmospheres.

  15. Obesity and Other Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M.; Fulton, Janet E.; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9–12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA) and participation in daily PA (DPA), vigorous PA (VPA), muscle-strengthening activity (MSA), viewing television (TV), and using computers or video games (C/VG). A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors. PMID:23606950

  16. Neural activations correlated with reading speed during reading novels.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Norio; Munetsuna, Shinji; Sasaki, Toyofumi; Hayakawa, Tomoe; Ihara, Aya; Wei, Qiang; Terazono, Yasushi; Murata, Tsutomu

    2009-12-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure neural activations in subjects instructed to silently read novels at ordinary and rapid speeds. Among the 19 subjects, 8 were experts in a rapid reading technique. Subjects pressed a button to turn pages during reading, and the interval between turning pages was recorded to evaluate the reading speed. For each subject, we evaluated activations in 14 areas and at 2 instructed reading speeds. Neural activations decreased with increasing reading speed in the left middle and posterior superior temporal area, left inferior frontal area, left precentral area, and the anterior temporal areas of both hemispheres, which have been reported to be active for linguistic processes, while neural activation increased with increasing reading speed in the right intraparietal sulcus, which is considered to reflect visuo-spatial processes. Despite the considerable reading speed differences, correlation analysis showed no significant difference in activation dependence on reading speed with respect to the subject groups and instructed reading speeds. The activation reduction with speed increase in language-related areas was opposite to the previous reports for low reading speeds. The present results suggest that subjects reduced linguistic processes with reading speed increase from ordinary to rapid speed.

  17. Correlated bursts of activity in the neonatal hippocampus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Leinekugel, Xavier; Khazipov, Rustem; Cannon, Robert; Hirase, Hajime; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Buzsáki, György

    2002-06-14

    The behavior of immature cortical networks in vivo remains largely unknown. Using multisite extracellular and patch-clamp recordings, we observed recurrent bursts of synchronized neuronal activity lasting 0.5 to 3 seconds that occurred spontaneously in the hippocampus of freely moving and anesthetized rat pups. The influence of slow rhythms (0.33 and 0.1 hertz) and the contribution of both gamma-aminobutyric acid A-mediated and glutamate receptor-mediated synaptic signals in the generation of hippocampal bursts was reminiscent of giant depolarizing potentials observed in vitro. This earliest pattern, which diversifies during the second postnatal week, could provide correlated activity for immature neurons and may underlie activity-dependent maturation of the hippocampal network.

  18. Correlation of irradiation data using activation fluences and irradiation temperature.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynch, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    A new method of correlating radiation damage data is tested using actual measured data taken from the open literature. This method, the activation fluence method, was found to be as accurate as other contemporary models with which it was compared. The new method also has several advantages over the other methods. The method employs a new entity, the activation fluence (time-integrated specific activation rate), as the independent variables in a regression model. Temperature at which the irradiation takes place is also a variable. Although the method was tested for a specific type of damage (change in nil-ductility transition temperature for A302-B steel) it has no inherent restrictions and is limited only by the imagination of the user.

  19. Physical Activity during Work, Transport and Leisure in Germany - Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Froboese, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed 1) to provide data estimates concerning overall moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) as well as MVPA during work, transport and leisure in Germany and 2) to investigate MVPA and possible associations with socio-demographic correlates. Methods A cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed 2248 representative participants in the age of 18–65 years (1077 men; 42.4±13.4 years; body mass index: 25.3±4.5kg•m−2) regarding their self-reported physical activity across Germany. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to investigate MVPA during work, transport and leisure and questions were answered concerning their demographics. MVPA was stratified by gender, age, body mass index, residential setting, educational and income level. To identify socio-demographic correlates of overall MVPA as well as in the domains, we used a series of linear regressions. Results 52.8% of the sample achieved physical activity recommendations (53.7% men/52.1% women). Overall MVPA was highest in the age group 18–29 years (p<.05), in participants with 10 years of education (p<.05) and in participants with lowest income levels <1.500€ (p<.05). Regression analyses revealed that age, education and income were negatively associated with overall and work MVPA. Residential setting and education was positively correlated with transport MVPA, whereas income level was negatively associated with transport MVPA. Education was the only correlate for leisure MVPA with a positive association. Conclusions The present data underlines the importance of a comprehensive view on physical activity engagement according to the different physical activity domains and discloses a need for future physical activity interventions that consider socio-demographic variables, residential setting as well as the physical activity domain in Germany. PMID:25390071

  20. Physical activity during work, transport and leisure in Germany--prevalence and socio-demographic correlates.

    PubMed

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Froboese, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed 1) to provide data estimates concerning overall moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) as well as MVPA during work, transport and leisure in Germany and 2) to investigate MVPA and possible associations with socio-demographic correlates. A cross-sectional telephone survey interviewed 2248 representative participants in the age of 18-65 years (1077 men; 42.4 ± 13.4 years; body mass index: 25.3 ± 4.5 kg • m(-2)) regarding their self-reported physical activity across Germany. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire was applied to investigate MVPA during work, transport and leisure and questions were answered concerning their demographics. MVPA was stratified by gender, age, body mass index, residential setting, educational and income level. To identify socio-demographic correlates of overall MVPA as well as in the domains, we used a series of linear regressions. 52.8% of the sample achieved physical activity recommendations (53.7% men/52.1% women). Overall MVPA was highest in the age group 18-29 years (p < .05), in participants with 10 years of education (p < .05) and in participants with lowest income levels < 1.500 € (p < .05). Regression analyses revealed that age, education and income were negatively associated with overall and work MVPA. Residential setting and education was positively correlated with transport MVPA, whereas income level was negatively associated with transport MVPA. Education was the only correlate for leisure MVPA with a positive association. The present data underlines the importance of a comprehensive view on physical activity engagement according to the different physical activity domains and discloses a need for future physical activity interventions that consider socio-demographic variables, residential setting as well as the physical activity domain in Germany.

  1. Circulating leptin level in rheumatoid arthritis and its correlation with disease activity: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Bae, S-C

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the circulating serum leptin level and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to establish a correlation between serum leptin levels and RA activity. We searched the PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A meta-analysis was performed, comparing the serum/plasma leptin levels in patients with RA and healthy controls. Correlation coefficients between serum leptin level and either disease activity score 28 (DAS28) or C‑reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients were also examined. Thirteen studies with a total of 648 RA patients and 426 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Circulating leptin level was significantly higher in the RA group than in the control group (SMD = 1.056, 95 % CI = 0.647-1.465, p = 4.2 × 10(-7)). In addition, stratification by ethnicity showed a significantly elevated leptin level in the RA group in Caucasian, Turkish, and Arab populations (SMD = 0.813, 95 % CI = 0.137-1.490, p = 0.018, SMD = 0.981, 95 % CI = 0.307-1.655, p = 0.004, and SMD = 1.469, 95 % CI = 0.443-2.495, p = 0.005 respectively). A meta-analysis of correlation coefficients showed a small but significantly positive correlation between the circulating leptin level and either DAS28 (correlation coefficient = 0.275, 95 % CI = 0.076-0.452, p = 0.007) or CRP (correlation coefficient = 0.274, 95 % CI = 0.068-0.458, p = 0.010). Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the circulating leptin level is significantly higher in patients with RA and that a small but significantly positive correlation exists between leptin levels and RA activity.

  2. Socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults.

    PubMed

    Marques, Adilson; Martins, João; Sarmento, Hugo; Ramos, Madalena; Diniz, José; Costa, Francisco Carreiro da

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (1,076 males, 1,383 females) were categorized into two groups according to recommended physical activities ranging from ≥ 10 or < 10 MET.hours.week-1. Leisure time physical activity data was self-reported, including activities, duration of each session and frequency. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Among men, having a high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.30-2.76; p = 0.001) was associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. For women, middle education levels were associated with physical activity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.85). Moreover, middle socioeconomic status (OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.80-1.91; p = 0.009) was also positively associated with meeting physical activities recommendations in the unadjusted analysis. Men and women had different patterns of socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of physical activity among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account.

  3. [Correlation analysis soil nutrition as sell as yield and active compounds of Coptis teeta].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Jin, Hang; Li, Wanyi; Wang, Yuanzhong; Zhang, Jinyu

    2011-10-01

    The correlations between soil nutrition and yield as well as active compound contents of Coptis teeta were analyzed. The contents of 13 soil factors, rhizome biomass and the content of berberine, jatrorrhizine, and palmatine in rhizome of C. teeta were determined, and analyzed by factor analysis (FA) and correlation analysis (CA). FA showed that the first three factors accounted for 86.9% of the total variance. The contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn correlated with the first factor. The content of organic matter, N, available N, available P, and available K correlated with the second factor. CA showed that yield of C. teeta had a significant positive correlation with available P (r = 0.931) at 0.01 level, and available N (r = 0.703) at 0.05 level. The content of berberine of C. teeta had a significant positive correlation with available P (r = 0.680) at 0.05 level. The yield and berberine content of C. teeta were high in the soil with high contents of available N and available P.

  4. The effects of knee direction, physical activity and age on knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Relph, Nicola; Herrington, Lee

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has suggested a decline in knee proprioception with age. Furthermore, regular participation in physical activity may improve proprioceptive ability. However, there is no large scale data on uninjured populations to confirm these theories. The aim of this study was to provide normative knee joint position data (JPS) from healthy participants aged 18-82years to evaluate the effects of age, physical activity and knee direction. A sample of 116 participants across five age groups was used. The main outcome measures were knee JPS absolute error scores into flexion and extension, Tegner activity levels and General Practitioner Physical Activity Questionnaire results. Absolute error scores in to knee flexion were 3.6°, 3.9°, 3.5°, 3.7° and 3.1° and knee extension were 2.7°, 2.5°, 2.9°, 3.4° and 3.9° for ages 15-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-74 and 75 years old respectively. Knee extension and flexion absolute error scores were significantly different when age group data were pooled. There was a significant effect of age and activity level on joint position sense into knee extension. Age and lower Tegner scores were also negatively correlated to joint position sense into knee extension. The results provide some evidence for a decline in knee joint position sense with age. Further, active populations may have heightened static proprioception compared to inactive groups. Normative knee joint position sense data is provided and may be used by practitioners to identify patients with reduced proprioceptive ability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of Physical Activity among Young Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, Charles W; Cichon, Bernardette; Fabiansen, Christian; Iuel-Brockdorf, Ann-Sophie; Shepherd, Susan; Filteau, Suzanne; Traoré, Alfred S; Christensen, Vibeke B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Brage, Soren; Friis, Henrik; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    To assess the levels of physical activity among young children with moderate acute malnutrition and to identify clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and sociodemographic correlates of physical activity. In a cross-sectional study, 1609 children aged 6-23 months wore a triaxial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3x+; ActiGraph, Pensacola, Florida) for 6 consecutive days, from which total physical activity were determined. Data on morbidity were collected based by history and physical examination, and serum C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein were measured. A total of 1544 (96%) children had physical activity measured, of whom 1498 (97%) completed 6 consecutive days of physical activity recording with a daily median wear time of 24 hours. The mean (±SD) total physical activity was 707 (±180) vector magnitude counts per minute (cpm). Age was negatively correlated with physical activity; compared with children below 12 months of age, those 12-17 months of age, and 18-23 months of age had 51 (95% CI, 26; 75) and 106 (95% CI, 71; 141) cpm lower physical activity, respectively. Fever and malaria were associated with 49 (95% CI, 27; 70) and 44 (95% CI, 27; 61) cpm lower activity, respectively. Elevated serum C-reactive protein and α1-acid glycoprotein were both negative correlates of physical activity, and hemoglobin was a positive correlate. Physical activity declines with age in children with moderate acute malnutrition and is also inversely related to infection and inflammatory status. Future studies are needed to ascertain cause and effect of these associations. Controlled-Trials.com: ISRCTN42569496. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. COX-2 expression positively correlates with PD-L1 expression in human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Botti, Gerardo; Fratangelo, Federica; Cerrone, Margherita; Liguori, Giuseppina; Cantile, Monica; Anniciello, Anna Maria; Scala, Stefania; D'Alterio, Crescenzo; Trimarco, Chiara; Ianaro, Angela; Cirino, Giuseppe; Caracò, Corrado; Colombino, Maria; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Pepe, Stefano; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio; Sabbatino, Francesco; Scognamiglio, Giosuè

    2017-02-23

    The resistance to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma have prompted investigators to implement novel clinical trials which combine immunotherapy with different treatment modalities. Moreover is also important to investigate the mechanisms which regulate the dynamic expression of PD-L1 on tumor cells and PD-1 on T cells in order to identify predictive biomarkers of response. COX-2 is currently investigated as a major player of tumor progression in several type of malignancies including melanoma. In the present study we investigated the potential relationship between COX-2 and PD-L1 expression in melanoma. Tumor samples obtained from primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases were analyzed for both PD-L1 and COX-2 expression by IHC analysis. Status of BRAF and NRAS mutations was analyzed by sequencing and PCR. Co-localization of PD-L1 and COX-2 expression was analyzed by double fluorescence staining. Lastly the BRAF(V600E) A375 and NRAS(Q61R) SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effect of COX-2 inhibition by celecoxib on expression of PD-L1 in vitro. BRAF(V600E/V600K) and NRAS(Q61R/Q61L) were detected in 57.8 and 8.9% of the metastatic lesions, and in 65.9 and 6.8% of the primary tumors, respectively. PD-L1 and COX-2 expression were heterogeneously expressed in both primary melanoma lesions and not matched lymph node metastases. A significantly lower number of PD-L1 negative lesions was found in primary tumors as compared to not matched metastatic lesions (P = 0.002). COX-2 expression significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression in both primary (P = 0.001) and not matched metastatic (P = 0.048) lesions. Furthermore, in melanoma tumors, cancer cells expressing a higher levels of COX-2 also co-expressed a higher level of PD-L1. Lastly, inhibition of COX-2 activity by celecoxib down-regulated the expression of PD-L1 in both BRAF(V600E) A375 and NRAS(Q61R) SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell lines. COX-2 expression

  7. COBAS® TaqMan® MTB, smear positivity grade and MGIT culture; correlation analyses of three methods for bacillary quantification.

    PubMed

    Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Aono, Akio; Kato, Tomoko; Takaki, Akiko; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Izumi, Kiyohiko; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the cycle threshold (Ct) value of the COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) MTB (TaqMan MTB), the mycobacterial smear positivity grade, and the time to detection (TTD) in the Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) for quantification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). For 57 sputum samples, significant correlations were observed between the Ct value, the smear positivity grade, and the MGIT TTD (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient: r(s) = -0.940, P < 0.001 and Pearson's correlation coefficient: r(p) = 0.737, P < 0.001). In addition, a correlation was observed between the number of bacteria estimated based on the smear positivity grade and the number of MTB bacilli calculated by the Ct value (r(s) = 0.930, P < 0.001). This study has demonstrated the possible estimation of the smear positivity grade and MGIT TTD using the Ct value of TaqMan MTB, which is based on a real-time PCR system, for diagnostic samples.

  8. 'The positive feel': Unpacking the role of positive thinking in people with multiple sclerosis's thinking aloud about staying physically active.

    PubMed

    Hall-McMaster, Samuel M; Treharne, Gareth J; Smith, Catherine M

    2016-12-01

    People with multiple sclerosis experience barriers to physical activity. Thought processes are interwoven with garnering motivation to overcome these barriers. This study investigated in-depth the role of positive thinking in physical activity motivation of two women and two men with multiple sclerosis. Participants thought aloud while completing standardised measures of physical activity, stages of change and self-efficacy, and in response to planned and spontaneous questions. Four themes were formulated using inductive thematic analysis: thoughts about purpose, self-efficacy, the past and reinforcement through positive thinking. These findings have implications for physical activity theories and delivering appropriate physical activity interventions to the multiple sclerosis community.

  9. Anterior Insula Activity Predicts the Influence of Positively-Framed Messages on Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Krawitz, Adam; Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W.

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the influence of persuasive messages on decision making are largely unknown. We address this using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how informative messages alter risk appraisal during choice. Participants performed the Iowa Gambling Task while viewing a positively-framed, negatively-framed, or control message about the options. Right anterior insula correlated with improvement in choice behavior due to the positively-framed, but not the negatively-framed, message. With the positively-framed message there was increased activation proportional to message effectiveness when less-preferred options were chosen, consistent with a role in the prediction of adverse outcomes. In addition, dorsomedial and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex correlated with overall decision quality regardless of message type. The dorsomedial region mediated the relationship between right anterior insula and decision quality with the positively-framed messages. These findings suggest a network of frontal brain regions that integrate informative messages into the evaluation of options during decision-making. PMID:20805540

  10. Correlates of Physical Activity in Black, Hispanic and White Middle School Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Evelyn B.; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Conway, Terry L.; Webber, Larry S.; Jobe, Jared B.; Going, Scott; Pate, Russell R.

    2010-01-01

    Background A need exists to better understand multilevel influences on physical activity among diverse samples of girls. This study examined correlates of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among adolescent girls from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Methods 1,180 6th grade girls (24.5% black, 15.7% Hispanic and 59.8% white) completed a supervised self-administered questionnaire that measured hypothesized correlates of PA. MVPA data were collected for six days using the ActiGraph accelerometer. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine correlates of PA in each racial/ethnic group. Results Hispanic girls (n=185) engaged in 21.7 minutes of MVPA per day, black girls (n=289), 19.5 minutes and white girls (n=706), 22.8 minutes. Perceived transportation barriers (+; p=0.010) were significantly and positively related to MVPA for Hispanic girls. For black girls, Body Mass Index (BMI) (−; p=0.005) and social support from friends (+; p=0.006) were significant correlates of MVPA. For white girls, BMI (−; p <0.001), barriers (−; p=0.012), social support from friends (+; p=0.010), participation in school sports (+; p=0.009), and community sports (+; p=0.025) were significant correlates of MVPA. Explained variance ranged from 30 to 35%. Conclusions Correlates of MVPA varied by racial/ethnic groups. Effective interventions in ethnically diverse populations may require culturally tailored strategies. PMID:20484757

  11. Event-related potential correlates of the extraverts' sensitivity to valence changes in positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jiajin; He, Yuanyuan; Lei, Yi; Yang, Jiemin; Li, Hong

    2009-08-05

    This study investigated whether the human sensitivity to valence intensity changes in positive stimuli varies with extraversion. Event-related potentials were recorded for highly positive, moderately positive, and neutral stimuli while participants (extraverts and nonextraverts) performed a standard/deviant categorization task, irrespective of the emotionality of deviants. The results of extraverts showed larger P2 and P3 amplitudes during highly positive condition than during moderately positive condition which, in turn, elicited larger P2 than neutral condition. Conversely, nonextraverts showed no differences at both P2 and P3 components. Thus, extraverts, unlike less extraverted individuals, are sensitive to valence changes in positive stimuli, which may be underlain by certain biogenetic mechanism.

  12. Extreme Sport/Adventure Activity Correlates in Gynecologic Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jennifer J; Vallance, Jeff K; Holt, Nicholas L; Courneya, Kerry S

    2016-03-01

    We examined the demographic, medical and behavioral correlates of participation and interest in extreme sport/adventure activities (ESAA) in gynecologic cancer survivors. A random sample of 621 gynecologic cancer survivors in Alberta, Canada, completed a mailed self-report questionnaire assessing medical, demographic, and behavioral variables and participation and interest in ESAA. Multivariate analyses revealed that gynecologic cancer survivors were more likely to participate in ESAA if they met aerobic exercise guidelines (OR=1.75 [95%CI:1.02-2.99]), had better general health (OR=1.71 [95%CI: 1.01-2.90]), had cervical or ovarian cancer (OR=1.95 [95%CI:0.97-3.93]), were employed (OR=1.71 [95%CI:0.95-3.08]), and were of healthy weight (OR=1.58 [95%CI:0.93-2.68]). Moreover, gynecologic cancer survivors were more likely to be interested in trying an ESAA if they had cervical or ovarian cancer (OR=1.76 [95%CI:0.94-3.27]) and were meeting the strength exercise guidelines (OR=1.68 [95%CI:0.95-2.98]). Medical, demographic, and behavioral variables correlate with participation and interest in ESAA in gynecologic cancer survivors. The pattern of correlates suggests that gynecologic cancer survivors are more likely to participate in ESSA if they have the physical capability and financial resources. Interventions to promote ESAA in gynecologic cancer survivors need to address these 2 key barriers.

  13. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone: correlations with moderate hypohydration

    SciTech Connect

    Francesconi, R.P.; Szlyk, P.C.; Sils, I.V.; Leva, N.; Hubbard, R.W.

    1988-06-01

    Adult male test subjects were assigned to one of three clothing configurations (Army fatigues, fatigues with chemical-protective garments, and fatigues with protective garments plus protective masks) prior to exercise (level treadmill, 1.11 m/s, 50 min/h, 6h) in a moderate (WBGT=23 C) environment with ad lib water consumption. Antecubital blood samples were taken prior to the start of and subsequent to the completion of exercise and analyzed for fluid-electrolyte regulatory hormones. During all trials with chemical protective garments, plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone levels (PA) were significantly elevated following the exercise protocol while neither was affected during exercise in fatigues only. Individual hypohydration levels during all trials ranged from low to moderate. Levels of PRA were closely correlated with hypohydration as measured by percentage of body weight lost during the 6 h trial. Likewise, PA was also correlated with body weight loss. The authors concluded from this study that PRA and PA responses were exacerbated in moderate environments by the additional heat stress of impermeable garments. Further, the logistical difficulty inherent in delivering fluid through the chemical protective mask reduced voluntary consumption, increased hypohydration, and elicited the greatest elevations in PRA and PA. Finally, even at these modest levels of hypohydration, the intensity of the PRA and PA responses were correlated with hypohydration level.

  14. Correlates of physical activity in children and adolescents with physical disabilities: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ru; Sit, Cindy H P; Yu, Jane J; Duan, Joyce Z J; Fan, Thomas C M; McKenzie, Thomas L; Wong, Stephen H S

    2016-08-01

    The benefits of physical activity (PA) for children with disabilities are well documented, and children with physical disabilities (PD) are often less active than peers with other disability types. Various correlates associated with PA in children with PD have been identified in separate studies, and a thorough analysis of these correlates could aid in understanding and designing interventions that promote children with PD to be more physically active. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive summary of the correlates of PA in children with PD. A systematic search using PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsychINFO, Eric, and EMbase was initiated in October 2014 to identify studies examining the correlates of PA in children with PD aged 6-18years. Two researchers independently screened studies, assessed their methodological quality, and extracted relevant data. The correlates were synthesized and further assessed semi-quantitatively. A total of 45 articles were included in the detailed review. Several modifiable physical, psychological, and environmental correlates were consistently and positively associated with PA in children with PD. Some non-modifiable correlates (e.g., intellectual ability, parents' ethnicity) were found to be consistently and negatively associated with PA. The correlates of PA in children with PD are multifaceted and along many dimensions. This review can have implications for future studies and these may confirm the consistency of variables related to PA. Insights derived from the outcomes may also foster the measurement of the magnitude of associations that could assist the development of future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic activity of sperm cells: correlation with sperm cell concentration, viability and motility in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Planell, Núria; Gil, Sílvia; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Maya-Soriano, Maria José; Taberner, Ester; Piles, Miriam; Sabés, Manel; Lopez-Bejar, Manel

    2016-10-01

    The resazurin reduction test (RRT) is a useful technique to assess the metabolic rate of sperm cells. RRT depends on the ability of metabolically active cells to reduce the non-fluorescent dye resazurin to the fluorescent resorufin. The aim of this study was to develop a vital fluorometric method to evaluate metabolic activity of rabbit sperm cells. Twenty-five rabbit males were included in the study. Viability and morphology, motility and metabolic activity were evaluated using an eosin-nigrosin staining, a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and the RRT, respectively. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between RRT and semen parameters. After evaluation, a concentration of 10 × 106 sperm cells/ml was selected for further experiments with RRT. No significant correlation was found between the RRT results and the motility parameters. However, after RRT a significant positive correlation between relative fluorescence units and the percentage of alive spermatozoa (r = 0.62; P = 0.001) and a negative one with the percentage of sperm cells with acrosomic abnormalities (r = -0.45; P < 0.05) were detected. The vital assessment of metabolic rate of sperm cells by RRT could provide more information about semen quality than other routine semen analysis, correlating with sperm viability and acrosome status information.

  16. Dog Walking among Adolescents: Correlates and Contribution to Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the association of dog walking with adolescents’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and BMI, and identify correlates of dog walking. METHODS/DESIGN Participants were 12–17 year-olds (n=925) from the Baltimore, MD and Seattle, WA regions. Differences in accelerometer-assessed minutes/day of MVPA and self-reported BMI (percentile) were compared among adolescents (1) without a dog (n=441) and those with a dog who (2) did (≥1 days/week, n=300) or (3) did not (n=184) walk it. Correlates of (1) dog walking (any vs. none) among adolescents with dogs (n=484), and (2) days/week of dog walking among dog walkers (n=300) were investigated. Potential correlates included: demographic, psychosocial, home environment, perceived neighborhood environment, and objective neighborhood environment factors. RESULTS 52% of adolescents lived in a household with a dog, and 62% of those reported dog walking ≥1 day/week. Dog walkers had 4–5 more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog-walkers and non-dog-owners. BMI was not associated with dog walking or ownership. Among households with dogs, adolescents who lived in objectively walkable neighborhoods were 12% more likely to walk their dog than those in less walkable neighborhoods. Among dog walkers, having a multi-family home, college-educated parent, lower perceived traffic safety, higher street connectivity and less mixed use were related to more days/week of dog walking. CONCLUSIONS Dog walkers had 7–8% more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog walkers, and correlates of dog walking were found at multiple levels of influence. Results suggest multilevel interventions that include both environmental and psychosocial components to increase dog walking should be evaluated. PMID:26601644

  17. Dog walking among adolescents: Correlates and contribution to physical activity.

    PubMed

    Engelberg, Jessa K; Carlson, Jordan A; Conway, Terry L; Cain, Kelli L; Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F

    2016-01-01

    To assess the association of dog walking with adolescents' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and body mass index (BMI), and identify correlates of dog walking. Participants were 12-17year-olds (n=925) from the Baltimore, MD and Seattle, WA regions. Differences in accelerometer-assessed minutes/day of MVPA and self-reported BMI (percentile) were compared among adolescents (1) without a dog (n=441) and those with a dog who (2) did (≥1days/week, n=300) or (3) did not (n=184) walk it. Correlates of (1) dog walking (any vs. none) among adolescents with dogs (n=484), and (2) days/week of dog walking among dog walkers (n=300) were investigated. Potential correlates included: demographic, psychosocial, home environment, perceived neighborhood environment, and objective neighborhood environment factors. 52% of adolescents lived in a household with a dog, and 62% of those reported dog walking ≥1day/week. Dog walkers had 4-5 more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog-walkers and non-dog-owners. BMI was not associated with dog walking or ownership. Among households with dogs, adolescents who lived in objectively walkable neighborhoods were 12% more likely to walk their dog than those in less walkable neighborhoods. Among dog walkers, having a multi-family home, college-educated parent, lower perceived traffic safety, higher street connectivity and less mixed use were related to more days/week of dog walking. Dog walkers had 7-8% more minutes/day of MVPA than non-dog walkers, and correlates of dog walking were found at multiple levels of influence. Results suggest multilevel interventions that include both environmental and psychosocial components to increase dog walking should be evaluated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Visualization of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) activation in living cells.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, Koh; Luo, Zeping; Schaufele, Fred; Peterlin, B Matija

    2015-01-16

    Regulation of transcription elongation by positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) plays a central role in determining the state of cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. In cells, P-TEFb exists in active and inactive forms. Its release from the inactive 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex is a critical step for P-TEFb to activate transcription elongation. However, no good method exists to analyze this P-TEFb equilibrium in living cells. Only inaccurate and labor-intensive cell-free biochemical assays are currently available. In this study, we present the first experimental system to monitor P-TEFb activation in living cells. We created a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to detect interactions between P-TEFb and its substrate, the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. When cells were treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, which releases P-TEFb from the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, they turned green. Other known P-TEFb-releasing agents, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, bromodomain and extraterminal bromodomain inhibitors, and protein kinase C agonists, also scored positive in this assay. Finally, we identified 5'-azacytidine as a new P-TEFb-releasing agent. This release of P-TEFb correlated directly with activation of human HIV and HEXIM1 transcription. Thus, our visualization of P-TEFb activation by fluorescent complementation assay could be used to find new P-TEFb-releasing agents, compare different classes of agents, and assess their efficacy singly and/or in combination.

  19. Correlates of children’s time-specific physical activity: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of correlates of physical activity occurring at different times of the day, locations and contexts, is imperative to understanding children’s physical activity behaviour. The purpose of this review was to identify the correlates of children’s physical activity (aged 8–14 years) occurring during the school break time and after-school periods. A review was conducted of the peer-reviewed literature, published between 1990 and January 2011. A total of 22 studies (12 school break time studies, 10 after-school studies) were included in the review. Across the 22 studies, 17 studies were cross-sectional and five studies were interventions. In the school break time studies, 39 potential correlates were identified, of which gender and age were consistently associated with school break time physical activity in two or more studies, and family affluence, access to a gym, access to four or more physical activity programs and the condition of a playing field were all associated with school break time physical activity in only one study. Access to loose and fixed equipment, playground markings, size of and access to play space and the length of school break time were all positively associated with changes in school break time physical activity in intervention studies. Thirty-six potential correlates of after-school physical activity were identified. Gender (with boys more active), younger age, lower body mass index (for females), lower TV viewing/playing video games, and greater access to facilities were associated with higher levels of after-school physical activity in two or more studies. Parent supervision was negatively associated with females’ after-school physical activity in one study. This review has revealed a relatively small number of studies investigating the school break time and after-school periods in the specified age range and only a few correlates have demonstrated a consistent association with physical activity. This highlights the infancy

  20. BAFF expression correlates with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy disease activity measures and autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    López De Padilla, Consuelo M; McNallan, Kelly T; Crowson, Cynthia S; Bilgic, Hatice; Bram, Richard J; Hein, Molly S; Ytterberg, Steven R; Amin, Shreyasee; Peterson, Erik J; Baechler, Emily C; Reed, Ann M

    2013-03-01

    To investigate B cell survival cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) levels as biomarkers of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). We measured and compared mRNA levels of B cell survival cytokines by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in 98 patients with IIM, 38 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, and 21 healthy controls. The cytokines were B cell-activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF); ΔBAFF; and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL); and their receptors BAFF-R, transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor, and B cell maturation antigen (BCMA). We also identified autoantibodies, including anti-Sm, anti-RNP, anti-SSA/Ro, anti-SSB/La, anti-topoisomerase 1, anti-hystidyl-tRNA synthetase, anti-ribosomal P, and anti-chromatin. Clinical disease activity was assessed by the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies core set tool. We examined correlation of mRNA with disease activity, medication use, and autoantibodies. We found a positive correlation of BAFF and ΔBAFF expression with 3 disease activity measures, with ΔBAFF having a stronger correlation. Similarly, anti-SSA/Ro-52 and/or anti-SSA/Ro-60 had a strong positive correlation with mRNA levels of BAFF and ΔBAFF, and with relative ratios of BAFF/APRIL and BCMA/BAFF-R. These findings highlight the potential importance of BAFF, ΔBAFF, and BAFF-R in the pathogenesis of IIM, and suggest an important role in the assessment of disease activity.

  1. The effect of tongue position and resulting vertical dimension on masticatory muscle activity. A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Valdés, C; Gutiérrez, M; Falace, D; Astaburuaga, F; Manns, A

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (a) compare the tonic electromyographic (EMG) activity of the temporalis and masseter muscles between two tongue positions, (b) compare the vertical dimension (VD) resulting from each tongue position and (c) determine the influence of the VD on the tonic EMG activity for each tongue position. Thirty-three healthy dental students with natural dentition and bilateral molar support, between the ages of 18 and 22 years, with no prior history of oro-facial injury, or current or past pain in the jaw, mouth, or tongue participated in the study. Tonic masseteric and temporalis EMG activities were recorded using surface electrodes. Subjects were instructed to passively place the tongue either on the anterior hard palate or in the floor of the mouth. At each tongue position, the resulting EMG and VD were recorded. No significant difference in EMG activity was found for either the masseter (P-value = 0·5376) or temporalis muscle (P-value = 0·7410), between the two tongue positions. However, there was a significant difference in the VD resulting from the two different tongue positions, being greater with the tongue placed in the floor of the mouth. There was no statistically significant correlation between VD and EMG activity for both tongue positions. In spite of the lack of difference in the effect of both tongue positions on the masseteric and temporalis EMG activity, an increment of the VD was registered for the floor of mouth-tongue position. However, VD was not correlated with EMG activity for both tongue positions. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychosocial correlates of physical activity in school children aged 8-10 years.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Ana C; Seabra, André F; Mendonça, Denisa M; Brustad, Robert; Maia, José A; Fonseca, António M; Malina, Robert M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) among children in different populations may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study considered gender differences in relationships between biologic (body mass index, BMI), demographic (socioeconomic sport status, SES) and psychosocial correlates of PA and level of PA in Portuguese primary school children. 683 children, aged 8-10 years, from 20 different elementary schools in northern Portugal were surveyed. Weight status was classified using International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria for the BMI. Family SES was estimated from school records. PA level and psychosocial correlates (attraction to PA, perceived physical competence and parental socialization) were obtained with interview and standardized questionnaires, respectively. Sex-specific hierarchical multiple regression analyses (SPSS 18.0) were conducted and included two blocks of predictor variables (biologic and demographic, and psychosocial). Level of PA was significantly higher in boys than girls. Enjoyment of participation in vigorous PA was positively associated with level of PA. Perceived acceptance by peers in games and sports and parental encouragement were positively and significantly related to PA in girls. Perceived physical competence was positively and significantly related to PA in boys. Weight status and SES were not associated with PA. Boys and girls differed in perceived attractiveness of PA and perceived physical competence, both of which influenced level of PA. Differences in perceptions may be important aspects of motivation for PA in school children.

  3. Non-Stationary Effects and Cross Correlations in Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    In this paper within the framework of the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) we consider the dynamic properties of the solar activity by analyzing the Zurich sunspot numbers. As is well-known astrophysics objects are the non-stationary open systems, whose evolution are the quite individual and have the alternation effects. The main difference of FNS compared to other related methods is the separation of the original signal reflecting the dynamics of solar activity into three frequency bands: system-specific "resonances" and their interferential contributions at lower frequencies, chaotic "random walk" ("irregularity-jump") components at larger frequencies, and chaotic "irregularity-spike" (inertial) components in the highest frequency range. Specific parameters corresponding to each of the bands are introduced and calculated. These irregularities as well as specific resonance frequencies are considered as the information carriers on every hierarchical level of the evolution of a complex natural system with intermittent behavior, consecutive alternation of rapid chaotic changes in the values of dynamic variables on small time intervals with small variations of the values on longer time intervals ("laminar" phases). The jump and spike irregularities are described by power spectra and difference moments (transient structural functions) of the second order. FNS allows revealing the most crucial points of the solar activity dynamics by means of "spikiness" factor. It is shown that this variable behaves as the predictor of crucial changes of the sunspot number dynamics, particularly when the number comes up to maximum value. The change of averaging interval allows revealing the non-stationary effects depending by 11-year cycle and by inside processes in a cycle. To consider the cross correlations between the different variables of solar activity we use the Zurich sunspot numbers and the sequence of corona's radiation energy. The FNS-approach allows extracting the

  4. Metabolic correlatives of brain activity in a FOS epilepsy patient.

    PubMed

    Peca, Stefano; Carnì, Marco; Di Bonaventura, Carlo; Aprile, Teresa; Hagberg, Gisela E; Giallonardo, Anna Teresa; Manfredi, Mario; Mangia, Silvia; Garreffa, Girolamo; Maraviglia, Bruno; Giove, Federico

    2010-02-01

    The correlation and the interactions between neuronal activity and underlying metabolic dynamics are still a matter of debate, especially in pathological conditions. This study reports findings obtained on a subject suffering from fixation-off sensitivity (FOS) epilepsy, exploited as a model system of triggerable anomalous electrical activity. Functional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy was used to investigate the metabolic response to visual spike-inducing stimuli in a single voxel placed in the temporo-occipital lobe of a FOS epilepsy patient. MRS measurements were additionally performed on a control group of five healthy volunteers. The FOS patient also underwent an EEG session with the same stimulus paradigm. Uniquely in the FOS patient, glutamate and glutamine concentration increased during the first 10 min of stimulation and then returned to baseline. On the other hand, FOS-induced epileptic activity (spiking) endured throughout all the stimulation epoch. The observed metabolic dynamics may be likely linked to a complex interplay between alterations of the metabolic pathways of glutamate and modulation of the neuronal activity. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Peripheral skeleton bone strength is positively correlated with total and dairy protein intakes in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Durosier-Izart, Claire; Biver, Emmanuel; Merminod, Fanny; van Rietbergen, Bert; Chevalley, Thierry; Herrmann, François R; Ferrari, Serge L; Rizzoli, René

    2017-02-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) are positively correlated with dietary protein intakes, which account for 1-8% of BMC and BMD variances. However, the relation between bone strength and microstructure, which are variables that are not captured by areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and dietary protein intakes, particularly from specific dietary sources, has not been clearly established. We investigated the association between the peripheral skeleton-predicted failure load and stiffness, bone microstructure, and dietary protein intakes from various origins (animal, divided into dairy and nondairy, and vegetable origins) in healthy postmenopausal women. In a cross-sectional study in 746 Caucasian women aged 65.0 ± 1.4 y, we measured the aBMD with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, the distal radius and tibia bone microstructures with the use of high-resolution peripheral quantitative computerized tomography, and bone strength with the use of a finite element analysis, and we evaluated dietary protein and calcium with the use of a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Mean dietary calcium and protein intakes were greater than recommended amounts for this class of age. The predicted failure load and stiffness at the distal radius and tibia were positively associated with total, animal, and dairy protein intakes but not with vegetable protein intake. Failure load differences were accompanied by modifications of the aBMD and of cortical and trabecular bone microstructures. The associations remained statistically significant after adjustment for weight, height, physical activity, menopause duration, calcium intake, and the interaction between calcium and protein intake. A principal component analysis of the volumetric BMD and bone microstructure indicated that trabecular bone mainly contributed to the positive association between protein intakes and bone strength. These results, which were recorded in a very homogeneous population of

  6. Positive correlation between replication rate and pathotype of Marek’s disease virus strains in maternal antibody negative chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathotyping of new field strains of MDV requires both a long period of time and a large number of birds. Confirming a positive correlation of virus replication and pathotype may lead to faster and cheaper alternative pathotyping methods or as a screening assay for choosing isolates to be pathotyped....

  7. Peer-Perceived Admiration and Social Preference: Contextual Correlates of Positive Peer Regard among Suburban and Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Bronwyn E.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to understand further the heterogeneity of popularity, by exploring contextual correlates of two dimensions of positive peer regard among seventh graders within two highly disparate sociodemographic groups: affluent suburban and low-income urban (N = 636). Three sets of attributes were examined, all…

  8. Position of retinal blood vessels correlates with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness profiles as measured with GDx VCC and ECC.

    PubMed

    Resch, Hemma; Brela, Barbara; Resch-Wolfslehner, Christa; Vass, Clemens

    2011-05-01

    To evaluate the correlation of the retinal blood vessel position and the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness profile. RNFL thickness of 81 healthy subjects was measured using scanning laser polarimetry (SLP). To quantify the retinal blood vessel position, the angle (superior and inferior) between a horizontal line and a line from the optic disc centre to the intersection of the most temporal major retinal blood vessel and the outer margin of the measurement ellipse was measured on the SLP printout. A negative correlation was found between both the superior and inferior angle and the superotemporal and inferotemporal RNFL thickness, and a positive correlation between both angles and the superonasal and inferonasal RFNL thickness. The steepest slope of the regression line was located in the superotemporal and inferotemporal regions (-0.7 to -1.0 μm/°). Using this slope, the difference in RNFL thickness for the interquartile range of the superior angle was 13 μm. RNFL thickness profiles correlate with the location of the main temporal superior and inferior blood vessels. The application of a normative database, taking into account the position of major blood vessels, might improve the diagnostic power of RNFL measurement.

  9. Correlation between Pesticide Resistance and Enzyme Activity in the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate. PMID:24766444

  10. Correlation between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ya-Jun; Wang, Ze-Hua; Shi, Bao-Cai; Kang, Zong-Jiang; Zhu, Liang; Jin, Gui-Hua; Weig, Shu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is one of the most important pests that has developed high pesticide resistance. The resistances of five Chinese populations of this moth, four resistant strains (from Beijing, Henan, Fujian, and Guangdong) and one susceptible strain, to five pesticides were determined, and the activities of carboxylesterase, glutathione S-transferase, and acetylcholine esterase were tested in all five populations. The correlations between pesticide resistance and enzyme activity were analyzed. The results showed that the resistance status to the five pesticides was different among the five populations. The resistance ratios of the Beijing and Henan populations to spinosad were 5.84 and 8.22, respectively, and those to beta-cypermethrin were 4.91 and 4.98, respectively. These ratios were higher than those for the Fujian and Guangdong populations. The Fujian population was more sensitive to abamectin and chlorpyrifos than the susceptible population (the resistance ratios were 0.14 and 0.91, respectively); in fact, the median lethal concentration for P. xylostella was significantly higher for chlorpyrifos than that for any of the other four pesticides. The carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella showed positive correlations with the resistance to spinosad, beta-cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, and abamectin, but no correlation was observed between the carboxylesterase activity and resistance to emamectin benzoate, between glutathione S-transferase activity and resistance to any of the five pesticides tested, or between acetylcholine esterase activity and any of the pesticides except for emamectin benzoate.

  11. Effects of positive mood on probabilistic learning: behavioral and electrophysiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Bakic, Jasmina; Jepma, Marieke; De Raedt, Rudi; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-12-01

    Whether positive mood can change reinforcement learning or not remains an open question. In this study, we used a probabilistic learning task and explored whether positive mood could alter the way positive versus negative feedback was used to guide learning. This process was characterized both at the behavioral and electro-encephalographic levels. Thirty two participants were randomly allocated either to a positive or a neutral (control) mood condition. Behavioral results showed that while learning performance was balanced between the two groups, participants in the positive mood group had a higher learning rate than participants in the neutral mood group. At the electrophysiological level, we found that positive mood increased the error-related negativity when the stimulus-response associations were deterministic, selectively (as opposed to random or probabilistic). However, it did not influence the feedback-related negativity. These new findings are discussed in terms of an enhanced internal reward prediction error signal after the induction of positive mood when the probability of getting a reward is high.

  12. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-08-28

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N₀) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N₀. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N₀. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area.

  13. Accelerometer's position independent physical activity recognition system for long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Khan, Adil Mehmood; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung; Kim, Tae-Seong

    2010-12-01

    Mobility is a good indicator of health status and thus objective mobility data could be used to assess the health status of elderly patients. Accelerometry has emerged as an effective means for long-term physical activity monitoring in the elderly. However, the output of an accelerometer varies at different positions on a subject's body, even for the same activity, resulting in high within-class variance. Existing accelerometer-based activity recognition systems thus require firm attachment of the sensor to a subject's body. This requirement makes them impractical for long-term activity monitoring during unsupervised free-living as it forces subjects into a fixed life pattern and impede their daily activities. Therefore, we introduce a novel single-triaxial-accelerometer-based activity recognition system that reduces the high within-class variance significantly and allows subjects to carry the sensor freely in any pocket without its firm attachment. We validated our system using seven activities: resting (lying/sitting/standing), walking, walking-upstairs, walking-downstairs, running, cycling, and vacuuming, recorded from five positions: chest pocket, front left trousers pocket, front right trousers pocket, rear trousers pocket, and inner jacket pocket. Its simplicity, ability to perform activities unimpeded, and an average recognition accuracy of 94% make our system a practical solution for continuous long-term activity monitoring in the elderly.

  14. Immunohistochemical quantitation of oestrogen receptors and proliferative activity in oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, V; Ladekarl, M

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To evaluate the effect of the duration of formalin fixation and of tumour heterogeneity on quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content (oestrogen receptor index) and proliferative activity (MIB-1 index) in breast cancer. METHODS--Two monoclonal antibodies, MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor, were applied to formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue from 25 prospectively collected oestrogen receptor positive breast carcinomas, using a microwave antigen retrieval method. Tumour tissue was allocated systematically to different periods of fixation to ensure minimal intraspecimen variation. The percentages of MIB-1 positive and oestrogen receptor positive nuclei were estimated in fields of vision sampled systematically from the entire specimen and from the whole tumour area of one "representative" cross-section. RESULTS--No correlation was found between the oestrogen receptor and MIB-1 indices and the duration of formalin fixation. The estimated MIB-1 and oestrogen receptor indices in tissue sampled systematically from the entire tumour were closely correlated with estimates obtained in a "representative" section. The intra- and interobserver correlation of the MIB-1 index was good, although a slight systematical error at the second assessment of the intraobserver study was noted. CONCLUSION--Quantitative estimates of oestrogen receptor content and proliferative activity are not significantly influenced by the period of fixation in formalin, varying from less than four hours to more than 48 hours. The MIB-1 and the oestrogen receptor indices obtained in a "representative" section do not deviate significantly from average indices determined in tissue samples from the entire tumour. Finally, the estimation of MIB-1 index is reproducible, justifying its routine use. PMID:7629289

  15. The correlation between the Trendelenburg position and the stroke volume variation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Eun; Lee, Hong Sik; Chae, Young Keun; Lee, Yong Kyung; Kang, Yoo; Je, Ui Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background The stroke volume variation (SVV), based on lung-heart interaction during mechanical ventilation, is a useful dynamic parameter for fluid responsiveness. However, it is affected by many factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SVV on Trendelenburg (T) and reverse Trendelenburg (RT) position and to further elaborate on the patterns of the SVV with position. Methods Forty-two patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled in this study. Fifteen minutes after standardized induction of anesthesia with propofol, fentanyl, and rocuronium with volume controlled ventilation (tidal volume of 8 ml/kg of ideal body weight, inspiration : expiration ratio of 1 : 2, and respiratory rate of 10-13 breaths/min), the patients underwent posture changes as follows: supine, T position at slopes of operating table of -5°, -10°, and -15°, and RT position at slopes of operating table of 5°, 10°, and 15°. At each point, SVV, cardiac output (CO), peak airway pressure (PAP), mean blood pressure, and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Results The SVV was significant decreased with decreased slopes of operating table in T position, and increased with increased slopes of operating table in RT position (P = 0.000). Schematically, it was increased by 1% when the slope of operating table was increased by 5°. But, the CO and PAP were significant increased with decreased slopes of operating table in T position, and decreased with increased slopes of operating table in RT position (P = 0.045, 0.027). Conclusions SVV is subjected to the posture, and we should take these findings into account on reading SVV for fluid therapy. PMID:25558337

  16. Positive holes in magnesium oxide - Correlation between magnetic, electric, and dielectric anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batllo, F.; Leroy, R. C.; Parvin, K.; Freund, F.; Freund, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The present magnetic susceptibility investigation of high purity MgO single crystals notes an anomally at 800 K which is associated with increasing electrical conductivity, a rise in static dielectric constant from 9 to 150, and the appearance of a pronounced positive surface charge. These phenomena can be accounted for in terms of peroxy defects which represent self-trapped, spin-paired positive holes at Mg(2+) vacancy sites. The holes begin to decouple their spins above 600 K.

  17. Correlation Analysis of Optical and Radio Light Curves for a Large Sample of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Smith, A. G.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.

    1995-08-01

    The Rosemary Hill Observatory has accumulated internally consistent light curves extending over as much as 26 years for a large sample of active galactic nuclei. Forty-six of these optical records have been compared with similar radio records from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory and the Algonquin Radio Observatory. For 18 objects, pairs of records were sufficiently long and unconfused to allow reliable application of the Discrete Correlation Function analysis; this group included 8 BL Lacertids, 8 quasars, and 2 Seyfert galaxies. Nine of the 18 sources showed positive radio-optical correlations, with the radio events lagging the optical by intervals ranging from 0 to 14 months. Consistent with the relativistic beaming model of the BL Lacertids, the group displaying correlations was dominated by this type of object.

  18. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities:Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Richard, S Austin; Frank, Elizabeth A; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:24163803

  19. Spontaneous physical activity in a respiratory chamber is correlated to habitual physical activity.

    PubMed

    Snitker, S; Tataranni, P A; Ravussin, E

    2001-10-01

    During a stay in a respiratory chamber without an exercise protocol, physical activity is limited to activities of daily living, change of posture and 'fidgeting,' collectively referred to as spontaneous physical activity (SPA). SPA is quite variable among individuals and is a heritable trait. A low SPA during a chamber stay is a predictor of weight gain in men. However, it remains to be established whether physical activity in a respiratory chamber relates to physical activity under habitual, free-living conditions. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether physical activity in a chamber is correlated to habitual, free-living physical activity. Fifty healthy, non-diabetic Pima Indians (30 M/20 F, 30+/-6 y; 37+/-10% body fat; means+/-s.d.) completed a 24 h stay in the respiratory chamber followed by a 7 day measurement of habitual, free-living energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Free-living physical activity was expressed as activity energy expenditure (AEE(FL); daily energy expenditure-(sleeping metabolic rate+thermic effect of food)), physical activity level (PAL(FL); daily energy expenditure/sleeping metabolic rate) and body-size independent activity units. Activity during the chamber stay was expressed as PAL(Ch), AEE(Ch), and based on radar sensor measurements, as percentage of time with activity (SPA(Radar)). AEE(FL) (averaging 930+/-310 kcal/day (3.89+/-1.30 MJ/day)) was correlated to AEE(CH) (averaging 440+/-160 kcal/day (1.84+/-0.67 MJ/day)) and higher in men than in women (r=0.53, P=0.003) and r=0.53, P=0.02, respectively). Likewise, PAL(FL) (averaging 1.75+/-0.21) was correlated to PAL(Ch) (averaging 1.42+/-0.10) and higher in men than in women (r=0.49, P=0.006 and r=0.42, P=0.02, respectively). Free-living activity expressed in body-size independent activity units (averaging 17.8+/-7.0) was correlated to SPA(Radar) (averaging 6.4+/-1.7) with no effect of sex (r=0.30, P=0.03). Physical activity in a respiratory chamber was

  20. Studies on angiotensin II and analogs: impact of substitution in position 8 on conformation and activity.

    PubMed

    Aumelas, A; Sakarellos, C; Lintner, K; Fermandjian, S; Khosla, M C; Smeby, R R; Bumpus, F M

    1985-04-01

    Affinity, residual agonist activity, and inhibitor properties of a series of angiotensin II analogs modified at the COOH-terminal position (X8-substituted peptides) have been probed for structure/conformation-biological activity relationships. The results emphasize (i) the large impact that subtle conformational variations caused by structural alterations in the position 8 side chain have on biological properties, (ii) the implication of the COOH-terminal carboxyl group in both affinity and intrinsic activity, and (iii) the influence that the bulkiness of the side chain in position 8 of antagonists has on the local conformation at the COOH terminus and thus on the inhibitory properties. In the hormone, the phenylalanine-8 ring is required for its steric influence and aromaticity to ensure a fully active conformation at the COOH terminus. Especially, correct orientation of the position 8 carboxyl group relative to the phenyl group of the phenylalanine residue may be necessary for agonistic activation of the angiotensin receptor complex. Replacement of the aromatic ring on the COOH-terminal residue by a nonaromatic group leads to incorrect orientation of the carboxyl group and causes the appearance of antagonist properties. Although the steric effects of the side chain can be modulated by specific interaction of its chemical groups (if any) with the peptide backbone, we found a good correlation between the size of the side chain-e.g., the steric parameter V gamma (the van der Waals volume consisting of the C alpha, C beta, and C gamma atoms), the conformational properties in the backbone (3J HC alpha-NH), and the binding capacities in all compounds tested.

  1. Studies on angiotensin II and analogs: impact of substitution in position 8 on conformation and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Aumelas, A; Sakarellos, C; Lintner, K; Fermandjian, S; Khosla, M C; Smeby, R R; Bumpus, F M

    1985-01-01

    Affinity, residual agonist activity, and inhibitor properties of a series of angiotensin II analogs modified at the COOH-terminal position (X8-substituted peptides) have been probed for structure/conformation-biological activity relationships. The results emphasize (i) the large impact that subtle conformational variations caused by structural alterations in the position 8 side chain have on biological properties, (ii) the implication of the COOH-terminal carboxyl group in both affinity and intrinsic activity, and (iii) the influence that the bulkiness of the side chain in position 8 of antagonists has on the local conformation at the COOH terminus and thus on the inhibitory properties. In the hormone, the phenylalanine-8 ring is required for its steric influence and aromaticity to ensure a fully active conformation at the COOH terminus. Especially, correct orientation of the position 8 carboxyl group relative to the phenyl group of the phenylalanine residue may be necessary for agonistic activation of the angiotensin receptor complex. Replacement of the aromatic ring on the COOH-terminal residue by a nonaromatic group leads to incorrect orientation of the carboxyl group and causes the appearance of antagonist properties. Although the steric effects of the side chain can be modulated by specific interaction of its chemical groups (if any) with the peptide backbone, we found a good correlation between the size of the side chain-e.g., the steric parameter V gamma (the van der Waals volume consisting of the C alpha, C beta, and C gamma atoms), the conformational properties in the backbone (3J HC alpha-NH), and the binding capacities in all compounds tested. PMID:3856867

  2. Plasma kisspeptin and ghrelin levels are independently correlated with physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Tobias; Elbelt, Ulf; Haas, Verena; Ahnis, Anne; Klapp, Burghard F; Rose, Matthias; Stengel, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    While physical hyperactivity represents a frequent symptom of anorexia nervosa and may have a deleterious impact on the course of the disease, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Since several food intake-regulatory hormones affect physical activity, the aim of the study was to investigate the association of physical activity with novel candidate hormones (kisspeptin, ghrelin, oxyntomodulin, orexin-A, FGF-21, R-spondin-1) possibly involved in patients with anorexia nervosa. Associations with psychometric parameters and body composition were also assessed. We included 38 female anorexia nervosa inpatients (body mass index, BMI, mean ± SD: 14.8 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)). Physical activity was evaluated using portable armband devices, body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood withdrawal (hormones measured by ELISA) and psychometric assessment of depressiveness (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7), perceived stress (PSQ-20) and disordered eating (EDI-2) were performed at the same time. Patients displayed a broad spectrum of physical activity (2479-26,047 steps/day) which showed a negative correlation with kisspeptin (r = -0.41, p = 0.01) and a positive association with ghrelin (r = 0.42, p = 0.01). The negative correlation with oxyntomodulin (r = -0.37, p = 0.03) was lost after consideration of potential confounders by regression analysis. No correlations were observed between physical activity and orexin-A, FGF-21 and R-spondin-1 (p > 0.05). Kisspeptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat mass and negatively associated with the interpersonal distrust subscale of the EDI-2 (p < 0.01). Depressiveness, anxiety, and perceived stress did not correlate with kisspeptin or any other of the investigated hormones (p > 0.05). In conclusion, kisspeptin is inversely and ghrelin positively associated with physical activity as measured by daily step counts in anorexia nervosa patients suggesting an implication of these peptide hormones in

  3. A Stromal Immune Module Correlated with the Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, Prognosis and Lymphocyte Infiltration in HER2-Positive Breast Carcinoma Is Inversely Correlated with Hormonal Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lae, Marick; Moarii, Matahi; Sadacca, Benjamin; Pinheiro, Alice; Galliot, Marion; Abecassis, Judith; Laurent, Cecile; Reyal, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HER2-positive breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous group of aggressive breast cancers, the prognosis of which has greatly improved since the introduction of treatments targeting HER2. However, these tumors may display intrinsic or acquired resistance to treatment, and classifiers of HER2-positive tumors are required to improve the prediction of prognosis and to develop novel therapeutic interventions. Methods We analyzed 2893 primary human breast cancer samples from 21 publicly available datasets and developed a six-metagene signature on a training set of 448 HER2-positive BC. We then used external public datasets to assess the ability of these metagenes to predict the response to chemotherapy (Ignatiadis dataset), and prognosis (METABRIC dataset). Results We identified a six-metagene signature (138 genes) containing metagenes enriched in different gene ontologies. The gene clusters were named as follows: Immunity, Tumor suppressors/proliferation, Interferon, Signal transduction, Hormone/survival and Matrix clusters. In all datasets, the Immunity metagene was less strongly expressed in ER-positive than in ER-negative tumors, and was inversely correlated with the Hormonal/survival metagene. Within the signature, multivariate analyses showed that strong expression of the “Immunity” metagene was associated with higher pCR rates after NAC (OR = 3.71[1.28–11.91], p = 0.019) than weak expression, and with a better prognosis in HER2-positive/ER-negative breast cancers (HR = 0.58 [0.36–0.94], p = 0.026). Immunity metagene expression was associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Conclusion The identification of a predictive and prognostic immune module in HER2-positive BC confirms the need for clinical testing for immune checkpoint modulators and vaccines for this specific subtype. The inverse correlation between Immunity and hormone pathways opens research perspectives and deserves further investigation. PMID:28005906

  4. Active vibration control using genetic algorithm-based system identification and positive position feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orszulik, Ryan R.; Shan, Jinjun

    2012-05-01

    A system identification and vibration control strategy for a flexible manipulator with a collocated piezoelectric sensor/actuator pair is presented in this paper. An iteratively implemented genetic algorithm is applied to the system identification problem of the flexible manipulator. A control law based upon positive position feedback is developed for vibration suppression. A minimization criterion based on the H∞-norm of the closed loop system is solved by a genetic algorithm to derive optimal controller parameters. Numerical simulations are performed to verify the effectiveness of the system identification and vibration controller.

  5. Position paper - peer review and design verification of selected activities

    SciTech Connect

    Stine, M.D.

    1994-09-01

    Position Paper to develop and document a position on the performance of independent peer reviews on selected design and analysis components of the Title I (preliminary) and Title II (detailed) design phases of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility project.

  6. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia

    PubMed Central

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear. PMID:25411452

  7. Brain activity associated with illusory correlations in animal phobia.

    PubMed

    Wiemer, Julian; Schulz, Stefan M; Reicherts, Philipp; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Andreatta, Marta; Pauli, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Anxiety disorder patients were repeatedly found to overestimate the association between disorder-relevant stimuli and aversive outcomes despite random contingencies. Such an illusory correlation (IC) might play an important role in the return of fear after extinction learning; yet, little is known about how this cognitive bias emerges in the brain. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 female patients with spider phobia and 18 healthy controls were exposed to pictures of spiders, mushrooms and puppies followed randomly by either a painful electrical shock or nothing. In advance, both patients and healthy controls expected more shocks after spider pictures. Importantly, only patients with spider phobia continued to overestimate this association after the experiment. The strength of this IC was predicted by increased outcome aversiveness ratings and primary sensory motor cortex activity in response to the shock after spider pictures. Moreover, increased activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) to spider pictures predicted the IC. These results support the theory that phobia-relevant stimuli amplify unpleasantness and sensory motor representations of aversive stimuli, which in turn may promote their overestimation. Hyper-activity in dlPFC possibly reflects a pre-occupation of executive resources with phobia-relevant stimuli, thus complicating the accurate monitoring of objective contingencies and the unlearning of fear.

  8. Patellar maltracking correlates with vastus medialis activation delay in patellofemoral pain patients.

    PubMed

    Pal, Saikat; Draper, Christine E; Fredericson, Michael; Gold, Garry E; Delp, Scott L; Beaupre, Gary S; Besier, Thor F

    2011-03-01

    Delayed onset of vastus medialis (VM) activity compared with vastus lateralis activity is a reported cause for patellofemoral pain. The delayed onset of VM activity in patellofemoral pain patients likely causes an imbalance in muscle forces and lateral maltracking of the patella; however, evidence relating VM activation delay to patellar maltracking is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking measures in pain-free controls and patellofemoral pain patients. Patellar tilt and bisect offset, measures of patellar tracking, correlate with VM activation delay in patellofemoral pain patients classified as maltrackers. Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Vasti muscle activations were recorded in pain-free (n = 15) and patellofemoral pain (n = 40) participants during walking and jogging. All participants were scanned in an open-configuration magnetic resonance scanner in an upright weightbearing position to acquire the position of the patella with respect to the femur. Patellar tilt and bisect offset were measured, and patellofemoral pain participants were classified into normal tracking and maltracking groups. Correlations between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking measures were statistically significant in only the patellofemoral pain participants classified as maltrackers with both abnormal tilt and abnormal bisect offset (R(2) = .89, P < .001, with patellar tilt during walking; R(2) = .75, P = .012, with bisect offset during jogging). There were no differences between the means of activation delays in pain-free and all patellofemoral pain participants during walking (P = .516) or jogging (P = .731). There was a relationship between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking in the subgroup of patellofemoral pain participants classified as maltrackers with both abnormal tilt and abnormal bisect offset. A clinical intervention such as VM retraining may be effective in only a

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of competitor activation predict retrieval-induced forgetting.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-06-01

    The very act of retrieval modifies the accessibility of memory for knowledge and past events and can also cause forgetting. A prominent theory of such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) holds that retrieval recruits inhibition to overcome interference from competing memories, rendering these memories inaccessible. The present study tested a fundamental tenet of the inhibitory-control account: The competition-dependence assumption. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants engaged in a competitive retrieval task. Competition levels were manipulated within the retrieval task by varying the cue-item associative strength of competing items. In order to temporally separate ERP correlates of competitor activation and target retrieval, memory was probed with the sequential presentation of 2 cues: A category cue, to reactivate competitors, and a target cue. As predicted by the inhibitory-control account, competitors with strong compared with weak cue-competitor association were more susceptible to forgetting. Furthermore, competition-sensitive ERP modulations, elicited by the category cue, were observed over anterior regions and reflected individual differences in ensuing forgetting. The present study demonstrates ERP correlates of the reactivation of tightly bound associated memories (the competitors) and provides support for the inhibitory-control account of RIF.

  10. Multidisciplinary colposcopy clinicopathology correlation meetings: an activity review.

    PubMed

    Moss, Esther L; Byrom, Jenny; Owen, Geraint; Pearmain, Philippa; Douce, Gill; Todd, Richard; Redman, Charles W E

    2009-07-01

    Multidisciplinary colposcopy clinicopathology correlation meetings are deemed to be an important aspect of colposcopic quality assurance and are often a focus of attention in colposcopy quality assurance peer-review assessments. Despite this, there are few data on such meetings detailing activity or providing benchmarks for audit. A retrospective analysis of clinicopathology correlation meetings held during a 3-year period (2004-2006) at the University Hospital of North Staffordshire was performed. A total of 65 meetings were held on a 2 to 4 weekly basis. All meetings contained a representation from cytology, pathology, and colposcopy. A total of 518 cases were listed and 475 were discussed, representing 6.6% of the total patient attendances at the colposcopy clinic during the study period. The main indications for discussion were as follows: cytology/histology discrepancy (35%), cytology/colposcopy discrepancy (10%), management dilemma (25%), and invasive cancer review (18%). A small proportion of cases listed (8%) were not discussed because of administrative problems. Problems were encountered in the quality of documentation, inconsistencies in the recording of findings, conclusions, and management plans. Multidisciplinary colposcopy pathology meetings provide a valuable data resource for recording and analyzing challenging areas in the clinical management of women with abnormal cervical cytology. However, such meetings are time and labor intensive both in terms of personnel and preparation. National guidelines need to be developed to guide clinicians on the frequency and standards required from such meetings.

  11. Clustering of ice nucleation protein correlates with ice nucleation activity.

    PubMed

    Mueller, G M; Wolber, P K; Warren, G J

    1990-08-01

    Antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide specifically detect ice nucleation proteins from Pseudomonas species in Western blots. In immunofluorescent staining of whole bacteria, the antibodies reveal the protein in clusters, as indicated by patches of intense fluorescence in Escherichia coli cells heterologously expressing Pseudomonas ice nucleation genes. The abundance, size, and brightness of the clusters vary considerably from cell to cell. Their varying sizes may explain the variability in activity of bacterial ice nuclei. Growth at lower temperatures produces more ice nuclei, and gives brighter and more frequent patches, than growth at 37 degrees C. The observed clustering may thus reflect formation of functional ice nucleation sites in vivo. The presence of ice nucleation protein in clusters is also correlated with alterations in cell morphology.

  12. Active Healthy Kids Canada’s Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; LeBlanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart JH; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC’s position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation). PMID:24497779

  13. Active Healthy Kids Canada's Position on Active Video Games for Children and Youth.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leblanc, Allana G; McFarlane, Allison; Colley, Rachel C; Thivel, David; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Maddison, Ralph; Leatherdale, Scott T; Tremblay, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    The effect of active video games (AVGs) on acute energy expenditure has previously been reported; however, the influence of AVGs on other health-related lifestyle indicators remains unclear. To address this knowledge gap, Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) convened an international group of researchers to conduct a systematic review to understand whether AVGs should be promoted to increase physical activity and improve health indicators in children and youth (zero to 17 years of age). The present article outlines the process and outcomes of the development of the AHKC's position on active video games for children and youth. In light of the available evidence, AHKC does not recommend AVGs as a strategy to help children be more physically active. However, AVGs may exchange some sedentary time for light- to moderate-intensity physical activity, and there may be specific situations in which AVGs provide benefit (eg, motor skill development in special populations and rehabilitation).

  14. Antioxidant enzyme activities are not broadly correlated with longevity in 14 vertebrate endotherm species.

    PubMed

    Page, Melissa M; Richardson, Jean; Wiens, Brent E; Tiedtke, Esther; Peters, Craig W; Faure, Paul A; Burness, Gary; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The free radical theory of ageing posits that accrual of oxidative damage underlies the increased cellular, tissue and organ dysfunction and failure associated with advanced age. In support of this theory, cellular resistance to oxidative stress is highly correlated with life span, suggesting that prevention or repair of oxidative damage might indeed be essential for longevity. To test the hypothesis that the prevention of oxidative damage underlies longevity, we measured the activities of the five major intracellular antioxidant enzymes in brain, heart and liver tissue of 14 mammalian and avian species with maximum life spans (MLSPs) ranging from 3 years to over 100 years. Our data set included Snell dwarf mice in which life span is increased by approximately 50% compared to their normal littermates. We found that CuZn superoxide dismutase, the major cytosolic superoxide dismutase, showed no correlation with MLSP in any of the three organs. Similarly, neither glutathione peroxidase nor glutathione reductase activities correlated with MLSP. MnSOD, the sole mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in mammals and birds, was positively correlated with MLSP only for brain tissue. This same trend was observed for catalase. For all correlational data, effects of body mass and phylogenetic relatedness were removed using residual analysis and Felsenstein's phylogenetically independent contrasts. Our results are not consistent with a causal role for intracellular antioxidant enzymes in longevity, similar to recent reports from studies utilising genetic modifications of mice (Pérez et al., Biochim Biophys Acta 1790:1005-1014, 2009). However, our results indicate a specific augmentation of reactive oxygen species neutralising activities in brain associated with longevity.

  15. Positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlates with the presence of somatostatin receptor subtype 2.

    PubMed Central

    John, M; Meyerhof, W; Richter, D; Waser, B; Schaer, J C; Scherübl, H; Boese-Landgraf, J; Neuhaus, P; Ziske, C; Mölling, K; Riecken, E O; Reubi, J C; Wiedenmann, B

    1996-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is positive in approximately 75% of all patients with neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours. This study aimed to identify specific somatostatin receptor (sstr) subtypes, which are responsible for the in vivo binding of the widely used somatostatin analogue, octreotide in human neuroendocrine gastroenteropancreatic tumours. Twelve patients underwent SRS with radiolabelled octreotide. After surgical resection, tumour tissues were analysed in vitro for somatostatin and octreotide binding sites by autoradiography. In addition, for the first time, sstr subtype mRNA expression was examined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Tumour tissues from all SRS positive patients were positive by autoradiography. Semiquantitative RT-PCR revealed most prominently sstr2 expression in scintigraphically positive tumours. Two SRS negative tumours contained in vitro octreotide binding sites as well as high levels of sstr1 and sstr2 mRNAs. Positive SRS is mainly due to sstr2. sstr1, 3, 4, and probably 5 are less important for in vivo octreotide binding. False negative scintigraphic results seem to be influenced by factors independent of the expression of specific sstr. Images Figure 4 PMID:8566856

  16. Brain activity correlates with emotional perception induced by dynamic avatars.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Hagar; Christensen, Andrea; Flash, Tamar; Giese, Martin A; Malach, Rafael

    2015-11-15

    An accurate judgment of the emotional state of others is a prerequisite for successful social interaction and hence survival. Thus, it is not surprising that we are highly skilled at recognizing the emotions of others. Here we aimed to examine the neuronal correlates of emotion recognition from gait. To this end we created highly controlled dynamic body-movement stimuli based on real human motion-capture data (Roether et al., 2009). These animated avatars displayed gait in four emotional (happy, angry, fearful, and sad) and speed-matched neutral styles. For each emotional gait and its equivalent neutral gait, avatars were displayed at five morphing levels between the two. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while classifying the emotions and the emotional intensity levels expressed by the avatars. Our results revealed robust brain selectivity to emotional compared to neutral gait stimuli in brain regions which are involved in emotion and biological motion processing, such as the extrastriate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the amygdala (AMG). Brain activity in the amygdala reflected emotional awareness: for visually identical stimuli it showed amplified stronger response when the stimulus was perceived as emotional. Notably, in avatars gradually morphed along an emotional expression axis there was a parametric correlation between amygdala activity and emotional intensity. This study extends the mapping of emotional decoding in the human brain to the domain of highly controlled dynamic biological motion. Our results highlight an extensive level of brain processing of emotional information related to body language, which relies mostly on body kinematics.

  17. Positive association between physical activity and PER3 expression in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Masaki; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Tahara, Yu; Aoki, Natsumi; Fukazawa, Mayuko; Tanisawa, Kumpei; Ito, Tomoko; Nakaoka, Takashi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2017-01-01

    The circadian clock regulates many physiological functions including physical activity and feeding patterns. In addition, scheduled exercise and feeding themselves can affect the circadian clock. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between physical/feeding activity and expression of clock genes in hair follicle cells in older adults. Twenty adult men (age, 68 ± 7 years, mean ± SE) were examined in this cross-sectional study. Prior to hair follicle cell collection, the participants were asked to wear a uniaxial accelerometer for one week. The timings of breakfast, lunch, and dinner were also recorded. Hair follicle cells were then collected over a 24 h period at 4 h intervals. The amplitude of PER3 expression was positively correlated with moderate and vigorous physical activity (r = 0.582, p = 0.007) and peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.481, p = 0.032), but these correlations were not observed for NR1D1 or NR1D2. No association was noted between meal times and the amplitude or the acrophase for any of these three clock genes. These findings suggest that rhythmic expression of the circadian clock gene PER3 is associated with the amount of daily physical activity and physical fitness in older adults. PMID:28045078

  18. Distinct Neuropsychological Correlates in Positive and Negative Formal Thought Disorder Syndromes: The Thought and Language Disorder Scale in Endogenous Psychoses.

    PubMed

    Nagels, Arne; Fährmann, Paul; Stratmann, Mirjam; Ghazi, Sayed; Schales, Christian; Frauenheim, Michael; Turner, Lena; Hornig, Tobias; Katzev, Michael; Müller-Isberner, Rüdiger; Grosvald, Michael; Krug, Axel; Kircher, Tilo

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of formal thought disorder (FTD) symptoms and subsyndromes with neuropsychological dimensions is as yet unclear. Evidence for a dysexecutive syndrome and semantic access impairments has been discussed in positive FTD, albeit focusing mostly on patients with schizophrenia. We investigated the correlation of the full range of positive and negative as well as subjective and objective FTD with neuropsychological domains in different patient groups. Patients with ICD-10 schizophrenia (n = 51), depression (n = 51), and bipolar mania (n = 18), as well as healthy subjects (n = 60), were interviewed with the Rating Scale for the Assessment of Objective and Subjective Formal Thought and Language Disorder (TALD) and assessed using a multidimensional neuropsychological test battery (executive function, semantic and lexical verbal fluency, attention, working memory, and abstract thinking). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for age and word knowledge, revealed significant results for the objective positive FTD dimension and executive dysfunctions. Objective negative FTD was associated with deficits in lexico-semantic retrieval, as well as attention and working memory dysfunctions. The results suggest that different neuropsychological substrates correlate with the multidimensional and phenomenologically different FTD syndromes. FTD is a complex, multidimensional syndrome with a variety of neuropsychological impairments, which should be accounted for in future studies investigating the pathogenesis of FTD.

  19. δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity is Stimulated in a MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease: Correlation with Myeloperoxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; Pesarico, Ana Paula; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-09-21

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an inducible heme peroxidase responsive to some stress situations. It is already known that its activity is stimulated in neurodegenerative disorders and in the animal model of parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). By contrast, the role of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D), an essential enzyme for heme synthesis, has not been investigated in the MPTP model. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of striatal δ-ALA-D activity in an acute model of PD, induced by MPTP, in C57Bl/6 mice and its correlation with MPO activity. Animals received four MPTP injections (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (vehicle) to induce a PD model. 7 days after MPTP administration, the motor function was evaluated through rotarod and challenging beam tests in mice. Afterward, mice were killed, and the striata were removed for biochemical analyses. MPTP-treated mice showed impairment in motor skills, such as balance and motor coordination. Furthermore, there was a reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase levels in these animals, which characterizes the dopaminergic lesion. Striatal δ-ALA-D activity was stimulated by MPTP, as well as the MPO activity, and a significant positive correlation between δ-ALA-D and MPO activities was also demonstrated. These data suggest that δ-ALA-D activity could be stimulated due to the requirement of heme groups by peroxidases. Therefore, this study demonstrated for the first time the involvement of striatal δ-ALA-D activity in the MPTP model and its correlation with the MPO activity.

  20. Active-passive correlation spectroscopy - A new technique for identifying ocean color algorithm spectral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1986-01-01

    A new active-passive airborne data correlation technique has been developed which allows the validation of existing in-water oceoan color algorithms and the rapid search, identification, and evaluation of new sensor band locations and algorithm wavelength intervals. Thus far, applied only in conjunction with the spectral curvature algorithm (SCA), the active-passive correlation spectroscopy (APCS) technique shows that (1) the usual 490-nm (center-band) chlorophyll SCA could satisfactorily be placed anywhere within the nominal 460-510-nm interval, and (2) two other spectral regions, 645-660 and 680-695 nm, show considerable promise for chlorophyll pigment measurement. Additionally, the APCS method reveals potentially useful wavelength regions (at 600 and about 670 nm) of very low chlorophyll-in-water spectral curvature into which accessory pigment algorithms for phycoerythrin might be carefully positioned. In combination, the APCS and SCA methods strongly suggest that significant information content resides within the seemingly featureless ocean color spectrum.

  1. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that "attentional" brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction-compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional mobility.

  2. Brain activation during visual working memory correlates with behavioral mobility performance in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawagoe, Toshikazu; Suzuki, Maki; Nishiguchi, Shu; Abe, Nobuhito; Otsuka, Yuki; Nakai, Ryusuke; Yamada, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Functional mobility and cognitive function often decline with age. We previously found that functional mobility as measured by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) was associated with cognitive performance for visually-encoded (i.e., for location and face) working memory (WM) in older adults. This suggests a common neural basis between TUG and visual WM. To elucidate this relationship further, the present study aimed to examine the neural basis for the WM-mobility association. In accordance with the well-known neural compensation model in aging, we hypothesized that “attentional” brain activation for easy WM would increase in participants with lower mobility. The data from 32 healthy older adults were analyzed, including brain activation during easy WM tasks via functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and mobility performance via both TUG and a simple walking test. WM performance was significantly correlated with TUG but not with simple walking. Some prefrontal brain activations during WM were negatively correlated with TUG performance, while positive correlations were found in subcortical structures including the thalamus, putamen and cerebellum. Moreover, activation of the subcortical regions was significantly correlated with WM performance, with less activation for lower WM performers. These results indicate that older adults with lower mobility used more cortical (frontal) and fewer subcortical resources for easy WM tasks. To date, the frontal compensation has been proposed separately in the motor and cognitive domains, which have been assumed to compensate for dysfunction of the other brain areas; however, such dysfunction was less clear in previous studies. The present study observed such dysfunction as degraded activation associated with lower performance, which was found in the subcortical regions. We conclude that a common dysfunction—compensation activation pattern is likely the neural basis for the association between visual WM and functional

  3. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism.

  4. Positive correlation between ADAR expression and its targets suggests a complex regulation mediated by RNA editing in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Liscovitch, Noa; Bazak, Lily; Levanon, Erez Y; Chechik, Gal

    2014-01-01

    A-to-I RNA editing by adenosine deaminases acting on RNA is a post-transcriptional modification that is crucial for normal life and development in vertebrates. RNA editing has been shown to be very abundant in the human transcriptome, specifically at the primate-specific Alu elements. The functional role of this wide-spread effect is still not clear; it is believed that editing of transcripts is a mechanism for their down-regulation via processes such as nuclear retention or RNA degradation. Here we combine 2 neural gene expression datasets with genome-level editing information to examine the relation between the expression of ADAR genes with the expression of their target genes. Specifically, we computed the spatial correlation across structures of post-mortem human brains between ADAR and a large set of targets that were found to be edited in their Alu repeats. Surprisingly, we found that a large fraction of the edited genes are positively correlated with ADAR, opposing the assumption that editing would reduce expression. When considering the correlations between ADAR and its targets over development, 2 gene subsets emerge, positively correlated and negatively correlated with ADAR expression. Specifically, in embryonic time points, ADAR is positively correlated with many genes related to RNA processing and regulation of gene expression. These findings imply that the suggested mechanism of regulation of expression by editing is probably not a global one; ADAR expression does not have a genome wide effect reducing the expression of editing targets. It is possible, however, that RNA editing by ADAR in non-coding regions of the gene might be a part of a more complex expression regulation mechanism. PMID:25692240

  5. Expression Divergence Is Correlated with Sequence Evolution but Not Positive Selection in Conifers.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Kathryn A; Yeaman, Sam; Nurkowski, Kristin A; Rieseberg, Loren H; Aitken, Sally N

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary and genomic determinants of sequence evolution in conifers are poorly understood, and previous studies have found only limited evidence for positive selection. Using RNAseq data, we compared gene expression profiles to patterns of divergence and polymorphism in 44 seedlings of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and 39 seedlings of interior spruce (Picea glauca × engelmannii) to elucidate the evolutionary forces that shape their genomes and their plastic responses to abiotic stress. We found that rapidly diverging genes tend to have greater expression divergence, lower expression levels, reduced levels of synonymous site diversity, and longer proteins than slowly diverging genes. Similar patterns were identified for the untranslated regions, but with some exceptions. We found evidence that genes with low expression levels had a larger fraction of nearly neutral sites, suggesting a primary role for negative selection in determining the association between evolutionary rate and expression level. There was limited evidence for differences in the rate of positive selection among genes with divergent versus conserved expression profiles and some evidence supporting relaxed selection in genes diverging in expression between the species. Finally, we identified a small number of genes that showed evidence of site-specific positive selection using divergence data alone. However, estimates of the proportion of sites fixed by positive selection (α) were in the range of other plant species with large effective population sizes suggesting relatively high rates of adaptive divergence among conifers.

  6. Androgen Receptor Promotes Tamoxifen Agonist Activity by Activation of EGFR in ERα-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ciupek, Andrew; Rechoum, Yassine; Gu, Guowei; Gelsomino, Luca; Beyer, Amanda R.; Brusco, Lauren; Covington, Kyle R.; Tsimelzon, Anna; Fuqua, Suzanne A. W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tamoxifen (Tam) resistance represents a significant clinical problem in estrogen receptor (ER) -positive breast cancer. We previously showed that decreased expression of Rho guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (Rho GDI), a negative regulator of the Rho GTPase pathway, is associated with Tam resistance. We now discover that androgen receptor (AR) is overexpressed in cells with decreased Rho GDI and seek to determine AR’s contribution to resistance. Methods We engineered ER -positive cell lines with stable knock-down (KD) of Rho GDI (KD cells). Resistance mechanisms were examined using microarray profiling, protein-interaction studies, growth and reporter gene assays, and Western blot analysis combined with a specific AR antagonist and other signaling inhibitors. Results Tam-resistant tumors and cell lines with low Rho GDI levels exhibited upregulated AR expression. Microarray of Rho GDI KD cells indicated that activation of EGFR and ER was associated with Tam treatment. When AR levels were elevated interaction between AR and EGFR was detected. Constitutive and Tam-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2 was blocked by the AR antagonist Enzalutamide, suggesting that AR-mediated EGFR activation was a mechanism of resistance in these cells. Constitutive ERα phosphorylation and transcriptional activity was inhibited by Enzalutamide and the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib, demonstrating that AR-mediated EGFR signaling activated ER. Tam exhibited agonist activity in AR over-expressing cells, stimulating ERα transcriptional activity and proliferation, which was blocked by Enzalutamide and gefitinib. Conclusions We describe a novel model of AR-mediated Tam resistance through activation of EGFR signaling leading to ER activation in ER -positive cells with low expression of Rho GDI. PMID:26487496

  7. Stressful life events and psychosocial correlates of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, George; Chouliaras, George; Margoni, Daphne; Korlou, Sophia; Hantzara, Vassiliki; Panayotou, Ioanna; Roma, Eleftheria; Liakopoulou, Magda; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris C

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of psychiatric and psychosocial correlates with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity in children and adolescents. METHODS A total of 85 pediatric IBD patients (in remission or active state of the disease) and their parents completed a series of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews measuring life events, depression, anxiety, family dysfunction, and parent mental health. Differences between the remission and the IBD active group and the association of any significant variable with the disease activity state were examined. RESULTS Parents of children being in active state of the disease reported more life events (P = 0.005) and stressful life events (P = 0.048) during the past year and more mental health symptoms (P < 0.001), while the children themselves reported higher levels of anxiety symptoms (P = 0.017) compared to the remission group. In the logistic regression multivariate analysis, the only predictor which had a significant positive effect on the probability of the patients being in active state was parent mental health symptoms (OR = 4.8; 95%CI: 1.2-25.8). CONCLUSION Life events, child anxiety and parent mental health symptoms may be important correlates of pediatric IBD activity and targets of thorough assessment and treatment. PMID:27679771

  8. Primary and multisensory cortical activity is correlated with audiovisual percepts.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Stufflebeam, Steven

    2010-04-01

    Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion.

  9. Retinol Binding Protein 4 in children with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a negative correlation with the disease activity.

    PubMed

    Roma, E; Krini, M; Hantzi, E; Sakka, S; Panayiotou, I; Margeli, A; Papassotiriou, I; Kanaka-Gantenbein, C

    2012-10-01

    Retinol Binding Protein-4 (RBP-4), the action of which was initially thought to be only the transport of vitamin A, is a major circulating adipocytokine involved in the inflammation. We evaluated the serum RBP-4 levels in children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and correlated them with transthyretin (TTR), inflammation markers, disease activity, and body mass index (BMI). In 41 children of mean age 11.9 ± 3.6 years (range 5-17.7 y) with IBD (19 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 22 with Ulcerative colitis (UC) serum RBP-4, TTR, Amyloid A (SAA), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), disease activity and BMI were prospectively determined and compared with those of 42 matched controls. No difference in the RBP-4 and TTR serum levels, between patients and controls as well as between active and remission state of the disease was noticed. A negative correlation of serum RBP-4 with the disease activity, SAA and ESR and a positive correlation with TTR was found, but no significant correlation with CRP or BMI was found. Inflammation markers were significantly increased in patients compared to controls and had a positive correlation with the disease activity. RBP-4 negatively correlated with disease activity of children with IBD probably indicating a protective anti-inflammatory mechanism of action in addition to transport of vitamin A.

  10. Correlation between pedometer and the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire on physical activity measurement in office workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to examine the correlation of physical activity levels assessed by pedometer and those by the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a population of office workers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 320 office workers. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to each office worker by hand. Physical activity level was objectively assessed by a pedometer for 7 consecutive days and subjectively assessed by the GPAQ. Based on the pedometer and GPAQ outcomes, participants were classified into 3 groups: inactive, moderately active, and highly active. Results No correlation in the physical activity level assessed by the pedometer and GPAQ was found (rs = .08, P = 0.15). When considering the pedometer as the criterion for comparison, 65.3% of participants had underestimated their physical activity level using the GPAQ, whereas 9.3% of participants overestimated their physical activity level. Conclusions Physical activity level in office workers assessed by a subjective measure was greatly different from assessed by an objective tool. Consequently, research on physical activity level, especially in those with sedentary lifestyle, should consider using an objective measure to ensure that it closely reflects a person’s physical activity level. PMID:24886593

  11. Correlation of weightbearing radiographs and stability of stress positive ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, C Max; Nomoto, Edward Kazuhisa; Norheim, Elizabeth P; Harris, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    A positive external rotation stress test has been used as an indication for operative treatment of fractures of the lateral malleolus. The objective of the current study was to ascertain the results of a protocol initially treating stress positive ankle fractures nonoperatively and utilizing weightbearing radiographs in surgical decision making. We performed a prospective study of lateral malleolar fractures with an associated medial ligamentous injury. All patients with fractures of the lateral malleolus with medial sided symptoms and/or signs, and an intact ankle mortise underwent an external rotation stress test to confirm injury to the deltoid ligament (stress positive). Patients with a positive stress test were placed in a short-leg walking cast and seen in 7 days where weightbearing radiographs of the ankle were obtained. If the radiographs demonstrated an intact mortise, then nonoperative treatment was continued. If the weightbearing radiographs demonstrated medial clear space widening, then the patient was offered operative treatment to restore the congruency of the ankle mortise. Patients were assessed for conversion to operative treatment, complications, and functional outcome. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in the study. Using Lauge-Hansen classification 36 (95%) were stress positive supination-external rotation fractures and 2 (5%) were stress positive pronation-external rotation fractures. Followup assessment was performed at a minimum of 6 months and averaged 12 months. Weightbearing radiographs at the first post-injury clinic visit had an average medial clear space of 2.9 ±0.9 mm. Three (8%) patients met our criteria for medial clear space widening and underwent operative treatment. Of these three patients, two were pronation-external rotation fracture patterns. Therefore, 3% of the supination-external rotation IV fractures, and all of the pronation-external III/IV rotation fractures ultimately required operative treatment. At final followup

  12. Inverse correlation between the standard deviation of R-R intervals in supine position and the simplified menopausal index in women with climacteric symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Seki, Meikan; Nakano, Masahiro; Hachisuga, Toru; Goto, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    Disturbance of autonomic nervous activity has been thought to play a role in the climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women. This study was therefore designed to investigate the relationship between autonomic nervous activity and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal Japanese women. The autonomic nervous activity of 40 Japanese women with climacteric symptoms and 40 Japanese women without climacteric symptoms was measured by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability using a standard hexagonal radar chart. The scores for climacteric symptoms were determined using the simplified menopausal index. Sympathetic excitability and irritability, as well as the standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position, were significantly (P < 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001, respectively) decreased in women with climacteric symptoms. There was a negative correlation between the standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position and the simplified menopausal index score. The lack of control for potential confounding variables was a limitation of this study. In climacteric women, the standard deviation of mean R-R intervals in supine position is negatively correlated with the simplified menopausal index score.

  13. Aging-Related Correlation between Serum Sirtuin 1 Activities and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women, but not in Men

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT) is a main regulator of metabolism and lifespan, and its importance has been implicated in the prevention against aging-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of serum SIRT1 activity according to age and sex, and to investigate how serum SIRT1 activity is correlated with other metabolic parameters in Korean adults. The Biobank of Jeju National University Hospital, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, provided serum samples from 250 healthy adults. Aging- and metabolism-related factors were analyzed in serum, and the data were compared by the stratification of age and sex. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased with age and was significantly lower in men in their fifties and older and in women in their forties and older compared with twenties in men and women, respectively. SIRT1 activities were altered by age and sex. Especially, women in their thirties showed the highest SIRT1 activities. Correlation analysis displayed that SIRT1 activity is positively correlated with serum triglyceride (TG) in men, and with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum TG in women. And, SIRT1 activity was negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in women (r = −0.183, p = 0.039). Positive correlation was observed between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women (r = 0.222, p = 0.027), but not in men. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that serum SIRT1 activities may be utilized as a biomarker of aging. In addition, positive correlation between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women suggests that serum SIRT1 activity may reflect energy expenditure well in human. PMID:28168178

  14. The Effect of Target Position on the Accuracy of Cervical-Spine-Rotation Active Joint-Position Sense.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Clark, Nicholas C; Abt, John P; Sell, Timothy C; Heebner, Nicholas R; Smalley, Brian W; Wirt, Michael D; Lephart, Scott M

    2016-02-01

    The cervical spine can be divided into upper and lower units, each making a different contribution to the magnitude of rotation and proprioception. However, few studies have examined the effect of the cervical-rotation positions on proprioception. To compare cervical-spine rotation active joint-position sense (AJPS) near midrange of motion (mid-ROM; 30°) and near end-ROM (60°). Cross-sectional study. Human performance research laboratory. 53 military helicopter pilots (age 28.4 ± 6.2 y, height 175.3 ± 9.3 cm, weight 80.1 ± 11.8 kg). A motion-analysis system was used to record cervical-rotation kinematics. Subjects sat in a chair wearing a headband and blindfold. First, they actively rotated the head right or left to a target position (30°/60°), with real-time verbal cues provided by the tester. Subjects held the target position for 5 s and then returned to the start position. After this, they replicated the target position as closely as possible. Five trials were performed in both directions to both target positions (R30/R60/L30/L60). Order of direction/position was randomized. The difference between target and replicated positions was calculated and defined as absolute error (AE), and the mean of 5 trials was used for analyses. Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests were used to compare AJPS at the different target positions (P < .0125 with Bonferroni adjustments). End-ROM AEs were significantly more accurate than mid-ROM AEs (P = .001). Cervical-spine-rotation AJPS is more accurate near end-ROM than mid-ROM. Both target positions should be used to examine cervical-spine-rotation AJPS of both the upper and lower units.

  15. Subjective outcome evaluation of a positive youth development program in Hong Kong: profiles and correlates.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hing Keung; Shek, Daniel T L

    2010-02-12

    Secondary school students (n = 33,867 from 213 secondary schools) responded to a subjective outcome evaluation form to assess their views of the program, workers (teachers and/or social workers), and perceived effectiveness of the program. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, and more than four-fifths of the respondents regarded the program as helpful to them. While schools admitting students with different academic abilities and hours did not differ in the subjective outcome evaluation ratings, subjective evaluation ratings for workers were highest, followed by ratings for the program and perceived effectiveness. The present study replicates the previously reported findings and provides additional support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) in Hong Kong.

  16. Cell size is positively correlated between different tissues in passerine birds and amphibians, but not necessarily in mammals.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, J; Czarnoleski, M; François-Krassowska, A; Maciak, S; Pis, T

    2010-12-23

    We examined cell size correlations between tissues, and cell size to body mass relationships in passerine birds, amphibians and mammals. The size correlated highly between all cell types in birds and amphibians; mammalian tissues clustered by size correlation in three tissue groups. Erythrocyte size correlated well with the volume of other cell types in birds and amphibians, but poorly in mammals. In birds, body mass correlated positively with the size of all cell types including erythrocytes, and in mammals only with the sizes of some cell types. Size of mammalian erythrocytes correlated with body mass only within the most taxonomically uniform group of species (rodents and lagomorphs). Cell volume increased with body mass of birds and mammals to less than 0.3 power, indicating that body size evolved mostly by changes in cell number. Our evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms determining cell size relationships in tissues are conservative in birds and amphibians, but less stringent in mammals. The patterns of cell size to body mass relationships we obtained challenge some key assumptions of fractal and cellular models used by allometric theory to explain mass-scaling of metabolism. We suggest that the assumptions in both models are not universal, and that such models need reformulation.

  17. Psilocybin-Induced Decrease in Amygdala Reactivity Correlates with Enhanced Positive Mood in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kraehenmann, Rainer; Preller, Katrin H; Scheidegger, Milan; Pokorny, Thomas; Bosch, Oliver G; Seifritz, Erich; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2015-10-15

    The amygdala is a key structure in serotonergic emotion-processing circuits. In healthy volunteers, acute administration of the serotonin 1A/2A/2C receptor agonist psilocybin reduces neural responses to negative stimuli and induces mood changes toward positive states. However, it is little-known whether psilocybin reduces amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli and whether any change in amygdala reactivity is related to mood change. This study assessed the effects of acute administration of the hallucinogen psilocybin (.16 mg/kg) versus placebo on amygdala reactivity to negative stimuli in 25 healthy volunteers using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Mood changes were assessed using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over design was used with volunteers counterbalanced to receive psilocybin and placebo in two separate sessions at least 14 days apart. Amygdala reactivity to negative and neutral stimuli was lower after psilocybin administration than after placebo administration. The psilocybin-induced attenuation of right amygdala reactivity in response to negative stimuli was related to the psilocybin-induced increase in positive mood state. These results demonstrate that acute treatment with psilocybin decreased amygdala reactivity during emotion processing and that this was associated with an increase of positive mood in healthy volunteers. These findings may be relevant to the normalization of amygdala hyperactivity and negative mood states in patients with major depression. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Traditional Chinese medicine and the positive correlation with homeostatic evolution of human being: based on medical perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie-Hua

    2012-08-01

    Adaptation is an eternal theme of biological evolution. The paper aims at exploring the conception of positive correlation between traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and human homeostatic evolution based on medical perspective. Discussions mainly involve TCM conforming to natural laws and natural evolution of life, spontaneous harmonization of yin and yang and operating system of human self-healing, modern human immunology and human endogenous immune function in TCM, self-homeostasis of human micro-ecological state and balance mechanism on regulating base in TCM, as well as adaptation-eternal theme of biological evolution and safeguarding adaptability-value of TCM. In perspective of medicine, theory and practice of TCM are in positive correlation with human homeostatic evolution, and what TCM tries to maintain is human intrinsic adaptive capability to disease and nature. Therefore, it is the core value of TCM, which is to be further studied, explored, realized and known to the world.

  19. MHC class I expression in HPV positive and negative tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma in correlation to clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Näsman, Anders; Andersson, Emilia; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Johansson, Hemming; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Massucci, Giuseppe; Dalianis, Tina; Ramqvist, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important factor for the development of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). In addition, patients with HPV-positive TSCC have a better clinical outcome than patients with HPV-negative TSCC. Although, HPV is an important prognostic marker, additional biomarkers are needed to better predict clinical outcome to individualize treatment. Hence, we examined if classical HLA HLA-A,B,C and nonclassical HLA-E,G could serve as such marker. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded TSCC from 150 patients diagnosed 2000-2006, earlier analyzed for HPV DNA and p16(INK4a), and treated with intention to cure were evaluated for the expression of HLA-A,B,C and HLA-E,G by immunohistochemistry. For HPV-positive TSCC a low expression of HLA-A,B,C, whereas for HPV-negative TSCC, a normal expression of HLA-A,B,C was significantly correlated to a favorable clinical outcome. These correlations were more pronounced for membrane staining of HLA-A,B,C when compared with cytoplasmatic staining. No significant correlation was found between HLA-E,G and HPV status or clinical outcome. The unexpected contrasting correlation between HLA-A,B,C expression, and clinical outcome depending on HPV, indicates essential differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that for both HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC, the expression of HLA-A,B,C together with HPV may serve as a useful biomarker for predicting clinical outcome. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  20. Energy expenditure during activity in the American lobster Homarus americanus: Correlations with body acceleration.

    PubMed

    Lyons, G N; Halsey, L G; Pope, E C; Eddington, J D; Houghton, J D R

    2013-10-01

    How animals manage time and expend energy has implications for survivorship. Being able to measure key metabolic costs of animals under natural conditions is therefore an important tool in behavioral ecology. One method for estimating activity-specific metabolic rate is via derived measures of acceleration, often 'overall dynamic body acceleration' (ODBA), recorded by an instrumented acceleration logger. ODBA has been shown to correlate well with rate of oxygen consumption (V˙o2) in a range of species during activity in the laboratory. This study devised a method for attaching acceleration loggers to decapod crustaceans and then correlated ODBA against concurrent respirometry readings to assess accelerometry as a proxy for activity-specific energy expenditure in a model species, the American lobster Homarus americanus. Where the instrumented animals exhibited a sufficient range of activity levels, positive linear relationships were found between V˙o2 and ODBA over 20min periods at a range of ambient temperatures (6, 13 and 20°C). Mixed effect linear models based on these data and morphometrics provided reasonably strong predictive power for estimating activity-specific V˙o2 from ODBA. These V˙o2-ODBA calibrations demonstrate the potential of accelerometry as an effective predictor of behavior-specific metabolic rate of crustaceans in the wild during periods of activity.

  1. The effect of implant position on bone strain following lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A Biomechanical Model Using Digital Image Correlation.

    PubMed

    Ali, A M; Newman, S D S; Hooper, P A; Davies, C M; Cobb, J P

    2017-08-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a demanding procedure, with tibial component subsidence or pain from high tibial strain being potential causes of revision. The optimal position in terms of load transfer has not been documented for lateral UKA. Our aim was to determine the effect of tibial component position on proximal tibial strain. A total of 16 composite tibias were implanted with an Oxford Domed Lateral Partial Knee implant using cutting guides to define tibial slope and resection depth. Four implant positions were assessed: standard (5° posterior slope); 10° posterior slope; 5° reverse tibial slope; and 4 mm increased tibial resection. Using an electrodynamic axial-torsional materials testing machine (Instron 5565), a compressive load of 1.5 kN was applied at 60 N/s on a meniscal bearing via a matching femoral component. Tibial strain beneath the implant was measured using a calibrated Digital Image Correlation system. A 5° increase in tibial component posterior slope resulted in a 53% increase in mean major principal strain in the posterior tibial zone adjacent to the implant (p = 0.003). The highest strains for all implant positions were recorded in the anterior cortex 2 cm to 3 cm distal to the implant. Posteriorly, strain tended to decrease with increasing distance from the implant. Lateral cortical strain showed no significant relationship with implant position. Relatively small changes in implant position and orientation may significantly affect tibial cortical strain. Avoidance of excessive posterior tibial slope may be advisable during lateral UKA.Cite this article: A. M. Ali, S. D. S. Newman, P. A. Hooper, C. M. Davies, J. P. Cobb. The effect of implant position on bone strain following lateral unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A Biomechanical Model Using Digital Image Correlation. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:522-529. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.68.BJR-2017-0067.R1. © 2017 Ali et al.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence in HIV-positive women engaged in transactional sex in Mombasa, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kate S; Deya, Ruth; Masese, Linnet; Simoni, Jane M; Stoep, Ann Vander; Shafi, Juma; Jaoko, Walter; Hughes, James P; McClelland, R Scott

    2016-11-01

    SummaryWe evaluated the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in the past year by a regular male partner in HIV-positive female sex workers (FSWs) in Mombasa, Kenya. This cross-sectional study included HIV-positive women ≥18 years old who reported engagement in transactional sex at the time of enrolment in the parent cohort. We asked 13 questions adapted from the World Health Organization survey on violence against women about physical, sexual, or emotional violence in the past year by the current or most recent emotional partner (index partner). We used standardised instruments to assess socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics as possible correlates of IPV. Associations between IPV and these correlates were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 286/357 women (80.4%) had an index partner, and 52/357 (14.6%, 95% confidence interval 10.9%-18.2%) reported IPV by that partner in the past year. In multivariate analysis, women with severe alcohol problems (adjusted odds ratio 4.39, 1.16-16.61) and those experiencing controlling behaviours by the index partner (adjusted odds ratio 4.98, 2.31-10.74) were significantly more likely to report recent IPV. Recent IPV was common in HIV-positive FSWs. Interventions targeting risk factors for IPV, including alcohol problems and partner controlling behaviours, could help to reduce recurrent violence and negative health outcomes in this key population.

  3. Plasma sE-selectin level is positively correlated with neutrophil count and diastolic blood pressure in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Inoue, Seiya; Miyauchi, Rie; Misaki, Yasumi; Shimada, Masaya; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2013-01-01

    Increased levels of circulating soluble type of E-selectin (sE-selectin), neutrophil counts and blood pressure are associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this study, we conducted a cross-sectional study of men who participated in health check-ups, and selected those who were not diagnosed with or being treated for metabolic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and lipid abnormality according to the health check-ups. We measured their basic clinical parameters including blood pressure and neutrophil count, plasma sE-selectin concentration and lifestyle factors, and assessed their interrelations by multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis. A total of 351 subjects aged 47.5±8.41 (range, 30-64) y were recruited. Significantly correlated with sE-selectin concentration were neutrophil count, diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) (Pearson's correlation coefficient, 0.194, 0.220 and 0.175, respectively). MLR analysis showed that sE-selectin concentration was independently positively related with DBP and neutrophil count, whereas neutrophil count was positively associated with sE-selectin concentration but not DBP. DBP, but not SBP, was independently positively correlated with sE-selectin concentration but not neutrophil count. These results indicate that circulating sE-selectin concentration may be a biomarker for indicating subsequent development of metabolic diseases, in particular CVD, from a healthy state.

  4. Active Women: Perspectives on Their Structural Position in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Harriett; And Others

    An exploratory pilot study to determine the personal characteristics of women community leaders and their position in the power structure was conducted in Chippewa and Eau Claire Counties, Wisconsin. The research design involved a comparison of three samples: the traditional power structure identified through reputational techniques; the active…

  5. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  6. Collecting "Total" Vocational Education and Training Activity. Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this position paper, NCVER's Managing Director, Dr Tom Karmel, argues that the submission of vocational education and training student data should be mandated as a condition of registration for all registered training organisations, including private providers. This will ensure a comprehensive data collection that gives a realistic view of…

  7. Positive Youth Development through Physical Activity: Opportunities for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    As physical educators continue to advocate for school-based PE, they should also consider ways to extend their work into community settings in an effort to ensure that all kids have an opportunity to develop physical literacy. This article describes how positive youth development programs can provide an opportunity for physical educators to engage…

  8. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  9. Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach for Vehicle Positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hang; Li, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Long, Teng

    2015-01-01

    For vehicle positioning with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) in urban areas, open-loop tracking shows better performance because of its high sensitivity and superior robustness against multipath. However, no previous study has focused on the effects of the code search grid size on the code phase measurement accuracy of open-loop tracking. Traditional open-loop tracking methods are performed by the batch correlators with fixed correlation space. The code search grid size, which is the correlation space, is a constant empirical value and the code phase measuring accuracy will be largely degraded due to the improper grid size, especially when the signal carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0) varies. In this study, the Adaptive Correlation Space Adjusted Open-Loop Tracking Approach (ACSA-OLTA) is proposed to improve the code phase measurement dependent pseudo range accuracy. In ACSA-OLTA, the correlation space is adjusted according to the signal C/N0. The novel Equivalent Weighted Pseudo Range Error (EWPRE) is raised to obtain the optimal code search grid sizes for different C/N0. The code phase measuring errors of different measurement calculation methods are analyzed for the first time. The measurement calculation strategy of ACSA-OLTA is derived from the analysis to further improve the accuracy but reduce the correlator consumption. Performance simulation and real tests confirm that the pseudo range and positioning accuracy of ASCA-OLTA are better than the traditional open-loop tracking methods in the usual scenarios of urban area. PMID:26343683

  10. Waist circumference is positively correlated with markers of inflammation and negatively with adiponectin in women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Daniela; Jones, Jennifer; Barona, Jacqueline; Calle, Mariana C; Kim, Jung Eun; LaPia, Branden; Volek, Jeff S; McIntosh, Mark; Kalynych, Colleen; Najm, Wadie; Lerman, Robert H; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate biomarkers of metabolic syndrome (MetS), with markers of inflammation and macronutrient intake in 89 women (25-72 years) with MetS. We hypothesized that waist circumference (WC) would have the stronger correlations with inflammatory parameters and would correlate with carbohydrate intake. Values for WC (108.7 ± 11.1 cm) and plasma triglycerides (202.7 ± 52.1 mg/dL) were elevated, whereas plasma glucose levels varied from 66 to 179 mg/dL, with 42% of women having insulin resistance. Plasma levels of interleukin 6 (0.2-15.9 mg/L), tumor necrosis factor α (1.47-12.3 mg/L), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.06-3.08 mg/dL) varied widely, with most women being above values considered normal. Subjects had high intake of total sugar (92.3 ± 56.4 g/d), high glycemic index (59.8 ± 6.5), and glycemic load (127.2 ± 56.1), whereas dietary fiber (17.1 ± 9.1 g/d) was below recommended intake. Waist circumference was positively correlated with insulin (r = 0.275, P < .01) and with the inflammatory markers interleukin 6 (r = 0.307, P < .01) and tumor necrosis factor α (r = 0.228, P < .05) and negatively correlated with plasma adiponectin (r = -0.309, P < .0001). In addition, WC was positively correlated with total carbohydrate, added sugar, and glycemic load (P < .05) but not with fat or protein. These results are consistent with central obesity being a key marker of the inflammatory state, and they also suggest that carbohydrates, particularly those that are digested rapidly, contribute to increased risk of central obesity and development of MetS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Loss of GD1-positive Lactobacillus correlates with inflammation in human lungs with COPD.

    PubMed

    Sze, Marc A; Utokaparch, Soraya; Elliott, W Mark; Hogg, James C; Hegele, Richard G

    2015-02-04

    The present study assesses the relationship between contents of GD1 (glycerol dehydratase)-positive Lactobacillus, presence of Lactobacillus and the inflammatory response measured in host lung tissue in mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesise that there will be a loss of GD1 producing Lactobacillus with increasing severity of COPD and that GD1 has anti-inflammatory properties. Secondary care, 1 participating centre in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 74 individuals who donated non-cancerous portions of their lungs or lobes removed as treatment for lung cancer (normal lung function controls (n=28), persons with mild (GOLD 1) (n=21) and moderate (GOLD 2) COPD (n=25)). Primary outcome measure was GD1 positivity within each group and whether or not this impacted quantitative histological measures of lung inflammation. Secondary outcome measures included Lactobacillus presence and quantification, and quantitative histological measurements of inflammation and remodelling in early COPD. Total bacterial count (p>0.05) and prevalence of Lactobacillus (p>0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the GD1 gene was detected more frequently in the controls (14%) than in either mild (5%) or moderate (0%) COPD (p<0.05) samples. Macrophage and neutrophil volume fractions (0.012±0.005 (mean±SD) vs 0.026±0.017 and 0.005±0.002 vs 0.015±0.014, respectively) in peripheral lung tissue were reduced in samples positive for the GD1 gene (p<0.0035). A reduction in GD1 positivity is associated with an increased tissue immune inflammatory response in early stage COPD. There is potential for Lactobacillus to be used as a possible therapeutic, however, validation of these results need to be completed before an anti-inflammatory role of Lactobacillus in COPD can be confirmed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Positive feedback of protein kinase C proteolytic activation during apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Leverrier, Sabrina; Vallentin, Alice; Joubert, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In contrast with protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) and PKCepsilon, which are better known for promoting cell survival, PKCdelta is known for its pro-apoptotic function, which is exerted mainly through a caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation pathway. In the present study, we used the rat GH3B6 pituitary adenoma cell line to show that PKCalpha and PKCepsilon are activated and relocalized together with PKCdelta when apoptosis is induced by a genotoxic stress. Proteolytic activation is a crucial step used by the three isoforms since: (1) the catalytic domains of the PKCalpha, PKCepsilon or PKCdelta isoforms (CDalpha, CDepsilon and CDdelta respectively) accumulated, and this accumulation was dependent on the activity of both calpain and caspase; and (2) transient expression of CDalpha, CDepsilon or CDdelta sufficed to induce apoptosis. However, following this initial step of proteolytic activation, the pathways diverge; cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation are induced by CDepsilon and CDdelta, but not by CDalpha. Another interesting finding of the present study is the proteolysis of PKCdelta induced by CDepsilon expression that revealed the existence of a cross-talk between PKC isoforms during apoptosis. Hence the PKC family may participate in the apoptotic process of pituitary adenoma cells at two levels: downstream of caspase and calpain, and via retro-activation of caspase-3, resulting in the amplification of its own proteolytic activation. PMID:12238950

  13. Prospective Assessment of Optimal Individual Position (Prone Versus Supine) for Breast Radiotherapy: Volumetric and Dosimetric Correlations in 100 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Lymberis, Stella C.; Wyngaert, John Keith de; Parhar, Preeti; Chhabra, Arpit M.; Fenton-Kerimian, Maria; Chang Jengwha; Hochman, Tsivia; Guth, Amber; Roses, Daniel; Goldberg, Judith D.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Damage to heart and lung from breast radiotherapy is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and lung cancer development. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate which position is best to spare lung and heart from radiotherapy exposure. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive Stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients consented to participate in a research trial that required two computed tomography simulation scans for planning both supine and prone positions. The optimal position was defined as that which best covered the contoured breast and tumor bed while it minimized critical organ irradiation, as quantified by the in-field heart and lung volume. The trial was designed to plan the first 100 patients in each position to study correlations between in-field volumes of organs at risk and dose. Results: Fifty-three left and 47 right breast cancer patients were consecutively accrued to the trial. In all patients, the prone position was optimal for sparing lung volume compared to the supine setup (mean lung volume reduction was 93.5 cc for right and 103.6 cc for left breast cancer patients). In 46/53 (87%) left breast cancer patients best treated prone, in-field heart volume was reduced by a mean of 12 cc and by 1.8 cc for the other 7/53 (13%) patients best treated supine. As predicted, supine-prone differences in in-field volume and mean dose of heart and lung were highly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient for left breast cancer patients was 0.90 for heart and 0.94 for lung and 0.92 for right breast cancer patients for lung). Conclusions: Prone setup reduced the amount of irradiated lung in all patients and reduced the amount of heart volume irradiated in 87% of left breast cancer patients. In-field organ volume is a valid surrogate for predicting dose; the trial continued to the planned target of 400.

  14. Moments of the Position of the Maximum for GUE Characteristic Polynomials and for Log-Correlated Gaussian Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Doussal, Pierre Le

    2016-07-01

    We study three instances of log-correlated processes on the interval: the logarithm of the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) characteristic polynomial, the Gaussian log-correlated potential in presence of edge charges, and the Fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H → 0 (fBM0). In previous collaborations we obtained the probability distribution function (PDF) of the value of the global minimum (equivalently maximum) for the first two processes, using the freezing-duality conjecture (FDC). Here we study the PDF of the position of the maximum x_m through its moments. Using replica, this requires calculating moments of the density of eigenvalues in the β -Jacobi ensemble. Using Jack polynomials we obtain an exact and explicit expression for both positive and negative integer moments for arbitrary β >0 and positive integer n in terms of sums over partitions. For positive moments, this expression agrees with a very recent independent derivation by Mezzadri and Reynolds. We check our results against a contour integral formula derived recently by Borodin and Gorin (presented in the Appendix 1 from these authors). The duality necessary for the FDC to work is proved, and on our expressions, found to correspond to exchange of partitions with their dual. Performing the limit n → 0 and to negative Dyson index β → -2, we obtain the moments of x_m and give explicit expressions for the lowest ones. Numerical checks for the GUE polynomials, performed independently by N. Simm, indicate encouraging agreement. Some results are also obtained for moments in Laguerre, Hermite-Gaussian, as well as circular and related ensembles. The correlations of the position and the value of the field at the minimum are also analyzed.

  15. Regional microbial signatures positively correlate with differential wine phenotypes: evidence for a microbial aspect to terroir

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Sarah; Klaere, Steffen; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Goddard, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Many crops display differential geographic phenotypes and sensorial signatures, encapsulated by the concept of terroir. The drivers behind these differences remain elusive, and the potential contribution of microbes has been ignored until recently. Significant genetic differentiation between microbial communities and populations from different geographic locations has been demonstrated, but crucially it has not been shown whether this correlates with differential agricultural phenotypes or not. Using wine as a model system, we utilize the regionally genetically differentiated population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in New Zealand and objectively demonstrate that these populations differentially affect wine phenotype, which is driven by a complex mix of chemicals. These findings reveal the importance of microbial populations for the regional identity of wine, and potentially extend to other important agricultural commodities. Moreover, this suggests that long-term implementation of methods maintaining differential biodiversity may have tangible economic imperatives as well as being desirable in terms of employing agricultural practices that increase responsible environmental stewardship. PMID:26400688

  16. Correlation of acute pericoronitis and the position of the mandibular third molar.

    PubMed

    Leone, S A; Edenfield, M J; Cohen, M E

    1986-09-01

    Acute pericoronitis is a painful, debilitating infection that is most commonly found among young adults with erupting mandibular third molars. Prophylactic removal of third molars to prevent this disease has been advocated, but this procedure requires an accurate description of the third molar at highest risk for this infection. Clinical and radiographic measurements were compared in 25 diseased subjects and 109 normal subjects. Of 10 variables significantly related to the presence of acute pericoronitis, stepwise discriminant analysis selected 4 variables that produced a canonical correlation coefficient of 0.71. In clinical terms, these variables described the tooth at highest risk for acute pericoronitis as a fully erupted, vertical mandibular third molar that is in contact with the adjacent second molar, at or above the occlusal plane, and partially encapsulated by soft or hard tissues. Prophylactic treatment of these third molars is highly recommended.

  17. Persistent active avoidance correlates with activity in prelimbic cortex and ventral striatum

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Rivera, Christian; Roman-Ortiz, Ciorana; Montesinos-Cartagena, Marlian; Quirk, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent avoidance is a prominent symptom of anxiety disorders and is often resistant to extinction-based therapies. Little is known about the circuitry mediating persistent avoidance. Using a recently described platform-mediated active avoidance task, we assessed activity in several structures with c-Fos immuno-labeling. In Task 1, rats were conditioned to avoid a tone-signaled shock by moving to a safe platform, and then were extinguished over two days. One day later, failure to retrieve extinction correlated with increased activity in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PL), ventral striatum (VS), and basal amygdala (BA), and decreased activity in infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL), consistent with pharmacological inactivation studies. In Task 2, the platform was removed during extinction training and fear (suppression of bar pressing) was extinguished to criterion over 3–5 days. The platform was then returned in a post-extinction test. Under these conditions, avoidance levels were equivalent to Experiment 1 and correlated with increased activity in PL and VS, but there was no correlation with activity in IL or BA. Thus, persistent avoidance can occur independently of deficits in fear extinction and its associated structures. PMID:26236209

  18. Neighbourhood Environment Correlates of Physical Activity: A Study of Eight Czech Regional Towns

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundová, Dagmar; El Ansari, Walid; Sigmund, Erik

    2011-01-01

    An adequate amount of physical activity (PA) is a key factor that is associated with good health. This study assessed socio-environmental factors associated with meeting the health recommendations for PA (achieving 10,000 steps per day). In total, 1,653 respondents randomly selected from across eight regional towns (each >90,000 inhabitants) in the Czech Republic participated in the study. The ANEWS questionnaire assessed the environment in neighbourhoods, and participants’ weekly PA was objectively monitored (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700 pedometer). About 24% of participants were sufficiently active, 27% were highly active; 28% participants were overweight and 5% were obese. Although BMI was significantly inversely associated with the daily step counts achieved only in females, for both genders, BMI was generally not significantly associated with the criterion of achieving 10,000 steps per day during the week. Increased BMI in both genders was accompanied with a decline in participation in organized PA and with increasing age. As regards to the demographic/lifestyle factors, for females, more participation in organized PA was significantly positively correlated with the achieved daily step counts. In contrast, older age and higher BMI (for females) and smoking (for males) were significantly negatively correlated with the achieved daily step counts. In terms of the environmental aspects, pleasant environments were significantly positively correlated to daily step counts for both genders. Additionally, for males, better residencies (more family homes rather than apartment blocks) in the neighbourhood were significantly positively correlated with their daily step counts. For females, less accessibility of shops and non-sport facilities (depending on walking distance in minutes) were significantly negatively correlated to the achieved daily step counts. Individuals who lived in pleasant neighbourhoods, with better access to shops and who participated in organized PA (

  19. Regular control at the general practitioner is positively correlated with patient satisfaction with chronic care management.

    PubMed

    Bjørnholt Nielsen, Pernille; Witzel, Simone

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study is to identify how disease management programmes for patients with a chronic disease work. This issue is explored from the patients' perspective. Specifically, we study how transition and coordination are related to the patient's perception of quality of care, with a particular focus on the general practitioner's (GP) role. The study is based on a survey conducted among patients with Type 2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the Central Denmark Region in 2011 and 2012. Data are analysed using logistic regression models. A total of 4,174 patients answered the questionnaire. The response rate was 43%. Whether the patient attends regular visits with the GP or not has a significant influence on both the patient's overall perception of the healthcare sector and on the patient's perception of the organisation of care. Variation among patient groups was identified and COPD patients had the least positive overall perception of the care received. Patients who visit their GP for regular control both have a better overall perception of the healthcare sector and are more likely to think that their treatment is well organised. Patients with COPD have a less positive score than patients with ACS and diabetes. none. not relevant.

  20. Associations among central nervous, endocrine, and immune activities when positive emotions are elicited by looking at a favorite person.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko; Kimura, Kenta; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Kanayama, Noriaki; Murakami, Hiroki; Sato, Sayaka; Konagaya, Toshihiro; Nogimori, Tsuyoshi; Fukuyama, Seisuke; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Ohira, Hideki

    2008-03-01

    Recent studies on psychoneuroimmunology have indicated that positive psychological events are related to immune functions; however, limited information is available regarding associations among the central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems when positive emotions are elicited. In the present study, we demonstrated associations among these systems by simultaneously recording brain, endocrine, and immune activities when positive emotions were evoked in participants as they watched films featuring their favorite persons. Interestingly, the activity of peripheral circulating natural killer cells and the peripheral dopamine level were elevated while participants experienced positive emotions, and these values were positively correlated. The following brain regions were significantly activated in the positive condition relative to the control condition: medial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, subcallosal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, superior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum. Further, covariate analyses indicated that these brain regions were temporally associated with endocrine and immune activities. These results suggest that while an individual experiences positive emotions, the central nervous, endocrine, and immune systems may be interrelated and attraction for favorite persons may be associated with the activation of the innate immune function via the dopaminergic system.

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor in systemic lupus erythematosus - correlations with disease activity and nailfold capillaroscopy changes.

    PubMed

    Bărbulescu, Andreea Lili; Vreju, Ananu Florentin; Bugă, Ana Maria; Sandu, Raluca Elena; Criveanu, Cristina; Tudoraşcu, Diana Rodica; Gheonea, Ioana Andreea; Ciurea, Paulina Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Our study aimed to quantify serum VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its inter-relation with the severity of microvascular damage, assessed by nailfold capillaroscopy (NC), and to establish the possible relationship with disease activity score. We included 18 patients, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 17 gender and age-matched control subjects. For determining serum VEGF, we used a Human VEGF Assay kit-IBL. NC was performed, according to the standard method, using a video-capillaroscope Videocap 3.0, DS Medica, by the same examiner, blinded to clinical and laboratory data. Serum VEGF registered a mean value of 68.99±71.06 pg/mL for SLE patients and 31.84±11.74 pg/mL for controls, differences statistically significant; depending on disease activity, we found a mean value of 60.11±57.74 pg/mL, for patients with moderate disease activity vs. 30.96±11.51 pg/mL for the ones with a low activity (p=0.014). We found a moderately positive correlation, statistically significant (p=0.015), between serum level of VEGF and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Performing NC, we found changes in 88.88% of the patients; the most frequent were increased tortuosity, dilated capillaries, an increased length and a prominent subpapillary plexus. The presence of nailfold capillaroscopy changes and serum level of VEGF, correlated moderately, positive. Since serum levels of VEGF are higher in SLE patients, compared to controls, significantly different according to disease activity degree, and directly inter-related to abnormal NC patterns and a more active disease, we can include these accessible parameters in the routine evaluation, in order to better quantify the systemic damage, individualize the treatment, improve the outcome and life quality for these patients.

  2. Primary and Multisensory Cortical Activity is Correlated with Audiovisual Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Margo McKenna; Raij, Tommi; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Stufflebeam, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Incongruent auditory and visual stimuli can elicit audiovisual illusions such as the McGurk effect where visual /ka/ and auditory /pa/ fuse into another percept such as/ta/. In the present study, human brain activity was measured with adaptation functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate which brain areas support such audiovisual illusions. Subjects viewed trains of four movies beginning with three congruent /pa/ stimuli to induce adaptation. The fourth stimulus could be (i) another congruent /pa/, (ii) a congruent /ka/, (iii) an incongruent stimulus that evokes the McGurk effect in susceptible individuals (lips /ka/ voice /pa/), or (iv) the converse combination that does not cause the McGurk effect (lips /pa/ voice/ ka/). This paradigm was predicted to show increased release from adaptation (i.e. stronger brain activation) when the fourth movie and the related percept was increasingly different from the three previous movies. A stimulus change in either the auditory or the visual stimulus from /pa/ to /ka/ (iii, iv) produced within-modality and cross-modal responses in primary auditory and visual areas. A greater release from adaptation was observed for incongruent non-McGurk (iv) compared to incongruent McGurk (iii) trials. A network including the primary auditory and visual cortices, nonprimary auditory cortex, and several multisensory areas (superior temporal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, insula, and pre-central cortex) showed a correlation between perceiving the McGurk effect and the fMRI signal, suggesting that these areas support the audiovisual illusion. PMID:19780040

  3. Physical properties of naked DNA influence nucleosome positioning and correlate with transcription start and termination sites in yeast

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In eukaryotic organisms, DNA is packaged into chromatin structure, where most of DNA is wrapped into nucleosomes. DNA compaction and nucleosome positioning have clear functional implications, since they modulate the accessibility of genomic regions to regulatory proteins. Despite the intensive research effort focused in this area, the rules defining nucleosome positioning and the location of DNA regulatory regions still remain elusive. Results Naked (histone-free) and nucleosomal DNA from yeast were digested by microccocal nuclease (MNase) and sequenced genome-wide. MNase cutting preferences were determined for both naked and nucleosomal DNAs. Integration of their sequencing profiles with DNA conformational descriptors derived from atomistic molecular dynamic simulations enabled us to extract the physical properties of DNA on a genomic scale and to correlate them with chromatin structure and gene regulation. The local structure of DNA around regulatory regions was found to be unusually flexible and to display a unique pattern of nucleosome positioning. Ab initio physical descriptors derived from molecular dynamics were used to develop a computational method that accurately predicts nucleosome enriched and depleted regions. Conclusions Our experimental and computational analyses jointly demonstrate a clear correlation between sequence-dependent physical properties of naked DNA and regulatory signals in the chromatin structure. These results demonstrate that nucleosome positioning around TSS (Transcription Start Site) and TTS (Transcription Termination Site) (at least in yeast) is strongly dependent on DNA physical properties, which can define a basal regulatory mechanism of gene expression. PMID:21981773

  4. Cerebral desaturation events in the beach chair position: correlation of noninvasive blood pressure and estimated temporal mean arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Triplet, Jacob J; Lonetta, Christopher M; Levy, Jonathan C; Everding, Nathan G; Moor, Molly A

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral oximetry (rSO2) has emerged as an important tool for monitoring of cerebral perfusion during surgery. High rates of cerebral desaturation events (CDEs) have been reported during surgery in the beach chair position. However, correlations have not been made with blood pressure measured at the cerebral level. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlations between brachial noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) and estimated temporal mean arterial pressure (eTMAP) during CDEs in the beach chair position. Fifty-seven patients underwent elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. Values for eTMAP, NIBP, and rSO2 were recorded supine (0°) after induction and when a CDE occurred in the 70° beach chair position. Twenty-six patients experienced 45 CDEs, defined as a 20% drop in rSO2 from baseline. Median reduction in NIBP, eTMAP, and rSO2 from baseline to the CDE were 48.2%, 75.5%, and 33.3%, respectively. At baseline, there was a significant weak negative correlation between rSO2 and NIBP (rs = -0.300; P = .045) and no significant association between rSO2 and eTMAP (rs = -0.202; P = .183). During CDEs, there were no significant correlations between rSO2 and NIBP (rs = -0.240; P = .112) or between rSO2 and eTMAP (rs = -0.190; P = .212). No significant correlation between the decrease in rSO2 and NIBP (rs = 0.064; P = .675) or between rSO2 and eTMAP (rs = 0.121; P = .430) from baseline to CDE was found. NIBP and eTMAP are unreliable methods for identifying a CDE in the beach chair position. Cerebral oximetry provides additional information to the values obtained from NIBP and eTMAP, and all should be considered independently and collectively. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Healthy children show gender differences in correlations between nonverbal cognitive ability and brain activation during visual perception.

    PubMed

    Asano, Kohei; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-08

    Humans perceive textual and nontextual information in visual perception, and both depend on language. In childhood education, students exhibit diverse perceptual abilities, such that some students process textual information better and some process nontextual information better. These predispositions involve many factors, including cognitive ability and learning preference. However, the relationship between verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during visual perception has not yet been examined in children. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the relationship between nonverbal and verbal cognitive abilities and brain activation during nontextual visual perception in large numbers of children. A significant positive correlation was found between nonverbal cognitive abilities and brain activation in the right temporoparietal junction, which is thought to be related to attention reorienting. This significant positive correlation existed only in boys. These findings suggested that male brain activation differed from female brain activation, and that this depended on individual cognitive processes, even if there was no gender difference in behavioral performance.

  6. Inorganic lead and calcium interact positively in activation of calmodulin.

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Wisniewski, M; Cabell, L; Audesirk, G

    2000-06-01

    Calmodulin is a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein that mediates many of the intracellular actions of Ca2+ ions. The calcium-binding sites of calmodulin consist of four EF-hand motifs; full activation of calmodulin normally occurs when all four sites are occupied by Ca2+. Inorganic lead (PY2+) has been shown to activate calmodulin at total lead concentrations similar to the concentrations of Ca2+ required for activation (Goldstein and Ar, 1983; Habermann et al., 1983), but the free Pb2+ concentrations required for calmodulin activation have not been determined. In addition, it is possible that activation may occur with different sites occupied by different divalent cations, for example Ca2+ and Pb2+. We investigated the ability of free Pb2+, alone or in combination with Ca2+, to activate calmodulin. In aqueous media, N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) show increased fluorescence when bound to hydrophobic regions of proteins. This increased fluorescence has been used to monitor the conformational change that occurs during calmodulin activation (LaPorte et al., 1980). In the presence of calmodulin, both Ca2+ and Pb2+ stimulated increased fluorescence of NPN and ANS. Threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations were approximately 100 nM and 450-500 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 100 pM and 400-550 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. Fluorescence was enhanced by combinations of low concentrations of free Ca2+ and Pb2+; for example, as little as 20 pM free Pb2+ enhanced fluorescence in combination with 200 nM free Ca2+. The activity of the PDE1 isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is stimulated by Ca2+/calmodulin (Wang et al., 1990). In the presence of calmodulin, we found that Ca2+ and Pb2+ activated calmodulin-stimulated PDE activity, with threshold and EC50 free metal concentrations of approximately 200 nM and 1200 nM, respectively, for Ca2+ and 300 pM and 430 pM, respectively, for Pb2+. PDE activity was stimulated by

  7. Cognitive Correlates of Mania Risk: Are Responses to Success, Positive Moods, and Manic Symptoms Distinct or Overlapping?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Jones, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Several measures of cognitive style have been shown to be elevated among persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder and those at risk for bipolar disorder. Several of these scales capture responses to positive affect, success, and hypomanic symptoms. We had two goals: (a) to use factor analyses to assess whether the constructs within these scales were statistically independent and (b) to examine whether the factors identified uniquely related to mania risk. A cross-national sample of 638 participants completed measures of cognitive style, including the Responses to Positive Affect scale, the Positive Overgeneralization Scale, and the Hypomanic Interpretations Questionnaire. To assess whether these measures might simply reflect more impulsive reactions to positive mood states, participants also completed the Barratt Impulsivity Scale. To measure risk of mania, participants completed the Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS). Factor analyses suggested seven factors of cognitive style and impulsivity. Four factors uniquely correlated with HPS. That is, risk for mania related to higher scores on separable factors of acting before thinking, being overly positive in interpreting manic symptoms, being overly confident in response to success, and tendencies to dampen positive affect. Current findings suggest the need to consider multifaceted aspects of cognition in refining psychological treatments of bipolar disorder. PMID:19455611

  8. Specific psychiatric correlates of acute care utilization among unstably housed HIV-positive adults.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Maggie; Carrico, Adam W; Weiser, Sheri D; Kushel, Margot B; Riley, Elise D

    2012-01-01

    The role of specific psychiatric diagnoses in emergency department use and/or inpatient hospitalizations (acute care) has not been extensively examined among HIV-infected, unstably housed persons. A community-recruited sample of 284 HIV-infected, unstably housed adults completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. One-third of participants screened positive for major depression and stimulant use disorders. Sleeping on the street [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.21], major depression (AOR = 2.88) and stimulant use disorders (AOR = 4.45) were associated with greater odds of acute care use. Housing and effective treatment of depression and stimulant use disorders may decrease use of acute care services in this population.

  9. Specific Psychiatric Correlates of Acute Care Utilization among Unstably Housed HIV-Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chartier, Maggie; Carrico, Adam W.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Kushel, Margot B.; Riley, lise D.

    2013-01-01

    The role of specific psychiatric diagnoses in emergency department use and/or inpatient hospitalizations (acute care) has not been extensively examined among HIV-infected, unstably housed persons. A community-recruited sample of 284 HIV-infected, unstably housed adults completed the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. One-third of participants screened positive for major depression and stimulant use disorders. Sleeping on the street (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 4.21), major depression (AOR=2.88) and stimulant use disorders (AOR=4.45) were associated with greater odds of acute care use. Housing and effective treatment of depression and stimulant use disorders may decrease use of acute care services in this population. PMID:22533713

  10. [Depression in protracted simple schizophrenia (on the problem of correlation between positive and negative disorders)].

    PubMed

    Drobizhev, M Iu; Luk'ianova, L L

    1991-01-01

    Three types of depressions were distinguished in sluggish simple schizophrenia: "stupid" (18 cases) " cenesthesiopathic" (20 cases), and "existential" (24 cases). The relationship was established between the manifestations of depressions and characteristic features of defect conditions. It has been established that the structure of depressive phases in sluggish simple schizophrenia includes specific psychopathological signs heralding defect formation and united by the notion "transitory syndrome". The common psychopathological property for the transitory (between positive and negative disorders) syndromes distinguished in all three types of depressive conditions under study is the phenomenon of psychic estrangement--pathology of self-consciousness with disturbed perception of the mental and physical "self", accompanied by sensation of the loss of functions (intellect, energy possibilities, emotionality and so forth). The patients with "stupid" depressions manifest the formation of a ++pseudo-organic defect; those with " cenesthesiopathic" of an asthenic defect, and those with "existential" of a defect by the personality deformity type.

  11. Position paper on active countermeasures for computer networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.

    2003-07-01

    Computer security professionals have used passive network countermeasures for several years in order to secure computer networks. Passive countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems are effective but their use alone is not enough to protect a network. Active countermeasures offer new ways of protecting a computer network. Corporations and government entities should adopt active network countermeasures as a means of protecting their computer networks.

  12. Correlation between Femoral Guidewire Position and Tunnel Communication in Double Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyuk; Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Dong Hee; Kang, Bun Jung; Nam, Dae Cheol; Yoon, Hong Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The object of this study was to determine the shortest possible distances of antero-medial (AM) and postero-lateral (PL) guide wire tunnel positions required to prevent femoral bone tunnel communication in double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using human cadaver knees. Materials and Methods The centers of femoral AM and PL bundles of 16 cadaveric knees were drilled with guide wires and the distances of guide wires, were measured upon entrance into the bone. Femoral tunnel drilling was performed using transportal technique. The diameters of AM and PL graft were 8 mm and 6 mm, respectively. CT scans were taken on each knee, and 3-dimensional models were constructed to identify the femoral tunnel position and to create AM and PL tunnel virtual cylinders. Thickness of the bone bridge between the two tunnels was measured. Results In four out of six specimens, in which the guide wires were placed at less than or equal to 9 mm, communication was noted. In specimens with guide wires placed at distances greater than or equal to 10 mm, communication was not noted. The two groups showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.008). In cases where the distance between the AM and PL femoral tunnel guide wires was 12 mm, the bone bridge thickness was greater than 2 mm along the tunnel. Conclusion The technique for double bundle-anterior cruciate ligament (DB-ACL) reconstruction that we show here can avoid bone tunnel communication when AM and PL femoral guide wires are placed at least 10 mm apart, and 12 mm should be kept to preserve 2 mm bone bridge thickness. PMID:25323896

  13. Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Weis, Tina; Puschmann, Sebastian; Brechmann, André; Thiel, Christiane M

    2013-01-01

    Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent) depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

  14. Does media multitasking always hurt? A positive correlation between multitasking and multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kelvin F H; Wong, Alan C-N

    2012-08-01

    Heavy media multitaskers have been found to perform poorly in certain cognitive tasks involving task switching, selective attention, and working memory. An account for this is that with a breadth-biased style of cognitive control, multitaskers tend to pay attention to various information available in the environment, without sufficient focus on the information most relevant to the task at hand. This cognitive style, however, may not cause a general deficit in all kinds of tasks. We tested the hypothesis that heavy media multitaskers would perform better in a multisensory integration task than would others, due to their extensive experience in integrating information from different modalities. Sixty-three participants filled out a questionnaire about their media usage and completed a visual search task with and without synchronous tones (pip-and-pop paradigm). It was found that a higher degree of media multitasking was correlated with better multisensory integration. The fact that heavy media multitaskers are not deficient in all kinds of cognitive tasks suggests that media multitasking does not always hurt.

  15. Nanoscale Positional Order Correlations: Swarms, Cybotactic Groups, Clusters, and Pretransitional Fluctuations in Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Satyendra; Agra-Kooijman, Dena; Acharya, Bharat

    2012-02-01

    Short-range molecular associations in organic liquids were first described as ``cybotactic'' groups [1] followed by the development of the swarm theory [2] to explain the structure, strong light scattering, and flow behavior of the nematic (N) liquid crystal phase. However, these ideas became inconsequential with the advent of the Oseen-Frank's continuum theory [3]. In 1970, de Vries reinvoked cybotactic groups for the N phase of bis-(4'-n-octyloxybenzal)-2-chloro-l,4-phenylenediamine. These were eventually understood to be SmC pretransitional fluctuations, i.e., small correlated regions of the lower symmetry phase near the transition. Thermotropic biaxial mesophases have resurrected the faith in cybotacticity in the guise of a new word - ``clusters''. Previous x-ray studies of normal organic fluids, and calamitic, lyotropic, and bent-core mesogens show that these clusters fall into three groups depending on the relative contributions of normal liquid structure and pretransitional fluctuations. A comparison with other organic and inorganic fluids will also be made.[4pt] [1] G.W. Stewart, Phys. Rev. 35, 726 (1930).[0pt] [2] L.S. Ornestein and W. Kast, Trans. Farad. Soc. 29, 931 (1933).[0pt] [3] FC Frank, Discuss. Faraday Soc. 25, 19 (1958); W. Oseen, Ark. Mat., Astron. Fys. 19, 1 (1925).

  16. Complement Activation Correlates With Disease Severity and Contributes to Cytokine Responses in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.

    PubMed

    Berg, Aase; Otterdal, Kari; Patel, Sam; Gonca, Miguel; David, Catarina; Dalen, Ingvild; Nymo, Stig; Nilsson, Margareta; Nordling, Sofia; Magnusson, Peetra U; Ueland, Thor; Prato, Mauro; Giribaldi, Giuliana; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Aukrust, Pål; Langeland, Nina; Nilsson, Per H

    2015-12-01

    The impact of complement activation and its possible relation to cytokine responses during malaria pathology was investigated in plasma samples from patients with confirmed Plasmodium falciparum malaria and in human whole-blood specimens stimulated with malaria-relevant agents ex vivo. Complement was significantly activated in the malaria cohort, compared with healthy controls, and was positively correlated with disease severity and with certain cytokines, in particular interleukin 8 (IL-8)/CXCL8. This was confirmed in ex vivo-stimulated blood specimens, in which complement inhibition significantly reduced IL-8/CXCL8 release. P. falciparum malaria is associated with systemic complement activation and complement-dependent release of inflammatory cytokines, of which IL-8/CXCL8 is particularly prominent. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Determination of antioxidant activity of wine byproducts and its correlation with polyphenolic content.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Angeles M; Guillén, Dominico A; Barroso, Carmelo G; Puertas, Belén; García, Alberto

    2002-10-09

    It has been demonstrated that wine and other products derived from the grape have a high antioxidant capability; as a possible consequence of this, they may have potential benefits for health. The byproducts of the winemaking process represent a source of antioxidant compounds that has been relatively unexploited to date, but that is now the subject of increasing industrial interest. This article describes an approach to the study of the antioxidant activity of grape marcs, stalks, and dregs of both white and red varieties. This activity is compared with the measurements of their content of total polyphenols and of individual polyphenolic compounds, identified and quantified by HPLC. From the results we have been able to establish a positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total polyphenolic content of samples, but not with specific compounds.

  18. Correlation between in vitro release from topical delivery vehicles and microbicidal activity of triclosan.

    PubMed

    Swart, H C; Du Preez, J L; De Villiers, M M; Lötter, A P; Liebenberg, W

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the formulation, stability, in vitro release and microbicidal activity of a cream, emulsion, foot gel, cover stick and after sun spray containing triclosan. Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent with activity against a wide range of both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria that has found increasing popular use in personal care products. These products were stable for up to 3 months when stored at 5, 25, and 40 degrees C. Antimicrobial zone inhibition tests showed that that was a liner relationship, R2 > 0.92, between the release of triclosan from these products and the size of the inhibition zones. This means the in vitro/in vivo correlation for these products was good and that release studies can be used to predict the antimicrobial activity of triclosan.

  19. Individual correlates of autonomy in activities of daily living of institutionalized elderly individuals: an exploratory study in a holistic perspective.

    PubMed

    Candela, Filippo; Zucchetti, Giulia; Magistro, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the individual correlates of autonomy in activities of daily living (ADL) of 40 institutionalized elderly individuals. Results showed that balance skill and perception of physical functioning were significantly associated with ADL. Interventions on the physical functioning, both perceived and real, might have positive influence on the autonomy of institutionalized elderly individuals.

  20. Hepatitis B virus activity in patients with anti-hepatitis C virus antibody positivity and hepatitis B antigen positivity.

    PubMed

    Haushofer, Alexander C; Hauer, René; Brunner, Harald; Köller, Ursula; Trubert-Exinger, Doris; Halbmayer, Walter Michael; Haas, Josef; Kessler, Harald H

    2002-12-01

    Co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV seems to be relatively frequent. There might be a mutual influence on replication activity of HBV and HCV. To determine the HBV activity in patients with serum HCV RNA and HBsAg positivity and in those with confirmed anti-HCV antibody and HBsAg positivity but serum HCV RNA negativity. A total of 1,200 anti-HCV antibody positive samples were investigated. Samples of HCV RNA and HBsAg positive patients were compared with those of confirmed anti-HCV and HBsAg positive but serum HCV RNA negative patients. HBV activity was tested with the quantitative Cobas Amplicor HBV Monitor Test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Pleasanton, CA). Of all studied patients with chronic hepatitis C (serum HCV RNA positivity) only 1.0% were found to be HBsAg positive. In contrast, of all patients with confirmed anti-HCV positivity but serum HCV RNA negativity, 11.9% tested HBsAg positive. The median of HBV DNA levels of patients with serum HCV RNA positivity and HBeAg seroconversion (4.0 x 10(2) HBV DNA copies per ml) was found to be slightly lower than that of patients with serum HCV RNA negativity and HBeAg seroconversion (2.5 x 10(3) HBV DNA copies per ml; P>0.05). The median of HBV DNA levels of patients with serum HCV RNA positivity but without HBeAg seroconversion (1.1 x 10(4) HBV DNA copies per ml) was found to be significantly lower than that of patients with serum HCV RNA negativity but without HBeAg seroconversion (2.6 x 10(7) HBV DNA copies per ml; P<0.05). A mutual effect on HBV and HCV replication could be observed. The molecular assay for quantification of serum HBV DNA was found to be useful for the routine diagnostic laboratory.

  1. Prevalence and correlates of cryptococcal antigen positivity among AIDS patients--United States, 1986-2012.

    PubMed

    McKenney, Jennie; Smith, Rachel M; Chiller, Tom M; Detels, Roger; French, Audrey; Margolick, Joseph; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2014-07-11

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is one of the leading opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The worldwide burden of CM among persons living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was estimated in 2009 to be 957,900 cases, with approximately 624,700 deaths annually. The high burden of CM globally comes despite the fact that cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) is detectable weeks before the onset of symptoms, allowing screening for cryptococcal infection and early treatment to prevent CM and CM-related mortality (2). However, few studies have been conducted in the United States to assess the prevalence of cryptococcal infection. To quantify the prevalence of undiagnosed cryptococcal infection in HIV-infected persons in the United States during 1986-2012, stored sera from 1,872 participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study with CD4 T-cell counts <100 cells/µL were screened for CrAg, using the CrAg Lateral Flow Assay (LFA) (Immy, Inc.). This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated the overall prevalence of CrAg positivity in this population to be 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.2%-3.7%).

  2. Gating Deficit Heritability and Correlation With Increased Clinical Severity in Schizophrenia Patients With Positive Family History.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Light, Gregory A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Calkins, Monica E; Green, Michael F; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Freedman, Robert; Braff, David L

    2016-04-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study evaluated 12 primary and other supplementary neurocognitive and neurophysiological endophenotypes in schizophrenia probands and their families. Previous analyses of prepulse inhibition (PPI) and P50 gating measures in this sample revealed heritability estimates that were lower than expected based on earlier family studies. Here the authors investigated whether gating measures were more heritable in multiply affected families with a positive family history compared with families with only a single affected proband (singleton). A total of 296 nuclear families consisting of a schizophrenia proband, at least one unaffected sibling, and both parents underwent a comprehensive endophenotype and clinical characterization. The Family Interview for Genetic Studies was administered to all participants and used to obtain convergent psychiatric symptom information for additional first-degree relatives. Among the families, 97 were multiply affected, and 96 were singletons. Both PPI and P50 gating displayed substantially increased heritability in the 97 multiply affected families (47% and 36%, respectively) compared with estimates derived from the entire sample of 296 families (29% and 20%, respectively). However, no evidence for heritability was observed for either measure in the 96 singleton families. Schizophrenia probands derived from the multiply affected families also displayed a significantly increased severity of clinical symptoms compared with those from singleton families. PPI and P50 gating measures demonstrate substantially increased heritability in schizophrenia families with a higher genetic vulnerability for illness, providing further support for the commonality of genes underlying both schizophrenia and gating measures.

  3. Developmental changes in neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal: An ERP study using the late positive potential.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberge, Valerie; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Wiersema, Jan R

    2017-01-27

    The reduction of the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) following cognitive reappraisal has been used as a neural marker of emotion regulation. However, studies employing this neural marker in children are scarce and findings are not conclusive, with most studies showing a lack of LPP modulation after reappraisal in children in the age range of 5-12 years. The aim of the current study was therefore to investigate developmental changes in sensitivity of LPP modulation to cognitive reappraisal. To do so, LPP modulation due to cognitive reappraisal of negative pictures was compared between two age groups (8- to 11- versus 12- to 15-year-olds) and regression analyses were applied within the total sample to test whether sensitivity of LPP modulation shows a linear increase with age. In 63 children the LPP was measured after negative pictures that were either combined with a negative story or with a neutral, reappraising story. Although groups did not differ for self-reports on reappraisal, a significant reduction of LPP following cognitive reappraisal was only found in the older children, whereas such an effect was absent in the younger children. Findings were similar for boys and girls. Additional analyses showed a linear increase in sensitivity of LPP modulation with age. The results indicate that LPP modulation as measured in the current paradigm can be used as a valid index of emotion regulation in boys and girls but that caution is recommended using it in younger children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity-brightness Correlations for the Sun and Sun-like Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preminger, D. G.; Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.

    2011-10-01

    We analyze the effect of solar features on the variability of the solar irradiance in three different spectral ranges. Our study is based on two solar-cycles' worth of full-disk photometric images from the San Fernando Observatory, obtained with red, blue, and Ca II K-line filters. For each image we measure the photometric sum, Σ, which is the relative contribution of solar features to the disk-integrated intensity of the image. The photometric sums in the red and blue continuum, Σr and Σb, exhibit similar temporal patterns: they are negatively correlated with solar activity, with strong short-term variability, and weak solar-cycle variability. However, the Ca II K-line photometric sum, ΣK, is positively correlated with solar activity and has strong variations on solar-cycle timescales. We show that we can model the variability of the Sun's bolometric flux as a linear combination of Σr and ΣK. We infer that, over solar-cycle timescales, the variability of the Sun's bolometric irradiance is directly correlated with spectral line variability, but inversely correlated with continuum variability. Our blue and red continuum filters are quite similar to the Strömgren b and y filters used to measure stellar photometric variability. We conclude that active stars whose visible continuum brightness varies inversely with activity, as measured by the Ca HK index, are displaying a pattern that is similar to that of the Sun, i.e., radiative variability in the visible continuum that is spot-dominated.

  5. A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE HIGHEST ENERGY COSMIC RAYS AND NEARBY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY FERMI

    SciTech Connect

    Nemmen, Rodrigo S.; Bonatto, Charles; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2010-10-10

    We analyze the correlation of the positions of {gamma}-ray sources in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) First Source Catalog (1FGL) and the First LAT Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) Catalog (1LAC) with the arrival directions of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) observed with the Pierre Auger Observatory, in order to investigate the origin of UHECRs. We find that Galactic sources and blazars identified in the 1FGL are not significantly correlated with UHECRs, while the 1LAC sources display a mild correlation (2.6{sigma} level) on an {approx}2.{sup 0}4 angular scale. When selecting only the 1LAC AGNs closer than 200 Mpc, we find a strong association (5.4{sigma}) between their positions and the directions of UHECRs on an {approx}17{sup 0} angular scale; the probability of the observed configuration being due to an isotropic flux of cosmic rays is 5 x 10{sup -8}. There is also a 5{sigma} correlation with nearby 1LAC sources on a 6.{sup 0}5 scale. We identify seven '{gamma}-ray loud' AGNs which are associated with UHECRs within {approx}17{sup 0} and are likely candidates for the production sites of UHECRs: Centaurus A, NGC 4945, ESO 323-G77, 4C+04.77, NGC 1218, RX J0008.0+1450, and NGC 253. We interpret these results as providing additional support to the hypothesis of the origin of UHECRs in nearby extragalactic objects. As the angular scales of the correlations are large, we discuss the possibility that intervening magnetic fields might be considerably deflecting the trajectories of the particles on their way to Earth.

  6. Intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants correlates positively with plant size and herbivore load but negatively with herbivore damage.

    PubMed

    Bustos-Segura, Carlos; Poelman, Erik H; Reichelt, Michael; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gols, Rieta

    2017-01-01

    Intraspecific plant diversity can modify the properties of associated arthropod communities and plant fitness. However, it is not well understood which plant traits determine these ecological effects. We explored the effect of intraspecific chemical diversity among neighbouring plants on the associated invertebrate community and plant traits. In a common garden experiment, intraspecific diversity among neighbouring plants was manipulated using three plant populations of wild cabbage that differ in foliar glucosinolates. Plants were larger, harboured more herbivores, but were less damaged when plant diversity was increased. Glucosinolate concentration differentially correlated with generalist and specialist herbivore abundance. Glucosinolate composition correlated with plant damage, while in polycultures, variation in glucosinolate concentrations among neighbouring plants correlated positively with herbivore diversity and negatively with plant damage levels. The results suggest that intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry among neighbouring plants is important in determining the structure of the associated insect community and positively affects plant performance. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: Evidence for gene–environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits

    PubMed Central

    OPPENHEIMER, CAROLINE W.; HANKIN, BENJAMIN L.; JENNESS, JESSICA L.; YOUNG, JAMI F.; SMOLEN, ANDREW

    2013-01-01

    Gene–environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene–environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths’ genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework. PMID:23398761

  8. Observed positive parenting behaviors and youth genotype: evidence for gene-environment correlations and moderation by parent personality traits.

    PubMed

    Oppenheimer, Caroline W; Hankin, Benjamin L; Jenness, Jessica L; Young, Jami F; Smolen, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Gene-environment correlations (rGE) have been demonstrated in behavioral genetic studies, but rGE have proven elusive in molecular genetic research. Significant gene-environment correlations may be difficult to detect because potential moderators could reduce correlations between measured genetic variants and the environment. Molecular genetic studies investigating moderated rGE are lacking. This study examined associations between child catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and aspects of positive parenting (responsiveness and warmth), and whether these associations were moderated by parental personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) among a general community sample of third, sixth, and ninth graders (N = 263) and their parents. Results showed that parent personality traits moderated the rGE association between youths' genotype and coded observations of positive parenting. Parents with low levels of neuroticism and high levels of extraversion exhibited greater sensitive responsiveness and warmth, respectively, to youth with the valine/valine genotype. Moreover, youth with this genotype exhibited lower levels of observed anger. There was no association between the catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype and parenting behaviors for parents high on neuroticism and low on extraversion. Findings highlight the importance of considering moderating variables that may influence child genetic effects on the rearing environment. Implications for developmental models of maladaptive and adaptive child outcomes, and interventions for psychopathology, are discussed within a developmental psychopathology framework.

  9. Spontaneous fast gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region correlates with spatial learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, B R; Overstreet, C; Grillon, C

    2014-03-15

    Hippocampal neuronal populations exhibit multiple kinds of activity patterns, from the dominant theta rhythm during active exploration to high-frequency ripple-like activity during periods of relative inactivity. In animals, evidence is rapidly accruing that these high-frequency ripple activity patterns subserve retention of spatial learning performance. In a translational effort to address the possible function of offline hippocampal processes in humans, we measured spontaneous gamma activity during an awake rest period within a virtual spatial learning context. Whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings were taken while healthy participants (N=24) quietly rested (eyes open) between encoding and retrieval phases of a hippocampal-dependent virtual Morris water maze task. Results are that fast gamma activity (80-140 Hz) in the septal or posterior region of the hippocampus (bilaterally) was positively correlated across participants with subsequent within-session spatial learning rate. Fast gamma did not predict initial retrieval performance following rest, failing to provide evidence of a direct link between spontaneous high-frequency activity patterns during awake rest and consolidation of previous spatial memories. The findings nevertheless are consistent with a prospective role for offline human hippocampal processes in spatial learning and indicate that higher spontaneous gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region is related to faster updating of spatial knowledge in familiar virtual surroundings. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The correlation between physical activity and grade point average for health science graduate students.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Eugenia C; Hernandez, Erika C; Coltrane, Ambrosia K; Mancera, Jayme M

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported positive associations between physical activity and academic achievement. However, a common belief is that improving academic performance comes at the cost of reducing time for and resources spent on extracurricular activities that encourage physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported physical activity and grade point average (GPA) for health science graduate students. Graduate students in health science programs completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and reported their academic progress. Most participants (76%) reported moderate to vigorous physical activity levels that met or exceeded the recommended levels for adults. However, there was no significant correlation between GPA and level of physical activity. Negative findings for this study may be associated with the limited range of GPA scores for graduate students. Future studies need to consider more sensitive measures of cognitive function, as well as the impact of physical activity on occupational balance and health for graduate students in the health fields. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Paraoxonase-1 activity is positively related to phospholipid transfer protein activity in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Role of large HDL particles.

    PubMed

    Dullaart, Robin P F; Gruppen, Eke G; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M

    2016-04-01

    High density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) exerts anti-oxidative properties, whereas phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is able to convert mature HDL into larger and smaller HDL particles. Here we tested associations of PON-1 with PLTP in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a condition characterized by lower PON-1 activity and higher PLTP activity. Serum PON-1 (arylesterase activity), plasma PLTP activity (liposome-vesicle HDL system), and (apo)lipoproteins were measured in 81 T2DM subjects (mean age 59±9years; 31 women; no insulin treatment). In 48 participants, HDL subfractions were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In univariate correlation analysis, PON-1 activity was positively related to PLTP activity (r=0.348, p=0.001). PLTP activity was positively related to blood pressure, body mass index and triglycerides, whereas PON-1 activity was positively to HDL cholesterol and apoA-I (p<0.05 to <0.01 for each). Both PLTP activity and PON-I activity were positively related to large HDL particles (r=0.379, p=0.008 and r=0.411, p=0.004, respectively). In multivariable linear regression analysis, PON-1 activity was associated with PLTP activity independent of clinical covariates and HDL cholesterol or apoA-I (β=0.340, p=0.001 and β=0.320, p=0.003, respectively). The association of PON-1 activity with PLTP activity was lost in analysis which included large HDL particles (large HDL: β=0.411, p=0.004). PON-1 activity is positively related to PLTP activity in T2DM, raising the possibility that PLTP could act to maintain PON-1. This association may in part be attributable to a common relationship of PON-1 and PLTP with large HDL particles. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Correlation Between Histologic and Radiographic Reconstruction of Intracochlear Electrode Position in Human Temporal Bones

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Jennifer T.; Burgess, Barbara J.; Zhu, MengYu; Curtin, Hugh D.; Nadol, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    In our laboratory, human temporal bone specimens from patients who in life have undergone cochlear implantation are routinely processed with the implant in situ, embedded in araldite, sectioned at 20 μm and serially photographed during cutting, stained with toluidine blue and mounted on glass slides. From the images, 2D and 3D reconstructions can be made and a very accurate implant insertion depth can be calculated from the 3D reconstructions. However, this method precludes subsequent special stains and further molecular investigations of the tissue including proteomics and immunostaining which is now possible with celloidin embedded tissue. In this study, we correlated measurement of the implant array insertion depth calculated from histologic 3D reconstruction with that measured from 3D radiologic multiplanar reconstruction. Four human temporal bones with cochlear implants underwent post-fixation pre-processing CT imaging with a Siemens Somatom Sensation Scanner. The CT scans from these four bones were downloaded into the Voxar software application, reformatted using the multiplanar reconstruction tool, viewed in three dimensions and measurements of intracochlear insertion lengths of the implants were obtained. The bones were processed routinely for in situ araldite embedding, serial images were made of the block during sectioning, post-processed using PV-Wave® software, aligned with Amira® software, and used to create histologic 3D reconstructions. From these 3D reconstructions, the insertion depth of the electrode array was mathematically calculated. The range of insertion depths was 15.9 mm (case #1) to 26.6 mm (case #4). The two methods, radiographic multiplanar reconstruction and 3D reconstruction, differed by 0.4 – 0.9%. This provides confidence that important localization information about the electrode in situ can be gleaned from CT scans, thereby allowing us to extract the implants prior to processing for celloidin embedment and allow further

  13. Correlations of magnetospheric ion composition with geomagnetic and solar activity

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.T.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.

    1982-11-01

    A large ion composition data set consisting of 1-month averages has been assembled for the energy per charge range 0.9--15.9 keV/e. It includes 48 months of data taken by the Ion Composition Experiments on the ESA/GEOS 1 and 2 satellites at or near geostationary orbit. Data were obtained during the rising and maximum phases of the current solar cycle from May 1977 through November 1981 inclusive. Five ion species are routinely identifiable: H/sup +/, He/sup + +/, He/sup +/, O/sup + +/, and O/sup +/, above a limiting density approx.10/sup -3/ ions cm/sup -3/. Ion densities exhibit a number of very striking statistical correlations with one another and with both Kp and solar EUV as measured by F/sub 10.7/. One principal result is that increases in the densities of magnetospheric He/sup +/, O/sup + +/, and O/sup +/ are observed that are apparently due entirely to increased solar EUV fluxes associated with the ring phase of the current solar cycle. There is a marked rise in O/sup +/ density by a factor of approx.8 with increasing geomagnetic activity, but no correpsonding increase in either He/sup +/ or O/sup + +/ and only a small increase in H/sup +/. The He/sup + +//H/sup +/ ratio is found to be remarkably constant at roughly-equal0.01. Contrary to ion density results, little or no variation is found in mean energy. These observations are interpreted in terms of the composition and dynamics of two sources of magnetospheric plasma: the solar wind and the high-latitude topside ionosphere.

  14. Uniformity and nonuniformity of neural activities correlated to different insight problem solving.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Li, Y; Shang, X; Zhou, Z; Han, L

    2014-06-13

    Previous studies on the neural basis of insight reflected weak consistency except for the anterior cingulate cortex. The present work adopted the semantic and homophonic punny riddle to explore the uniformity and nonuniformity of neural activities correlated to different insight problem solving. Results showed that in the early period of insight solving, the semantic and homophonic punny riddles induced a common N350-500 over the central scalp. However, during -400 to 0 ms before the riddles were solved, the semantic punny riddles induced a positive event-related potential (ERP) deflection over the temporal cortex for retrieving the extensive semantic information, while the homophonic punny riddles induced a positive ERP deflection over the temporal cortex and a negative one in the left frontal cortex which might reflect the semantic and phonological information processing respectively. Our study indicated that different insight problem solving should have the same cognitive process of detecting cognitive conflicts, but have different ways to solve the conflicts.

  15. Adolescent Age Moderates Genetic and Environmental Influences on Parent-Adolescent Positivity and Negativity: Implications for Genotype-Environment Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Knopik, Valerie S.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spotts, Erica L.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined how genotype-environment correlation processes differ as a function of adolescent age. We tested whether adolescent age moderates genetic and environmental influences on positivity and negativity in mother-adolescent and father-adolescent relationships using parallel samples of twin parents from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden and twin/sibling adolescents from the Nonshared Environment in Adolescent Development Study. We inferred differences in the role of passive and non-passive genotype-environment correlation based on biometric moderation findings. Findings indicated that non-passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in mother- and father- adolescent relationships in families with older adolescents than families with younger adolescents, and that passive rGE played a stronger role for positivity in the mother-adolescent relationship in families with younger adolescents than in families with older adolescents. Implications of these findings for the timing and targeting of interventions on family relationships are discussed. PMID:25924807

  16. Size controlled protein nanoemulsions for active targeting of folate receptor positive cells.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Nogueira, Eugénia; Azoia, Nuno G; Sárria, Marisa P; Abreu, Ana S; Shimanovich, Ulyana; Rollett, Alexandra; Härmark, Johan; Hebert, Hans; Guebitz, Georg; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Preto, Ana; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-11-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanoemulsions were produced by high pressure homogenization with a tri-block copolymer (Poloxamer 407), which presents a central hydrophobic chain of polyoxypropylene (PPO) and two identical lateral hydrophilic chains of polyethylene glycol (PEG). We observed a linear correlation between tri-block copolymer concentration and size - the use of 5mg/mL of Poloxamer 407 yields nanoemulsions smaller than 100nm. Molecular dynamics and fluorescent tagging of the tri-block copolymer highlight their mechanistic role on the size of emulsions. This novel method enables the fabrication of highly stable albumin emulsions in the nano-size range, highly desirable for controlled drug delivery. Folic Acid (FA)-tagged protein nanoemulsions were shown to promote specific folate receptor (FR)-mediated targeting in FR positive cells. The novel strategy presented here enables the construction of size controlled, functionalized protein-based nanoemulsions with excellent characteristics for active targeting in cancer therapy.

  17. Dietary breadth is positively correlated with venom complexity in cone snails.

    PubMed

    Phuong, Mark A; Mahardika, Gusti N; Alfaro, Michael E

    2016-05-26

    Although diet is believed to be a major factor underlying the evolution of venom, few comparative studies examine both venom composition and diet across a radiation of venomous species. Cone snails within the family, Conidae, comprise more than 700 species of carnivorous marine snails that capture their prey by using a cocktail of venomous neurotoxins (conotoxins or conopeptides). Venom composition across species has been previously hypothesized to be shaped by (a) prey taxonomic class (i.e., worms, molluscs, or fish) and (b) dietary breadth. We tested these hypotheses under a comparative phylogenetic framework using ecological data from past studies in conjunction with venom duct transcriptomes sequenced from 12 phylogenetically disparate cone snail species, including 10 vermivores (worm-eating), one molluscivore, and one generalist. We discovered 2223 unique conotoxin precursor peptides that encoded 1864 unique mature toxins across all species, >90 % of which are new to this study. In addition, we identified two novel gene superfamilies and 16 novel cysteine frameworks. Each species exhibited unique venom profiles, with venom composition and expression patterns among species dominated by a restricted set of gene superfamilies and mature toxins. In contrast with the dominant paradigm for interpreting Conidae venom evolution, prey taxonomic class did not predict venom composition patterns among species. We also found a significant positive relationship between dietary breadth and measures of conotoxin complexity. The poor performance of prey taxonomic class in predicting venom components suggests that cone snails have either evolved species-specific expression patterns likely as a consequence of the rapid evolution of conotoxin genes, or that traditional means of categorizing prey type (i.e., worms, mollusc, or fish) and conotoxins (i.e., by gene superfamily) do not accurately encapsulate evolutionary dynamics between diet and venom composition. We also show that

  18. Criterion distances and environmental correlates of active commuting to school in children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school can contribute to daily physical activity levels in children. Insight into the determinants of active commuting is needed, to promote such behavior in children living within a feasible commuting distance from school. This study determined feasible distances for walking and cycling to school (criterion distances) in 11- to 12-year-old Belgian children. For children living within these criterion distances from school, the correlation between parental perceptions of the environment, the number of motorized vehicles per family and the commuting mode (active/passive) to school was investigated. Methods Parents (n = 696) were contacted through 44 randomly selected classes of the final year (sixth grade) in elementary schools in East- and West-Flanders. Parental environmental perceptions were obtained using the parent version of Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for Youth (NEWS-Y). Information about active commuting to school was obtained using a self-reported questionnaire for parents. Distances from the children's home to school were objectively measured with Routenet online route planner. Criterion distances were set at the distance in which at least 85% of the active commuters lived. After the determination of these criterion distances, multilevel analyses were conducted to determine correlates of active commuting to school within these distances. Results Almost sixty percent (59.3%) of the total sample commuted actively to school. Criterion distances were set at 1.5 kilometers for walking and 3.0 kilometers for cycling. In the range of 2.01 - 2.50 kilometers household distance from school, the number of passive commuters exceeded the number of active commuters. For children who were living less than 3.0 kilometers away from school, only perceived accessibility by the parents was positively associated with active commuting to school. Within the group of active commuters, a longer distance to school was associated with

  19. Personal, Social, and Game-Related Correlates of Active and Non-Active Gaming Among Dutch Gaming Adolescents: Survey-Based Multivariable, Multilevel Logistic Regression Analyses

    PubMed Central

    de Vet, Emely; Chinapaw, Mai JM; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Background Playing video games contributes substantially to sedentary behavior in youth. A new generation of video games—active games—seems to be a promising alternative to sedentary games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. At this time, little is known about correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. Objective The objective of this study was to examine potential personal, social, and game-related correlates of both active and non-active gaming in adolescents. Methods A survey assessing game behavior and potential personal, social, and game-related correlates was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, N=353) recruited via schools. Multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographics (age, sex and educational level of adolescents), were conducted to examine personal, social, and game-related correlates of active gaming ≥1 hour per week (h/wk) and non-active gaming >7 h/wk. Results Active gaming ≥1 h/wk was significantly associated with a more positive attitude toward active gaming (OR 5.3, CI 2.4-11.8; P<.001), a less positive attitude toward non-active games (OR 0.30, CI 0.1-0.6; P=.002), a higher score on habit strength regarding gaming (OR 1.9, CI 1.2-3.2; P=.008) and having brothers/sisters (OR 6.7, CI 2.6-17.1; P<.001) and friends (OR 3.4, CI 1.4-8.4; P=.009) who spend more time on active gaming and a little bit lower score on game engagement (OR 0.95, CI 0.91-0.997; P=.04). Non-active gaming >7 h/wk was significantly associated with a more positive attitude toward non-active gaming (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.3; P=.035), a stronger habit regarding gaming (OR 3.0, CI 1.7-5.3; P<.001), having friends who spend more time on non-active gaming (OR 3.3, CI 1.46-7.53; P=.004), and a more positive image of a non-active gamer (OR 2, CI 1.07–3.75; P=.03). Conclusions Various factors were significantly associated with active gaming ≥1 h/wk and non-active gaming >7 h/wk. Active gaming is most

  20. Personal, social, and game-related correlates of active and non-active gaming among dutch gaming adolescents: survey-based multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analyses.

    PubMed

    Simons, Monique; de Vet, Emely; Chinapaw, Mai Jm; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C; Brug, Johannes

    2014-04-04

    Playing video games contributes substantially to sedentary behavior in youth. A new generation of video games-active games-seems to be a promising alternative to sedentary games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. At this time, little is known about correlates of active and non-active gaming among adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine potential personal, social, and game-related correlates of both active and non-active gaming in adolescents. A survey assessing game behavior and potential personal, social, and game-related correlates was conducted among adolescents (12-16 years, N=353) recruited via schools. Multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analyses, adjusted for demographics (age, sex and educational level of adolescents), were conducted to examine personal, social, and game-related correlates of active gaming ≥1 hour per week (h/wk) and non-active gaming >7 h/wk. Active gaming ≥1 h/wk was significantly associated with a more positive attitude toward active gaming (OR 5.3, CI 2.4-11.8; P<.001), a less positive attitude toward non-active games (OR 0.30, CI 0.1-0.6; P=.002), a higher score on habit strength regarding gaming (OR 1.9, CI 1.2-3.2; P=.008) and having brothers/sisters (OR 6.7, CI 2.6-17.1; P<.001) and friends (OR 3.4, CI 1.4-8.4; P=.009) who spend more time on active gaming and a little bit lower score on game engagement (OR 0.95, CI 0.91-0.997; P=.04). Non-active gaming >7 h/wk was significantly associated with a more positive attitude toward non-active gaming (OR 2.6, CI 1.1-6.3; P=.035), a stronger habit regarding gaming (OR 3.0, CI 1.7-5.3; P<.001), having friends who spend more time on non-active gaming (OR 3.3, CI 1.46-7.53; P=.004), and a more positive image of a non-active gamer (OR 2, CI 1.07-3.75; P=.03). Various factors were significantly associated with active gaming ≥1 h/wk and non-active gaming >7 h/wk. Active gaming is most strongly (negatively) associated with attitude with

  1. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in Turkish people: a positive correlation with abdominal obesity in women

    PubMed Central

    Karayaka, Sergul; Mesci, Banu; Oguz, Aytekin; Tamer, Gonca

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing around the world due to abdominal obesity with altered eating habits and decreased physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for gastroesophagial reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and the prevalence of GERD in patients with MetS. METHODS: Five hundred patients (MetS, n=300 and the control group, n=200) were enrolled in the study. A detailed questionnaire reflux symptoms and behavioral habits was performed. RESULTS: Sixty percent of the subjects were with MetS. GERD rate was significantly higher in the group with MetS compared to subjects without MetS (50.7% vs 26%). Women were more likely to have GERD in both groups (62.6% of women and 28.6% of men ın the MetS group while corresponding rates were 37% vs 16.7% in the control group). Waist circumferences were found to be higher in female MetS patients with GERD. CONCLUSION: GERD is present approximately in every one of the two patients with MetS. Every patient who has MetS should be evaluated in terms of GERD symptoms. PMID:28058320

  2. Patterns and correlates of physical activity in adolescents in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, A; Burton, N W; Trost, S G

    2017-04-01

    Despite the widely acknowledged public health importance of physical activity (PA), few studies have examined levels of PA in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of PA in adolescents in Bangladesh. Cross-sectional survey. A total of 798 students, aged 13-17 years; 48% girls, from eight purposively selected secondary schools in Dhaka city, Bangladesh completed a self-administered questionnaire including the 3-Day PA Recall. Parents completed a separate questionnaire to provide household/family-level data. Multilevel generalized linear modelling was used to identify the correlates of PA for boys and girls. Two-thirds (66%) of the adolescents met the recommendations of 60 min/day of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily, with more boys than girls (76% and 55%, respectively). The most common activities reported were walking for travel (42%), cricket (33%) and household chores (30%). Multivariable modelling showed that girls' PA was positively associated with mother's education level, walking to school, involvement in school sports and having home sports equipment. Boys' PA was positively associated with mother's employment, having home sports equipment, having a playground at school and walking to school. One third of adolescents in Bangladesh were insufficiently active with girls less active than boys. Walking to school and access to sports facilities including playgrounds and home equipment may be important to promote activity among Bangladeshi adolescents, with special attention to the girls. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal pole activity during understanding other persons' mental states correlates with neuroticism trait.

    PubMed

    Jimura, Koji; Konishi, Seiki; Asari, Tomoki; Miyashita, Yasushi

    2010-04-30

    Comprehension of other persons' mental states is one of the representative cognitive functions involved in social situations. It has been suggested that this function sometimes recruits emotional processes. The present fMRI study examined the neural mechanisms associated with understanding others' mental states, and the conditions that determine the recruitment of the emotional processes. The false belief paradigm, a traditional behavioral paradigm to investigate comprehension of others, was applied to an event-related fMRI analysis, allowing for the extraction of brain activity time-locked to successful understanding of others' mental states. Prominent brain activity was observed in multiple cortical regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, temporo-parietal junction, precuneus, and temporal pole. Then, correlational analyses were performed between the activations and individuals' scores of neuroticism, a personality trait that reflects emotional instability in daily life. It was revealed that the neuroticism scores were positively correlated with the activity in the temporal pole region, but not in the other regions. These results suggest that the emotional processes implemented in the temporal pole are recruited during successful understanding of other persons' mental states, and that the recruitment may be modulated by an emotional personality trait of individual subjects.

  4. Correlates of physical activity in adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Louise; Kennedy, Norelee

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) is an important component in the management of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). To date the correlates of PA have not been thoroughly investigated in the RA population. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the correlates of PA in the adult RA population. A search of Medline, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL plus, Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library was conducted. A manual search of reference lists was conducted to compliment the electronic search. Ten studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality. Results determined correlates in 4 categories: sociodemographic, physical, psychological and social variables. The variables varied greatly and were inconsistently studied. Changes were noted from a previous review in 2005 in relation to the association between certain variables and PA, including age, gender, disease duration, pain, exercise beliefs and social support. Positive associations with PA were found for motivation, self-efficacy, health perception, and previous PA levels. Negative associations were found for fatigue, a coerced regulation style and certain physiological variables. In addition differences between correlates of PA in the adult RA population and other chronic disease and healthy adult populations have been demonstrated.

  5. Interleukin-8 activates coagulat