Science.gov

Sample records for activity counts measured

  1. Total pollen counts do not influence active surface measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshammer, Hanns; Schinko, Herwig; Neuberger, Manfred

    We investigated the temporal association of various aerosol parameters with pollen counts in the pollen season (April 2001) in Linz, Austria. We were especially interested in the relationship between active surface (or Fuchs' surface) because we had shown previously (Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 1737-1744) that this parameter during the same observation period was a better predictor for acute respiratory symptoms in school children (like wheezing, shortness of breath, and cough) and reduced lung function on the same day than particle mass (PM 10). While active surface is most sensitive for fine particles with a diameter of less than 100 nm it has no strict upper cut-off regarding particle size and so could eventually be influenced also by larger particles if their numbers were high. All particle mass parameters tested (TSP, PM 10, PM 1) were weakly ( r approximately 0.2) though significantly correlated with pollen counts but neither was active surface nor total particle counts (CPC). The weak association of particle mass and pollen counts was due mainly to similar diurnal variations and a linear trend over time. Only the mass of the coarse fraction (TSP minus PM 10) remained associated with pollen counts significantly after controlling for these general temporal patterns.

  2. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  3. Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity of Adults with Intellectual Disability: Predicting Weekly Step Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Viviene A.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2009-01-01

    Pedometers are objective, inexpensive, valid, and reliable measures of physical activity. The minimum number of days of pedometer monitoring needed to estimate average weekly step counts was investigated. Seven days of pedometer data were collected from 154 ambulatory men and women ("ns" = 88 and 66, respectively) with intellectual disability.…

  4. Primary activity measurements with 4pigamma NaI(Tl) counting and Monte Carlo calculated efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Youcef; Spring, Philippe; Bailat, Claude; Decombaz, Marc; Triscone, Gilles; Gostely, Jean-Jacques; Laedermann, Jean-Pascal; Bochud, François O

    2007-05-01

    The radioactive concentrations of (18)F, (88)Y and (152)Eu solutions and the activity of (222)Rn gas ampoules are measured using a primary method involving 4pigamma NaI(Tl) integral counting with a well-type NaI(Tl) detector and efficiencies computed by Monte Carlo simulations. The simulations use the GEANT code coupled with a routine (sch2for), which generates randomly the decay paths and emissions depending on the decay scheme parameters. The resulting radioactive concentrations of (88)Y, (152)Eu and (18)F are found to agree with those measured with other primary measurement methods, such as 4pi (beta, e, X)-gamma coincidence counting or liquid scintillation counting. Results of the determination of the activity of (222)Rn gas ampoules by this method also match the results of an absolute standardisation technique in which radon is condensed onto a cold surface and its alpha-emissions are detected through an accurately specified solid angle.

  5. Radioactivity of Potassium Solutions: A Comparison of Calculated Activity to Measured Activity from Gross Beta Counting and Gamma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gaylord, R F

    2005-07-26

    In order to determine if the measured beta activity for a solution containing potassium was exactly as predicted, particularly since the CES gas counter is not calibrated specifically with K-40, an experiment was conducted to compare measured activities from two radioanalytical methods (gamma spectroscopy and gas proportional counting) to calculated activities across a range of potassium concentrations. Potassium, being ubiquitous and naturally radioactive, is a well-known and common interference in gross beta counting methods. By measuring the observed beta activity due to K-40 in potassium-containing solutions across a wide range of concentrations, it was found that the observed beta activity agrees well with the beta activity calculated from the potassium concentration measured by standard inorganic analytical techniques, such as ICP-OES, and that using the measured potassium concentration to calculate the expected beta activity, and comparing this to the observed beta activity to determine if potassium can account for all the observed activity in a sample, is a valid technique. It was also observed that gamma spectroscopy is not an effective means of measuring K-40 activity below approximately 700 pCi/L, which corresponds to a solution with approximately 833 mg/L total potassium. Gas proportional counting for gross beta activity has a much lower detection limit, typically 20-50 picoCi/L for a liquid low in total dissolved solids, which corresponds to a potassium concentration of approximately 30-70 ppm K.

  6. Primary activity measurements with a 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude J; Bochud, François O

    2012-01-01

    The radioactive concentrations of (166m)Ho, (134)Cs and (133)Ba solutions have been standardised using a 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system we have recently set up. The detection in the beta channel is performed using various geometries of a UPS-89 plastic scintillator optically coupled to a selected low-noise 1in. diameter photomultiplier tube. The light-tight thin capsule that encloses this beta detector is housed within the well of a 5in.×5in. NaI(Tl) monocrystal detector. The beta detection efficiency can be varied either by optical filtering or electronic discrimination when the electrons loose all their energy in the plastic scintillator. This 4πβ-4πγ coincidence system improves on our 4πβ(PC)-γ system in that its sample preparation is less labour intensive, it yields larger beta- and gamma-counting efficiencies thus enabling the standardisation of low activity sources with good statistics in reasonable time, and it makes standardising short-lived radionuclides easier. The resulting radioactive concentrations of (166m)Ho, (134)Cs and (133)Ba are found to agree with those measured with other primary measurement methods thus validating our 4πβ-4πγ coincidence counting system.

  7. Examining the utility of a bite-count-based measure of eating activity in free-living human beings.

    PubMed

    Scisco, Jenna L; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam W

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has triggered a need for novel methods for measuring eating activity in free-living settings. Here, we introduce a bite-count method that has the potential to be used in long-term investigations of eating activity. The purpose of our observational study was to describe the relationship between bite count and energy intake and determine whether there are sex and body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite in free-living human beings. From October 2011 to February 2012, 77 participants used a wrist-worn device for 2 weeks to measure bite count during 2,975 eating activities. An automated self-administered 24-hour recall was completed daily to provide kilocalorie estimates for each eating activity. Pearson's correlation indicated a moderate, positive correlation between bite count and kilocalories (r=0.44; P<0.001) across all 2,975 eating activities. The average per-individual correlation was 0.53. A 2 (sex)×3 (body mass index group: normal, overweight, obese) analysis of variance indicated that men consumed 6 kcal more per bite than women on average. However, there were no body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite. This was the longest study of a body-worn sensor for monitoring eating activity of free-living human beings to date, which highlights the strong potential for this method to be used in future, long-term investigations.

  8. Cross-Section Measurements via the Activation Technique at the Cologne Clover Counting Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Netterdon, Lars; Scholz, Philipp; Zilges, Andreas

    The activation technique is a widely used method for the determination of cross-section values for charged-particle induced reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. Since network calculations of nucleosynthesis processes often depend on reaction rates calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model, these cross-sections can be used to improve the nuclear-physics input-parameters like optical-model potentials (OMP), γ-ray strength functions, and nuclear level densities. In order to extend the available experimental database, the 108Cd(α, n)111Sn reaction cross section was investigated at ten energies between 10.2 and 13.5 MeV. As this reaction at these energies is almost only sensitive on the α-decay width, the results were compared to statistical model calculations using different models for the α-OMP. The irradiation as well as the consecutive γ-ray counting were performed at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the University of Cologne using the 10 MV FN-Tandem accelerator and the Cologne Clover Counting Setup. This setup consists of two clover- type high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors in a close face-to-face geometry to cover a solid angle of almost 4π.

  9. Measurement of whole body cellular and collagen nitrogen, potassium, and other elements by neutron activation and whole body counting

    SciTech Connect

    James, H.M.; Fabricius, P.J.; Dykes, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    Whole body nitrogen can be measured by neutron activation analysis with an acceptable radiation dose; it is an index of body protein which, in normal subjects, is 65% cellular protein and 35% extracellular connective collagen. Whole body potassium can be measured by whole body counting without irradiating the subject; it is an index of body cell mass. We measured whole body nitrogen, potassium, extracellular water, intracellular water, and fat-folds. The differences between 37 malnourished patients and five normal subjects suggested that the patients had 9 kg less cell mass than normal, but no difference in extracellular mass. Measurements were made on eight patients before and after 14 days of total parenteral nutrition; balance of nitrogen intake and excretion also was measured. The changes were consistent with mean increases of 3 kg of cellular mass and 3 kg of fat with no change of extracellular mass. The accuracy and sensitivity of the whole body measurements need further confirmation for use in patients with changing body composition. Where tissue wasting is largely from the cellular compartment, potassium could be a more sensitive index of wasting than nitrogen. Multielement analysis of nitrogen, potassium, chlorine, and carbon will probably be valuable in elucidating body composition in malnutrition.

  10. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L; Walkup, Robert E

    2013-10-29

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  11. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L.; Walkup, Robert E.

    2015-08-11

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  12. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L.; Walkup, Robert E.

    2016-10-18

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  13. Radionuclide counting technique for measuring wind velocity

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.J.; Khandelwal, G.S.

    1981-12-01

    A technique for measuring wind velocities of meteorological interest is described. It is based on inverse-square-law variation of the counting rates as the radioactive source-to-counter distance is changed by wind drag on the source ball. Results of a feasibility study using a weak bismuth 207 radiation source and three Geiger-Muller radiation counters are reported. The use of the technique is not restricted to Martian or Mars-like environments. A description of the apparatus, typical results, and frequency response characteristics are included. A discussion of a double-pendulum arrangement is presented. Measurements reported herein indicate that the proposed technique may be suitable for measuring wind speeds up to 100 m/sec, which are either steady or whose rates of fluctuation are less than 1 kHz.

  14. Measuring PET scanner sensitivity; Relating count rates to image signal-to-noise ratios using noise equivalent counts

    SciTech Connect

    Strother, S.C. ); Casey, M.E. ); Hoffman, E.J. . Nuclear Medicine Lab.)

    1990-04-01

    Sensitivity parameters derived from a plot of a scanner's true coincidence count (TCC) rates as a function of activity in a 20 cm cylindrical phantom have no direct link to image quality. Noise equivalent count (NEC) rate curves, which incorporate the noise effects of subtracting the randoms and scatter count components provide a direct link between image signal-to-noise ratios and the scatter, randoms and trues coincidence count rates. The authors have measured TCC and NEC curves with a standardized 20 cm diameter nylon cylinder for five different PET scanners with several scanner-collimator combinations. In addition, the authors have compared TCC and NEC curves on one scanner with those from an Alderson brain phantom.

  15. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Daniel B; Stoll, Eli L; Kindy, Sonam D; Merry, Hillary L; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness.

  16. A mind you can count on: validating breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Daniel B.; Stoll, Eli L.; Kindy, Sonam D.; Merry, Hillary L.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness practice of present moment awareness promises many benefits, but has eluded rigorous behavioral measurement. To date, research has relied on self-reported mindfulness or heterogeneous mindfulness trainings to infer skillful mindfulness practice and its effects. In four independent studies with over 400 total participants, we present the first construct validation of a behavioral measure of mindfulness, breath counting. We found it was reliable, correlated with self-reported mindfulness, differentiated long-term meditators from age-matched controls, and was distinct from sustained attention and working memory measures. In addition, we employed breath counting to test the nomological network of mindfulness. As theorized, we found skill in breath counting associated with more meta-awareness, less mind wandering, better mood, and greater non-attachment (i.e., less attentional capture by distractors formerly paired with reward). We also found in a randomized online training study that 4 weeks of breath counting training improved mindfulness and decreased mind wandering relative to working memory training and no training controls. Together, these findings provide the first evidence for breath counting as a behavioral measure of mindfulness. PMID:25386148

  17. Particle and Photon Detection: Counting and Energy Measurement.

    PubMed

    Janesick, James; Tower, John

    2016-05-12

    Fundamental limits for photon counting and photon energy measurement are reviewed for CCD and CMOS imagers. The challenges to extend photon counting into the visible/nIR wavelengths and achieve energy measurement in the UV with specific read noise requirements are discussed. Pixel flicker and random telegraph noise sources are highlighted along with various methods used in reducing their contribution on the sensor's read noise floor. Practical requirements for quantum efficiency, charge collection efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency that interfere with photon counting performance are discussed. Lastly we will review current efforts in reducing flicker noise head-on, in hopes to drive read noise substantially below 1 carrier rms.

  18. Pinochle Poker: An Activity for Counting and Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroughton, Jacqueline; Nolan, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Understanding counting rules is challenging for students; in particular, they struggle with determining when and how to implement combinations, permutations, and the multiplication rule as tools for counting large sets and computing probability. We present an activity--using ideas from the games of poker and pinochle--designed to help students…

  19. Particle and Photon Detection: Counting and Energy Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Janesick, James; Tower, John

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental limits for photon counting and photon energy measurement are reviewed for CCD and CMOS imagers. The challenges to extend photon counting into the visible/nIR wavelengths and achieve energy measurement in the UV with specific read noise requirements are discussed. Pixel flicker and random telegraph noise sources are highlighted along with various methods used in reducing their contribution on the sensor’s read noise floor. Practical requirements for quantum efficiency, charge collection efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency that interfere with photon counting performance are discussed. Lastly we will review current efforts in reducing flicker noise head-on, in hopes to drive read noise substantially below 1 carrier rms. PMID:27187398

  20. Active Well Counting Using New PSD Plastic Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hausladen, Paul; Newby, Jason; McElroy, Robert Dennis

    2015-11-01

    This report presents results and analysis from a series of proof-of-concept measurements to assess the suitability of segmented detectors constructed from Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator with pulse-shape discrimination capability for the purposes of quantifying uranium via active neutron coincidence counting. Present quantification of bulk uranium materials for international safeguards and domestic materials control and accounting relies on active neutron coincidence counting systems, such as the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and the Uranium Neutron Coincidence Collar (UNCL), that use moderated He-3 proportional counters along with necessarily low-intensity 241Am(Li) neutron sources. Scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors are a potentially superior technology to the existing AWCC and UNCL designs due to their spectroscopic capability and their inherently short neutron coincidence times that largely eliminate random coincidences and enable interrogation by stronger sources. One of the past impediments to the investigation and adoption of scintillation counters for the purpose of quantifying bulk uranium was the commercial availability of scintillators having the necessary neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination properties only as flammable liquids. Recently, Eljen EJ-299-34 PSD-plastic scintillator became commercially available. The present work is the first assessment of an array of PSD-plastic detectors for the purposes of quantifying bulk uranium. The detector panel used in the present work was originally built as the focal plane for a fast-neutron imager, but it was repurposed for the present investigation by construction of a stand to support the inner well of an AWCC immediately in front of the detector panel. The detector panel and data acquisition of this system are particularly well suited for performing active-well fast-neutron counting of LEU and HEU samples because the active detector volume is solid, the 241Am(Li) interrogating

  1. Analysis of calibration data for the uranium active neutron coincidence counting collar with attention to errors in the measured neutron coincidence rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Stephen; Burr, Tom; Favalli, Andrea; Nicholson, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    The declared linear density of 238U and 235U in fresh low enriched uranium light water reactor fuel assemblies can be verified for nuclear safeguards purposes using a neutron coincidence counter collar in passive and active mode, respectively. The active mode calibration of the Uranium Neutron Collar - Light water reactor fuel (UNCL) instrument is normally performed using a non-linear fitting technique. The fitting technique relates the measured neutron coincidence rate (the predictor) to the linear density of 235U (the response) in order to estimate model parameters of the nonlinear Padé equation, which traditionally is used to model the calibration data. Alternatively, following a simple data transformation, the fitting can also be performed using standard linear fitting methods. This paper compares performance of the nonlinear technique to the linear technique, using a range of possible error variance magnitudes in the measured neutron coincidence rate. We develop the required formalism and then apply the traditional (nonlinear) and alternative approaches (linear) to the same experimental and corresponding simulated representative datasets. We find that, in this context, because of the magnitude of the errors in the predictor, it is preferable not to transform to a linear model, and it is preferable not to adjust for the errors in the predictor when inferring the model parameters.

  2. Radionuclide counting technique for measuring wind velocity and direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An anemometer utilizing a radionuclide counting technique for measuring both the velocity and the direction of wind is described. A pendulum consisting of a wire and a ball with a source of radiation on the lower surface of the ball is positioned by the wind. Detectors and are located in a plane perpendicular to pendulum (no wind). The detectors are located on the circumferene of a circle and are equidistant from each other as well as the undisturbed (no wind) source ball position.

  3. Measurement of the Neutron Lifetime by Counting Trapped Protons

    PubMed Central

    Wietfeldt, F. E.; Dewey, M. S.; Gilliam, D. M.; Nico, J. S.; Fei, X.; Snow, W. M.; Greene, G. L.; Pauwels, J.; Eykens, R.; Lamberty, A.; Van Gestel, J.

    2005-01-01

    We measured the neutron decay lifetime by counting in-beam neutron decay recoil protons trapped in a quasi-Penning trap. The absolute neutron beam fluence was measured by capture in a thin 6LiF foil detector with known efficiency. The combination of these measurements gives the neutron lifetime: τn = (886.8 ± 1.2 ± 3.2) s, where the first (second) uncertainty is statistical (systematic) in nature. This is the most precise neutron lifetime determination to date using an in-beam method. PMID:27308145

  4. Measurement uncertainties in whole body counting and radon progeny.

    PubMed

    Valakis, Stratos T; Pallada, Stavroula; Kalef-Ezra, John A

    2014-07-01

    Measurement uncertainty is an important quality index in gamma spectrometry related to the level of bias and precision involved in the measuring procedure. Quality control measurements during the commissioning of a 16-input whole body counter showed substantial deviations between the experimentally determined precision and the theoretical estimation, indicating either equipment malfunction or lack of reproducibility of the experimental setup. In this study, the role of the magnitude and variability of airborne background radiation present in the counting room and the human body in the deterioration of the precision of counters employing NaI(Tl) detectors was investigated. Correction methods and actions based on case-specific background features were developed and applied. The experimental observations were benchmarked using a mathematical model of the counter. The efficacy of the developed methods was tested by measurements, and updated precision values were obtained. Quasi-equilibrium between the gamma-emitters Bi and Pb in the counting room and the human body is a prerequisite for accurate direct low-level radioactivity measurements in the human body.

  5. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2002: Counting the Kids Who Count on Us. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 29 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health and safety (prenatal care, low birthweight, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood…

  6. A radionuclide counting technique for measuring wind velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Mall, G. H.

    1981-12-01

    A technique for measuring wind velocities of meteorological interest is described. It is based on inverse-square-law variation of the counting rates as the radioactive source-to-counter distance is changed by wind drag on the source ball. Results of a feasibility study using a weak bismuth 207 radiation source and three Geiger-Muller radiation counters are reported. The use of the technique is not restricted to Martian or Mars-like environments. A description of the apparatus, typical results, and frequency response characteristics are included. A discussion of a double-pendulum arrangement is presented. Measurements reported herein indicate that the proposed technique may be suitable for measuring wind speeds up to 100 m/sec, which are either steady or whose rates of fluctuation are less than 1 kHz.

  7. Measuring the lensing potential with tomographic galaxy number counts

    SciTech Connect

    Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch

    2015-10-01

    We investigate how the lensing potential can be measured tomographically with future galaxy surveys using their number counts. Such a measurement is an independent test of the standard ΛCDM framework and can be used to discern modified theories of gravity. We perform a Fisher matrix forecast based on galaxy angular-redshift power spectra, assuming specifications consistent with future photometric Euclid-like surveys and spectroscopic SKA-like surveys. For the Euclid-like survey we derive a fitting formula for the magnification bias. Our analysis suggests that the cross correlation between different redshift bins is very sensitive to the lensing potential such that the survey can measure the amplitude of the lensing potential at the same level of precision as other standard ΛCDM cosmological parameters.

  8. Comparison of two HPGe counting system used in activation studies for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Szücs, T.; Kiss, G. G.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2014-05-09

    The activation method is a widely used technique to measure charged-particle induced cross sections for astrophys-ical applications. This two step technique is used for example to measure alpha-induced cross sections in γ-process related studies. The first step – in which a target is irradiated with a proton/alpha beam – is followed by the determination of the produced activity. Especially in p-process related studies in the heavier mass range, the produced radioactive nuclei decays mainly with electron-capture, resulting intense x-rays. The activity of the reaction products hence can be determine via the counting of these x-rays, and not only by counting the usually much weaker γ-rays. In this paper we compare the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of two High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors used for x- and γ-ray counting in activation experiments.

  9. Multimode model for projective photon-counting measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien; Grangier, Philippe; Wubs, Martijn; Soerensen, Anders S.

    2009-07-15

    We present a general model to account for the multimode nature of the quantum electromagnetic field in projective photon-counting measurements. We focus on photon-subtraction experiments, where non-Gaussian states are produced conditionally. These are useful states for continuous-variable quantum-information processing. We present a general method called mode reduction that reduces the multimode model to an effective two-mode problem. We apply this method to a multimode model describing broadband parametric down-conversion, thereby improving the analysis of existing experimental results. The main improvement is that spatial and frequency filters before the photon detector are taken into account explicitly. We find excellent agreement with previously published experimental results, using fewer free parameters than before, and discuss the implications of our analysis for the optimized production of states with negative Wigner functions.

  10. Automatic counting of microglial cell activation and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Beatriz I.; de Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by the damage and death of the retinal ganglion cells. This disease results in vision loss and blindness. Any vision loss resulting from the disease cannot be restored and nowadays there is no available cure for glaucoma; however an early detection and treatment, could offer neuronal protection and avoid later serious damages to the visual function. A full understanding of the etiology of the disease will still require the contribution of many scientific efforts. Glial activation has been observed in glaucoma, being microglial proliferation a hallmark in this neurodegenerative disease. A typical project studying these cellular changes involved in glaucoma often needs thousands of images - from several animals - covering different layers and regions of the retina. The gold standard to evaluate them is the manual count. This method requires a large amount of time from specialized personnel. It is a tedious process and prone to human error. We present here a new method to count microglial cells by using a computer algorithm. It counts in one hour the same number of images that a researcher counts in four weeks, with no loss of reliability. PMID:27651757

  11. SenseWear Armband and Stroke: Validity of Energy Expenditure and Step Count Measurement during Walking.

    PubMed

    Manns, Patricia J; Haennel, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the validity of the SenseWear Pro Armband (SWA) for the measurement of energy expenditure (EE) and step count against a criterion in persons with stroke. Twelve participants with chronic stroke (mean age 64.2 ± 10.4 years; mean gait speed 0.67 ± 0.25 m/sec) completed two trials of a six-minute walk test, while wearing a SenseWear Armband (SWA) on each arm and being continuously monitored using a portable metabolic cart. Agreement between estimates of energy expenditure from the SWA and the metabolic cart was fair for the armband on the hemiplegic arm (intraclass correlation cefficient (ICC) = 0.586) and good for the armband on the unaffected arm (ICC = 0.702). Agreement between the SWA estimate of step count, and step count as measured by the Step Activity Monitor was poor (ICC < 0.352), with significant underestimation by the SWA. Our results show that, for these moderately impaired persons with stroke, the SWA should be used with caution for the measurement of energy expenditure and should not be used to measure step count.

  12. You can count on the motor cortex: Finger counting habits modulate motor cortex activation evoked by numbers

    PubMed Central

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Hauk, Olaf; Fischer, Martin H.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    The embodied cognition framework suggests that neural systems for perception and action are engaged during higher cognitive processes. In an event-related fMRI study, we tested this claim for the abstract domain of numerical symbol processing: is the human cortical motor system part of the representation of numbers, and is organization of numerical knowledge influenced by individual finger counting habits? Developmental studies suggest a link between numerals and finger counting habits due to the acquisition of numerical skills through finger counting in childhood. In the present study, digits 1 to 9 and the corresponding number words were presented visually to adults with different finger counting habits, i.e. left- and right-starters who reported that they usually start counting small numbers with their left and right hand, respectively. Despite the absence of overt hand movements, the hemisphere contralateral to the hand used for counting small numbers was activated when small numbers were presented. The correspondence between finger counting habits and hemispheric motor activation is consistent with an intrinsic functional link between finger counting and number processing. PMID:22133748

  13. Gene coexpression measures in large heterogeneous samples using count statistics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y X Rachel; Waterman, Michael S; Huang, Haiyan

    2014-11-18

    With the advent of high-throughput technologies making large-scale gene expression data readily available, developing appropriate computational tools to process these data and distill insights into systems biology has been an important part of the "big data" challenge. Gene coexpression is one of the earliest techniques developed that is still widely in use for functional annotation, pathway analysis, and, most importantly, the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks, based on gene expression data. However, most coexpression measures do not specifically account for local features in expression profiles. For example, it is very likely that the patterns of gene association may change or only exist in a subset of the samples, especially when the samples are pooled from a range of experiments. We propose two new gene coexpression statistics based on counting local patterns of gene expression ranks to take into account the potentially diverse nature of gene interactions. In particular, one of our statistics is designed for time-course data with local dependence structures, such as time series coupled over a subregion of the time domain. We provide asymptotic analysis of their distributions and power, and evaluate their performance against a wide range of existing coexpression measures on simulated and real data. Our new statistics are fast to compute, robust against outliers, and show comparable and often better general performance.

  14. Making Online Instruction Count: Statistical Reporting of Web-Based Library Instruction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottorff, Tim; Todd, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Statistical reporting of library instruction (LI) activities has historically focused on measures relevant to face-to-face (F2F) settings. However, newer forms of LI conducted in the online realm may be difficult to count in traditional ways, leading to inaccurate reporting to both internal and external stakeholders. A thorough literature review…

  15. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  16. Manganese-56 coincidence-counting facility precisely measures neutron-source strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Volpi, A.; Larsen, R. N.; Porges, K. G. A.

    1969-01-01

    Precise measurement of neutron-source strength is provided by a manganese 56 coincidence-counting facility using the manganese-bath technique. This facility combines nuclear instrumentation with coincidence-counting techniques to handle a wide variety of radioisotope-counting requirements.

  17. Physical activity, white blood cell count, and lung cancer risk in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Brian L; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Lee, Kristine E; Hampton, John M

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity may lower lung cancer risk. The association of physical activity with reduced chronic inflammation provides a potential mechanism, yet few studies have directly related inflammatory markers to cancer incidence. The relation among physical activity, inflammation, and lung cancer risk was evaluated in a prospective cohort of 4,831 subjects, 43 to 86 years of age, in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin. A total physical activity index was created by summing up kilocalories per week from sweat-inducing physical activities, city blocks walked, and flights of stairs climbed. Two inflammatory markers, WBC count and serum albumin, were measured at the baseline examination. During an average of 12.8 years of follow-up, 134 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest tertile of total physical activity index had a 45% reduction in lung cancer risk compared with those in the lowest tertile (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.35-0.86). Participants with WBC counts in the upper tertile (>or=8 x 10(3)/microL) were 2.81 (95% confidence interval, 1.58-5.01) times as likely to develop lung cancer as those with counts in the lowest tertile (<6.4 x 10(3)/microL). Serum albumin was not related to lung cancer risk. There was no evidence that inflammation mediated the association between physical activity and lung cancer risk, as the physical activity risk estimates were essentially unchanged after adjustment for WBC count. Although the potential for residual confounding by smoking could not be eliminated, these data suggest that physical activity and WBC count are independent risk factors for lung cancer.

  18. Counting High School Graduates when Graduates Count: Measuring Graduation Rates under the High Stakes of NCLB.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Christopher B.; Chaplin, Duncan

    This paper addresses the debate over high school graduation rates, examining how the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) has redirected attention toward graduation rates. It introduces provisions of the NCLB pertaining to high school graduation, discussing implications from a measurement perspective, and presents strategies for developing a…

  19. Radon-gas extraction and counting system for analyzing radon and radium in groundwater in seismically active areas

    SciTech Connect

    Knauss, K.

    1980-12-08

    A high concentration of radon in groundwater has attracted recent attention as a precursor of seismic activity. We have constructed a system that extracts and counts radon gas from solid, liquid, and gas samples. The radon is extracted in a closed system onto activated charcoal. The desorbed radon is then measured in a phosphored acrylic cell by scintillation counting of gross alpha radiation. The efficiency of the total system (extraction plus counting) is 90 +- 3% or better. Compact design and sturdy construction make the system completely portable and well suited to field operations in remote loations. Results are given for radon and radium in groundwaters in the Livermore area.

  20. Development of an Absolute Gas-Counting Capability for Low to Medium Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ely, James H.; Day, Anthony R.; Hayes, James C.; Hoppe, Eric W.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; Mace, Emily K.; Merriman, Jason H.; Overman, Cory T.; Seifert, Allen

    2013-11-01

    ABSTRACT Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a capability to measure the absolute activity concentration of various gaseous radionuclides using length-compensated proportional-counting methods. This capability will enable the validation and use of low-level, gaseous radionuclide calibration standards for use in PNNL’s shallow underground laboratory. Two sets of unequal length proportional counters have been fabricated. These detector assemblies operate on a static gas-fill principle, in contrast to continuous, flow-through configurations. One set of three counters has been fabricated using ultra-low background (ULB) electroformed copper and low-background fabrication methods. Once fully operational, these ULB counters will be used in PNNL’s shallow underground counting laboratory for analysis of gases with low activity concentrations < 1 Bq/cc. A second set of four unequal length counters has been fabricated from Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity Copper (OFHC) using similar low-background cleaning and assembly methods. These OFHC counters will be operated above ground in the analysis of gases with activity concentrations in the range of 1-10 Bq/cc. A gas delivery system is being developed to actively mix the analyte gas with an appropriate amount of count-gas and uniformly deliver it to the counters with high accuracy and repeatability. A description of both detector assemblies and gas delivery system will be given along with a preliminary uncertainty analysis of a simulated 0.05 Bq/cm3 gas measurement.

  1. Measurement of uranium and plutonium in solid waste by passive photon or neutron counting and isotopic neutron source interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, T.W.

    1980-03-01

    A summary of the status and applicability of nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for the measurement of uranium and plutonium in 55-gal barrels of solid waste is reported. The NDA techniques reviewed include passive gamma-ray and x-ray counting with scintillator, solid state, and proportional gas photon detectors, passive neutron counting, and active neutron interrogation with neutron and gamma-ray counting. The active neutron interrogation methods are limited to those employing isotopic neutron sources. Three generic neutron sources (alpha-n, photoneutron, and /sup 252/Cf) are considered. The neutron detectors reviewed for both prompt and delayed fission neutron detection with the above sources include thermal (/sup 3/He, /sup 10/BF/sub 3/) and recoil (/sup 4/He, CH/sub 4/) proportional gas detectors and liquid and plastic scintillator detectors. The instrument found to be best suited for low-level measurements (< 10 nCi/g) is the /sup 252/Cf Shuffler. The measurement technique consists of passive neutron counting followed by cyclic activation using a /sup 252/Cf source and delayed neutron counting with the source withdrawn. It is recommended that a waste assay station composed of a /sup 252/Cf Shuffler, a gamma-ray scanner, and a screening station be tested and evaluated at a nuclear waste site. 34 figures, 15 tables.

  2. Note: Fully integrated active quenching circuit achieving 100 MHz count rate with custom technology single photon avalanche diodes.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, G; Labanca, I; Rech, I; Gulinatti, A; Ghioni, M

    2017-02-01

    The minimization of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) dead time is a key factor to speed up photon counting and timing measurements. We present a fully integrated Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) able to provide a count rate as high as 100 MHz with custom technology SPAD detectors. The AQC can also operate the new red enhanced SPAD and provide the timing information with a timing jitter Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) as low as 160 ps.

  3. Note: Fully integrated active quenching circuit achieving 100 MHz count rate with custom technology single photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acconcia, G.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Gulinatti, A.; Ghioni, M.

    2017-02-01

    The minimization of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) dead time is a key factor to speed up photon counting and timing measurements. We present a fully integrated Active Quenching Circuit (AQC) able to provide a count rate as high as 100 MHz with custom technology SPAD detectors. The AQC can also operate the new red enhanced SPAD and provide the timing information with a timing jitter Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) as low as 160 ps.

  4. Measuring School Climate: Let Me Count the Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberg, H. Jerome

    1998-01-01

    Describes how schools used three measuring instruments--student-concerns surveys, entrance and exit interviews, and ambient-noise checklists--to measure school climate and identify areas needing improvement. This feedback process allows students to become citizens, not tourists, in their school, as they realize they have a chance to participate in…

  5. Attention during active visual tasks: counting, pointing, or simply looking

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, John D.; Schnitzer, Brian S.; Gersch, Timothy M.; Dosher, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    Visual attention and saccades are typically studied in artificial situations, with stimuli presented to the steadily fixating eye, or saccades made along specified paths. By contrast, in the real world saccadic patterns are constrained only by the demands of the motivating task. We studied attention during pauses between saccades made to perform 3 free-viewing tasks: counting dots, pointing to the same dots with a visible cursor, or simply looking at the dots using a freely-chosen path. Attention was assessed by the ability to identify the orientation of a briefly-presented Gabor probe. All primary tasks produced losses in identification performance, with counting producing the largest losses, followed by pointing and then looking-only. Looking-only resulted in a 37% increase in contrast thresholds in the orientation task. Counting produced more severe losses that were not overcome by increasing Gabor contrast. Detection or localization of the Gabor, unlike identification, were largely unaffected by any of the primary tasks. Taken together, these results show that attention is required to control saccades, even with freely-chosen paths, but the attentional demands of saccades are less than those attached to tasks such as counting, which have a significant cognitive load. Counting proved to be a highly demanding task that either exhausted momentary processing capacity (e.g., working memory or executive functions), or, alternatively, encouraged a strategy of filtering out all signals irrelevant to counting itself. The fact that the attentional demands of saccades (as well as those of detection/localization) are relatively modest makes it possible to continually adjust both the spatial and temporal pattern of saccades so as to re-allocate attentional resources as needed to handle the complex and multifaceted demands of real-world environments. PMID:18649913

  6. Who's Counting? Legitimating Measurement in the Audit Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocean, Jude; Skourdoumbis, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    What gives legitimacy to the numbers that constitute the measurement techniques of the audit culture? We argue that the audit culture's blind application of numbers to people as if there was no moral or ethical dimension to the calculation rests on a military discourse resident in mathematics. This argument is based on the genealogy presented in…

  7. Count every newborn; a measurement improvement roadmap for coverage data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The Every Newborn Action Plan (ENAP), launched in 2014, aims to end preventable newborn deaths and stillbirths, with national targets of ≤12 neonatal deaths per 1000 live births and ≤12 stillbirths per 1000 total births by 2030. This requires ambitious improvement of the data on care at birth and of small and sick newborns, particularly to track coverage, quality and equity. Methods In a multistage process, a matrix of 70 indicators were assessed by the Every Newborn steering group. Indicators were graded based on their availability and importance to ENAP, resulting in 10 core and 10 additional indicators. A consultation process was undertaken to assess the status of each ENAP core indicator definition, data availability and measurement feasibility. Coverage indicators for the specific ENAP treatment interventions were assigned task teams and given priority as they were identified as requiring the most technical work. Consultations were held throughout. Results ENAP published 10 core indicators plus 10 additional indicators. Three core impact indicators (neonatal mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate) are well defined, with future efforts needed to focus on improving data quantity and quality. Three core indicators on coverage of care for all mothers and newborns (intrapartum/skilled birth attendance, early postnatal care, essential newborn care) have defined contact points, but gaps exist in measuring content and quality of the interventions. Four core (antenatal corticosteroids, neonatal resuscitation, treatment of serious neonatal infections, kangaroo mother care) and one additional coverage indicator for newborns at risk or with complications (chlorhexidine cord cleansing) lack indicator definitions or data, especially for denominators (population in need). To address these gaps, feasible coverage indicator definitions are presented for validity testing. Measurable process indicators to help monitor health service readiness

  8. Detection of anomalous reactor activity using antineutrino count evolution over the course of a reactor cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskaya, Vera; Bernstein, Adam

    2011-06-01

    This paper analyzes the sensitivity of antineutrino count rate measurements to changes in the fissile content of civil power reactors. Such measurements may be useful in IAEA reactor safeguards applications. We introduce a hypothesis testing procedure to identify statistically significant differences between the antineutrino count rate evolution of a standard 'baseline' fuel cycle and that of an anomalous cycle, in which plutonium is removed and replaced with an equivalent fissile worth of uranium. The test would allow an inspector to detect anomalous reactor activity, or to positively confirm that the reactor is operating in a manner consistent with its declared fuel inventory and power level. We show that with a reasonable choice of detector parameters, the test can detect replacement of 82 kg of plutonium in 90 days with 95% probability, while controlling the false positive rate at 5%. We show that some improvement on this level of sensitivity may be obtained by various means, including use of the method in conjunction with existing reactor safeguards methods. We also identify a necessary and sufficient minimum daily antineutrino count rate and a maximum tolerable background rate to achieve the quoted sensitivity, and list examples of detectors in which such rates have been attained.

  9. Development of a low-level 39Ar calibration standard – Analysis by absolute gas counting measurements augmented with simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Williams, Richard M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Brandenberger, J. M.; ...

    2017-02-17

    Here, this paper describes the generation of 39Ar, via reactor irradiation of potassium carbonate, followed by quantitative analysis (length-compensated proportional counting) to yield two calibration standards that are respectively 50 and 3 times atmospheric background levels. Measurements were performed in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's shallow underground counting laboratory studying the effect of gas density on beta-transport; these results are compared with simulation. The total expanded uncertainty of the specific activity for the ~50 × 39Ar in P10 standard is 3.6% (k=2).

  10. Every death counts: measurement of maternal mortality via a census.

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, C.; Hobcraft, J.; Hill, K.; Kodjogbé, N.; Mapeta, W. T.; Munene, F.; Naghavi, M.; Rabeza, V.; Sisouphanthong, B.; Campbell, O.

    2001-01-01

    Methods for measuring maternal mortality at national and subnational levels in the developing world lag far behind the demand for estimates. We evaluated use of the national population census as a means of measuring maternal mortality by assessing data from five countries (Benin, Islamic Republic of Iran, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Madagascar, and Zimbabwe) which identified maternal deaths in their censuses. Standard demographic methods were used to evaluate the completeness of reporting of adult female deaths and births in the year prior to the census. The results from these exercises were used to adjust the data. In four countries, the numbers of adult female deaths needed to be increased and three countries required upward adjustment of the numbers of recent births. The number of maternal deaths was increased by the same factor as that used for adult female deaths on the assumption that the proportion of adult female deaths due to maternal causes was correct. Age patterns of the various maternal mortality indicators were plausible and consistent with external sources of data for other populations. Our data suggest that under favourable conditions a national census is a feasible and promising approach for the measurement of maternal mortality. Moreover, use of the census circumvents several of the weaknesses of methods currently in use. However, it should also be noted that careful evaluation of the data and adjustment, if necessary, are essential. The public health community is urged to encourage governments to learn from the experience of these five countries and to place maternal mortality estimation in the hands of statistical agencies. PMID:11477969

  11. A comparison of photon counting and current measuring techniques in spectrophotometry of faint sources.

    PubMed

    Tull, R G

    1968-10-01

    The component of dark noise produced by Cerenkov pulses in photomultipliers due to cosmic ray mu mesons is discussed. It is shown by integration of pulse height spectra that this source of noise can be the limiting factor in de measuring spectrophotometry of faint astronomical sources. Direct current methods of photometry are compared with photon counting, and the advantage of photon counting is demonstrated under various operating conditions.

  12. Making every gram count - Big measurements from tiny platforms (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, C. S.; Neilsen, T. L.; Stromberg, E. M.

    2013-12-01

    The most significant advances in Earth, solar, and space physics over the next decades will originate from new, system-level observational techniques. The most promising technique to still be fully developed and exploited requires conducting multi-point or distributed constellation-based observations. This system-level observational approach is required to understand the 'big picture' coupling between disparate regions such as the solar-wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, upper atmosphere, land, and ocean. The national research council, NASA science mission directorate, and the larger heliophysics community have repeatedly identified the pressing need for multipoint scientific investigations to be implemented via satellite constellations. The NASA Solar Terrestrial Probes Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission and NASA Earth Science Division's 'A-train', consisting of the AQUA, CloudSat, CALIPSO and AURA satellites, are examples of such constellations. However, the costs to date of these and other similar proposed constellations have been prohibitive given the 'large satellite' architectures and the multiple launch vehicles required for implementing the constellations. Financially sustainable development and deployment of multi-spacecraft constellations can only be achieved through the use of small spacecraft that allow for multiple hostings per launch vehicle. The revolution in commercial mobile and other battery powered consumer technology has helped enable researchers in recent years to build and fly very small yet capable satellites, principally CubeSats. A majority of the CubeSat activity and development to date has come from international academia and the amateur radio satellite community, but several of the typical large-satellite vendors have developed CubeSats as well. Recent government-sponsored CubeSat initiatives, such as the NRO Colony, NSF CubeSat Space Weather, NASA Office of Chief Technologist Edison and CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) Educational

  13. Measurement and simulation of cosmic rays effects on neutron multiplicity counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann-Smith, R.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Hendricks, J.

    2016-04-01

    Neutron coincidence and multiplicity counting is a standard technique used to measure uranium and plutonium masses in unknown samples for nuclear safeguards purposes, but background sources of radiation can obscure the results. In particular, high energy cosmic rays can produce large coincidence count contributions. Since some of the events occur in the sample itself, it is impossible to measure the background separately. This effect greatly increases the limit of detection of some low level neutron coincidence counting applications. The cosmic ray capability of MCNP6 was used to calculate the expected coincidence rates from cosmic rays for different sample configurations and experimental measurements were conducted for comparison. Uranium enriched to 66%, lead bricks, and an empty detector were measured in the mini Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter, and MCNP6 simulations were made of the same measurements. The results show that the capability is adequate for predicting the expected background rates. Additional verification of MCNP6 was given by comparison of particle production rates to other publications, increasing confidence in MCNP6's use as a tool to lower the limit of detection. MCNP6 was then used to find particle and source information that would be difficult to detect experimentally. The coincidence count contribution was broken down by particle type for singles, doubles, and triples rates. The coincidence count contribution was broken down by source, from(a , n) , spontaneous fission, and cosmic rays, for each multiplicity.

  14. Exercise Counts: How Many Calories Will Your Activity Burn?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Eat Healthy and Get Active Get Active Exercise Activity Calculator How many calories will your activity ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News and Stories Glossary For Health Care Professionals ...

  15. Higher Education Counts: Accountability Measures for the New Millennium. 2005 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  16. Authentic active learning activities demonstrating the use of serial dilutions and plate counts.

    PubMed

    March, Jordon K; Jensen, Kyle C; Porter, Nathan T; Breakwell, Donald P

    2011-01-01

    Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology.

  17. Authentic Active Learning Activities Demonstrating the Use of Serial Dilutions and Plate Counts

    PubMed Central

    March, Jordon K.; Jensen, Kyle C.; Porter, Nathan T.; Breakwell, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Serial dilution and plate counting is often taught in courses for both microbiology and allied health students. Lecture examples and examination questions addressing how the method is used can sometimes be contrived: artificial data sets may have little or no meaning other than to have students perform a calculation. Here we provide a set of activities employing data sets acquired from the primary literature. Our objective was to have the students think critically about a real scenario in which serial dilution and plate count was used. Each activity requires students to read a paragraph describing the study, predict the results, perform the appropriate calculations, and then evaluate the results in light of their predictions. To test the efficacy of these activities, a pretest quiz was given to approximately 100 students in an allied health/general microbiology course. After a lecture on how microbes are enumerated, students were given a different quiz. The class was then divided randomly into groups of three or four students and assigned one of the activities. A postactivity quiz was also administered. Approximately two weeks later, a serial dilution/plate count question was used on an examination and served as a final posttest. Standardized learning gains were calculated for the quiz administered after each learning activity. Even though learning gains were significantly higher after the lecture, there was also a significant improvement between the lecture and the activity. Using an exercise based on an authentic set of data significantly improved student learning gains, and is a useful practice for teaching microbiology. PMID:23653759

  18. Urinary CD8+ T-cell counts discriminate between active and inactive lupus nephritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is a severe and frequent manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Early detection of initial renal manifestations and relapses during follow-up is pivotal to prevent loss of renal function. Apart from renal biopsies, current urinary and serological diagnostic tests fail to accurately demonstrate the presence of active LN. Previously, we demonstrated that effector memory T-cells (CD45RO+CCR7-;TEM) migrate into the urine during active LN. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of urinary T-cells in comparison with traditional markers of active LN. Methods T-cells in the urine during active LN and remission were investigated. Twenty-two, in most cases biopsy-proven, active LN patients and 24 SLE patients without active LN were enrolled and serial measurements were performed in 16 patients. Results Analysis of the urinary sediment in active renal disease showed an increased number of CD8+ T-cells and absence of these cells during remission. Enumerating T-cell counts in LN patients with a history of renal involvement was a superior marker of active LN in comparison to traditional markers, such as proteinuria and s-creatinine. Conclusions In conclusion, urinary T-cells, in particular CD8+ T cells, are a promising marker to assess renal activity in LN patients, in particular in those with prior renal involvement. PMID:23445537

  19. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts.

    PubMed

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    ActiGraph acceleration data are processed through several steps (including band-pass filtering to attenuate unwanted signal frequencies) to generate the activity counts commonly used in physical activity research. We performed three experiments to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on the generation of activity counts. Ideal acceleration signals were produced in the MATLAB software. Thereafter, ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors were spun in a mechanical setup. Finally, 20 subjects performed walking and running wearing GT3X+ monitors. Acceleration data from all experiments were collected with different sampling frequencies, and activity counts were generated with the ActiLife software. With the default 30-Hz (or 60-Hz, 90-Hz) sampling frequency, the generation of activity counts was performed as intended with 50% attenuation of acceleration signals with a frequency of 2.5 Hz by the signal frequency band-pass filter. Frequencies above 5 Hz were eliminated totally. However, with other sampling frequencies, acceleration signals above 5 Hz escaped the band-pass filter to a varied degree and contributed to additional activity counts. Similar results were found for the spinning of the GT3X+ monitors, although the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of ActiGraph acceleration data to activity counts. Researchers need to be aware of this error when selecting sampling frequencies other than the default 30 Hz.

  20. An analysis of dependency of counting efficiency on worker anatomy for in vivo measurements: whole-body counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Mille, Matthew; Xu, X. George

    2008-07-01

    In vivo radiobioassay is integral to many health physics and radiological protection programs dealing with internal exposures. The Bottle Manikin Absorber (BOMAB) physical phantom has been widely used for whole-body counting calibrations. However, the shape of BOMAB phantoms—a collection of plastic, cylindrical shells which contain no bones or internal organs—does not represent realistic human anatomy. Furthermore, workers who come in contact with radioactive materials have rather different body shape and size. To date, there is a lack of understanding about how the counting efficiency would change when the calibrated counter is applied to a worker with complicated internal organs or tissues. This paper presents a study on various in vivo counting efficiencies obtained from Monte Carlo simulations of two BOMAB phantoms and three tomographic image-based models (VIP-Man, NORMAN and CNMAN) for a scenario involving homogeneous whole-body radioactivity contamination. The results reveal that a phantom's counting efficiency is strongly dependent on the shape and size of a phantom. Contrary to what was expected, it was found that only small differences in efficiency were observed when the density and material composition of all internal organs and tissues of the tomographic phantoms were changed to water. The results of this study indicate that BOMAB phantoms with appropriately adjusted size and shape can be sufficient for whole-body counting calibrations when the internal contamination is homogeneous.

  1. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S.

    2008-11-15

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  2. Metabolic activity of bacterial cell enumerated by direct viable count. [Escherichia coli; Salmonella enteritidis

    SciTech Connect

    Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

    1987-12-01

    The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporation radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-/sup 3/H) thymidine or (U-/sup 14/C) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca. 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

  3. International exercise on 124Sb activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Chauvenet, B; Bé, M-M; Amiot, M-N; Bobin, C; Lépy, M-C; Branger, T; Lanièce, I; Luca, A; Sahagia, M; Wätjen, A C; Kossert, K; Ott, O; Nähle, O; Dryák, P; Sochorovà, J; Kovar, P; Auerbach, P; Altzitzoglou, T; Pommé, S; Sibbens, G; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Iwahara, A; Delgado, J U; Poledna, R; da Silva, C J; Johansson, L; Stroak, A; Bailat, C; Nedjadi, Y; Spring, P

    2010-01-01

    An international exercise, registered as EUROMET project no. 907, was launched to measure both the activity of a solution of (124)Sb and the photon emission intensities of its decay. The same solution was sent by LNE-LNHB to eight participating laboratories. In order to identify possible biases, the participants were asked to use all possible activity measurement methods available in their laboratory and then to determine their reference value for comparison. Thus, measurement results from 4pibeta-gamma coincidence/anti-coincidence counting, CIEMAT/NIST liquid-scintillation counting, 4pigamma counting with well-type ionization chambers and well-type crystal detectors were given. The results are compared and show a maximum discrepancy of about 1.6%: possible explanations are proposed.

  4. Counting on People: Elementary Population and Environmental Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela; Scullard, Anne

    This activity book serves as a primer on population dynamics and environmental impacts. It is designed to show young students their connections to other people, all living things, and the environment that surrounds them. While the kit is designed for use with students in grades 1-6, many of the activities are more appropriate for upper elementary…

  5. Expected total counts for the Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry measurements of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Rossa, Riccardo; Borella, Alessandro; Van der Meer, Klaas; Labeau, Pierre-Etienne; Pauly, Nicolas

    2015-07-01

    The Self-Interrogation Neutron Resonance Densitometry (SINRD) is a passive neutron technique that aims at a direct quantification of {sup 239}Pu in spent fuel assemblies by measuring the attenuation of the neutron flux in the energy region close to the 0.3 eV resonance of {sup 239}Pu. The {sup 239}Pu mass is estimated by calculating the SINRD signature, that is the ratio between the neutron counts in the fast energy region and around the 0.3 eV resonance region. The SINRD measurement approach in this study consisted in introducing a small neutron detector in the central guide tube of a PWR 17x17 fuel assembly. In order to measure the neutron flux in the energy regions defined in the SINRD signature, different detector types were used. The response of a bare {sup 238}U fission chamber is considered for the determination of the fast neutron flux, while other thermal-epithermal detectors wrapped in neutron absorbers are envisaged to measure the neutron flux around the resonance region. This paper provides an estimation of the total neutron counts that can be achieved with the detector types proposed for the SINRD measurement. In the first section a set of detectors are evaluated in terms of total neutron counts and sensitivity to the {sup 239}Pu content, in order to identify the optimal measurement configuration for each detector type. Then a study is performed to increase the total neutron counts by increasing the detector size. The study shows that the highest total neutron counts are achieved by using either {sup 3}He or {sup 10}B proportional counters because of the high neutron efficiency of these detectors. However, the calculations indicate that the biggest contribution to the measurement uncertainty is due to the measurement of the fast neutron flux. Finally, similar sensitivity to the {sup 239}Pu content is obtained by using the different detector types for the measurement of the neutron flux close to the resonance region. Therefore, the total neutron counts

  6. Effect of Measurement vs. Counting Errors on Parameters' Covariance in Neutron Tomography Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, Michał; Blair, Jerome J.

    2013-06-13

    We present here a method that estimates the relative effect of the counting uncertainty and of the instrument uncertainty on that of the parameters in a parametric model for neutron time of flight. The final result, obtained independently of calculation of the parameter values from measured data, presents explicitly the ratio of the two uncertainties in terms of the choice, settings, and placement of the detector and the oscilloscope. Consequently, the method can serve as a tool in planning a measurement setup.

  7. Validity and Reliability of Fitbit Flex for Step Count, Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity and Activity Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Sushames, Ashleigh; Edwards, Andrew; Thompson, Fintan; McDermott, Robyn; Gebel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the validity and reliability of the Fitbit Flex against direct observation for measuring steps in the laboratory and against the Actigraph for step counts in free-living conditions and for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) overall. Methods Twenty-five adults (12 females, 13 males) wore a Fitbit Flex and an Actigraph GT3X+ during a laboratory based protocol (including walking, incline walking, running and stepping) and free-living conditions during a single day period to examine measurement of steps, AEE and MVPA. Twenty-four of the participants attended a second session using the same protocol. Results Intraclass correlations (ICC) for test-retest reliability of the Fitbit Flex were strong for walking (ICC = 0.57), moderate for stair stepping (ICC = 0.34), and weak for incline walking (ICC = 0.22) and jogging (ICC = 0.26). The Fitbit significantly undercounted walking steps in the laboratory (absolute proportional difference: 21.2%, 95%CI 13.0–29.4%), but it was more accurate, despite slightly over counting, for both jogging (6.4%, 95%CI 3.7–9.0%) and stair stepping (15.5%, 95%CI 10.1–20.9%). The Fitbit had higher coefficients of variation (Cv) for step counts compared to direct observation and the Actigraph. In free-living conditions, the average MVPA minutes were lower in the Fitbit (35.4 minutes) compared to the Actigraph (54.6 minutes), but AEE was greater from the Fitbit (808.1 calories) versus the Actigraph (538.9 calories). The coefficients of variation were similar for AEE for the Actigraph (Cv = 36.0) and Fitbit (Cv = 35.0), but lower in the Actigraph (Cv = 25.5) for MVPA against the Fitbit (Cv = 32.7). Conclusion The Fitbit Flex has moderate validity for measuring physical activity relative to direct observation and the Actigraph. Test-rest reliability of the Fitbit was dependant on activity type and had greater variation between sessions compared to the Actigraph. Physical

  8. Active neutron coincidence counting for the assay of MTR fuel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, R.

    1983-02-01

    The active well coincidence counter (AWCC) and the neutron coincidence collar (CC) were investigated for their suitability to assay materials testing reactor (MTR) fuel elements. The AWCC was used with its special insert to hold the fuel element and interrogation source. The CC was modified by the addition of polyethylene liners 2.5 cm (1 in.) thick on the sides. For a typical MTR element (approx. 220 g /sup 235/U) and 1000-s count times, statistical errors were approx. 1.6% for the CC and approx. 0.6% for AWCC. For either instrument, the change in count rate corresponding to the removal or addition of one fuel plate (with an 18-plate element) was approx. 3.8%; thus, either instrument can detect removal of one plate. The AWCC can also detect removal of one plate in count times that are considerably less than 1000 s. Various functions were investigated to fit the coincidence count rate vs /sup 235/U mass curve for the AWCC. Programs have been written for the Hewlett-Packard HP-97 calculator to calculate the calibration constants of these functions by a least-squares technique. Coincidence count rates in the AWCC depend on the orientation of the plates of the fuel elements because of the counting efficiency variation in the insert. To lessen this dependence, the MTR element should be counted with its plates positioned vertically, that is, parallel to the radius of the device. For the collar, the effect of plate orientation is much smaller.

  9. Experience with local lymph node assay performance standards using standard radioactivity and nonradioactive cell count measurements.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David; Kolle, Susanne N; Schrage, Arnhild; Honarvar, Naveed; Gamer, Armin O; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard; Landsiedel, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred test for identification of skin-sensitizing substances by measuring radioactive thymidine incorporation into the lymph node. To facilitate acceptance of nonradioactive variants, validation authorities have published harmonized minimum performance standards (PS) that the alternative endpoint assay must meet. In the present work, these standards were applied to a variant of the LLNA based on lymph node cell counts (LNCC) run in parallel as a control with the standard LLNA with radioactivity measurements, with threshold concentrations (EC3) being determined for the sensitizers. Of the 22 PS chemicals tested in this study, 21 yielded the same results from standard radioactivity and cell count measurements; only 2-mercaptobenzothiazole was positive by LLNA but negative by LNCC. Of the 16 PS positives, 15 were positive by LLNA and 14 by LNCC; methylmethacrylate was not identified as sensitizer by either of the measurements. Two of the six PS negatives tested negative in our study by both LLNA and LNCC. Of the four PS negatives which were positive in our study, chlorobenzene and methyl salicylate were tested at higher concentrations than the published PS, whereas the corresponding concentrations resulted in consistent negative results. Methylmethacrylate and nickel chloride tested positive within the concentration range used for the published PS. The results indicate cell counts and radioactive measurements are in good accordance within the same LLNA using the 22 PS test substances. Comparisons with the published PS results may, however, require balanced analysis rather than a simple checklist approach.

  10. Biocomponent determination in vinegars with the help of 14C measured by liquid scintillation counting.

    PubMed

    Tudyka, Konrad; Pawlyta, Jacek

    2014-02-15

    This article presents a method of carbon extraction from vinegar used in preparation of liquid scintillation counting cocktails for measurements of low (14)C radioactivity. The presented method is relatively fast and can be used to produce liquid scintillation cocktails e.g., via benzene synthesis. In this work we present specific radiocarbon radioactivity determinations and based on them estimation of bio product content for five commercially available vinegars. All investigated vinegars are likely produced from plants in fermentation process.

  11. Nonlinear fractal dynamics of human colonic pressure activity based upon the box-counting method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Rongguo; Guo, Xudong

    2013-01-01

    The computational fractal dimension of human colonic pressure activity acquired by a telemetric capsule robot under normal physiological conditions was studied using the box-counting method. The fractal dimension is a numeric value that quantifies to measure how rough the signal is from nonlinear dynamics, rather than its amplitude or other linear statistical features. The colonic pressure activities from the healthy subject during three typical periods were analysed. The results showed that the activity might be fractal with a non-integer fractal dimension after it being integrated over time using the cumsum method, which was never revealed before. Moreover, the activity (after it being integrated) acquired soon after wakening up was the roughest (also the most complex one) with the largest fractal dimension, closely followed by that acquired during sleep with that acquired long time after awakening up (in the daytime) ranking third with the smallest fractal dimension. Fractal estimation might provide a new method to learn the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal pressure recordings.

  12. Measured count-rate performance of the Discovery STE PET/CT scanner in 2D, 3D and partial collimation acquisition modes.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, L R; Schmitz, R E; Alessio, A M; Wollenweber, S D; Stearns, C W; Ganin, A; Harrison, R L; Lewellen, T K; Kinahan, P E

    2008-07-21

    We measured count rates and scatter fraction on the Discovery STE PET/CT scanner in conventional 2D and 3D acquisition modes, and in a partial collimation mode between 2D and 3D. As part of the evaluation of using partial collimation, we estimated global count rates using a scanner model that combined computer simulations with an empirical live-time function. Our measurements followed the NEMA NU2 count rate and scatter-fraction protocol to obtain true, scattered and random coincidence events, from which noise equivalent count (NEC) rates were calculated. The effect of patient size was considered by using 27 cm and 35 cm diameter phantoms, in addition to the standard 20 cm diameter cylindrical count-rate phantom. Using the scanner model, we evaluated two partial collimation cases: removing half of the septa (2.5D) and removing two-thirds of the septa (2.7D). Based on predictions of the model, a 2.7D collimator was constructed. Count rates and scatter fractions were then measured in 2D, 2.7D and 3D. The scanner model predicted relative NEC variation with activity, as confirmed by measurements. The measured 2.7D NEC was equal or greater than 3D NEC for all activity levels in the 27 cm and 35 cm phantoms. In the 20 cm phantom, 3D NEC was somewhat higher ( approximately 15%) than 2.7D NEC at 100 MBq. For all higher activity concentrations, 2.7D NEC was greater and peaked 26% above the 3D peak NEC. The peak NEC in 2.7D mode occurred at approximately 425 MBq, and was 26-50% greater than the peak 3D NEC, depending on object size. NEC in 2D was considerably lower, except at relatively high activity concentrations. Partial collimation shows promise for improved noise equivalent count rates in clinical imaging without altering other detector parameters.

  13. Relationship between MODIS fire counts and GOME-2 tropospheric NO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, S. F.; Richter, A.; Schönhardt, A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning has an ongoing role in determining the composition of Earth's surface and atmosphere. The term biomass burning comprises prescribed and wild fires (vegetation fires), as well as biofuel use, such as wood or peat for heating and cooking. Biomass burning represents an important source of aerosol particles and greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O, but also chemically active gases such as CO and NO2 are observed in the plumes. Even though vegetation fire emission inventories have improved considerably in recent years, large uncertainties remain in the temporally and spatially highly variable biomass burning emissions, especially due to uncertainties in input parameters. While satellite observed CO emissions from biomass burning have been investigated in great detail in the last years, NO2 has received much less attention. This can be explained by difficulties posed by the short atmospheric lifetime of NO2 and its photochemical equilibrium with NO but also the complicated retrieval of NO2 due to the presence of smoke and aerosols in the biomass burning plumes. Here, we present the relationship between observed fire counts and NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities from MODIS and GOME-2 measurements, respectively. The MOZART model for 1997 was used to determine monthly averaged air-mass factors and cloud fraction was derived by the FRESCO algorithm from SCIAMACHY measurements. The results show good correlation values (> 0.7) in many parts of the world, especially in the Subtropics. Future work will be further improvement of the retrieval for specific biomass burning situations in order to estimate total emissions from biomass burning for representative biomass burning regions by the use of appropriate models.

  14. 45 CFR 2522.540 - Do the costs of performance measurement or evaluation count towards the statutory cap on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do the costs of performance measurement or evaluation count towards the statutory cap on administrative costs? 2522.540 Section 2522.540 Public Welfare... measurement or evaluation count towards the statutory cap on administrative costs? No, the costs...

  15. Use of in vivo counting measurements to estimate internal doses from (241)Am in workers from the Mayak production association.

    PubMed

    Sokolova, Alexandra B; Suslova, Klara G; Efimov, Alexander V; Miller, Scott C

    2014-08-01

    Comparisons between results of in vivo counting measurements of americium burden and results from radiochemical analyses of organ samples taken at autopsy of 11 cases of former Mayak workers were made. The in vivo counting measurements were performed 3-8 y before death. The best agreement between in vivo counting measurements for americium and autopsy data was observed for the skull. For lungs and liver, the ratios of burden measured by in vivo counting to those obtained from radiochemical analyses data ranged from 0.7-3.8, while those for the skull were from 1.0-1.1. There was a good correlation between the estimates of americium burden in the entire skeleton obtained from in vivo counting with those obtained from autopsy data. Specifically, the skeletal burden ratio, in vivo counting/autopsy, averaged 0.9 ± 0.1. The prior human americium model, D-Am2010, used in vivo counting measurements for americium in the skeleton to estimate the contents of americium and plutonium at death. The results using this model indicate that in vivo counting measurements of the skull can be used to estimate internal doses from americium in the Mayak workers. Additionally, these measurements may also be used to provide a qualitative assessment of internal doses from plutonium.

  16. Extended Measurement Capabilities of the Electron Proton Helium INstrument aboard SOHO - Understanding single detector count rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, P.; Banjac, S.; Heber, B.; Labrenz, J.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Terasa, C.

    Forbush (1937) was the first to observe intensity decreases lasting for a few days utilizing ionization chambers. A number of studies on Forbush decreases (FDs) have been performed since then utilizing neutron monitors and space instrumentation. The amplitude of these variations can be as low as a few permil. Therefore intensity measurements need to be of high statistical accuracy. Richardson et al. (1996) suggested therefore to utilize the single counter measurements of the guard counters of the IMP 8 and Helios E6 instruments. Like the above mentioned instruments the Electron Proton Helium INstrument (EPHIN) provides single counting rates. During the extended solar minimum in 2009 its guard detector counted about 25000~counts/minute, allowing to determine intensity variations of less than 2 permil using 30 minute averages. We performed a GEANT 4 simulation of the instrument in order to determine the energy response of all single detectors. It is shown here that their energy thresholds are much lower than the ones of neutron monitors and therefore we developed a criterion that allows to investigate FDs during quiet time periods.

  17. Slope characterization in combining analog and photon count data from atmospheric lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Yi, Fan; Kong, Wei; Yi, Yang

    2014-11-01

    A transient digitizer (Licel) connecting to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) can obtain lidar backscatter profiles in both photon count and analog signal. A lidar can detect higher atmospheric regions by combining (gluing) simultaneous analog and photon count data via the slope coefficient. In this work, the output of a PMT has been measured with a transient digitizer based on an intensity-stable light source. The slope value and dynamic range of the lidar profile have been characterized. The slope value is determined only by the gain of the PMT as it works in a linear range with a fixed pulse height discrimination threshold. The dynamic range of a glued lidar profile is settled by the slope value. The fitted slope has a more exact value when the selection criterion is given in terms of the independent variable for fitting. For practical lidar data, the fitted slope is more stable and reliable when the lower limit of the data range for fitting rises.

  18. Minimum detectable activity concentration in direct alpha spectrometry from outdoor air samples: continuous monitoring versus separate sampling and counting.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R; Siiskonen, T

    2006-02-01

    Rapid method for identifying the presence of alpha particle emitting radionuclides in outdoor air is of paramount importance should a nuclear or radiological incident occur. Minimum detectable activity concentrations of U, U, Pu, and Pu in outdoor air are calculated for two direct alpha spectrometry methods: continuous air monitoring is compared with separate sampling and subsequent alpha particle counting in a vacuum chamber. The radon progeny activity concentration typical for outdoor air and the effects for the alpha particle spectra caused by the properties of the filter and the aerosol particles are taken into account using measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Continuous air monitoring is a faster method for identifying the presence of (trans)uranium elements when their activity concentration is considerably higher than the typical detection limit. Separate sampling and counting in a vacuum chamber is a more sensitive method when concentrations are close to the detection limit and when the duration of the sampling-counting cycle is greater than approximately 2 h. The method may serve as a tool for rapid field measurements.

  19. Statistical Measurement of the Gamma-Ray Source-count Distribution as a Function of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zechlin, Hannes-S.; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Statistical properties of photon count maps have recently been proven as a new tool to study the composition of the gamma-ray sky with high precision. We employ the 1-point probability distribution function of six years of Fermi-LAT data to measure the source-count distribution dN/dS and the diffuse components of the high-latitude gamma-ray sky as a function of energy. To that aim, we analyze the gamma-ray emission in five adjacent energy bands between 1 and 171 GeV. It is demonstrated that the source-count distribution as a function of flux is compatible with a broken power law up to energies of ˜50 GeV. The index below the break is between 1.95 and 2.0. For higher energies, a simple power-law fits the data, with an index of {2.2}-0.3+0.7 in the energy band between 50 and 171 GeV. Upper limits on further possible breaks as well as the angular power of unresolved sources are derived. We find that point-source populations probed by this method can explain {83}-13+7% ({81}-19+52%) of the extragalactic gamma-ray background between 1.04 and 1.99 GeV (50 and 171 GeV). The method has excellent capabilities for constraining the gamma-ray luminosity function and the spectra of unresolved blazars.

  20. Measurement of apoptosis by SCAN©, a system for counting and analysis of fluorescently labelled nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Shlezinger, Neta; Eizner, Elad; Dubinchik, Stas; Minz-Dub, Anna; Tetroashvili, Rachel; Reider, Adi; Sharon, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis-like programmed cell death (A-PCD) is a universal process common to all types of eukaryotic organisms. Because A-PCD-associated processes are conserved, it is possible to define A-PCD by a standard set of markers. Many of the popular methods to measure A-PCD make use of fluorescent ligands that change in intensity or cellular localization during A-PCD. In single cell organisms, it is possible to quantify levels of A-PCD by scoring the number of apoptotic cells using flow cytometry instruments. In a multicellular organism, quantification of A-PCD is more problematic due to the complex nature of the tissue. The situation is further complicated in filamentous fungi, in which nuclei are divided between compartments, each containing a number of nuclei, which can also migrate between the compartments. We developed SCAN©, a System for Counting and Analysis of Nuclei, and used it to measure A-PCD according to two markers - chromatin condensation and DNA strand breaks. The package includes three modules designed for counting the number of nuclei in multi-nucleated domains, scoring the relative number of nuclei with condensed chromatin, and calculating the relative number of nuclei with DNA strand breaks. The method provides equal or better results compared with manual counting, the analysis is fast and can be applied on large data sets. While we demonstrated the utility of the software for measurement of A-PCD in fungi, the method is readily adopted for measurement of A-PCD in other types of multicellular specimens. PMID:28357220

  1. Time-autocorrelated two-photon counting technique for time-resolved fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, Walter L.; Liu, Lin-I.

    1999-01-01

    We describe a new instrumental technique for the excitation, acquisition, and analysis of fluorescence decays from a variety of substances, in the present case plastic scintillators. The fluorescence is excited by β particles from a radioactive source (100 μCi Sr-90). A random photon from the resulting fluorescence decay provides a trigger pulse to start a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC), while another random photon from the same β-excitation event provides the stop pulse. The optical components and geometry for detecting these two photons, i.e., the two photomultipliers (PMT), the filters, and the pulse counting system, are identical. As a consequence, the measured fluorescence signal is the autocorrelation function of the fluorescence decay from the sample. A delay line of 50 ns is inserted between the "stop" signal PMT and the TAC so that those "stop" pulses which arrive before "start pulses" also are recorded. Thus the acquired fluorescence signal versus time is symmetric about the delay time and contains twice as many counts as without delay. We call the new technique the "time-autocorrelated two-photon counting technique" (TATPC) in distinction to the conventional "time-correlated single-photon counting technique" (TCSPC). We compared both techniques with the same equipment and scintillators, where in the TCSPC case, a β particle is used for the start of the TAC instead of a random photon in the TATPC technique. We find that under similar experimental circumstances, the signal count rate with TATPC is about 50 times larger than with TCSPC. The new method is well suited for obtaining fluorescence decay times from plastic scintillators, which we use in this article to exemplify the technique. More generally, β-particle excitation in combination with TATPC should prove useful for materials with high energy levels or band gaps, which cannot be excited with pulsed lasers in the visible region. The length of our excitation pulse is less than 20 ps and is

  2. Chest wall thickness measurements of the LLNL and JAERI torso phantoms for germanium detector counting

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.

    1997-11-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute torso phantoms were developed to calibrate lung counting systems that are used to estimate plutonium and other radionuclides deposited in the lung. Originally, low energy photon counting systems consisted of phoswich detectors. The average chest wall thicknesses and individual measurement points of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory phantom and its overlay plates in the regions covered by these detectors were provided by the manufacturer. Germanium detectors are of a different size and are placed in different locations on the phantom so that the manufacturer`s data are no longer applicable for the locations of the germanium detectors on the phantom. The Human Monitoring Laboratory has re-evaluated the chest wall thickness of both the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute phantoms and their overlay plates for its germanium lung counting system. The measurements were made in the upper right, lower right, upper left, and lower left positions on the phantom`s torso plate above the lungs. The effective chest wall thicknesses (17 keV) for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory torso plate are 1.46 cm, 1.43 cm, 1.66 cm, 1.48 cm, respectively. The manufacturer`s quoted average effective chest wall thickness for a pair of phoswich detectors is 1.63 cm. The measured effective chest wall thicknesses (17 keV) for the JAERI`s torso plate are 1.76 cm, 2.15 cm, 1.79 cm, 2.15 cm, respectively. The manufacturer`s quoted average chest wall thickness for an unspecified region of the chest is 1.50 cm. This paper presents effective chest wall thickness data for the phantoms with and without their overlay plates at 17 keV, 60 keV, 200 keV and 1,500 keV. 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. A new optical wavelength ratio measurement apparatus: The fringe counting sigmameter

    SciTech Connect

    Juncar, P.; Elandaloussi, H.; Himbert, M.

    1994-12-31

    A new compact and achromatic Michelson-type interferometer with a variable path difference is presented. This {open_quotes}fringe-counting sigmameter{close_quotes} allows to measure optical wavelength ratios between two radiations emitted by stabilized lasers. Maintained in vacuum, this apparatus can determine wavelength/frequency laser radiation from 0,36 {mu}m to 1,5 {mu}m with a relative accuracy of 5.10{sup -9}, with the use of a reference stabilized He-Ne laser.

  4. Counting particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft and measuring size of particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) has been modified to reduce the diffusive losses of particles within the instrument. These changes have been successful in improving the counting efficiency of small particles at low pressures. Two techniques for measuring the size distributions of particles with diameters less than 0.17 micrometers have been evaluated. Both of these methods, the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the diffusion battery, have fundamental problems that limit their usefulness for stratospheric applications. We cannot recommend either for this application. Newly developed, alternative methods for measuring small particles include inertial separation with a low-loss critical orifice and thin-plate impactor device. This technique is now used to collect particles in the multisample aerosol collector housed in the ER-2 CNC-2, and shows some promise for particle size measurements when coupled with a CNC as a counting device. The modified focused-cavity aerosol spectrometer (FCAS) can determine the size distribution of particles with ambient diameters as small as about 0.07 micrometers. Data from this instrument indicates the presence of a nuclei mode when CNC-2 indicates high concentrations of particles, but cannot resolve important parameters of the distribution.

  5. Polarimetric, Two-Color, Photon-Counting Laser Altimeter Measurements of Forest Canopy Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Valett, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Laser altimeter measurements of forest stands with distinct structures and compositions have been acquired at 532 nm (green) and 1064 nm (near-infrared) wavelengths and parallel and perpendicular polarization states using the Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon Counting Lidar (SIMPL). The micropulse, single photon ranging measurement approach employed by SIMPL provides canopy structure measurements with high vertical and spatial resolution. Using a height distribution analysis method adapted from conventional, 1064 nm, full-waveform lidar remote sensing, the sensitivity of two parameters commonly used for above-ground biomass estimation are compared as a function of wavelength. The results for the height of median energy (HOME) and canopy cover are for the most part very similar, indicating biomass estimations using lidars operating at green and near-infrared wavelengths will yield comparable estimates. The expected detection of increasing depolarization with depth into the canopies due to volume multiple-scattering was not observed, possibly due to the small laser footprint and the small detector field of view used in the SIMPL instrument. The results of this work provide pathfinder information for NASA's ICESat-2 mission that will employ a 532 nm, micropulse, photon counting laser altimeter.

  6. Systematic and Statistical Errors Associated with Nuclear Decay Constant Measurements Using the Counting Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  7. Understanding walking activity in multiple sclerosis: step count, walking intensity and uninterrupted walking activity duration related to degree of disability.

    PubMed

    Neven, An; Vanderstraeten, Annelien; Janssens, Davy; Wets, Geert; Feys, Peter

    2016-09-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), physical activity (PA) is most commonly measured as number of steps, while also walking intensity and walking activity duration are keys for a healthy lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate (1) the number of steps persons with MS (PwMS) take; (2) the number of steps they take at low and moderate intensity; and (3) their walking activity duration for 2, 3, 6, 10, 12 and 14 uninterrupted minutes; all related to the degree of disability. 64 PwMS participated, distinguished in a mild (n = 31) and moderate MS subgroup (n = 34) based on their ambulatory dysfunction (Disease Steps). Standardized clinical tests were performed, and step data from the StepWatch Activity Monitor were collected for seven consecutive days. The results showed that (1) step count in PwMS was lower than PA recommendations, and is negatively influenced by a higher disability degree. (2) No walking was registered during 77 % of the day. PwMS are making steps for 22 % at low and only 1 % at moderate intensity. (3) Both MS subgroups rarely walk for more than six uninterrupted minutes, especially not at moderate intensity. PwMS need to be encouraged to make steps at moderate intensity, and to make steps for longer periods of time (minimal ten uninterrupted minutes).

  8. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA) Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S.; Pulkkis, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ΔT Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ΔT Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm. PMID:23686143

  9. Identifying time measurement tampering in the traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) wormhole detection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Jonny; Dooley, Laurence S; Pulkkis, Göran

    2013-05-17

    Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA) is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM) wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  10. A radionuclide counting technique for measuring wind velocity. [drag force anemometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Khandelwal, G. S.; Mall, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for measuring wind velocities of meteorological interest is described. It is based on inverse-square-law variation of the counting rates as the radioactive source-to-counter distance is changed by wind drag on the source ball. Results of a feasibility study using a weak bismuth 207 radiation source and three Geiger-Muller radiation counters are reported. The use of the technique is not restricted to Martian or Mars-like environments. A description of the apparatus, typical results, and frequency response characteristics are included. A discussion of a double-pendulum arrangement is presented. Measurements reported herein indicate that the proposed technique may be suitable for measuring wind speeds up to 100 m/sec, which are either steady or whose rates of fluctuation are less than 1 kHz.

  11. An improved liquid scintillation counting method for the determination of gross alpha activity in groundwater wells.

    PubMed

    Ruberu, Shiyamalie R; Liu, Yun-Gang; Perera, S Kusum

    2008-10-01

    A liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method having several advantages over the gas proportional counting (GPC) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 900.0 for the detection of gross alpha activity in drinking water was evaluated in this study. The improved method described here involves the use of nitromethane as the quench agent for establishing counting efficiencies and spillover factors, and it minimizes sample preparation. It has the advantage of achieving the regulatory detection limit of 111 mBq L(-1) with short count times (100 min) and small sample aliquot sizes. A thorough method validation study was performed by testing field samples ranging in total dissolved solids (TDS) from 0.3 mg L(-1) to 1,000 mg L(-1) and spiking each matrix from 194 mBq L(-1) to 11.6 Bq L(-1). Comparable method precision and accuracy was observed on the two types of LSC instruments tested, Perkin Elmer Quantulus 1220 and Packard 2550, with the former giving better performance. Data presented demonstrate that this efficient and high throughput LSC method is suitable for groundwater samples in excess of 1,000 mg L(-1) of TDS in contrast with the 500 mg L(-1) limit by the routine GPC method. Groundwater wells across the state of California were sampled, analyzed for gross alpha activity using the EPA- approved method and the improved LSC method, and the results were compared.

  12. MEASURING PRIMORDIAL NON-GAUSSIANITY THROUGH WEAK-LENSING PEAK COUNTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marian, Laura; Hilbert, Stefan; Smith, Robert E.; Schneider, Peter; Desjacques, Vincent

    2011-02-10

    We explore the possibility of detecting primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type using weak-lensing peak counts. We measure the peak abundance in sets of simulated weak-lensing maps corresponding to three models f{sub NL} = 0, - 100, and 100. Using survey specifications similar to those of EUCLID and without assuming any knowledge of the lens and source redshifts, we find the peak functions of the non-Gaussian models with f{sub NL} = {+-}100 to differ by up to 15% from the Gaussian peak function at the high-mass end. For the assumed survey parameters, the probability of fitting an f{sub NL} = 0 peak function to the f{sub NL} = {+-}100 peak functions is less than 0.1%. Assuming the other cosmological parameters are known, f{sub NL} can be measured with an error {Delta}f{sub NL} {approx} 13. It is therefore possible that future weak-lensing surveys like EUCLID and LSST may detect primordial non-Gaussianity from the abundance of peak counts, and provide information complementary to that obtained from the cosmic microwave background.

  13. Modelling a response as a function of high-frequency count data: The association between physical activity and fat mass.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Nicole H; Mattocks, Calum; Faraway, Julian J; Greven, Sonja; Ness, Andy R

    2015-07-17

    Accelerometers are widely used in health sciences, ecology and other application areas. They quantify the intensity of physical activity as counts per epoch over a given period of time. Currently, health scientists use very lossy summaries of the accelerometer time series, some of which are based on coarse discretisation of activity levels, and make certain implicit assumptions, including linear or constant effects of physical activity. We propose the histogram as a functional summary for achieving a near lossless dimension reduction, comparability between individual time series and easy interpretability. Using the histogram as a functional summary avoids registration of accelerometer counts in time. In our novel method, a scalar response is regressed on additive multi-dimensional functional predictors, including the histogram of the high-frequency counts, and additive non-linear predictors for other continuous covariates. The method improves on the current state-of-the art, as it can deal with high-frequency time series of different lengths and missing values and yields a flexible way to model the physical activity effect with fewer assumptions. It also allows the commonly made modelling assumptions to be tested. We investigate the relationship between the response fat mass and physical activity measured by accelerometer, in data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Our method allows testing of whether the effect of physical activity varies over its intensity by gender, by time of day or by day of the week. We show that meaningful interpretation requires careful treatment of identifiability constraints in the light of the sum-to-one property of a histogram. We find that the (not necessarily causal) effect of physical activity on kg fat mass is not linear and not constant over the activity intensity.

  14. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  15. An approach to evaluating and correcting aerodynamic particle sizer measurements for phantom particle count creation.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, W A; Baron, P A

    1992-07-01

    An aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) can be used to make real-time measurements of the aerodynamic particle size distribution over the range of 0.5 to 32 microns. This instrument is very useful in conducting health-related aerosol measurements involving aerosol generation, respirator efficiency, and particulate sampling efficiency. One of the two signal processors within the APS can create spurious or phantom particle counts that can significantly affect relative measurements and calculated mass distributions. In the APS, particle size measurement is based upon a particle's transit time between two laser beams that are perpendicular to an accelerating airflow. The signal processors measure each particle's transit from the time between the two pulses of scattered light that are generated as the particle passes through the two laser beams. When only a single pulse from a particle is detected, another pulse can cause the recording of a randomly sized phantom particle. The small particle processor (SPP), which measures particle transit from the times in digital increments of 4 nanoseconds, can create phantom particles; the large particle processor (LPP), which measures particle transit times in digital increments of 66.67 nanoseconds, is designed to prevent the creation of phantom particles. These two processors overlap in the range of 5.2 to 15.4 microns.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Photon extrabunching in ultrabright twin beams measured by two-photon counting in a semiconductor

    PubMed Central

    Boitier, F.; Godard, A.; Dubreuil, N.; Delaye, P.; Fabre, C.; Rosencher, E.

    2011-01-01

    For many years twin beams originating from parametric down-converted light beams have aroused great interest and attention in the photonics community. One particular aspect of the twin beams is their peculiar intensity correlation functions, which are related to the coincidence rate of photon pairs. Here we take advantage of the huge bandwidth offered by two-photon absorption in a semiconductor to quantitatively determine correlation functions of twin beams generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Compared with classical incoherent sources, photon extrabunching is unambiguously and precisely measured, originating from exact coincidence between down-converted pairs of photons, travelling in unison. These results strongly establish that two-photon counting in semiconductors is a powerful tool for the absolute measurement of light beam photon correlations at ultrashort timescales. PMID:21829187

  17. Neutron measurements with Time-Resolved Event-Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandis, M.; Vartsky, D.; Dangendorf, V.; Bromberger, B.; Bar, D.; Goldberg, M. B.; Tittelmeier, K.; Friedman, E.; Czasch, A.; Mardor, I.; Mor, I.; Weierganz, M.

    2012-04-01

    Results are presented from the latest experiment with a new neutron/gamma detector, a Time-Resolved, Event-Counting Optical Radiation (TRECOR) detector. It is composed of a scintillating fiber-screen converter, bending mirror, lens and Event-Counting Image Intensifier (ECII), capable of specifying the position and time-of-flight of each event. TRECOR is designated for a multipurpose integrated system that will detect Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and explosives in cargo. Explosives are detected by Fast-Neutron Resonance Radiography, and SNM by Dual Discrete-Energy gamma-Radiography. Neutrons and gamma-rays are both produced in the 11B(d,n+γ)12C reaction. The two detection modes can be implemented simultaneously in TRECOR, using two adjacent radiation converters that share a common optical readout. In the present experiment the neutron detection mode was studied, using a plastic scintillator converter. The measurements were performed at the PTB cyclotron, using the 9Be(d,n) neutron spectrum obtained from a thick Be-target at Ed ~ 13 MeV\\@. The basic characteristics of this detector were investigated, including the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF), Point Spread Function (PSF) and elemental discrimination capability.

  18. [Automated measurement of reticulocyte count by flow cytometry. II: Analysis of the blood containing abnormal erythrocytes or giant platelets].

    PubMed

    Oyamatsu, T; Shimizu, N; Takeuchi, K; Yamamoto, M; Kawai, Y; Watanabe, K; Iri, H

    1989-07-01

    We have examined the influence of erythrocytes containing inclusion bodies, nucleated red cells or giant platelets on the measurement of reticulocyte count by automated machine, R-1000. Correlation of the reticulocyte count between automated and conventional method was extremely good in the blood containing red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling . However, correlation was poor when the sample contained the nucleated red cells. Reticulocyte count was decreased in the blood with significant amounts of nucleated red cells. Since nucleated red cells themselves are not counted as reticulocytes in the machine, this was considered to be due to increased young reticulocytes which frequently appeared with nucleated red cells. Both cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets apparently influenced the reticulocyte count by the R-1000. These results suggest that red cells with Jolly bodies, Pappenheimer bodies or basophilic stippling do not influence the automatic counting of reticulocytes. Although nucleated red cells, cold agglutinated red cells and giant platelets affected the reticulocyte count, the machine shows abnormal flags in most of above cases (except highly agglutinated red cells), so that one can recount reticulocytes by conventional method. We conclude the machine can safely count the reticulocytes even in the blood containing abnormal red cells or platelets.

  19. Procoagulant and platelet-derived microvesicle absolute counts determined by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Lisa; Harrison, Paul; Kohler, Malcolm; Ferry, Berne

    2014-01-01

    Background Flow cytometry is the most commonly used technology to measure microvesicles (MVs). Despite reported limitations of this technique, MV levels obtained using conventional flow cytometry have yielded many clinically relevant findings, such as associations with disease severity and ability to predict clinical outcomes. This study aims to determine if MV enumeration by flow cytometry correlates with a measurement of their functional capacity, as this may explain how flow cytometry generates clinically relevant results. Methods One hundred samples from healthy individuals and patients with obstructive sleep apnoea were analysed by conventional flow cytometry (FACSCalibur) and by three functional MV assays: Zymuphen MP-activity in which data were given as phosphatidylserine equivalent, STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay expressed as clotting time and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) reflecting in vitro thrombin generation. Correlations were determined by Spearman correlation. Results Absolute counts of lactadherin+ procoagulant MVs generated by flow cytometry weakly correlated with the results obtained from the Zymuphen MP-activity (r=0.5370, p<0.0001); correlated with ETP (r=0.7444, p<0.0001); negatively correlated with STA® Phospholipid Procoag Assay clotting time (−0.7872, p<0.0001), reflecting a positive correlation between clotting activity and flow cytometry. Levels of Annexin V+ procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs were also associated with functional assays. Absolute counts of MVs derived from other cell types were not correlated with the functional results. Conclusions Quantitative results of procoagulant and platelet-derived MVs from conventional flow cytometry are associated with the functional capability of the MVs, as defined by three functional MV assays. Flow cytometry is a valuable technique for the quantification of MVs from different cellular origins; however, a combination of several analytical techniques may give the most comprehensive

  20. Validation of a Single-Time-Point Measurement of Total Abdominal Counts to Simplify Small Bowel and Colon Transit Analyses.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Alan H; Parupalli, Rahul; Orthey, Perry; Parkman, Henry P

    2016-12-01

    The Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging and European Association of Nuclear Medicine procedure guide on gastrointestinal transit currently indicates that the mean of total abdominal counts of 7 time points (0-360 min) is used to define the total abdominal counts for bowel transit studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability of total abdominal counts during the initial 6 h of bowel transit and to determine whether a simplified, single-time-point measurement can be used.

  1. Bayesian latent variable models for hierarchical clustered count outcomes with repeated measures in microbiome studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lizhen; Paterson, Andrew D; Xu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the multivariate nature of microbiome data with hierarchical taxonomic clusters, counts that are often skewed and zero inflated, and repeated measures, we propose a Bayesian latent variable methodology to jointly model multiple operational taxonomic units within a single taxonomic cluster. This novel method can incorporate both negative binomial and zero-inflated negative binomial responses, and can account for serial and familial correlations. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm that is built on a data augmentation scheme using Pólya-Gamma random variables. Hierarchical centering and parameter expansion techniques are also used to improve the convergence of the Markov chain. We evaluate the performance of our proposed method through extensive simulations. We also apply our method to a human microbiome study.

  2. Evaluation of single-photon-counting measurements of excited-state lifetimes

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Howard E.; Penn, John H.; Carpenter, Clint W.

    1982-01-01

    An extremely short instrumental response function for a single-photon-counting system has been obtained by using a low-jitter photomultiplier tube, fast amplification of the single photoelectron pulse from this photomultiplier, a constant fraction discriminator with a wide bandwidth input, and a stable reference timing signal. This synchronously mode-locked laser system has been shown to be capable of measuring the fluorescence lifetimes of compounds from 66 psec to 4.5 nsec. The estimated error in these determinations is 6% or 10 psec, whichever is greater. This apparatus has proved itself to be superior to the previously used nitrogen flashlamp apparatus for the determination of subnanosecond lifetimes. The validity of using deconvolution to determine lifetimes shorter than the instrumental response function has been verified. PMID:16593174

  3. Ultra-compact 32-channel system for time-correlated single-photon counting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonioli, S.; Cuccato, A.; Miari, L.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2013-05-01

    Modern Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting applications require to detect spectral and temporal fluorescence data simultaneously and from different areas of the analyzed sample. These rising quests have led the development of multichannel systems able to perform high count rate and high performance analysis. In this work we describe a new 32-channel TCSPC system designed to be used in modern setups. The presented module consists of four independent 8-channel TCSPC boards, each of them including two 4-channel Time-Amplitude Converter arrays. These TAC arrays are built-in 0.35 μm Si-Ge BiCMOS technology and are characterized by low crosstalk, high resolution, high conversion rate and variable full-scale range. The 8-channel TCSPC board implements an 8-channel ADC to sample the TAC outputs, an FPGA to record and organize the measurement results and a USB 2.0 interface to enable real-time data transmission to and from an external PC. Experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system ensures high performance TCSPC measurements, in particular: high conversion rate (5 MHz), good time resolution (down to 30 psFWHM with the full scale range set to 11 ns) and low differential non-linearity (rms value lower than 0.15% of the time bin width). We design the module to be very compact and, thanks to the reduced dimensions of the 8-channel TCSPC board (95×40 mm), the whole system can be enclosed in a small aluminum case (160×125×30 mm).

  4. Optimal noninvasive measurement of full counting statistics by a single qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. V.; Lesovik, G. B.; Blatter, G.

    2016-03-01

    The complete characterization of the charge transport in a mesoscopic device is provided by the full counting statistics (FCS) Pt(m ) , describing the amount of charge Q =m e transmitted during the time t . Although numerous systems have been theoretically characterized by their FCS, the experimental measurement of the distribution function Pt(m ) or its moments is rare and often plagued by strong back-action. Here, we present a strategy for the measurement of the FCS, more specifically its characteristic function χ (λ ) and moments , by a qubit with a set of different couplings λj, j =1 ,⋯,k ,⋯k +p , k =⌈n /2 ⌉ , p ≥0 , to the mesoscopic conductor. The scheme involves multiple readings of Ramsey sequences at the different coupling strengths λj, and we find the optimal distribution for these couplings λj as well as the optimal distribution Nj of N =∑Nj measurements among the different couplings λj. We determine the precision scaling for the moments with the number N of invested resources and show that the standard quantum limit can be approached when many additional couplings p ≫1 are included in the measurement scheme.

  5. Fast determination of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y activity in milk by Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; Dolgin, B; German, U; Pelled, O; Alfassi, Z B

    2013-12-01

    Cherenkov counting of the ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y pure beta emitters is an attractive method for ⁹⁰Sr activity determination, but the color quenching effect may be significant, especially for strongly colored or semi-opaque media. A quench correction method based on the external source of some liquid scintillation systems (named ESAR - external source area ratio) was proposed and checked for aqueous solutions and was proved to be effective also for urine samples. In the present work, the application of the ESAR method for fast determination of ⁹⁰Sr/⁹⁰Y activity in milk samples is described.

  6. Flow cytometric assessment of activation of peripheral blood platelets in dogs with normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Żmigrodzka, M; Guzera, M; Winnicka, A

    2016-01-01

    Platelets play a crucial role in hemostasis. Their activation has not yet been evaluated in healthy dogs with a normal and low platelet count. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of activators on platelet activation in dogs with a normal platelet count and asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. 72 clinically healthy dogs were enrolled. Patients were allocated into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 30 dogs with a normal platelet count, group 2 included 22 dogs with a platelet count between 100 and 200×109/l and group 3 consisted of 20 dogs with a platelet count lower than 100×109/l. Platelet rich-plasma (PRP) was obtained from peripheral blood samples using tripotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K3-EDTA) as anticoagulant. Next, platelets were stimulated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or thrombin, stabilized using procaine or left unstimulated. The expression of CD51 and CD41/CD61 was evaluated. Co-expression of CD41/CD61 and Annexin V served as a marker of platelet activation. The expression of CD41/CD61 and CD51 did not differ between the 3 groups. Thrombin-stimulated platelets had a significantly higher activity in dogs with a normal platelet count than in dogs with asymptomatic thrombocytopenia. Procaine inhibited platelet activity in all groups. In conclusion, activation of platelets of healthy dogs in vitro varied depending on the platelet count and platelet activator.

  7. Faecal egg counts provide a reliable measure of Trichostrongylus tenuis intensities in free-living red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus.

    PubMed

    Seivwright, L J; Redpath, S M; Mougeot, F; Watt, L; Hudson, P J

    2004-03-01

    The reliability of different egg counting methods for estimating the intensity of Trichostrongylus tenuis infections in red grouse, Lagopus lagopus scoticus, was investigated in the autumn, when grouse may harbour high parasite intensities. Possible limitations to the use of these methods were also examined. Faecal egg counts were found to accurately estimate T. tenuis worm intensities, at least up to an observed maximum of c. 8000 worms. Two egg counting methods (smear and McMaster) gave consistent results, although the exact relationship with worm intensity differed according to the method used. Faecal egg counts significantly decreased with increasing length of sample storage time, but egg counts were reliable for estimating worm intensity for three weeks. The concentration of eggs in the caecum was also found to reliably estimate worm intensity. However, egg counts from frozen gut samples cannot be used to estimate worm intensities. These results conclude that, despite some limitations, faecal and caecum egg counts provide useful and reliable ways of measuring T. tenuis intensities in red grouse.

  8. {sup 137}Cs exposure in the Marshallese populations: An assessment based on whole-body counting measurements (1989-1994)

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.C.; Clinton, J.H.; Kaplan, E.

    1997-07-01

    The Marshall Islands were the site of numerous tests of nuclear weapons by the United States. From 1946 to 1958, nuclear devices were detonated at Enemetak and Bikini Atolls. Following the inadvertent contamination of the northern islands downwind of the 1954 Bravo Test, Brookhaven National Laboratory became involved in the medical care and the radiological safety of the affected populations. One important technique employed in assessing the internally deposited radionuclides is whole-body counting. To estimate current and future exposures to 1376, data from 1989 to 1994 were analyzed and are reported in this paper. During this period, 3,618 measurements were made for the Marshallese. The cesium body contents were assumed to result from a series of chronic intakes. Also, it was assumed that cesium activity in the body reaches a plateau that is maintained over 365 d. We estimated the annual effective dose rate for each population, derived from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The average {sup 137}Cs uptake measured by the whole-body counting method varies from one population to another; it was consistent with measurements of external exposure rate. The analysis. though based on limited data, indicates that there is no statistical support for a seasonal effect on {sup 137}Cs uptake. The critical population group for cesium uptake is adult males. Within the 5-y monitoring period, all internal exposures to {sup 137}Cs mere less than 0.2 mSv y{sup -1}. Similarly, a persistent average cesium effective dose rate of 2 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} was determined for Majuro residents. 73 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. Active books: the design of an implantable stimulator that minimizes cable count using integrated circuits very close to electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Demosthenous, Andreas; Vanhoestenberghe, Anne; Jiang, Dai; Donaldson, Nick

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an integrated stimulator that can be embedded in implantable electrode books for interfacing with nerve roots at the cauda equina. The Active Book overcomes the limitation of conventional nerve root stimulators which can only support a small number of stimulating electrodes due to cable count restriction through the dura. Instead, a distributed stimulation system with many tripole electrodes can be configured using several Active Books which are addressed sequentially. The stimulator was fabricated in a 0.6-μm high-voltage CMOS process and occupies a silicon area of 4.2 × 6.5 mm(2). The circuit was designed to deliver up to 8 mA stimulus current to tripole electrodes from an 18 V power supply. Input pad count is limited to five (two power and three control lines) hence requiring a specific procedure for downloading stimulation commands to the chip and extracting information from it. Supported commands include adjusting the amplitude of stimulus current, varying the current ratio at the two anodes in each channel, and measuring relative humidity inside the chip package. In addition to stimulation mode, the chip supports quiescent mode, dissipating less than 100 nA current from the power supply. The performance of the stimulator chip was verified with bench tests including measurements using tripoles in saline.

  10. Determination of (222)Rn absorption properties of polycarbonate foils by liquid scintillation counting. Application to (222)Rn measurements.

    PubMed

    Mitev, K; Cassette, P; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Sabot, B; Boshkova, T; Tartès, I; Pressyanov, D

    2016-03-01

    This work demonstrates that a Liquid Scintillation Counting (LSC) technique using a Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio counter with extending dead-time is very appropriate for the accurate measurement of (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin polycarbonate foils. It is demonstrated that using a toluene-based LS cocktail, which dissolves polycarbonates, the (222)Rn activity absorbed in thin Makrofol N foil can be determined with a relative standard uncertainty of about 0.7%. A LSC-based application of the methodology for determination of the diffusion length of (222)Rn in thin polycarbonate foils is proposed and the diffusion length of (222)Rn in Makrofol N (38.9±1.3µm) and the partition coefficient of (222)Rn in Makrofol N from air (112±12, at 20°C) and from water (272±17, at 21°C) are determined. Calibration of commercial LS spectrometers for (222)Rn measurements by LSC of thin polycarbonate foils is performed and the minimum detectable activities by this technique are estimated.

  11. Associations between trichostrongylid worm egg count and productivity measures in Dorper lambs.

    PubMed

    Sweeny, Joshua P A; Gardner, Graham E; Dobson, Robert J; Jacobson, Caroline; Bell, Kevin

    2011-08-25

    Two flocks of pure bred Dorper lambs were managed separately according to sex (283 ewe lambs and 212 ram lambs) in southern Western Australia. Faecal sample collection, weighing and body condition assessments were performed for each lamb on 2 occasions, specifically pre-weaning (approximately 14 weeks of age) and post-weaning (approximately 9 months of age). Body condition score (BCS) was assessed using a scale of 1 (very thin, emaciated) to 5 (excessively fat). Faecal worm egg counts (WECs) were measured using a modified McMaster technique and larval cultures were performed to identify trichostrongylid nematode genera present. Eye muscle and c-site fat depths were measured using ultrasound at post-weaning. Lambs received an abamectin anthelmintic treatment at weaning (18 weeks of age). Worm egg count data was assessed for normality of data distribution and homogeneity of variance. This data was transformed using log(10)(WEC+25) to stabilise variances between groups prior to statistical analyses and general linear models were used to assess relationships between WEC and productivity measures. Mean WECs were 564 eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) and 514 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ewe flock and 552 EPG and 480 EPG at pre- and post-weaning in the ram flock. Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. larvae were identified. No lambs with WEC<500 EPG pre-weaning had WEC>1000 EPG post-weaning. Ewe and ram lambs with WEC>1000 EPG at pre-weaning were 42 (12-145 95% CI) and 37 (9-153) times more likely to have WEC>1000 EPG at post-weaning than lambs with WEC 501-1000 EPG at pre-weaning. There were no significant relationships between WEC and live weight in the ram flock, while relationships between WEC and live weight were inconsistent in the ewe lamb flock. There was no relationship between WEC and eye muscle or c-site fat depth. Significant negative relationships between WEC and BCS were identified at pre- and post

  12. Lysozyme activity and L(+)-lactic acid production in saliva in schoolchildren with high Lactobacillus counts.

    PubMed

    Twetman, S; Dahllöf, G; Wikner, S

    1987-04-01

    Out of 374 schoolchildren, aged 13-15 yr, 42 with high counts of salivary lactobacilli (greater than or equal to 10(5] were selected for this study. Lysozyme activity in saliva and L(+)-lactic acid (LA) production after addition of glucose were determined. The mean values of lysozyme activity and LA concentration were 19.4 micrograms/ml and 1.4 mmol/l respectively. The levels of LA produced without addition of glucose were less than 0.2 mmol/l. The results showed a statistically significant (P less than 0.05) negative correlation between lysozyme activity and the levels of LA produced. The findings of this study suggest that lysozyme may be of importance in limiting acid production in saliva.

  13. Image analysis used to count and measure etched tracks from ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, George E.; Schulz, Cindy K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed techniques to use digitized scanning electron micrographs and computer image analysis programs to measure track densities in lunar soil grains and plastic dosimeters. Tracks in lunar samples are formed by highly ionizing solar energetic particles and cosmic rays during near surface exposure on the Moon. The track densities are related to the exposure conditions (depth and time). Distributions of the number of grains as a function of their track densities can reveal the modality of soil maturation. We worked on two samples identified for a consortium study of lunar weathering effects, 61221 and 67701. They were prepared by the lunar curator's staff as polished grain mounts that were etched in boiling 1 N NaOH for 6 h to reveal tracks. We determined that backscattered electron images taken at 10 percent contrast and approximately 50 percent brightness produced suitable high contrast images for analysis. We used the NIH Image program to cut out areas that were unsuitable for measurement such as edges, cracks, etc. We ascertained a gray-scale threshold of 25 to separate tracks from background. We used the computer to count everything that was two pixels or greater in size and to measure the area to obtain track densities. We found an excellent correlation with manual measurements for track densities below 1 x 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2). For track densities between 1 x 10(exp 8) cm(exp -2) to 1 x 10(exp 9) cm(exp -2) we found that a regression formula using the percentage area covered by tracks gave good agreement with manual measurements. We determined the track density distributions for 61221 and 67701. Sample 61221 is an immature sample, but not pristine. Sample 67701 is a submature sample that is very close to being fully mature. Because only 10 percent of the grains have track densities less than 10(exp 9) cm(exp -2), it is difficulty to determine whether the sample matured in situ or is a mixture of a mature and a submature soil. Although our analysis

  14. Counting Penguins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mike; Kader, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Presents an activity on the simplification of penguin counting by employing the basic ideas and principles of sampling to teach students to understand and recognize its role in statistical claims. Emphasizes estimation, data analysis and interpretation, and central limit theorem. Includes a list of items for classroom discussion. (ASK)

  15. Fluorescence measurement by a streak camera in a single-photon-counting mode.

    PubMed

    Komura, Masayuki; Itoh, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    We describe here a recently developed fluorescence measurement system that uses a streak camera to detect fluorescence decay in a single photon-counting mode. This system allows for easy measurements of various samples and provides 2D images of fluorescence in the wavelength and time domains. The great advantage of the system is that the data can be handled with ease; furthermore, the data are amenable to detailed analysis. We describe the picosecond kinetics of fluorescence in spinach Photosystem (PS) II particles at 4-77 K as a typical experimental example. Through the global analysis of the data, we have identified a new fluorescence band (F689) in addition to the already established F680, F685, and F695 emission bands. The blue shift of the steady-state fluorescence spectrum upon cooling below 77 K can be interpreted as an increase of the shorter-wavelength fluorescence, especially F689, due to the slowdown of the excitation energy transfer process. The F685 and F695 bands seem to be thermally equilibrated at 77 K but not at 4 K. The simple and efficient photon accumulation feature of the system allows us to measure fluorescence from leaves, solutions, single colonies, and even single cells. The 2D fluorescence images obtained by this system are presented for isolated spinach PS II particles, intact leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana, the PS I super-complex of a marine centric diatom, Chaetoceros gracilis, isolated membranes of a purple photosynthetic bacterium, Acidiphilium rubrum, which contains Zn-BChl a, and a coral that contains a green fluorescent protein and an algal endosymbiont, Zooxanthella.

  16. Sensitivity Measurements For Cargo Scanning Applications Using Photon Interrogation and Neutron Signature Counting Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankrah, Maxwell

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, non-destructive evaluation techniques which use either photon or neutron sources from accelerators followed by neutron counting signatures have been used in many national security and nuclear nonproliferation applications [4, 60]. Although the United States customs and border protection initiated and implemented a cargo security initiative to discover threats from others countries before they embark to the US, detectors with better sensitivities are more necessary than ever in view of the global threats faced by nations around the world. Photofission based applications which use delayed neutron signal ores as viable detection schemes for fissile material detection have been ongoing for many years. Applications of this technology to include cargo scanning applications are however lacking. This work in this dissertation used the delayed neutron signature counting technique for fissile material detection in conjunction with new formulated Curries' expressions to establish the sensitivity (minimum detectable mass) limits. The fission reactions were induced in a uranyl nitrate solution containing 94.1 g of 238U using bremsstrahlung endpoint cue pies of 9 MeV to 21 MeV in 2 MeV steps. Preliminary data on the sensitvity measurement at bremsstrahlung end point energies of 9, 14, 18 and 22 MeV are also presented. We also present the effect of borated polyethylene and lead shielding on the sensitivity at 9 and 22 N1cV. The sensitivities were calculated for 5%u false positives and 5% fake negatives as well as for 1% false positives and 0.1% false negatives. A dose of 4 Gy, 5 mGy and 1 mGy were assumed to be delivered to Mutt cargo container. For a radiator and target-to-detector distance of 150 cm and 200 cup, the delayed neutron yield from calculation and experiment was also compared. Finally, feasibility studies was conducted to determine if the linac parameters used in this research was capable of detecting 1 mg, 1 g and 1 kg of 238U. This work was funded

  17. Particle Count and Black Carbon Measurements at Schools in Las Vegas and in the Greater Salt Lake City Area.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven G; Vaughn, David L; Roberts, Paul T

    2016-12-23

    As part of two separate studies aimed to characterize ambient pollutant concentrations at schools in urban areas, we compare black carbon and particle count measurements at Adcock Elementary in Las Vegas, Nevada (April-June 2013), and Hunter High School in the West Valley City area of Greater Salt Lake City, Utah (February 2012). Both schools are in urban environments, but Adcock Elementary is next to the U.S. 95 freeway. Black Carbon (BC) concentrations were 13% higher at Adcock compared to Hunter, while particle count concentrations were 60% higher. When wind speeds were low-less than 2 m/sec-both BC and particle count concentrations were significantly higher at Adcock, while concentrations at Hunter did not have as strong a variation with wind speed. When wind speeds were less than 2 m/s, emissions from the adjacent freeway greatly affected concentrations at Adcock, regardless of wind direction. At both sites, BC and particle count concentrations peaked in the morning during commute hours. At Adcock, particle count also peaked during midday or early afternoon, when BC was low and conditions were conducive to new particle formation. While this midday peak occurred at Adcock on roughly 45% of the measured days, it occurred on only about 25% of the days at Hunter, since conditions for particle formation (higher solar radiation, lower wind speeds, lower relative humidity) were more conducive at Adcock. Thus, children attending these schools are likely to be exposed to pollution peaks during school drop-off in the morning, when BC and particle count concentrations peak, and often again during lunchtime recess when particle count peaks again.

  18. Improved sample preparation and counting techniques for enhanced tritium measurement sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, J.; Aalseth, C.; Bailey, V. L.; Mace, E. K.; Overman, C.; Seifert, A.; Wilcox Freeburg, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tritium (T) measurements offer insight to a wealth of environmental applications including hydrologic tracking, discerning ocean circulation patterns, and aging ice formations. However, the relatively short half-life of T (12.3 years) limits its effective age dating range. Compounding this limitation is the decrease in atmospheric T content by over two orders of magnitude (from 1000-2000 TU in 1962 to < 10 TU currently) since the cessation of above ground nuclear testing in the 1960's. We are developing sample preparation methods coupled to direct counting of T via ultra-low background proportional counters which, when combined, offer improved T measurement sensitivity (~4.5 mmoles of H2 equivalent) and will help expand the application of T age dating to smaller sample sizes linked to persistent environmental questions despite the limitations above. For instance, this approach can be used to T date ~ 2.2 mmoles of CH4 collected from sample-limited systems including microbial communities, soils, or subsurface aquifers and can be combined with radiocarbon dating to distinguish the methane's formation age from C age in a system. This approach can also expand investigations into soil organic C where the improved sensitivity will permit resolution of soil C into more descriptive fractions and provide direct assessments of the stability of specific classes of organic matter in soils environments. We are employing a multiple step sample preparation system whereby organic samples are first combusted with resulting CO2 and H2O being used as a feedstock to synthesize CH4. This CH4 is mixed with Ar and loaded directly into an ultra-low background proportional counter for measurement of T β decay in a shallow underground laboratory. Analysis of water samples requires only the addition of geologic CO2 feedstock with the sample for methane synthesis. The chemical nature of the preparation techniques enable high sample throughput with only the final measurement requiring T decay

  19. Simultaneous measurement of tritium and radiocarbon by ultra-low-background proportional counting

    DOE PAGES

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Alexander, Tom; ...

    2016-12-21

    Use of ultra-low-background capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provide enhanced sensitivity for measurement of low-activity sources of tritium and radiocarbon using proportional counters. Tritium levels are nearly back to pre-nuclear test backgrounds (~2-8 TU in rainwater), which can complicate their dual measurement with radiocarbon due to overlap in the beta decay spectra. In this paper, we present results of single-isotope proportional counter measurements used to analyze a dual-isotope methane sample synthesized from ~120 mg of H2O and present sensitivity results.

  20. Simultaneous measurement of tritium and radiocarbon by ultra-low-background proportional counting

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Alexander, Tom; Back, Henning; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Keillor, Martin; Moran, Jim; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen

    2016-12-21

    Use of ultra-low-background capabilities at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provide enhanced sensitivity for measurement of low-activity sources of tritium and radiocarbon using proportional counters. Tritium levels are nearly back to pre-nuclear test backgrounds (~2-8 TU in rainwater), which can complicate their dual measurement with radiocarbon due to overlap in the beta decay spectra. In this paper, we present results of single-isotope proportional counter measurements used to analyze a dual-isotope methane sample synthesized from ~120 mg of H2O and present sensitivity results.

  1. Frequency Count Attribute Oriented Induction of Corporate Network Data for Mapping Business Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanutama, Lukas

    2014-03-01

    Companies increasingly rely on Internet for effective and efficient business communication. As Information Technology infrastructure backbone for business activities, corporate network connects the company to Internet and enables its activities globally. It carries data packets generated by the activities of the users performing their business tasks. Traditionally, infrastructure operations mainly maintain data carrying capacity and network devices performance. It would be advantageous if a company knows what activities are running in its network. The research provides a simple method of mapping the business activity reflected by the network data. To map corporate users' activities, a slightly modified Attribute Oriented Induction (AOI) approach to mine the network data was applied. The frequency of each protocol invoked were counted to show what the user intended to do. The collected data was samples taken within a certain sampling period. Samples were taken due to the enormous data packets generated. Protocols of interest are only Internet related while intranet protocols are ignored. It can be concluded that the method could provide the management a general overview of the usage of its infrastructure and lead to efficient, effective and secure ICT infrastructure.

  2. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  3. A photon counting and a squeezing measurement method by the exact absorption and dispersion spectrum of Λ-type Atoms.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, Ghasem; Alipour, Samira; Khademi, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the master equations for the interaction of two-mode photons with a three-level Λ-type atom are exactly solved for the coherence terms. In this paper the exact absorption spectrum is applied for the presentation of a non-demolition photon counting method, for a few number of coupling photons, and its benefits are discussed. The exact scheme is also applied where the coupling photons are squeezed and the photon counting method is also developed for the measurement of the squeezing parameter of the coupling photons.

  4. Relationship of ethnicity and CD4 Count with glucose metabolism among HIV patients on Highly-Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV patients on HAART are prone to metabolic abnormalities, including insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and diabetes. This study purports to investigate the relationship of ethnicity and CD4+ T cell count attained after stable highly-active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) with glucose metabolism in hyperrtriglyceridemic HIV patients without a history of diabetes. Methods Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, endocrinologic, energy expenditure and metabolic measures were obtained in 199 multiethnic, healthy but hypertriglyceridemic HIV-infected patients [46% Hispanic, 17% African-American, 37% Non-Hispanic White (NHW)] on stable HAART without a history of diabetes. The relationship of glucose and insulin responses to ethnicity, CD4 strata (low (<300/cc) or moderate-to-high (≥ 300/cc)), and their interaction was determined. Results African-Americans had significantly greater impairment of glucose tolerance (P < 0.05) and HbA1c levels (P < .001) than either Hispanics or NHWs. In multivariate models, after adjusting for confounders (age, sex, HIV/HAART duration, smoking, obesity, glucose, insulin and lipids), African-Americans and Hispanics had significantly higher HbA1c and 2-hour glucose levels than NHW’s. Demonstrating a significant interaction between ethnicity and CD4 count (P = 0.023), African Americans with CD4 <300/cc and Hispanics with CD4 ≥300/cc had the most impaired glucose response following oral glucose challenge. Conclusions Among hypertriglyceridemic HIV patients on HAART, African-Americans and Hispanics are at increased risk of developing diabetes. Ethnicity also interacts with CD4+ T cell count attained on stable HAART to affect post-challenge glycemic response. PMID:23607267

  5. Cosmology with velocity dispersion counts: an alternative to measuring cluster halo masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, C. E.; McCarthy, I. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Collins, C. A.; Schaye, J.; Bird, S.

    2016-11-01

    The evolution of galaxy cluster counts is a powerful probe of several fundamental cosmological parameters. A number of recent studies using this probe have claimed tension with the cosmology preferred by the analysis of the Planck primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) data, in the sense that there are fewer clusters observed than predicted based on the primary CMB cosmology. One possible resolution to this problem is systematic errors in the absolute halo mass calibration in cluster studies, which is required to convert the standard theoretical prediction (the halo mass function) into counts as a function of the observable (e.g. X-ray luminosity, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, and optical richness). Here we propose an alternative strategy, which is to directly compare predicted and observed cluster counts as a function of the one-dimensional velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies. We argue that the velocity dispersion of groups/clusters can be theoretically predicted as robustly as mass but, unlike mass, it can also be directly observed, thus circumventing the main systematic bias in traditional cluster counts studies. With the aid of the BAHAMAS suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we demonstrate the potential of the velocity dispersion counts for discriminating even similar Λ cold dark matter models. These predictions can be compared with the results from existing redshift surveys such as the highly complete Galaxy And Mass Assembly survey, and upcoming wide-field spectroscopic surveys such as the Wide Area Vista Extragalactic Survey and the Dark Energy Survey Instrument.

  6. Response of sheep lymphocytes to PHA: quantitation by nuclear volume measurement and cell counts (40764)

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, P.; Chanana, A.D.; Joel, D.D.

    1980-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin response of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of sheep was studied. Assessment of proliferative response was performed by determination of nuclear volumes and cell counts in cultures from 14 sheep and by incorporation of tritiated thymidine in cultures in four additional sheep. PBL of sheep were found to transform and proliferate with PHA similarly to human peripheral blood lymphocytes with minor differences. Quantitation of the proliferative response by determining the cell count and nuclear volumes provided more information on cell kinetics in culture than the commonly used isotope-labeled thymidine incorporation method.

  7. Effect of Nadir CD4+ T Cell Count on Clinical Measures of Periodontal Disease in HIV+ Adults before and during Immune Reconstitution on HAART

    PubMed Central

    Vernon, Lance T.; Demko, Catherine A.; Babineau, Denise C.; Wang, Xuelei; Toossi, Zahra; Weinberg, Aaron; Rodriguez, Benigno

    2013-01-01

    Background The contribution of HIV-infection to periodontal disease (PD) is poorly understood.  We proposed that immunological markers would be associated with improved clinical measures of PD. Methods We performed a longitudinal cohort study of HIV-infected adults who had started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) <2 years. PD was characterized clinically as the percent of teeth with ≥1 site with periodontal probing depth (PPD) ≥5.0mm, recession (REC) >0mm, clinical attachment level (CAL) ≥4.0mm, and bleeding on probing (BOP) at ≥4 sites/tooth and microbiologically as specific periodontopathogen concentration. Linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between immune function and PD. Results Forty (40) subjects with median 2.7 months on HAART and median nadir CD4+ T-cell count of 212 cells/μl completed a median 3 visits. Over 24 months, CD4+ T-cell count increased by a mean 173 cells/µl (p<0.001) and HIV RNA decreased by 0.5 log10 copies/ml (p<0.001); concurrently, PPD, CAL and BOP decreased by a mean 11.7%, 12.1%, and 14.7% respectively (all p<0.001). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with worse baseline REC (-6.72%; p=0.04) and CAL (9.06%; p<0.001). Further, lower nadir CD4+ T-cell count was associated with a greater relative longitudinal improvement in PPD in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis (p=0.027), and BOP in subjects with higher baseline levels of Porphyromonas gingivalis or Treponema denticola (p=0.001 and p=0.006 respectively). Longitudinal changes from baseline in CD4+ T-cell count and level of HIV RNA were not independently associated with longitudinal changes in any clinical markers of PD. Conclusion Degree of immunosuppression was associated with baseline gingival recession. After HAART initiation, measures of active PD improved most in those with lower nadir CD4+ T-cell counts and higher baseline levels of specific periodontopathogens. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count

  8. Numerical simulation of particle dynamics in an orifice-electrode system. Application to counting and sizing by impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Isèbe, Damien; Nérin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes how to numerically tackle the problem of counting and sizing particles by impedance measurement in an orifice-electrode system. The model allows to simulate the particle dynamics submitted to strong hydrodynamic stresses through a microorifice and to compute the voltage pulses generated by the modification of the inner dielectric medium. This approach gives important information about particles size distribution and allows to quantify the role of trajectory and orientation of particles on the size measurement.

  9. The 4 Ms CHANDRA Deep Field-South Number Counts Apportioned by Source Class: Pervasive Active Galactic Nuclei and the Ascent of Normal Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmer, Bret D.; Xue, Y. Q.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Luo, B.; Paolillo, M.; Ptak, A.; Shemmer, O.; Schneider, D. P.; Tozzi, P.; Vignali, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present 0.5-2 keV, 2-8 keV, 4-8 keV, and 0.5-8 keV (hereafter soft, hard, ultra-hard, and full bands, respectively) cumulative and differential number-count (log N-log S ) measurements for the recently completed approx. equal to 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, the deepest X-ray survey to date. We implement a new Bayesian approach, which allows reliable calculation of number counts down to flux limits that are factors of approx. equal to 1.9-4.3 times fainter than the previously deepest number-count investigations. In the soft band (SB), the most sensitive bandpass in our analysis, the approx. equal to 4 Ms CDF-S reaches a maximum source density of approx. equal to 27,800 deg(sup -2). By virtue of the exquisite X-ray and multiwavelength data available in the CDF-S, we are able to measure the number counts from a variety of source populations (active galactic nuclei (AGNs), normal galaxies, and Galactic stars) and subpopulations (as a function of redshift, AGN absorption, luminosity, and galaxy morphology) and test models that describe their evolution. We find that AGNs still dominate the X-ray number counts down to the faintest flux levels for all bands and reach a limiting SB source density of approx. equal to 14,900 deg(sup -2), the highest reliable AGN source density measured at any wavelength. We find that the normal-galaxy counts rise rapidly near the flux limits and, at the limiting SB flux, reach source densities of approx. equal to 12,700 deg(sup -2) and make up 46% plus or minus 5% of the total number counts. The rapid rise of the galaxy counts toward faint fluxes, as well as significant normal-galaxy contributions to the overall number counts, indicates that normal galaxies will overtake AGNs just below the approx. equal to 4 Ms SB flux limit and will provide a numerically significant new X-ray source population in future surveys that reach below the approx. equal to 4 Ms sensitivity limit. We show that a future approx. equal to 10 Ms CDF

  10. The Invention of Counting: The Statistical Measurement of Literacy in Nineteenth-Century England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, David

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the invention of counting literacy on a national basis in nineteenth-century Britain. Through an analysis of Registrar Generals' reports, it describes how the early statisticians wrestled with the implications of their new-found capacity to describe a nation's communications skills in a single table and how they were unable…

  11. Measurement of the Frequencies of One Octave in a Harmonium by Counting Beats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Somnath

    1991-01-01

    An experiment intended to familiarize a student with the musical scale and the technique of tuning an instrument by listening for beats is described. From the dial reading of the oscillator frequency and the counted beats frequency, the student then computes the frequency of each musical note over one full octave. (Author)

  12. The Big Pumpkin Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplestone-Loomis, Lenny

    1981-01-01

    Pumpkin seeds are counted after students convert pumpkins to jack-o-lanterns. Among the activities involved, pupils learn to count by 10s, make estimates, and to construct a visual representation of 1,000. (MP)

  13. Activity Counts: The Effect of Swimming Activity on Quantity Discrimination in Fish

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Human infants and non-human animals can discriminate the larger of two sets of discrete items. This quantity discrimination may be based upon the number of items, or upon non-numerical variables of the sets that co-vary with number. We have demonstrated that angelfish select the larger of two shoals of conspecifics without using inter-fish distance or space occupied by the stimuli as cues. However, density appeared to influence the choice between large shoals. Here, we examine the role of another non-numerical cue, swimming activity of the stimulus fish, in quantity discrimination by angelfish. To control this variable, we varied the water temperature of the stimulus aquaria or restricted the space occupied by each fish in the stimulus shoals. We used the previously successfully discriminated contrasts consisting of large (10 vs. 5) and small (3 vs. 2) shoals. We also studied whether more active or less active shoals are preferred in case of equally sized shoals (10 vs. 10, 5 vs. 5, and 3 vs. 3). When differences in stimulus fish activity were minimized by temperature manipulation we found angelfish to prefer the larger shoal in the 3 vs. 2 comparison, but not in the 10 vs. 5 comparison. When activity was controlled by space restriction, angelfish preferred the larger shoal in both numerical contrasts. These results imply that the overall activity level of the contrasted shoals is not a necessary condition for small shoals discrimination in angelfish. On the other hand, the results obtained for the large shoals, together with results obtained in the control treatments (equal numerical contrasts and differing activity levels), suggest that activity is a sufficient condition for discrimination when large shoals are involved. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the influence of other continuous variables, and to assess whether the mechanisms underlying performance are comparable to those suggested for other animals. PMID:23162518

  14. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: The Number Counts of Active Galactic Nuclei and the Resolved Fraction of the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, F. A.; Aird, J.; Civano, F.; Lansbury, G.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Barret, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Baloković, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Del Moro, A.; Forster, K.; Gandhi, P.; Giommi, P.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Hornstrup, A.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J.; Luo, B.; Madsen, K. K.; Mao, P. H.; Miyasaka, H.; Mori, K.; Perri, M.; Pivovaroff, M.; Puccetti, S.; Rana, V.; Treister, E.; Walton, D.; Westergaard, N. J.; Wik, D.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.; Zoglauer, A.

    2016-11-01

    We present the 3-8 keV and 8-24 keV number counts of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) extragalactic surveys. NuSTAR has now resolved 33%-39% of the X-ray background in the 8-24 keV band, directly identifying AGNs with obscuring columns up to ˜ {10}25 {{cm}}-2. In the softer 3-8 keV band the number counts are in general agreement with those measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra over the flux range 5× {10}-15 ≲ S(3-8 keV)/{erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 ≲ {10}-12 probed by NuSTAR. In the hard 8-24 keV band NuSTAR probes fluxes over the range 2× {10}-14 ≲ S(8-24 keV)/{erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 ≲ {10}-12, a factor ˜100 fainter than previous measurements. The 8-24 keV number counts match predictions from AGN population synthesis models, directly confirming the existence of a population of obscured and/or hard X-ray sources inferred from the shape of the integrated cosmic X-ray background. The measured NuSTAR counts lie significantly above simple extrapolation with a Euclidian slope to low flux of the Swift/BAT 15-55 keV number counts measured at higher fluxes (S(15-55 keV) ≳ 10-11 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2), reflecting the evolution of the AGN population between the Swift/BAT local (z\\lt 0.1) sample and NuSTAR’s z˜ 1 sample. CXB synthesis models, which account for AGN evolution, lie above the Swift/BAT measurements, suggesting that they do not fully capture the evolution of obscured AGNs at low redshifts.

  15. Estimating ROI activity concentration with photon-processing and photon-counting SPECT imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Abhinav K.; Frey, Eric C.

    2015-03-01

    Recently a new class of imaging systems, referred to as photon-processing (PP) systems, are being developed that uses real-time maximum-likelihood (ML) methods to estimate multiple attributes per detected photon and store these attributes in a list format. PP systems could have a number of potential advantages compared to systems that bin photons based on attributes such as energy, projection angle, and position, referred to as photon-counting (PC) systems. For example, PP systems do not suffer from binning-related information loss and provide the potential to extract information from attributes such as energy deposited by the detected photon. To quantify the effects of this advantage on task performance, objective evaluation studies are required. We performed this study in the context of quantitative 2-dimensional single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging with the end task of estimating the mean activity concentration within a region of interest (ROI). We first theoretically outline the effect of null space on estimating the mean activity concentration, and argue that due to this effect, PP systems could have better estimation performance compared to PC systems with noise-free data. To evaluate the performance of PP and PC systems with noisy data, we developed a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based analytic method to estimate the activity concentration from PP systems. Using simulations, we studied the accuracy and precision of this technique in estimating the activity concentration. We used this framework to objectively compare PP and PC systems on the activity concentration estimation task. We investigated the effects of varying the size of the ROI and varying the number of bins for the attribute corresponding to the angular orientation of the detector in a continuously rotating SPECT system. The results indicate that in several cases, PP systems offer improved estimation performance compared to PC systems.

  16. Millimeter Source Counts and Spectral Indices Measured with the South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Joaquin

    2009-01-01

    We present millimeter-wave (mm) number counts and spectral indices from a new survey taken with the 10 m South Pole Telescope located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica. Extragalactic mm sources are expected to be the dominant contaminant in the current generation of fine-scale cosmic microwave background and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect experiments. Here we characterize the spectral and flux distributions of mm sources down to a few mJy at 150 and 225 GHz from an 80 square degree field with uniform coverage. Two distinct populations of mm sources are observed, characterized by their spectral indices: (1) a population of bright sources with falling or flat spectra and cm-wave counterparts and (2) a population of sources with positive spectral indices with number counts consistent with previous observations of submillimeter galaxies.

  17. Improving Neutron Measurement Capabilities; Expanding the Limits of Correlated Neutron Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter Angelo; Geist, William H.; Dougan, Arden

    2015-11-05

    A number of technical and practical limitations exist within the neutron correlated counting techniques used in safeguards, especially within the algorithms that are used to process and analyze the detected neutron signals. A multi-laboratory effort is underway to develop new and improved analysis and data processing algorithms based on fundamental physics principles to extract additional or more accurate information about nuclear material bearing items.

  18. Dynamics of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, and catalase activity in rat blood in hypokinesia, muscular activity and restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taneyeva, G. V.; Potapovich, G. M.; Voloshko, N. A.; Uteshev, A. B.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted to prove that muscular exertion (in this instance swimming) of different duration and intensity, as well as hypodynamia, result in an increase of hemoglobin and number of red blood cells in peripheral blood rats. Catalase activity increased with an increase in the duration of swimming, but only up to 6 hr; with 7-9 hr of swimming as well as in hypodynamia, catalase activity decreased. It was also observed that under hypodynamia as well as in 3, 5 and 6 hr exertion (swimming) the color index of blood decreased. Pressure chamber treatment (for 8 min each day for one week), alternating a 2 min negative pressure up to 35 mm Hg with 1 min positive pressure, increased the erythrocyte count and hemoglobin content.

  19. Counting calories in cormorants: dynamic body acceleration predicts daily energy expenditure measured in pelagic cormorants.

    PubMed

    Stothart, Mason R; Elliott, Kyle H; Wood, Thomas; Hatch, Scott A; Speakman, John R

    2016-07-15

    The integral of the dynamic component of acceleration over time has been proposed as a measure of energy expenditure in wild animals. We tested that idea by attaching accelerometers to the tails of free-ranging pelagic cormorants (Phalacrocorax pelagicus) and simultaneously estimating energy expenditure using doubly labelled water. Two different formulations of dynamic body acceleration, [vectorial and overall DBA (VeDBA and ODBA)], correlated with mass-specific energy expenditure (both R(2)=0.91). VeDBA models combining and separately parameterizing flying, diving, activity on land and surface swimming were consistently considered more parsimonious than time budget models and showed less variability in model fit. Additionally, we observed evidence for the presence of hypometabolic processes (i.e. reduced heart rate and body temperature; shunting of blood away from non-essential organs) that suppressed metabolism in cormorants while diving, which was the most metabolically important activity. We concluded that a combination of VeDBA and physiological processes accurately measured energy expenditure for cormorants.

  20. Spectroscopic performance of DEPFET active pixel sensor prototypes suitable for the high count rate Athena WFI detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Seidlitz, Johannes; Andritschke, Robert; Bähr, Alexander; Meidinger, Norbert; Ott, Sabine; Richter, Rainer H.; Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Treis, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    The focal plane of the WFI of Athena consists of two sensors. One features a large field of view of 40' X 40' and one is forseen to be used for bright point like sources. Both parts base on DEPFET active pixel sensors. To fulfil the count rate requirement for the smaller sensor of less than 1% pile-up for a one Crab source it has to have a sufficient high frame rate. Since therefore the readout becomes a large fraction of the total photon integration time, the probability of measurements with incomplete signals increases. A shutter would solve the problem of these so called misfits but is not in agreement with the required high throughput of more than 80%. The Infinipix design has implemented a storage in addition to separate the collection and the readout of the charges without discarding them. Its working principle was successfully shown by Bähr et al.1 on single pixel level. For the further development three layout variants were tested on a 32 X 32 pixel array scale. The measurements of the spectroscopic performance show very promising results even for the intended readout speed for the Athena WFI of 2:5 μs per sensor row. Although, there are still layout and technology improvements necessary to ensure the reliability needed for space missions. In this paper we present the measurement results on the comparison of the three prototype layout variants.

  1. The Correlation of the N{sub A} Measurements by Counting {sup 28}Si Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mana, G. Massa, E.; Sasso, C. P.; Stock, M.; Fujii, K.; Kuramoto, N.; Mizushima, S.; Narukawa, T.; Borys, M.; Busch, I.; Nicolaus, A.; Pramann, A.

    2015-09-15

    An additional value of the Avogadro constant was obtained by counting the atoms in isotopically enriched Si spheres. With respect to the previous determination, the spheres were etched and repolished to eliminate metal contaminations and to improve the roundness. In addition, all the input quantities—molar mass, lattice parameter, mass, and volume—were remeasured aiming at a smaller uncertainty. In order to make the values given in Andreas et al. [Metrologia 48, S1 (2011)] and Azuma et al. [Metrologia 52, 360 (2015)] usable for a least squares adjustment, we report about the estimate of their correlation.

  2. The Correlation of the NA Measurements by Counting 28Si Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mana, G.; Massa, E.; Sasso, C. P.; Stock, M.; Fujii, K.; Kuramoto, N.; Mizushima, S.; Narukawa, T.; Borys, M.; Busch, I.; Nicolaus, A.; Pramann, A.

    2015-09-01

    An additional value of the Avogadro constant was obtained by counting the atoms in isotopically enriched Si spheres. With respect to the previous determination, the spheres were etched and repolished to eliminate metal contaminations and to improve the roundness. In addition, all the input quantities—molar mass, lattice parameter, mass, and volume—were remeasured aiming at a smaller uncertainty. In order to make the values given in Andreas et al. [Metrologia 48, S1 (2011)] and Azuma et al. [Metrologia 52, 360 (2015)] usable for a least squares adjustment, we report about the estimate of their correlation.

  3. Longitudinal Bunch Pattern Measurements through Single Photon Counting at SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongyi; /UC, San Diego

    2012-09-07

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), a division of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, is a synchrotron light source that provides x-rays for experimental use. As electrons are bent in the storage ring, they emit electromagnetic radiation. There are 372 different buckets which electrons can be loaded into. Different filling patterns produce different types of x-rays. What is the bunch pattern at a given time? Which filling pattern is better? Are there any flaws to the current injection system? These questions can be answered with this single photon counting experiment.

  4. WBC count

    MedlinePlus

    Leukocyte count; White blood cell count ... blood is 4,500 to 11,000 white blood cells per microliter (mcL) or 4.5 to 11. ... LOW WHITE BLOOD CELL (WBC) COUNT A low number of WBCs is called leukopenia. A WBC count below 4500 is below normal ...

  5. Activated systemic inflammatory response at diagnosis reduces lymph node count in colonic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kennelly, Rory P; Murphy, Brenda; Larkin, John O; Mehigan, Brian J; McCormick, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate a link between lymph node yield and systemic inflammatory response in colon cancer. METHODS A prospectively maintained database was interrogated. All patients undergoing curative colonic resection were included. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin were used as markers of SIR. In keeping with previously studies, NLR ≥ 4, albumin < 35 was used as cut off points for SIR. Statistical analysis was performed using 2 sample t-test and χ2 tests where appropriate. RESULTS Three hundred and two patients were included for analysis. One hundred and ninety-five patients had NLR < 4 and 107 had NLR ≥ 4. There was no difference in age or sex between groups. Patients with NLR of ≥ 4 had lower mean lymph node yields than patients with NLR < 4 [17.6 ± 7.1 vs 19.2 ± 7.9 (P = 0.036)]. More patients with an elevated NLR had node positive disease and an increased lymph node ratio (≥ 0.25, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION Prognosis in colon cancer is intimately linked to the patient’s immune response. Assuming standardised surgical technique and sub specialty pathology, lymph node count is reduced when systemic inflammatory response is activated. PMID:27574555

  6. Determination of specific activity of iron-55 by spectrophotometry and liquid scintillation counting with bathophenanthroline complex

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, C.; Hoshi, M.; Tachikawa, E.

    1985-12-01

    A method for determining the macroscopic amount of iron and its radioactivity (/sup 55/Fe) in radioactive corrosion products was established with a single chemical procedure. The iron was first extracted into a liquid scintillator (2,5-diphenyloxazole-xylene) as an ion associate of iron bathophenanthroline (BPT) complex and perchlorate at pH 3-8, followed by measurement of its radioactivity by a liquid scintillation counter and its absorbance by a spectrophotometer. The absorption maximum and molar absorptivity (epsilon) of the complex were 535 nm and 22,000, respectively. The system conforms to Beer's law at concentrations of up to 30 ..mu..g of iron in 10 mL of organic phase. The counting efficiency of the extracted /sup 55/Fe was found to be 60%. Although /sup 60/Co is extracted into the PPO-xylene together with /sup 5/)2%Fe, it is separated from /sup 55/Fe by back extraction with 0.005 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (pH 6.0) into the aqueous phase. The effects of other foreign elements and radionuclides were also examined. The proposed method was successfully applied to analysis of radioactive corrosion products. 21 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Analysis and correction of count rate reduction during simultaneous MR-PET measurements with the BrainPET scanner.

    PubMed

    Weirich, Christoph; Brenner, Daniel; Scheins, Jürgen; Besancon, Etienne; Tellmann, Lutz; Herzog, Hans; Shah, N Jon

    2012-07-01

    In hybrid magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) studies with the Siemens 3T MR-BrainPET scanner an instantaneous reduction of the PET sensitivity was observed during execution of certain MR sequences. This interference was investigated in detail with custom-made as well as standard clinical MR sequences. The radio-frequency pulses, the switched gradient fields and the constant magnetic field were examined as the relevant parameters of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system as well as the air temperature within the PET detectors. Our investigation comprised the analysis of the analog PET signals, the total count rates, the geometric distribution of the count rate reduction within the BrainPET detector as well as reconstructed images. The fast switching magnetic field gradients were identified to distort the analog PET detector signals. The measured count rate reduction was found to be less than 3%, but only up to 2% in the case of echo planar imaging sequences, as applied in functional MRI. For clinical sequences routinely used in hybrid MR-BrainPET measurements, a correction method has been designed, implemented, and evaluated .

  8. Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Y; Hirone, T

    1994-05-01

    The present study investigated the phototoxic effect of bergamot oil and its photosensitive component, bergapten, on sunburn cell (SBC) production in guinea pig skin. The back skin was pretreated with bergamot oil or bergapten and exposed to monochromatic light under various conditions. After irradiation, skin specimens were excised, and histological sections were prepared. The number of sunburn cells in the interfollicular epidermis was counted. The SBC formation by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVB radiation was the same as that without pretreatment with any photosensitizer. In contrast, a significant number of SBCs were induced by bergamot oil or bergapten plus UVA radiation, but no SBCs were found after the treatment with UVA alone. The result indicates that bergamot oil or bergapten was photosensitized by UVA irradiation. The SBCs were linearly increased in a UV-dose dependent manner. On the basis of the regression lines, an action spectrum and spectral peak for the photosensitizers plus UVA were obtained. The action spectrum for bergamot oil- and bergapten-induced SBC formation was in the ranges of 325-365 nm and 325-350 nm, and their spectral peaks were at 335-345 nm and 335-350 nm, respectively. The data are in good accordance with those estimated from skin erythema reactions. Therefore, counting SBCs is a very useful parameter for quantitative evaluation of phototoxicity.

  9. How valid are wearable physical activity trackers for measuring steps?

    PubMed

    An, Hyun-Sung; Jones, Gregory C; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Welk, Gregory J; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Wearable activity trackers have become popular for tracking individual's daily physical activity, but little information is available to substantiate the validity of these devices in step counts. Thirty-five healthy individuals completed three conditions of activity tracker measurement: walking/jogging on a treadmill, walking over-ground on an indoor track, and a 24-hour free-living condition. Participants wore 10 activity trackers at the same time for both treadmill and over-ground protocol. Of these 10 activity trackers three were randomly given for 24-hour free-living condition. Correlations of steps measured to steps observed were r = 0.84 and r = 0.67 on a treadmill and over-ground protocol, respectively. The mean MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) score for all devices and speeds on a treadmill was 8.2% against manually counted steps. The MAPE value was higher for over-ground walking (9.9%) and even higher for the 24-hour free-living period (18.48%) on step counts. Equivalence testing for step count measurement resulted in a significant level within ±5% for the Fitbit Zip, Withings Pulse, and Jawbone UP24 and within ±10% for the Basis B1 band, Garmin VivoFit, and SenseWear Armband Mini. The results show that the Fitbit Zip and Withings Pulse provided the most accurate measures of step count under all three different conditions (i.e. treadmill, over-ground, and 24-hour condition), and considerable variability in accuracy across monitors and also by speeds and conditions.

  10. Photon-Counting Multikilohertz Microlaser Altimeters for Airborne and Spaceborne Topographic Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degnan, John J.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We consider the optimum design of photon-counting microlaser altimeters operating from airborne and spaceborne platforms under both day and night conditions. Extremely compact Q-switched microlaser transmitters produce trains of low energy pulses at multi-kHz rates and can easily generate subnanosecond pulse-widths for precise ranging. To guide the design, we have modeled the solar noise background and developed simple algorithms, based on Post-Detection Poisson Filtering (PDPF), to optimally extract the weak altimeter signal from a high noise background during daytime operations. Practical technology issues, such as detector and/or receiver dead times, have also been considered in the analysis. We describe an airborne prototype, being developed under NASA's instrument Incubator Program, which is designed to operate at a 10 kHz rate from aircraft cruise altitudes up to 12 km with laser pulse energies on the order of a few microjoules. We also analyze a compact and power efficient system designed to operate from Mars orbit at an altitude of 300 km and sample the Martian surface at rates up to 4.3 kHz using a 1 watt laser transmitter and an 18 cm telescope. This yields a Power-Aperture Product of 0.24 W-square meter, corresponding to a value almost 4 times smaller than the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (0. 88W-square meter), yet the sampling rate is roughly 400 times greater (4 kHz vs 10 Hz) Relative to conventional high power laser altimeters, advantages of photon-counting laser altimeters include: (1) a more efficient use of available laser photons providing up to two orders of magnitude greater surface sampling rates for a given laser power-telescope aperture product; (2) a simultaneous two order of magnitude reduction in the volume, cost and weight of the telescope system; (3) the unique ability to spatially resolve the source of the surface return in a photon counting mode through the use of pixellated or imaging detectors; and (4) improved vertical and

  11. Total Lymphocyte Count and Haemoglobin Concentration Combined as a Surrogate Marker for Initiating Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Resource-limited Setting as against CD4 Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Dhamangaonkar, AC; Mathew, A; Pazare, AR

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To find a sensitive and low-cost surrogate marker for CD4 count for initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [CD4 < 200 /mm3], in the form of total lymphocyte count (TLC) < 1200 /mm3 combined with haemoglobin (Hb) with multiple Hb cut-offs. Method: Two hundred and three consecutive treatment-naïve adult HIV positive outpatients attending the virology clinic in World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage 1, 2 or 3 were enrolled in the study. Their complete blood counts and CD4 counts were done. Descriptive statistics was done by two methods correlating TLC alone with CD4 and the other using combined marker of TLC and Hb with CD4 count. Result: Total lymphocyte count alone did not correlate well with CD4 counts (r = 0.13; p = 0.065). Sensitivity of TLC < 1200 /mm3 to predict CD4 < 200 /mm3 was low (23.27%) and the sensitivity of the combined marker (TLC + Hb) increased with higher Hb cut-offs. Conclusion: Adding Hb to TLC markedly improved the sensitivity of the marker to predict CD4 count < 200/mm3. We also recommend a trade-off Hb cut-off of 10.5 g/dL for optimum sensitivity and specificity in this population subset. PMID:25781283

  12. Reticulated platelet levels in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma of dogs with various platelet counts measured by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Haruhiko; Yamagami, Hirozumi; Watari, Toshihiro; Kano, Rui; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Reticulated platelets (RP) are young platelets that contain residual RNA, and measurement of RP has been to assess thrombopoiesis. In the present study, flow cytometric counts of RP were compared using paired specimens elicited from dogs with various platelet counts by different RP collection procedures, the whole blood method (WBM) and platelet rich plasma method (PRPM). The flow cytometric counts of RP for the specimens collected by WBM showed good and stable agreement with those taken by PRPM from the same canine subjects. The result revealed that WBM, as well as PRPM, can be used clinically to determine RP levels in dogs with abnormal platelet counts.

  13. The development of the disease activity score (DAS) and the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28).

    PubMed

    van Riel, P L C M

    2014-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis, disease activity cannot be measured using a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) has been developed as a quantitative index to be able to measure, study and manage disease activity in RA in daily clinical practice, clinical trials, and long term observational studies. The DAS is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and patient self-report of general health. Cut points were developed to classify patients in remission, as well as low, moderate, and severe disease activity in the 1990s. DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials to classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, depending on the magnitude of change and absolute level of disease activity at the conclusion of the test.

  14. Photon counting performance measurements of transfer electron InGaAsP photocathode hybrid photomultiplier tubes at 1064 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.; Hasselbrack, William B.; La Rue, Ross A.

    2007-05-01

    We report the test results of a hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) with a transfer electron (TE) InGaAsP photocathode and GaAs Schottky avalanche photodiode (APD) anode. Unlike Geiger mode InGaAsP APDs, these HPMTs (also known as intensified photodiode (IPD), vacuum APD, or hybrid photodetector) operate in linear mode without the need for quenching and gating. Their greatest advantages are wide dynamic range, high speed, large photosensitive area, and potential for photon counting and analog detection dual mode operation. The photon detection efficiency we measured was 25% at 1064 nm wavelength with a dark count rate of 60,000/s at -22 degrees Celsius. The output pulse width in response to a single photon detection is about 0.9 ns. The maximum count rate was 90 Mcts/s and was limited solely by the speed of the discriminator used in the measurement (10 ns dead time). The spectral response of these devices extended from 900 to 1300 nm. We also measured the HPMT response to 60 ps laser pulses. The average output pulse amplitude increased monotonically with the input pulse energy, which suggested that we can resolve photon number in an incident pulse. The jitter of the HPMT output was found to be about 0.5 ns standard deviation and depended on bias voltage applied to the TE photocathode. To our knowledge, these HPMTs are the most sensitive non gating photon detectors at 1064 nm wavelength, and they will have many applications in laser altimeters, atmospheric lidars, and free space laser communication systems.

  15. Counting Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft and Measuring Size of Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    There were two principal objectives of the cooperative agreement between NASA and the University of Denver. The first goal was to modify the design of the ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) so that the effective lower detection limit would be improved at high altitudes. This improvement was sought because, in the instrument used prior to 1993, diffusion losses prevented the smallest detectable particles from reaching the detection volume of the instrument during operation at low pressure. Therefore, in spite of the sensor's ability to detect particles as small as 0.008 microns in diameter, many of these particles were lost in transport to the sensing region and were not counted. Most of the particles emitted by aircraft are smaller than 0.1 micron in diameter. At the start date of this work, May 1990, continuous sizing techniques available on the ER-2 were only capable of detecting particles larger than 0.17 micron. Thus, the second objective of this work was to evaluate candidate sizing techniques in an effort to gain additional information concerning the size of particles emitted by aircraft.

  16. Elucidating Proteoform Families from Proteoform Intact-Mass and Lysine-Count Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Proteomics is presently dominated by the “bottom-up” strategy, in which proteins are enzymatically digested into peptides for mass spectrometric identification. Although this approach is highly effective at identifying large numbers of proteins present in complex samples, the digestion into peptides renders it impossible to identify the proteoforms from which they were derived. We present here a powerful new strategy for the identification of proteoforms and the elucidation of proteoform families (groups of related proteoforms) from the experimental determination of the accurate proteoform mass and number of lysine residues contained. Accurate proteoform masses are determined by standard LC–MS analysis of undigested protein mixtures in an Orbitrap mass spectrometer, and the lysine count is determined using the NeuCode isotopic tagging method. We demonstrate the approach in analysis of the yeast proteome, revealing 8637 unique proteoforms and 1178 proteoform families. The elucidation of proteoforms and proteoform families afforded here provides an unprecedented new perspective upon proteome complexity and dynamics. PMID:26941048

  17. Quantifying the sources of error in measurements of urine activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mozley, P.D.; Kim, H.J.; McElgin, W.

    1994-05-01

    Accurate scintigraphic measurements of radioactivity in the bladder and voided urine specimens can be limited by scatter, attenuation, and variations in the volume of urine that a given dose is distributed in. The purpose of this study was to quantify some of the errors that these problems can introduce. Transmission scans and 41 conjugate images of the bladder were sequentially acquired on a dual headed camera over 24 hours in 6 subjects after the intravenous administration of 100-150 MBq (2.7-3.6 mCi) of a novel I-123 labeled benzamide. Renal excretion fractions were calculated by measuring the counts in conjugate images of 41 sequentially voided urine samples. A correction for scatter was estimated by comparing the count rates in images that were acquired with the photopeak centered an 159 keV and images that were made simultaneously with the photopeak centered on 126 keV. The decay and attenuation corrected, geometric mean activities were compared to images of the net dose injected. Checks of the results were performed by measuring the total volume of each voided urine specimen and determining the activity in a 20 ml aliquot of it with a dose calibrator. Modeling verified the experimental results which showed that 34% of the counts were attenuated when the bladder had been expanded to a volume of 300 ml. Corrections for attenuation that were based solely on the transmission scans were limited by the volume of non-radioactive urine in the bladder before the activity was administered. The attenuation of activity in images of the voided wine samples was dependent on the geometry of the specimen container. The images of urine in standard, 300 ml laboratory specimen cups had 39{plus_minus}5% fewer counts than images of the same samples laid out in 3 liter bedpans. Scatter through the carbon fiber table substantially increased the number of counts in the images by an average of 14%.

  18. A relationship between CD4 count and oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in urban population

    PubMed Central

    Satyakiran, Gadavalli Vera Venkata; Bavle, Radhika Manoj; Alexander, Glory; Rao, Saritha; Venugopal, Reshma; Hosthor, Sreelatha S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gradually destroys the body's immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections. HIV infection causes a quantitative and qualitative depletion of CD4 lymphocyte count, which increases the risk of opportunistic infections. Thus, CD4 count is one of the key factors in determining both the urgency of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation and the need of prophylaxis for opportunistic infections. Aim: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and variations in the oral manifestations of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients on HAART therapy in urban population and their association with CD4 count. Materials and Methods: A study was conducted by screening eighty patients who were HIV positive in an urban location. Both adult and pediatric patients were screened for oral manifestations and simultaneously CD4 count was also evaluated. Patients with HIV infection for variable time period who are under HAART were considered. Statistical Analysis: Measures of central tendency were used to analyse the data. Results: HIV infection destroys the immune system of an individual, making the patient susceptible to various infections and malignancies. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, the scenario has changed drastically. We have observed that patients with CD4 counts between 164 and 1286 show relatively few oral manifestations. Long-term HAART therapy causes pigmentation, xerostomia and angular cheilitis but is taken up quite well by the patients. Conclusion: In this study, eighty patients with HAART from urban population showed very minimal oral findings because of good accessibility for treatment and awareness about HIV infections. The patients who were on long-standing HAART treatment also showed minimal oral manifestation such as pigmentation and xerostomia. Hence, we conclude that recognition, significance and treatment of these lesions in patients with HIV

  19. Measurement of activity in older adults: reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor.

    PubMed

    Resnick, B; Nahm, E S; Orwig, D; Zimmerman, S S; Magaziner, J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the Step Activity Monitor (SAM) when used with older adults. A total of 30 subjects with a mean age of 86 +/- 6.1 participated in the study. Sixty one-minute walks were measured with the SAM, and two observers visually counted steps. Four participants wore the SAM for 6 to 48 hours and maintained activity diaries. The intraclass correlation for the SAM recordings was R = .84. There was an overall step counting accuracy of 96%. The diaries supported the SAM data for those who wore the SAM for extended periods. The SAM is an easy to use, comfortable, valid, and reliable measure of activity in older adults and particularly may be useful to triangulate measurement of activity in these individuals.

  20. Arterial wall perfusion measured with photon counting spectral x-ray CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, Steven M.; Korinek, Mark J.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Anderson, Jill L.; Halaweish, Ahmed; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2016-10-01

    Early atherosclerosis changes perfusion of the arterial wall due to localized proliferation of the vasa vasorum. When contrast agent passes through the artery, some enters the vasa vasorum and increases radiopacity of the arterial wall. Technical challenges to detecting changes in vasa vasorum density include the thin arterial wall, partial volume averaging at the arterial lumen/wall interface and calcification within the wall. We used a photon-counting spectral CT scanner to study carotid arteries of anesthetized pigs and micro-CT of these arteries to quantify vasa vasorum density. The left carotid artery wall was injected with autologous blood to stimulate vasa vasorum angiogenesis. The scans were performed at 25-120 keV; the tube-current-time product was 550 mAs. A 60 mL bolus of iodine contrast agent was injected into the femoral vein at 5mL/s. Two seconds post injection, an axial scan was acquired at every 3 s over 60 s (i.e., 20 time points). Each time point acquired 28 contiguous transaxial slices with reconstructed voxels 0.16 x 0.16 x 1 mm3. Regions-of-interest in the outer 2/3 of the arterial wall and in the middle 2/3 of the lumen were drawn and their enhancements plotted versus time. Lumenal CT values peaked several seconds after injection and then returned towards baseline. Arterial wall CT values peaked concurrent to the lumen. The peak arterial wall enhancement in the left carotid arterial wall correlated with increased vasa vasorum density observed in micro-CT images of the isolated arteries.

  1. Arterial Wall Perfusion Measured with Photon Counting Spectral X-ray CT

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, Steven M.; Korinek, Mark J.; Vercnocke, Andrew J.; Anderson, Jill L.; Halaweish, Ahmed; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2016-01-01

    Early atherosclerosis changes perfusion of the arterial wall due to localized proliferation of the vasa vasorum. When contrast agent passes through the artery, some enters the vasa vasorum and increases radiopacity of the arterial wall. Technical challenges to detecting changes in vasa vasorum density include the thin arterial wall, partial volume averaging at the arterial lumen/wall interface and calcification within the wall. We used a photon-counting spectral CT scanner to study carotid arteries of anesthetized pigs and micro-CT of these arteries to quantify vasa vasorum density. The left carotid artery wall was injected with autologous blood to stimulate vasa vasorum angiogenesis. The scans were performed at 25–120 keV; the tube-current-time product was 550 mAs. A 60 mL bolus of iodine contrast agent was injected into the femoral vein at 5mL/s. Two seconds post injection, an axial scan was acquired at every 3 s over 60 s (i.e., 20 time points). Each time point acquired 28 contiguous transaxial slices with reconstructed voxels 0.16 × 0.16 × 1 mm3. Regions-of-interest in the outer 2/3 of the arterial wall and in the middle 2/3 of the lumen were drawn and their enhancements plotted versus time. Lumenal CT values peaked several seconds after injection and then returned towards baseline. Arterial wall CT values peaked concurrent to the lumen. The peak arterial wall enhancement in the left carotid arterial wall correlated with increased vasa vasorum density observed in micro-CT images of the isolated arteries. PMID:27807391

  2. Arterial Wall Perfusion Measured with Photon Counting Spectral X-ray CT.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Steven M; Korinek, Mark J; Vercnocke, Andrew J; Anderson, Jill L; Halaweish, Ahmed; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H; Ritman, Erik L

    2016-08-28

    Early atherosclerosis changes perfusion of the arterial wall due to localized proliferation of the vasa vasorum. When contrast agent passes through the artery, some enters the vasa vasorum and increases radiopacity of the arterial wall. Technical challenges to detecting changes in vasa vasorum density include the thin arterial wall, partial volume averaging at the arterial lumen/wall interface and calcification within the wall. We used a photon-counting spectral CT scanner to study carotid arteries of anesthetized pigs and micro-CT of these arteries to quantify vasa vasorum density. The left carotid artery wall was injected with autologous blood to stimulate vasa vasorum angiogenesis. The scans were performed at 25-120 keV; the tube-current-time product was 550 mAs. A 60 mL bolus of iodine contrast agent was injected into the femoral vein at 5mL/s. Two seconds post injection, an axial scan was acquired at every 3 s over 60 s (i.e., 20 time points). Each time point acquired 28 contiguous transaxial slices with reconstructed voxels 0.16 × 0.16 × 1 mm(3). Regions-of-interest in the outer 2/3 of the arterial wall and in the middle 2/3 of the lumen were drawn and their enhancements plotted versus time. Lumenal CT values peaked several seconds after injection and then returned towards baseline. Arterial wall CT values peaked concurrent to the lumen. The peak arterial wall enhancement in the left carotid arterial wall correlated with increased vasa vasorum density observed in micro-CT images of the isolated arteries.

  3. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  4. Mineral Features of EETA79001 Martian Meteorite Revealed by Point-Counting Raman Measurements as Anticipated for In-Situ Exploration on Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Kuebler, Karla E.; Jolliff, Brad L.

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of pyroxenes of different Mg' and olivines of different Fo in lithologies A and B were obtained. Three types of olivine formed at different stages of rock formation were found by point counting Raman measurements along linear traverses.

  5. [Outcomes count: the importance of measuring the outcomes of hospital care].

    PubMed

    Sangha, Oliver; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2002-01-01

    A century ago the Boston surgeon Earnest A. Codman described in detail the requirements for monitoring quality of care and emphasized the importance of outcomes in evaluating care. At the time the medical societies were disconcerted by his ideas, which were perceived as revolutionary. After several decade of focusing on the structures and processes of care we are now witnessing a renaissance of measuring outcomes. This paper emphasizes the need for outcomes measurement monitor quality of care. The introduction of diagnosis-related groups in Germany is the most recent development that underlines the importance of outcomes measurement and benchmarking.

  6. Mapping cyclist activity and injury risk in a network combining smartphone GPS data and bicycle counts.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Jillian; Miranda-Moreno, Luis F; Morency, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the modal share of cycling has been growing in North American cities. With the increase of cycling, the need of bicycle infrastructure and road safety concerns have also raised. Bicycle flows are an essential component in safety analysis. The main objective of this work is to propose a methodology to estimate and map bicycle volumes and cyclist injury risk throughout the entire network of road segments and intersections on the island of Montreal, achieved by combining smartphone GPS traces and count data. In recent years, methods have been proposed to estimate average annual daily bicycle (AADB) volume and injury risk estimates at both the intersection and segment levels using bicycle counts. However, these works have been limited to small samples of locations for which count data is available. In this work, a methodology is proposed to combine short- and long-term bicycle counts with GPS data to estimate AADB volumes along segments and intersections in the entire network. As part of the validation process, correlation is observed between AADB values obtained from GPS data and AADB values from count data, with R-squared values of 0.7 for signalized intersections, 0.58 for non-signalized intersections and between 0.48 and 0.76 for segments with and without bicycle infrastructure. The methodology is also validated through the calibration of safety performance functions using both sources of AADB estimates, from counts and from GPS data. Using the validated AADB estimates, the factors associated with injury risk were identified using data from the entire population of intersections and segments throughout Montreal. Bayesian injury risk maps are then generated and the concentrations of expected injuries and risk at signalized intersections are identified. Signalized intersections, which are often located at the intersection of major arterials, witness 4 times more injuries and 2.5 times greater risk than non-signalized intersections. A similar

  7. Time-based and count-based measurement of preference1

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M.

    1976-01-01

    Rats' pressing on two levers was reinforced according to two independent variable-interval schedules that were varied during the experiment. Since the levers were connected directly to the programming equipment, bypassing the standard pulseformers, reinforcement could occur while a lever was held down. Although the time a lever was pressed might, therefore, have varied independently of number of presses, these two measures covaried substantially, because the average duration of the presses remained roughly constant. This rough invariance may have resulted from the rats' tendency to make bursts of brief presses (i.e., to jiggle the levers), even though the contingencies encouraged holding. When duration did vary, presses on the two levers tended to vary together. As a result, relative time spent pressing corresponded closely to relative number of presses. Both of these measures conformed well to the matching law. Absolute behavioral frequency at a lever, measured either way, varied directly with proportion of reinforcement for that lever, in accordance with the generalized version of the matching law. Number of presses seemed, on balance, to be a slightly more reliable measure than pressing time. The substantial interchangeability may prove more significant than the slight disparity, however, because it supports the notion that all behavior can be measured on a common scale of time. PMID:16811928

  8. Affective regulation of stereotype activation: It’s the (accessible) thought that counts

    PubMed Central

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R.; Sinclair, Stacey; Dunn, Elizabeth; Clore, Gerald L.

    2010-01-01

    Extant research demonstrates that positive affect, compared to negative affect, increases stereotyping. In four experiments we explore whether the link between affect and stereotyping depends, critically, on the relative accessibility of stereotype-relevant thoughts and response tendencies. As well as manipulating mood, we measured or manipulated the accessibility of egalitarian response tendencies (Experiments 1-2) and counter-stereotypic thoughts (Experiments 3-4). In the absence of such response tendencies and thoughts, people in positive moods displayed greater stereotype activation —consistent with past research. By contrast, in the presence of accessible egalitarian response tendencies or counter-stereotypic thoughts, people in positive moods exhibited less stereotype activation than those in negative moods. PMID:20363909

  9. Compositional variability across Mercury's surface revealed by MESSENGER measurements of variations in thermal neutron count rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peplowski, P. N.; Lawrence, D. J.; Goldsten, J. O.; Nittler, L. R.; Solomon, S. C.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements by MESSENGER's Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometer (GRNS) have revealed variations in the flux of thermal neutrons across Mercury's northern hemisphere. These variations are interpreted to originate from spatial variations in surface elemental composition. In particular, the measurements are sensitive to the near-surface abundances of elements that absorb thermal neutrons, including major rock-forming elements such as Fe and Ti, minor elements such as Mn and Cl, and rare-earth elements such as Gd and Sm. We have constructed a map of thermal neutron variability across the surface and compared it with known variations in elemental composition and with the distribution of geologic units. Development of the map included the derivation of the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section across the surface, a quantity whose value and variability provides useful constraints on the formation and geochemical evolution of Mercury's crust. Finally, by combining the thermal neutron measurements with previously reported elemental measurements from the GRNS and MESSENGER's X-Ray Spectrometer, we have derived constraints on the abundances of neutron-absorbing elements, including previously unreported limits for some minor and rare-earth elements.

  10. Validation and calibration of HeadCount, a self-report measure for quantifying heading exposure in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Catenaccio, E; Caccese, J; Wakschlag, N; Fleysher, R; Kim, N; Kim, M; Buckley, T A; Stewart, W F; Lipton, R B; Kaminski, T; Lipton, M L

    2016-01-01

    The long-term effects of repetitive head impacts due to heading are an area of increasing concern, and exposure must be accurately measured; however, the validity of self-report of cumulative soccer heading is not known. In order to validate HeadCount, a 2-week recall questionnaire, the number of player-reported headers was compared to the number of headers observed by trained raters for a men's and a women's collegiate soccer teams during an entire season of competitive play using Spearman's correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and calibrated using a generalized estimating equation. The average Spearman's rho was 0.85 for men and 0.79 for women. The average ICC was 0.75 in men and 0.38 in women. The calibration analysis demonstrated that men tend to report heading accurately while women tend to overestimate. HeadCount is a valid instrument for tracking heading behaviour, but may have to be calibrated in women.

  11. Count me in: response to sexual orientation measures among older adults.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Kim, Hyun-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Health disparities exist among sexual minority older adults. Yet, health and aging surveys rarely include sexual orientation measures and when they do, they often exclude older adults from being asked about sexual orientation. This is the first population-based study to assess item nonresponse to sexual orientation measures by age and change over time. We compare response rates and examine time trends in response patterns using adjusted logistic regressions. Among adults aged 65 and older, the nonresponse rate on sexual orientation is lower than income. While older adults show higher nonresponse rates on sexual orientation than younger adults, the nonresponse rates have significantly decreased over time. By 2010, only 1.23% of older adults responded don't know/not sure, with 1.55% refusing to answer sexual orientation questions. Decisions to not ask sexual orientation among older adults must be reconsidered, given documented health disparities and rapidly changing social trends in the understanding of diverse sexualities.

  12. Measurement of Sub-Shot-Noise Correlations of Spatial Fluctuations in the Photon-Counting Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanchet, Jean-Luc; Devaux, Fabrice; Furfaro, Luca; Lantz, Eric

    2008-12-01

    We have measured sub-shot-noise quantum correlations of spatial fluctuations in the far-field image of the parametric fluorescence created in a type I beta-barium-borate nonlinear crystal. Imaging is performed at very low light level (0.15 photons per pixel) with an electron multiplying charge coupled device camera. Experimental results overcome the standard quantum limit shot-noise level without subtraction of the variance of the detection noise.

  13. Keeping Score without the Body Count: Measuring Counterinsurgent Effectiveness According to Insurgent Tangible Resources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    Government Printing Office, September 2006), 5-7. 8 Joint Publication 5-0, The Operations Process, III-45. 9 Douglass Hubbard , How to Measure Anything...nation government, improve the economic condition and infrastructure of the host nation, and improve the capability of the host nation security forces...population back into support of the government. The next two LLOs focus on development. Both economic and infrastructure development (labeled in FM 3-24

  14. Chemiluminescence measurements on irradiated garlic powder by the single photon counting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narvaiz, P.

    1995-02-01

    The feasibility of identifying irradiated garlic powder measuring chemiluminescence by liquid scintillation spectrometry was studied. Samples packed in 100 μm thick polyethylene bags were irradiated in a 60Co semi-industrial facility, with doses of 10 and 30 kGy. Control and irradiated samples were stored at 20 ± 4°C and 70 ± 10% RH in darkness for 2 years. Assays were performed to establish the best sample concentration and pH of the buffer solution in which garlic powder was to be suspended for its measurement. The water content of garlic samples was also analyzed throughout storage time, as it related to the stability of the species causing luminescence. Chemiluminescence values diminished in every sample over storage time following an exponential pattern. Irradiated samples showed values significantly higher than those of the control samples, according to the radiation dose, throughout the storage period. This does not necessarily imply that the identification of the irradiated samples would be certain, since values of control samples coming from different origins have been found to fluctuate within a rather wide range. Nonetheless, in principle, the method looks promising for the measurement of chemiluminescence in irradiated samples

  15. Calibration and demonstration of a condensation nuclei counting system for airborne measurements of aircraft exhausted particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Winstead, Edward L.; Bagwell, Donald R.

    A system of multiple continuous-flow condensation nuclei counters (CNC) was assembled, calibrated, and demonstrated on a NASA T-39 Sabreliner jet aircraft. The mission was to penetrate the exhaust plumes and/or contrails of other subsonic jet aircraft and determine the concentrations of submicrometer diameter aerosol particles. Mission criteria required rapid response measurements ( ˜ 1 s) at aircraft cruise altitudes (9-12 km). The CNC sampling system was optimized to operate at 160 Torr. Aerosol samples were acquired through an externally mounted probe. Installed downstream of the probe was a critical flow orifice that provided sample to the CNC system. The orifice not only controlled volumetric flow rate, but also dampened probe pressure/flow oscillations encountered in the turbulent aircraft-wake vortex environment. Laboratory calibrations with NaCl particles under representative conditions are reported that indicate small amounts of particle loss and a maximum measurement efficiency of ˜ 75% for particles with diameters ranging from ⩾ 0.01- ⩽ 0.18 μm Data from exhaust/contrail samplings of a NASA B757 and DC-8 at cruise altitude are discussed. Data include exhaust/contrail measurements made during periods in which the B757 port jet engine burned low-sulfur fuel while the starboard engine simultaneously burned specially prepared high-sulfur fuel. The data discussed highlight the CNC systems performance, and introduce new observations pertinent to the behavior of sulfur in aircraft exhaust aerosol chemistry.

  16. Determination of 90Sr-90Y activity in urine samples by using Cherenkov counting.

    PubMed

    Tsroya, S; German, U; Pelled, O; Katorza, E; Alfassi, Z B

    2013-03-01

    Cherenkov counting of the (90)Sr-(90)Y pure beta emitters in aqueous samples is an attractive method; but color quenching correction is needed, this being especially significant for urine which is characterized by a strong coloration. A quench correction method based on the external source of some liquid scintillation systems (named ESAR-External Source Area Ratio) was proposed for aqueous solutions. In the present work, the application of the ESAR method for determination of (90)Sr-(90)Y in human urine samples is described.

  17. Measuring the food environment: a systematic technique for characterizing food stores using display counts.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cassandra; Bodor, J Nicholas; Rose, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Marketing research has documented the influence of in-store characteristics-such as the number and placement of display stands-on consumer purchases of a product. However, little information exists on this topic for key foods of interest to those studying the influence of environmental changes on dietary behavior. This study demonstrates a method for characterizing the food environment by measuring the number of separate displays of fruits, vegetables, and energy-dense snack foods (including chips, candies, and sodas) and their proximity to cash registers in different store types. Observations in New Orleans stores (N = 172) in 2007 and 2008 revealed significantly more displays of energy-dense snacks than of fruits and vegetables within all store types, especially supermarkets. Moreover, supermarkets had an average of 20 displays of energy-dense snacks within 1 meter of their cash registers, yet none of them had even a single display of fruits or vegetables near their cash registers. Measures of the number of separate display stands of key foods and their proximity to a cash register can be used by researchers to better characterize food stores and by policymakers to address improvements to the food environment.

  18. Measurement of radionuclides using ion chromatography and flow-cell scintillation counting with pulse shape discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    DeVol, T.A.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1995-10-01

    The use of ion chromatography (IC) for radiochemical separations is a well established technique. IC is commonly used in routine environmental monitoring applications as well as in specialized research applications. Typical usage involves the separation of a single radionuclide from the non-radioactive constituents. During the past decade, a limited amount of research has been conducted using automated IC systems in actinide separation applications (e.g.). More recently, separation procedures for common non-gamma emitting activation and fission products were developed utilizing a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. In addition, a separation procedure for six common actinides has been developed using a HPLC system. These latter systems used on-line flow-cell detectors for quantification of the radioactive constituents of the effluent stream.

  19. Lack of correlation between Legionella colonization and microbial population quantification using heterotrophic plate count and adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence measurement.

    PubMed

    Duda, Scott; Baron, Julianne L; Wagener, Marilyn M; Vidic, Radisav D; Stout, Janet E

    2015-07-01

    This investigation compared biological quantification of potable and non-potable (cooling) water samples using pour plate heterotrophic plate count (HPC) methods and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration measurement using bioluminescence. The relationship between these measurements and the presence of Legionella spp. was also examined. HPC for potable and non-potable water were cultured on R2A and PCA, respectively. Results indicated a strong correlation between HPC and ATP measurements in potable water (R = 0.90, p < 0.001). In the make-up water and two cooling towers, the correlations between ATP and HPC were much weaker but statistically significant (make-up water: R = 0.37, p = 0.005; cooling tower 1: R = 0.52, p < 0.001; cooling tower 2: R = 0.54, p < 0.001). For potable and non-potable samples, HPC exhibited higher measurement variability than ATP. However, ATP measurements showed higher microbial concentrations than HPC measurements. Following chlorination of the cooling towers, ATP measurements indicated very low bacterial concentrations (<10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL) despite high HPC concentrations (>1000 CFU/mL) which consisted primarily of non-tuberculous mycobacteria. HPC concentrations have been suggested to be predictive of Legionella presence, although this has not been proven. Our evaluation showed that HPC or ATP demonstrated a fair predictive capacity for Legionella positivity in potable water (HPC: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) = 0.70; ATP: ROC = 0.78; p = 0.003). However, HPC or ATP correctly classified sites as positive only 64 and 62% of the time, respectively. No correlation between HPC or ATP and Legionella colonization in non-potable water samples was found (HPC: ROC = 0.28; ATP: ROC = 0.44; p = 0.193).

  20. Two decades and counting: 24-years of sustained open ocean biogeochemical measurements in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomas, M. W.; Bates, N. R.; Johnson, R. J.; Knap, A. H.; Steinberg, D. K.; Carlson, C. A.

    2013-09-01

    The Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) program has sampled the northwestern Sargasso Sea on a biweekly (January to April) to monthly basis since October 1988. The primary objective of the core BATS program continues to be an improved understanding of the time-variable processes and mechanisms that control the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and related elements in the surface ocean. With 24 years of measurements for most chemical, physical and biological variables, we have moved beyond descriptions of seasonal and interannual variability to examination of multi-year trends and potential controls, however there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the ecosystem mechanisms related to organic matter production, export and remineralization. While earlier BATS overviews have focused on describing seasonal and year-to-year variability, this overview provides new information on three long-standing biogeochemical questions in Sargasso Sea biogeochemistry. First, why is there a discrepancy between biological (i.e., sediment trap) and geochemical estimates of carbon export production? Winter storms and mesoscale eddies have now been clearly shown to contribute to annual nutrient budgets and carbon export production. Recent information on phytoplankton natural isotopic nitrogen composition, and data from profiling floats suggests that small phytoplankton are important contributors to new production in summer despite the apparent absence of a mechanism to entrain nitrate into the euphotic zone. These findings aid in closing the gap between these two different estimates of carbon export production. Second, what supports the seasonal drawdown of carbon dioxide in the absence of detectable nutrients? The zooplankton timeseries at BATS highlights the importance of zooplankton as a conduit for carbon removal due to grazing and vertical migration. Although increases in cellular elemental stoichiometry to values greater than the canonical Redfield Ratio, and the

  1. Issues to be considered in counting burrows as a measure of Atlantic ghost crab populations, an important bioindicator of sandy beaches.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Maíra; Turra, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The use of indirect estimates of ghost-crab populations to assess beach disturbance has several advantages, including non-destructiveness, ease and low cost, although this strategy may add some degree of noise to estimates of population parameters. Resolution of these shortcomings may allow wider use of these populations as an indicator of differences in quality among beaches. This study analyzed to what extent the number of crab burrows may diverge from the number of animals, considering beach morphology, burrow depth and signs of occupation as contributing factors or indicators of a higher or lower occupation rate. We estimated the occupation rate of crabs in burrows on nine low-use beaches, which were previously categorized as dissipative, intermediate or reflexive. Three random 2-m-wide transects were laid perpendicular to the shoreline, where burrows were counted and excavated to search for crabs. The depth and signs of recent activity around the burrows were also recorded. The occupation rate differed on the different beaches, but morphodynamics was not identified as a grouping factor. A considerable number of burrows that lacked signs of recent activity proved to be occupied, and the proportions of these burrows also differed among beaches. Virtually all burrows less than 10 cm deep were unoccupied; the occupation rate tended to increase gradually to a burrow depth of 20-35 cm. Other methods (water, smoke, and traps) were applied to measure the effectiveness of excavating as a method for burrow counts. Traps and excavation proved to be the best methods. These observations illustrate the possible degree of unreliability of comparisons of beaches based on indirect measures. Combining burrow depth assessment with surrounding signs of occupation proved to be a useful tool to minimize biases.

  2. Issues to Be Considered in Counting Burrows as a Measure of Atlantic Ghost Crab Populations, an Important Bioindicator of Sandy Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Pombo, Maíra; Turra, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The use of indirect estimates of ghost-crab populations to assess beach disturbance has several advantages, including non-destructiveness, ease and low cost, although this strategy may add some degree of noise to estimates of population parameters. Resolution of these shortcomings may allow wider use of these populations as an indicator of differences in quality among beaches. This study analyzed to what extent the number of crab burrows may diverge from the number of animals, considering beach morphology, burrow depth and signs of occupation as contributing factors or indicators of a higher or lower occupation rate. We estimated the occupation rate of crabs in burrows on nine low-use beaches, which were previously categorized as dissipative, intermediate or reflexive. Three random 2-m-wide transects were laid perpendicular to the shoreline, where burrows were counted and excavated to search for crabs. The depth and signs of recent activity around the burrows were also recorded. The occupation rate differed on the different beaches, but morphodynamics was not identified as a grouping factor. A considerable number of burrows that lacked signs of recent activity proved to be occupied, and the proportions of these burrows also differed among beaches. Virtually all burrows less than 10 cm deep were unoccupied; the occupation rate tended to increase gradually to a burrow depth of 20–35 cm. Other methods (water, smoke, and traps) were applied to measure the effectiveness of excavating as a method for burrow counts. Traps and excavation proved to be the best methods. These observations illustrate the possible degree of unreliability of comparisons of beaches based on indirect measures. Combining burrow depth assessment with surrounding signs of occupation proved to be a useful tool to minimize biases. PMID:24376748

  3. Influence of pulse-height discrimination threshold for photon counting on the accuracy of singlet oxygen luminescence measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Huiyun; Chen, Defu; Wang, Min; Lin, Juqiang; Li, Buhong; Xie, Shusen

    2011-12-01

    Direct measurement of near-infrared (NIR) luminescence around 1270 nm is the golden standard of singlet oxygen (1O2) identification. In this study, the influence of pulse-height discrimination threshold on measurement accuracy of the 1O2 luminescence that is generated from the photoirradiation of meso-tetra (N-methyl-4-pyridyl) morphine tetra-tosylate (TMPyP) in aqueous solution was investigated by using our custom-developed detection system. Our results indicate that the discrimination threshold has a significant influence on the absolute 1O2 luminescence counts, and the optimal threshold for our detection system is found to be about - 41.2 mV for signal discrimination. After optimization, the derived triplet-state and 1O2 lifetimes of TMPyP in aqueous solution are found to be 1.73 ± 0.03 and 3.70 ± 0.04 µs, respectively, and the accuracy of measurement was further independently demonstrated using the laser flash photolysis technique.

  4. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  5. Use of Proportional Counters for Yield Measurement in Extremely Short Pulses of Fast Neutrons: Counting Statistics and Absolute Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Mayer, R. E.; Pavez, C.; Soto, L.

    2010-08-01

    A method for absolute calibration of proportional counters for pulsed fast neutrons is presented. The method is based on the use of an isotopic standard source and development of a model for counting detected events from area of a signal compounded by single piled up neutron pulses. Effects of detection counting statistics and electrical background noise are also considered.

  6. RBC count

    MedlinePlus

    ... marrow disease that causes abnormal increase in RBCs ( polycythemia vera ) Your RBC count will increase for several ... Multiple myeloma Myelofibrosis Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) Peripheral Polycythemia vera Renal cell carcinoma Splenomegaly Transfusion reaction - hemolytic ...

  7. Reticulocyte count

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - reticulocyte ... A higher than normal reticulocytes count may indicate: Anemia due to red blood cells being destroyed earlier than normal ( hemolytic anemia ) Bleeding Blood disorder in a fetus or newborn ( ...

  8. Tower counts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woody, Carol Ann; Johnson, D.H.; Shrier, Brianna M.; O'Neal, Jennifer S.; Knutzen, John A.; Augerot, Xanthippe; O'Neal, Thomas A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2007-01-01

    Counting towers provide an accurate, low-cost, low-maintenance, low-technology, and easily mobilized escapement estimation program compared to other methods (e.g., weirs, hydroacoustics, mark-recapture, and aerial surveys) (Thompson 1962; Siebel 1967; Cousens et al. 1982; Symons and Waldichuk 1984; Anderson 2000; Alaska Department of Fish and Game 2003). Counting tower data has been found to be consistent with that of digital video counts (Edwards 2005). Counting towers do not interfere with natural fish migration patterns, nor are fish handled or stressed; however, their use is generally limited to clear rivers that meet specific site selection criteria. The data provided by counting tower sampling allow fishery managers to determine reproductive population size, estimate total return (escapement + catch) and its uncertainty, evaluate population productivity and trends, set harvest rates, determine spawning escapement goals, and forecast future returns (Alaska Department of Fish and Game 1974-2000 and 1975-2004). The number of spawning fish is determined by subtracting subsistence, sport-caught fish, and prespawn mortality from the total estimated escapement. The methods outlined in this protocol for tower counts can be used to provide reasonable estimates ( plus or minus 6%-10%) of reproductive salmon population size and run timing in clear rivers. 

  9. Development of a method for activity measurements of 232Th daughters with a multidetector gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Antovic, N; Svrkota, N

    2009-06-01

    The method for activity measurements of the (232)Th daughters, developed at the six-crystal gamma-ray coincidence spectrometer PRIPYAT-2M and based on coincidence counting of the 583 and 2615 keV photons from cascade transitions which follow beta(-)-decay of (208)Tl, as well as on counting the 911 keV photons which follow beta(-)-decay of (228)Ac in the integral and non-coincidence mode of counting, is presented.

  10. A beta-alpha coincidence counting system for measurement of trace quantities of 238U and 232Th in aqueous samples at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M.; Doucas, G.; Fergani, H.; Jelley, N. A.; Majerus, S.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Peeters, S. J. M.; Perry, C.

    2016-08-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory experiment was built to measure the total flux of 8B solar neutrinos via the neutral current disintegration deuterium nuclei. This process can be mimiced by daughter isotopes of 232Th and 238U which can photodisintegrate the deuterium nucleus. Measurement of the concentration of such radioisotopes in the heavy water was critical to the success of the experiment. A radium assay technique using Hydrous Titanium Oxide coated filters was developed for this purpose and it was used in conjunction with a delayed beta-alpha coincidence counting system. The design, calibration and operation of this counting system are described in this paper. The counting efficiency for 232Th (224Ra) and 238U (226Ra) were measured to be 50 ± 5% and 62 ± 7%

  11. Blood Count Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in ... helps doctors check on your overall health. The tests can also help to diagnose diseases and conditions ...

  12. Determination of sulfur in fly ash and fuel oil standard reference materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-12-01

    Sulfur was determined in NBS Coal Fly Ash (SRM 1633) and Residual Fuel Oils (SRM's 1619, 1620a, 1634a) by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (NAA) using the /sup 34/S(n,..gamma..)/sup 35/S reaction. The /sup 35/S was separated from solutions of the standards by either cation-anion exchange on Dowex 50W-X8/Dowex 1-X8 or by adsorption on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Liquid scintillation counting of aqueous solutions was used for /sup 35/S measurement. The /sup 35/Cl(n,p)/sup 35/S interference was corrected for by measurement of chlorine by instrumental NAA. The method may be applied to very small samples of fly ash or air particulates (<10/sup -3/ g). 1 figure, 5 tables.

  13. Physical activity in Ontario preschoolers: prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Joyce; Nguyen, Thanh; Gabel, Leigh; Timmons, Brian W

    2011-04-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for the development of active living behaviours; however, very little is known about the physical activity levels of preschoolers from Canada. The objectives of this study were to (i) examine physical activity in a sample of Ontario preschoolers by using high-frequency accelerometry to determine activity and step counts; (ii) assess the relationship between step counts and physical activity; (iii) examine the influence of epoch length or sampling interval on physical activity; and (iv) compare measured physical activity to existing recommendations. Thirty 3- to 5-year-old children wore accelerometers to monitor habitual physical activity in 3-s epochs over a 7-day period. Preschoolers engaged in an average of 220 min of daily physical activity, 75 min of which were spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and they accumulated 7529 ± 1539 steps·day(-1). Preschoolers who engaged in more MVPA also took more steps on a daily basis (r = 0.81, p < 0.001). Compared with a 3-s epoch, sampling intervals of 15, 30, and 60 s resulted in an average of 2.9, 9.0, and 16.7 missed minutes of MVPA per day, respectively. All 30 preschoolers met the National Association for Sport and Physical Education recommendation of at least 120 min of total physical activity per day for preschool-age children. Our data highlight important methodological considerations when measuring physical activity in preschoolers and the need for preschool-specific physical activity guidelines for Canadian children.

  14. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  15. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  16. Math Strategies You Can Count On: Tools & Activities to Build Math Appreciation, Understanding & Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char

    2005-01-01

    This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…

  17. Narrative increases step counts during active video game play among children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity (PA) level offer a novel alternative to child obesity. Unfortunately, children's motivation to play AVG decreases quickly, underscoring the need to find new methods to maintain their engagement. According to narrative transportation th...

  18. Optical and physical properties of stratospheric aerosols from balloon measurements in the visible and near-infrared domains. II. Comparison of extinction, reflectance, polarization, and counting measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Berthet, Gwenaël; Robert, Claude; Chartier, Michel; Pirre, Michel; Brogniez, Colette; Herman, Maurice; Verwaerde, Christian; Balois, Jean-Yves; Ovarlez, Joëlle; Ovarlez, Henri; Crespin, Jacques; Deshler, Terry

    2002-12-01

    The physical properties of stratospheric aerosols can be retrieved from optical measurements involving extinction, radiance, polarization, and counting. We present here the results of measurements from the balloonborne instruments AMON, SALOMON, and RADIBAL, and from the French Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique and the University of Wyoming balloonborne particle counters. A cross comparison of the measurements was made for observations of background aerosols conducted during the polar winters of February 1997 and January-February 2000 for various altitudes from 13 to 19 km. On the one hand, the effective radius and the total amount of background aerosols derived from the various sets of data are similar and are in agreement with pre-Pinatubo values. On the other hand, strong discrepancies occur in the shapes of the bimodal size distributions obtained from analysis of the raw measurements of the various instruments. It seems then that the log-normal assumption cannot fully reproduce the size distribution of background aerosols. The effect of the presence of particular aerosols on the measurements is discussed, and a new strategy for observations is proposed.

  19. White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  20. Comparison of count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Emma; McDowell, Ronald; Bennett, Kathleen; Fahey, Tom; Smith, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Multimorbidity, defined as the presence of 2 or more chronic medical conditions in an individual, is associated with poorer health outcomes. Several multimorbidity measures exist, and the challenge is to decide which to use preferentially in predicting health outcomes. The study objective was to compare the performance of 5 count-based multimorbidity measures in predicting emergency hospital admission and functional decline in older community-dwelling adults attending primary care. Setting 15 general practices (GPs) in Ireland. Participants n=862, ≥70 years, community-dwellers followed-up for 2 years (2010–2012). Exposure at baseline: Five multimorbidity measures (disease counts, selected conditions counts, Charlson comorbidity index, RxRisk-V, medication counts) calculated using GP medical record and linked national pharmacy claims data. Primary outcomes (1) Emergency admission and ambulatory care sensitive (ACS) admission (GP medical record) and (2) functional decline (postal questionnaire). Statistical analysis Descriptive statistics and measure discrimination (c-statistic, 95% CIs), adjusted for confounders. Results Median age was 77 years and 53% were women. Prevalent rates ranged from 37% to 91% depending on which measure was used to define multimorbidity. All measures demonstrated poor discrimination for the outcome of emergency admission (c-statistic range: 0.62, 0.65), ACS admission (c-statistic range: 0.63, 0.68) and functional decline (c-statistic range: 0.55, 0.61). Medication-based measures were equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Conclusions The choice of measure may have a significant impact on prevalent rates. Five multimorbidity measures demonstrated poor discrimination in predicting emergency admission and functional decline, with medication-based measures equivalent to diagnosis-based measures. Consideration of multimorbidity in isolation is insufficient for predicting these outcomes in community settings. PMID:27650770

  1. Size counts: evolutionary perspectives on physical activity and body size from early hominids to modern humans.

    PubMed

    Leonard, William R

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the evolutionary origins of human dietary and activity patterns, and their implications for understanding modern health problems. Humans have evolved distinctive nutritional characteristics associated the high metabolic costs of our large brains. The evolution of larger hominid brain size necessitated the adoption of foraging strategies that both provided high quality foods, and required larger ranges and activity budgets. Over time, human subsistence strategies have become ever more efficient in obtaining energy with minimal time and effort. Today, populations of the industrialized world live in environments characterized by low levels of energy expenditure and abundant food supplies contributing to growing rates of obesity. Analyses of trends in dietary intake and body weight in the US over the last 50 years indicate that the dramatic rise in obesity cannot be explained solely by increased energy consumption. Rather, declines in activity are also important. Further, we find that recent recommendations on physical activity have the potential to bring daily energy expenditure levels of industrialized societies surprisingly close to those observed among subsistence-level populations. These findings highlight the importance of physical activity in promoting nutritional health and show the utility of evolutionary approaches for developing public health recommendations.

  2. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  3. What Counts as Student Voice in Active Citizenship Case Studies? Education for Citizenship in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Hamish; Munn, Pamela; Brown, Jane

    2007-01-01

    We analyse a teacher-to-teacher discourse (14 web-published case studies) concerning "participation as citizenship" in schools. Many different mechanisms through which pupils participate are reported (from school councils to paired-reading schemes and community links). The claimed outcomes of these activities are also varied: improving…

  4. A new cell counting method to evaluate anti-tumor compound activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Jian; Zhang, Xiu-Rong; Zhang, Lei; Li, Qing-Hua; Wang, Lin; Shi, Li-Hong; Fang, Chun-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Determining cell quantity is a common problem in cytology research and anti-tumor drug development. A simple and low-cost method was developed to determine monolayer and adherent-growth cell quantities. The cell nucleus is located in the cytoplasm, and is independent. Thus, the nucleus cannot make contact even if the cell density is heavy. This phenomenon is the foundation of accurate cell-nucleus recognition. The cell nucleus is easily recognizable in images after fluorescent staining because it is independent. A one-to-one relationship exists between the nucleus and the cell; therefore, this method can be used to determine the quantity of proliferating cells. Results indicated that the activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor Z1 was effective after this method was used. The nude-mouse xenograft model also revealed the potent anti-tumor activity of Z1. This research presents a new anti-tumor-drug evaluation method.

  5. Measuring the social recreation per-day net benefit of the wildlife amenities of a national park: a count-data travel-cost approach.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Isabel; Proença, Isabel

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we apply count-data travel-cost methods to a truncated sample of visitors to estimate the Peneda-Gerês National Park (PGNP) average consumer surplus (CS) for each day of visit. The measurement of recreation demand is highly specific because it is calculated by number of days of stay per visit. We therefore propose the application of altered truncated count-data models or truncated count-data models on grouped data to estimate a single, on-site individual recreation demand function, with the price (cost) of each recreation day per trip equal to out-of-pocket and time travel plus out-of-pocket and on-site time costs. We further check the sensitivity of coefficient estimations to alternative models and analyse the welfare measure precision by using the delta and simulation methods by Creel and Loomis. With simulated limits, CS is estimated to be 194 (range 116 to 448). This information is of use in the quest to improve government policy and PNPG management and conservation as well as promote nature-based tourism. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to measure the average recreation net benefits of each day of stay generated by a national park by using truncated altered and truncated grouped count-data travel-cost models based on observing the individual number of days of stay.

  6. Both associative activation and thematic extraction count, but thematic false memories are more easily rejected.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Paula; Garcia-Marques, Leonel; Fernandez, Angel; Albuquerque, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyse the roles played by associative activation and thematic extraction in the explanation of false memories using the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Associative lists with two different types of critical items (CIs) were used: one, the associative CI, corresponded to the word most strongly primed by the associates in the list and another, the thematic CI, was the word that best described the theme of the list. Following three different types of encoding instructions (standard, warning or strategic), false recognition for these two types of CIs was analysed in either self-paced or speeded response recognition tests. The results showed considerable levels of false memories for both types of CIs. Even without the quality of being "good themes", associative CIs produced high levels of false recognition, which suggests that associative activation plays a prominent role in false memory formation. More interestingly, thematic CIs were more prone to be edited out, reinforcing the argument that thematic identifiability has a major role in the rejection of false memories.

  7. Development of the primary measurement standard for gaseous radon-222 activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, B C; Lee, K B; Park, T S; Lee, J M; Lee, S H; Oh, P J; Lee, M K; Ahn, J K

    2012-09-01

    The Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) has developed a primary system for the activity standardization of gaseous radon-222, based on the defined solid angle counting method. The size of adsorbed radon is determined by a Cyclone Storage Phosphor System, and a buffer chamber is introduced between the measurement chamber and the source for the purpose of gas purification. The measured activity of gaseous radon-222 and its associated measurement uncertainty obtained using the system are presented.

  8. Comparative analysis of dose rates in bricks determined by neutron activation analysis, alpha counting and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the thermoluminescence fine grain dating method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bártová, H.; Kučera, J.; Musílek, L.; Trojek, T.

    2014-11-01

    In order to evaluate the age from the equivalent dose and to obtain an optimized and efficient procedure for thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it is necessary to obtain the values of both the internal and the external dose rates from dated samples and from their environment. The measurements described and compared in this paper refer to bricks from historic buildings and a fine-grain dating method. The external doses are therefore negligible, if the samples are taken from a sufficient depth in the wall. However, both the alpha dose rate and the beta and gamma dose rates must be taken into account in the internal dose. The internal dose rate to fine-grain samples is caused by the concentrations of natural radionuclides 238U, 235U, 232Th and members of their decay chains, and by 40K concentrations. Various methods can be used for determining trace concentrations of these natural radionuclides and their contributions to the dose rate. The dose rate fraction from 238U and 232Th can be calculated, e.g., from the alpha count rate, or from the concentrations of 238U and 232Th, measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The dose rate fraction from 40K can be calculated from the concentration of potassium measured, e.g., by X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) or by NAA. Alpha counting and XRF are relatively simple and are accessible for an ordinary laboratory. NAA can be considered as a more accurate method, but it is more demanding regarding time and costs, since it needs a nuclear reactor as a neutron source. A comparison of these methods allows us to decide whether the time- and cost-saving simpler techniques introduce uncertainty that is still acceptable.

  9. Effect of intramammary injection of rboGM-CSF on milk levels of chemiluminescence activity, somatic cell count, and Staphylococcus aureus count in Holstein cows with S. aureus subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The effect of intramammary injection of recombinant bovine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rboGM-CSF, 400 μg/10 mL) on quarter milk levels of chemiluminescence (CL) activity, and somatic cell count (SCC) and shedding pattern of Staphylococcus aureus was investigated. Ten Holstein cows, naturally infected with S. aureus were used, with either early-stage or late-stage subclinical mastitis. Injection of rboGM-CSF caused a remarkable increase in milk CL activity with a peak at 6 h after the cytokine injection in the early- and late-stage groups. In the early-stage group, milk SCC stayed around preinjection level at 6 h, rose significantly on days 1 and 2, and was followed by a smooth and significant decline to an under preinjection level (below 200 000 cells/mL) on day 7 postinjection. Alternatively, in the late-stage group, milk SCC rose significantly at 6 h after the cytokine injection and maintained high levels thereafter. The milk S. aureus count decreased drastically by the cytokine injection in the early-stage group. The bacterial count was moderately decreased in the late-stage group, but increased back to preinoculation levels on day 7 after the cytokine injection. The results suggest that the rboGM-CSF has a potential as a therapeutic agent for S. aureus infection causing subclinical mastitis of dairy cows, if the cytokine is applied at the initial stage of infection. PMID:15352542

  10. [Accreditation of a hygiene hospital laboratory for sampling and analysis activities for the detection and counting of Legionella in water].

    PubMed

    Lecointe, Didier; Noël, Coralie; Beauvais, Raphaëlle; Descaves, Carole; Gouot, Armelle; Bourgeois, Sandrine; Koutcherenko, Stéphane; Kassidi, Noura

    2015-01-01

    Since January 1(st) 2012, detection and counting of Legionella bacteria have been obligatory in France and must be carried out by COFRAC-accredited laboratories. In our establishment, sampling and analysis were outsourced and our hospital was scheduled to move to a new site. We aimed to develop both these activities in-house and to obtain COFRAC accreditation, whilst organizing the move to the new site. We set up a quality assurance system bringing together staff from the hygiene laboratory and institutional resource managers. We set up sampling and analysis activities in-house 13 months before requesting accreditation. The initial evaluation took place before we moved and identified 17 areas of deficiency, six of which were considered critical. After we had moved, a subsequent evaluation considered 14 of these deficiencies to have been corrected, included the six initially identified as critical. We were therefore awarded accreditation. The quality assurance system established during the year before our request was submitted led to accreditation two and a half years after the transfer in-house of sampling and analysis activities, despite our hospital moving during this period.

  11. Counting the costs of accreditation in acute care: an activity-based costing approach

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Virginia; Greenfield, David; Hogden, Anne; Forde, Kevin; Westbrook, Johanna; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the costs of hospital accreditation in Australia. Design Mixed methods design incorporating: stakeholder analysis; survey design and implementation; activity-based costs analysis; and expert panel review. Setting Acute care hospitals accredited by the Australian Council for Health Care Standards. Participants Six acute public hospitals across four States. Results Accreditation costs varied from 0.03% to 0.60% of total hospital operating costs per year, averaged across the 4-year accreditation cycle. Relatively higher costs were associated with the surveys years and with smaller facilities. At a national level these costs translate to $A36.83 million, equivalent to 0.1% of acute public hospital recurrent expenditure in the 2012 fiscal year. Conclusions This is the first time accreditation costs have been independently evaluated across a wide range of hospitals and highlights the additional cost burden for smaller facilities. A better understanding of the costs allows policymakers to assess alternative accreditation and other quality improvement strategies, and understand their impact across a range of facilities. This methodology can be adapted to assess international accreditation programmes. PMID:26351190

  12. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2003: Counting on a Better Future for Utah's Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 28 indicators of children's well-being in five areas: (1) child health (prenatal care, low birth-weight births, infant mortality, child injury deaths, injury-related hospital discharges, child abuse, childhood immunizations,…

  13. Measures of Child Well-Being in Utah, 2001. A Pledge to Our Children. Utah KIDS COUNT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haven, Terry, Ed.

    This KIDS COUNT report details statewide trends in the well-being of Utah's children. The statistical portrait is based on 26 indicators of children's well-being: (1) prenatal care; (2) low birth weight infants; (3) infant mortality; (4) child injury deaths; (5) unintentional injuries; (6) untreated tooth decay; (7) immunization rates; (8) suicide…

  14. Do not hesitate to use Tversky-and other hints for successful active analogue searches with feature count descriptors.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Varnek, Alexandre

    2013-07-22

    This study is an exhaustive analysis of the neighborhood behavior over a large coherent data set (ChEMBL target/ligand pairs of known Ki, for 165 targets with >50 associated ligands each). It focuses on similarity-based virtual screening (SVS) success defined by the ascertained optimality index. This is a weighted compromise between purity and retrieval rate of active hits in the neighborhood of an active query. One key issue addressed here is the impact of Tversky asymmetric weighing of query vs candidate features (represented as integer-value ISIDA colored fragment/pharmacophore triplet count descriptor vectors). The nearly a 3/4 million independent SVS runs showed that Tversky scores with a strong bias in favor of query-specific features are, by far, the most successful and the least failure-prone out of a set of nine other dissimilarity scores. These include classical Tanimoto, which failed to defend its privileged status in practical SVS applications. Tversky performance is not significantly conditioned by tuning of its bias parameter α. Both initial "guesses" of α = 0.9 and 0.7 were more successful than Tanimoto (at its turn, better than Euclid). Tversky was eventually tested in exhaustive similarity searching within the library of 1.6 M commercial + bioactive molecules at http://infochim.u-strasbg.fr/webserv/VSEngine.html , comparing favorably to Tanimoto in terms of "scaffold hopping" propensity. Therefore, it should be used at least as often as, perhaps in parallel to Tanimoto in SVS. Analysis with respect to query subclasses highlighted relationships of query complexity (simply expressed in terms of pharmacophore pattern counts) and/or target nature vs SVS success likelihood. SVS using more complex queries are more robust with respect to the choice of their operational premises (descriptors, metric). Yet, they are best handled by "pro-query" Tversky scores at α > 0.5. Among simpler queries, one may distinguish between "growable" (allowing for active

  15. Methodological considerations for measuring spontaneous physical activity in rodents.

    PubMed

    Teske, Jennifer A; Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-05-15

    When exploring biological determinants of spontaneous physical activity (SPA), it is critical to consider whether methodological factors differentially affect rodents and the measured SPA. We determined whether acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, or chamber size affected measures in rodents with varying propensity for SPA. We used principal component analysis to determine which SPA components (ambulatory and vertical counts, time in SPA, and distance traveled) best described the variability in SPA measurements. We compared radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams used to measure SPA and exploratory activity. Acclimation time, sensory stimulation, vendor, and chamber size independently influenced SPA, and the effect was moderated by the propensity for SPA. A 24-h acclimation period prior to SPA measurement was sufficient for habituation. Principal component analysis showed that ambulatory and vertical measurements of SPA describe different dimensions of the rodent's SPA behavior. Smaller testing chambers and a sensory attenuation cubicle around the chamber reduced SPA. SPA varies between rodents purchased from different vendors. Radiotelemetry and infrared photobeams differ in their sensitivity to detect phenotypic differences in SPA and exploratory activity. These data highlight methodological considerations in rodent SPA measurement and a need to standardize SPA methodology.

  16. Reticulocyte Count Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reticulocyte Count Related tests: Red Blood Cell Count ; Hemoglobin ; Hematocrit ; Complete Blood Count ; Blood Smear ; Erythropoietin ; Vitamin ... on a complete blood count (CBC) , RBC count , hemoglobin or hematocrit , to help determine the cause To ...

  17. Measurements of 55Fe activity in activated steel samples with GEMPix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curioni, A.; Dinar, N.; La Torre, F. P.; Leidner, J.; Murtas, F.; Puddu, S.; Silari, M.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel method, based on the recently developed GEMPix detector, to measure the 55Fe content in samples of metallic material activated during operation of CERN accelerators and experimental facilities. The GEMPix, a gas detector with highly pixelated read-out, has been obtained by coupling a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) to a quad Timepix ASIC. Sample preparation, measurements performed on 45 samples and data analysis are described. The calibration factor (counts per second per unit specific activity) has been obtained via measurements of the 55Fe activity determined by radiochemical analysis of the same samples. Detection limit and sensitivity to the current Swiss exemption limit are calculated. Comparison with radiochemical analysis shows inconsistency for the sensitivity for only two samples, most likely due to underestimated uncertainties of the GEMPix analysis. An operative test phase of this technique is already planned at CERN.

  18. Effects of image noise, respiratory motion, and motion compensation on 3D activity quantification in count-limited PET images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman, W.; Mawlawi, O. R.; Mikell, J. K.; Mourtada, F.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of noise, motion blur, and motion compensation using quiescent-period gating (QPG) on the activity concentration (AC) distribution—quantified using the cumulative AC volume histogram (ACVH)—in count-limited studies such as 90Y-PET/CT. An International Electrotechnical Commission phantom filled with low 18F activity was used to simulate clinical 90Y-PET images. PET data were acquired using a GE-D690 when the phantom was static and subject to 1-4 cm periodic 1D motion. The static data were down-sampled into shorter durations to determine the effect of noise on ACVH. Motion-degraded PET data were sorted into multiple gates to assess the effect of motion and QPG on ACVH. Errors in ACVH at AC90 (minimum AC that covers 90% of the volume of interest (VOI)), AC80, and ACmean (average AC in the VOI) were characterized as a function of noise and amplitude before and after QPG. Scan-time reduction increased the apparent non-uniformity of sphere doses and the dispersion of ACVH. These effects were more pronounced in smaller spheres. Noise-related errors in ACVH at AC20 to AC70 were smaller (<15%) compared to the errors between AC80 to AC90 (>15%). The accuracy of ACmean was largely independent of the total count. Motion decreased the observed AC and skewed the ACVH toward lower values; the severity of this effect depended on motion amplitude and tumor diameter. The errors in AC20 to AC80 for the 17 mm sphere were  -25% and  -55% for motion amplitudes of 2 cm and 4 cm, respectively. With QPG, the errors in AC20 to AC80 of the 17 mm sphere were reduced to  -15% for motion amplitudes  <4 cm. For spheres with motion amplitude to diameter ratio  >0.5, QPG was effective at reducing errors in ACVH despite increases in image non-uniformity due to increased noise. ACVH is believed to be more relevant than mean or maximum AC to calculate tumor control and normal tissue complication probability

  19. Neutron counting with cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Van Esch, Patrick; Crisanti, Marta; Mutti, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    A research project is presented in which we aim at counting individual neutrons with CCD-like cameras. We explore theoretically a technique that allows us to use imaging detectors as counting detectors at lower counting rates, and transits smoothly to continuous imaging at higher counting rates. As such, the hope is to combine the good background rejection properties of standard neutron counting detectors with the absence of dead time of integrating neutron imaging cameras as well as their very good spatial resolution. Compared to Xray detection, the essence of thermal neutron detection is the nuclear conversion reaction. The released energies involved are of the order of a few MeV, while X-ray detection releases energies of the order of the photon energy, which is in the 10 KeV range. Thanks to advances in camera technology which have resulted in increased quantum efficiency, lower noise, as well as increased frame rate up to 100 fps for CMOS-type cameras, this more than 100-fold higher available detection energy implies that the individual neutron detection light signal can be significantly above the noise level, as such allowing for discrimination and individual counting, which is hard to achieve with X-rays. The time scale of CMOS-type cameras doesn't allow one to consider time-of-flight measurements, but kinetic experiments in the 10 ms range are possible. The theory is next confronted to the first experimental results. (authors)

  20. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  1. Validity of Using Tri-Axial Accelerometers to Measure Human Movement – Part II: Step Counts at a Wide Range of Gait Velocities

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Emma; Lugade, Vipul; Morrow, Melissa; Kaufman, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    A subject-specific step counting method with a high accuracy level at all walking speeds is needed to assess the functional level of impaired patients. The study aim was to validate step counts and cadence calculations from acceleration data by comparison to video data during dynamic activity. Custom-built activity monitors, each containing one tri-axial accelerometer, were placed on the ankles, thigh, and waist of 11 healthy adults. ICC values were greater than 0.98 for video inter-rater reliability of all step counts. The activity monitoring system (AMS) algorithm demonstrated a median (interquartile range; IQR) agreement of 92% (8%) with visual observations during walking/jogging trials at gait velocities ranging from 0.1 m/s to 4.8 m/s, while FitBits (ankle and waist), and a Nike Fuelband (wrist) demonstrated agreements of 92% (36%), 93% (22%), and 33% (35%), respectively. The algorithm results demonstrated high median (IQR) step detection sensitivity (95% (2%)), positive predictive value (PPV) (99% (1%)), and agreement (97% (3%)) during a laboratory-based simulated free-living protocol. The algorithm also showed high median (IQR) sensitivity, PPV, and agreement identifying walking steps (91% (5%), 98% (4%), and 96% (5%)), jogging steps (97% (6%), 100% (1%), and 95% (6%)), and less than 3% mean error in cadence calculations. PMID:24656871

  2. Validity of using tri-axial accelerometers to measure human movement - Part II: Step counts at a wide range of gait velocities.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Emma; Lugade, Vipul; Morrow, Melissa; Kaufman, Kenton

    2014-06-01

    A subject-specific step counting method with a high accuracy level at all walking speeds is needed to assess the functional level of impaired patients. The study aim was to validate step counts and cadence calculations from acceleration data by comparison to video data during dynamic activity. Custom-built activity monitors, each containing one tri-axial accelerometer, were placed on the ankles, thigh, and waist of 11 healthy adults. ICC values were greater than 0.98 for video inter-rater reliability of all step counts. The activity monitoring system (AMS) algorithm demonstrated a median (interquartile range; IQR) agreement of 92% (8%) with visual observations during walking/jogging trials at gait velocities ranging from 0.1 to 4.8m/s, while FitBits (ankle and waist), and a Nike Fuelband (wrist) demonstrated agreements of 92% (36%), 93% (22%), and 33% (35%), respectively. The algorithm results demonstrated high median (IQR) step detection sensitivity (95% (2%)), positive predictive value (PPV) (99% (1%)), and agreement (97% (3%)) during a laboratory-based simulated free-living protocol. The algorithm also showed high median (IQR) sensitivity, PPV, and agreement identifying walking steps (91% (5%), 98% (4%), and 96% (5%)), jogging steps (97% (6%), 100% (1%), and 95% (6%)), and less than 3% mean error in cadence calculations.

  3. Comparison of electrical CD measurements and cross-section lattice-plane counts of sub-micrometer features replicated in Silicon-on-Insulator materials

    SciTech Connect

    CRESSWELL,MICHAEL W.; BONEVICH,JOHN E.; HEADLEY,THOMAS J.; ALLEN,RICHARD A.; GIANNUZZI,LUCILLE A.; EVERIST,SARAH C.; GHOSHTAGORE,RATHINDRA, N.; SHEA,PATRICK J.

    2000-02-29

    Electrical test structures of the type known as cross-bridge resistors have been patterned in (100) epitaxial silicon material that was grown on Bonded and Etched-Back Silicon-on-Insulator (BESOI) substrates. The CDs (Critical Dimensions) of a selection of their reference segments have been measured electrically, by SEM (Scanning-Electron Microscopy) cross-section imaging, and by lattice-plane counting. The lattice-plane counting is performed on phase-contrast images made by High-Resolution Transmission-Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The reference-segment features were aligned with <110> directions in the BESOI surface material. They were defined by a silicon micromachining process which results in their sidewalls being atomically-planar and smooth and inclined at 54.737{degree} to the surface (100) plane of the substrate. This (100) implementation may usefully complement the attributes of the previously-reported vertical-sidewall one for selected reference-material applications. The SEM, HRTEM, and electrical CD (ECD) linewidth measurements that are made on BESOI features of various drawn dimensions on the same substrate is being investigated to determine the feasibility of a CD traceability path that combines the low cost, robustness, and repeatability of the ECD technique and the absolute measurement of the HRTEM lattice-plane counting technique. Other novel aspects of the (100) SOI implementation that are reported here are the ECD test-structure architecture and the making of HRTEM lattice-plane counts from both cross-sectional, as well as top-down, imaging of the reference features. This paper describes the design details and the fabrication of the cross-bridge resistor test structure. The long-term goal is to develop a technique for the determination of the absolute dimensions of the trapezoidal cross-sections of the cross-bridge resistors reference segments, as a prelude to making them available for dimensional reference applications.

  4. Counting Active Sites on Titanium Oxide-Silica Catalysts for Hydrogen Peroxide Activation through In Situ Poisoning with Phenylphosphonic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Todd R.; Boston, Andrew M.; Thompson, Anthony B.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Notestein, Justin M.

    2015-06-04

    Quantifying specific active sites in supported catalysts improves our understanding and assists in rational design. Supported oxides can undergo significant structural changes as surface densities increase from site-isolated cations to monolayers and crystallites, which changes the number of kinetically relevant sites. Herein, TiOx domains are titrated on TiOx–SiO2 selectively with phenylphosphonic acid (PPA). An ex situ method quantifies all fluid-accessible TiOx, whereas an in situ titration during cis-cyclooctene epoxidation provides previously unavailable values for the number of tetrahedral Ti sites on which H2O2 activation occurs. We use this method to determine the active site densities of 22 different catalysts with different synthesis methods, loadings, and characteristic spectra and find a single intrinsic turnover frequency for cis-cyclooctene epoxidation of (40±7) h-1. This simple method gives molecular-level insight into catalyst structure that is otherwise hidden when bulk techniques are used.

  5. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22.

    PubMed

    Silva, H G; Lopes, I

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  6. Phase space representation of neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field in relation to solar activity in cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, H. G.; Lopes, I.

    2016-07-01

    Heliospheric modulation of galactic cosmic rays links solar cycle activity with neutron monitor count rate on earth. A less direct relation holds between neutron monitor count rate and atmospheric electric field because different atmospheric processes, including fluctuations in the ionosphere, are involved. Although a full quantitative model is still lacking, this link is supported by solid statistical evidence. Thus, a connection between the solar cycle activity and atmospheric electric field is expected. To gain a deeper insight into these relations, sunspot area (NOAA, USA), neutron monitor count rate (Climax, Colorado, USA), and atmospheric electric field (Lisbon, Portugal) are presented here in a phase space representation. The period considered covers two solar cycles (21, 22) and extends from 1978 to 1990. Two solar maxima were observed in this dataset, one in 1979 and another in 1989, as well as one solar minimum in 1986. Two main observations of the present study were: (1) similar short-term topological features of the phase space representations of the three variables, (2) a long-term phase space radius synchronization between the solar cycle activity, neutron monitor count rate, and potential gradient (confirmed by absolute correlation values above ~0.8). Finally, the methodology proposed here can be used for obtaining the relations between other atmospheric parameters (e.g., solar radiation) and solar cycle activity.

  7. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-13

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  8. Inter-rater reliability for movement pattern analysis (MPA): measuring patterning of behaviors versus discrete behavior counts as indicators of decision-making style

    PubMed Central

    Connors, Brenda L.; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from movement pattern analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective), inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor) was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = 0.89). Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring patterning versus discrete behavioral counts of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns. PMID:24999336

  9. Radon measurement and mitigation activity in Finland.

    PubMed

    Valmari, T; Arvela, H; Reisbacka, H; Holmgren, O

    2014-07-01

    Radon prevention, measurement and mitigation activities have been increasing in Finland during the 2000s. Nowadays, many municipal authorities, especially those located in high-radon areas, require radon prevention measures. This has activated radon measurements. Owners of new houses having radon piping installed under the floor slab are the most active group to measure and reduce the found high-radon values. Their radon awareness is apparently better than on the average, and the existing piping makes it easier and cheaper to reduce the radon levels. Local campaigns involving invitation flyers mailed to the residents have been a cost-effective means to activate measurements of older houses. So far 116,611 dwellings in low-rise residential buildings have been measured. At least 15% of the 16,860 dwellings found to exceed the reference level of 400 Bq m(-3) had their indoor radon level reduced below that.

  10. High-voltage integrated active quenching circuit for single photon count rate up to 80 Mcounts/s.

    PubMed

    Acconcia, Giulia; Rech, Ivan; Gulinatti, Angelo; Ghioni, Massimo

    2016-08-08

    Single photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) have been subject to a fast improvement in recent years. In particular, custom technologies specifically developed to fabricate SPAD devices give the designer the freedom to pursue the best detector performance required by applications. A significant breakthrough in this field is represented by the recent introduction of a red enhanced SPAD (RE-SPAD) technology, capable of attaining a good photon detection efficiency in the near infrared range (e.g. 40% at a wavelength of 800 nm) while maintaining a remarkable timing resolution of about 100ps full width at half maximum. Being planar, the RE-SPAD custom technology opened the way to the development of SPAD arrays particularly suited for demanding applications in the field of life sciences. However, to achieve such excellent performance custom SPAD detectors must be operated with an external active quenching circuit (AQC) designed on purpose. Next steps toward the development of compact and practical multichannel systems will require a new generation of monolithically integrated AQC arrays. In this paper we present a new, fully integrated AQC fabricated in a high-voltage 0.18 µm CMOS technology able to provide quenching pulses up to 50 Volts with fast leading and trailing edges. Although specifically designed for optimal operation of RE-SPAD devices, the new AQC is quite versatile: it can be used with any SPAD detector, regardless its fabrication technology, reaching remarkable count rates up to 80 Mcounts/s and generating a photon detection pulse with a timing jitter as low as 119 ps full width at half maximum. The compact design of our circuit has been specifically laid out to make this IC a suitable building block for monolithically integrated AQC arrays.

  11. Calculating Capstone depleted uranium aerosol concentrations from beta activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Szrom, Frances; Falo, Gerald A; Parkhurst, Mary Ann; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Alberth, David P

    2009-03-01

    Beta activity measurements were used as surrogate measurements of uranium mass in aerosol samples collected during the field testing phase of the Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study. These aerosol samples generated by the perforation of armored combat vehicles were used to characterize the DU source term for the subsequent Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) of Capstone aerosols. Establishing a calibration curve between beta activity measurements and uranium mass measurements is straightforward if the uranium isotopes are in equilibrium with their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny. For DU samples collected during the Capstone study, it was determined that the equilibrium between the uranium isotopes and their immediate short-lived, beta-emitting progeny had been disrupted when penetrators had perforated target vehicles. Adjustments were made to account for the disrupted equilibrium and for wall losses in the aerosol samplers. Values for the equilibrium fraction ranged from 0.16 to 1, and the wall loss correction factors ranged from 1 to 1.92. This paper describes the process used and adjustments necessary to calculate uranium mass from proportional counting measurements.

  12. Youth Physical Activity Resource Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Andra L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether use of physical activity resources (e.g., parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods: One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1 resources). The main…

  13. Young Children Counting at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Learning to count is something that most children start to do by the time they are about two, and parents know from first-hand experience that family members play a big part in helping with this complex process. In this article, the author describes a project involving families sharing effective counting activities. The project called…

  14. Potassium Counts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gipps, John

    1995-01-01

    Presents an activity to determine whether the radioactivity of a pure potassium salt is directly proportional to the amount of potassium in it and whether this could be used as a method of analysis for potassium in a solid. (MKR)

  15. Application of Electronic Nose for Measuring Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen and Total Viable Counts in Packaged Pork During Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Miaoyun; Wang, Haibiao; Sun, Lingxia; Zhao, Gaiming; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to predict the total viable counts (TVC) and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork using an electronic nose (E-nose), and to assess the freshness of chilled pork during storage using different packaging methods, including pallet packaging (PP), vacuum packaging (VP), and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40% O2 /40% CO2 /20% N2 ). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the E-nose signals, and the results showed that the relationships between the freshness of chilled pork and E-nose signals could be distinguished in the loadings plots, and the freshness of chilled pork could be distributed along 2 first principal components. Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used to correlate TVC and TVB-N to E-nose signals. High F and R2 values were obtained in the MLR output of TVB-N (F = 32.1, 21.6, and 24.2 for PP [R2 = 0.93], VP [R2 = 0.94], and MAP [R2 = 0.95], respectively) and TVC (F = 34.2, 46.4, and 7.8 for PP [R2 = 0.98], VP [R2 = 0.89], and MAP [R2 = 0.85], respectively). The results of this study suggest that it is possible to use the E-nose technology to predict TVB-N and TVC for assessing the freshness of chilled pork during storage.

  16. Radon-222 activity flux measurement using activated charcoal canisters: revisiting the methodology.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Sami H; Akber, Riaz A

    2014-03-01

    The measurement of radon ((222)Rn) activity flux using activated charcoal canisters was examined to investigate the distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the relationship between (222)Rn activity flux and exposure time. The activity flux of (222)Rn from five sources of varying strengths was measured for exposure times of one, two, three, five, seven, 10, and 14 days. The distribution of the adsorbed (222)Rn in the charcoal bed was obtained by dividing the bed into six layers and counting each layer separately after the exposure. (222)Rn activity decreased in the layers that were away from the exposed surface. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated that only a small correction might be required in the actual application of charcoal canisters for activity flux measurement, where calibration standards were often prepared by the uniform mixing of radium ((226)Ra) in the matrix. This was because the diffusion of (222)Rn in the charcoal bed and the detection efficiency as a function of the charcoal depth tended to counterbalance each other. The influence of exposure time on the measured (222)Rn activity flux was observed in two situations of the canister exposure layout: (a) canister sealed to an open bed of the material and (b) canister sealed over a jar containing the material. The measured (222)Rn activity flux decreased as the exposure time increased. The change in the former situation was significant with an exponential decrease as the exposure time increased. In the latter case, lesser reduction was noticed in the observed activity flux with respect to exposure time. This reduction might have been related to certain factors, such as absorption site saturation or the back diffusion of (222)Rn gas occurring at the canister-soil interface.

  17. In-cylinder temperature measurements via time-correlated single-photon counting of toluene laser-induced fluorescence through a fiber-based sensor.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Eugen; Gessenhardt, Christopher; Kaiser, Sebastian A; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof

    2012-12-15

    In a near-production internal combustion engine, the effective fluorescence lifetime of toluene was determined by time-correlated single-photon counting with a minimally invasive fiber-optic spark-plug sensor. The lifetime measurement provided continuous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gas temperature. Proof-of-concept experiments in a motored four-cylinder spark-ignition engine were evaluated with a time resolution of 500 μs, yielding temperature precision of 25 K (standard deviation) at top-dead center. In these experiments, 10% toluene was added to the nonfluorescent base fuel iso-octane. Fluorescence lifetimes were related to temperature via calibration measurements in a high temperature pressure vessel, with the data fitted to a functional dependence derived from a previously published phenomenological model.

  18. Active cell mechanics: Measurement and theory.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Wylie W; Fodor, Étienne; Betz, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Living cells are active mechanical systems that are able to generate forces. Their structure and shape are primarily determined by biopolymer filaments and molecular motors that form the cytoskeleton. Active force generation requires constant consumption of energy to maintain the nonequilibrium activity to drive organization and transport processes necessary for their function. To understand this activity it is necessary to develop new approaches to probe the underlying physical processes. Active cell mechanics incorporates active molecular-scale force generation into the traditional framework of mechanics of materials. This review highlights recent experimental and theoretical developments towards understanding active cell mechanics. We focus primarily on intracellular mechanical measurements and theoretical advances utilizing the Langevin framework. These developing approaches allow a quantitative understanding of nonequilibrium mechanical activity in living cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mechanobiology.

  19. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility.

  20. Reliability and validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Mary C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the test–retest reliability and convergent validity of daily physical activity measures during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Design: Observational study. Setting: Two inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres. Subjects: Participants (n = 106) were recruited from consecutive admissions to rehabilitation. Methods: Physical activity during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation stay was recorded on two days via (1) wrist accelerometer, (2) hip accelerometer if ambulatory, and (3) self-report (Physical Activity Recall Assessment for People with Spinal Cord Injury questionnaire). Spearman’s correlations and Bland–Altman plots were utilized for test–retest reliability. Correlations between physical activity measures and clinical measures (functional independence, hand function, and ambulation) were performed. Results: Correlations for physical activity measures between Day 1 and Day 2 were moderate to high (ρ = 0.53–0.89). Bland–Altman plots showed minimal bias and more within-subject differences in more active individuals and wide limits of agreement. None of these three physical activity measures correlated with one another. A moderate correlation was found between wrist accelerometry counts and grip strength (ρ = 0.58) and between step counts and measures of ambulation (ρ = 0.62). Functional independence was related to wrist accelerometry (ρ = 0.70) and step counts (ρ = 0.56), but not with self-report. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability and convergent validity of the instrumented measures suggest that wrist and hip accelerometers are appropriate tools for use in research studies of daily physical activity in the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting but are too variable for individual use. PMID:27635252

  1. Evaluation of nitroxynil and closantel activity using ELISA and egg counts against Fasciola hepatica in experimentally and naturally infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Boulard, C; Carreras, F; Van Gool, F

    1995-01-01

    The responses of cattle infected with Fasciola hepatica to treatment with nitroxynil or closantel were monitored by faecal egg counts and by ELISA assay of anti-fluke antibodies. A first trial with experimentally infected heifers showed an increase in anti-fluke antibody titre as early as 2 weeks post-infection. Eggs were first detected in the faeces 10 weeks after infection. Egg output increased steadily over the next 8 weeks and then rapidly decreased. Treatment of a 20-week infection with nitroxynil was followed by a slow decrease in antibody titre 4 weeks later. This decrease continued over the next 40 weeks, but returned to pre-infection levels in only 2 out of 4 animals. The faecal egg count fell to zero 2 weeks after treatment and remained so for the following 30 weeks, although 1 animal produced a few eggs 32 and 34 weeks post-treatment. Within this period, neither diagnostic technique discriminated between this persistently infected animal and the others. In a second trial, 45 cattle from a naturally infected herd were treated with nitroxynil or closantel. The faecal egg counts of the treated cattle were zero within the following 2 months, whereas there were eggs in the faeces of the control (untreated) group. Nevertheless, the treated cattle showed a small, non-significant drop in anti-fluke antibody titre. These results demonstrate the need for new tools to monitor and evaluate accurately the efficacy of anthelmintic treatment.

  2. A continuous measure of phasic electrodermal activity

    PubMed Central

    Benedek, Mathias; Kaernbach, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Electrodermal activity is characterized by the superposition of what appear to be single distinct skin conductance responses (SCRs). Classic trough-to-peak analysis of these responses is impeded by their apparent superposition. A deconvolution approach is proposed, which separates SC data into continuous signals of tonic and phasic activity. The resulting phasic activity shows a zero baseline, and overlapping SCRs are represented by predominantly distinct, compact impulses showing an average duration of less than 2 s. A time integration of the continuous measure of phasic activity is proposed as a straightforward indicator of event-related sympathetic activity. The quality and benefit of the proposed measure is demonstrated in an experiment with short interstimulus intervals as well as by means of a simulation study. The advances compared to previous decomposition methods are discussed. PMID:20451556

  3. The improved physical activity index for measuring physical activity in EPIC Germany.

    PubMed

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40-0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33-0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC.

  4. Cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden estimation in a building at surface level and in an underground facility using two BC408 scintillation detectors coincidence counting system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihua; Ungar, Kurt; Liu, Chuanlei; Mailhot, Maverick

    2016-10-01

    A series of measurements have been recently conducted to determine the cosmic-muon intensities and attenuation factors at various indoor and underground locations for a gamma spectrometer. For this purpose, a digital coincidence spectrometer was developed by using two BC408 plastic scintillation detectors and an XIA LLC Digital Gamma Finder (DGF)/Pixie-4 software and card package. The results indicate that the overburden in the building at surface level absorbs a large part of cosmic ray protons while attenuating the cosmic-muon intensity by 20-50%. The underground facility has the largest overburden of 39 m water equivalent, where the cosmic-muon intensity is reduced by a factor of 6. The study provides a cosmic-muon intensity measurement and overburden assessment, which are important parameters for analysing the background of an HPGe counting system, or for comparing the background of similar systems.

  5. Measuring the Built Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Day, Kristen; Forsyth, Ann; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important public health issues in the U.S. and internationally. Increasingly, links are being identified between various elements of the physical—or built—environment and physical activity. To understand the impact of the built environment on physical activity, the development of high-quality measures is essential. Three categories of built environment data are being used: (1) perceived measures obtained by telephone interview or self-administered questionnaires; (2) observational measures obtained using systematic observational methods (audits); and (3) archival data sets that are often layered and analyzed with GIS. This review provides a critical assessment of these three types of built-environment measures relevant to the study of physical activity. Among perceived measures, 19 questionnaires were reviewed, ranging in length from 7 to 68 questions. Twenty audit tools were reviewed that cover community environments (i.e., neighborhoods, cities), parks, and trails. For GIS-derived measures, more than 50 studies were reviewed. A large degree of variability was found in the operationalization of common GIS measures, which include population density, land-use mix, access to recreational facilities, and street pattern. This first comprehensive examination of built-environment measures demonstrates considerable progress over the past decade, showing diverse environmental variables available that use multiple modes of assessment. Most can be considered first-generation measures, so further development is needed. In particular, further research is needed to improve the technical quality of measures, understand the relevance to various population groups, and understand the utility of measures for science and public health. PMID:19285216

  6. Compton suppression gamma-counting: The effect of count rate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millard, H.T.

    1984-01-01

    Past research has shown that anti-coincidence shielded Ge(Li) spectrometers enhanced the signal-to-background ratios for gamma-photopeaks, which are situated on high Compton backgrounds. Ordinarily, an anti- or non-coincidence spectrum (A) and a coincidence spectrum (C) are collected simultaneously with these systems. To be useful in neutron activation analysis (NAA), the fractions of the photopeak counts routed to the two spectra must be constant from sample to sample to variations must be corrected quantitatively. Most Compton suppression counting has been done at low count rate, but in NAA applications, count rates may be much higher. To operate over the wider dynamic range, the effect of count rate on the ratio of the photopeak counts in the two spectra (A/C) was studied. It was found that as the count rate increases, A/C decreases for gammas not coincident with other gammas from the same decay. For gammas coincident with other gammas, A/C increases to a maximum and then decreases. These results suggest that calibration curves are required to correct photopeak areas so quantitative data can be obtained at higher count rates. ?? 1984.

  7. Bayesian analysis of energy and count rate data for detection of low count rate radioactive sources.

    PubMed

    Klumpp, John; Brandl, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A particle counting and detection system is proposed that searches for elevated count rates in multiple energy regions simultaneously. The system analyzes time-interval data (e.g., time between counts), as this was shown to be a more sensitive technique for detecting low count rate sources compared to analyzing counts per unit interval (Luo et al. 2013). Two distinct versions of the detection system are developed. The first is intended for situations in which the sample is fixed and can be measured for an unlimited amount of time. The second version is intended to detect sources that are physically moving relative to the detector, such as a truck moving past a fixed roadside detector or a waste storage facility under an airplane. In both cases, the detection system is expected to be active indefinitely; i.e., it is an online detection system. Both versions of the multi-energy detection systems are compared to their respective gross count rate detection systems in terms of Type I and Type II error rates and sensitivity.

  8. Comparing Social Network Analysis of Posts with Counting of Posts as a Measurement of Learners' Participation in Facebook Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hye Yeon; Lee, Hyeon Woo

    2016-01-01

    With the currently growing interest in social network services, many college courses use social network services as platforms for discussions, and a number of studies have been conducted on the use of social network analysis to measure students' participation in online discussions. This study aims to demonstrate the difference between counting…

  9. Donor lymphocyte count and thymic activity predict lymphocyte recovery and outcomes after matched-sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    McIver, Zachariah; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Wu, Colin; Grim, Andrew; Ito, Sawa; Cho, Irene; Hensel, Nancy; Battiwalla, Minoo; Barrett, Austin John

    2013-03-01

    Delayed immune recovery is a characteristic feature of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult recipients. Although recipient thymic T-cell neogenesis contributes to T-cell regeneration after transplantation, thymic recovery in the transplant recipient decreases with increasing age, and is diminished by intensive preconditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease. In adult recipients, most events that determine transplant success or failure occur during the period when the majority of circulating T cells is derived from the donor's post thymic T-cell repertoire. As a result, the make-up of the donor lymphocyte compartment may strongly influence immune recovery and transplant outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine donor lymphocyte counts in a series of patients undergoing an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant to identify the potential contribution of donor regulatory and conventional T lymphocyte populations to immune recovery and transplant outcomes. We examined donor lymphocyte subset counts in relation to post-transplant lymphocyte recovery and transplant events in 220 consecutive myeloablative, T-cell-depleted, HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with hematologic malignancies. In a multivariate analysis, absolute numbers of donor CD4(+) recent thymic emigrants were associated with overall survival (P=0.032). The donors' absolute lymphocyte count and thymic production of regulatory T cells were both associated with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease (P=0.002 and P=0.022, respectively). In conclusion, these results identify donor immune characteristics that are associated with lymphocyte recovery, extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease, and survival in the recipient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study reported here was performed using peripheral blood samples drawn from donors and patients enrolled in the ClinicalTrials.gov-registered trials

  10. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the Disease Activity Score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) in the management of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    van Riel, Piet L C M; Renskers, Lisanne

    2016-01-01

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease activity cannot be measured in all individual patients according to a single variable. The Disease Activity Score (DAS) and the DAS28 have been developed to measure disease activity in RA both in daily clinical practice as well as in clinical trials on a group as well as individual level. The DAS/DAS28 is a continuous measure of RA disease activity that combines information from swollen joints, tender joints, acute phase response and general health. The DAS-based EULAR response criteria were primarily developed to be used in clinical trials. The EULAR response criteria classify individual patients as non-, moderate, or good responders, dependent on the magnitude of change and level of disease activity reached. In addition, already in the early nineties, cut points were developed to categorise patients in remission. The DAS28 is incorporated in several electronic patient records and web-based systems for monitoring purposes in daily clinical practice. In addition to this, it is being used in combination with patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to facilitate self-monitoring.

  11. Measuring Active Learning to Predict Course Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John E.; Ku, Heng-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether active learning within computer-based training courses can be measured and whether it serves as a predictor of learner-perceived course quality. A major corporation participated in this research, providing access to internal employee training courses, training representatives, and historical course evaluation data.…

  12. Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, L.; Hill, W. T., III; Sibener, S. J.; Price, Stephen D.; Tanner, C. E.; Wieman, C. E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1994-09-01

    Time-correlated single-photon counting is used to measure the lifetimes of the 6p 2P1/2 and 6p 2P3/2 levels in atomic Cs with accuracies ~=0.2-0.3 %. A high-repetition-rate, femtosecond, self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is used to excite Cs produced in a well-collimated atomic beam. The time interval between the excitation pulse and the arrival of a fluorescence photon is measured repetitively until the desired statistics are obtained. The lifetime results are 34.75(7) and 30.41(10) ns for the 6p 2P1/2 and 6p 2P3/2 levels, respectively. These lifetimes fall between those extracted from ab initio many-body perturbation-theory calculations by Blundell, Johnson, and Sapirstein [Phys. Rev. A 43, 3407 (1991)] and V. A. Dzuba et al. [Phys. Lett. A 142, 373 (1989)] and are in all cases within 0.9% of the calculated values. The measurement errors are dominated by systematic effects, and methods to alleviate these and to approach an accuracy of 0.1% are discussed. The technique is a viable alternative to the fast-beam laser approach for measuring lifetimes with extreme accuracy.

  13. Sources of variability of estimates of malaria case counts, active and reserve components, U.S. Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Each January, the Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) estimates numbers of malaria infections among U.S. service members using a surveillance case definition to identify "malaria cases". These cases include individuals with a hospital discharge diagnosis of malaria and those who were reported with malaria through military notifiable event reporting systems. This report compares the MSMR surveillance case definition with other proposed case definitions to demonstrate the degree to which estimates of numbers of malaria cases are dependent upon clinical settings, data sources and case-defining rules used to produce such estimates. For example, including outpatient diagnoses as malaria cases would more than double the 2010 case count. As compared with cases defined using other proposed case definitions, many more MSMR-defined cases had records of a specific Plasmodium species, a laboratory test for malaria and recent travel to a malaria-endemic country. Interpretations of the results of MSMR reports should consider how "cases" are defined.

  14. All about Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    Toolkit No. 14 All About Carbohydrate Counting What is carbohydrate counting? Carbohydrate counting is a way to plan your meals. It can help ... Diabetes Association, Inc. 2/14 Toolkit No. 14: All About Carbohydrate Counting continued The chart at the ...

  15. Validating Accelerometry as a Measure of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure in Chronic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Monica C.; Balraj, Elizabeth; DiSanzo, Beth L.; Ivey, Frederick M.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Treuth, Margarita S.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accelerometers can objectively measure steps taken per day in individuals without gait deficits, but accelerometers also have the ability to estimate frequency, intensity, and duration of physical activity. However, thresholds to distinguish varying levels of activity intensity using the Actical brand accelerometer are standardized only for the general population and may underestimate intensity in stroke. Objective To derive Actical activity count thresholds specific to stroke disability for use in more accurately gauging time spent at differing activity levels. Methods Men (n=18) and women (n=10) with chronic hemiparetic gait (4±2 years latency, 43% Caucasian, 56% African American, ages of 47–83 yrs, BMI 19 – 48 kg/m2) participated in the study. Actical accelerometers were placed on the non-paretic hip to obtain accelerometry counts during eight activities of varying intensity: 1) watching TV; 2) seated stretching; 3) standing stretching; 4) floor sweeping; 5) stepping in place; 6) over-ground walking; 7) lower speed treadmill walking (1.0 mph at 4% incline); and 8) higher speed treadmill walking (2.0 mph at 4% incline). Simultaneous portable monitoring (Cosmed K4b2) enabled quantification of energy cost for each activity in metabolic equivalents (METs, or oxygen consumption in multiples of resting level). Measurements were obtained for 10 min of standard rest and 5 minutes during each of the eight activities. Results Regression analysis yielded the following new stroke-specific Actical minimum thresholds: 125 counts per minute (cpm) for sedentary/light activity, 667 cpm for light/moderate activity, and 1546 cpm for moderate/vigorous activity. Conclusion Our revised cut-points better reflect activity levels after stroke and suggest significantly lower thresholds relative to those observed for the general population of healthy individuals. We conclude that the standard, commonly applied Actical thresholds are inappropriate for this unique population

  16. Absolute activity measurement of radon gas at IRA-METAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spring, Philippe; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bailat, Claude; Triscone, Gilles; Bochud, François

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the system of the Swiss national metrological institute (IRA-METAS) for the absolute standardisation of radon gas. This method relies on condensing radon under vacuum conditions within a specified cold area using a cryogenerator, and detecting its alpha particles with an ion-implanted silicon detector, through a very accurately defined solid angle. The accuracy of this defined solid angle standardisation technique was corroborated by another primary measurement method involving 4 πγ NaI(Tl) integral counting and Monte Carlo efficiency calculations. The 222Rn standard submitted by IRA-METAS to the Système International de Référence (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has also been found to be consistent with an analogous standard submitted by the German national metrological institute (PTB). IRA-METAS is able to deliver radon standards, with activities ranging from a few kBq to 350 kBq, in NIST-Type ampoules, and glass or steel containers usable for calibrating radon-measuring instruments.

  17. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  18. Partial pressure measurements with an active spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, N.H.; Jensen, T.H.; Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Finkenthal, D.F.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.

    1998-07-01

    Partial pressure neutral ga measurements have been made using a commercial Penning gauge in conjunction with an active spectrometer. In prior work utilizing bandpass filters and conventional spectrometers, trace concentrations of the hydrogen isotopes H, D, T and of the noble gases He, Ne and Ar were determined from characteristic spectral lines in the light emitted by the neutral species of these elements. For all the elements mentioned, the sensitivity was limited by spectral contamination from a pervasive background of molecular hydrogen radiation. The active spectrometer overcomes this limitations by means of a digital lock-in method and correlation with reference spectra. Preliminary measurements of an admixture containing a trace amount of neon in deuterium show better than a factor of 20 improvement in sensitivity over conventional techniques. This can be further improved by correlating the relative intensities of multiple lines to sets of reference spectra.

  19. Hanford whole body counting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, H.E.; Rieksts, G.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1990-06-01

    This document describes the Hanford Whole Body Counting Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy--Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include providing in vivo measurements of internally deposited radioactivity in Hanford employees (or visitors). Specific chapters of this manual deal with the following subjects: program operational charter, authority, administration, and practices, including interpreting applicable DOE Orders, regulations, and guidance into criteria for in vivo measurement frequency, etc., for the plant-wide whole body counting services; state-of-the-art facilities and equipment used to provide the best in vivo measurement results possible for the approximately 11,000 measurements made annually; procedures for performing the various in vivo measurements at the Whole Body Counter (WBC) and related facilities including whole body counts; operation and maintenance of counting equipment, quality assurance provisions of the program, WBC data processing functions, statistical aspects of in vivo measurements, and whole body counting records and associated guidance documents. 16 refs., 48 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. Standardization of 241Am by digital coincidence counting, liquid scintillation counting and defined solid angle counting.

    PubMed

    Balpardo, C; Capoulat, M E; Rodrigues, D; Arenillas, P

    2010-01-01

    The nuclide (241)Am decays by alpha emission to (237)Np. Most of the decays (84.6%) populate the excited level of (237)Np with energy of 59.54 keV. Digital coincidence counting was applied to standardize a solution of (241)Am by alpha-gamma coincidence counting with efficiency extrapolation. Electronic discrimination was implemented with a pressurized proportional counter and the results were compared with two other independent techniques: Liquid scintillation counting using the logical sum of double coincidences in a TDCR array and defined solid angle counting taking into account activity inhomogeneity in the active deposit. The results show consistency between the three methods within a limit of a 0.3%. An ampoule of this solution will be sent to the International Reference System (SIR) during 2009. Uncertainties were analysed and compared in detail for the three applied methods.

  1. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  2. Neutron and proton activation measurements from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Radioactivity induced by high-energy protons and secondary neutrons (from nuclear interactions) in various samples returned from different locations in Skylab was measured directly by gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of decay gamma rays from the samples. Incident fluxes were derived from the activation measurements, using known nuclear cross-section. Neutron and proton flux values were found to range from 0.2 to 5 particles/sq cm-sec, depending on the energy range and location in Skylab. The thermal neutron flux was less than 0.07 neutrons/sq cm-sec. The results are useful for data analysis and planning of future high-energy astronomy experiments.

  3. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228.

    PubMed

    Aleissa, Khalid A; Almasoud, Fahad I; Islam, Mohammed S; L'Annunziata, Michael F

    2008-12-01

    The activities of (228)Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide (228)Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO(2) and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter (228)Ra((228)Ac), the daughter nuclide (228)Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by (228)Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9+/-0.1% was measured for (228)Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317+/-0.013cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of (228)Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for (228)Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure (228)Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid

  4. Photon-counting-based dust monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamal, Karel; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Eslerova, Iva; Sopko, Bruno; Pasta, Armin

    1999-05-01

    Most of the dust monitors are based on optical principle: the scattered light intensity is registered. The classical approach is using the multiple photon optical signal intensity and processing. Single photon detection -- photon counting is exploited in Satellite Laser Ranging and was implemented in space born application for Mars Surveyor Program 98, as well. The main advantage of single photon detection is an extreme sensitivity, the entire digital approach, no analog signal is treated. All the light intensity information is acquired on the basis of statistical data treatment. The dust detector consists of the LED diode based transmitter, single photon solid state diode detector and the digital data processing unit. The light beam from the LED diode passing the dust column is detected in a photo detector. The detector employs the avalanche Silicon photodiode 40 micrometers diameter active area and is operated in a passive gating and active quenching mode above its breakdown voltage. The detector provides uniform digital pulses, one for each photon detected. The light intensity measurement is converted into the photon flux counting -- frequency or event counting. The microcomputer controlled data processing electronics counts the detector output pulses, accounts for detector dark count rate, calibration constants, and computes the corresponding dust concentration averaged over desired period. The second LED located close to the detector is used as a reference light source to eliminate the temperature, aging and sensor contamination influence. The laboratory measurements show the long term and temperature stability of the scale within 1%. The setup was tested at the cement plant smoke stack and compared to the commercial optical dust concentration monitor operating on analog multiphoton principle. Due to an extreme optical sensitivity of the photon counting detector, the energy balance is favorable to realize lightweight equipment by a factor of ten in comparison

  5. Towards Measuring the Food Quality of Grocery Purchases: an Estimation Model of the Healthy Eating Index-2010 Using only Food Item Counts

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Le-Thuy T.; Brewster, Philip J.; Chidambaram, Valliammai; Hurdle, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Measuring the quality of food consumed by individuals or groups in the U.S. is essential to informed public health surveillance efforts and sound nutrition policymaking. For example, the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) is an ideal metric to assess the food quality of households, but the traditional methods of collecting the data required to calculate the HEI are expensive and burdensome. We evaluated an alternative source: rather than measuring the quality of the foods consumers eat, we want to estimate the quality of the foods consumers buy. To accomplish that we need a way of estimating the HEI based solely on the count of food items. We developed an estimation model of the HEI, using an augmented set of the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) food categories. Then we mapped ~92,000 grocery food items to it. The model uses an inverse Cumulative Distribution Function sampling technique. Here we describe the model and report reliability metrics based on NHANES data from 2003–2010. PMID:26998419

  6. Measurements of Extragalactic Background Light from the Far UV to the Far IR from Deep Ground- and Space-based Galaxy Counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driver, Simon P.; Andrews, Stephen K.; Davies, Luke J.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Wright, Angus H.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, Seth; Emig, Kim; Jansen, Rolf A.; Dunne, Loretta

    2016-08-01

    We combine wide and deep galaxy number-count data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly, COSMOS/G10, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Early Release Science, HST UVUDF, and various near-, mid-, and far-IR data sets from ESO, Spitzer, and Herschel. The combined data range from the far UV (0.15 μm) to far-IR (500 μm), and in all cases the contribution to the integrated galaxy light (IGL) of successively fainter galaxies converges. Using a simple spline fit, we derive the IGL and the extrapolated IGL in all bands. We argue that undetected low-surface-brightness galaxies and intracluster/group light are modest, and that our extrapolated-IGL measurements are an accurate representation of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Our data agree with most earlier IGL estimates and with direct measurements in the far IR, but disagree strongly with direct estimates in the optical. Close agreement between our results and recent very high-energy experiments (H.E.S.S. and MAGIC) suggests that there may be an additional foreground affecting the direct estimates. The most likely culprit could be the adopted model of zodiacal light. Finally we use a modified version of the two-component model to integrate the EBL and obtain measurements of the cosmic optical background (COB) and cosmic infrared background of {24}-4+4 nW m-2 sr-1 and {26}-5+5 nW m-2 sr-1 respectively (48%:52%). Over the next decade, upcoming space missions such as Euclid and the Wide Field Infrared Space Telescope will have the capacity to reduce the COB error to <1%, at which point comparisons to the very high-energy data could have the potential to provide a direct detection and measurement of the reionization field.

  7. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count if... educational services or activities provided through the public education system do not count unless they...

  8. Counting to 20: Online Implementation of a Face-to-Face, Elementary Mathematics Methods Problem-Solving Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Catherine Stein

    2012-01-01

    This study describes implementation of the same problem-solving activity in both online and face-to-face environments. The activity, done in the first class period or first module of a K-2 mathematics methods course, was initially used in a face-to-face class and then adapted later for use in an online class. While the task was originally designed…

  9. Photocatalytic Active Radiation Measurements and Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic materials are being used to purify air, to kill microbes, and to keep surfaces clean. A wide variety of materials are being developed, many of which have different abilities to absorb various wavelengths of light. Material variability, combined with both spectral illumination intensity and spectral distribution variability, will produce a wide range of performance results. The proposed technology estimates photocatalytic active radiation (PcAR), a unit of radiation that normalizes the amount of light based on its spectral distribution and on the ability of the material to absorb that radiation. Photocatalytic reactions depend upon the number of electron-hole pairs generated at the photocatalytic surface. The number of electron-hole pairs produced depends on the number of photons per unit area per second striking the surface that can be absorbed and whose energy exceeds the bandgap of the photocatalytic material. A convenient parameter to describe the number of useful photons is the number of moles of photons striking the surface per unit area per second. The unit of micro-einsteins (or micromoles) of photons per m2 per sec is commonly used for photochemical and photoelectric-like phenomena. This type of parameter is used in photochemistry, such as in the conversion of light energy for photosynthesis. Photosynthetic response correlates with the number of photons rather than by energy because, in this photochemical process, each molecule is activated by the absorption of one photon. In photosynthesis, the number of photons absorbed in the 400 700 nm spectral range is estimated and is referred to as photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). PAR is defined in terms of the photosynthetic photon flux density measured in micro-einsteins of photons per m2 per sec. PcAR is an equivalent, similarly modeled parameter that has been defined for the photocatalytic processes. Two methods to measure the PcAR level are being proposed. In the first method, a calibrated

  10. The Association of Bisphenol-A Urinary Concentrations with Antral Follicle Counts and Other Measures of Ovarian Reserve in Women Undergoing Infertility Treatments.☆

    PubMed Central

    Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2015-01-01

    In this prospective cohort of women undergoing infertility treatments, we measured specific-gravity adjusted urinary BPA (SG-BPA) concentrations and used regression models to evaluate the association of BPA with antral follicle count (AFC), day-3 serum follicle stimulating hormone levels (FSH), and ovarian volume (OV). BPA, detected in >80% of women, had a geometric mean (±GSD) of 1.6±2.0, 1.7±2.1, and 1.5±1.8µg/L for the women contributing to the AFC (n=154), day-3 FSH (n=120), and OV (n=1 14) analyses, respectively. There was an average decrease in AFC of 12% (95% CI: −23%, −0.6%), 22% (95% CI: −31%, −11%), and 17% (95% CI: −27%, −6%), in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SG-BPA quartile compared to the 1st quartile, respectively (p-trend: <0.001). No association of SG-BPA with FSH or OV was observed. Among women from an infertility clinic, higher urinary BPA concentrations were associated with lower AFC, raising concern for possible accelerated follicle loss and reproductive aging. PMID:24100206

  11. Measurements of Ultra-Fast single photon counting chip with energy window and 75 μm pixel pitch with Si and CdTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, P.; Grybos, P.; Kasinski, K.; Koziol, A.; Krzyzanowska, A.; Kmon, P.; Szczygiel, R.; Zoladz, M.

    2017-03-01

    Single photon counting pixel detectors become increasingly popular in various 2-D X-ray imaging techniques and scientific experiments mainly in solid state physics, material science and medicine. This paper presents architecture and measurement results of the UFXC32k chip designed in a CMOS 130 nm process. The chip consists of about 50 million transistors and has an area of 9.64 mm × 20.15 mm. The core of the IC is a matrix of 128 × 256 pixels of 75 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a CSA, a shaper with tunable gain, two discriminators with correction circuits and two 14-bit ripple counters operating in a normal mode (with energy window), a long counter mode (one 28-bit counter) and a zero-dead time mode. Gain and noise performance were verified with X-ray radiation and with the chip connected to Si (320 μm thick) and CdTe (750 μ m thick) sensors.

  12. The association of bisphenol-A urinary concentrations with antral follicle counts and other measures of ovarian reserve in women undergoing infertility treatments.

    PubMed

    Souter, Irene; Smith, Kristen W; Dimitriadis, Irene; Ehrlich, Shelley; Williams, Paige L; Calafat, Antonia M; Hauser, Russ

    2013-12-01

    In this prospective cohort of women undergoing infertility treatments, we measured specific-gravity adjusted urinary BPA (SG-BPA) concentrations and used regression models to evaluate the association of BPA with antral follicle count (AFC), day-3 serum follicle stimulating hormone levels (FSH), and ovarian volume (OV). BPA, detected in >80% of women, had a geometric mean (±GSD) of 1.6±2.0, 1.7±2.1, and 1.5±1.8μg/L for the women contributing to the AFC (n=154), day-3 FSH (n=120), and OV (n=114) analyses, respectively. There was an average decrease in AFC of 12% (95% CI: -23%, -0.6%), 22% (95% CI: -31%, -11%), and 17% (95% CI: -27%, -6%), in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th SG-BPA quartile compared to the 1st quartile, respectively (p-trend: <0.001). No association of SG-BPA with FSH or OV was observed. Among women from an infertility clinic, higher urinary BPA concentrations were associated with lower AFC, raising concern for possible accelerated follicle loss and reproductive aging.

  13. Measuring homework completion in behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Busch, Andrew M; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session.

  14. Neural networks counting chimes.

    PubMed Central

    Amit, D J

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the ideas that led to neural networks capable of recalling associatively and asynchronously temporal sequences of patterns can be extended to produce a neural network that automatically counts the cardinal number in a sequence of identical external stimuli. The network is explicitly constructed, analyzed, and simulated. Such a network may account for the cognitive effect of the automatic counting of chimes to tell the hour. A more general implication is that different electrophysiological responses to identical stimuli, at certain stages of cortical processing, do not necessarily imply synaptic modification, a la Hebb. Such differences may arise from the fact that consecutive identical inputs find the network in different stages of an active temporal sequence of cognitive states. These types of networks are then situated within a program for the study of cognition, which assigns the detection of meaning as the primary role of attractor neural networks rather than computation, in contrast to the parallel distributed processing attitude to the connectionist project. This interpretation is free of homunculus, as well as from the criticism raised against the cognitive model of symbol manipulation. Computation is then identified as the syntax of temporal sequences of quasi-attractors. PMID:3353371

  15. Quantifying Activity Counts, Emission Profiles and Emission Factors for Natural Gas Production on a Component- to Site-Level Scale Using Detailed Emissions Inventory Data from the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roda-Stuart, D. J.; Englander, J. G.; Brandt, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The use of horizontal drilling with hydraulic fracturing in the United States has led to the unforeseen development of hydrocarbon extraction from shale formations. This has led to scrutiny regarding air quality impacts of this development. Significant attention has focused on quantifying venting and fugitive emissions for greenhouse gases and VOCs. We generate emission factors using a 2011 emissions inventory data set from the Barnett Shale. Commissioned by the city of Fort Worth, the inventory contains component and equipment-based leakage rates from 388 unique sites including 1,138 wells. With component counts ranging from 188 compressors to over 600,000 connectors, our data set is more robust than previous data sets used for the development of emission factors. For the 2,126 leaks with concentrations measured by a toxic vapor analyzer to be greater than 500 ppmv or otherwise detected by infrared camera, we develop normalized activity counts and emissions profiles on a per-well and per-site basis. We classify these leaks, along with minor, default zero, and compressor engine emissions, into nine categories. From this we develop emission factors ranging from the component- to site-level scale and compare our results with existing emission factors (e.g, EPA, API, California Air Resources Board) and the current literature.

  16. Kentucky Kids Count 2001 County Data Book: Families Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Valerie

    This Kids Count county data book is the eleventh in a series to measure the well-being of Kentucky's children and focuses on the vital role that families play in ensuring their children's success. Included at the beginning of this document is an executive summary of the databook providing an overview of the statewide data for six child and family…

  17. Multipoint measurements of substorm timing and activations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuyin, Pu; Cao, X.; Zhang, H.; Ma, Z. W.; Mishin, M. V.; Kubyshkina, M. V.; Pulkkinen, T.; Reeves, G. D.; Escoubet, C. Philippe

    Substorm timing and activations are studied based on Double Star TC1, Cluster, Polar, IM- AGE, LANL satellites and ground-based Pi2 measurements. Substorm expansion onset is found to begin in the near-Earth tail around X= -(8-9) Re, then progresses both earthward and tailward. About 8-10 minutes before aurora breakup, Cluster measured an earthward flow associated with plasma sheet thinning. A couple of minutes after the breakup, TC1 first detects plasma sheet expansion and then LANL satellites near the midnight measure energetic electron injections, or vise versus. About 20 minutes (or more) later, Cluster and Polar observe plasma sheet expansion successively. Of interest are also the following findings. Auroral bulge is found to quickly broaden and expand poleward when the open magnetic flux of the polar cap is rapidly dissipated, indicating the role of tail lobe reconnection of open field lines in the development of the expansion phase. In addition, poleward expansion of auroral bulges and tailward progression of substorm expansion are shown to be closely related. An initial dipolarization in the near-Earth eventually evolve to enable disruption of the cross-tail current in a wide range of the magnetotail, until the open magnetic flux of the polar cap reaches its minimum. Acknowledgements This work is supported by the NSFC Grants 40390152 and 40536030 and Chinese Key Research Project Grant 2006CB806300. The authors acknowledge all PIs of instruments onboard Double Star and Cluster spacecraft. We also appreciate the useful discussions with R. L. McPherron and A. T. Y. Lui.

  18. Lessons from the organization of a proficiency testing program in food microbiology by interlaboratory comparison: analytical methods in use, impact of methods on bacterial counts and measurement uncertainty of bacterial counts.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Vincent

    2006-02-01

    The proficiency testing program in food microbiology RAEMA (Réseau d'Analyses et d'Echanges en Microbiologie des Aliments), created in 1988, currently includes 450 participating laboratories. This interlaboratory comparison establishes proficiency in detection of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, as well as enumeration of aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, beta-glucuronidase-positive Escherichia coli, anaerobic sulfito-reducing bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and L. monocytogenes. Twice a year, five units samples are sent to participants to assess their precision and trueness for enumeration and detection of micro-organisms. Most of participating laboratories use standard or validated alternative methods, they were 50-70% in 1994 and, for 5 years, they are 95%. An increasing use of alternative methods was also observed. This phenomenon is all the more significant as standard methods are laborious and time consuming; thus, 50% of the laboratories use alternative methods for the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. More and more laboratories use ready-to-use media and although the percentage is variable according to the microflora, we can consider that, today, 50-60% of the laboratories participating to the proficiency program only use ready-to-use media. The internal quality assurance programs lead also to an increasing use of media quality controls. The impact of analytical methods on bacterial counts was assessed by grouping together the results obtained by participating laboratories during the 10 last testing schemes from 1999 to 2003. The identified significant factors influencing enumeration results are variable from one microflora to another. Some of them significantly influence many microflora: the plating method (spiral plating or not) is influential for aerobic micro-organisms, Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and staphylococci, the type of culture medium and the medium manufacturer is

  19. Association between antral follicle count and reproductive measures in New Zealand lactating dairy cows maintained in a pasture-based production system.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marcelo F; Sanderson, Neil; Quirke, Laurel D; Lawrence, Stephen B; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The antral follicle count (AFC) in cattle is consistent throughout the estrous cycle of individual cows, and cows with a lower AFC have lower fertility. We assessed the AFC at random stages of the estrous cycle, examined the correlation between AFC classifications, and determined the relationship between the most rapid and practical laboratory-based AFC classification (AFC of follicles of ≥ 2 mm in diameter) and fertility measures in New Zealand lactating dairy cows. Cows detected in estrus (n = 202) or not (n = 239) during the first 4 weeks of the breeding season were subjected to ultrasonography and classified as having a high, medium, or low AFC at the time of scanning (on-site classification). Images from ultrasound scanning were recorded onto video for accurate follicle counting in an imaging laboratory. A strong association (P < 0.05) between the AFC of follicles with a diameter of 2 mm or greater and fertility was observed. Cows with a high AFC had a shorter (P < 0.05) interval from calving to conception by artificial insemination (AI; 82.4 ± 1.6 vs. 87.3 ± 1.2 days) and greater pregnancy rates (PRs; i.e., PR to the first AI [68.1% vs. 45.3%], 6-week PR [81.9% vs. 67.3%], and overall PR [91.3% vs. 79.7%]) than cows with a low AFC. The AFC was positively associated (P < 0.0001) with age. Progesterone concentrations during diestrus were greater (P < 0.05) in high-AFC cows (7.6 ± 0.3 ng/mL) than in low-AFC cows (6.5 ± 0.3 ng/mL), whether these were pregnant (7.7 ± 0.3 ng/mL) or not (6.3 ± 0.2 ng/mL). A rapid on-site scoring system determined that cows classified as having a high AFC had a shorter (P < 0.05) interval from calving to the first AI (76.5 ± 1.7 vs. 82.3 ± 1.9 days) and were more likely to show estrus (P < 0.01; 56.8% vs. 36.4%) and have a CL at the beginning of the breeding season (P < 0.01; 93.4% vs. 79.6%) than cows with a low on-site AFC. Collectively, we have confirmed an association between AFC2 and fertility, and these results

  20. Counting a Culture of Mealworms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Math is not the only topic that will be discussed when young children are asked to care for and count "mealworms," a type of insect larvae (just as caterpillars are the babies of butterflies, these larvae are babies of beetles). The following activity can take place over two months as the beetles undergo metamorphosis from larvae to adults. As the…

  1. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sarat Kumar; Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Mohapatra, Namita; Nayak, Suryakanti; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients. PMID:27994425

  2. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  3. High-Moisture Diet for Laboratory Rats: Complete Blood Counts, Serum Biochemical Values, and Intestinal Enzyme Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battles, August H.; Knapka, Joseph T.; Stevens, Bruce R.; Lewis, Laura; Lang, Marie T.; Gruendel, Douglas J.

    1991-01-01

    Rats were fed an irradiated high-moisture diet (KSC-25) with or without access to a water bottle. Physiologic values were compared between these two groups and a group of rats fed a purified diet. Hematologic and serum biochemical values, urine specific gravity, and intestinal enzyme activities were determined from samples collected from the three groups of rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=32) fed the irradiated high-moisture diet with or without a water bottle were the test animals. Rats (n=16) fed an irradiated purified diet and water provided via a water bottle were the control group. The purified diet formulation, modified AIN-76A, is a commonly used purified diet for laboratory rodents. All rats remained alert and healthy throughout the study. A comparison of the physiologic values of rats in this study with reported normal values indicated that all of the rats in the study were in good health. Significant differences (P less than 0.05) of the physiologic values from each rat group are reported.

  4. Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, K; Ishii, K; Ochiai, K; Baba, M; Sukegawa, A; Sasao, M; Kitajima, S

    2014-11-01

    In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

  5. Evaluation of two-stage system for neutron measurement aiming at increase in count rate at Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Fusion Neutronics Source

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, K. Ochiai, K.; Sukegawa, A.; Ishii, K.; Kitajima, S.; Baba, M.; Sasao, M.

    2014-11-15

    In order to increase the count rate capability of a neutron detection system as a whole, we propose a multi-stage neutron detection system. Experiments to test the effectiveness of this concept were carried out on Fusion Neutronics Source. Comparing four configurations of alignment, it was found that the influence of an anterior stage on a posterior stage was negligible for the pulse height distribution. The two-stage system using 25 mm thickness scintillator was about 1.65 times the count rate capability of a single detector system for d-D neutrons and was about 1.8 times the count rate capability for d-T neutrons. The results suggested that the concept of a multi-stage detection system will work in practice.

  6. A non-contact technique for measuring eccrine sweat gland activity using passive thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Krzywicki, Alan T; Berntson, Gary G; O'Kane, Barbara L

    2014-10-01

    An approach for monitoring eccrine sweat gland activity using high resolution Mid-Wave Infrared (MWIR) imaging (3-5 μm wave band) is described. This technique is non-contact, passive, and provides high temporal and spatial resolution. Pore activity was monitored on the face and on the volar surfaces of the distal and medial phalanges of the index and middle fingers while participants performed a series of six deep inhalation and exhalation exercises. Two metrics called the Pore Activation Index (PAI) and Pore Count (PC) were defined as size-weighted and unweighted measures of active sweat gland counts respectively. PAI transient responses on the finger tips were found to be positively correlated to Skin Conductance Responses (SCRs). PAI responses were also observed on the face, although the finger sites appeared to be more responsive. Results indicate that thermal imaging of the pore response may provide a useful, non-contact, correlate measure for electrodermal responses recorded from related sites.

  7. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-04

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  8. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    PubMed Central

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  9. Optimization of simultaneous tritium–radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    SciTech Connect

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta decay interference.

  10. Optimization of simultaneous tritium-radiocarbon internal gas proportional counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonicalzi, R. M.; Aalseth, C. E.; Day, A. R.; Hoppe, E. W.; Mace, E. K.; Moran, J. J.; Overman, C. T.; Panisko, M. E.; Seifert, A.

    2016-03-01

    Specific environmental applications can benefit from dual tritium and radiocarbon measurements in a single compound. Assuming typical environmental levels, it is often the low tritium activity relative to the higher radiocarbon activity that limits the dual measurement. In this paper, we explore the parameter space for a combined tritium and radiocarbon measurement using a natural methane sample mixed with an argon fill gas in low-background proportional counters of a specific design. We present an optimized methane percentage, detector fill pressure, and analysis energy windows to maximize measurement sensitivity while minimizing count time. The final optimized method uses a 9-atm fill of P35 (35% methane, 65% argon), and a tritium analysis window from 1.5 to 10.3 keV, which stops short of the tritium beta decay endpoint energy of 18.6 keV. This method optimizes tritium-counting efficiency while minimizing radiocarbon beta-decay interference.

  11. Savannah River National Laboratory Underground Counting Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Tim

    2006-10-01

    The SRNL UCF is capable of detecting extremely small amounts of radioactivity in samples, providing applications in forensics, environmental analyses, and nonproliferation. Past customers of the UCF have included NASA, (Long Duration Exposure Facility) the IAEA, (Iraq), and nonproliferation concerns. The SRNL UCF was designed to conduct ultra-low level gamma-ray analyses for radioisotopes at trace levels. Detection sensitivity is enhanced by background reduction, high detector efficiency, and long counting times. Backgrounds from cosmic-rays, construction materials, and radon are reduced by counting underground, active and passive shielding, (pre-WWII steel) and situation behind a Class 10,000 clean facility. High-detection efficiency is provided by a well detector for small samples and three large HPGe detectors. Sample concentration methods such as ashing or chemical separation are also used. Count times are measured in days. Recently, two SCUREF programs were completed with the University of South Carolina to further enhance UCF detection sensitivity. The first developed an ultra-low background HPGe detector and the second developed an anti-cosmic shield that further reduces the detector background. In this session, we will provide an overview status of the recent improvements made in the UCF and future directions for increasing sensitivity.

  12. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  13. Systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for assessing disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Marieke J; Fransen, Jaap; Kievit, Wietske; van Riel, Piet LCM

    2016-01-01

    Patient assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may be useful in clinical practice, offering a patient-friendly, location independent, and a time-efficient and cost-efficient means of monitoring the disease. The objective of this study was to identify patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) to assess disease activity in RA and to evaluate the measurement properties of these measures. Systematic literature searches were performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify articles reporting on clinimetric development or evaluation of PROM-based instruments to monitor disease activity in patients with RA. 2 reviewers independently selected articles for review and assessed their methodological quality based on the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) recommendations. A total of 424 abstracts were retrieved for review. Of these abstracts, 56 were selected for reviewing the full article and 34 articles, presenting 17 different PROMs, were finally included. Identified were: Rheumatoid Arthritis Disease Activity Index (RADAI), RADAI-5, Patient-based Disease Activity Score (PDAS) I & II, Patient-derived Disease Activity Score with 28-joint counts (Pt-DAS28), Patient-derived Simplified Disease Activity Index (Pt-SDAI), Global Arthritis Score (GAS), Patient Activity Score (PAS) I & II, Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data (RAPID) 2–5, Patient Reported Outcome-index (PRO-index) continuous (C) & majority (M), Patient Reported Outcome CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA). The quality of reports varied from poor to good. Typically 5 out of 10 clinimetric domains were covered in the validations of the different instruments. The quality and extent of clinimetric validation varied among PROMs of RA disease activity. The Pt-DAS28, RADAI, RADAI-5 and RAPID 3 had the strongest and most extensive validation. The measurement properties least reported and in need of more evidence were: reliability

  14. Averaging of TNTC counts.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, C N; Heller, B

    1988-01-01

    When plate count methods are used for microbial enumeration, if too-numerous-to-count results occur, they are commonly discarded. In this paper, a method for consideration of such results in computation of an average microbial density is developed, and its use is illustrated by example. PMID:3178211

  15. Anarthria impairs subvocal counting.

    PubMed

    Cubelli, R; Nichelli, P; Pentore, R

    1993-12-01

    We studied subvocal counting in two pure anarthric patients. Analysis showed that they performed definitively worse than normal subjects free to articulate subvocally and their scores were in the lower bounds of the performances of subjects suppressing articulation. These results suggest that subvocal counting is impaired after anarthria.

  16. Complexities of Counting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stake, Bernadine Evans

    This document focuses on one child's skip counting methods. The pupil, a second grade student at Steuben School, in Kankakee, Illinois, was interviewed as she made several attempts at counting twenty-five poker chips on a circular piece of paper. The interview was part of a larger study of "Children's Conceptions of Number and Numeral,"…

  17. Counting Sheep in Basque

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Frank P.

    1975-01-01

    Demonstrates the interplay of a cognitive system, the Basque numerative system, and a behavioral one, counting sheep. The significant features of the Basque numerative system are analyzed; then it is shown how use of these features facilitates the counting of sheep on open ranges by Basque sheep farmers in California. (Author/RM)

  18. 2008 KidsCount in Colorado!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "KidsCount in Colorado!" is an annual publication of the Colorado Children's Campaign, which provides the best available state- and county-level data to measure and track the education, health and general well-being of the state's children. KidsCount in Colorado! informs policy debates and community discussions, serving as a valuable…

  19. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  20. Precision Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radius, Marcie; And Others

    The manual provides information for precision measurement (counting of movements per minute of a chosen activity) of achievement in special education students. Initial sections give guidelines for the teacher, parent, and student to follow for various methods of charting behavior. It is explained that precision measurement is a way to measure the…

  1. Design Study of an Incinerator Ash Conveyor Counting System - 13323

    SciTech Connect

    Jaederstroem, Henrik; Bronson, Frazier

    2013-07-01

    A design study has been performed for a system that should measure the Cs-137 activity in ash from an incinerator. Radioactive ash, expected to consist of both Cs-134 and Cs-137, will be transported on a conveyor belt at 0.1 m/s. The objective of the counting system is to determine the Cs-137 activity and direct the ash to the correct stream after a diverter. The decision levels are ranging from 8000 to 400000 Bq/kg and the decision error should be as low as possible. The decision error depends on the total measurement uncertainty which depends on the counting statistics and the uncertainty in the efficiency of the geometry. For the low activity decision it is necessary to know the efficiency to be able to determine if the signal from the Cs-137 is above the minimum detectable activity and that it generates enough counts to reach the desired precision. For the higher activity decision the uncertainty of the efficiency needs to be understood to minimize decision errors. The total efficiency of the detector is needed to be able to determine if the detector will be able operate at the count rate at the highest expected activity. The design study that is presented in this paper describes how the objectives of the monitoring systems were obtained, the choice of detector was made and how ISOCS (In Situ Object Counting System) mathematical modeling was used to calculate the efficiency. The ISOCS uncertainty estimator (IUE) was used to determine which parameters of the ash was important to know accurately in order to minimize the uncertainty of the efficiency. The examined parameters include the height of the ash on the conveyor belt, the matrix composition and density and relative efficiency of the detector. (authors)

  2. The limits of counting accuracy in distributed neural representations.

    PubMed

    Gardner-Medwin, A R; Barlow, H B

    2001-03-01

    Learning about a causal or statistical association depends on comparing frequencies of joint occurrence with frequencies expected from separate occurrences, and to do this, events must somehow be counted. Physiological mechanisms can easily generate the necessary measures if there is a direct, one-to-one relationship between significant events and neural activity, but if the events are represented across cell populations in a distributed manner, the counting of one event will be interfered with by the occurrence of others. Although the mean interference can be allowed for, there is inevitably an increase in the variance of frequency estimates that results in the need for extra data to achieve reliable learning. This lowering of statistical efficiency (Fisher, 1925) is calculated as the ratio of the minimum to actual variance of the estimates. We define two neural models, based on presynaptic and Hebbian synaptic modification, and explore the effects of sparse coding and the relative frequencies of events on the efficiency of frequency estimates. High counting efficiency must be a desirable feature of biological representations, but the results show that the number of events that can be counted simultaneously with 50% efficiency is fewer than the number of cells or 0.1-0.25 of the number of synapses (on the two models) - many fewer than can be unambiguously represented. Direct representations would lead to greater counting efficiency, but distributed representations have the versatility of detecting and counting many unforeseen or rare events. Efficient counting of rare but important events requires that they engage more active cells than common or unimportant ones. The results suggest reasons that representations in the cerebral cortex appear to use extravagant numbers of cells and modular organization, and they emphasize the importance of neuronal trigger features and the phenomena of habituation and attention.

  3. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (˜80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  4. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization.

    PubMed

    Peronio, P; Acconcia, G; Rech, I; Ghioni, M

    2015-11-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring "long" data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  5. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-11-15

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.

  6. Improving the counting efficiency in time-correlated single photon counting experiments by dead-time optimization

    PubMed Central

    Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.

    2015-01-01

    Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed. PMID:26628115

  7. The Measurement and Interpretation of Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Ann V; Eston, Roger G

    2007-09-01

    The accurate and reliable assessment of physical activity is necessary for any research study where physical activity is either an outcome measure or an intervention. The aim of this review is to examine the use of objective measurement techniques for the assessment and interpretation of children's physical activity. Accurate measurement of children's activity is challenging, as the activity is characteristically sporadic and intermittent, consisting of frequent, short bouts. Objective measures of physical activity include heart rate telemetry, pedometry and accelerometry, and each of these methods has strengths and limitations. Heart rate is suited to the measurement of sustained periods of moderate and vigorous activity, pedometry provides a valid measure of total activity, and accelerometry provides a valid measure of total activity as well as the pattern and intensity of activity. As the weaknesses of heart rate and accelerometry for the assessment of activity are not inter-correlated, a combination of the two methods may be more accurate than either method alone. Recent evidence suggests that the Actiheart, an integrated accelerometer and heart rate unit, provides a more accurate prediction of children's energy expenditure than either heart rate or accelerometry alone. However, the cost of the Actiheart is prohibitive for large-scale studies. The pedometer is recommended when only the total amount of physical activity is of interest. When the intensity or the pattern of activity is of interest, accelerometry is the recommended measurement tool. Key pointsThe use of objective measures to assess physical activity in children is recommended.Pedometers provide an inexpensive objective measure of total activity that is highly correlated with more sophisticated techniques, e.g. accelerometry, and has been used to identify relationships between health and activity in children.Accelerometry allows examination of the temporal pattern and intensity of children

  8. MCNPX simulation of influence of cosmic rays on low-activity spectrometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šolc, Jaroslav; Kovář, Petr; Dryák, Pavel

    2014-02-01

    Germanium gamma spectrometers are effective instruments for low-activity measurement of a mixture of radionuclides in environmental samples, food samples, in materials released from nuclear facilities to the environment, etc. In such measurements cosmic rays have a significant contribution to the background signal. A Monte Carlo code MCNPXTM was used to calculate coaxial high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector pulse-height spectra caused by cosmic rays penetrating through shielding made of concrete and lead. Simulations were compared to two different measurements, one performed inside a 10 cm thick lead shielding and another done inside a larger chamber made of low-activity concrete and with several ceiling thicknesses. In the first experiment, a discrepancy was found between simulated and measured spectra by up to the factor of 4 at 2.62 MeV and slowly decreasing to unity at 13 MeV. It is assumed that the discrepancy between the measured and simulated spectra is caused by the simplification of muon energy losses treatment resulting in the underestimation of count rate in simulated pulse-height spectrum. Good agreement was obtained between simulation and measurement of differences of detector count rates in 662 keV and 1332 keV energy windows inside a concrete chamber with varying ceiling thickness. It is assumed that due to lower effective Z of concrete, delta electron bremsstrahlung has lower yield and the muon radiation energy losses start to be important at higher energies than in lead. As a result, the total contribution of these effects to the outputs of MCNPXTM simulations of concrete chamber is not dominant in the investigated energy windows and the simulation results are in a close agreement with the measurement.

  9. Improvement of the Eakins and Brown method for measuring 59Fe and 55Fe in blood and other iron-containing materials by liquid scintillation counting and sample preparation using microwave digestion and ion-exchange column purification of iron.

    PubMed

    Viteri, F E; Kohaut, B A

    1997-01-01

    The simultaneous measurement of 59Fe and 55Fe in whole blood by liquid scintillation counting by the Eakins and Brown (EB) method is extensively used in iron absorption studies. The EB method requires many steps which increase the chances of error and decrease its sensitivity. We describe two modifications to the above method consisting of microwave digestion and column purification of iron. This "New Method" (NM) is simpler and more precise, and sensitive than the EB method. Counting efficiencies with the NM are similar for 59Fe (75%) as with the EB method but are better for 55Fe (29% for NM vs 22%), and cross counting from 59Fe into the 55Fe window is lower with the NM (3.7-4.5%) than with the EB method (10-12%). For the NM, recoveries of radioactive blood samples, in relation to processed standards ranged from 100 to 103% for 59Fe and 101 to 113% for 55Fe. For the EB method, recoveries ranged from 94 to 99% for 59Fe and from 88 to 93% for 55Fe. Even with very low counts, average intrarun CV with the NM was lower than 5.4% for either isotope, while it was as high as 10.0% for 55Fe with the EB method.

  10. AUTOMATIC COUNTING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Howell, W.D.

    1957-08-20

    An apparatus for automatically recording the results of counting operations on trains of electrical pulses is described. The disadvantages of prior devices utilizing the two common methods of obtaining the count rate are overcome by this apparatus; in the case of time controlled operation, the disclosed system automatically records amy information stored by the scaler but not transferred to the printer at the end of the predetermined time controlled operations and, in the case of count controlled operation, provision is made to prevent a weak sample from occupying the apparatus for an excessively long period of time.

  11. Physical activity in preschoolers: understanding prevalence and measurement issues.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Melody; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S

    2007-01-01

    Accurate physical activity quantification in preschoolers is essential to establish physical activity prevalence, dose-response relationships between activity and health outcomes, and intervention effectiveness. To date, best practice approaches for physical activity measurement in preschool-aged children have been relatively understudied. This article provides a review of physical activity measurement tools for preschoolers, an overview of measurement of preschoolers' physical activity, and directions for further research. Electronic and manual literature searches were used to identify 49 studies that measured young children's physical activity, and 32 studies that assessed the validity and/or reliability of physical activity measures with preschool-aged children. While no prevalence data exist, measurement studies indicate that preschool children exhibit low levels of vigorous activity and high levels of inactivity, boys are more active than girls, and activity patterns tend to be sporadic and omnidirectional. As such, measures capable of capturing differing activity intensities in very short timeframes and over multiple planes are likely to have the most utility with this population. Accelerometers are well suited for this purpose, and a number of models have been used to objectively quantify preschoolers' physical activity. Only one model of pedometer has been investigated for validity with preschool-aged children, showing equivocal results. Direct observation of physical activity can provide detailed contextual information on preschoolers' physical activity, but is subjective and impractical for understanding daily physical activity. Proxy-report questionnaires are unlikely to be useful for determining actual physical activity levels of young children, and instead may be useful for identifying potential correlates of activity. Establishing validity is challenging due to the absence of a precise physical activity measure, or 'criterion', for young children

  12. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  13. Measurement of optical activity of honey bee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Mauricio; Olivares-Pérez, Arturo; Salgado-Verduzco, Marco Antonio; Ibarra-Torres, Juan Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Optical activity of some substances, such as chiral molecules, often exhibits circular birefringence. Circular birefringence causes rotation of the vibration plane of the plane polarized light as it passes through the substance. In this work we present optical characterization of honey as function of the optical activity when it is placed in a polariscope that consists of a light source and properly arranged polarizing elements.

  14. Measurement of myeloid cell immune suppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Dolcetti, Luigi; Peranzoni, Elisa; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    This unit presents simple methods to assess the immunosuppressive properties of immunoregulatory cells of myeloid origin, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), both in vitro and in vivo. These methods are general and could be adapted to test the impact of different suppressive populations on T cell activation, proliferation, and cytotoxic activity; moreover they could be useful to assess the influence exerted on immune suppressive pathways by genetic modifications, chemical inhibitors, and drugs.

  15. Effect of counting errors on immunoassay precision

    SciTech Connect

    Klee, G.G.; Post, G. )

    1989-07-01

    Using mathematical analysis and computer simulation, we studied the effect of gamma scintillation counting error on two radioimmunoassays (RIAs) and an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). To analyze the propagation of the counting errors into the estimation of analyte concentration, we empirically derived parameters for logit-log data-reduction models for assays of digoxin and triiodothyronine (RIAs) and ferritin (IRMA). The component of the analytical error attributable to counting variability, when expressed as a CV of the analyte concentration, decreased approximately linearly with the inverse of the square root of the maximum counts bound. Larger counting-error CVs were found at lower concentrations for both RIAs and the IRMA. Substantially smaller CVs for overall assay were found when the maximum counts bound progressively increased from 500 to 10,000 counts, but further increases in maximum bound counts resulted in little decrease in overall assay CV except when very low concentrations of analyte were being measured. Therefore, RIA and IRMA systems based in duplicate determinations having at least 10,000 maximum counts bound should have adequate precision, except possibly at very low concentrations.

  16. [Platelet count in the cat].

    PubMed

    Moritz, A; Hoffmann, C

    1997-11-01

    The technique of collecting blood samples is primarily responsible for the appearance of platelet-agglomeration in cats. Blood obtained by the conventional way ("one syringe technology", drips of blood) caused in 52% of the cases an activation of the large and therefore active thrombocytes however. Rejection of the first 2-5 ml blood for the platelet count ("two syringe technology") reduced the rate of platelet-agglomeration significantly. No big differences in platelet-agglomeration were found with regard to the place used for collecting blood (V. cephalica antebrachii/V. jugularis). Platelet-agglutination was observed with Li-Heparin, K-EDTA, Na-Citrat or ACD anticoagulated blood samples. Citrat (Na-Citrat, ACD) seemed to have a stabilizing effect on feline thrombocytes as has been described for human thrombocytes. The platelet count in cats should be performed within 30 minutes.

  17. Understanding Blood Counts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Lung Function Infections Iron Overload Low Blood Counts Pain Disease- and Treatment-Related ... cancer research around the world and provides free information and support services. Privacy Policy Security Copyright Link ...

  18. Calorie count - Fast food

    MedlinePlus

    ... count - fast food FOOD ITEM SERVING SIZE CALORIES Breakfast Foods Dunkin Donuts Egg White Veggie Wrap 1 ... Cheese Biscuit Sandwich 1 sandwich 510 BK Ultimate Breakfast Platter 1 platter 1190 McDonalds Fruit 'n Yogurt ...

  19. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the other main nutrients. Carbohydrates include sugars, starches, and fiber. Carbohydrate counting can help you control ... called starchy vegetables because they are high in starch. These vegetables have more carbohydrates per serving than ...

  20. Inventory count strategies.

    PubMed

    Springer, W H

    1996-02-01

    An important principle of accounting is that asset inventory needs to be correctly valued to ensure that the financial statements of the institution are accurate. Errors is recording the value of ending inventory in one fiscal year result in errors to published financial statements for that year as well as the subsequent fiscal year. Therefore, it is important that accurate physical counts be periodically taken. It is equally important that any system being used to generate inventory valuation, reordering or management reports be based on consistently accurate on-hand balances. At the foundation of conducting an accurate physical count of an inventory is a comprehensive understanding of the process coupled with a written plan. This article presents a guideline of the physical count processes involved in a traditional double-count approach.

  1. Evaluation of Am-Li neutron spectra data for active well type neutron multiplicity measurements of uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Croft, Stephen; Lousteau, Angela; Peerani, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Safeguarding nuclear material is an important and challenging task for the international community. One particular safeguards technique commonly used for uranium assay is active neutron correlation counting. This technique involves irradiating unused uranium with (α, n) neutrons from an Am-Li source and recording the resultant neutron pulse signal which includes induced fission neutrons. Although this non-destructive technique is widely employed in safeguards applications, the neutron energy spectra from an Am-Li sources is not well known. Several measurements over the past few decades have been made to characterize this spectrum; however, little work has been done comparing the measured and theoretical spectra of various Am-Li sources to each other. This paper examines fourteen different Am-Li spectra, focusing on how these spectra affect simulated neutron multiplicity results using the code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Two measurement and simulation campaigns were completed using Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) detectors and uranium standards of varying enrichment. The results of this work indicate that for standard AWCC measurements, the fourteen Am-Li spectra produce similar doubles and triples count rates. The singles count rates varied by as much as 20% between the different spectra, although they are usually not used in quantitative analysis, being dominated by scattering which is highly dependent on item placement.

  2. Evaluation of Am–Li neutron spectra data for active well type neutron multiplicity measurements of uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Goddard, Braden; Croft, Stephen; Lousteau, Angela; Peerani, Paolo

    2016-05-25

    Safeguarding nuclear material is an important and challenging task for the international community. One particular safeguards technique commonly used for uranium assay is active neutron correlation counting. This technique involves irradiating unused uranium with ( α,n) neutrons from an Am-Li source and recording the resultant neutron pulse signal which includes induced fission neutrons. Although this non-destructive technique is widely employed in safeguards applications, the neutron energy spectra from an Am-Li sources is not well known. Several measurements over the past few decades have been made to characterize this spectrum; however, little work has been done comparing the measured spectra of various Am-Li sources to each other. This paper examines fourteen different Am-Li spectra, focusing on how these spectra affect simulated neutron multiplicity results using the code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Two measurement and simulation campaigns were completed using Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) detectors and uranium standards of varying enrichment. The results of this work indicate that for standard AWCC measurements, the fourteen Am-Li spectra produce similar doubles and triples count rates. Finally, the singles count rates varied by as much as 20% between the different spectra, although they are usually not used in quantitative analysis.

  3. Evaluation of Am–Li neutron spectra data for active well type neutron multiplicity measurements of uranium

    DOE PAGES

    Goddard, Braden; Croft, Stephen; Lousteau, Angela; ...

    2016-05-25

    Safeguarding nuclear material is an important and challenging task for the international community. One particular safeguards technique commonly used for uranium assay is active neutron correlation counting. This technique involves irradiating unused uranium with ( α,n) neutrons from an Am-Li source and recording the resultant neutron pulse signal which includes induced fission neutrons. Although this non-destructive technique is widely employed in safeguards applications, the neutron energy spectra from an Am-Li sources is not well known. Several measurements over the past few decades have been made to characterize this spectrum; however, little work has been done comparing the measured spectra ofmore » various Am-Li sources to each other. This paper examines fourteen different Am-Li spectra, focusing on how these spectra affect simulated neutron multiplicity results using the code Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX). Two measurement and simulation campaigns were completed using Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) detectors and uranium standards of varying enrichment. The results of this work indicate that for standard AWCC measurements, the fourteen Am-Li spectra produce similar doubles and triples count rates. Finally, the singles count rates varied by as much as 20% between the different spectra, although they are usually not used in quantitative analysis.« less

  4. Daily physical activity and screen time, but not other sedentary activities, are associated with measures of obesity during childhood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-12-23

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours.

  5. Daily Physical Activity and Screen Time, but Not Other Sedentary Activities, Are Associated with Measures of Obesity during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Nik Shanita, Safii; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity is related to low physical activity level and a sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity level and sedentary behaviour of Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years and to examine their association with body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ), body fatness (%BF) and waist circumference (WC). A total of 1736 children, representing all ethnic groups were recruited from six regions of Malaysia. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height and waist circumference. Body fat percentage (%BF) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Physical activity was assessed by a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) in all children and by pedometers in a subsample (n = 514). PAQ score and pedometer step counts were negatively associated with BMI, BAZ, %BF and WC after adjusting for covariates. Screen time was positively associated with BAZ and WC. However, other sedentary activities were not significantly related with any anthropometric indicators. Strategies to promote active living among children in Malaysia should focus not only on increasing physical activity but also emphasise reduction in sedentary behaviours. PMID:25546277

  6. Counting Attribute Blocks: Constructing Meaning for the Multiplication Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity in which attribute blocks help middle school students understand the fundamental counting principle and the multiplication rule. Demonstrates how these materials can aid students in building a conceptual understanding of multiplication and the counting principle. (ASK)

  7. Nonadiabatic tapered optical fiber sensor for measurement of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zibaii, Mohammad Ismail; Latifi, Hamid; Saeedian, Zahra; Chenari, Zinab

    2014-06-05

    Silver nanoparticles (SNPs) exhibit antibacterial properties via bacterial inactivation and growth inhibition but the mechanism is not yet completely understood. In this study a label free and rapid detection method for study of antimicrobial activity of the SNP against Escherichia coli (E. coli K-12) is investigated using a nonadiabtic tapered fiber optic (NATOF) biosensor. The results show that SNPs interact with bacteria either by anchoring to or penetrating into the bacterial cell layer. These mechanism changes the refractive index (RI) of the tapered region, which in turn lead to the changes in the optical characteristics of the tapered fiber and output signals. With similar conditions for bacteria, the inhibition rate of the E. coli growth was measured by colony counting method as an experimental control and the results were compared with those obtained from the fiber sensor measurements. For SNP concentrations ranging from 0 to 50 μg ml(-1) the inhibition rates of the E. coli growth were measured to be from 1.27 h(-1) to -0.69 h(-1) and from -3.00×10(-3) h(-1) to -1.98×10(-2) h(-1) for colony counting and optical fiber biosensor, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the proposed NATOF biosensor as a label free and rapid sensing platform for understanding the mechanism of antibacterial effects of SNPs.

  8. [Development of a nonmagnetic angle encoder for active shielding during biomagnetic measurements].

    PubMed

    Giessler, F; Witt, C; Haueisen, J; Bellemann, M E

    2002-04-01

    Biomagnetic fields--in particular in the low-frequency range--are subject to environmental interference, which cannot be adequately reduced by most passive shielding methods. However, the signal-to-noise ratio can be increased by active compensation. For this purpose, the interference is detected by reference sensors and fed back through integrated compensation coils. To establish deviation of normal directions between reference sensors and compensation coils, an angle encoder was developed. The rotation of the reference sensors about two axes at right angles to each other, is converted into voltage pulses by means of codewheels and photoelectric beams. The pulses are counted by incremental encoders, and represent a measure of the angles. A cardanic suspension and a plumb-line act as a reference system. The pulses counted are converted into binary angle values, which are used for coordinate transformation of the interfering fields. The angle encoder can determine the tilt of the reference sensors with an accuracy of 1 degree within a range between -45 and +45 degrees. The noise level of the system remains unaffected during a biomagnetic measurement. Magnetic signals of up to 5 pT arising during the oscillation of the plumb-line can be neglected because of the static nature of the angular measurement.

  9. Measurement of energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activities by a sounding balloon and ground observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, T.

    2015-12-01

    Energetic radiation caused by thunderstorm activity is observed at various places, such as the ground, high mountain areas, and artificial satellites. In order to investigate the radiation source and its energy distribution, we measured energetic radiation by a sounding balloon, and the ground observation. On the measurement inside/above the thundercloud, we conducted a sounding observation using a radiosonde mounted two GM tubes (for gamma-rays, and for beta/gamma-rays), in addition to meteorological instruments. The balloon passed through a region of strong echoes in a thundercloud shown by radar image, at which time an increase in counting rate of the GM tube about 2 orders of magnitude occurred at the altitude from 5 km to 7.5 km. Furthermore, the counting rate of two GM tubes indicated the tendency different depending on movement of a balloon. This result suggests that the ratio for the gamma-rays (energetic photons) of the beta-rays (energetic electrons) varies according to the place in the thundercloud. Furthermore, we carried out a ground observation of the energetic gamma rays during winter thunderstorm at a coastal area facing the Sea of Japan. Two types of the energetic radiation have been observed at this time. We report the outline of these measurements and analysis in the session of the AGU meeting.

  10. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  11. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  12. Activity concentration measurements using a conjugate gradient (Siemens xSPECT) reconstruction algorithm in SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Ian S; Hoffmann, Sandra A

    2016-11-01

    The interest in quantitative single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) shows potential in a number of clinical applications and now several vendors are providing software and hardware solutions to allow 'SUV-SPECT' to mirror metrics used in PET imaging. This brief technical report assesses the accuracy of activity concentration measurements using a new algorithm 'xSPECT' from Siemens Healthcare. SPECT/CT data were acquired from a uniform cylinder with 5, 10, 15 and 20 s/projection and NEMA image quality phantom with 25 s/projection. The NEMA phantom had hot spheres filled with an 8 : 1 activity concentration relative to the background compartment. Reconstructions were performed using parameters defined by manufacturer presets available with the algorithm. The accuracy of activity concentration measurements was assessed. A dose calibrator-camera cross-calibration factor (CCF) was derived from the uniform phantom data. In uniform phantom images, a positive bias was observed, ranging from ∼6% in the lower count images to ∼4% in the higher-count images. On the basis of the higher-count data, a CCF of 0.96 was derived. As expected, considerable negative bias was measured in the NEMA spheres using region mean values whereas positive bias was measured in the four largest NEMA spheres. Nonmonotonically increasing recovery curves for the hot spheres suggested the presence of Gibbs edge enhancement from resolution modelling. Sufficiently accurate activity concentration measurements can easily be measured on images reconstructed with the xSPECT algorithm without a CCF. However, the use of a CCF is likely to improve accuracy further. A manual conversion of voxel values into SUV should be possible, provided that the patient weight, injected activity and time between injection and imaging are all known accurately.

  13. SU-E-T-543: Measurement of Neutron Activation From Different High Energy Varian Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thatcher, T; Madsen, S; Sudowe, R; Meigooni, A Soleimani

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Linear accelerators producing photons above 10 MeV may induce photonuclear reactions in high Z components of the accelerator. These liberated neutrons can then activate the structural components of the accelerator and other materials in the beam path through neutron capture reactions. The induced activity within the accelerator may contribute to additional dose to both patients and personnel. This project seeks to determine the total activity and activity per activated isotope following irradiation in different Varian accelerators at energies above 10 MeV. Methods: A Varian 21IX accelerator was used to irradiate a 30 cm × 30 cm × 20 cm solid water phantom with 15 MV x-rays. The phantom was placed at an SSD of 100 cm and at the center of a 20 cm × 20 cm field. Activation induced gamma spectra were acquired over a 5 minute interval after 1 and 15 minutes from completion of the irradiation. All measurements were made using a CANBERRA Falcon 5000 Portable HPGe detector. The majority of measurements were made in scattering geometry with the detector situated at 90° to the incident beam, 30 cm from the side of the phantom and approximately 10 cm from the top. A 5 minute background count was acquired and automatically subtracted from all subsequent measurements. Photon spectra were acquired for both open and MLC fields. Results: Based on spectral signatures, nuclides have been identified and their activities calculated for both open and MLC fields. Preliminary analyses suggest that activities from the activation products in the microcurie range. Conclusion: Activation isotopes have been identified and their relative activities determined. These activities are only gross estimates since efficiencies have not been determined for this source-detector geometry. Current efforts are focused on accurate determination of detector efficiencies using Monte Carlo calculations.

  14. Validity of the Fitbit activity tracker for measuring steps in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Serene S; Tiedemann, Anne; Hassett, Leanne M; Ramsay, Elisabeth; Kirkham, Catherine; Chagpar, Sakina; Sherrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercially available activity monitors, such as the Fitbit, may encourage physical activity. However, the accuracy of the Fitbit in older adults remains unknown. This study aimed to determine (1) the criterion validity of Fitbit step counts compared to visual count and ActiGraph accelerometer step counts and (2) the accuracy of ActiGraph step counts compared to visual count in community-dwelling older people. Methods Thirty-two community-dwelling adults aged over 60 wore Fitbit and ActiGraph devices simultaneously during a 2 min walk test (2MWT) and then during waking hours over a 7-day period. A physiotherapist counted the steps taken during the 2MWT. Results There was excellent agreement between Fitbit and visually counted steps (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1)=0.88, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) from the 2MWT, and good agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph (ICC2,1=0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.82), and between ActiGraph and visually counted steps (ICC2,1=0.60, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.79). There was excellent agreement between the Fitbit and ActiGraph in average steps/day over 7 days (ICC2,1=0.94, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.97). Percentage agreement was closest for Fitbit steps compared to visual count (mean 0%, SD 4%) and least for Fitbit average steps/day compared to the ActiGraph (mean 13%, SD 25%). Conclusions The Fitbit accurately tracked steps during the 2MWT, but the ActiGraph appeared to underestimate steps. There was strong agreement between Fitbit and ActiGraph counted steps. The Fitbit tracker is sufficiently accurate to be used among community-dwelling older adults to monitor and give feedback on step counts. PMID:27900119

  15. Evaluation of the ultrasonic method for solubilizing Daphnia magna before liquid scintillation counting

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Hanf, R.W. Jr.; Carlile, D.W.

    1984-11-01

    Adult Daphnia magna were exposed to /sup 14/C-labeled phenol and tissues analyzed for /sup 14/C uptake by three methods: (1) tissue solubilizer, (2) tissue solubilizer plus sonication, and (3) sonication alone. Analysis by liquid scintillation counting revealed that measurements of total activity among treatments were not significantly different (..cap alpha.. less than or equal to 0.10) at two count levels. Sonicated samples showed less variation than tissue samples that were solubilized. 5 references, 1 table.

  16. Standardization of (106)Ru/Rh by live-timed anticoincidence counting and gamma emission determination.

    PubMed

    da Silva, C J; Rezende, E A; Poledna, R; Tauhata, L; Iwahara, A; Lopes, R T

    2017-04-01

    The absolute activity standardization measurement system of radionuclide by live-timed anticoincidence counting was implemented at LNMRI in 2008 to reduce the effects of some correction factors on the determination of activity with coincidence counting technique used for decades in the laboratory, for example, the corrections of dead time and resolution. With the live-timed anticoincidence system, the variety of radionuclides that can be calibrated by LNMRI was increased in relation to the type of decay. The objective of this study was to standardize the (106)Ru activity, determine gamma emission probabilities by spectrometric method for some energies, and estimate measurement uncertainties.

  17. Measuring polio immunity to plan immunization activities.

    PubMed

    Voorman, Arend; Lyons, Hil M

    2016-11-21

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is closer than ever to achieving a polio-free world. Immunization activities must still be carried out in non-endemic countries to maintain population immunity at levels which will stop poliovirus from spreading if it is re-introduced from still-infected areas. In areas where there is no active transmission of poliovirus, programs must rely on surrogate indicators of population immunity to determine the appropriate immunization activities, typically caregiver-reported vaccination history obtained from non-polio acute flaccid paralysis patients identified through polio surveillance. We used regression models to examine the relationship between polio vaccination campaigns and caregiver-reported polio vaccination history. We find that in many countries, vaccination campaigns have a surprisingly weak impact on these commonly used indicators. We conclude that alternative criteria and data, such as routine immunization indicators from vaccination records or household surveys, should be considered for planning polio vaccination campaigns, and that validation of such surrogate indicators is necessary if they are to be used as the basis for program planning and risk assessment. We recommend that the GPEI and similar organizations consider or continue devoting additional resources to rigorously study population immunity and campaign effectiveness in at-risk countries.

  18. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  19. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  20. Bayesian Kernel Mixtures for Counts.

    PubMed

    Canale, Antonio; Dunson, David B

    2011-12-01

    Although Bayesian nonparametric mixture models for continuous data are well developed, there is a limited literature on related approaches for count data. A common strategy is to use a mixture of Poissons, which unfortunately is quite restrictive in not accounting for distributions having variance less than the mean. Other approaches include mixing multinomials, which requires finite support, and using a Dirichlet process prior with a Poisson base measure, which does not allow smooth deviations from the Poisson. As a broad class of alternative models, we propose to use nonparametric mixtures of rounded continuous kernels. An efficient Gibbs sampler is developed for posterior computation, and a simulation study is performed to assess performance. Focusing on the rounded Gaussian case, we generalize the modeling framework to account for multivariate count data, joint modeling with continuous and categorical variables, and other complications. The methods are illustrated through applications to a developmental toxicity study and marketing data. This article has supplementary material online.

  1. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, James E.

    1987-01-01

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a .sup.3 He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output ) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  2. Fast counting electronics for neutron coincidence counting

    DOEpatents

    Swansen, J.E.

    1985-03-05

    An amplifier-discriminator is tailored to output a very short pulse upon an above-threshold input from a detector which may be a /sup 3/He detector. The short pulse output is stretched and energizes a light emitting diode (LED) to provide a visual output of operation and pulse detection. The short pulse is further fed to a digital section for processing and possible ORing with other like generated pulses. Finally, the output (or ORed output) is fed to a derandomizing buffer which converts the rapidly and randomly occurring pulses into synchronized and periodically spaced-apart pulses for the accurate counting thereof. Provision is also made for the internal and external disabling of each individual channel of amplifier-discriminators in an ORed plurality of same.

  3. Neutron Yield Measurements via Aluminum Activation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-08

    Neutron activation of aluminum may occur by several neutron capture reactions. Four such reactions are described here: {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na, {sup 27}Al(n, 2n){sup 26}Al and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg. The radioactive nuclei {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 27}Mg, which are produced via the {sup 27}Al + n = {sup 28}Al, {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na and {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg neutron reactions, beta decay to excited states of {sup 28}Si, {sup 24}Mg and {sup 27}Al respectively. These excited states then emit gamma rays as the nuclei de-excite to their respective ground states.

  4. Apparatus for the measurement of total body nitrogen using prompt neutron activation analysis with californium-252.

    PubMed

    Mackie, A; Hannan, W J; Smith, M A; Tothill, P

    1988-01-01

    Details of clinical apparatus designed for the measurement of total body nitrogen (as an indicator of body protein), suitable for the critically ill, intensive-care patient are presented. Californium-252 radio-isotopic neutron sources are used, enabling a nitrogen measurement by prompt neutron activation analysis to be made in 40 min with a precision of +/- 3.2% for a whole body dose equivalent of 0.145 mSv. The advantages of Californium-252 over alternative neutron sources are discussed. A comparison between two irradiation/detection geometries is made, leading to an explanation of the geometry adopted for the apparatus. The choice of construction and shielding materials to reduce the count rate at the detectors and consequently to reduce the pile-up contribution to the nitrogen background is discussed. Salient features of the gamma ray spectroscopy system to reduce spectral distortion from pulse pile-up are presented.

  5. Interpretation of galaxy counts

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsely, B.M.

    1980-10-01

    New models are presented for the interpretation of recent counts of galaxies to 24th magnitude, and predictions are shown to 28th magnitude for future comparison with data from the Space Telescope. The results supersede earlier, more schematic models by the author. Tyson and Jarvis found in their counts a ''local'' density enhancement at 17th magnitude, on comparison with the earlier models; the excess is no longer significant when a more realistic mixture of galaxy colors is used. Bruzual and Kron's conclusion that Kron's counts show evidence for evolution at faint magnitudes is confirmed, and it is predicted that some 23d magnitude galaxies have redshifts greater than unity. These may include spheroidal systems, elliptical galaxies, and the bulges of early-type spirals and S0's, seen during their primeval rapid star formation.

  6. Whose interests count?

    PubMed

    Brudney, Daniel; Lantos, John D

    2014-10-01

    Whose interests should count and how should various interests be balanced at the pediatric patient's bedside? The interests of the child patient clearly count. Recently, however, many authors have argued that the family's interests also count. But how should we think about the interests of others? What does it mean to talk about "the family" in this context? Does it really just mean the interests of each individual family member? Or is the family itself a moral entity that has interests of its own independent of the interests of each of its members? Are such interests important only as they affect the patient's interest or also for their own sake? In this special supplement to Pediatrics, a group of pediatricians, philosophers, and lawyers grapple with these questions. They examine these issues from different angles and reach different conclusions. Jointly, they demonstrate the ethical importance and, above all, the ethical complexity of the family's role at the bedside.

  7. Quantifying Ant Activity Using Vibration Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C. S.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult. PMID:24658467

  8. Quantifying ant activity using vibration measurements.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Sebastian; Baro, Enrique Nava; Lai, Joseph C S; Evans, Theodore A

    2014-01-01

    Ant behaviour is of great interest due to their sociality. Ant behaviour is typically observed visually, however there are many circumstances where visual observation is not possible. It may be possible to assess ant behaviour using vibration signals produced by their physical movement. We demonstrate through a series of bioassays with different stimuli that the level of activity of meat ants (Iridomyrmex purpureus) can be quantified using vibrations, corresponding to observations with video. We found that ants exposed to physical shaking produced the highest average vibration amplitudes followed by ants with stones to drag, then ants with neighbours, illuminated ants and ants in darkness. In addition, we devised a novel method based on wavelet decomposition to separate the vibration signal owing to the initial ant behaviour from the substrate response, which will allow signals recorded from different substrates to be compared directly. Our results indicate the potential to use vibration signals to classify some ant behaviours in situations where visual observation could be difficult.

  9. Electromagnetic Measurements in an Active Oilfield Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, K. A.; Aldridge, D. F.; Bartel, L. C.; Knox, H. A.; Weiss, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    An important issue in oilfield development pertains to mapping and monitoring of the fracture distributions (either natural or man-made) controlling subsurface fluid flow. Although microseismic monitoring and analysis have been used for this purpose for several decades, there remain several ambiguities and uncertainties with this approach. We are investigating a novel electromagnetic (EM) technique for detecting and mapping hydraulic fractures in a petroleum reservoir by injecting an electrically conductive contrast agent into an open fracture. The fracture is subsequently illuminated by a strong EM field radiated by a large engineered antenna. Specifically, a grounded electric current source is applied directly to the steel casing of the borehole, either at/near the wellhead or at a deep downhole point. Transient multicomponent EM signals (both electric and magnetic) scattered by the conductivity contrast are then recorded by a surface receiver array. We are presently utilizing advanced 3D numerical modeling algorithms to accurately simulate fracture responses, both before and after insertion of the conductive contrast agent. Model results compare favorably with EM field data recently acquired in a Permian Basin oilfield. However, extraction of the very-low-amplitude fracture signatures from noisy data requires effective noise suppression strategies such as long stacking times, rejection of outliers, and careful treatment of natural magnetotelluric fields. Dealing with the ever-present "episodic EM noise" typical in an active oilfield environment (associated with drilling, pumping, machinery, traffic, etc.) constitutes an ongoing problem. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  10. A Measurement Activity to Encourage Exploration of Calculus Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuffey, William

    2015-01-01

    This article describes an activity that incorporates measurement in order to lead students to discover and explore fundamental concepts of calculus. Students are provided with an experientially real starting point involving measurement and are encouraged to engage in mathematical discussions in a low-stakes environment. I describe the activity as…

  11. 45 CFR 263.4 - When do educational expenditures count?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When do educational expenditures count? 263.4... EXPENDITURES OF STATE AND FEDERAL TANF FUNDS What Rules Apply to a State's Maintenance of Effort? § 263.4 When do educational expenditures count? (a) Expenditures for educational activities or services count...

  12. The MIC photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fordham, J. L. A.; Bone, D. A.; Oldfield, M. K.; Bellis, J. G.; Norton, T. J.

    1992-12-01

    The MIC (Microchannel plate Intensified CCD (Charge Coupled Device)) detector is an advanced performance Micro Channel Plate (MCP) intensified CCD photon counting detector developed for high resolution, high dynamic range, astronomical applications. The heart of the detector is an MCP intensifier developed specifically for photon counting applications. The maximum detector format is 3072 by 2304 pixels. The measured resolution of the detector system is 18 micrometers FWHM at 490 nm. The detector is linear to approximately 1,000,000 events/detector area/sec on a flat field and linear to count rates up to 200 events/object/s on star images. Two versions of the system have been developed. The first for ground based astronomical applications based around a 40 mm diameter intensifier, was proven in trials at a number of large optical telescopes. The second, specifically for the ESA X-Ray Multi Mirror Mission (XMM), where the MIC has been accepted as the blue detector for the incorporated Optical Monitor (OM). For the XMM-OM, the system is based around a 25 mm diameter intensifier. At present, under development, is a 75 mm diameter version of the detector which will have a maximum format of 6144 by 4608 pixels. Details of the MIC detector and its performance are presented.

  13. LOW ENERGY COUNTING CHAMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Hayes, P.M.

    1960-02-16

    A beta particle counter adapted to use an end window made of polyethylene terephthalate was designed. The extreme thinness of the film results in a correspondingly high transmission of incident low-energy beta particles by the window. As a consequence, the counting efficiency of the present counter is over 40% greater than counters using conventional mica end windows.

  14. WY Kids Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This WY Kids Count brochure uses the metaphor of children's building blocks to present information on the current well-being of Wyoming children and to advocate enhancing the lives of young children. Each block (i.e., each develop the brochure) presents concerns in a separate area: (1) poverty, highlighting the number of children living in…

  15. What Counts as Evidence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  16. The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Stephanie; Michels, Nathalie; Polfliet, Carolien; D'Haese, Sara; Roggen, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    The study's aim was to analyse whether children's bone status, assessed by calcaneal ultrasound measurements, is influenced by dairy consumption and objectively measured physical activity (PA). Moreover, the interaction between dairy consumption and PA on bone mass was studied. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 306 Flemish children (6-12 years). Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), dairy consumption with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, PA with an accelerometer (only in 234 of the 306 children) and bone mass with quantitative ultrasound, quantifying speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and Stiffness Index (SI). Regression analyses were used to study the associations between dairy consumption, PA, SOS, BUA and SI. Total dairy consumption and non-cheese dairy consumption were positively associated with SOS and SI, but no significant association could be demonstrated with BUA. In contrast, milk consumption, disregarding other dairy products, had no significant effect on calcaneal bone measurements. PA [vigorous PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and counts per minute] was positively associated and sedentary time was negatively associated with BUA and SI, but no significant influence on SOS could be detected. Dairy consumption and PA (sedentary time and MVPA) did not show any interaction influencing bone measurements. In conclusion, even at young age, PA and dairy consumption positively influence bone mass. Promoting PA and dairy consumption in young children may, therefore, maximize peak bone mass, an important protective factor against osteoporosis later in life.

  17. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement.

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-11-04

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity.

  18. Global positioning system: a new opportunity in physical activity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2009-01-01

    Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite to monitor population physical activity levels and design effective interventions. Global Positioning System (GPS) technology offers potential to improve the measurement of physical activity. This paper 1) reviews the extant literature on the application of GPS to monitor human movement, with a particular emphasis on free-living physical activity, 2) discusses issues associated with GPS use, and 3) provides recommendations for future research. Overall findings show that GPS is a useful tool to augment our understanding of physical activity by providing the context (location) of the activity and used together with Geographical Information Systems can provide some insight into how people interact with the environment. However, no studies have shown that GPS alone is a reliable and valid measure of physical activity. PMID:19887012

  19. Active Learning: The Importance of Developing a Comprehensive Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Rodney; Palmer, Stuart; Hagel, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation into the validity of a widely used scale for measuring the extent to which higher education students employ active learning strategies. The scale is the active learning scale in the Australasian Survey of Student Engagement. This scale is based on the Active and Collaborative Learning scale of the National…

  20. Point counts of birds: what are we estimating?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    Point counts of birds are made for many reasons, including estimating local densities, determining population trends, assessing habitat preferences, and exploiting the activities of recreational birdwatchers. Problems arise unless there is a clear understanding of what point counts mean in terms of actual populations of birds. Criteria for conducting point counts depend strongly on the purposes to which they will be put. This paper provides a simple mathematical conceptualization of point counts and illustrates graphically some of the influences on them.

  1. Continuous daily assessment of multiple sclerosis disability using remote step count monitoring.

    PubMed

    Block, V J; Lizée, A; Crabtree-Hartman, E; Bevan, C J; Graves, J S; Bove, R; Green, A J; Nourbakhsh, B; Tremblay, M; Gourraud, P-A; Ng, M Y; Pletcher, M J; Olgin, J E; Marcus, G M; Allen, D D; Cree, B A C; Gelfand, J M

    2017-02-01

    Disability measures in multiple sclerosis (MS) rely heavily on ambulatory function, and current metrics fail to capture potentially important variability in walking behavior. We sought to determine whether remote step count monitoring using a consumer-friendly accelerometer (Fitbit Flex) can enhance MS disability assessment. 99 adults with relapsing or progressive MS able to walk ≥2-min were prospectively recruited. At 4 weeks, study retention was 97% and median Fitbit use was 97% of days. Substudy validation resulted in high interclass correlations between Fitbit, ActiGraph and manual step count tally during a 2-minute walk test, and between Fitbit and ActiGraph (ICC = 0.76) during 7-day home monitoring. Over 4 weeks of continuous monitoring, daily steps were lower in progressive versus relapsing MS (mean difference 2546 steps, p < 0.01). Lower average daily step count was associated with greater disability on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) (p < 0.001). Within each EDSS category, substantial variability in step count was apparent (i.e., EDSS = 6.0 range 1097-7152). Step count demonstrated moderate-strong correlations with other walking measures. Lower average daily step count is associated with greater MS disability and captures important variability in real-world walking activity otherwise masked by standard disability scales, including the EDSS. These results support remote step count monitoring as an exploratory outcome in MS trials.

  2. Atypical manifestation of progressive outer retinal necrosis in AIDS patient with CD4+ T-cell counts more than 100 cells/microL on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Vichitvejpaisal, Pornpattana; Reeponmahar, Somporn; Tantisiriwat, Woraphot

    2009-06-01

    Typical progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is an acute ocular infectious disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with extremely low CD4+ T-cell counts. It is a form of the Varicella- zoster virus (VZV) infection. This destructive infection has an extremely rapid course that may lead to blindness in affected eyes within days or weeks. Attempts at its treatment have had limited success. We describe the case of a bilateral PORN in an AIDS patient with an initial CD4+ T-cell count >100 cells/microL that developed after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A 29-year-old Thai female initially diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 1998, presented with bilaterally decreased visual acuity after initiating HAART two months earlier. Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis. Her CD4+ T-cell count was 127 cells/microL. She was diagnosed as having PORN based on clinical features and positive VZV in the aqueous humor and vitreous by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Despite combined treatment with intravenous acyclovir and intravitreous ganciclovir, the patient's visual acuity worsened with no light-perception in either eye. This case suggests that PORN should be included in the differential diagnosis of reduced visual acuity in AIDS patients initiating HAART with higher CD4+ T-cell counts. PORN may be a manifestation of the immune reconstitution syndrome.

  3. In vivo measurement of 241Am in the lungs confounded by activity deposited in other organs.

    PubMed

    Lobaugh, Megan L; Spitz, Henry B; Glover, Samuel E

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive material deposited in multiple organs of the body is likely to confound a result of an in vivo measurement performed over the lungs, the most frequently monitored organ for occupational exposure. The significance of this interference was evaluated by measuring anthropometric torso phantoms containing lungs, liver, skeleton, and axillary lymph nodes, each with a precisely known quantity of 241Am uniformly distributed in the organs. Arrays of multiple high-resolution germanium detectors were positioned over organs within the torso phantom containing 241Am or over proximal organs without activity to determine the degree of measurement confounding due to photons emitted from other source organs. A set of four mathematical response functions describes the measured count rate with detectors positioned over each of the relevant organs and 241Am contained in the measured organ or one of the other organs selected as a confounder. Simultaneous solution of these equations by matrix algebra, where the diagonal terms of the matrix are calibration factors for a direct measurement of activity in an organ and the off-diagonal terms reflect the contribution (i.e., interference or cross-talk) produced by 241Am in a confounding organ, yields the activity deposited in each of the relevant organs. The matrix solution described in this paper represents a method for adjusting a result of 241Am measured directly in one organ for interferences that may arise from 241Am deposited elsewhere and represents a technically valid procedure to aid in evaluating internal dose based upon in vivo measurements for those radioactive materials known to deposit in multiple organs.

  4. Measuring Physical Activity with Hip Accelerometry among U.S. Older Adults: How Many Days Are Enough?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, William; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Waite, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accelerometers are increasingly used in research. Four to 7 days of monitoring is preferred to estimate average activity but may be burdensome for older adults. We aimed to investigate: 1) 7-day accelerometry protocol adherence, 2) demographic predictors of adherence, 3) day of the week effect, and 4) average activity calculated from 7 versus fewer days among older adults. Methods We used the 2003–2006 older adult hip accelerometry data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) sample. We determined proportions with 1–7 valid (10–20 hours) wear days and identified wear day correlates using ordinal logistic regression. We determined the day of week effect on 5 accelerometry measures (counts per minute, CPM; % sedentary behavior; % light-lifestyle activity; % moderate-vigorous activity, MVPA; total activity counts) using multivariate linear regression and compared averages estimated over 2 or 3 versus 7 days using correlations, linear regression, and Bland-Altman plots. Results Among 2,208 participants aged 65+, 85% of participants had ≥2 and 44% had 7 valid wear days. Increasing age (p = 0.01) and non-white race (p < 0.001) were associated with fewer days. Daily CPM, % MVPA, and total daily activity counts were similar Monday through Saturday, but significantly lower on Sundays (p < 0.001). Daily % sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity were significantly different on Saturdays (p = 0.04–0.045) and Sundays (p < 0.001) compared to weekdays. Among participants with 7 valid days, 2 or 3 day averages were highly correlated with 7 day averages for all 5 accelerometry measures (2 versus 7 days: r = 0.90–0.93, 3 versus 7 days: r = 0.94–0.96). Conclusions Protocols of 2–3 days, adjusting for Sundays (average CPM, % moderate-vigorous activity, and average total daily activity counts) or weekends (% sedentary behavior and % light-lifestyle activity), give reliable estimates of older adult activity. PMID:28081249

  5. Charged fusion product loss measurements using nuclear activation

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Wieslander, E.; Arnold, D.; Dombrowski, H.; Laubenstein, M.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    In ITER, {alpha} particle loss measurements will be required in order to understand the alpha particle physics. Techniques capable of operating in a fusion reactor environment need further development. Recent experimental studies on JET demonstrated the potential of nuclear activation to measure the flux of escaping MeV ions. New results from MeV ion induced activation of metallic, ceramic, and crystal samples placed near the plasma edge are reported. Activation products were measured as function of orientation with respect to the magnetic field as well as function of the distance to the plasma. Sample activity was measured using ultralow-level gamma-ray spectrometry. Distribution of 14.68 MeV fusion proton induced activation products is strongly anisotropic in agreement with simulations and falls off sharply with increasing distance to the plasma. Prospects for using the technique in ITER are discussed.

  6. Physical activity measurement among individuals with disabilities: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Carlos M; Porretta, David L

    2010-07-01

    This review examined the literature on physical activity measurement among individuals with disabilities utilizing Yun and Ulrich's (2002) view on measurement validity. Specific inclusion criteria were identified. The search produced 115 articles; however, only 28 met all specified criteria. Findings revealed that self-reports and accelerometers were the most common approaches to measuring physical activity, and individuals with orthopedic impairments, those with mental retardation, and those with other health impairments received the most attention. Of the 28 articles, 17 (61%) reported validity and reliability evidence. Among those studies reporting validity, criterion-related evidence was the most common; however, a number of methodological limitations relative to validity were observed. Given the importance of using multiple physical activity measures, only five (18%) studies reported the use of multiple measures. Findings are discussed relative to conducting future physical activity research on persons with disabilities.

  7. Retrospective determination of the contamination in the HML's counting chambers.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Gary H; Hauck, Barry; Capello, Kevin; Phan, Quoc

    2008-09-01

    The original documentation surrounding the purchase of the Human Monitoring Laboratory's (HML) counting chambers clearly showed that the steel contained low levels of radioactivity, presumably as a result of A-bomb fallout or perhaps to the inadvertent mixing of radioactive sources with scrap steel. Monte Carlo simulations have been combined with experimental measurements to estimate the level of contamination in the steel of the HML's whole body counting chamber. A 24-h empty chamber background count showed the presence of 137Cs and 60Co. The estimated activity of 137Cs in the 51 tons of steel was 2.7 kBq in 2007 (51.3 microBq g(-1) steel) which would have been 8 kBq at the time of manufacture. The 60Co that was found in the background spectrum is postulated to be contained in the bed-frame. The estimated amount in 2007 was 5 Bq and its origin is likely to be contaminated scrap metal entering the steel production cycle sometime in the past. The estimated activities are 10 to 25 times higher than the estimated minimum detectable activity for this measurement. These amounts have no impact on the usefulness of the whole body counter.

  8. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Cognitive Function in Older Adults - The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Vena, John E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Rhodes, David; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Participants Older adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=7,098). Measurements Actical™ accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables for 4–7 consecutive days. PA count cut-points of 50 counts per minute (cpm) and 1065 cpm were applied to differentiate between being sedentary and light PA, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener (scored <4 out of 6). Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall), were conducted to assess memory and executive function. Results Of 7,098 participants (70.1 ± 8.5 yr, 54.2% women, 31.5% black), 359 (5.1%) exhibited impaired cognition within ±12 months of PA measurement. The average proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA%) was 1.4 ± 1.9%. Participants in the highest quartile of MVPA% (approximately 258.3 min/wk of MVPA) were less likely to be cognitively impaired than those in the lowest quartile (OR [95%C.I.] = 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). MVPA% was also significantly associated with z-scores of executive function and memory (P<0.001). Similar analyses of proportion of time spent in light PA (LPA%) and sedentary time (ST%) showed no significant associations with cognitive function. Conclusion Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA%, rather than LPA% or ST%, were associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment and better performance in memory and executive function in aging people. The amount of MVPA associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment is consistent with meeting PA guidelines. PMID:26691697

  9. Development of an instrument for time activity curve measurements during PET imaging of rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reymond, Jean-Marc; Guez, David; Kerhoas, Sophie; Mangeot, Philippe; Boisgard, Raphaël; Jan, Sébastien; Tavitian, Bertrand; Trebossen, Régine

    2007-02-01

    Molecular imaging using PET in small rodents requires commonly the knowledge of the input function of the tracer (quantitative and kinetic studies of the metabolism, development of new drugs or new tracers, etc.). In this paper, we report the status and the performances of the prototype of a counting system that is under development at DAPNIA a in collaboration with SHFJ b. The detection device is made of silicon diodes of 0.3 mm thickness proper to measure the positrons emitted by the radiotracer contained in arterial blood flowing in a thin-wall microtube. Such diodes are poorly efficient for the 511 keV gammas from the rodent and thus require a rather light lead shielding and allow operating very close by to the animal. The detectors, the front-end electronics (for signal preamplification, shaping, and discrimination) and the acquisition circuits are mounted on a single card. The device is connected directly to a portable computer via an USB port. Such a design provides a compact, rugged and portable device for working close to a small animal PET camera. Preliminary results show the performances of this counting system with 18F solution and a time-activity curve for FDG blood samples (with ∣˜30 μL/samples) from a rat.

  10. Measuring Physical Activity in Free-Living Conditions—Comparison of Three Accelerometry-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Kulmala, Janne; Hakonen, Harto; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Auvinen, Juha; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Sievänen, Harri; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2017-01-01

    We examined the agreement in time spent on different physical activity (PA) levels using (1) mean amplitude deviation (MAD) of raw acceleration from the hip, (2) wrist-worn Polar Active, and (3) hip-worn Actigraph counts using Freedson's cut-points among adults under free-living conditions. PA was measured in 41 volunteers (mean age 47.6 years) for 14 days. Two MET-based threshold sets were used for MAD and Polar Active for sedentary time (ST) and time spent in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA. Actigraph counts were divided into PA classes, ≤100 counts/min for ST and Freedson's cut-points for LPA, MPA, and VPA. Analysis criteria were simultaneous use of devices for at least 4 days of >500 min/d. The between-method differences were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance test. Bland-Altman plots and ROC graphs were also employed. Valid data were available from 27 participants. Polar Active produced the highest amount of VPA with both thresholds (≥5 and ≥6 MET; mean difference 17.9–30.9 min/d, P < 0.001). With the threshold 3–6 MET for MPA, Polar Active indicated 19.2 min/d more than MAD (95% CI 5.8–32.6) and 51.0 min/d more than Actigraph (95% CI 36.7–65.2). The results did not differ with 3.5–5 MET for MPA [F(1.44, 37.43) = 1.92, P = 0.170]. MAD and Actigraph were closest to each other for ST with the threshold < 1.5 MET (mean difference 22.2 min/d, 95% CI 7.1–37.3). With the threshold <2 MET, Polar Active and Actigraph provided similar results (mean difference 7.0 min/d, 95% CI −17.8–31.7). Moderate to high agreement (area under the ROC curve 0.806–0.963) was found between the methods for the fulfillment of the recommendation for daily moderate-to-vigorous PA of 60 min. In free-living conditions the agreement between MAD, Polar Active, and Actigraph for measuring time spent on different activity levels in adults was dependent on the activity thresholds used and PA intensity. ROC analyses showed moderate to

  11. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleuel, D. L.; Bernstein, L. A.; Bionta, R. M.; Cooper, G. W.; Drury, O. B.; Hagmann, C. A.; Knittel, K. M.; Leeper, R. J.; Ruiz, C. L.; Schneider, D. H. G.; Yeamans, C. B.

    2013-11-01

    Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ˜20-200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM), 25-50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n') reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n) reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  12. The Watt Count System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Watt Count System combines aerospace and computer technology, an engineering systems design approach and the environmental control expertise of a group of engineers who worked on Apollo. First step of the system is a computerized energy consumption analysis based on plans for a new home. Company calculates heating and cooling loads and customizes the most energy efficient system for the particular structure analyzed. A quality control engineer assures that insulation and ducting are installed to specifications. Analysis and design techniques are so accurate that company is able to give homeowner a two-year guarantee that the home's energy consumption will not exceed the kilowatt hour level determined by the computer in step one. In an annual energy performance comparison, a Watt Count home used 45 percent less energy than a conventionally equipped home.

  13. Measurement of 224Ra and 226Ra activities in natural waters using a radon-in-air monitor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, G.; Burnett, W.C.; Dulaiova, H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Moore, W.S.

    2001-01-01

    We report a simple new technique for measuring low-level radium isotopes (224Ra and 226Ra) in natural waters. The radium present in natural waters is first preconcentrated onto MnO2-coated acrylic fiber (Mn fiber) in a column mode. The radon produced from the adsorbed radium is then circulated through a closed air-loop connected to a commercial radon-in-air monitor. The monitor counts alpha decays of radon daughters (polonium isotopes) which are electrostatically collected onto a silicon semiconductor detector. Count data are collected in energy-specific windows, which eliminate interference and maintain very low backgrounds. Radium-224 is measured immediately after sampling via 220Rn (216Po), and 226Ra is measured via 222Rn (218Po) after a few days of ingrowth of 222Rn. This technique is rapid, simple, and accurate for measurements of low-level 224Ra and 226Ra activities without requiring any wet chemistry. Rapid measurements of short-lived 222Rn and 224Ra, along with long-lived 226Ra, may thus be made in natural waters using a single portable system for environmental monitoring of radioactivity as well as tracing of various geochemical and geophysical processes. The technique could be especially useful for the on-site rapid determination of 224Ra which has recently been found to occur at elevated activities in some groundwater wells.

  14. Physical activity in an indigenous Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population as measured using accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Madimenos, Felicia C.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Blackwell, Aaron D.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Sugiyama, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Minimal information on physical activity is available for non-Western populations undergoing the transition to a market economy. This is unfortunate given the importance of these data for understanding health issues such as the global obesity epidemic. We consider the utility of using accelerometry technology to examine activity patterns and energy use regulation among indigenous Shuar, an Ecuadorian forager-horticulturalist population undergoing economic and lifestyle change. We investigate sex differences in Shuar activity patterns and the effects of reproductive status on activity. Finally, we discuss the potential of accelerometry use in human biology research. Methods Physical activity levels were measured using Actical accelerometers in 49 indigenous Shuar adults (23 males, 26 females) from a rural Ecuadorian community. Female participants were in various reproductive states including pregnant, lactating, and non-pregnant/non-lactating. Results Activity counts (AC), activity energy expenditure (AEE), and physical activity levels (PAL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in males than females. Significant differences in energy expenditure were found among pregnant or lactating females and males with pregnant or lactating partners (P < 0.001). Males with pregnant or lactating partners also had significantly higher activity levels than did other men (P < 0.01). Conclusions Shuar activity levels are relatively low compared to other non-Western populations. Despite increasing market integration, pregnant and lactating females seem to be adopting a strategy noted in other subsistence populations where male participation in subsistence activities increases to compensate for their partners’ elevated reproductive costs. Despite certain limitations, use of accelerometry in human biology research shows promise. PMID:21538650

  15. Determination of activity of 51Cr on gamma radiation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, V. V.; Gavrin, V. N.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Malyshkin, Yu. M.; Shikhin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A method of determining the activity of intensive distributed -sources on the measurement of the continuous spectrum of radiation, for example the internal bremsstrahlung, is developed. The recurrent formula for reconstructing of a continuous spectrum, registered in a Ge detector, at distorting it in the detector. The method of precise measurements of the spectrum of 51Cr internal bremsstrahlung using two point sources of low activity is described.

  16. Counting Chickens before They Are Hatched: An Examination of Student Retention, Graduation, Attrition, and Dropout Measurement Validity in an Online Master's Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydarov, Rustam; Moxley, Virginia; Anderson, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This article examines definitions, rationales, and calculations associated with higher education performance measures: persistence, retention rate, attrition rate, drop-out rate, and graduation rate. Strengths and limitations of these measures are scrutinized relative to online master's programs. Outcomes of a sample of students (N = 96) enrolled…

  17. Inferring brain-computational mechanisms with models of activity measurements

    PubMed Central

    Diedrichsen, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution functional imaging is providing increasingly rich measurements of brain activity in animals and humans. A major challenge is to leverage such data to gain insight into the brain's computational mechanisms. The first step is to define candidate brain-computational models (BCMs) that can perform the behavioural task in question. We would then like to infer which of the candidate BCMs best accounts for measured brain-activity data. Here we describe a method that complements each BCM by a measurement model (MM), which simulates the way the brain-activity measurements reflect neuronal activity (e.g. local averaging in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) voxels or sparse sampling in array recordings). The resulting generative model (BCM-MM) produces simulated measurements. To avoid having to fit the MM to predict each individual measurement channel of the brain-activity data, we compare the measured and predicted data at the level of summary statistics. We describe a novel particular implementation of this approach, called probabilistic representational similarity analysis (pRSA) with MMs, which uses representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) as the summary statistics. We validate this method by simulations of fMRI measurements (locally averaging voxels) based on a deep convolutional neural network for visual object recognition. Results indicate that the way the measurements sample the activity patterns strongly affects the apparent representational dissimilarities. However, modelling of the measurement process can account for these effects, and different BCMs remain distinguishable even under substantial noise. The pRSA method enables us to perform Bayesian inference on the set of BCMs and to recognize the data-generating model in each case. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience’. PMID:27574316

  18. Measuring physical activity in older adults: calibrating cut-points for the MotionWatch 8©

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Glenn J.; Falck, Ryan S.; Beets, Michael W.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Given the world’s aging population, the staggering economic impact of dementia, the lack of effective treatments, and the fact a cure for dementia is likely many years away – there is an urgent need to develop interventions to prevent or at least delay dementia’s progression. Thus, lifestyle approaches to promote healthy aging are an important line of scientific inquiry. Good sleep quality and physical activity (PA) are pillars of healthy aging, and as such, are an increasing focus for intervention studies aimed at promoting health and cognitive function in older adults. However, PA and sleep quality are difficult constructs to evaluate empirically. Wrist-worn actigraphy (WWA) is currently accepted as a valid objective measure of sleep quality. The MotionWatch 8© (MW8) is the latest WWA, replacing the discontinued Actiwatch 4 and Actiwatch 7. In the current study, concurrent measurement of WWA and indirect calorimetry was performed during 10 different activities of daily living for 23 healthy older adults (aged 57–80 years) to determine cut-points for sedentary and moderate-vigorous PA – using receiver operating characteristic curves – with the cut-point for light activity being the boundaries between sedentary and moderate to vigorous PA. In addition, simultaneous multi-unit reliability was determined for the MW8 using inter-class correlations. The current study is the first to validate MW8 activity count cut-points – for sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous PA – specifically for use with healthy older adults. These cut-points provide important context for better interpretation of MW8 activity counts, and a greater understanding of what these counts mean in terms of PA. Hence, our results validate another level of analysis for researchers using the MW8 in studies aiming to examine PA and sleep quality concurrently in older adults. PMID:26379546

  19. Digital coincidence counting - initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butcher, K. S. A.; Watt, G. C.; Alexiev, D.; van der Gaast, H.; Davies, J.; Mo, Li; Wyllie, H. A.; Keightley, J. D.; Smith, D.; Woods, M. J.

    2000-08-01

    Digital Coincidence Counting (DCC) is a new technique in radiation metrology, based on the older method of analogue coincidence counting. It has been developed by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), in collaboration with the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) of the United Kingdom, as a faster more reliable means of determining the activity of ionising radiation samples. The technique employs a dual channel analogue-to-digital converter acquisition system for collecting pulse information from a 4π beta detector and an NaI(Tl) gamma detector. The digitised pulse information is stored on a high-speed hard disk and timing information for both channels is also stored. The data may subsequently be recalled and analysed using software-based algorithms. In this letter we describe some recent results obtained with the new acquistion hardware being tested at ANSTO. The system is fully operational and is now in routine use. Results for 60Co and 22Na radiation activity calibrations are presented, initial results with 153Sm are also briefly mentioned.

  20. Seasonality in Children's Pedometer-Measured Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…

  1. Earthworm Biomass Measurement: A Science Activity for Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Jonathan; Levine, Elissa; Carey, Pauline B.; Niepold III, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity on biomass measurement which, in this case, is the weight of a group of living things in a given area. The earthworm activity gives students a greater understanding of ecology, practical math applications, and the scientific method. (ASK)

  2. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  3. Should soil testing services measure soil biological activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Health of agricultural soils depends largely on conservation management to promote soil organic C accumulation. Total soil organic C changes slowly, but active fractions are more dynamic. A key indicator of healthy soil is potential biological activity, which could be measured rapidly with soil te...

  4. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  5. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  6. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2006 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  7. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2008 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  8. Higher Education Counts: Achieving Results. 2007 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Department of Higher Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Higher Education Counts" is the annual accountability report on Connecticut's state system of higher education, as required under Connecticut General Statutes Section 10a-6a. The report contains accountability measures developed through the Performance Measures Task Force and approved by the Board of Governors for Higher Education. The…

  9. Rhode Island KIDS COUNT Issue Brief, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Elizabeth Burke, Ed.; Walsh, Catherine Boisvert, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    These two Kids Count brief reports discuss issues related to the well-being of Rhode Island children. The first report identifies ways to measure the impact of state and federal welfare reform proposals on children who receive benefits through Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). Potential measures of success for welfare reform include…

  10. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health.

    PubMed

    Green, Carla A; Perrin, Nancy A; Polen, Michael R; Leo, Michael C; Hibbard, Judith H; Tusler, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Our objective was to adapt the physical health Patient Activation Measure (PAM) for use among people with mental health conditions (PAM-MH). Data came from three studies among people with chronic mental health conditions and were combined in Rasch analyses. The PAM-MH's psychometric properties equal those of the original 13-item PAM. Test-retest reliability and concurrent validity were good, and the PAM-MH showed sensitivity to change. The PAM-MH appears to be a reliable and valid measure of patient activation among individuals with mental health problems. It appears to have potential for use in assessing change in activation.

  11. Evaluation of pozzolanic activity by the electric resistance measurement method

    SciTech Connect

    Tashiro, Chuichi; Ikeda, Ko . Dept. of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering); Inoue, Yoshihiro )

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of electric resistance and amount of consumption of portlandite were carried out in accelerated curing conditions by preparing pastes of Fine Ceraments, fly ash, silica fume, kaolin, acid clay, zeolite and quartz activated with portlandite. Electric resistances of reactive pozzolans showed sharp rises except that of kaolin, whereas that of inactive material, quartz, showed no sharp rise. Electric resistances are proportional to the consumptions of portlandite except for fly ashes. The electric resistance measurement method combined with portlandite consumption measurement is useful to the rapid evaluation of pozzolanic activity.

  12. Solar irradiance measurements - Minimum through maximum solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Shivakumar, N.; Wilson, R.; Kyle, H. L.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 spacecraft solar monitors were used to measure the total solar irradiance during the period October 1984 to December 1989. Decreasing trends in the irradiance measurements were observed as sunspot activity decreased to minimum levels in 1986; after 1986, increasing trends were observed as sunspot activity increased. The magnitude of the irradiance variability was found to be approximately 0.1 percent between sunspot minimum and maximum (late 1989). When compared with the 1984 to 1989 indices of solar magnetic activity, the irradiance trends appear to be in phase with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Both irradiance series yielded 1,365/sq Wm as the mean value of the solar irradiance, normalized to the mean earth/sun distance. The monitors are electrical substitution, active-cavity radiometers with estimated measurement precisions and accuracies of less than 0.02 and 0.2 percent, respectively.

  13. Measurement of actinides and strontium-90 in high activity waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Nelson, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The reliable measurement of trace radionuclides in high activity waste is important to support waste processing activities at SRS (F and H Area Waste Tanks, Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) and In-Tank precipitation (ITP) processing). Separation techniques are needed to remove high levels of gamma activity and alpha/beta interferences prior to analytical measurement. Using new extraction chromatographic resins from EiChrom Industries, Inc., the SRS Central Laboratory has developed new high speed separation methods that enable measurement of neptunium, thorium, uranium, plutonium, americium and strontium-90 in high activity waste solutions. Small particle size resin and applied vacuum are used to reduce analysis times and enhance column performance. Extraction chromatographic resins are easy to use and eliminate the generation of contaminated liquid organic waste.

  14. MCG measurement in the environment of active magnetic shield.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kato, K; Kobayashi, K; Igarashi, A; Sato, T; Haga, A; Kasai, N

    2004-11-30

    MCG (Magnetocardiography) measurement by a SQUID gradiometer was attempted with only active magnetic shielding (active shielding). A three-axis-canceling-coil active shielding system, where three 16-10-16 turns-coil sets were put in the orthogonal directions, produces a homogeneous magnetic field in a considerable volume surrounding the center. Fluxgate sensors were used as the reference sensors of the system. The system can reduce environmental magnetic noise at low frequencies of less than a few Hz, at 50 Hz and at 150 Hz. Reducing such disturbances stabilizes biomagnetic measurement conditions for SQUIDs in the absence of magnetically shielded rooms (MSR). After filtering and averaging the measured MCG data by a first-order SQUID gradiometer with only the active shielding during the daytime, the QRS complex and T wave was clearly presented.

  15. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  16. Modeling CD4+ cell count increase over a six-year period in HIV-1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy in Senegal.

    PubMed

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Etard, Jean-François; Diouf, Assane; Ndiaye, Ibrahima; Guèye, Ndèye Fatou; Guèye, Pape Mandoumbé; Sow, Papa Salif; Mboup, Souleymane; Ndoye, Ibra; Ecochard, René; Eric, Delaporte

    2009-06-01

    To assess the extents and determinants of long-term CD4 cell increases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART), changes in CD4 cell counts were analyzed in a cohort of HIV-1-infected Senegalese using a mixed-effects model. After a median follow-up of 54 months, an average of 483 CD4 cells/mm3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 331; 680) was reached. The average asymptote level was approximately 421 cells/mm3 (95% CI = 390; 454) in patients with < 200 cells/mm3 at baseline and approximately 500 cells/mm3 in patients with > 200 cells/mm3. The independent predictors of long-term CD4 cell reconstitution were the baseline CD4 cell count and the monthly average viral load over the entire follow-up. This good long-term immune reconstitution, optimal in subjects with low average viral loads and > 200 CD4 cells/mm3 at baseline, argues in favor of the earliest possible access to ART and underlines the importance of strict compliance with the treatment.

  17. Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement. II - Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of a single airborne instrument to make concurrent measurements of oceanic chlorophyll concentration by (1) laser-induced fluorescence, (2) passive upwelling radiance, and (3) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results from field experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the New York Bight demonstrate the capability of a single active-passive instrument to perform new and potentially important ocean color studies related to (1) active lidar validation of passive ocean color in-water algorithms, (2) chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence yield variability, (3) calibration of active multichannel lidar systems, (4) effect of sea state on passive and active ocean color measurements, (5) laser/solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence investigations, and (6) subsequent improvement of satellite-borne ocean color scanners. For validation and comparison purposes a separate passive ocean color sensor was also flown along with the new active-passive sensor during these initial field trials.

  18. Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, R I; Kurosaki, T T; Harrah, C H; Chance, J M; Filos, S

    1982-05-01

    Two measures of social function designed for community studies of normal aging and mild senile dementia were evaluated in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. An examining and a reviewing neurologist and a neurologically trained nurse independently rated each on a Scale of Functional Capacity. Interrater reliability was high (examining vs. reviewing neurologist, r = .97; examining neurologist vs. nurse, tau b = .802; p less than .001 for both comparisons). Estimates correlated well with an established measure of social function and with results of cognitive tests. Alternate informants evaluated participants on the Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. The Functional Activities Questionnaire was superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily scores. Used alone as a diagnostic tool, the Functional Activities Questionnaire was more sensitive than distinguishing between normal and demented individuals.

  19. Peak-counts blood flow model-errors and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Mullani, N.A.; Marani, S.K.; Ekas, R.D.; Gould, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    The peak-counts model has several advantages, but its use may be limited due to the condition that the venous egress may not be negligible at the time of peak-counts. Consequently, blood flow measurements by the peak-counts model will depend on the bolus size, bolus duration, and the minimum transit time of the bolus through the region of interest. The effect of bolus size on the measurement of extraction fraction and blood flow was evaluated by injecting 1 to 30ml of rubidium chloride in the femoral vein of a dog and measuring the myocardial activity with a beta probe over the heart. Regional blood flow measurements were not found to vary with bolus sizes up to 30ml. The effect of bolus duration was studied by injecting a 10cc bolus of tracer at different speeds in the femoral vein of a dog. All intravenous injections undergo a broadening of the bolus duration due to the transit time of the tracer through the lungs and the heart. This transit time was found to range from 4-6 second FWHM and dominates the duration of the bolus to the myocardium for up to 3 second injections. A computer simulation has been carried out in which the different parameters of delay time, extraction fraction, and bolus duration can be changed to assess the errors in the peak-counts model. The results of the simulations show that the error will be greatest for short transit time delays and for low extraction fractions.

  20. Single particle counting diagnostic system for measuring fine particulates at high number densities in research and industrial applications. Final report summarizing instrument development, validation and operating instructions

    SciTech Connect

    Holve, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Optical methods for particle size distribution measurements in practical high temperature environments have achieved feasibility and offer significant advantages over conventional sampling methods. The present report describes a mobile electro-optical system which has been designed for general use in a wide range of research and industrial environments. Specific features of this system include a method of providing in situ alignment and incorporation of an extinction measurement for application to optically thick aerosol flows. The instrument has demonstrated capability for measuring individual particles in the size range 0.25 to 100 microns at number densities up to 10/sup 12//m/sup 3/. In addition to demonstration of the system's wide dynamic range, we show the utility of the in situ alignment method in hot (1100 K) turbulent flows where beam steering can be a problem. As an example of the instrument's application, number and mass frequency distribution measurements of flyash and pulverized coal obtained in an atmospheric combustion exhaust simulator show that the raw pulverized coal contains large numbers of submicron particles similar to the flyash formed after combustion.

  1. Fusion-neutron-yield, activation measurements at the Z accelerator: design, analysis, and sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Hahn, K D; Cooper, G W; Ruiz, C L; Fehl, D L; Chandler, G A; Knapp, P F; Leeper, R J; Nelson, A J; Smelser, R M; Torres, J A

    2014-04-01

    We present a general methodology to determine the diagnostic sensitivity that is directly applicable to neutron-activation diagnostics fielded on a wide variety of neutron-producing experiments, which include inertial-confinement fusion (ICF), dense plasma focus, and ion beam-driven concepts. This approach includes a combination of several effects: (1) non-isotropic neutron emission; (2) the 1/r(2) decrease in neutron fluence in the activation material; (3) the spatially distributed neutron scattering, attenuation, and energy losses due to the fielding environment and activation material itself; and (4) temporally varying neutron emission. As an example, we describe the copper-activation diagnostic used to measure secondary deuterium-tritium fusion-neutron yields on ICF experiments conducted on the pulsed-power Z Accelerator at Sandia National Laboratories. Using this methodology along with results from absolute calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations, we find that for the diagnostic configuration on Z, the diagnostic sensitivity is 0.037% ± 17% counts/neutron per cm(2) and is ∼ 40% less sensitive than it would be in an ideal geometry due to neutron attenuation, scattering, and energy-loss effects.

  2. Foot-mounted inertial measurement unit for activity classification.

    PubMed

    Ghobadi, Mostafa; Esfahani, Ehsan T

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a classification technique for daily base activity recognition for human monitoring during physical therapy in home. The proposed method estimates the foot motion using single inertial measurement unit, then segments the motion into steps classify them by template-matching as walking, stairs up or stairs down steps. The results show a high accuracy of activity recognition. Unlike previous works which are limited to activity recognition, the proposed approach is more qualitative by providing similarity index of any activity to its desired template which can be used to assess subjects improvement.

  3. Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Scott C; Norman, Greg J; Merz, Erin L; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    The current study served as a practical and substantive guide to establishing longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures commonly used in adolescent physical activity (PA) research. Psychosocial data on an initial sample of 878 adolescents (ages 11 - 15) recruited through primary care providers were provided at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. The target measures included family support, peer support, decisional balance (pros, cons), self-efficacy, and behavioral strategies. Five of the six psychosocial measures exhibited strict longitudinal measurement invariance, with the 6th measure (self-efficacy) exhibiting strong longitudinal measurement invariance. These findings support the equivalence of these measures across time, and provide the foundation to substantively interpret group differences and associations involving these measures and PA.

  4. Counting Statistics and Ion Interval Density in AMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, J S; Ognibene, T; Palmblad, M; Reimer, P

    2004-08-03

    Confidence in the precisions of AMS and decay measurements must be comparable for the application of the {sup 14}C calibration to age determinations using both technologies. We confirmed the random nature of the temporal distribution of {sup 14}C ions in an AMS spectrometer for a number of sample counting rates and properties of the sputtering process. The temporal distribution of ion counts was also measured to confirm the applicability of traditional counting statistics.

  5. Counting RG flows

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerful enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.

  6. Counting RG flows

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei

    2016-01-05

    Here, interpreting renormalization group flows as solitons interpolating between different fixed points, we ask various questions that are normally asked in soliton physics but not in renormalization theory. Can one count RG flows? Are there different "topological sectors" for RG flows? What is the moduli space of an RG flow, and how does it compare to familiar moduli spaces of (supersymmetric) dowain walls? Analyzing these questions in a wide variety of contexts -- from counting RG walls to AdS/CFT correspondence -- will not only provide favorable answers, but will also lead us to a unified general framework that is powerfulmore » enough to account for peculiar RG flows and predict new physical phenomena. Namely, using Bott's version of Morse theory we relate the topology of conformal manifolds to certain properties of RG flows that can be used as precise diagnostics and "topological obstructions" for the strong form of the C-theorem in any dimension. Moreover, this framework suggests a precise mechanism for how the violation of the strong C-theorem happens and predicts "phase transitions" along the RG flow when the topological obstruction is non-trivial. Along the way, we also find new conformal manifolds in well-known 4d CFT's and point out connections with the superconformal index and classifying spaces of global symmetry groups.« less

  7. Advanced Active-Magnetic-Bearing Thrust-Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlach, Joseph; Kasarda, Mary; Blumber, Eric

    2008-01-01

    An advanced thrust-measurement system utilizes active magnetic bearings to both (1) levitate a floating frame in all six degrees of freedom and (2) measure the levitation forces between the floating frame and a grounded frame. This system was developed for original use in measuring the thrust exerted by a rocket engine mounted on the floating frame, but can just as well be used in other force-measurement applications. This system offers several advantages over prior thrust-measurement systems based on mechanical support by flexures and/or load cells: The system includes multiple active magnetic bearings for each degree of freedom, so that by selective use of one, some, or all of these bearings, it is possible to test a given article over a wide force range in the same fixture, eliminating the need to transfer the article to different test fixtures to obtain the benefit of full-scale accuracy of different force-measurement devices for different force ranges. Like other active magnetic bearings, the active magnetic bearings of this system include closed-loop control subsystems, through which the stiffness and damping characteristics of the magnetic bearings can be modified electronically. The design of the system minimizes or eliminates cross-axis force-measurement errors. The active magnetic bearings are configured to provide support against movement along all three orthogonal Cartesian axes, and such that the support along a given axis does not produce force along any other axis. Moreover, by eliminating the need for such mechanical connections as flexures used in prior thrust-measurement systems, magnetic levitation of the floating frame eliminates what would otherwise be major sources of cross-axis forces and the associated measurement errors. Overall, relative to prior mechanical-support thrust-measurement systems, this system offers greater versatility for adaptation to a variety of test conditions and requirements. The basic idea of most prior active

  8. Total Gamma Count Rate Analysis Method for Nondestructive Assay Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Cecilia R. Hoffman; Yale D. Harker

    2006-03-01

    A new approach to nondestructively characterize waste for disposal, based on total gamma response, has been developed at the Idaho Cleanup Project by CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC and Idaho State University, and is called the total gamma count rate analysis method. The total gamma count rate analysis method measures gamma interactions that produce energetic electrons or positrons in a detector. Based on previous experience with waste assays, the radionuclide content of the waste container is then determined. This approach potentially can yield minimum detection limits of less than 10 nCi/g. The importance of this method is twofold. First, determination of transuranic activity can be made for waste containers that are below the traditional minimum detection limits. Second, waste above 10 nCi/g and below 100 nCi/g can be identified, and a potential path for disposal resolved.

  9. The uncertainty of counting at a defined solid angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.

    2015-06-01

    Specific uncertainty components of counting at a defined solid angle are discussed. It is potentially an extremely accurate technique for primary standardisation of activity of alpha emitters and low-energy x-ray emitters. Owing to its reproducibility, it is very well suited for half-life measurements. Considered sources of uncertainty are 1) source-detector geometry, 2) solid-angle calculation, 3) energy loss and self-absorption, 4) scattering, 5) detection efficiency. Other sources of uncertainty, such as source weighing, counting, dead time and decay data are common to other standardisation methods. Statistical uncertainty propagation formulas are presented for the solid angle subtended by a circular detector to radioactive sources. Computer simulations were performed to investigate aspects of particle scattering.

  10. Assessing Built Environment Walkability using Activity-Space Summary Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Brown, Barbara B.; Werner, Carol M.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on active transportation, such as walking, in transportation planning as a sustainable form of mobility and in public health as a means of achieving recommended physical activity and better health outcomes. A research focus is the influence of the built environment on walking, with the ultimate goal of identifying environmental modifications that invite more walking. However, assessments of the built environment for walkability are typically at a spatially disaggregate level (such as street blocks) or at a spatially aggregate level (such as census block groups). A key issue is determining the spatial units for walkability measures so that they reflect potential walking behavior. This paper develops methods for assessing walkability within individual activity spaces: the geographic region accessible to an individual during a given walking trip. We first estimate street network-based activity spaces using the shortest path between known trip starting/ending points and a travel time budget that reflects potential alternative paths. Based on objective walkability measures of the street blocks, we use three summary measures for walkability within activity spaces: i) the average walkability score across block segments (representing the general level of walkability in the activity space); ii) the standard deviation (representing the walkability variation), and; iii) the network autocorrelation (representing the spatial coherence of the walkability pattern). We assess the method using data from an empirical study of built environment walkability and walking behavior in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. We visualize and map these activity space summary measures to compare walkability among individuals’ trips within their neighborhoods. We also compare summary measures for activity spaces versus census block groups, with the result that they agree less than half of the time. PMID:27213027

  11. What counts as knowing? The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge of counting from kindergarten through Grade 2.

    PubMed

    LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Smith-Chant, Brenda L; Fast, Lisa; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sargla, Erin; Arnup, Jesse S; Penner-Wilger, Marcie; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Kamawar, Deepthi

    2006-04-01

    The development of conceptual and procedural knowledge about counting was explored for children in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2 (N = 255). Conceptual knowledge was assessed by asking children to make judgments about three types of counts modeled by an animated frog: standard (correct) left-to-right counts, incorrect counts, and unusual counts. On incorrect counts, the frog violated the word-object correspondence principle. On unusual counts, the frog violated a conventional but inessential feature of counting, for example, starting in the middle of the array of objects. Procedural knowledge was assessed using speed and accuracy in counting objects. The patterns of change for procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge were different. Counting speed and accuracy (procedural knowledge) improved with grade. In contrast, there was a curvilinear relation between conceptual knowledge and grade that was further moderated by children's numeration skills (as measured by a standardized test); the most skilled children gradually increased their acceptance of unusual counts over grade, whereas the least skilled children decreased their acceptance of these counts. These results have implications for studying conceptual and procedural knowledge about mathematics.

  12. Microbial metabolic activity in soil as measured by dehydrogenase determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The dehydrogenase technique for measuring the metabolic activity of microorganisms in soil was modified to use a 6-h, 37 C incubation with either glucose or yeast extract as the electron-donating substrate. The rate of formazan production remained constant during this time interval, and cellular multiplication apparently did not occur. The technique was used to follow changes in the overall metabolic activities of microorganisms in soil undergoing incubation with a limiting concentration of added nutrient. The sequence of events was similar to that obtained by using the Warburg respirometer to measure O2 consumption. However, the major peaks of activity occurred earlier with the respirometer. This possibly is due to the lack of atmospheric CO2 during the O2 consumption measurements.

  13. Nucleotide Specificity versus Complex Heterogeneity in Exonuclease Activity Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Enderlein, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A recent publication reported on measurements of Exonuclease I activity using a real-time fluorescence method that measures the time required by molecules of Exonuclease I to hydrolyze single-stranded DNA that was synthesized to have two fluorescently labeled nucleotides. The observed fluorescence-intensity curves were interpreted as a sign of strong heterogeneity of the activity of Exonuclease I. Here, I propose a different model, which assumes that Exonuclease I activity is nucleotide-dependent, and that a fluorescent label bound to a nucleotide significantly slows its cleavage rate. The presented model fits the observed data equally well, but can be used to make specific predictions upon observable sequence dependence of measured fluorescence-intensity curves. PMID:17142274

  14. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-11-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  15. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique

    SciTech Connect

    Bonheure, G.; Wassenhove, G. Van; Mlynar, J.; Hult, M.; Gonzalez de Orduna, R.; Lutter, G.; Vermaercke, P.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.

    2012-10-15

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R and D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -{approx}6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  16. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation technique.

    PubMed

    Bonheure, G; Mlynar, J; Van Wassenhove, G; Hult, M; González de Orduña, R; Lutter, G; Vermaercke, P; Huber, A; Schweer, B; Esser, G; Biel, W

    2012-10-01

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R&D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -~6 times more--compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  17. First fusion proton measurements in TEXTOR plasmas using activation techniquea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonheure, G.; Mlynar, J.; Wassenhove, G. Van; Hult, M.; González de Orduña, R.; Lutter, G.; Vermaercke, P.; Huber, A.; Schweer, B.; Esser, G.; Biel, W.

    2012-10-01

    MeV particle loss measurements from fusion plasmas, in particular alpha particles, remain difficult in large fusion devices and further R&D is needed for ITER. This paper describes the first attempt to measure 3 MeV escaping fusion protons emitted from TEXTOR tokamak plasmas using activation technique. This technique was successfully demonstrated, initially, in 2006 on the JET tokamak. An ion camera equipped with a collimator and several types of activation detectors was installed inside the TEXTOR vacuum vessel to perform these measurements. After irradiation, the detectors were analyzed using ultra low level gamma-ray spectrometry at the HADES underground laboratory. 3 MeV escaping fusion protons were detected in larger number -˜6 times more - compared to earlier measurements using this technique on JET. Another major progress was the reduction of the cooling time by a factor of 50, which made possible to detect radionuclides with half-life of less than 90 min.

  18. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?s Book of Minimum Detectable Activity for Direct Measurement of Internally Deposited Radionuclides in Radiation Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P

    2008-10-08

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control.

  19. Measurements of indoor 222RN activity in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba (Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Janine N.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Del Claro, Flávia; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F. N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Denyak, Valeriy

    2014-11-01

    The present work describes the results of systematic measurements of radon (222Rn) in residential environments and workplaces in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba (Paraná State, Brazil) during the period 2004-2012. For radon in air activity measurements, polycarbonate Track Etch Detectors CR-39, mounted in diffusion chambers protected by borosilicate glass fiber filters, were used. After being exposed in air, the CR-39 detectors were submitted to a chemical etching in a 6.25 M NaOH solution at 70 °C for 14 h. The alpha particle tracks were identified and manually counted with an optical microscope, and with the results of previously performed calibrations, the indoor activity concentration of 222Rn was calculated. The calibration of CR-39 and the alpha particle tracks chemical development procedures were performed in collaboration the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan). The major part of indoor 222Rn concentration in residences was found to be below 100 Bq/m3. In the case of working places, all measurements of 222Rn concentrations were below 100 Bq/m3. These values are considered within the limits set by international regulatory agencies, such as the US EPA and ICRP, which adopt up to 148 and 300 Bq/m3 as upper values for the reference levels for radon gas activity in dwellings, respectively. The latest value of 300 Bq/m3 for radon activity in air is proposed by ICRP considering the upper value for the individual dose reference level for radon exposure of 10 mSv/yr.

  20. Deep brain optical measurements of cell type-specific neural activity in behaving mice.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guohong; Jun, Sang Beom; Jin, Xin; Luo, Guoxiang; Pham, Michael D; Lovinger, David M; Vogel, Steven S; Costa, Rui M

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in genetically encoded fluorescent sensors enable the monitoring of cellular events from genetically defined groups of neurons in vivo. In this protocol, we describe how to use a time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)-based fiber optics system to measure the intensity, emission spectra and lifetime of fluorescent biosensors expressed in deep brain structures in freely moving mice. When combined with Cre-dependent selective expression of genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicators (GECIs), this system can be used to measure the average neural activity from a specific population of cells in mice performing complex behavioral tasks. As an example, we used viral expression of GCaMPs in striatal projection neurons (SPNs) and recorded the fluorescence changes associated with calcium spikes from mice performing a lever-pressing operant task. The whole procedure, consisting of virus injection, behavior training and optical recording, takes 3-4 weeks to complete. With minor adaptations, this protocol can also be applied to recording cellular events from other cell types in deep brain regions, such as dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. The simultaneously recorded fluorescence signals and behavior events can be used to explore the relationship between the neural activity of specific brain circuits and behavior.

  1. [Improve cardiovascular health by physical activity: take the good measure].

    PubMed

    Houle, Julie; Trudeau, François

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to physical activity is low among persons with cardiac disease. To influence this behaviour positively, it is suggested clinicians adapt the recommendations to each patient. Besides estimating needs and the values and the preferences of the person, professionals need to measure the physical activity. This measure also allows clinicians to follow the evolution of the behaviour further to the interventions. Subjective methods (questionnaire, logbook) and objective methods (pedometer, accelerometer, and heart rate monitor) can be used. There are advantages and inconveniences to each of these methods. This clinical column provides a review of these various methods to choose the one that is the most suited to the clinical context.

  2. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  3. Active Members Excite And Measure Vibrations In Trusses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Chin-Po; Chen, Gun-Shing; Wada, Ben K.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of use of active structural members to excite and measure vibrations as small as microns in truss structure. Part of continuing effort to develop active vibration-suppressing control system adapting itself to changing and/or partly unknown dynamical characteristics of truss structure in outer space. Some aspects of control concept and potential terrestrial applications described in "Two Techniques For Suppressing Vibrations In Structures" (NPO-17889).

  4. Low-activity solid waste measurements at Tokai Works

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Parker; D. H. Beddingfield; H. O. Menlove

    1999-11-01

    There is significant interest in performing assay measurements of containerized low-activity solid waste. The authors have examined the cases of typical waste drum matrices containing small quantities of plutonium and fission products. They have discussed various measurement techniques and considered the advantages and disadvantages of each method. They present a new state-of-the-art passive neutron waste drum counter with minimum detectable mass limits far below those systems which they have previously fabricated.

  5. The influence of thoron on instruments measuring radon activity concentration.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, N; Bondiguel, S

    2015-11-01

    Thoron, the isotope 220 of radon, is a radionuclide whose concentration may influence the measurement of the activity concentration of (222)Rn in the air. If in the case of continuous and active sampling measuring instruments, using a pump for example, the influence of thoron on radon measurement is obvious and is taken into account in the apparatus, it is often assumed that in the case of a passive sampling, by diffusion through a filter for example, this thoron influence is negligible. This is due to the very short radioactive half-life of thoron, 55.6 s (3.82 d for (222)Rn), and the assumption that the diffusion time of thoron in the detection chamber is long enough beside that of the thoron half-life. The objective of this study is to check whether this assumption is true or not for different kinds of commercial electronic apparatus used to measure radon activity concentration from soil to dwellings. First of all, the devices were calibrated in activity concentration of radon, and then they were exposed to a controlled thoron atmosphere. The experiments concerning the thoron aimed to investigate the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode of the apparatus. Results of these experiments show that all devices have a very quick answer to thoron atmosphere, even though the sensitivities vary from one instrument to another. Results clearly show that this influence on radon measurement due to the thoron is observed also after the exposition because of the decay of (212)Pb and its progenies. In conclusion, the sensitivity to thoron in the radon measuring mode depends strongly on the type of instruments. The results of the present investigation show that for some apparatus, the influence of thoron cannot be disregarded especially when measuring radon in soil.

  6. Tethered phytic acid as a probe for measuring phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Berry, Duane F; Berry, David A

    2005-06-15

    A novel approach for measuring phytase activity is presented. We have developed a new chromophoric substrate analog of phytic acid, 5-O-[6-(benzoylamino)hexyl]-d-myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,6-pentakisphosphate that permits direct measurement of the phosphate ester bond-cleavage reaction using HPLC. This compound, along with its dephosphorylated T-phosphatidylinositol intermediates, are quantified using reversed phase chromatography with UV detection.

  7. Development of a high-throughput method to evaluate serum bactericidal activity using bacterial ATP measurement as survival readout

    PubMed Central

    Saul, Allan; Rondini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Serum Bactericidal Activity (SBA) assay is the method of choice to evaluate the complement-mediated functional activity of both infection- and vaccine-induced antibodies. To perform a typical SBA assay, serial dilutions of sera are incubated with target bacterial strains and complement. The conventional SBA assay is based on plating on agar the SBA reaction mix and counting the surviving bacterial colony forming units (CFU) at each serum dilution. Even with automated colony counting, it is labor-intensive, time-consuming and not amenable for large-scale studies. Here, we have developed a luminescence-based SBA (L-SBA) method able to detect surviving bacteria by measuring their ATP. At the end of the SBA reaction, a single commercially available reagent is added to each well of the SBA plate, and the resulting luminescence signal is measured in a microplate reader. The signal obtained is proportional to the ATP present, which is directly proportional to the number of viable bacteria. Bactericidal activity is subsequently calculated. We demonstrated the applicability of L-SBA with multiple bacterial serovars, from 5 species: Citrobacter freundii, Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis, Shigella flexneri serovars 2a and 3a, Shigella sonnei and Neisseria meningitidis. Serum bactericidal titers obtained by the luminescence readout method strongly correlate with the data obtained by the conventional agar plate-based assay, and the new assay is highly reproducible. L-SBA considerably shortens assay time, facilitates data acquisition and analysis and reduces the operator dependency, avoiding the plating and counting of CFUs. Our results demonstrate that L-SBA is a useful high-throughput bactericidal assay. PMID:28192483

  8. Monte Carlo Simulation of In-vivo Measurement of the Most Suitable Knee Position for the Most Optimal Measurement of the Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalaf, Majid

    Internal contamination of 241Am is commonly detected and assessed by direct counting of gamma emissions in the region of the body that has high bone content and low surrounding tissue masses; for examples the skull or the knee. To assess the amount of activity in the knee, and then to calculate it in the skeleton, a suitable position of the leg by which all the knee bones contribute to detectable activity should be found. The aim of this study is to create a new and valid model for Monte Carlo simulation of in-vivo measurements of the knee, a model can be used to determine a position that optimizes conventional measurements. The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) case 0846 is a whole-body donation; its body size is very close to reference man body dimensions. It may provide a unique opportunity to determine the full-lifetime biokinetics of 241Am Oxide chronic inhalation. A new leg voxel model in two different positions (straight and bent) was constructed based on CT images of the USTUR case 0846 leg and detailed radiochemical analysis of small bone sections from the same leg. In-vivo measurements were performed on the USTUR case 0846 leg. Front and lateral measurements of the knee of the USTUR case 0846 leg in a bent position and the same measurements with the leg in a straight position using a HP(Ge) detector were obtained. The experimental measurements showed that the front measurement of the knee in a bent leg position gave the highest counts rate and therefore the highest detection efficiency. Therefore, this geometry and the knee-detector position may be considered as the most appropriate position for knee monitoring. A computational model using the Monte Carlo (MC) code, namely MCNPX was created to simulate the experimental measurements by utilizing a leg voxel phantom. It was observed that there is no difference at the 0.1 significance level between the simulated and measured detection efficiencies in the assessment of 241Am within the

  9. SU-E-T-557: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac Devices Irradiated During Proton Therapy Using Indium Foils

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, S; Christodouleas, J; Delaney, K; Diffenderfer, E; Brown, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Measuring Neutron Activation of Cardiac devices Irradiated during Proton Therapy using Indium Foils Methods: The foils had dimensions of 25mm x 25mm x 1mm. After being activated, the foils were placed in a Canberra Industries well chamber utilizing a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The resulting gamma spectrum was acquired and analyzed using Genie 2000 spectroscopy software. One activation foil was placed over the upper, left chest of RANDO where a pacemaker would be. The rest of the foils were placed over the midline of the patient at different distances, providing a spatial distribution over the phantom. Using lasers and BBs to align the patient, 200 MU square fields were delivered to various treatment sites: the brain, the pancreas, and the prostate. Each field was shot at least a day apart, giving more than enough time for activity of the foil to decay (t1=2 = 54.12 min). Results: The net counts (minus background) of the three aforementioned peaks were used for our measurements. These counts were adjusted to account for detector efficiency, relative photon yields from decay, and the natural abundance of 115-In. The average neutron flux for the closed multi-leaf collimator irradiation was measured to be 1.62 x 106 - 0.18 x 106 cm2 s-1. An order of magnitude estimate of the flux for neutrons up to 1 keV from Diffenderfer et al. gives 3 x 106 cm2 s-1 which does agree on the order of magnitude. Conclusion: Lower energy neutrons have higher interaction cross-sections and are more likely to damage pacemakers. The thermal/slow neutron component may be enough to estimate the overall risk. The true test of the applicability of activation foils is whether or not measurements are capable of predicting cardiac device malfunction. For that, additional studies are needed to provide clinical evidence one way or the other.

  10. Protecting count queries in study design

    PubMed Central

    Sarwate, Anand D; Boxwala, Aziz A

    2012-01-01

    Objective Today's clinical research institutions provide tools for researchers to query their data warehouses for counts of patients. To protect patient privacy, counts are perturbed before reporting; this compromises their utility for increased privacy. The goal of this study is to extend current query answer systems to guarantee a quantifiable level of privacy and allow users to tailor perturbations to maximize the usefulness according to their needs. Methods A perturbation mechanism was designed in which users are given options with respect to scale and direction of the perturbation. The mechanism translates the true count, user preferences, and a privacy level within administrator-specified bounds into a probability distribution from which the perturbed count is drawn. Results Users can significantly impact the scale and direction of the count perturbation and can receive more accurate final cohort estimates. Strong and semantically meaningful differential privacy is guaranteed, providing for a unified privacy accounting system that can support role-based trust levels. This study provides an open source web-enabled tool to investigate visually and numerically the interaction between system parameters, including required privacy level and user preference settings. Conclusions Quantifying privacy allows system administrators to provide users with a privacy budget and to monitor its expenditure, enabling users to control the inevitable loss of utility. While current measures of privacy are conservative, this system can take advantage of future advances in privacy measurement. The system provides new ways of trading off privacy and utility that are not provided in current study design systems. PMID:22511018

  11. Optimal allocation of point-count sampling effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.J.; Sauer, J.R.; Link, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    Both unlimited and fixedradius point counts only provide indices to population size. Because longer count durations lead to counting a higher proportion of individuals at the point, proper design of these surveys must incorporate both count duration and sampling characteristics of population size. Using information about the relationship between proportion of individuals detected at a point and count duration, we present a method of optimizing a pointcount survey given a fixed total time for surveying and travelling between count points. The optimization can be based on several quantities that measure precision, accuracy, or power of tests based on counts, including (1) meansquare error of estimated population change; (2) mean-square error of average count; (3) maximum expected total count; or (4) power of a test for differences in average counts. Optimal solutions depend on a function that relates count duration at a point to the proportion of animals detected. We model this function using exponential and Weibull distributions, and use numerical techniques to conduct the optimization. We provide an example of the procedure in which the function is estimated from data of cumulative number of individual birds seen for different count durations for three species of Hawaiian forest birds. In the example, optimal count duration at a point can differ greatly depending on the quantities that are optimized. Optimization of the mean-square error or of tests based on average counts generally requires longer count durations than does estimation of population change. A clear formulation of the goals of the study is a critical step in the optimization process.

  12. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw.

  13. Feasibility study of prompt gamma neutron activation for NDT measurement of moisture in stone and brick

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, R. A.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Grissom, C.; Aloiz, E.; Paul, R.

    2014-02-18

    The conservation of stone and brick architecture or sculpture often involves damage caused by moisture. The feasibility of a NDT method based on prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNA) for measuring the element hydrogen as an indication of water is being evaluated. This includes systematic characterization of the lithology and physical properties of seven building stones and one brick type used in the buildings of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. To determine the required dynamic range of the NDT method, moisture-related properties were measured by standard methods. Cold neutron PGNA was also used to determine chemically bound water (CBW) content. The CBW does not damage porous masonry, but creates an H background that defines the minimum level of detection of damaging moisture. The CBW was on the order of 0.5% for all the stones. This rules out the measurement of hygric processes in all of the stones and hydric processed for the stones with fine scale pore-size distributions The upper bound of moisture content, set by porosity through water immersion, was on the order of 5%. The dynamic range is about 10–20. The H count rates were roughly 1–3 cps. Taking into account differences in neutron energies and fluxes and sample volume between cold PGNA and a portable PGNA instrument, it appears that it is feasible to apply PGNA in the field.

  14. In vitro study on the effect of doxycycline on the microbial activity of soil determined by redox-potential measuring system.

    PubMed

    Szakmár, Katalin; Reichart, Olivér; Szatmári, István; Erdősi, Orsolya; Szili, Zsuzsanna; László, Noémi; Székely Körmöczy, Péter; Laczay, Péter

    2014-09-01

    The potential effect of doxycycline on the microbial activity was investigated in three types of soil. Soil samples were spiked with doxycycline, incubated at 25°C and tested at 0, 2, 4 and 6 days after treatment. The microbiological activity of the soil was characterized by the viable count determined by plate pouring and by the time necessary to reach a defined rate of the redox-potential decrease termed as time to detection (TTD).The viable count of the samples was not changed during the storage. The TTD values, however exhibited a significant increase in the 0.2-1.6 mg/kg doxycycline concentration range compared to the untreated samples indicating concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on microbial activity. The potency of the effect was different in the 3 soil types. To describe the combined effect of the doxycycline concentration and time on the biological activity of one type of soil a mathematical model was constructed and applied.The change of microbial metabolic rate could be measured also without (detectable) change of microbial count when the traditional microbiological methods are not applicable. The applied new redox potential measurement-based method is a simple and useful procedure for the examination of microbial activity of soil and its potential inhibition by antibiotics.

  15. Precision lifetime measurements of Cs 6p 2P1/2 and 6p 2P3/2 levels by single-photon counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, L.; Hill, W. T.; Sibener, S. J.; Price, Stephen D.; Tanner, C. E.; Wieman, C. E.; Leone, Stephen R.

    Time-correlated single-photon counting is used to measure the lifetimes of the 6p 2P1/2 and 6p 2P3/2 levels in atomic Cs with accuracies ≈ 0.2-0.3 %. A high-repetition-rate, femtosecond, self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is used to excite Cs produced in a well-collimated atomic beam. The time interval between the excitation pulse and the arrival of a fluorescence photon is measured repetitively until the desired statistics are obtained. The lifetime results are 34.75(7) and 30.41(10) ns for the 6p 2P1/2 and 6p2P3/2 levels, respectively. These lifetimes fall between those extracted from ab initio many-body perturbation-theory calculations by Blundell, Johnson, and Sapirstein [Phys. Rev. A 43, 3407 (1991)] and V. A. Dzuba et al. [Phys. Lett. A 142, 373 (1989)] and are in all cases within 0.9% of the calculated values. The measurement errors are dominated by systematic effects, and methods to alleviate these and to approach an accuracy of 0.1% are discussed. The technique is a viable alternative to the fast-beam laser approach for measuring lifetimes with extreme accuracy.

  16. Isothermal drop calorimeter provides measurements for alpha active, pyrophoric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, H.

    1969-01-01

    Isothermal drop calorimeter measures the heat content of intensely alpha active and pyrophoric materials in inert atmospheres. It consists of a furnace, calorimeter, and aluminum isothermal jacket contained within an inert-atmosphere glove box, which permits the use of unencapsulated materials without exposing personnel to alpha contamination.

  17. Measuring Active Citizenship through the Development of a Composite Indicator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Bryony L.; Mascherini, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    This article defines Active Citizenship within a European context as a broad range of value based participation. It develops a framework for measuring this phenomenon which combines the four dimensions of Protest and Social Change, Community Life, Representative Democracy and Democratic values. The European Social Survey 2002 is used to populate…

  18. Measuring Perceived Benefits and Perceived Barriers for Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth A.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the psychometric properties and relationship to physical activity levels of the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS) among college students. Methods: A total of 398 college students completed the EBBS and a measure of self-efficacy, the Physical Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale. In addition, a subsample of 275 students also…

  19. Exploring Patient Activation in the Clinic: Measurement from Three Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Christy J. W.; Ledford, Christopher C.; Childress, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To further conceptualize and operationalize patient activation (PA), using measures from patient, physician, and researcher perspectives. Data Source/Study Setting. Multimethod observation in 2010 within a family medicine clinic. Study Design. Part of an intervention with 130 patients with type 2 diabetes, this observational study…

  20. A Self-Report Measure of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Donald

    2005-01-01

    There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…

  1. Correlation between total lymphocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit and CD4 count in HIV patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Emuchay, Charles Iheanyichi; Okeniyi, Shemaiah Olufemi; Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun

    2014-04-01

    The expensive and technology limited setting of CD4 count testing is a major setback to the initiation of HAART in a resource limited country like Nigeria. Simple and inexpensive tools such as Hemoglobin (Hb) measurement and Total Lymphocyte Count (TLC) are recommended as substitute marker. In order to assess the correlations of these parameters with CD4 count, 100 "apparently healthy" male volunteers tested HIV positive aged ≥ 20 years but ≤ 40 years were recruited and from whom Hb, Hct, TLC and CD4 count were obtained. The correlation coefficients, R, the Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (CoE) and the p-values of the ANOVA model of Hb, Hct and TLC with CD4 count were assessed. The assessments show that there is no significant relationship of any of these parameters with CD4 count and the correlation coefficients are very weak. This study shows that Hb, Hct and TLC cannot be substitute for CD4 count as this might lead to certain individuals' deprivation of required treatment.

  2. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Geller, Joseph D; Herrington, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller.

  3. Numbers, Counting, and Infinity in Middle Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meconi, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the use of middle-school students' natural understanding of large numbers to introduce the concept of infinity. Presents activities that investigate infinite sets by demonstrating a one-to-one correspondence between the counting numbers and the given set. Examples include prime numbers, Fibonacci numbers, fractions, even and odd numbers,…

  4. KidsCount in Colorado! 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Beverly R.

    This 1994 Kids Count report focuses on risk-taking behaviors among Colorado adolescents and discusses how prevention and early intervention strategies can impact the lives of the state's children. Statistics and descriptions are given for: (1) alcohol, tobacco, and drug use; (2) teen sexuality, including sexual activity and teen pregnancy and…

  5. Kids Count in Missouri 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citizens for Missouri's Children, St. Louis.

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Missouri's children. The statistical portrait is based on outcome measures of general areas of children's well being: (1) students free/reduced price lunch program; (2) births to mothers without high school diplomas; (3) low birthweight infants; (4) infant mortality; (5)…

  6. Kids Count in Indiana: 1994 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Judith B.

    This booklet provides data on a series of related measures of child and family well-being in Indiana, following national guidelines established by the Kids Count project to help Americans better understand the problems faced by children and adolescents and to foster greater commitment to improving outcomes for vulnerable children and their…

  7. Triton burnup measurements in KSTAR using a neutron activation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Shi, Yue-Jiang; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of the time-integrated triton burnup for deuterium plasma in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) have been performed following the simultaneous detection of the d-d and d-t neutrons. The d-d neutrons were measured using a 3He proportional counter, fission chamber, and activated indium sample, whereas the d-t neutrons were detected using activated silicon and copper samples. The triton burnup ratio from KSTAR discharges is found to be in the range 0.01%-0.50% depending on the plasma conditions. The measured burnup ratio is compared with the prompt loss fraction of tritons calculated with the Lorentz orbit code and the classical slowing-down time. The burnup ratio is found to increase as plasma current and classical slowing-down time increase.

  8. Use of the SYBR Green dye for measuring helicase activity.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sammer; Khan, Irfan; Zarina, Shamshad; Ali, Syed

    2013-03-05

    Here we describe a non-radioactive assay that exploits the fluorescent dye SYBR Green to measure the helicase enzyme activity. SYBR Green I emits fluorescence upon intercalation with double-stranded DNA or RNA. The fluorescence is lost proportionally as the nucleic acid is converted to single strands by a helicase, and this decrease in fluorescence intensity can be used to measure the activity of the helicase enzyme. The reaction was prepared by mixing a double-stranded substrate with the helicase enzyme, buffer, ATP and SYBR Green I. After completion, the reaction was terminated by EDTA and fluorescence was measured. Using this technique, a linear increase in substrate release was observed with increasing time and helicase concentrations. The assay described here is speedy, efficient and economical; it holds promise for use in large-scale screening of drugs that target helicases.

  9. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  10. Overview of a FPGA-based nuclear instrumentation dedicated to primary activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Bobin, C; Bouchard, J; Pierre, S; Thiam, C

    2012-09-01

    In National Metrology Institutes like LNE-LNHB, renewal and improvement of the instrumentation is an important task. Nowadays, the current trend is to adopt digital boards, which present numerous advantages over the standard electronics. The feasibility of an on-line fulfillment of nuclear-instrumentation functionalities using a commercial FPGA-based (Field-Programmable Gate Array) board has been validated in the case of TDCR primary measurements (Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio method based on liquid scintillation). The new applications presented in this paper have been included to allow either an on-line processing of the information or a raw-data acquisition for an off-line treatment. Developed as a complementary tool for TDCR counting, a time-to-digital converter specifically designed for this technique has been added. In addition, the description is given of a spectrometry channel based on the connection between conventional shaping amplifiers and the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) input available on the same digital board. First results are presented in the case of α- and γ-counting related to, respectively, the defined solid angle and well-type NaI(Tl) primary activity techniques. The combination of two different channels (liquid scintillation and γ-spectrometry) implementing the live-time anticoincidence processing is also described for the application of the 4πβ-γ coincidence method. The need for an optimized coupling between the analog chain and the ADC stage is emphasized. The straight processing of the signals delivered by the preamplifier connected to a HPGe detector is also presented along with the first development of digital filtering.

  11. Thermodynamic Activity Measurements with Knudsen Cell Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan H.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2001-01-01

    Coupling the Knudsen effusion method with mass spectrometry has proven to be one of the most useful experimental techniques for studying the equilibrium between condensed phases and complex vapors. The Knudsen effusion method involves placing a condensed sample in a Knudsen cell, a small "enclosure", that is uniformly heated and held until equilibrium is attained between the condensed and vapor phases. The vapor is continuously sampled by effusion through a small orifice in the cell. A molecular beam is formed from the effusing vapor and directed into a mass spectrometer for identification and pressure measurement of the species in the vapor phase. Knudsen cell mass spectrometry (KCMS) has been used for nearly fifty years now and continues to be a leading technique for obtaining thermodynamic data. Indeed, much of the well-established vapor specie data in the JANAF tables has been obtained from this technique. This is due to the extreme versatility of the technique. All classes of materials can be studied and all constituents of the vapor phase can be measured over a wide range of pressures (approximately 10(exp -4) to 10(exp -11) bar) and temperatures (500-2800 K). The ability to selectively measure different vapor species makes KCMS a very powerful tool for the measurement of component activities in metallic and ceramic solutions. Today several groups are applying KCMS to measure thermodynamic functions in multicomponent metallic and ceramic systems. Thermodynamic functions, especially component activities, are extremely important in the development of CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams) type thermodynamic descriptions. These descriptions, in turn, are useful for modeling materials processing and predicting reactions such as oxide formation and fiber/matrix interactions. The leading experimental methods for measuring activities are the Galvanic cell or electro-motive force (EMF) technique and the KCMS technique. Each has specific advantages, depending on

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Mano K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2015-12-01

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-06-05

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  14. VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF A BODY COUNTING ROOM IN BUILDING 122. BODY COUNTING MEASURES RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL IN THE BODY. DESIGNED TO MINIMIZE EXTERNAL SOURCES OF RADIATION, BODY COUNTING ROOMS ARE CONSTRUCTED OF PRE-WORLD WAR II (WWII) STEEL. PRE-WWII STEEL, WHICH HAS NOT BEEN AFFECTED BY NUCLEAR FALLOUT, IS LOWER IS RADIOACTIVITY THAN STEEL CREATED AFTER WWII. (10/25/85) - Rocky Flats Plant, Emergency Medical Services Facility, Southwest corner of Central & Third Avenues, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. Photon-counting spaceborne altimeter simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazej, Josef

    2004-11-01

    We are presenting of a photon counting laser altimeter simulator. The simulator is designed to be a theoretical and numerical complement for a Technology Demonstrator of the space born laser altimeter for planetary studies built on our university. The European Space Agency has nominated the photon counting altimeter as one of the attractive devices for planetary research. The device should provide altimetry in the range 400 to 1400 km with one meter range resolution under rough conditions - Sun illumination, radiation, etc. The general altimeter concept expects the photon counting principle laser radar. According to this concept, the simulator is based on photon counting radar simulation, which has been enhanced to handle planetary surface roughness, vertical terrain profile and its reflectivity. The simulator is useful complement for any photon counting altimeter both for altimeter design and for measured data analysis. Our simulator enables to model the orbital motion, range, terrain profile, reflectivity, and their influence on the over all energy budget and the ultimate signal to noise ratio acceptable for the altimetry. The simulator can be adopted for various air or space born application.

  16. Measurements of the PLT and PDX device activation

    SciTech Connect

    Stavely, J.; Barnes, C.W.; Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1981-09-01

    Measurements of the activation levels around the PLT and PDX tokamaks have been made using a Ge(Li) gamma spectrometer and a Geiger counter. The activation results from radiation induced in the plasma by 14 MeV neutrons from the d(t,n)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 14.7 MeV protons from the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction, 10 ..-->.. 20 MeV hard x-rays from runaway electron induced bremmstrahlung, and 2.5 MeV neutrons from the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction. The magnitude of the activation is compared to that predicted for PDX on the basis of one-dimensional activation codes.

  17. A simple assay for measuring catalase activity: a visual approach.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Tadayuki; Tajima, Akiko; Sugimoto, Shinya; Okuda, Ken-ichi; Hironaka, Ippei; Kamata, Yuko; Takada, Koji; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2013-10-30

    In this study, an assay that combines the ease and simplicity of the qualitative approach for measuring catalase activity was developed. The assay reagents comprised only hydrogen peroxide and Triton X-100. The enzyme-generated oxygen bubbles trapped by Triton X-100 were visualized as foam, whose height was estimated. A calibration plot using the defined unit of catalase activity yielded the best linear fit over a range of 20-300 units (U) (y = 0.3794x - 2.0909, r(2) = 0.993). The assay precision and reproducibility at 100 U were 4.6% and 4.8%, respectively. The applicability of the assay for measuring the catalase activity of various samples was assessed using laboratory strains of Escherichia coli, catalase-deficient isogenic mutants, clinically isolated Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and human cells. The assay generated reproducible results. In conclusion, this new assay can be used to measure the catalase activity of bacterial isolates and human cells.

  18. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.; Hurley, D. L.

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  19. Low Background Counting at LBNL

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, A. R.; Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; ...

    2015-03-24

    The Low Background Facility (LBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background cave and remotely at an underground location that historically has operated underground in Oroville, CA, but has recently been relocated to the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K)more » or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products, as well as active screening via Neutron Activation Analysis for specific applications. The LBF also provides hosting services for general R&D testing in low background environments on the surface or underground for background testing of detector systems or similar prototyping. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities is presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be presented, such as the completion of a 3π anticoincidence shield at the surface station and environmental monitoring of Fukushima fallout. The LBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.« less

  20. Differential white cell count by centrifugal microfluidics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, Gregory Jon; Tentori, Augusto M.; Schaff, Ulrich Y.

    2010-07-01

    We present a method for counting white blood cells that is uniquely compatible with centrifugation based microfluidics. Blood is deposited on top of one or more layers of density media within a microfluidic disk. Spinning the disk causes the cell populations within whole blood to settle through the media, reaching an equilibrium based on the density of each cell type. Separation and fluorescence measurement of cell types stained with a DNA dye is demonstrated using this technique. The integrated signal from bands of fluorescent microspheres is shown to be proportional to their initial concentration in suspension. Among the current generation of medical diagnostics are devices based on the principle of centrifuging a CD sized disk functionalized with microfluidics. These portable 'lab on a disk' devices are capable of conducting multiple assays directly from a blood sample, embodied by platforms developed by Gyros, Samsung, and Abaxis. [1,2] However, no centrifugal platform to date includes a differential white blood cell count, which is an important metric complimentary to diagnostic assays. Measuring the differential white blood cell count (the relative fraction of granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes) is a standard medical diagnostic technique useful for identifying sepsis, leukemia, AIDS, radiation exposure, and a host of other conditions that affect the immune system. Several methods exist for measuring the relative white blood cell count including flow cytometry, electrical impedance, and visual identification from a stained drop of blood under a microscope. However, none of these methods is easily incorporated into a centrifugal microfluidic diagnostic platform.

  1. Kids Count [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Carl, Ed.; Wilson, Nancy, Ed.

    This Kids Count report is combined with Families Count, and provides information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The first statistical profile is based on 10 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens; (2) low birth weight babies; (3) infant mortality; (4) child deaths; (5) teen deaths; (6) juvenile…

  2. "Just" Counting: Young Children's Oral Counting and Enumeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Threlfall, John; Bruce, Bob

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the specific skills and abilities of young children in oral counting and enumeration. Responses to an oral counting task and an enumeration task by a sample (n=93) of 3- and 4-year old children attending a range of pre-five establishments in an urban district of northern England are described. The findings, whilst providing…

  3. Density and Temperature Measurements in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2003-10-01

    We present electron density and temperature measurements from an active region observed above the limb with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation spectrometer on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Density-sensitive line ratios from Si VIII and S X indicate densities greater than 108 cm-3 as high as 200" (or 145 Mm) above the limb. At these heights, static, uniformly heated loop models predict densities close to 107 cm-3. Differential emission measure analysis shows that the observed plasma is nearly isothermal with a mean temperature of about 1.5 MK and a dispersion of about 0.2 MK. Both the differential emission measure and the Si XI/Si VIII line ratios indicate only small variations in the temperature at the heights observed. These measurements confirm recent observations from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer of ``overdense'' plasma at temperatures near 1 MK in solar active regions. Time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations suggest that impulsive heating models can account for the large densities, but they have a difficult time reproducing the narrow range of observed temperatures. The observations of overdense, nearly isothermal plasma in the solar corona provide a significant challenge to theories of coronal heating.

  4. Ecological measurements of light exposure, activity, and circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Miller, D; Bierman, A; Figueiro, Mg; Schernhammer, Es; Rea, Ms

    2010-09-01

    Circadian rhythms are biological rhythms that repeat at approximately 24 hours. In humans, circadian rhythms have an average period of 24.2 hours. The 24-hour patterns of light and dark on the retina synchronize circadian rhythms to the local time on earth. Lighting characteristics affecting circadian rhythms are very different than those affecting visual responses. Lack of synchronization between the endogenous clock and the local time has been associated with a host of maladies. Therefore, it is important to measure circadian light exposures over the course of the 24-hour day and to be able to assess circadian entrainment and disruption in actual living environments. Presented is an overview of the recently developed Daysimeter, a personal measurement device for recording activity and circadian light-exposure. When the Daysimeter is worn on the head, two light sensors near the eye are used to estimate circadian light (CLA) exposures over extended periods of time. Phasor analysis combines the measured periodic activity-rest patterns with the measured periodic light-dark patterns to assess behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. As shown, day-shift and rotating-shift nurses exhibit remarkably different levels of behavioural circadian entrainment/disruption. These new ecological measurement and analysis techniques may provide important insights into the relationship between circadian disruption and well-being.

  5. Semi-automatic measures of activity in selected south polar regions of Mars using morphological image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye, Klaus-Michael; Portyankina, Ganna; Pommerol, Antoine; Thomas, Nicolas

    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to monitor the seasonal evolution of several regions at high southern latitudes. Of particular interest have been jet-like activities that may result from the process described by Kieffer (2007), involving translucent CO2 ice. These jets are assumed to create fan-shaped ground features, as studied e.g. in Hansen et.al. (2010) and Portyankina et.al. (2010). In Thomas et.al. (2009), a small region of interest (ROI) inside the south polar Inca City region (81° S, 296° E) was defined for which the seasonal change of the number of fans was determined. This ROI was chosen for its strong visual variability in ground features. The mostly manual counting work showed, that the number of apparent fans increases monotonously for a considerable amount of time from the beginning of the spring time observations at Ls of 178° until approx. 230° , following the increase of available solar energy for the aforementioned processes of the Kieffer model. This fact indicates that the number of visual fan features can be used as an activity measure for the seasonal evolution of this area, in addition to commonly used evolution studies of surface reflectance. Motivated by these results, we would like to determine the fan count evolution for more south polar areas like Ithaca, Manhattan, Giza and others. To increase the reproducibility of the results by avoiding potential variability in fan shape recognition by human eye and to increase the production efficiency, efforts are being undertaken to automise the fan counting procedure. The techniques used, cleanly separated in different stages of the procedure, the difficulties for each stage and an overview of the tools used at each step will be presented. After showing a proof of concept in Aye et.al. (2010), for a ROI that is comparable to the one previously used for manual counting in Thomas et.al. (2009), we now will show

  6. Direct calibration of click-counting detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohmann, M.; Kruse, R.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2017-03-01

    We introduce and experimentally implement a method for the detector calibration of photon-number-resolving time-bin multiplexing layouts based on the measured click statistics of superconducting nanowire detectors. In particular, the quantum efficiencies, the dark count rates, and the positive operator-valued measures of these measurement schemes are directly obtained with high accuracy. The method is based on the moments of the click-counting statistics for coherent states with different coherent amplitudes. The strength of our analysis is that we can directly conclude—on a quantitative basis—that the detection strategy under study is well described by a linear response function for the light-matter interaction and that it is sensitive to the polarization of the incident light field. Moreover, our method is further extended to a two-mode detection scenario. Finally, we present possible applications for such well-characterized detectors, such as sensing of atmospheric loss channels and phase sensitive measurements.

  7. Design studies related to an in vivo neutron activation analysis facility for measuring total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Stamatelatos, I E; Chettle, D R; Green, S; Scott, M C

    1992-08-01

    Design studies relating to an in vivo prompt capture neutron activation analysis facility measuring total body nitrogen are presented. The basis of the design is a beryllium-graphite neutron collimator and reflector configuration for (alpha, n) type radionuclide neutron sources (238PuBe or 241AmBe), so as to reflect leaking, or out-scattered, neutrons towards the subject. This improves the ratio of thermal neutron flux to dose and the spatial distribution of thermal flux achieved with these sources, whilst retaining their advantage of long half-lives as compared to 252Cf based systems. The common problem of high count-rate at the detector, and therefore high nitrogen region of interest background due to pile-up, is decreased by using a set of smaller (5.1 cm diameter x 10.2 cm long) NaI(Tl) detectors instead of large ones. The facility described presents a relative error of nitrogen measurement of 3.6% and a nitrogen to background ratio of 2.3 for 0.45 mSv skin dose (assuming ten 5.1 cm x 10.2 cm NaI(Tl) detectors).

  8. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  9. Device for measuring oxygen activity in liquid sodium

    DOEpatents

    Roy, P.; Young, R.S.

    1973-12-01

    A composite ceramic electrolyte in a configuration (such as a closed end tube or a plate) suitable to separate liquid sodium from a reference electrode with a high impedance voltmeter connected to measure EMF between the sodium and the reference electrode as a measure of oxygen activity in the sodium is described. The composite electrolyte consists of zirconiacalcia with a bonded layer of thoria-yttria. The device is used with a gaseous reference electrode on the zirconia-calcia side and liquid sodium on the thoria-yttria side of the electrolyte. (Official Gazette)

  10. Neutron Field Measurements in Phantom with Foil Activation Methods.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-29

    jI25 Ii III uumu ullli~ S....- - Lb - w * .qJ’ AD-A 192 122 ulJ. IL (pj DNA-TR-87- 10 N EUTRON FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN PHANTOM WITH FOIL ACTIVATION...SAND II Measurements in Phantom 6 4 The 5-Foil Neutron Dosimetry Method 29 5 Comparison of SAND II and Simple 5-Foil Dosimetry Method 34 6 Thermal ...quite reasonable. The monkey phantom spectrum differs from the NBS U-235 fission spectrum in that the former has a I/E tail plus thermal -neutron peak

  11. Environmental Measurements Laboratory fiscal year 1998: Accomplishments and technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    The Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) is government-owned, government-operated, and programmatically under the DOE Office of Environmental Management. The Laboratory is administered by the Chicago Operations Office. EML provides program management, technical assistance and data quality assurance for measurements of radiation and radioactivity relating to environmental restoration, global nuclear nonproliferation, and other priority issues for the Department of Energy, as well as for other government, national, and international organizations. This report presents the technical activities and accomplishments of EML for Fiscal Year 1998.

  12. Method of detecting and counting bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method is provided for determining bacterial levels, especially in samples of aqueous physiological fluids. The method depends on the quantitative determination of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the presence of nonbacterial ATP. The bacterial ATP is released by cell rupture and is measured by an enzymatic bioluminescent assay. A concentration technique is included to make the method more sensitive. It is particularly useful where the fluid to be measured contains an unknown or low bacteria count.

  13. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: a measure of engagement in personally valued activities.

    PubMed

    Eakman, Aaron M; Carlson, Mike E; Clark, Florence A

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction Index-Z, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Engagement in Meaningful Activities Survey, the Purpose in Life Test, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Inventory and the Rand SF-36v2 Health Survey subscales. Zero-order correlations consistently demonstrated meaningful relationships between the MAPA and scales of psychosocial well-being and health-related quality of life. Results from multiple regression analyses further substantiated these findings, as greater meaningful activity participation was associated with better psychological well-being and health-related quality of life. The MAPA appears to be a reliable and valid measure of meaningful activity, incorporating both subjective and objective indicators of activity engagement.

  14. The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment: A Measure of Engagement in Personally Valued Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eakman, Aaron M.; Carlson, Mike E.; Clark, Florence A.

    2010-01-01

    The Meaningful Activity Participation Assessment (MAPA), a recently developed 28-item tool designed to measure the meaningfulness of activity, was tested in a sample of 154 older adults. The MAPA evidenced a sufficient level of internal consistency and test-retest reliability and correlated as theoretically predicted with the Life Satisfaction…

  15. Retrospective Determination of Radon Exposure to Glass Using Liquid Scintillation Counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Rodger Ferguson

    A method is introduced whereby glass samples exposed to known levels of ^{222}Rn are analyzed for ^{210}Pb build-up by liquid scintillation counting. This retrospective radon detector relies on the phenomena of recoil of the decaying nuclide on emission of an alpha -particle into the substrate of the glass. Simple liquid scintillation counting is then used to measure the activity of the ^{210}Pb. The surface of the glass containing the decay products is etched with hydrofluoric acid and then added to a scintillant. The method is useful for exposures up from around 250 PCi.l ^{-1}-years giving a correlation of.97 in a controlled laboratory experiment.

  16. Measuring Drosophila (fruit fly) activity during microgravity exposure.

    PubMed

    Miller, M S; Keller, T S

    1999-07-01

    Important advances in the understanding of the aging process could be obtained through comprehension of the changes experienced by Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) during microgravity. Previous experiments flown on Cosmos satellites and various Space Shuttle missions have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. Additionally, postflight analysis indicated an accelerated aging of the microgravity exposed male flies since they exhibited a significant decrease in mating ability and a consistently lower negative geotaxis response than the 1 g ground controls. The negative geotaxis response is the Drosophila's reaction to move opposite to the Earth's gravitational vector when disturbed in certain manners. Researchers have hypothesized that the accelerated aging, is due to an increased locomotor activity which causes a subsequent increase in mitochondrial activity. The increased mitochondrial activity, in turn, causes increased aging through accelerated damage to the mitochondrial system. An increase in locomotor activity was indicated by analyzing only a fraction (1/6th of a second) of the 15 minute video recordings of groups of Drosophila taken approximately every two days during a 14-day Space Shuttle flight. The increased locomotor activity may be related to the Drosophila's negative geotaxis response in that the flies may be reacting to the absence of normal gravity by continuously searching for the gravity vector. The aims of this study are to develop methods to accurately measure individual Drosophila activity, use these derived methods in 1 g to create a Drosophila activity baseline, and use the methods during short and long duration microgravity exposure (sounding rockets, parabolic flights, Space Shuttle, International Space Station, etc.) to examine Drosophila activity. The role of the negative geotaxis response on locomotor activity will be examined by using two strains of behaviorally selected

  17. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-14

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  18. Measuring physical activity with sensors: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Dias, André; Fisterer, Bernhard; Lamla, Gregor; Kuhn, Klaus; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Horsch, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Long term wearing of motion and heart rate sensors are essential aspects for longitudinal studies on physical activity measurement studies. We conducted a qualitative study with seven subjects in a total of 13 test sessions to identify usability and handling problems associated with Stayhealth RT3, Actigraph GT1M and Polar RS800 sensors. We found that battery life limitation is the most recurrent technical problem and long term wear of heart rate sensors produces discomfort and skin irritation.

  19. Use of Accelerometers to Measure Real-Life Physical Activity in Ambulatory Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fjeldstad, Anette S.; Pardo, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) may negatively affect individuals' participation in physical activity (PA). We used accelerometers to determine PA level in individuals with MS with varying degrees of disability as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) during regular daily activities. Methods: Participants wore an accelerometer from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. for 7 consecutive days. Activity counts recorded during this period were analyzed in 1-minute epochs and categorized into one of four PA levels: light, moderate, hard, and very hard. Results: The study cohort comprised 13 patients with MS and 12 controls. There were significant negative correlations for minutes spent in PA and EDSS measures on weekdays (r = −0.61), weekend (r = −0.64), and full week (r = −0.61) and number of steps taken on weekdays (r = −0.56), weekend (r = −0.80), and full-week average (r = −0.68). Significant positive correlations were found for minutes spent in light PA and EDSS score (r = 0.69). Significant negative correlations were found for minutes spent in moderate and hard PA and EDSS score. No significant difference was seen between the MS group and controls on any parameters (P > .05). Conclusions: This study showed that accelerometers can be used to objectively quantify PA levels in individuals with MS with different disability levels. This cohort demonstrated that the amount of PA is inversely proportional to the degree of physical disability. Collected data revealed not only the amount but also the intensity of PA performed in real-life circumstances. PMID:26472942

  20. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Rana, Vivek; Chandna, Preetika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: As the technological level of healthcare increases, it is important not to lose sight of the basics of patient care. No matter how sophisticated dental techniques have become, preventive dentistry still remains the foundation for oral health. Therefore, antimicrobial mouthrinses are developed to provide an effective means of preventing colonization by micro-organisms. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity of oil pulling, herbal mouthrinses and fluoride mouthwash on the caries activity and S. mutans counts in the saliva of children, using Oratest and Dentocult SM kit. Design: Fifty-two healthy children between the age group of 6 to 12 years were selected for the study and divided into four groups based on the mouthrinse used as group 1: fluoride, group 2: herbal, group 3: oil pulling and group 4: control. The estimation of caries activity and S. mutans was done prior to and after the subjects were instructed to use the mouthrinse twice daily for a period of 2 weeks. Statistical analysis: The comparisons were made by applying paired ‘t’ test with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. Difference between more than two mean values was done by using ANOVA and Post hoc Bonferroni test was used for multiple comparisons. Results and conclusion: The efficacy of fluoride and herbal mouthrinses was found to be comparable while oil pulling did not provide any additional benefit to be used as an effective antimicrobial agent in reducing the bacterial colonization of an individual. How to cite this article: Jauhari D, Srivastava N, Rana V, Chandna P. Comparative Evaluation of the Effects of Fluoride Mouthrinse, Herbal Mouthrinse and Oil Pulling on the Caries Activity and Streptococcus mutans Count using Oratest and Dentocult SM Strip Mutans Kit. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):114-118. PMID:26379378

  1. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  2. Low White Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  3. Predictions of active region flaring probability using subsurface helicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinard, A. A.; Komm, R.; Hill, F.

    2010-12-01

    Solar flares are responsible for a number of hazardous effects on the earth such as disabling high-frequency radio communications, interfering with GPS measurements, and disrupting satellites. However, forecasting flare occurrence is currently very difficult. One possible means for predicting flare occurrence lies in helioseismology, i.e. analysis of the region below the active region for signs of an impending flare. Time series helioseismic data collected by the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) has been analyzed for a subset of active regions that produce large flares and a subset with very high magnetic field strength that produce no flares. A predictive parameter has been developed and analyzed using discriminant analysis as well as traditional forecasting tools such as the Heidke skill score. Preliminary results show that this parameter predicts the flaring probability of an active region 2-3 days in advance with a relatively high degree of success.

  4. Ambient Ionization Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Aminotransferase Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Chengsen; Xu, Yang; Cooks, R. Graham

    2017-01-01

    A change in enzyme activity has been used as a clinical biomarker for diagnosis and is useful in evaluating patient prognosis. Current laboratory measurements of enzyme activity involve multi-step derivatization of the reaction products followed by quantitative analysis of these derivatives. This study simplified the reaction systems by using only the target enzymatic reaction and directly detecting its product. A protocol using paper spray mass spectrometry for identifying and quantifying the reaction product has been developed. Evaluation of the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was chosen as a proof-of-principle. The volume of sample needed is greatly reduced compared with the traditional method. Paper spray has a desalting effect that avoids sprayer clogging problems seen when examining serum samples by nanoESI. This very simple method does not require sample pretreatment and additional derivatization reactions, yet it gives high quality kinetic data, excellent limits of detection (60 ppb from serum), and coefficients of variation <10% in quantitation.

  5. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  6. Precise Measurement of Drift Velocities in Active-Target Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Louis

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear experiments with radioactive beams are needed to improve our understanding of nuclei structure far from stability. Radioactive beams typically have low beam rates, but active-target detectors can compensate for these low beam rates. In active-target detectors that are also Time-Projection Chambers (TPC), ionized electrons drift through an electric fieldto a detection device to imagethe trajectory of charged-particle ionization tracks within the chamber's gas volume. The measurement of the ionized electrons' drift velocity is crucial for the accurate imaging of these tracks. In order to measure this drift velocity, we will use a UV laser and photo-sensitive foil in a the ND-Cubedetector we are developing, periodically releasingelectrons from the foil at a known timesand a known distance from the electron detector, thereby precisely measuring the drift velocity in situ. We have surveyed several materials to find a material that will work well with typical solid-state UV lasers on the market. We plan to determine the best material and thickness of the foil to maximize the number of photoelectrons. The precision that will be afforded by this measurement of the drift velocity will allow us to eliminate a source of systematic uncertainty.

  7. Photon counting modules using RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightstone, Alexander W.; Macgregor, Andrew D.; Macsween, Darlene E.; Mcintyre, Robert J.; Trottier, Claude; Webb, Paul P.

    1989-01-01

    Avalanche photodiodes (APD) are excellent small area, solid state detectors for photon counting. Performance possibilities include: photon detection efficiency in excess of 50 percent; wavelength response from 400 to 1000 nm; count rate to 10 (exp 7) counts per sec; afterpulsing at negligible levels; timing resolution better than 1 ns. Unfortunately, these performance levels are not simultaneously available in a single detector amplifier configuration. By considering theoretical performance predictions and previous and new measurements of APD performance, the anticipated performance of a range of proposed APD-based photon counting modules is derived.

  8. Measuring cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity in children.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Aimée E; van Lien, René; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; de Geus, Eco J

    2013-04-29

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) controls mainly automatic bodily functions that are engaged in homeostasis, like heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration and renal function. The ANS has two main branches: the sympathetic nervous system, preparing the human body for action in times of danger and stress, and the parasympathetic nervous system, which regulates the resting state of the body. ANS activity can be measured invasively, for instance by radiotracer techniques or microelectrode recording from superficial nerves, or it can be measured non-invasively by using changes in an organ's response as a proxy for changes in ANS activity, for instance of the sweat glands or the heart. Invasive measurements have the highest validity but are very poorly feasible in large scale samples where non-invasive measures are the preferred approach. Autonomic effects on the heart can be reliably quantified by the recording of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in combination with the impedance cardiogram (ICG), which reflects the changes in thorax impedance in response to respiration and the ejection of blood from the ventricle into the aorta. From the respiration and ECG signals, respiratory sinus arrhythmia can be extracted as a measure of cardiac parasympathetic control. From the ECG and the left ventricular ejection signals, the preejection period can be extracted as a measure of cardiac sympathetic control. ECG and ICG recording is mostly done in laboratory settings. However, having the subjects report to a laboratory greatly reduces ecological validity, is not always doable in large scale epidemiological studies, and can be intimidating for young children. An ambulatory device for ECG and ICG simultaneously resolves these three problems. Here, we present a study design for a minimally invasive and rapid assessment of cardiac autonomic control in children, using a validated ambulatory device (1-5), the VU University Ambulatory Monitoring System (VU

  9. The Detection and Measurement of the Activity Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthi, Mukund

    The infiltration of radon into the indoor environment may cause the exposure of the public to excessive amounts of radioactivity and has spurred renewed research interest over the past several years into the occurrence and properties of radon and its decay products in indoor air. The public health risks posed by the inhalation and subsequent lung deposition of the decay products of Rn-222 have particularly warranted the study of their diffusivity and attachment to molecular cluster aerosols in the ultrafine particle size range (0.5-5 nm) and to accumulation mode aerosols. In this research, a system for the detection and measurement of the activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products in indoor environments has been developed. The system is microcomputer-controlled and involves a combination of multiple wire screen sampler -detector units operated in parallel. The detection of the radioactivity attached to the aerosol sampled in these units permits the determination of the radon daughter activity -weighted size distributions and concentration levels in indoor air on a semi-continuous basis. The development of the system involved the design of the detection and measurement system, its experimental characterization and testing in a radon-aerosol chamber, and numerical studies for the optimization of the design and operating parameters of the system. Several concepts of utility to aerosol size distribution measurement methods sampling the ultrafine cluster size range evolved from this study, and are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The optimized multiple wire screen (Graded Screen Array) system described in this dissertation is based on these concepts. The principal facet of the system is its ability to make unattended measurements of activity size distributions and concentration levels of radon decay products on a semi-continuous basis. Thus, the capability of monitoring changes in the activity concentrations and size

  10. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and Photon Counting Histogram on membrane proteins: Functional dynamics of the GPI-anchored Urokinase Plasminogen Activator Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Malengo, Gabriele; Andolfo, Annapaola; Sidenius, Nicolai; Gratton, Enrico; Zamai, Moreno; Caiolfa, Valeria R

    2009-01-01

    The oligomerization of GPI-anchored proteins is thought to regulate their association with membrane microdomains, sub-cellular sorting and activity. However, these mechanisms need to be comprehensively explored in living, unperturbed cells, without artificial clustering agents, and using fluorescent protein-tagged chimeras that are fully biologically active. We expressed in HEK293 cells a biologically active chimera of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), the uPAR-mEGFP-GPI. We also produced HEK293/D2D3-mEGFP-GPI cells expressing the truncated form of the receptor, lacking biological activity. We studied the dynamics and oligomerization of the two proteins, combining FCS and PCH analyses, and using subclones with homogenously low expression levels. Overall, the mobile fractions of the two proteins, constituted by monomers and dimers, had comparable diffusion coefficients. However, only for the active receptor the diffusion coefficient decreased in monomer-enriched fractions, suggesting that uPAR monomers might be preferentially engaged in multi-protein transmembrane signaling complexes. Our approach helps in limiting the alteration of the data due to out-of-focus, and minimizing the overestimation of the molecular brightness. Joint to a careful design of the cellular model, it gives reliable estimates of diffusion coefficients and oligomerization of GPI-anchored proteins, in steady state conditions, at low expression levels, and in live, unperturbed cells. PMID:18601539

  11. Fingerprint Ridge Count: A Polygenic Trait Useful in Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Gordon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes the use of the polygenic trait of total fingerprint ridge count in the classroom as a laboratory investigation. Presents information on background of topic, fingerprint patterns which are classified into three major groups, ridge count, the inheritance model, and activities. Includes an example data sheet format for fingerprints. (RT)

  12. Neutron Coincidence Counting Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Jeremy L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2012-08-31

    The efficiency comparison for measured and simulated responses of a 10B-lined proportional counter and a 3He proportional counter in a close, symmetrical geometry are presented. The measurement geometry was modeled in MCNPX to validate the methods used for simulating the response of both the 3He and 10B-lined tubes. The MCNPX models agree within 1% with the 3He tube measurements and within 3% for the 10B-lined tubes when a 0.75-µm boron-metal lining is used.

  13. Measurements of Microbial Community Activities in Individual Soil Macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Vanessa L.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Fansler, Sarah J.; McCue, Lee Ann; Smith, Jeff L.; Konopka, Allan

    2012-05-01

    The functional potential of single soil aggregates may provide insights into the localized distribution of microbial activities better than traditional assays conducted on bulk quantities of soil. Thus, we scaled down enzyme assays for {beta}-glucosidase, N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase, lipase, and leucine aminopeptidase to measure of the enzyme potential of individual aggregates (250-1000 {mu}m diameter). Across all enzymes, the smallest aggregates had the greatest activity and the range of enzyme activities observed in all aggregates supports the hypothesis that functional potential in soil may be distributed in a patchy fashion. Paired analyses of ATP as a surrogate for active microbial biomass and {beta}-glucosidase on the same aggregates suggest the presence of both extracellular {beta}-glucosidase functioning in aggregates with no detectable ATP and also of relatively active microbial communities (high ATP) that have low {beta}-glucosidase potentials. Studying function at a scale more consistent with microbial habitat presents greater opportunity to link microbial community structure to microbial community function.

  14. Using decision trees to measure activities in people with stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Fulk, George D; Tang, Wenlong; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-01-01

    Improving community mobility is a common goal for persons with stroke. Measuring daily physical activity is helpful to determine the effectiveness of rehabilitation interventions. In our previous studies, a novel wearable shoe-based sensor system (SmartShoe) was shown to be capable of accurately classify three major postures and activities (sitting, standing, and walking) from individuals with stroke by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). In this study, we utilized decision tree algorithms to develop individual and group activity classification models for stroke patients. The data was acquired from 12 participants with stroke. For 3-class classification, the average accuracy was 99.1% with individual models and 91.5% with group models. Further, we extended the activities into 8 classes: sitting, standing, walking, cycling, stairs-up, stairs-down, wheel-chair-push, and wheel-chair-propel. The classification accuracy for individual models was 97.9%, and for group model was 80.2%, demonstrating feasibility of multi-class activity recognition by SmartShoe in stroke patients.

  15. Variability and reliability of muscle activity measurements during chewing.

    PubMed

    Kravchenko, A; Weiser, A; Hugger, S; Kordass, B; Hugger, A; Wanke, E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test masseter muscle activity and its variability and reliability in terms of repeatable measurements in fully dentate and healthy volunteers during habitual chewing and deliberate unilateral chewing. Three sessions were performed on three consecutive days, each time recording kinematic data and masseter muscle EMG activities through a series of defined jaw exercises, including maximum voluntary contraction, habitual chewing, and left and right unilateral chewing. Asymmetry index (AI) and deliberate chewing index (DCI) scores were used to evaluate the activities of the left and right masseter muscles, which were separately recorded during each of these chewing exercises. DCI scores were side-specific, including two sets of values for left and right unilateral chewing. Reproducibility testing of the values obtained for all parameters revealed good to excellent reproducibility of masseter muscle activity under standardized recording conditions across the consecutive study sessions, with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranging from 0.68 to 0.93. Different individuals were found to utilize different strategies of bilateral masseter activation during both habitual chewing and deliberate unilateral chewing.

  16. Information Technology Measurement and Testing Activities at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Michael D.; Carnahan, Lisa J.; Carpenter, Robert J.; Flater, David W.; Fowler, James E.; Frechette, Simon P.; Gray, Martha M.; Johnson, L. Arnold; McCabe, R. Michael; Montgomery, Douglas; Radack, Shirley M.; Rosenthal, Robert; Shakarji, Craig M.

    2001-01-01

    Our high technology society continues to rely more and more upon sophisticated measurements, technical standards, and associated testing activities. This was true for the industrial society of the 20th century and remains true for the information society of the 21st century. Over the last half of the 20th century, information technology (IT) has been a powerful agent of change in almost every sector of the economy. The complexity and rapidly changing nature of IT have presented unique technical challenges to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and to the scientific measurement community in developing a sound measurement and testing infrastructure for IT. This measurement and testing infrastructure for the important non-physical and non-chemical properties associated with complex IT systems is still in an early stage of development. This paper explains key terms and concepts of IT metrology, briefly reviews the history of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NBS/NIST) in the field of IT, and reviews NIST’s current capabilities and work in measurement and testing for IT. It concludes with a look at what is likely to occur in the field of IT over the next ten years and what metrology roles NIST is likely to play. PMID:27500026

  17. Information Technology Measurement and Testing Activities at NIST.

    PubMed

    Hogan, M D; Carnahan, L J; Carpenter, R J; Flater, D W; Fowler, J E; Frechette, S P; Gray, M M; Johnson, L A; McCabe, R M; Montgomery, D; Radack, S M; Rosenthal, R; Shakarji, C M

    2001-01-01

    Our high technology society continues to rely more and more upon sophisticated measurements, technical standards, and associated testing activities. This was true for the industrial society of the 20th century and remains true for the information society of the 21st century. Over the last half of the 20th century, information technology (IT) has been a powerful agent of change in almost every sector of the economy. The complexity and rapidly changing nature of IT have presented unique technical challenges to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and to the scientific measurement community in developing a sound measurement and testing infrastructure for IT. This measurement and testing infrastructure for the important non-physical and non-chemical properties associated with complex IT systems is still in an early stage of development. This paper explains key terms and concepts of IT metrology, briefly reviews the history of the National Bureau of Standards/National Institute of Standards and Technology (NBS/NIST) in the field of IT, and reviews NIST's current capabilities and work in measurement and testing for IT. It concludes with a look at what is likely to occur in the field of IT over the next ten years and what metrology roles NIST is likely to play.

  18. Comparing GPS, Log, Survey, and Accelerometry to Measure Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Weissman, Jennifer; Wolf, Jean; Mumford, Karen; Contant, Cheryl K.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Taylor, Lynne; Glanz, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Both self-report and objective measures have strengths and limitations for studying physical activity (PA) and travel. We explored how objectively measured global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data matches with travel logs and questionnaires in predicting trip duration and PA. Methods In a study of PA and travel among residents in Atlanta, GA conducted in 2008–2009, 99 participants wore GPS devices and accelerometers, and recorded all trips in a log for 5 consecutive days. Participants also completed a self-administered questionnaire on PA and travel behaviors. Results There was good agreement between GPS and log for assessment of trip duration, although log measures overestimated trip duration (concordance correlation coefficient 0.53 [0.47, 0.59]; Bland-Altman estimate 0.76 [0.16, 3.71] comparing GPS to log). Log measures underestimated light PA and overestimated moderate PA compared to accelerometry when greater than zero moderate PA was reported. Conclusions It is often not feasible to deploy accelerometry or GPS devices in population research because these devices are expensive and require technical expertise and data processing. Questionnaires and logs provide inexpensive tools to assess PA and travel with reasonable concordance with objective measures. However, they have shortcomings in evaluating the presence and amount of light and moderate PA. Future questionnaires and logs should be developed to evaluate sensitivity to light and moderate PA. PMID:26685821

  19. SPACE DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS IN THE STRATOSPHERE USING DIFFERENT ACTIVE AND PASSIVE DOSIMETRY SYSTEMS.

    PubMed

    Zábori, Balázs; Hirn, Attila; Deme, Sándor; Apáthy, István; Csőke, Antal; Pázmándi, Tamás; Szántó, Péter

    2016-12-01

    Several measurements have been performed on the cosmic radiation field from the surface of the Earth up to the maximum altitudes of research aeroplanes. However, there is only limited information about that between 15 and 30 km altitudes. In order to study the radiation environment in the stratosphere, an experiment was built by students from Hungarian universities that flew on board the BEXUS (Balloon Experiments for University Students) stratospheric balloon in Northern Sweden, from the ESRANGE Space Center. The main technical goals of the experiment were to test at the first time the TRITEL 3D silicon detector telescope system in close to space conditions and to develop a balloon technology platform for advanced cosmic radiation and dosimetric measurements. The main scientific goals were to give an assessment of the cosmic radiation field at the altitude of the BEXUS balloons, to use the TRITEL system to determine dosimetric and radiation quantities during the balloon flight and to intercompare the TRITEL and Pille results to provide a correction factor for the Pille measurements. To fulfil the scientific and technological objectives, several different dosimeter systems were included in the experiment: an advanced version of the TRITEL silicon detector telescope, Geiger-Müller (GM) counters and Pille thermoluminescent dosimeters. The float altitude of the BEXUS balloon was ∼28.6 km; the total flight time was ∼4 h. Measurement data from the active instruments were received in real time by the ground team during the mission. There were no failures in the operation of the system; everything worked as expected. This article presents the scientific goals and results in detail. From the TRITEL measurements, the linear energy transfer spectra, the average quality factor of the cosmic radiation as well as the absorbed dose and the dose equivalent were determined. Estimations for the uncertainty in the TRITEL measurements were given. The deposited energy spectra

  20. Comparison of accelerometry and oxymetry for measuring daily physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Noda, Akiko; Hirai, Makoto; Saito, Hidehiko; Ohno, Yoshiyuki

    2002-08-01

    To assess the validity of accelerometry in measuring daily physical activity, the energy consumption calculated by accelerometry, with respiratory gas analysis as a reference, was evaluated in 45 non-athletes during various exercise tests. Subjects were required to (1) walk on a treadmill ergometer at various speeds, (2) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed and with a stride of 20% more or 20% less than that when walking freely, (3) walk on a treadmill ergometer at a fixed speed wearing either sneakers or leather-soled shoes, and (4) cycle on a bicycle ergometer. There were strong linear relationships between the measurements during the progressively graded treadmill test, with an overall Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97. The mean estimated difference ranged from -0.77 to 0.27 kcal/min and the coefficients of variation from 13.2% to 22.2%. However, the difference between the methods was not negligible for individual subjects. Accelerometry overestimated energy expenditure during short-step walking, and underestimated it during long-step walking. No significant difference in energy expenditure was found according to the type of shoes worn. Cycling activity was not recorded by accelerometry. Accelerometry is a reasonably accurate and feasible method for evaluating the physical activities of non-athletes, and could be a common tool for epidemiological research and health promotion despite its limitations.