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Sample records for activity cry consolability

  1. Cultural adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale of pain assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Edna Aparecida; Guinsburg, Ruth; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to perform the translation into Brazilian Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability revised (FLACCr) scale, with children under 18 years old, affected by cerebral palsy, presenting or not cognitive impairment and unable to report their pain. Method: methodological development study of translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. After approval by the ethics committee, the process aimed at translation and back-translation, evaluation of translation and back-translation using the Delphi technique and assessment of cultural equivalence. The process included the five categories of the scale and the four application instructions, considering levels of agreement equal to or greater than 80%. Results: it was necessary three rounds of the Delphi technique to achieve consensus among experts. The agreement achieved for the five categories was: Face 95.5%, Legs 90%, Activity 94.4%, Cry 94.4% and Consolability 99.4%. The four instructions achieved the following consensus levels: 1st 99.1%, 2nd 99.2%, 3rd 99.1% and 4th 98.3%. Conclusion: the method enabled the translation and cultural adaptation of the FLACCr. This is a study able to expand the knowledge of Brazilian professionals on pain assessment in children with CP PMID:26444167

  2. Systematic review of the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability scale for assessing pain in infants and children: is it reliable, valid, and feasible for use?

    PubMed

    Crellin, Dianne J; Harrison, Denise; Santamaria, Nick; Babl, Franz E

    2015-11-01

    The Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) scale is one of the most widely used behavioural observation pain scales. However, the psychometrics of the scale have not been adequately summarised and evaluated to provide clear recommendations regarding its use. The aim of this study was to rigorously evaluate the reliability, validity, feasibility, and utility of the scale for clinical and research purposes and provide recommendations regarding appropriate use of the scale. Databases searched were MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO (using the Ovid, PubMed, and Ebscohost platforms), The Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and Cochrane Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. Psychometric evaluation studies reporting feasibility, reliability, validity, or utility data for the FLACC scale applied to children (birth to 18 years) and randomised controlled trials (RCT) using the FLACC scale to measure a study outcome in infants and children. Data extraction included study design, population demographics, and psychometric data. Analysis involved in this study are quality assessment of the psychometric evaluation studies and the RCTs using the COSMIN checklist and the Jadad scale, respectively, and narrative synthesis of all results. Twenty-five psychometric evaluations studies and 52 RCTs were included. The study population, circumstances, and quality of the studies varied greatly. Sufficient data addressing postoperative pain assessment in infants and children exist. Some positive data support the psychometrics of the scale used to assess postoperative pain in children with cognitive impairment. Limited and conflicting data addressing procedural pain assessment exist. Content validity and scale feasibility have had limited psychometric evaluation. There are insufficient data to support the FLACC scale for use in all circumstances and populations to which is currently applied.

  3. Evolution of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gómez, Isabel; Porta, Helena; García-Gómez, Blanca Ines; Rodriguez-Almazan, Claudia; Pardo, Liliana; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis are use worldwide in transgenic crops for efficient pest control. Among the family of Cry toxins, the three domain Cry family is the better characterized regarding their natural evolution leading to a large number of Cry proteins with similar structure, mode of action but different insect specificity. Also, this group is the better characterized regarding the study of their mode of action and the molecular basis of insect specificity. In this review we discuss how Cry toxins have evolved insect specificity in nature and analyse several cases of improvement of Cry toxin action by genetic engineering, some of these examples are currently used in transgenic crops. We believe that the success in the improvement of insecticidal activity by genetic evolution of Cry toxins will depend on the knowledge of the rate-limiting steps of Cry toxicity in different insect pests, the mapping of the specificity binding regions in the Cry toxins, as well as the improvement of mutagenesis strategies and selection procedures.

  4. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  5. Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E.; Federici, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides. PMID:24144574

  6. Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus enhance mosquitocidal cry-toxin activity and suppress cry-resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Margaret C; Berry, Colin; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of Mtx toxins from Lysinibacillus sphaericus (formerly Bacillus sphaericus) with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins and the influence of such interactions on Cry-resistance were evaluated in susceptible and Cry-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Mtx-1 and Mtx-2 were observed to be active against both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes; however varying levels of cross-resistance toward Mtx toxins were observed in the resistant mosquitoes. A 1:1 mixture of either Mtx-1 or Mtx-2 with different Cry toxins generally showed moderate synergism, but some combinations were highly toxic to resistant larvae and suppressed resistance. Toxin synergy has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool for enhancing activity and managing Cry-resistance in mosquitoes, thus Mtx toxins may be useful as components of engineered bacterial larvicides.

  7. Cry Proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Active against Diamondback Moth and Fall Armyworm.

    PubMed

    Silva, M C; Siqueira, H A A; Silva, L M; Marques, E J; Barros, R

    2015-08-01

    Biopesticides based on Bacillus thuringiensis and genetically modified plants with genes from this bacterium have been used to control Plutella xylostella (L.) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). However, the selection pressure imposed by these technologies may undermine the efficiency of this important alternative to synthetic insecticides. Toxins with different modes of action allow a satisfactory control of these insects. The purpose of this study was to characterize the protein and gene contents of 20 B. thuringiensis isolates from soil and insect samples collected in several areas of Northeast Brazil which are active against P. xylostella and S. frugiperda. Protein profiles were obtained by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Polymerase chain reaction assays were used to determine toxin genes present within bacterial isolates. The protein profile of the majority of the isolates produced bands of approximately 130 kDa, suggesting the presence of Cry1, Cry8 and Cry9 proteins. The gene content of the isolates of B. thuringiensis investigated showed different gene profiles. Isolates LIIT-4306 and LIIT-4311 were the most actives against both species, with LC50 of 0.03 and 0.02 × 10(8) spores mL(-1), respectively, for P. xylostella, and LC50 of 0.001 × 10(8) spores mL(-1) for S. frugiperda. These isolates carried the cry1, cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1B, cry1C, cry1D, cry1F, cry2, cry2A, cry8, and cry9C genes. The obtained gene profiles showed great potential for the control of P. xylostella and S. frugiperda, primarily because of the presence of several cry1A genes, which are found in isolates of B. thuringiensis active against these insects. PMID:26070631

  8. Cytotoxic activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins on mammalian cells transfected with cadherin-like Cry receptor gene of Bombyx mori (silkworm).

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Yoko; Nakatani, Fumiki; Hashimoto, Keiko; Ikawa, Satoshi; Matsuura, Chikako; Fukada, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kenji; Himeno, Michio

    2003-01-01

    Cry1Aa, an insecticidal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, has been shown to bind to cadherin-like protein, BtR175, in Bombyx mori (silkworm) midgut. We previously reported three variant alleles of BtR175 (BtR175a, b and c). When transiently expressed in COS7 cells, all the three BtR175 variants bound to Cry1Aa. We stably expressed BtR175b in HEK293 cells. These BtR175b-expressing cells swelled and died in the presence of activated Cry1Aa in a dose- and time-dependent manner, showing that BtR175b itself can impart Cry1Aa-susceptibility to mammalian cells. These cells were more susceptible to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. Since dispersed B. mori midgut cells were reported to be highly susceptible to Cry1Ac, this result suggested that other Cry1Ac-specific receptor(s) were simultaneously working with BtR175 in the midgut cells. Advantages are also discussed of applying these transfected mammalian cells to toxicity assays of mutant Cry proteins. PMID:12403648

  9. Membrane-permeabilizing activities of Bacillus thuringiensis coleopteran-active toxin CryIIIB2 and CryIIIB2 domain I peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Von Tersch, M A; Slatin, S L; Kulesza, C A; English, L H

    1994-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis toxin CryIIIB2 exhibits activity against two agriculturally important pests, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the Southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata. CryIIIB2 shows significant structural similarity to Colorado potato beetle-active toxin CryIIIA, whose crystal structure has been determined elsewhere [J. Li, J. Carrol, and D. J. Ellar, Nature (London) 353:815-821, 1991]. A clone limited to the putative 7-alpha-helical bundle domain I peptide of CryIIIB2 was constructed by PCR. The truncated protein was expressed at high levels in Escherichia coli. Domain I peptide was isolated and compared with native CryIIIB2 toxin in promoting ion efflux from synthetic phospholipid vesicles and formation of ion channels in black lipid membranes. The results showed that CryIIIB2 domain I peptide is sufficient for ion channel formation and promotes ion efflux. Both native CryIIIB2 toxin and domain I peptide were inefficient channel-forming proteins that produced noisy ion channels of various conductance states. In ion efflux assays, native toxin promoted greater ion efflux from synthetic vesicles than did the truncated peptide. Images PMID:7527203

  10. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis. PMID:21906288

  11. Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gemei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhong, Feng; Chen, Lin; Khaing, Myint Myint; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Yuyuan; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of larvae (LC50) for a laboratory-selected resistant strain (LF120) divided by the LC50 for its susceptible parent strain (LF), the resistance ratio was 1600 for Cry1Ac protoxin and 1200 for trypsin-activated Cry1Ac toxin. The high level of resistance to activated toxin as well as to protoxin indicates reduced activation of protoxin is not a major mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in LF120. For both insect strains, treatment with either the trypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or the chymotrypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not significantly affect the LC50 of Cry1Ac protoxin. Enzyme activity was higher for LF than LF120 for trypsin-like proteases, but did not differ between strains for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The results here are consistent with previous reports indicating that reduced activation of protoxin is generally not a major mechanism of resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27257885

  12. Activation of Bt Protoxin Cry1Ac in Resistant and Susceptible Cotton Bollworm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jizhen; Liang, Gemei; Wang, Bingjie; Zhong, Feng; Chen, Lin; Khaing, Myint Myint; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Yuyuan; Wu, Kongming; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2016-01-01

    Crystalline (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used extensively for insect control in sprays and transgenic plants, but their efficacy is reduced by evolution of resistance in pests. Here we evaluated reduced activation of Cry1Ac protoxin as a potential mechanism of resistance in the invasive pest Helicoverpa armigera. Based on the concentration killing 50% of larvae (LC50) for a laboratory-selected resistant strain (LF120) divided by the LC50 for its susceptible parent strain (LF), the resistance ratio was 1600 for Cry1Ac protoxin and 1200 for trypsin-activated Cry1Ac toxin. The high level of resistance to activated toxin as well as to protoxin indicates reduced activation of protoxin is not a major mechanism of resistance to Cry1Ac in LF120. For both insect strains, treatment with either the trypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK) or the chymotrypsin inhibitor N-a-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not significantly affect the LC50 of Cry1Ac protoxin. Enzyme activity was higher for LF than LF120 for trypsin-like proteases, but did not differ between strains for chymotrypsin-like proteases. The results here are consistent with previous reports indicating that reduced activation of protoxin is generally not a major mechanism of resistance to Bt proteins. PMID:27257885

  13. Intermolecular interaction between Cry2Aa and Cyt1Aa and its effect on larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Bideshi, Dennis K; Waldrop, Greer; Fernandez-Luna, Maria Teresa; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Wirth, Margaret C; Johnson, Jeffrey J; Park, Hyun-Woo; Federici, Brian A

    2013-08-01

    The Cyt1Aa protein of Bacillus thuringiensis susbp. israelensis elaborates demonstrable toxicity to mosquito larvae, but more importantly, it enhances the larvicidal activity of this species Cry proteins (Cry11Aa, Cry4Aa, and Cry4Ba) and delays the phenotypic expression of resistance to these that has evolved in Culex quinquefasciatus. It is also known that Cyt1Aa, which is highly lipophilic, synergizes Cry11Aa by functioning as a surrogate membrane-bound receptor for the latter protein. Little is known, however, about whether Cyt1Aa can interact similarly with other Cry proteins not primarily mosquitocidal; for example, Cry2Aa, which is active against lepidopteran larvae, but essentially inactive or has very low toxicity to mosquito larvae. Here we demonstrate by ligand binding and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays that Cyt1Aa and Cry2Aa form intermolecular complexes in vitro, and in addition show that Cyt1Aa facilitates binding of Cry2Aa throughout the midgut of C. quinquefasciatus larvae. As Cry2Aa and Cry11Aa share structural similarity in domain II, the interaction between Cyt1Aa and Cry2Aa could be a result of a similar mechanism previously proposed for Cry11Aa and Cyt1Aa. Finally, despite the observed interaction between Cry2Aa and Cyt1Aa, only a 2-fold enhancement in toxicity resulted against C. quinquefasciatus. Regardless, our results suggest that Cry2Aa could be a useful component of mosquitocidal endotoxin complements being developed for recombinant strains of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and B. sphaericus aimed at improving the efficacy of commercial products and avoiding resistance. PMID:23727800

  14. Insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Bh1 against Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and other lepidopteran pests.

    PubMed

    Lira, Justin; Beringer, Jeff; Burton, Stephanie; Griffin, Samantha; Sheets, Joel; Tan, Sek Yee; Woosley, Aaron; Worden, Sarah; Narva, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important source of insect resistance traits in commercial crops. In an effort to prolong B. thuringiensis trait durability, insect resistance management programs often include combinations of insecticidal proteins that are not cross resistant or have demonstrable differences in their site of action as a means to mitigate the development of resistant insect populations. In this report, we describe the activity spectrum of a novel B. thuringiensis Cry protein, Cry1Bh1, against several lepidopteran pests, including laboratory-selected B. thuringiensis-resistant strains of Ostrinia nubilalis and Heliothis virescens and progeny of field-evolved B. thuringiensis-resistant strains of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera frugiperda. Cry1Bh1 is active against susceptible and B. thuringiensis-resistant colonies of O. nubilalis, P. xylostella, and H. virescens in laboratory diet-based assays, implying a lack of cross-resistance in these insects. However, Cry1Bh1 is not active against susceptible or Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda. Further, Cry1Bh1 does not compete with Cry1Fa or Cry1Ab for O. nubilalis midgut brush border membrane binding sites. Cry1Bh1-expressing corn, while not completely resistant to insect damage, provided significantly better leaf protection against Cry1Fa-resistant O. nubilalis than did Cry1Fa-expressing hybrid corn. The lack of cross-resistance with Cry1Ab and Cry1Fa along with independent membrane binding sites in O. nubilalis makes Cry1Bh1 a candidate to further optimize for in-plant resistance to this pest.

  15. Proteolytic Activation of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab through a Belt-and-Braces Approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lian; Pan, Zhi-Zhen; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2016-09-28

    Proteolytic processing of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal toxins by insect midgut proteases plays an essential role in their insecticidal toxicities against target insects. In the present study, proteolysis of Bt crystal toxin Cry2Ab by Plutella xylostella L. midgut proteases (PxMJ) was evaluated. Both trypsin and chymotrypsin were identified involving the proteolytic activation of Cry2Ab and cleaving Cry2Ab at Arg(139) and Leu(144), respectively. Three Cry2Ab mutants (R139A, L144A, and R139A-L144A) were constructed by replacing residues Arg(139), Leu(144), and Arg(139)-Leu(144) with alanine. Proteolysis assays revealed that mutants R139A and L144A but not R139A-L144A could be cleaved into 50 kDa activated toxins by PxMJ. Bioassays showed that mutants R139A and L144A were highly toxic against P. xylostella larvae, while mutant R139A-L144A was almost non-insecticidal. Those results demonstrated that proteolysis by PxMJ was associated with the toxicity of Cry2Ab against P. xylostella. It also revealed that either trypsin or chymotrypsin was enough to activate Cry2Ab protoxin. This characteristic was regarded as a belt-and-braces approach and might contribute to the control of resistance development in target insects. Our studies characterized the proteolytic processing of Cry2Ab and provided new insight into the activation of this Bt toxin. PMID:27598769

  16. Bioaccumulation of Cry1Ab Protein from an Herbivore Reduces Anti-Oxidant Enzyme Activities in Two Spider Species

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Tian, Yun; Tian, Yixing; Song, Qisheng

    2014-01-01

    Cry proteins are expressed in rice lines for lepidopteran pest control. These proteins can be transferred from transgenic rice plants to non-target arthropods, including planthoppers and then to a predatory spider. Movement of Cry proteins through food webs may reduce fitness of non-target arthropods, although recent publications indicated no serious changes in non-target populations. Nonetheless, Cry protein intoxication influences gene expression in Cry-sensitive insects. We posed the hypothesis that Cry protein intoxication influences enzyme activities in spiders acting in tri-trophic food webs. Here we report on the outcomes of experiments designed to test our hypothesis with two spider species. We demonstrated that the movement of CryAb protein from Drosophila culture medium into fruit flies maintained on the CryAb containing medium and from the flies to the spiders Ummeliata insecticeps and Pardosa pseudoannulata. We also show that the activities of three key metabolic enzymes, acetylcholine esterase (AchE), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly influenced in the spiders after feeding on Cry1Ab-containing fruit flies. We infer from these data that Cry proteins originating in transgenic crops impacts non-target arthropods at the physiological and biochemical levels, which may be one mechanism of Cry protein-related reductions in fitness of non-target beneficial predators. PMID:24454741

  17. Master Console, SMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paga Marrero, Hector Jose

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console oversees the function of Computer Systems in Firing room 1 (FR1). Master Console Operators, MCOs' for short, are our customer. I was integrated into the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) software team that is under the guidance of David Slaiman, who is the product group lead. I have been brought up to speed with System Monitoring and Control. The initial time spent reading SMC software design description and understanding how it works. The current Firing Room 1 Console Display is a floor layout giving the MCO two essential pieces of information which are Health and Status. When an issue arises, the MCO has to look on the display to find which console is affected and then the MCO must use the Reference designator from the display to manually search for the Portal Workstation (PWS) installed in the console using the hardware map; which is a long process to lookup a PWS if an issue is present. My project is to make the FR1 Console Display easier for the MCO's to pinpoint PWS's without having to lookup additional resources in the process. My project also includes updating Firing Room 1 Console Display to include the F1R Non-Redundant Set. The display does not have good use of space and functionality. PWS numbers were not present in the previous design and are the critical component in efficient understanding and administration of the consoles. Part of the process includes getting feedback from the customer, instead of just emailing them with a question, we made a proposal with changes so they could respond and give us their input; which proved to be an effective method for engaging them. In order to do this I had to use the Display Editor (DE) tool developed by NASA, Paint.Net and Visio. The process I have been using has been Visio to alter the floor layout of Firing Room and take advantage of the white areas, and then I take the altered floor plan into Paint.Net. Once in Paint.Net I put the new floor plan as a background to the standard console

  18. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  19. Characterization of the mechanism of action of the genetically modified Cry1AbMod toxin that is active against Cry1Ab-resistant insects.

    PubMed

    Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi; Pardo-López, Liliana; Jiménez-Juárez, Nuria; Arenas, Ivan; Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arroyo, Raquel; Holzenburg, Andreas; Savva, Christos G; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in the control of insect pests. They are pore-forming toxins with a complex mechanism that involves the sequential interaction with receptors. They are produced as protoxins, which are activated by midgut proteases. Activated toxin binds to cadherin receptor, inducing an extra cleavage including helix alpha-1, facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomer. The toxin oligomer binds to secondary receptors such as aminopeptidase and inserts into lipid rafts forming pores and causing larval death. The primary threat to efficacy of Bt-toxins is the evolution of insect resistance. Engineered Cry1AMod toxins, devoid of helix alpha-1, could be used for the control of resistance in lepidopterans by bypassing the altered cadherin receptor, killing resistant insects affected in this receptor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of action of Cry1AbMod. We found that alkaline pH and the presence of membrane lipids facilitates the oligomerization of Cry1AbMod. In addition, tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra, ELISA binding to pure aminopeptidase receptor, calcein release assay and analysis of ionic-conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicated that the secondary steps in mode of action that take place after interaction with cadherin receptor such as oligomerization, receptor binding and pore formation are similar in the Cry1AbMod and in the wild type Cry1Ab. Finally, the membrane-associated structure of Cry1AbMod oligomer was analyzed by electron crystallography showing that it forms a complex with a trimeric organization. PMID:19559004

  20. Characterization of the mechanism of action of the genetically modified Cry1AbMod toxin that is active against Cry1Ab-resistant insects.

    PubMed

    Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi; Pardo-López, Liliana; Jiménez-Juárez, Nuria; Arenas, Ivan; Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arroyo, Raquel; Holzenburg, Andreas; Savva, Christos G; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in the control of insect pests. They are pore-forming toxins with a complex mechanism that involves the sequential interaction with receptors. They are produced as protoxins, which are activated by midgut proteases. Activated toxin binds to cadherin receptor, inducing an extra cleavage including helix alpha-1, facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomer. The toxin oligomer binds to secondary receptors such as aminopeptidase and inserts into lipid rafts forming pores and causing larval death. The primary threat to efficacy of Bt-toxins is the evolution of insect resistance. Engineered Cry1AMod toxins, devoid of helix alpha-1, could be used for the control of resistance in lepidopterans by bypassing the altered cadherin receptor, killing resistant insects affected in this receptor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of action of Cry1AbMod. We found that alkaline pH and the presence of membrane lipids facilitates the oligomerization of Cry1AbMod. In addition, tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra, ELISA binding to pure aminopeptidase receptor, calcein release assay and analysis of ionic-conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicated that the secondary steps in mode of action that take place after interaction with cadherin receptor such as oligomerization, receptor binding and pore formation are similar in the Cry1AbMod and in the wild type Cry1Ab. Finally, the membrane-associated structure of Cry1AbMod oligomer was analyzed by electron crystallography showing that it forms a complex with a trimeric organization.

  1. Tribolium castaneum Apolipophorin-III acts as an immune response protein against Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba toxic activity.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Estefanía; Rausell, Carolina; Real, M Dolores

    2013-07-01

    In this study, a 2.1-fold Apolipophorin-III mRNA up-regulation was found in Tribolium castaneum larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Ba spore-crystal mixture. Knockdown of Apolipophorin-III by RNAi resulted in increased T. castaneum larvae susceptibility following Cry3Ba spore-crystal treatment, demonstrating Apolipophorin-III involvement in insect defense against B. thuringiensis. We showed that Apolipophorin-III participates in T. castaneum immune response to B. thuringiensis activating the prophenoloxidase cascade since: (i) phenoloxidase activity significantly increased after Cry3Ba spore-crystal treatment compared to untreated or Cry1Ac spore-crystal treated larvae and (ii) phenoloxidase activity in Cry3Ba spore-crystal treated Apolipophorin-III silenced larvae was 71±14% lower than that of non-silenced intoxicated larvae.

  2. EVA console personnel during STS-61 simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Susan P. Rainwater monitors an extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation from the EVA console at JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) during joint integrated simulations for the STS-61 mission. Astronauts assigned to extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) were simultaneously rehearsing in a neutral buoyancy tank at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Alabama.

  3. Emergency Communications Console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA has applied its communications equipment expertise to development of a communications console that provides, in a compact package only slightly larger than an electric typewriter, all the emergency medical services communications functions needed for a regional hospital. A prototype unit, built by Johnson Space Center, has been installed in the Odessa (Texas) Medical Center Hospital. The hospital is the medical control center for the 17-county Permian Basin Emergency Medical System in west Texas. The console project originated in response to a request to NASA from the Texas governor's office, which sought a better way of providing emergency medical care in rural areas. Because ambulance travel time is frequently long in remote areas of west Texas, it is important that treatment begin at the scene of the emergency rather than at the hospital emergency room. A radio and telephone system linking ambulance emergency technicians and hospital staff makes this possible. But earlier equipment was complex, requiring specialized operators. A highly reliable system was needed to minimize breakdowns and provide controls of utmost simplicity, so that the system could be operated by physicians and nurses rather than by communications specialists. The resulting console has both radio and telephone sections. With the radio equipment, hospital personnel can communicate with ambulance drivers and paramedics, receive incoming electrocardiagrams, consult with other hospitals, page hospital staff and set up a radio-to-telephone "patch." The telephone portion of the system includes a hotline from the Permian Basin Emergency Medical Service's resource control center, an automatic dialer for contacting special care facilities in the Permian Basin network, a hospital intercom terminal and a means of relaying cardioscope displays and other data between hospitals. The integrated system also provides links with local disaster and civil defense organizations and with emergency "Dial 911

  4. FMRI activations of amygdala, cingulate cortex, and auditory cortex by infant laughing and crying.

    PubMed

    Sander, Kerstin; Frome, Yvonne; Scheich, Henning

    2007-10-01

    One of the functions of emotional vocalizations is the regulation of social relationships like those between adults and children. Listening to infant vocalizations is known to engage amygdala as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortices. But, the functional relationships between these structures still need further clarification. Here, nonparental women and men listened to laughing and crying of preverbal infants and to vocalization-derived control stimuli, while performing a pure tone detection task during low-noise functional magnetic resonance imaging. Infant vocalizations elicited stronger activation in amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of women, whereas the alienated control stimuli elicited stronger activation in men. Independent of listeners' gender, auditory cortex (AC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) were more strongly activated by the control stimuli than by infant laughing or crying. The gender-dependent correlates of neural activity in amygdala and ACC may reflect neural predispositions in women for responses to preverbal infant vocalizations, whereas the gender-independent similarity of activation patterns in PCC and AC may reflect more sensory-based and cognitive levels of neural processing. In comparison to our previous work on adult laughing and crying, the infant vocalizations elicited manifold higher amygdala activation.

  5. 36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. View of preset counter (PC) console and tracking console on right, located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  6. Expression of cry1Ab gene from a novel Bacillus thuringiensis strain SY49-1 active on pest insects.

    PubMed

    Azizoglu, Ugur; Ayvaz, Abdurrahman; Yılmaz, Semih; Karabörklü, Salih; Temizgul, Rıdvan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the cry1Ab gene of previously characterized and Lepidoptera-, Diptera-, and Coleoptera-active Bacillus thuringiensis SY49-1 strain was cloned, expressed and individually tested on Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. pET-cry1Ab plasmids were constructed by ligating the cry1Ab into pET28a (+) expression vector. Constructed plasmids were transferred to an Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain rendered competent with CaCl2. Isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside was used to induce the expression of cry1Ab in E. coli BL21(DE3), and consequently, ∼130kDa of Cry1Ab was obtained. Bioassay results indicated that recombinant Cry1Ab at a dose of 1000μgg(-1) caused 40% and 64% mortality on P. interpunctella and E. kuehniella larvae, respectively. However, the mortality rates of Bt SY49-1 strains' spore-crystal mixture at the same dose were observed to be 70% on P. interpunctella and 90% on E. kuehniella larvae. The results indicated that cry1Ab may be considered as a good candidate in transgenic crop production and as an alternative biocontrol agent in controlling stored product moths.

  7. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology. PMID:24757127

  8. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology.

  9. Right Frontoinsular Cortex and Subcortical Activity to Infant Cry Is Associated with Maternal Mental State Talk

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Mary L.; Swain, James E.; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to examine neural correlates of a specific component of human caregiving: maternal mental state talk, reflecting a mother's proclivity to attribute mental states and intentionality to her infant. Using a potent, ecologically relevant stimulus of infant cry during fMRI, we tested hypotheses that postpartum neural response to the cry of “own” versus a standard “other” infant in the right frontoinsular cortex (RFIC) and subcortical limbic network would be associated with independent observations of maternal mental state talk. The sample comprised 76 urban-living, low socioeconomic mothers (82% African American) and their 4-month-old infants. Before the fMRI scan, mothers were filmed in face-to-face interaction with their infant, and maternal behaviors were coded by trained researchers unaware of all other information about the participants. The results showed higher functional activity in the RFIC to own versus other infant cry at the group level. In addition, RFIC and bilateral subcortical neural activity (e.g., thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, putamen) was associated positively with maternal mental state talk but not with more global aspects of observed caregiving. These findings held when accounting for perceptual and contextual covariates, such as maternal felt distress, urge to help, depression severity, and recognition of own infant cry. Our results highlight the need to focus on specific components of caregiving to advance understanding of the maternal brain. Future work will examine the predictive utility of this neural marker for mother–child function. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The current study advances extant literature examining the neural underpinning of early parenting behavior. The findings highlight the special functional importance of the right frontoinsular cortex–thalamic–limbic network in a mother's proclivity to engage in mental state talk with her preverbal infant, a circumscribed aspect of maternal caregiving

  10. Evaluation of the Potential Effect of Transgenic Rice Expressing Cry1Ab on the Hematology and Enzyme Activity in Organs of Female Swiss Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Tian, Yun; Tan, Shuduan; Dong, Shengzhang; Song, Qisheng

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing Cry1Ab protein to vertebrates, the effect of Cry1Ab rice on broad health indicators in blood and various organs of Swiss rats were analyzed. The 30 and 90 day safety studies of Cry1Ab rice on female Swiss rats revealed that Cry1Ab rice had no significant effect on the several elements of blood lymph including hemogram, calcium ion concentration and apoptosis rate of lymphocytes, indicating that Cry1Ab protein could not affect the blood lymph of Swiss rat. Similarly, Cry1Ab rice had no effect on enzyme activities in a variety of organs of Swiss rat. However, Cry1Ab rice did have significant effects on the blood biochemistry indexes including urea, triglyceride (TG), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after the rats were fed with Cry1Ab rice for 30 days, but not after 90 days, indicating that Cry1Ab protein may influence blood metabolism for a short duration. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of the 6 genes encoding enzymes responsible for the major detoxification functions of liver revealed that Cry1Ab rice exerted no influences on the levels of these transcripts in liver of Swiss rat, indicating that significant differences registered in part of the blood biochemical parameters in the 30 day study might result from other untested organs or tissues in response to the stress of exogenous Cry1Ab protein. The results suggest that Cry1Ab protein has no significant long-term (90 day) effects on female Swiss rat. PMID:24312218

  11. Evaluation of the potential effect of transgenic rice expressing Cry1Ab on the hematology and enzyme activity in organs of female Swiss rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Baoyang; Tian, Yixing; Wang, Zhi; Tian, Yun; Tan, Shuduan; Dong, Shengzhang; Song, Qisheng

    2013-01-01

    To assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing Cry1Ab protein to vertebrates, the effect of Cry1Ab rice on broad health indicators in blood and various organs of Swiss rats were analyzed. The 30 and 90 day safety studies of Cry1Ab rice on female Swiss rats revealed that Cry1Ab rice had no significant effect on the several elements of blood lymph including hemogram, calcium ion concentration and apoptosis rate of lymphocytes, indicating that Cry1Ab protein could not affect the blood lymph of Swiss rat. Similarly, Cry1Ab rice had no effect on enzyme activities in a variety of organs of Swiss rat. However, Cry1Ab rice did have significant effects on the blood biochemistry indexes including urea, triglyceride (TG), glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) after the rats were fed with Cry1Ab rice for 30 days, but not after 90 days, indicating that Cry1Ab protein may influence blood metabolism for a short duration. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of the 6 genes encoding enzymes responsible for the major detoxification functions of liver revealed that Cry1Ab rice exerted no influences on the levels of these transcripts in liver of Swiss rat, indicating that significant differences registered in part of the blood biochemical parameters in the 30 day study might result from other untested organs or tissues in response to the stress of exogenous Cry1Ab protein. The results suggest that Cry1Ab protein has no significant long-term (90 day) effects on female Swiss rat.

  12. Cry1Ac toxin induces macrophage activation via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Torres-Martínez, Marilu; Rubio-Infante, Néstor; García-Hernández, Ana Lilia; Nava-Acosta, Raúl; Ilhuicatzi-Alvarado, Damaris; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2016-09-01

    The Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis is used commercially as a bio-insecticide and is expressed in transgenic plants that are used for human and animal consumption. Although it was originally considered innocuous for mammals, the Cry1Ac toxin is not inert and has the ability to induce mucosal and systemic immunogenicity. Herein, we examined whether the Cry1Ac toxin promotes macrophage activation and explored the signalling pathways that may mediate this effect. Treatment of primary and RAW264.7 macrophages with the Cry1Ac toxin resulted in upregulation of the costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86 and ICOS-L and enhanced production of nitric oxide, the chemokine MCP-1 and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6. Remarkably, the Cry1Ac toxin induced phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) ERK1/2, JNK and p38 and promoted nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p50 and p65. p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs were involved in this effect, as indicated by the Cry1Ac-induced upregulation of CD80 and IL-6 and TNF-α abrogation by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Furthermore, treatment the MEK1/2 kinase inhibitor PD98059 blocked increases in MCP-1 secretion and augmented Cry1Ac-induced ICOS-L upregulation. These data demonstrate the capacity of the Cry1Ac toxin to induce macrophage activation via the MAPK and NF-κB pathways. PMID:27394658

  13. Stress reduction through consolation in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Orlaith N.; Stahl, Daniel; Aureli, Filippo

    2008-01-01

    Consolation, i.e., postconflict affiliative interaction directed from a third party to the recipient of aggression, is assumed to have a stress-alleviating function. This function, however, has never been demonstrated. This study shows that consolation in chimpanzees reduces behavioral measures of stress in recipients of aggression. Furthermore, consolation was more likely to occur in the absence of reconciliation, i.e., postconflict affiliative interaction between former opponents. Consolation therefore may act as an alternative to reconciliation when the latter does not occur. In the debate about empathy in great apes, evidence for the stress-alleviating function of consolation in chimpanzees provides support for the argument that consolation could be critical behavior. Consistent with the argument that relationship quality affects their empathic responses, we found that consolation was more likely between individuals with more valuable relationships. Chimpanzees may thus respond to distressed valuable partners by consoling them, thereby reducing their stress levels, especially in the absence of reconciliation. PMID:18559863

  14. Cry1Ac Transgenic Sugarcane Does Not Affect the Diversity of Microbial Communities and Has No Significant Effect on Enzyme Activities in Rhizosphere Soil within One Crop Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Dinggang; Xu, Liping; Gao, Shiwu; Guo, Jinlong; Luo, Jun; You, Qian; Que, Youxiong

    2016-01-01

    Cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane provides a promising way to control stem-borer pests. Biosafety assessment of soil ecosystem for cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane is urgently needed because of the important role of soil microorganisms in nutrient transformations and element cycling, however little is known. This study aimed to explore the potential impact of cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane on rhizosphere soil enzyme activities and microbial community diversity, and also to investigate whether the gene flow occurs through horizontal gene transfer. We found no horizontal gene flow from cry1Ac sugarcane to soil. No significant difference in the population of culturable microorganisms between the non-GM and cry1Ac transgenic sugarcane was observed, and there were no significant interactions between the sugarcane lines and the growth stages. A relatively consistent trend at community-level, represented by the functional diversity index, was found between the cry1Ac sugarcane and the non-transgenic lines. Most soil samples showed no significant difference in the activities of four soil enzymes: urease, protease, sucrose, and acid phosphate monoester between the non-transgenic and cry1Ac sugarcane lines. We conclude, based on one crop season, that the cry1Ac sugarcane lines may not affect the microbial community structure and functional diversity of the rhizosphere soil and have few negative effects on soil enzymes. PMID:27014291

  15. Enhancement of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal activity by combining Cry1Ac and bi-functional toxin HWTX-XI from spider.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yunjun; Fu, Zujiao; He, Xiaohong; Yuan, Chunhua; Ding, Xuezhi; Xia, Liqiu

    2016-03-01

    In order to assess the potency of bi-functional HWTX-XI toxin from spider Ornithoctonus huwena in improving the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis, a fusion gene of cry1Ac and hwtx-XI was constructed and expressed in an acrystalliferous B. thuringiensis strain Cry(-)B. Western blot analysis and microscopic observation revealed that the recombinant strain could express 140-kDa Cry1Ac-HWTX-XI fusion protein and produce parasporal inclusions during sporulation. Bioassay using the larvae of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua showed that the Cry1Ac-HWTX-XI fusion was more toxic than the control Cry1Ac protoxin, as revealed by 95% lethal concentration. Our study indicated that the HWTX-XI from spider might be a candidate for enhancing the toxicity of B. thuringiensis products. PMID:25721170

  16. Dominant Negative Phenotype of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab, Cry11Aa and Cry4Ba Mutants Suggest Hetero-Oligomer Formation among Different Cry Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Daniela; Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi; Pérez, Claudia; de Maagd, Ruud A.; Bakker, Petra; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used worldwide in the control of different insect pests important in agriculture or in human health. The Cry proteins are pore-forming toxins that affect the midgut cell of target insects. It was shown that non-toxic Cry1Ab helix α-4 mutants had a dominant negative (DN) phenotype inhibiting the toxicity of wildtype Cry1Ab when used in equimolar or sub-stoichiometric ratios (1∶1, 0.5∶1, mutant∶wt) indicating that oligomer formation is a key step in toxicity of Cry toxins. Methodology/Principal Findings The DN Cry1Ab-D136N/T143D mutant that is able to block toxicity of Cry1Ab toxin, was used to analyze its capacity to block the activity against Manduca sexta larvae of other Cry1 toxins, such as Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, Cry1Ca, Cry1Da, Cry1Ea and Cry1Fa. Cry1Ab-DN mutant inhibited toxicity of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa. In addition, we isolated mutants in helix α-4 of Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa, and demonstrate that Cry4Ba-E159K and Cry11Aa-V142D are inactive and completely block the toxicity against Aedes aegypti of both wildtype toxins, when used at sub-stoichiometric ratios, confirming a DN phenotype. As controls we analyzed Cry1Ab-R99A or Cry11Aa-E97A mutants that are located in helix α-3 and are affected in toxin oligomerization. These mutants do not show a DN phenotype but were able to block toxicity when used in 10∶1 or 100∶1 ratios (mutant∶wt) probably by competition of binding with toxin receptors. Conclusions/Significance We show that DN phenotype can be observed among different Cry toxins suggesting that may interact in vivo forming hetero-oligomers. The DN phenotype cannot be observed in mutants affected in oligomerization, suggesting that this step is important to inhibit toxicity of other toxins. PMID:21603577

  17. CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 Ligase Regulates the Molecular Clock Activity by Promoting Ubiquitination-Dependent Degradation of the Mammalian CRY1.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Cazares, Victor; Gupta, Neil; Yin, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The CUL4-DDB1 E3 ligase complex serves as a critical regulator in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle progression. However, whether this E3 ligase complex regulates clock protein turnover and the molecular clock activity in mammalian cells is unknown. Here we show that CUL4-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase ubiquitinates CRY1 and promotes its degradation both in vitro and in vivo. Depletion of the major components of this E3 ligase complex, including Ddb1, Cdt2, and Cdt2-cofactor Pcna, leads to CRY1 stabilization in cultured cells or in the mouse liver. CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase targets lysine 585 within the C-terminal region of CRY1 protein, shown by the CRY1 585KA mutant's resistance to ubiquitination and degradation mediated by the CUL4A-DDB1 complex. Surprisingly, both depletion of Ddb1 and over-expression of Cry1-585KA mutant enhance the oscillatory amplitude of the Bmal1 promoter activity without altering its period length, suggesting that CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 targets CRY1 for degradation and reduces the circadian amplitude. All together, we uncovered a novel biological role for CUL4A-DDB1-CDT2 E3 ligase that regulates molecular circadian behaviors via promoting ubiquitination-dependent degradation of CRY1.

  18. Grief, consolation, and religions: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Klass, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Consolation is grief's traditional amelioration, but contemporary bereavement theory lacks a conceptual framework to include it. The article begins to develop that framework. The article argues that grief is inter-subjective, even at the biological level. Consolation and grief happen in the same inter-subjective space. Material from the histories of several religions sets the article in a cross-cultural and historical environment. The article examines consolation in interpersonal relationships, and then moves to consolation in cultural/religious resources that range from the literal image of God as an idealized parent to the abstract architecture of Brahm's Requiem. The most common consolation in the histories of religions comes within continuing bonds that are accessed in a wide variety of beliefs, rituals, and devotional objects. The article closes by briefly drawing the connection between consolation and faith.

  19. Molecular Approaches to Improve the Insecticidal Activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Lucena, Wagner A.; Pelegrini, Patrícia B.; Martins-de-Sa, Diogo; Fonseca, Fernando C. A.; Gomes, Jose E.; de Macedo, Leonardo L. P.; da Silva, Maria Cristina M.; Oliveira, Raquel S.; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram-positive spore-forming soil bacterium that is distributed worldwide. Originally recognized as a pathogen of the silkworm, several strains were found on epizootic events in insect pests. In the 1960s, Bt began to be successfully used to control insect pests in agriculture, particularly because of its specificity, which reflects directly on their lack of cytotoxicity to human health, non-target organisms and the environment. Since the introduction of transgenic plants expressing Bt genes in the mid-1980s, numerous methodologies have been used to search for and improve toxins derived from native Bt strains. These improvements directly influence the increase in productivity and the decreased use of chemical insecticides on Bt-crops. Recently, DNA shuffling and in silico evaluations are emerging as promising tools for the development and exploration of mutant Bt toxins with enhanced activity against target insect pests. In this report, we describe natural and in vitro evolution of Cry toxins, as well as their relevance in the mechanism of action for insect control. Moreover, the use of DNA shuffling to improve two Bt toxins will be discussed together with in silico analyses of the generated mutations to evaluate their potential effect on protein structure and cytotoxicity. PMID:25123558

  20. Molecular approaches to improve the insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Wagner A; Pelegrini, Patrícia B; Martins-de-Sa, Diogo; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Gomes, Jose E; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Oliveira, Raquel S; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2014-08-13

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a gram-positive spore-forming soil bacterium that is distributed worldwide. Originally recognized as a pathogen of the silkworm, several strains were found on epizootic events in insect pests. In the 1960s, Bt began to be successfully used to control insect pests in agriculture, particularly because of its specificity, which reflects directly on their lack of cytotoxicity to human health, non-target organisms and the environment. Since the introduction of transgenic plants expressing Bt genes in the mid-1980s, numerous methodologies have been used to search for and improve toxins derived from native Bt strains. These improvements directly influence the increase in productivity and the decreased use of chemical insecticides on Bt-crops. Recently, DNA shuffling and in silico evaluations are emerging as promising tools for the development and exploration of mutant Bt toxins with enhanced activity against target insect pests. In this report, we describe natural and in vitro evolution of Cry toxins, as well as their relevance in the mechanism of action for insect control. Moreover, the use of DNA shuffling to improve two Bt toxins will be discussed together with in silico analyses of the generated mutations to evaluate their potential effect on protein structure and cytotoxicity.

  1. 13. VIEW OF CONTROL CONSOLE CURRENTLY USED ON OCCASION FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF CONTROL CONSOLE CURRENTLY USED ON OCCASION FOR AMATUER RADIO AND TO PERIODICALLY ACTIVE STATION KPS. NOTE CLOCK ON WALL. SHADED PORTIONS ON 24HR CLOCK (15-18 AND 45-48 MINUTES) INDICATED MINUTES EACH HOUR WHEN STATIONS WOULD NOT TRANSMIT AND LISTEN FOR WEAK DISTRESS SIGNALS. - Marconi Radio Sites, Receiving, Point Reyes Station, Marin County, CA

  2. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  3. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus. PMID:27573677

  4. Maternal soothing and infant stress responses: soothing, crying and adrenocortical activity during inoculation.

    PubMed

    Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten

    2006-01-01

    The relation between maternal soothing and infant stress response during inoculation was examined in a sample of 37 mothers and their 3-month-old infants. The mothers' soothing and the infants' cry vocalizations and the mothers' and the infants' salivary cortisol level pre- and post-injection were analysed. There was a positive relation between infants' cry vocalization post-injection and maternal soothing pre- and post-injection. The sample was divided in two sub-groups depending on whether the mothers evidenced most soothing of the infants in the period before (Preparatory group; n=20) or after (Contingent group; n=17) the syringe injection. In the Preparatory group, the duration of infant cry vocalizations was related to amount of maternal soothing before and after the injection, while cry vocalizations in the Contingent group was related to amount of maternal soothing after the injection. The Contingent infants responded to the injection with a significant increase in cortisol, while there was no increase in the Preparatory infants. The Preparatory infants evidenced significantly longer duration of looking at the target stimuli in a visual marking task, suggesting greater difficulties in disengaging attention. These findings indicate that 3-month-olds' stress responses and their mothers' situational behaviour are mutually regulated.

  5. Toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (L.) Cry proteins against summer fruit tortrix (Adoxophyes orana - Fischer von Rösslerstamm).

    PubMed

    Radosavljevic, Jelena; Naimov, Samir

    2016-07-01

    The activity of seven Cry1, one Cry9 and one hybrid Cry1 protoxins against neonate larvae of summer fruit tortrix (Adoxophyes orana - Fischer von Rösslerstamm) has been investigated. Cry1Ia is identified as the most toxic protein, followed by Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac. Cry1Ca, Cry1Cb, Cry1Da and Cry1Fa were less active, while SN19 (Cry1 hybrid protein with domain composition 1Ba/1Ia/1Ba) and Cry9Aa exhibited negligible toxicity against A. orana. In vitro trypsin-activated Cry1Ac is still less active than Cry1Ia protoxin, suggesting that toxicity of Cry1Ia is most probably due to more complex differences in further downstream processing, toxin-receptor interactions and pore formation in A. orana's midgut epithelium. PMID:27311897

  6. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the spring of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I developed a system health and status display for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of the servers, gateways, network switches, and firewalls used in the firing room.

  7. Oxytocin-dependent consolation behavior in rodents.

    PubMed

    Burkett, J P; Andari, E; Johnson, Z V; Curry, D C; de Waal, F B M; Young, L J

    2016-01-22

    Consolation behavior toward distressed others is common in humans and great apes, yet our ability to explore the biological mechanisms underlying this behavior is limited by its apparent absence in laboratory animals. Here, we provide empirical evidence that a rodent species, the highly social and monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), greatly increases partner-directed grooming toward familiar conspecifics (but not strangers) that have experienced an unobserved stressor, providing social buffering. Prairie voles also match the fear response, anxiety-related behaviors, and corticosterone increase of the stressed cagemate, suggesting an empathy mechanism. Exposure to the stressed cagemate increases activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, and oxytocin receptor antagonist infused into this region abolishes the partner-directed response, showing conserved neural mechanisms between prairie vole and human.

  8. Oxytocin-dependent consolation behavior in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Burkett, J. P.; Andari, E.; Johnson, Z. V.; Curry, D. C.; de Waal, F. B. M.; Young, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Consolation behavior toward distressed others is common in humans and great apes, yet our ability to explore the biological mechanisms underlying this behavior is limited by its apparent absence in laboratory animals. Here, we provide empirical evidence that a rodent species, the highly social and monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), greatly increases partner-directed grooming toward familiar conspecifics (but not strangers) that have experienced an unobserved stressor, providing social buffering. Prairie voles also match the fear response, anxiety-related behaviors, and corticosterone increase of the stressed cagemate, suggesting an empathy mechanism. Exposure to the stressed cagemate increases activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, and oxytocin receptor antagonist infused into this region abolishes the partner-directed response, showing conserved neural mechanisms between prairie vole and human. PMID:26798013

  9. Oxytocin-dependent consolation behavior in rodents.

    PubMed

    Burkett, J P; Andari, E; Johnson, Z V; Curry, D C; de Waal, F B M; Young, L J

    2016-01-22

    Consolation behavior toward distressed others is common in humans and great apes, yet our ability to explore the biological mechanisms underlying this behavior is limited by its apparent absence in laboratory animals. Here, we provide empirical evidence that a rodent species, the highly social and monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), greatly increases partner-directed grooming toward familiar conspecifics (but not strangers) that have experienced an unobserved stressor, providing social buffering. Prairie voles also match the fear response, anxiety-related behaviors, and corticosterone increase of the stressed cagemate, suggesting an empathy mechanism. Exposure to the stressed cagemate increases activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, and oxytocin receptor antagonist infused into this region abolishes the partner-directed response, showing conserved neural mechanisms between prairie vole and human. PMID:26798013

  10. Pore formation by Cry toxins.

    PubMed

    Soberón, Mario; Pardo, Liliana; Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Sánchez, Jorge; Gómez, Isabel; Porta, Helena; Bravo, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria produce insecticidal Cry and Cyt proteins used in the biological control of different insect pests. In this review, we will focus on the 3d-Cry toxins that represent the biggest group of Cry proteins and also on Cyt toxins. The 3d-Cry toxins are pore-forming toxins that induce cell death by forming ionic pores into the membrane of the midgut epithelial cells in their target insect. The initial steps in the mode of action include ingestion of the protoxin, activation by midgut proteases to produce the toxin fragment and the interaction with the primary cadherin receptor. The interaction of the monomeric CrylA toxin with the cadherin receptor promotes an extra proteolytic cleavage, where helix alpha-1 of domain I is eliminated and the toxin oligomerization is induced, forming a structure of 250 kDa. The oligomeric structure binds to a secondary receptor, aminopeptidase N or alkaline phosphatase. The secondary receptor drives the toxin into detergent resistant membrane microdomains formingpores that cause osmotic shock, burst of the midgut cells and insect death. Regarding to Cyt toxins, these proteins have a synergistic effect on the toxicity of some Cry toxins. Cyt proteins are also proteolytic activated in the midgut lumen of their target, they bind to some phospholipids present in the mosquito midgut cells. The proposed mechanism of synergism between Cry and Cyt toxins is that Cyt1Aa function as a receptor for Cry toxins. The Cyt1A inserts into midgut epithelium membrane and exposes protein regions that are recognized by Cry11Aa. It was demonstrated that this interaction facilitates the oligomerization of Cry11Aa and also its pore formation activity.

  11. N-terminal activation is an essential early step in the mechanism of action of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac insecticidal toxin.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Sanchez, Jorge; Kouskoura, Thaleia; Crickmore, Neil

    2002-07-01

    A variant form of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin that is not cleaved at the N terminus during proteolytic activation with trypsin was found to be incapable of forming pores in Manduca sexta brush border membrane vesicles in vitro and had reduced insecticidal activity in vivo. Binding studies indicated an altered binding pattern of the mutant toxin in that bound toxin could not be fully displaced by a high molar excess of fully trypsin-activated toxin. These results suggest that proteolytic removal of the N-terminal peptide of Cry1Ac is an important step in toxin activation.

  12. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H.; Haley, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  13. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  14. Infant Cries Rattle Adult Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Joanna; Faress, Ahmed; Bornstein, Marc H; Haley, David W

    2016-01-01

    The attention-grabbing quality of the infant cry is well recognized, but how the emotional valence of infant vocal signals affects adult cognition and cortical activity has heretofore been unknown. We examined the effects of two contrasting infant vocalizations (cries vs. laughs) on adult performance on a Stroop task using a cross-modal distraction paradigm in which infant distractors were vocal and targets were visual. Infant vocalizations were presented before (Experiment 1) or during each Stroop trial (Experiment 2). To evaluate the influence of infant vocalizations on cognitive control, neural responses to the Stroop task were obtained by measuring electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) in Experiment 1. Based on the previously demonstrated existence of negative arousal bias, we hypothesized that cry vocalizations would be more distracting and invoke greater conflict processing than laugh vocalizations. Similarly, we expected participants to have greater difficulty shifting attention from the vocal distractors to the target task after hearing cries vs. after hearing laughs. Behavioral results from both experiments showed a cry interference effect, in which task performance was slower with cry than with laugh distractors. Electrophysiology data further revealed that cries more than laughs reduced attention to the task (smaller P200) and increased conflict processing (larger N450), albeit differently for incongruent and congruent trials. Results from a correlation analysis showed that the amplitudes of P200 and N450 were inversely related, suggesting a reciprocal relationship between attention and conflict processing. The findings suggest that cognitive control processes contribute to an attention bias to infant signals, which is modulated in part by the valence of the infant vocalization and the demands of the cognitive task. The findings thus support the notion that infant cries elicit a negative arousal bias that is distracting; they

  15. The Livermore Security Console system

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, J.A.

    1987-04-14

    The Console system contains multiple, redundant workstations that enable operator to monitor alarms, assess incidents, and dispatch field personnel. Each workstation is heavily computerized and incorporates automatic video switching and recording, integrated radio and telephone communications, and an advanced high-resolution map and incident-display system. Operation of the workstation is closely integrated with the map display system, allowing an operators to readily pan and zoom. Objects of security interest are overlaid on the map using color. Access to alarm sensor information, entry-control device status, and the closed-circuit television system is obtained by zooming into an area and selecting the appropriate icons or symbols on the maps. Control menus are overlaid on the map. Several large databases have been closely integrated with the map display system, providing access to information such as telephone numbers and building or room occupants. An expert system is currently being integrated with the map display system. Object state changes are interpreted by a rule-based inference engine. Incidents are overlaid on the map.

  16. Binding analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 proteins in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Davolos, Camila C; Hernández-Martinez, Patricia; Crialesi-Legori, Paula C B; Desidério, Janete A; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar; Lemos, Manoel Victor F

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis, F.) is an important corn pest in South America and United States. The aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility and binding interactions of three Cry1A proteins and Cry1Fa in a Brazilian D. saccharalis population. The results showed that Cry1Ab was the most active, followed by Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa and Cry1Aa. All Cry1-biotinylated proteins tested bound specifically to the D. saccharalis brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Heterologous competition assays showed shared binding sites for all Cry1A proteins and another one shared by Cry1Fa and Cry1Ab. Thus, pyramiding Cry1Aa/Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins would be a recommended strategy for managing this pest.

  17. Binding analysis of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1 proteins in the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    PubMed

    Davolos, Camila C; Hernández-Martinez, Patricia; Crialesi-Legori, Paula C B; Desidério, Janete A; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar; Lemos, Manoel Victor F

    2015-05-01

    Sugarcane borer (Diatraea saccharalis, F.) is an important corn pest in South America and United States. The aim of the present study was to analyze the susceptibility and binding interactions of three Cry1A proteins and Cry1Fa in a Brazilian D. saccharalis population. The results showed that Cry1Ab was the most active, followed by Cry1Ac, Cry1Fa and Cry1Aa. All Cry1-biotinylated proteins tested bound specifically to the D. saccharalis brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV). Heterologous competition assays showed shared binding sites for all Cry1A proteins and another one shared by Cry1Fa and Cry1Ab. Thus, pyramiding Cry1Aa/Cry1Ac and Cry1F proteins would be a recommended strategy for managing this pest. PMID:25736726

  18. Determination and Distribution of cry-Type Genes of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolates from Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chak, K.-F.; Chao, D.-C.; Tseng, M.-Y.; Kao, S.-S.; Tuan, S.-J.; Feng, T.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    Using PCR with a set of specific oligonucleotide primers to detect cryI-type genes, we were able to screen the cry-type genes of 225 Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Taiwan without much cost in time or labor. Some combinations of cry genes (the cry-type profile) in a single isolate were unique. We identified five distinct profiles of crystal genes from the B. thuringiensis soil isolates from Taiwan. The cry genes included cryIA(a), cryIA(b), cryIA(c), cryIC, cryID, and cryIV. Interestingly, 501 B. thuringiensis isolates (93.5% of the total number that we identified) were isolated from areas at high altitudes. The profiles of cry-type genes were distinct in all isolation areas. The distribution of cry-type genes of our isolates therefore depended on geography. Using PCR footprinting to detect cryIC-type genes, we identified two distinct cryIC footprints from some of our isolates, indicating that these isolates may contain novel cryIC-type genes. B. thuringiensis isolates containing cryIA(a)-, cryIA(b)-, and cryIA(c)-type genes exhibited much greater activity against Plutella xylostella than did other isolates, indicating that multiple cry-type genes may be used as markers for the prediction of insecticidal activities. Images PMID:16349324

  19. A coleopteran cadherin fragment synergizes toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry3Aa, Cry3Bb, and Cry8Ca against lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Youngjin; Hua, Gang; Taylor, Milton D; Adang, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    The lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus, is a serious cosmopolitan pest of commercial poultry facilities because of its involvement in structural damage to poultry houses, reduction in feed conversion efficiency, and transfer of avian and human pathogens. Cry3Aa, Cry3Bb, and Cry8Ca insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are used to control coleopteran larvae. Cadherins localized in the midgut epithelium function as receptors for Cry toxins in lepidopteran, coleopteran, and dipteran insects. Previously, we demonstrated that the truncated cadherin (DvCad1) from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, which consists of the C-terminal cadherin repeats (CR) 8-10 and expressed in Escherichia coli, enhanced Cry3Aa and Cry3Bb toxicity against several coleopteran species. Here we report that the DvCad1-CR8-10 enhances Cry3Aa, Cry3Bb, and Cry8Ca toxicity to lesser mealworm. Previously, by an enzyme linked immunosorbent microplate assay, we demonstrated that the DvCad1-CR8-10 binds activated-Cry3Aa (11.8 nM), -Cry3Bb (1.4nM), and now report that CR8-10 binds activated-Cry8Ca (5.7 nM) toxin. The extent of Cry toxins enhancement by DvCad1-CR8-10, which ranged from 3.30- to 5.93-fold, may have practical application for lesser mealworm control in preventing avian and human pathogen transfer in poultry facilities.

  20. Master Console System Monitoring and Control Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Russell A.

    2013-01-01

    The Master Console internship during the summer of 2013 involved the development of firing room displays and support applications at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This position was with the Master Console Product Group (MCPG) on the Launch Control System (LCS) project. This project is responsible for the System Monitoring and Control (SMC) and Record and Retrieval (R&R) of launch operations data. The Master Console is responsible for: loading the correct software into each of the remaining consoles in the firing room, connecting the proper data paths to and from the launch vehicle and all ground support equipment, and initializing the entire firing room system to begin processing. During my internship, I created control scripts using the Application Control Language (ACL) to analyze the health and status of Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This application provides a system health and status display I created with summarized data for use by Master Console Operators (MCO) to monitor and verify the integrity of KGCS subsystems.

  1. Bonobos Protect and Console Friends and Kin

    PubMed Central

    Palagi, Elisabetta; Norscia, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Post-conflict third-party affiliation has been reported to have different functional meanings, one of them being consolation. Here, we tested the main hypotheses that have been put forth to explain the presence of this phenomenon at a functional level in the bonobo: Self-Protection Hypothesis, Victim-Protection Hypothesis, Relationship-Repair or Substitute for Reconciliation Hypothesis, and Consolation Hypothesis. By analyzing the data collected over 10 years, we investigated what factors affected the distribution of both spontaneous third party affiliation (initiated by the bystander) and solicited third party affiliation (initiated by the victim). We considered factors related to the individual features (sex, rank, age) of victim and bystander, their relationship quality (kinship, affiliation), and the effect that third party affiliation had on the victim (such as protection against further attacks and anxiety reduction). Both spontaneous and solicited third party affiliation reduced the probability of further aggression by group members on the victim (Victim-Protection Hypothesis supported). Yet, only spontaneous affiliation reduced victim anxiety (measured via self-scratching), thus suggesting that the spontaneous gesture – more than the protection itself – works in calming the distressed subject. The victim may perceive the motivational autonomy of the bystander, who does not require an invitation to provide post-conflict affiliative contact. Moreover, spontaneous - but not solicited - third party affiliation was affected by the bond between consoler and victim, being the relationship between consoler and aggressor irrelevant to the phenomenon distribution (Consolation Hypothesis supported). Spontaneous affiliation followed the empathic gradient described for humans, being mostly offered to kin, then friends, then acquaintances. Overall, our findings do not only indicate the consolatory function of spontaneous third-party affiliation but they also suggest

  2. Shared Binding Sites for the Bacillus thuringiensis Proteins Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa in the African Sweet Potato Pest Cylas puncticollis (Brentidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Vera-Velasco, Natalia Mara; Martínez-Solís, María; Ghislain, Marc; Ferré, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa have been reported to be toxic against larvae of the genus Cylas, which are important pests of sweet potato worldwide and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. However, relatively little is known about the processing and binding interactions of these coleopteran-specific Cry proteins. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa proteins have shared binding sites in Cylas puncticollis to orient the pest resistance strategy by genetic transformation. Interestingly, processing of the 129-kDa Cry7Aa protoxin using commercial trypsin or chymotrypsin rendered two fragments of about 70 kDa and 65 kDa. N-terminal sequencing of the trypsin-activated Cry7Aa fragments revealed that processing occurs at Glu47 for the 70-kDa form or Ile88 for the 65-kDa form. Homologous binding assays showed specific binding of the two Cry3 proteins and the 65-kDa Cry7Aa fragment to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from C. puncticollis larvae. The 70-kDa fragment did not bind to BBMV. Heterologous-competition assays showed that Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca, and Cry7Aa (65-kDa fragment) competed for the same binding sites. Hence, our results suggest that pest resistance mediated by the alteration of a shared Cry receptor binding site might render all three Cry toxins ineffective. PMID:25261517

  3. Increased Long-Flight Activity Triggered in Beet Armyworm by Larval Feeding on Diet Containing Cry1Ac Protoxin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xing Fu; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Sappington, Thomas W.; Luo, Li Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i) sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii) increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving sublethal doses

  4. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xing Fu; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Lei; Sappington, Thomas W; Luo, Li Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i) sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii) increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving sublethal doses

  5. Crying in childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... when they feel pain, fear, sadness, frustration, confusion, anger, and when they cannot express their feelings. Crying ... a child learns to express feelings of frustration, anger, or confusion without crying. Parents may need to ...

  6. [Redirection and consolation in hamadryas baboons].

    PubMed

    Butovskaia, M L; Meĭshvili, N V; Chalian, V G

    2013-06-01

    Post-conflict interactions between victims and non-involved group members was investigated in the troop of hamadryas baboons, Papio hamadryas. Observations were done in the Russian Primate Center, Adler in 1996-1997. Redirected aggression, initiation of affiliation from the side of victims towards third parties and consolation were registered during this study. The analyses was done on 445 PC-MC pairs of animals, represented different social classes (harem male-female pairs, harem females, relations, females from different harems, male-male pairs, female-subadult pairs). The attracted-pairs method and the time-rule method were used. Redirected aggression was practiced mainly by male aggressees. It was typical for victims, both males and females, to initiate affiliative interactions with third parties soon after the conflict. Consolation was practiced by hamadryas baboons, but it was limited to harem male-female pairs only. Special affiliative patterns were used by male-consoler. This is the first case, when consolation was demonstrated in baboons.

  7. Loop residues of the receptor binding domain of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba toxin are important for mosquitocidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Aimanova, Karlygash; Gill, Sarjeet S.

    2009-01-01

    Using a Cry11Ba toxin model, predicted loops in domain II were analyzed for their role in receptor binding and toxicity. Peptides corresponding to loops α8, 1 and 3, but not loop 2, competed with toxin binding to Aedes midgut membranes. Mutagenesis data reveal loops α8, 1 and 3 are involved in toxicity. Loop 1 and 3 are of greater significance in toxicity to Aedes and Culex larvae than to Anopheles. Cry11Ba binds the apical membrane of larval caecae and posterior midgut, and binding can be competed by loop 1 but not by loop 2 peptides. Cry11Ba binds the same regions to which anti-cadherin antibody binds, and this antibody competes with Cry11Ba binding suggesting a possible role of cadherin in toxication. PMID:19450583

  8. An improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method for the identification of cry1-type genes.

    PubMed

    Shu, Changlong; Liu, Dongming; Zhou, Zishan; Cai, Jilin; Peng, Qi; Gao, Jiguo; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The cry1-type genes of Bacillus thuringiensis represent the largest cry gene family, which contains 50 distinct holotypes. It is becoming more and more difficult to identify cry1-type genes using current methods because of the increasing number of cry1-type genes. In the present study, an improved PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method which can distinguish 41 holotypes of cry1-type genes was developed. This improved method was used to identify cry1-type genes in 20 B. thuringiensis strains that are toxic to lepidoptera. The results showed that the improved method can efficiently identify single and clustered cry1-type genes and can be used to evaluate cry1-type genes in novel strain collections of B. thuringiensis. Among the detected cry1-type genes, we identified four novel genes, cry1Ai, cry1Bb, cry1Ja, and cry1La. The bioassay results from the expressed products of the four novel cry genes showed that Cry1Ai2, Cry1Bb2, and Cry1Ja2 were highly toxic against Plutella xylostella, whereas Cry1La2 exhibited no activity. Moreover, Cry1Ai2 had good lethal activity against Ostrinia furnacalis, Hyphantria cunea, Chilo suppressalis, and Bombyx mori larvae and considerable weight loss activity against Helicoverpa armigera.

  9. Food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 mutant protein using Cry1Ac as a control Bt protein.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Santos, Vanessa Olinto; Pinto, Clidia Eduarda Moreira; Viana, Daniel Araújo; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2015-07-01

    Cry8Ka5 is a mutant protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that has been proposed for developing transgenic plants due to promising activity against coleopterans, like Anthonomus grandis (the major pest of Brazilian cotton culture). Thus, an early food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 protein could provide valuable information to support its use as a harmless biotechnological tool. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety of Cry8Ka5 protein following the two-tiered approach, based on weights of evidence, proposed by ILSI. Cry1Ac protein was used as a control Bt protein. The history of safe use revealed no convincing hazard reports for Bt pesticides and three-domain Cry proteins. The bioinformatics analysis with the primary amino acids sequence of Cry8Ka5 showed no similarity to any known toxic, antinutritional or allergenic proteins. The mode of action of Cry proteins is well understood and their fine specificity is restricted to insects. Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins were rapidly degraded in simulated gastric fluid, but were resistant to simulated intestinal fluid and heat treatment. The LD50 for Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac was >5000 mg/kg body weight when administered by gavage in mice. Thus, no expected relevant risks are associated with the consumption of Cry8Ka5 protein.

  10. Food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 mutant protein using Cry1Ac as a control Bt protein.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Santos, Vanessa Olinto; Pinto, Clidia Eduarda Moreira; Viana, Daniel Araújo; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2015-07-01

    Cry8Ka5 is a mutant protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that has been proposed for developing transgenic plants due to promising activity against coleopterans, like Anthonomus grandis (the major pest of Brazilian cotton culture). Thus, an early food safety assessment of Cry8Ka5 protein could provide valuable information to support its use as a harmless biotechnological tool. This study aimed to evaluate the food safety of Cry8Ka5 protein following the two-tiered approach, based on weights of evidence, proposed by ILSI. Cry1Ac protein was used as a control Bt protein. The history of safe use revealed no convincing hazard reports for Bt pesticides and three-domain Cry proteins. The bioinformatics analysis with the primary amino acids sequence of Cry8Ka5 showed no similarity to any known toxic, antinutritional or allergenic proteins. The mode of action of Cry proteins is well understood and their fine specificity is restricted to insects. Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins were rapidly degraded in simulated gastric fluid, but were resistant to simulated intestinal fluid and heat treatment. The LD50 for Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac was >5000 mg/kg body weight when administered by gavage in mice. Thus, no expected relevant risks are associated with the consumption of Cry8Ka5 protein. PMID:25890087

  11. Parental brain: cerebral areas activated by infant cries and faces. A comparison between different populations of parents and not

    PubMed Central

    Piallini, Giulia; De Palo, Francesca; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Literature about parenting traditionally focused on caring behaviors and parental representations. Nowadays, an innovative line of research, interested in evaluating the neural areas and hormones implicated in the nurturing and caregiving responses, has developed. The only way to permit a newborn to survive and grow up is to respond to his needs and in order to succeed it is necessary, first of all, that the adults around him understand what his needs are. That is why adults’ capacity of taking care of infants cannot disregard from some biological mechanisms, which allow them to be more responsive to the progeny and to infants in general. Many researches have proved that exist specific neural basis activating in response to infant evolutionary stimuli, such as infant cries and infant emotional facial expression. There is a sort of innate predisposition in human adults to respond to infants’ signals, in order to satisfy their need and allow them to survive and become young adults capable of taking care of themselves. This article focuses on research that has investigated, in the last decade, the neural circuits underlying parental behavioral responses. Moreover, the paper compares the results of those studies that investigated the neural responses to infant stimuli under different conditions: familiar versus unknown children, parents versus non-parents and normative versus clinical samples (depression, addiction, adolescence, and PTSD). PMID:26539154

  12. DNA damage shifts circadian clock time via Hausp-dependent Cry1 stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Stephanie J; Huber, Anne-Laure; Jordan, Sabine D; Kriebs, Anna; Nguyen, Madelena; Moresco, James J; Yates, John R; Lamia, Katja A

    2015-01-01

    The circadian transcriptional repressors cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) and 2 (Cry2) evolved from photolyases, bacterial light-activated DNA repair enzymes. In this study, we report that while they have lost DNA repair activity, Cry1/2 adapted to protect genomic integrity by responding to DNA damage through posttranslational modification and coordinating the downstream transcriptional response. We demonstrate that genotoxic stress stimulates Cry1 phosphorylation and its deubiquitination by Herpes virus associated ubiquitin-specific protease (Hausp, a.k.a Usp7), stabilizing Cry1 and shifting circadian clock time. DNA damage also increases Cry2 interaction with Fbxl3, destabilizing Cry2. Thus, genotoxic stress increases the Cry1/Cry2 ratio, suggesting distinct functions for Cry1 and Cry2 following DNA damage. Indeed, the transcriptional response to genotoxic stress is enhanced in Cry1−/− and blunted in Cry2−/− cells. Furthermore, Cry2−/− cells accumulate damaged DNA. These results suggest that Cry1 and Cry2, which evolved from DNA repair enzymes, protect genomic integrity via coordinated transcriptional regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04883.001 PMID:25756610

  13. Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis promotes macrophage activation by upregulating CD80 and CD86 and by inducing IL-6, MCP-1 and TNF-α cytokines.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fierros, Leticia; García-Hernández, Ana Lilia; Ilhuicatzi-Alvarado, Damaris; Rivera-Santiago, Lucio; Torres-Martínez, Marilú; Rubio-Infante, Néstor; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2013-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protoxin (pCry1Ac) is a promising mucosal adjuvant, but its action mechanism is unknown. We examined in vivo whether pCry1Ac promotes the activation of macrophages in the peritoneum, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes or in the lungs and bronchoalveolar lavage after intraperitoneal or intranasal pCry1Ac administration, respectively, in BALB/c mice. pCry1Ac upregulated the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in these macrophages, but with distinct kinetics. In vitro stimulation of resident macrophages with pCry1Ac upregulated CD80 and CD86 and enhanced the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP-1. To investigate whether the pCry1Ac-induced activation was mediated through MAPK pathways, we pretreated RAW 264.7 cells with signaling inhibitors of MEK, JNK and p38 MAPKs (PD98059, SP600125 and SB203580, respectively). pCry1Ac-induced upregulation of CD86 and CD80 was partially inhibited by the MEK inhibitor. While LPS-induced upregulation mechanisms of CD80 and CD86 appear to be different; as these were particularly inhibited by MEK and JNK inhibitors, respectively. pCry1Ac-induced IL-6 and MCP-1 production was especially inhibited with the p38 MAPK inhibitor, whereas TNF-α was only slightly inhibited upon treatment with JNK and p38 MAPK inhibitors. Therefore macrophage stimulation with pCry1Ac induced the upregulation of CD80 and CD86, and the production of IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1, possibly, through the MEK and p38 MAPK pathways. It also promoted the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50 and p65, the upregulation of MHC-II, and the activation of T CD4+ cells. These results suggest that pCry1Ac induced macrophage activation through mechanisms which differ partially from the LPS-induced. PMID:24157331

  14. Young children's understanding of pretend crying: the effect of context.

    PubMed

    Mizokawa, Ai

    2011-09-01

    Reasoning about another's pretend and real crying is related to ma'ny important social cognitive abilities (e.g., emotional understanding, appearance-reality, and theory of mind). This study investigated whether children aged 6 years and younger could distinguish between instances of pretend crying and real crying as presented in stories. Sixty-five Japanese children aged 4-6 years were given stories within two contexts (Play and Non-play). In the Play context, the protagonist of the story was pretending to cry or really crying during a pretend play activity. In the Non-play context, the protagonist was also pretending to cry or really crying after his/her toy had been hidden by another child. The children answered questions about these crying events. The results showed that the 4- and 5-year-olds showed significantly better understanding of pretend crying in the Play context compared to the Non-play context. In the Non-play context, they were significantly less likely to understand the cause of pretend crying compared to the 6-year-olds. The results suggest that the context of pretend play facilitates the children's understanding of pretend crying. PMID:21848743

  15. Young children's understanding of pretend crying: the effect of context.

    PubMed

    Mizokawa, Ai

    2011-09-01

    Reasoning about another's pretend and real crying is related to ma'ny important social cognitive abilities (e.g., emotional understanding, appearance-reality, and theory of mind). This study investigated whether children aged 6 years and younger could distinguish between instances of pretend crying and real crying as presented in stories. Sixty-five Japanese children aged 4-6 years were given stories within two contexts (Play and Non-play). In the Play context, the protagonist of the story was pretending to cry or really crying during a pretend play activity. In the Non-play context, the protagonist was also pretending to cry or really crying after his/her toy had been hidden by another child. The children answered questions about these crying events. The results showed that the 4- and 5-year-olds showed significantly better understanding of pretend crying in the Play context compared to the Non-play context. In the Non-play context, they were significantly less likely to understand the cause of pretend crying compared to the 6-year-olds. The results suggest that the context of pretend play facilitates the children's understanding of pretend crying.

  16. Assessment of potential adjuvanticity of Cry proteins.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Saurabh S; Barnett, Brian; Doerrer, Nancy G; Glenn, Kevin; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Hunst, Penny; Kough, John; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott; Papineni, Sabitha; Poulsen, Lars K; Rascle, Jean-Baptiste; Tao, Ai-Lin; van Ree, Ronald; Ward, Jason; Bowman, Christal C

    2016-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have achieved success in the marketplace and their benefits extend beyond the overall increase in harvest yields to include lowered use of insecticides and decreased carbon dioxide emissions. The most widely grown GM crops contain gene/s for targeted insect protection, herbicide tolerance, or both. Plant expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) insecticidal proteins have been the primary way to impart insect resistance in GM crops. Although deemed safe by regulatory agencies globally, previous studies have been the basis for discussions around the potential immuno-adjuvant effects of Cry proteins. These studies had limitations in study design. The studies used animal models with extremely high doses of Cry proteins, which when given using the ig route were co-administered with an adjuvant. Although the presumption exists that Cry proteins may have immunostimulatory activity and therefore an adjuvanticity risk, the evidence shows that Cry proteins are expressed at very low levels in GM crops and are unlikely to function as adjuvants. This conclusion is based on critical review of the published literature on the effects of immunomodulation by Cry proteins, the history of safe use of Cry proteins in foods, safety of the Bt donor organisms, and pre-market weight-of-evidence-based safety assessments for GM crops. PMID:27105772

  17. Assessment of potential adjuvanticity of Cry proteins.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Saurabh S; Barnett, Brian; Doerrer, Nancy G; Glenn, Kevin; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Hunst, Penny; Kough, John; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott; Papineni, Sabitha; Poulsen, Lars K; Rascle, Jean-Baptiste; Tao, Ai-Lin; van Ree, Ronald; Ward, Jason; Bowman, Christal C

    2016-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have achieved success in the marketplace and their benefits extend beyond the overall increase in harvest yields to include lowered use of insecticides and decreased carbon dioxide emissions. The most widely grown GM crops contain gene/s for targeted insect protection, herbicide tolerance, or both. Plant expression of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal (Cry) insecticidal proteins have been the primary way to impart insect resistance in GM crops. Although deemed safe by regulatory agencies globally, previous studies have been the basis for discussions around the potential immuno-adjuvant effects of Cry proteins. These studies had limitations in study design. The studies used animal models with extremely high doses of Cry proteins, which when given using the ig route were co-administered with an adjuvant. Although the presumption exists that Cry proteins may have immunostimulatory activity and therefore an adjuvanticity risk, the evidence shows that Cry proteins are expressed at very low levels in GM crops and are unlikely to function as adjuvants. This conclusion is based on critical review of the published literature on the effects of immunomodulation by Cry proteins, the history of safe use of Cry proteins in foods, safety of the Bt donor organisms, and pre-market weight-of-evidence-based safety assessments for GM crops.

  18. [Consolation as medical intervention and its history of ideas].

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Werner; Bühler, Karl-Ernst

    2006-01-01

    A review of interpretations of "suffering" was presented after an etymological clarification of the term "consolation". The review begins with an examination of concepts of consolation in the early Greek and Roman antiquity continues with late Greek and Roman antiquity, the early and late Middle Ages, the epochs of Humanism and Reformation and the time after Reformation until to the present. Concerning concepts of consolation in the present the conception of the movement "Biblical Therapeutic Pastoral Care", Viktor Frankl's "Logotherapy" and Viktor Emil von Gebsattel's "Anthropologic Psychotherapy" are discussed. Finally, some essential features of general conceptions of consolation are presented.

  19. Dye fading test for mission control operator console displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A dye fading test of 40 days duration was conducted to determine the effect of mission control operator console and ambient lighting effects on a series of photographic products under consideration for use in mission console operator consoles. Six different display samples, each containing 36 windows of several different colors, were prepared and placed in the mission control consoles for testing. No significant changes were recorded during the testing period. All changes were attributed to a mechanical problem with the densitometer. Detailed results are given in graphs.

  20. Assessment of Infant Cry: Acoustic Cry Analysis and Parental Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGasse, Linda L.; Neal, A. Rebecca; Lester, Barry M.

    2005-01-01

    Infant crying signals distress to potential caretakers who can alleviate the aversive conditions that gave rise to the cry. The cry signal results from coordination among several brain regions that control respiration and vocal cord vibration from which the cry sounds are produced. Previous work has shown a relationship between acoustic…

  1. The elimination of DNA from the Cry toxin-DNA complex is a necessary step in the mode of action of the Cry8 toxin.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bingjie; Li, Jie; Feng, Dongmei; Li, Feng; Guo, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Several crystal (Cry) proteins are known to occur as DNA-protein complexes. However, the role of the DNA associated with the activated toxin in the mechanism of action of the Cry toxin has long been ignored. Here, we focused on the DNA-activated Cry toxin complex. Both forms of the Cry8Ca2 and Cry8Ea1 toxins, i.e., with or without bound DNA, were separately obtained. Size-exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that the Cry8Ca2 toxin-DNA complex has a tight or compact structure. The Cry8Ca2 toxin-DNA complex is more likely to move toward the air/water interface and is more hydrophobic than the toxin without DNA. Competitive binding assays indicated that the Cry8Ca2 and Cry8Ea1 toxins without DNA specifically bind to the midgut of Anomala corpulenta and Holotrichia parallela larvae, respectively. In contrast, the association of DNA with each toxin might result in the nonspecific recognition of the Cry toxin and its target receptor in the insect midgut. The association of the DNA fragment with the Cry8 toxin was shown to protect the Cry protein from digestion by proteases. Based on our results, we propose an additional step in the mechanism of action of the Cry8 toxin and elucidate the function of the associated DNA as well as the importance of the removal of this DNA for the insecticidal activity of the toxin. PMID:24324685

  2. The elimination of DNA from the Cry toxin-DNA complex is a necessary step in the mode of action of the Cry8 toxin.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bingjie; Li, Jie; Feng, Dongmei; Li, Feng; Guo, Shuyuan

    2013-01-01

    Several crystal (Cry) proteins are known to occur as DNA-protein complexes. However, the role of the DNA associated with the activated toxin in the mechanism of action of the Cry toxin has long been ignored. Here, we focused on the DNA-activated Cry toxin complex. Both forms of the Cry8Ca2 and Cry8Ea1 toxins, i.e., with or without bound DNA, were separately obtained. Size-exclusion chromatography analysis indicated that the Cry8Ca2 toxin-DNA complex has a tight or compact structure. The Cry8Ca2 toxin-DNA complex is more likely to move toward the air/water interface and is more hydrophobic than the toxin without DNA. Competitive binding assays indicated that the Cry8Ca2 and Cry8Ea1 toxins without DNA specifically bind to the midgut of Anomala corpulenta and Holotrichia parallela larvae, respectively. In contrast, the association of DNA with each toxin might result in the nonspecific recognition of the Cry toxin and its target receptor in the insect midgut. The association of the DNA fragment with the Cry8 toxin was shown to protect the Cry protein from digestion by proteases. Based on our results, we propose an additional step in the mechanism of action of the Cry8 toxin and elucidate the function of the associated DNA as well as the importance of the removal of this DNA for the insecticidal activity of the toxin.

  3. Medusa: A Scalable MR Console Using USB

    PubMed Central

    Stang, Pascal P.; Conolly, Steven M.; Santos, Juan M.; Pauly, John M.; Scott, Greig C.

    2012-01-01

    MRI pulse sequence consoles typically employ closed proprietary hardware, software, and interfaces, making difficult any adaptation for innovative experimental technology. Yet MRI systems research is trending to higher channel count receivers, transmitters, gradient/shims, and unique interfaces for interventional applications. Customized console designs are now feasible for researchers with modern electronic components, but high data rates, synchronization, scalability, and cost present important challenges. Implementing large multi-channel MR systems with efficiency and flexibility requires a scalable modular architecture. With Medusa, we propose an open system architecture using the Universal Serial Bus (USB) for scalability, combined with distributed processing and buffering to address the high data rates and strict synchronization required by multi-channel MRI. Medusa uses a modular design concept based on digital synthesizer, receiver, and gradient blocks, in conjunction with fast programmable logic for sampling and synchronization. Medusa is a form of synthetic instrument, being reconfigurable for a variety of medical/scientific instrumentation needs. The Medusa distributed architecture, scalability, and data bandwidth limits are presented, and its flexibility is demonstrated in a variety of novel MRI applications. PMID:21954200

  4. Leveraging Game Consoles for the Delivery of TBI Rehabilitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Super, Taryn; Mastaglio, Thomas; Shen, Yuzhong; Walker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Military personnel are at a greater risk for traumatic brain injury (TBI) than the civilian population. In addition, the increase in exposure to explosives, i.e. , improvised explosive devices, in the Afghanistan and Iraq wars, along with more effective body armor, has resulted in far more surviving casualties suffering from TBI than in previous wars. This effort presents the results of a feasibility study and early prototype of a brain injury rehabilitation delivery system (BIRDS). BIRDS is designed to provide medical personnel treating TBI with a capability to prescribe game activities for patients to execute using a commercially available game console, either in a clinical setting or in their homes. These therapeutic activities will contribute to recovery or remediation of the patients' cognitive dysfunctions. Solutions such as this that provide new applications for existing platforms have significant potential to address the growing incidence of TBI today.

  5. 25. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. CONSOLE INCLUDES TELEVISION CONTROL, FACILITIES, AND VEHICLE (MISSILE) POWER PANELS. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: MILITARY-TIME CLOCK, BASE OF BUNKER PERISCOPE, AND STAIRS TO ESCAPE TUNNEL. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 58. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD CONTROL PANELS IN CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. DETAIL OF PAYLOAD CONTROL PANELS IN CONSOLE NEAR NORTHEAST CORNER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. THIS CONSOLE HAS THREE PANELS. NOTE 'SLAVE' COMMUNICATIONS PANEL IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 14. DETAIL OF EAST END OF CENTRAL CONTROL CONSOLE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF EAST END OF CENTRAL CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM SHOWING BLANK PANEL AND COMPLEX SAFETY OFFICER PANEL. CONSOLES AND CHAIRS NEAR NORTH WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LAUNCH CONTROL CAPSULE. ACOUSTICAL ENCLOSURE. COMMUNICATIONS CONSOLE AT LEFT; LAUNCH CONTROL CONSOLE AT RIGHT. PADLOCKED PANEL AT TOP CENTER CONTAINS MISSILE LAUNCH KEYS. SHOCK ISOLATOR AT FAR LEFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  9. Baby-Crying Acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Tiago; de Magalhães, Sérgio Tenreiro

    The baby's crying is his most important mean of communication. The crying monitoring performed by devices that have been developed doesn't ensure the complete safety of the child. It is necessary to join, to these technological resources, means of communicating the results to the responsible, which would involve the digital processing of information available from crying. The survey carried out, enabled to understand the level of adoption, in the continental territory of Portugal, of a technology that will be able to do such a digital processing. It was used the TAM as the theoretical referential. The statistical analysis showed that there is a good probability of acceptance of such a system.

  10. Interaction of Lysinibacillus sphaericus Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa toxin with midgut brush-border membrane fractions from Culex quinquefasciatus larvae.

    PubMed

    Guo, Q-Y; Hu, X-M; Cai, Q-X; Yan, J-P; Yuan, Z-M

    2016-04-01

    The Cry48Aa/Cry49Aa mosquitocidal toxin from Lysinibacillus sphaericus was uniquely composed of a three-domain (Cry) toxin and binary (Bin) toxin-like protein, with high toxicity against Culex spp. However, its mode of action against the target mosquitoes is still unknown. In this study, Cry48Aa, Cry49Aa and its N- and C-terminal truncated proteins were expressed and purified, and the binding affinities of the purified proteins with midgut brush-border membrane fractions (BBMFs) from Culex quin-quefasciatus larvae were performed. The results showed that both Cry48Aa and Cry49Aa have specific and high binding affinity to BBMFs, with dissociation constants of 9.5 ± 1.8 and 25.4 ± 3.8 nM, respectively. Competition assays demonstrated that Cry49Aa C-terminal derivatives were able to bind to the BBMFs, whereas Far-Western dot blot analysis revealed that its N-terminal constructs interacted with Cry48Aa. Nevertheless, larvicidal activity was almost lost when Cry49Aa truncated proteins, either individually or in pairs, combined with Cry48Aa. It is concluded that Cry49Aa is responsible for receptor binding and interaction with Cry48Aa and plays an important role in the mechanism of action of these two-component toxins. PMID:26748768

  11. Circadian clock gene CRY2 degradation is involved in chemoresistance of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lekun; Yang, Zihuan; Zhou, Junyi; Tung, Jung-Yu; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng; Wang, Lei; Deng, Yanhong; Wang, Puning; Wang, Jianping; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for predicting chemotherapy response are important to treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is a circadian clock protein involved in cell cycle, but the biological consequences of this activity in cancer are poorly understood. We set up biochemical and cell biology analyses to analyze CRY2 expression and chemoresistance. Here we report that CRY2 is overexpressed in chemoresistant CRC samples, and CRY2 overexpression is correlated with poor patient survival. Knockdown CRY2 increased colorectal cancer sensitivity to oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer cell. We also identify FBXW7 as a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase for targeting CRY2 through proteasomal degradation. Mechanistic studies show that CRY2 is regulated by FBXW7, in which FBXW7 binds directly to phosphorylated Thr300 of CRY2. Furthermore, FBXW7 expression leads to degradation of CRY2 through enhancing CRY2 ubiquitination and accelerating CRY2’s turnover rate. High expressed FBXW7 downregulates CRY2 and increases colorectal cancer cells sensitivity to chemotherapy. Low FBXW7 expression is correlated with high CRY2 expression in CRC patient samples. Also, low FBXW7 expression is correlated with poor patient survival. Taken together, our findings indicate that the upregulation of CRY2 caused by downregulation of FBXW7 may be a novel prognostic biomarker and may represent a new therapeutic target in colorectal cancer. PMID:25855785

  12. Toxicological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Analyses Demonstrating That Cry1C and Cry2A Are Not Toxic to Larvae of the Honeybee, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yun-He; Huang, Zachary Y; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Dai, Ping-Li; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-07-15

    The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is commonly used as a test species for the regulatory risk assessment of insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) plants. In the current study, a dietary exposure assay was developed, validated, and used to assess the potential toxicity of Cry1C and Cry2A proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) to A. mellifera larvae; Cry1C and Cry2A are produced by different IRGE crops. The assay, which uses the soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) as a positive control and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a negative control, was used to measure the responses of A. mellifera larvae to high concentrations of Cry1C and Cry2A. Survival was reduced and development was delayed when larvae were fed SBTI (1 mg/g diet) but were unaffected when larvae were fed BSA (400 μg/g), Cry1C (50 μg/g), or Cry2A (400 μg/g). The enzymatic activities of A. mellifera larvae were not altered and their midgut brush border membranes (BBMs) were not damaged after being fed with diets containing BSA, Cry1C, or Cry2A; however, enzymatic activities were increased and BBMs were damaged when diets contained SBTI. The study confirms that Cry1C and Cry2A have no acute toxicity to A. mellifera larvae at concentrations >10 times higher than those detected in pollen from Bt plants. PMID:26084400

  13. Consolation as possible expression of sympathetic concern among chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Teresa; Castellanos, Miguel A.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees are known to spontaneously provide contact comfort to recent victims of aggression, a behavior known as consolation. Similar behavior in human children is attributed to empathic or sympathetic concern. In line with this empathy hypothesis, chimpanzee consolation has been shown to reduce the recipient's state of arousal, hence to likely alleviate distress. Other predictions from the empathy hypothesis have rarely been tested, however, owing to small sample sizes in previous studies. An exceptionally large database of spontaneous consolation in two outdoor-housed groups of chimpanzees lends further support to the empathy hypothesis in that consolation occurred disproportionally between individuals that are socially close (i.e., kin and affiliation partners) and was more typical of females than males, which differences are also known of human empathy. These effects were demonstrated using generalized linear mixed models, which control multiple variables at once. An exception to the above pattern was formed by the highest-ranking males, which frequently offered consolation to victims of aggression, probably as part of their general policing function in chimpanzee society. Consolation occurred more frequently in the absence of reconciliation between former opponents, suggesting that actors are sensitive to the contact need of victims of aggression, which may be greater if the aggressor ignores them. That consolation is an integrated part of close mutual relationships is supported by the tendency for it being reciprocated. PMID:20547864

  14. Diversity in gut microflora of Helicoverpa armigera populations from different regions in relation to biological activity of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Cry1Ac.

    PubMed

    Paramasiva, Inakarla; Shouche, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Girish Jayant; Krishnayya, Pulipaka Venkata; Akbar, Shaik Mohammed; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2014-12-01

    Transgenic crops expressing toxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been deployed on a large scale for management of Helicoverpa armigera. Resistance to Bt toxins has been documented in several papers, and therefore, we examined the role of midgut microflora of H. armigera in its susceptibility to Bt toxins. The susceptibility of H. armigera to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was assessed using Log-dose-Probit analysis, and the microbial communities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The H. armigera populations from nine locations harbored diverse microbial communities, and had some unique bacteria, suggesting a wide geographical variation in microbial community in the midgut of the pod borer larvae. Phylotypes belonging to 32 genera were identified in the H. armigera midgut in field populations from nine locations. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Order Bacillales) were present in all the populations, and these may be the common members of the H. armigera larval midgut microflora. Presence and/or absence of certain species were linked to H. armigera susceptibility to Bt toxins, but there were no clear trends across locations. Variation in susceptibility of F1 neonates of H. armigera from different locations to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac was found to be 3.4-fold. These findings support the idea that insect migut microflora may influence the biological activity of Bt toxins.

  15. Diversity in gut microflora of Helicoverpa armigera populations from different regions in relation to biological activity of Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Cry1Ac.

    PubMed

    Paramasiva, Inakarla; Shouche, Yogesh; Kulkarni, Girish Jayant; Krishnayya, Pulipaka Venkata; Akbar, Shaik Mohammed; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2014-12-01

    Transgenic crops expressing toxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been deployed on a large scale for management of Helicoverpa armigera. Resistance to Bt toxins has been documented in several papers, and therefore, we examined the role of midgut microflora of H. armigera in its susceptibility to Bt toxins. The susceptibility of H. armigera to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was assessed using Log-dose-Probit analysis, and the microbial communities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The H. armigera populations from nine locations harbored diverse microbial communities, and had some unique bacteria, suggesting a wide geographical variation in microbial community in the midgut of the pod borer larvae. Phylotypes belonging to 32 genera were identified in the H. armigera midgut in field populations from nine locations. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Order Bacillales) were present in all the populations, and these may be the common members of the H. armigera larval midgut microflora. Presence and/or absence of certain species were linked to H. armigera susceptibility to Bt toxins, but there were no clear trends across locations. Variation in susceptibility of F1 neonates of H. armigera from different locations to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac was found to be 3.4-fold. These findings support the idea that insect migut microflora may influence the biological activity of Bt toxins. PMID:25195523

  16. Crying in Newborn and Young Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelsson, Katarina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the reasons that newborns and young infants cry, the communicative effect and perception of crying, crying in sick and healthy infants, the sound spectograph, and crying for the use of clinical diagnostics. (RJC)

  17. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control. PMID:26545599

  18. The interaction of two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, with Cry protein production and predation by Amblyseius andersoni (Chant) in Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Yan; Tian, Jun-Ce; Shi, Wang-Peng; Dong, Xue-Hui; Romeis, Jörg; Naranjo, Steven E; Hellmich, Richard L; Shelton, Anthony M

    2016-02-01

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), are an important tool for managing lepidopteran pests on cotton and maize. However, the effects of these Bt crops on non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that provide biological control services, are required to be addressed in an environmental risk assessment. Amblyseius andersoni (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a cosmopolitan predator of the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae), a significant pest of cotton and maize. Tri-trophic studies were conducted to assess the potential effects of Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton and Cry1F maize on life history parameters (survival rate, development time, fecundity and egg hatching rate) of A. andersoni. We confirmed that these Bt crops have no effects on the biology of T. urticae and, in turn, that there were no differences in any of the life history parameters of A. andersoni when it fed on T. urticae feeding on Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab or non-Bt cotton and Cry1F or non-Bt maize. Use of a susceptible insect assay demonstrated that T. urticae contained biologically active Cry proteins. Cry proteins concentrations declined greatly as they moved from plants to herbivores to predators and protein concentration did not appear to be related to mite density. Free-choice experiments revealed that A. andersoni had no preference for Cry1Ac/Cry2Ab cotton or Cry1F maize-reared T. urticae compared with those reared on non-Bt cotton or maize. Collectively these results provide strong evidence that these crops can complement other integrated pest management tactics including biological control.

  19. Structural and Biophysical Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1

    PubMed Central

    Kelker, Matthew S.; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L.; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G.; Wang, Nick X.; Russell, Joshua C.; Baker, Matthew D.; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J. W.; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J.; Narva, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins. PMID:25390338

  20. Structural and biophysical characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal proteins Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1.

    PubMed

    Kelker, Matthew S; Berry, Colin; Evans, Steven L; Pai, Reetal; McCaskill, David G; Wang, Nick X; Russell, Joshua C; Baker, Matthew D; Yang, Cheng; Pflugrath, J W; Wade, Matthew; Wess, Tim J; Narva, Kenneth E

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis strains are well known for the production of insecticidal proteins upon sporulation and these proteins are deposited in parasporal crystalline inclusions. The majority of these insect-specific toxins exhibit three domains in the mature toxin sequence. However, other Cry toxins are structurally and evolutionarily unrelated to this three-domain family and little is known of their three dimensional structures, limiting our understanding of their mechanisms of action and our ability to engineer the proteins to enhance their function. Among the non-three domain Cry toxins, the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from B. thuringiensis strain PS149B1 are required to act together to produce toxicity to the western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte via a pore forming mechanism of action. Cry34Ab1 is a protein of ∼14 kDa with features of the aegerolysin family (Pfam06355) of proteins that have known membrane disrupting activity, while Cry35Ab1 is a ∼44 kDa member of the toxin_10 family (Pfam05431) that includes other insecticidal proteins such as the binary toxin BinA/BinB. The Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 proteins represent an important seed trait technology having been developed as insect resistance traits in commercialized corn hybrids for control of WCR. The structures of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 have been elucidated to 2.15 Å and 1.80 Å resolution, respectively. The solution structures of the toxins were further studied by small angle X-ray scattering and native electrospray ion mobility mass spectrometry. We present here the first published structure from the aegerolysin protein domain family and the structural comparisons of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 with other pore forming toxins.

  1. A Binding Site for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Is Lost during Larval Development in Two Forest Pests

    PubMed Central

    Rausell, Carolina; Martínez-Ramírez, Amparo Consuelo; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Real, María Dolores

    2000-01-01

    The insecticidal activity and receptor binding properties of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins towards the forest pests Thaumetopoea pityocampa (processionary moth) and Lymantria monacha (nun moth) were investigated. Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac were highly toxic (corresponding 50% lethal concentration values: 956, 895, and 379 pg/μl, respectively) to first-instar T. pityocampa larvae. During larval development, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxicity decreased with increasing age, although the loss of activity was more pronounced for Cry1Ab. Binding assays with 125I-labelled Cry1Ab and brush border membrane vesicles from T. pityocampa first- and last-instar larvae detected a remarkable decrease in the overall Cry1Ab binding affinity in last-instar larvae, although saturable Cry1Ab binding to both instars was observed. Homologous competition experiments demonstrated the loss of one of the two Cry1Ab high-affinity binding sites detected in first-instar larvae. Growth inhibition assays with sublethal doses of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac in L. monacha showed that all three toxins were able to delay molting from second instar to third instar. Specific saturable binding of Cry1Ab was detected only in first- and second-instar larvae. Cry1Ab binding was not detected in last-instar larvae, although specific binding of Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac was observed. These results demonstrate a loss of Cry1Ab binding sites during development on the midgut epithelium of T. pityocampa and L. monacha, correlating in T. pityocampa with a decrease in Cry1Ab toxicity with increasing age. PMID:10742241

  2. Cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry4Ba toxicity to Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Reyes, Esmeralda Z; Zúñiga-Navarrete, Fernando; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Gómez, Isabel; Evans, Amy M; Likitvivatanavong, Supaporn; Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2012-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis produces three Cry toxins (Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa) that are active against Aedes aegypti larvae. The identification of the rate-limiting binding steps of Cry toxins that are used for insect control in the field, such as those of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, should provide targets for improving insecticides against important insect pests. Previous studies showed that Cry11Aa binds to cadherin receptor fragment CR7-11 (cadherin repeats 7-11) with high affinity. Binding to cadherin has been proposed to facilitate Cry toxin oligomer formation. In the present study, we show that Cry4Ba binds to CR7-11 with 9-fold lower binding affinity compared with Cry11Aa. Oligomerization assays showed that Cry4Ba is capable of forming oligomers when proteolytically activated in vitro in the absence of the CR7-11 fragment in contrast with Cry11Aa that formed oligomers only in the presence of CR7-11. Pore-formation assays in planar lipid bilayers showed that Cry4Ba oligomers were proficient in opening ion channels. Finally, silencing the cadherin gene by dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) showed that silenced larvae were more tolerant to Cry11Aa in contrast with Cry4Ba, which showed similar toxic levels to those of control larvae. These findings show that cadherin binding is not a limiting step for Cry4Ba toxicity to A. aegypti larvae. PMID:22329749

  3. 38. ENGINE ROOM, FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. ENGINE ROOM, FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING TOWARDS PORT, DETAIL OF PORT ENGINE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF TERRACOTTA DECORATION, SHOWING SCROLL CONSOLE, WAVE ORNAMENT, EGG-AND-DART, NYMPH HEADS AND FOLIATE PATTERN AROUND WINDOWS - City Hall, Atlantic & Tennessee Avenues, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  5. 12. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. DETAIL OF CONTROL CONSOLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ENGINE TEST CELL BUILDING INTERIOR. DETAIL OF CONTROL CONSOLE FOR ENGINE TEST CELL 4. LOOKING NORTH. - Fairchild Air Force Base, Engine Test Cell Building, Near intersection of Arnold Street & George Avenue, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  6. The amount of consolation compensation in road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the amount of consolation compensation that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay victims. It used 2010 statistics for general road accidents from Taiwan's National Police Agency (NPA) for further sampling and to mail questionnaires. In investigating consolation compensation, the framework of the contingent valuation method was used, and the data were collected through the design of different scenarios. In this study, five injury levels were designed to further analyse the consolation compensation price the perpetrators were willing to pay: minor injury, moderate injury, serious injury, disability, and death. The results revealed the price that many perpetrators were willing to pay was zero; however, we overcame this issue by using the Spike model. The estimated results showed that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay more consolation compensation with increased injury severity.

  7. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. View looking northeast of console table and mirror flanked by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northeast of console table and mirror flanked by 18th century French chairs in the first floor Reception Hall - Perry Belmont House, 1618 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, also showing mirror to reflect view of communications switchboard - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  10. The amount of consolation compensation in road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the amount of consolation compensation that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay victims. It used 2010 statistics for general road accidents from Taiwan's National Police Agency (NPA) for further sampling and to mail questionnaires. In investigating consolation compensation, the framework of the contingent valuation method was used, and the data were collected through the design of different scenarios. In this study, five injury levels were designed to further analyse the consolation compensation price the perpetrators were willing to pay: minor injury, moderate injury, serious injury, disability, and death. The results revealed the price that many perpetrators were willing to pay was zero; however, we overcame this issue by using the Spike model. The estimated results showed that road accident perpetrators were willing to pay more consolation compensation with increased injury severity. PMID:24598034

  11. 79. DETAIL OF FACILITIES CONSOLE LOCATED NEAR SOUTHWEST CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. DETAIL OF FACILITIES CONSOLE LOCATED NEAR SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 64. DETAIL OF OBSOLETE AGENA CONTROL PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. DETAIL OF OBSOLETE AGENA CONTROL PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED NEAR MIDDLE OF EAST WALL IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 15. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR WEST WALL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR WEST WALL OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Console Room, looking southwesterly into Highbay Generator Room Beale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Console Room, looking southwesterly into Highbay Generator Room - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  15. Detail, south end of control console with speakers; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, south end of control console with speakers; looking southeast towards the TV control panel room - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  16. View north of model board; operator's console #1 is in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of model board; operator's console #1 is in the left foreground of the photograph: communications module at center foreground - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Console test report for shuttle task 501 shuttle carrier aircraft transceiver console (SED 36115353-301)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Performance tests completed on the Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) transceiver console, verifying its design objectives, were described. These tests included: (1) check of power supply voltages for correct output voltage and energization at the proper point in the turn on sequence, (2) check of cooling system (LRU blower, overload sensors and circuitry, and thermocouple probe), (3) check of control circuits logic, including the provisions for remote control and display, (4) check of the LRU connector for presence of correct voltages and absence of incorrect voltages under both energized and deenergized conditions, and (5) check of the AGC and power output monitor circuits.

  18. 68. VIEW OF CONSOLE CONTAINING OPERATIONS AND CHECKOUT, RANGE SAFETY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. VIEW OF CONSOLE CONTAINING OPERATIONS AND CHECKOUT, RANGE SAFETY, AND BATTERY CLOCK PANELS SHOWING INDEPENDENT POWER SUPPLY IN CABINETS BENEATH PANELS. FOOT PEDAL FOR CONTROLLING COMMUNICATIONS HEADSET VISIBLE IN FRONT OF LEFT CABINET. THIS CONSOLE LOCATED NEAR THE MIDDLE OF THE WEST WALL OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Evaluation of cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of two Bt Cry proteins on a GMO safety perspective.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; de Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Soares, Bruno Marques; Pessoa, Claudia; Pessoa, Igor Parra; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2014-01-01

    Studies have contested the innocuousness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins to mammalian cells as well as to mammals microbiota. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of two Cry proteins, Cry8Ka5 (a novel mutant protein) and Cry1Ac (a widely distributed protein in GM crops). Evaluation of cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes was performed as well as hemolytic activity coupled with cellular membrane topography analysis in mammal erythrocytes. Effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac upon Artemia sp. nauplii and upon bacteria and yeast growth were assessed. The toxins caused no significant effects on the viability (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) or to the cellular DNA integrity of lymphocytes (no effects at 1,000 µg/mL). The Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins did not cause severe damage to erythrocytes, neither with hemolysis (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) nor with alterations in the membrane. Likewise, the Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins presented high LC50 (755.11 and >1,000 µg/mL, resp.) on the brine shrimp lethality assay and showed no growth inhibition of the microorganisms tested (MIC > 1,000 µg/mL). This study contributed with valuable information on the effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins on nontarget organisms, which reinforce their potential for safe biotechnological applications.

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of two Bt Cry proteins on a GMO safety perspective.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; de Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Soares, Bruno Marques; Pessoa, Claudia; Pessoa, Igor Parra; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; de Sá, Maria Fátima Grossi; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2014-01-01

    Studies have contested the innocuousness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins to mammalian cells as well as to mammals microbiota. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of two Cry proteins, Cry8Ka5 (a novel mutant protein) and Cry1Ac (a widely distributed protein in GM crops). Evaluation of cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes was performed as well as hemolytic activity coupled with cellular membrane topography analysis in mammal erythrocytes. Effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac upon Artemia sp. nauplii and upon bacteria and yeast growth were assessed. The toxins caused no significant effects on the viability (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) or to the cellular DNA integrity of lymphocytes (no effects at 1,000 µg/mL). The Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins did not cause severe damage to erythrocytes, neither with hemolysis (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) nor with alterations in the membrane. Likewise, the Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins presented high LC50 (755.11 and >1,000 µg/mL, resp.) on the brine shrimp lethality assay and showed no growth inhibition of the microorganisms tested (MIC > 1,000 µg/mL). This study contributed with valuable information on the effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins on nontarget organisms, which reinforce their potential for safe biotechnological applications. PMID:25165717

  1. Toxicological and biochemical analyses demonstrate no toxic effect of Cry1C and Cry2A to Folsomia candida

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Cao, Fengqin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    Collembolans are common soil arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in genetically engineered (GE) plants by ingestion of crop residues or root exudates. In the present study, a dietary exposure assay was validated and used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins, Cry1C and Cry2A, on Folsomia candida. Using the insecticidal compounds potassium arsenate (PA), protease inhibitor (E-64), and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) mixed into Baker’s yeast, we show that the assay used can detect adverse effects on F. candida. Survival and development were significantly reduced when F. candida was fed a diet containing PA, E-64, and GNA at 9, 75, and 100 μg/g diet, respectively, but not when fed a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A. The activities of test antioxidant-, detoxification-, and digestion-related enzymes in F. candida were unaltered by a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A, but were significantly increased by a diet containing 75 μg/g E-64. The results confirm that Cry1C and Cry2A are not toxic to F. candida at concentrations that are much higher than those encountered under field conditions. PMID:26494315

  2. Toxicological and biochemical analyses demonstrate no toxic effect of Cry1C and Cry2A to Folsomia candida.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Chen, Xiuping; Cheng, Lisheng; Cao, Fengqin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    Collembolans are common soil arthropods that may be exposed to insecticidal proteins produced in genetically engineered (GE) plants by ingestion of crop residues or root exudates. In the present study, a dietary exposure assay was validated and used to assess the lethal and sublethal effects of two Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins, Cry1C and Cry2A, on Folsomia candida. Using the insecticidal compounds potassium arsenate (PA), protease inhibitor (E-64), and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) mixed into Baker's yeast, we show that the assay used can detect adverse effects on F. candida. Survival and development were significantly reduced when F. candida was fed a diet containing PA, E-64, and GNA at 9, 75, and 100 μg/g diet, respectively, but not when fed a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A. The activities of test antioxidant-, detoxification-, and digestion-related enzymes in F. candida were unaltered by a diet containing 300 μg/g Cry1C or 600 μg/g Cry2A, but were significantly increased by a diet containing 75 μg/g E-64. The results confirm that Cry1C and Cry2A are not toxic to F. candida at concentrations that are much higher than those encountered under field conditions. PMID:26494315

  3. Where can I find consolation? A theoretical analysis of the meaning of consolation as experienced by job in the Book of Job in the Hebrew Bible.

    PubMed

    Roxberg, Åsa; Brunt, David; Rask, Mikael; da Silva, António Barbosa

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the meaning of consolation as experienced by Job in the Book of Job and as presented in literature and how consolation relates to suffering and care. The study's theoretical design applied Ricoeur's view on phenomenology and hermeneutics. The resulting themes were as follows: consolation that is present, that originates in confrontation, that keeps suffering at a distance, that does not alleviate suffering, that originates in experience from giving comfort, and that facilitates a change of perspective. The authentic and caring consolation accepts the sufferer's incomprehensible "otherness" but however provides no answers about how to console.

  4. Differential Brain Responses to Cries of Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typical Development: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and…

  5. Close up view of the center console on the flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close up view of the center console on the flight deck of the Orbiter Discovery showing the console's instrumentation and controls. The commanders station is located to the left in this view and the pilot's station is to the right in the view. The handle and lever located on the right side of the center console and towards its front is one of a pair, the commander has one on the left of his seat in his station, of Speed Brake/Thrust Controllers. These are dual purpose controllers. During ascent the controller can be use to throttle the main engines and during entry the controllers can be used to control aerodynamic drag by opening or closing the orbiter's speed brake. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  6. Power console development for NASA's electric propulsion outreach program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinero, Luis R.; Patterson, Michael J.; Satterwhite, Vincent E.

    1993-01-01

    NASA LeRC is developing a 30 cm diameter xenon ion thruster for auxiliary and primary propulsion applications. To maximize expectations for user-acceptance of ion propulsion technology, NASA LeRC, through their Electric Propulsion Outreach Program, is providing sectors of industry with portable power consoles for operation of 5 KW-class xenon ion thrusters. This power console provides all necessary functions to permit thruster operations over a 0.5-5 KW envelope under both manual and automated control. These functions include the following: discharge, cathode heater, neutralizer keeper, and neutralizer heater currents, screen and accelerator voltages, and a gas feed system to regulate and control propellant flow to the thruster. An electronic circuit monitors screen and accelerator currents and controls arcing events. The power console was successfully integrated with the NASA 30 cm thruster.

  7. Crying in infants

    PubMed Central

    de Weerth, Carolina; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M

    2013-01-01

    Up to around a quarter of all infants cry excessively and unsoothably during their first months of life. This phenomenon has been termed “infant colic.” In most cases, physicians are unable to determine the cause of the colicky behavior. In a recent study, and by means of comprehensive and deep analyses of more than 1000 intestinal phylotypes, we found that infants with colic showed lower microbiota diversity and stability than control infants in the first weeks of life. Colic-control differences in the abundance of certain bacteria were also found at 2 weeks. These microbial signatures possibly explain the colic phenotype. In this addendum we discuss other recent publications on the subject and present previously unpublished analyses of our own. We address possible mechanisms behind the links between microbiota and crying, and present future directions that could further help elucidate the hypothesized relations between intestinal microbiota and infant colic. PMID:23941920

  8. Developmental aspects of infant's cry melody and formants.

    PubMed

    Wermke, K; Mende, W; Manfredi, C; Bruscaglioni, P

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cry melodies (time variations of the fundamental frequency) as well as vocal tract resonance frequencies (formants) from infant cry signals. The increase of complexity of cry melodies is a good indicator for neuro-muscular maturation as well as for the evaluation of pre-speech development. The variation of formant frequencies allows an estimation of articulatory activity during pre-speech vocalization. Subjects are three pairs of healthy identical twins (monocygozity determined by DNA-fingerprint). Spontaneous cries of these six children were recorded at different ages: 8th-9th week, 15th-17th week and 23rd-24th week. Analysis of 136 cry melodies and intensity contours was made using KAY-CSL 4300/MDVP. For formant estimation a spectral parametric technique was applied, which was based on autoregressive models (Digital spectral analysis with applications, 1987) whose order is adaptively estimated on subsequent signal frames by means of a new method (Med. Eng. Phys. 20 (1998) 432; Utras. Med. Biol. 21 (1995) 793). Cry melodies exhibited an increasing complexity during the observation period. Beginning with the second observation period (15th-17th week) an increasing coupling and tuning between melody and resonance frequencies was observed, which was interpreted as "intentional" articulatory activity. Possible applications are in cry diagnosis as well as in the evaluation of pre-speech development.

  9. Doctors do cry.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sonal; Goel, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Physicians have tried to understand whether crying for a patient is a raw emotion that demonstrates their lack of control over themselves and the situation, or whether it is a sign of humanity and concern for one's fellow beings. Studies on medical students and doctors'narrations of times when they have shed tears over a patient's suffering or death have established beyond doubt that medical students and physicians are not immune to their patients'suffering and may cry when overwhelmed by stress and emotions. Even though humanity is the cornerstone of medicine, depersonalisation has somehow crept into the physician-patient relationship and crying is considered incompatible with the image of a good physician, who is supposed to be strong, confident and fully in charge. Thus, crying has been equated to weakness and at times, incompetence. This could be attributed to the fact that our medical curriculum has ingrained in us the belief that emotion clouds rationality and prevents us from being objective while making decisions regarding a patient's clinical progress. Our curriculum fails to teach us how to handle emotional situations, witness the dying process, communicate bad news, interact with the bereaved during the period of grief immediately following death, and reduce the professional stress involved in working with newly bereaved persons. Our training focuses on cure, amelioration of disease and the restoration of good health, with little emphasis on death, which is an absolute reality. It is crucial that medical educators take note of these lacunae in the curriculum. Physicians and teachers must recognise and accept the emotions that medical students experience in these situations, and teach them to offer their patients a sound blend of rationality and compassion with an attitude of humility.

  10. Doctors do cry.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Sonal; Goel, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Physicians have tried to understand whether crying for a patient is a raw emotion that demonstrates their lack of control over themselves and the situation, or whether it is a sign of humanity and concern for one's fellow beings. Studies on medical students and doctors'narrations of times when they have shed tears over a patient's suffering or death have established beyond doubt that medical students and physicians are not immune to their patients'suffering and may cry when overwhelmed by stress and emotions. Even though humanity is the cornerstone of medicine, depersonalisation has somehow crept into the physician-patient relationship and crying is considered incompatible with the image of a good physician, who is supposed to be strong, confident and fully in charge. Thus, crying has been equated to weakness and at times, incompetence. This could be attributed to the fact that our medical curriculum has ingrained in us the belief that emotion clouds rationality and prevents us from being objective while making decisions regarding a patient's clinical progress. Our curriculum fails to teach us how to handle emotional situations, witness the dying process, communicate bad news, interact with the bereaved during the period of grief immediately following death, and reduce the professional stress involved in working with newly bereaved persons. Our training focuses on cure, amelioration of disease and the restoration of good health, with little emphasis on death, which is an absolute reality. It is crucial that medical educators take note of these lacunae in the curriculum. Physicians and teachers must recognise and accept the emotions that medical students experience in these situations, and teach them to offer their patients a sound blend of rationality and compassion with an attitude of humility. PMID:25377039

  11. A functional analysis of crying.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Lynn G; Hardesty, Samantha L; Mendres-Smith, Amber E

    2013-01-01

    Crying has yet to be examined systematically in isolation from other problem behavior, such as aggression or tantrums, during functional analyses (Hanley, Iwata, & McCord, 2003). Identification of variables that may maintain crying is especially important for populations who are susceptible to psychiatric interventions (e.g., individuals who have intellectual disabilities and communication deficits). The current study extended functional analysis methodology to crying with an adolescent boy who had been diagnosed with intellectual disabilities. Results suggested that crying was maintained by caregiver attention delivered in a sympathetic manner. PMID:24114106

  12. Efficient production of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AMod toxins under regulation of cry3Aa promoter and single cysteine mutations in the protoxin region.

    PubMed

    García-Gómez, Blanca I; Sánchez, Jorge; Martínez de Castro, Diana L; Ibarra, Jorge E; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1AbMod toxins are engineered versions of Cry1Ab that lack the amino-terminal end, including domain I helix α-1 and part of helix α-2. This deletion improves oligomerization of these toxins in solution in the absence of cadherin receptor and counters resistance to Cry1A toxins in different lepidopteran insects, suggesting that oligomerization plays a major role in their toxicity. However, Cry1AbMod toxins are toxic to Escherichia coli cells, since the cry1A promoter that drives its expression in B. thuringiensis has readthrough expression activity in E. coli, making difficult the construction of these CryMod toxins. In this work, we show that Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod toxins can be cloned efficiently under regulation of the cry3A promoter region to drive its expression in B. thuringiensis without expression in E. coli cells. However, p3A-Cry1Ab(c)Mod construction promotes the formation of Cry1AMod crystals in B. thuringiensis cells that were not soluble at pH 10.5 and showed no toxicity to Plutella xylostella larvae. Cysteine residues in the protoxin carboxyl-terminal end of Cry1A toxins have been shown to be involved in disulfide bond formation, which is important for crystallization. Six individual cysteine substitutions for serine residues were constructed in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of the p3A-Cry1AbMod construct and one in the carboxyl-terminal protoxin end of p3A-Cry1AcMod. Interestingly, p3A-Cry1AbMod C654S and C729S and p3A-Cry1AcMod C730S recover crystal solubility at pH 10.5 and toxicity to P. xylostella. These results show that combining the cry3A promoter expression system with single cysteine mutations is a useful system for efficient expression of Cry1AMod toxins in B. thuringiensis.

  13. ATV Engineering Support Team Safety Console Preparation for the Johannes Kepler Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, R.; Oliefka, L.

    2010-09-01

    This paper describes the improvements to be implemented in the Safety console position of the Engineering Support Team(EST) at the Automated Transfer Vehicle(ATV) Control Centre(ATV-CC) for the upcoming ATV Johannes Kepler mission. The ATV missions to the International Space Station are monitored and controlled from the ATV-CC in Toulouse, France. The commanding of ATV is performed by the Vehicle Engineering Team(VET) in the main control room under authority of the Flight Director. The EST performs a monitoring function in a room beside the main control room. One of the EST positions is the Safety console, which is staffed by safety engineers from ESA and the industrial prime contractor, Astrium. The function of the Safety console is to check whether the hazard controls are available throughout the mission as required by the Hazard Reports approved by the ISS Safety Review Panel. Safety console preparation activities were limited prior to the first ATV mission due to schedule constraints, and the safety engineers involved have been working to improve the readiness for ATV 2. The following steps have been taken or are in process, and will be described in this paper: • review of the implementation of Operations Control Agreement Documents(OCADs) that record the way operational hazard controls are performed to meet the needs of the Hazard Reports(typically in Flight Rules and Crew Procedures), • crosscheck of operational control needs and implementations with respect to ATV's first flight observations and post flight evaluations, with a view to identifying additional, obsolete or revised operational hazard controls, • participation in the Flight Rule review and update process carried out between missions, • participation in the assessment of anomalies observed during the first ATV mission, to ensure that any impacts are addressed in the ATV 2 safety documentation, • preparation of a Safety console handbook to provide lists of important safety aspects to be

  14. Intracellular and Extracellular Expression of Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Protein Cry5B in Lactococcus lactis for Use as an Anthelminthic

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Evelyn; Hu, Yan; Aroian, Raffi V.

    2015-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis crystal (Cry) protein Cry5B (140 kDa) and a truncated version of the protein, tCry5B (79 kDa), are lethal to nematodes. Genes encoding the two proteins were separately cloned into a high-copy-number vector with a strong constitutive promoter (pTRK593) in Lactococcus lactis for potential oral delivery against parasitic nematode infections. Western blots using a Cry5B-specific antibody revealed that constitutively expressed Cry5B and tCry5B were present in both cells and supernatants. To increase production, cry5B was cloned into the high-copy-number plasmid pMSP3535H3, carrying a nisin-inducible promoter. Immunoblotting revealed that 3 h after nisin induction, intracellular Cry5B was strongly induced at 200 ng/ml nisin, without adversely affecting cell viability or cell membrane integrity. Both Cry5B genes were also cloned into plasmid pTRK1061, carrying a promoter and encoding a transcriptional activator that invoke low-level expression of prophage holin and lysin genes in Lactococcus lysogens, resulting in a leaky phenotype. Cry5B and tCry5B were actively expressed in the lysogenic strain L. lactis KP1 and released into cell supernatants without affecting culture growth. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays indicated that Cry5B, but not LDH, leaked from the bacteria. Lastly, using intracellular lysates from L. lactis cultures expressing both Cry5B and tCry5B, in vivo challenges of Caenorhabditis elegans worms demonstrated that the Cry proteins were biologically active. Taken together, these results indicate that active Cry5B proteins can be expressed intracellularly in and released extracellularly from L. lactis, showing potential for future use as an anthelminthic that could be delivered orally in a food-grade microbe. PMID:26682852

  15. Single amino acid insertions in extracellular loop 2 of Bombyx mori ABCC2 disrupt its receptor function for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Aa toxins.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shiho; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa; Noda, Hiroaki; Endo, Haruka; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi

    2016-04-01

    In a previous report, seven Cry1Ab-resistant strains were identified in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; these strains were shown to have a tyrosine insertion at position 234 in extracellular loop 2 of the ABC transporter C2 (BmABCC2). This insertion was confirmed to destroy the receptor function of BmABCC2 and confer the strains resistance against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. However, these strains were susceptible to Cry1Aa. In this report, we examined the mechanisms of the loss of receptor function of the transporter by expressing mutations in Sf9 cells. After replacement of one or two of the five amino acid residues in loop 2 of the susceptible BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_S] with alanine, cells still showed susceptibility, retaining the receptor function. Five mutants with single amino acid insertions at position 234 in BmABCC2 were also generated, resulting in loop 2 having six amino acids, which corresponds to replacing the tyrosine insertion in the resistant BmABCC2 gene [BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y)] with another amino acid. All five mutants exhibited loss of function against Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence in loop 2 is less important than the loop size (five vs. six amino acids) or loop structure for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac activity. Several domain-swapped mutant toxins were then generated among Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac, which are composed of three domains. Swapped mutants containing domain II of Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac did not kill Sf9 cells expressing BmABCC2_R(+(234)Y), suggesting that domain II of the Cry toxin is related to the interaction with the receptor function of BmABCC2. This also suggests that different reactions against Bt-toxins in some B. mori strains, that is, Cry1Ab resistance or Cry1Aa susceptibility, are attributable to structural differences in domain II of Cry1A toxins. PMID:26928903

  16. 37. ENGINE ROOM, FROM PORT SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. ENGINE ROOM, FROM PORT SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING TOWARDS STERN, PORT ENGINE AT RIGHT, STARBOARD ENGINE AT LEFT, BOTH ARE DIESEL ENGINES, IN BACKGROUND IS STAIRS UP TO CREWS' BERTHING, BEYONE THE STAIRS IS THE DOOR TO AFT ENGINE ROOM & MACHINE SHOP. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  17. 8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior of cockpit showing pilot consoles and flight engineer seat with instrument panel. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  18. 36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ENGINE ROOM FROM STARBOARD SIDE OF CONTROL CONSOLE, LOOKING AT TWO DIESEL ENGINES, STAIRS LEAD UP TO CREW'S BERTHING. THIS IMAGE IS CLOSER TO THE STERN AND MORE ANGLED TOWARDS THE PORT THAN IMAGE 34. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  19. 35. View of data and analysis console (DAC), located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. View of data and analysis console (DAC), located in MWOC facility in transmitter building no. 102, showing clock and missile impact predictor time. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  20. 5. INSTRUMENT ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING BACKS OF CONSOLE LOCKERS. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INSTRUMENT ROOM INTERIOR, SHOWING BACKS OF CONSOLE LOCKERS. Looking northeast to firing control room passageway. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 18. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR WEST WALL OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM SHOWING PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENT CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LABELED 'PECMP') - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. 39. View of checkout indicator computer console for DR beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. View of checkout indicator computer console for DR beams, TR chains, and special checkout target control located in CSMR in transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. 59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. DETAIL OF THIRD PAYLOAD CONTROL PANEL IN CONSOLE SHOWN IN CA-133-1-A-58. NOTE 20-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANEL IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG WALL. WORKERS MAKE ELECTRICAL AND OTHER CONNECTIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4289. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 16. DETAIL OF SOUTH END OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF SOUTH END OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR WEST WALL OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM SHOWING CONTROLS FOR STILL CAMERAS POSITIONED AROUND THE LAUNCH PAD - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 12. DETAIL OF WEST END OF CENTRAL ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL OF WEST END OF CENTRAL ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM SHOWING LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Remarks on forensically interesting Microsoft XBox 360 console features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttenberger, Silas; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    This paper deals with forensically interesting features of the Microsoft Xbox 360 game console. The construction and the internal structure are analysed more precisely. One of the main aspects of the study is to analyse the used file system which was examined for forensic features. Possible difficulties that might be of importance to the forensic investigator are discussed.

  8. 37. View of detection radar environmental display (DRED) console for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. View of detection radar environmental display (DRED) console for middle DR 2 (structure no. 736) antenna, located in MWOC facility. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  9. Role and expression of cry1 in the adductor muscle of the oyster Crassostrea gigas during daily and tidal valve activity rhythms.

    PubMed

    Mat, Audrey M; Perrigault, Mickael; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavin- and pterin-containing photoreceptors of the cryptochrome/photolyase family. They play critical roles in organisms, among are which light-dependent and light-independent roles in biological rhythms. The present work aimed at describing a cryptochrome gene in the oyster Crassostrea gigas by (i) a characterization and phylogenetic analysis and (ii) by studying its expression in the relationship to rhythmic valve behavior in different entrainment regimes. Cryptochrome expression was focused on the adductor muscle of the oyster, the effector of the valve behavior. The results suggest involvement of Cgcry1 in oyster rhythmicity as a sensor of environmental zeitgebers, associated with circadian rhythms and potentially to tidal activity. The characterized gene belongs to type 1 cryptochrome/insect-type cry. Additionally, Cgcry1 presented a daily oscillation under L:D entrainment, which disappeared in constant darkness. Transcript expression of Cgcry1 also oscillated at tidal frequency under tidal entrainment and in constant darkness. Finally, exposure of tidally entrained oysters to saxitoxin (STX)-producing alga Alexandrium minutum induced a dose effect response in oysters by first altering Cgcry1 expression and then the behavior of oysters with increasing concentrations of toxins. This study initiates the characterization of the molecular clock in the oyster C. gigas and its interactions with environmental zeitgebers. PMID:27246263

  10. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  15. Cri du Chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cerruti Mainardi, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The Cri du Chat syndrome (CdCS) is a genetic disease resulting from a deletion of variable size occurring on the short arm of chromosome 5 (5p-). The incidence ranges from 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live-born infants. The main clinical features are a high-pitched monochromatic cry, microcephaly, broad nasal bridge, epicanthal folds, micrognathia, abnormal dermatoglyphics, and severe psychomotor and mental retardation. Malformations, although not very frequent, may be present: cardiac, neurological and renal abnormalities, preauricular tags, syndactyly, hypospadias, and cryptorchidism. Molecular cytogenetic analysis has allowed a cytogenetic and phenotypic map of 5p to be defined, even if results from the studies reported up to now are not completely in agreement. Genotype-phenotype correlation studies showed a clinical and cytogenetic variability. The identification of phenotypic subsets associated with a specific size and type of deletion is of diagnostic and prognostic relevance. Specific growth and psychomotor development charts have been established. Two genes, Semaphorin F (SEMAF) and δ-catenin (CTNND2), which have been mapped to the "critical regions", are potentially involved in cerebral development and their deletion may be associated with mental retardation in CdCS patients. Deletion of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, localised to 5p15.33, could contribute to the phenotypic changes in CdCS. The critical regions were recently refined by using array comparative genomic hybridisation. The cat-like cry critical region was further narrowed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and three candidate genes were characterised in this region. The diagnosis is based on typical clinical manifestations. Karyotype analysis and, in doubtful cases, FISH analysis will confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific therapy for CdCS but early rehabilitative and educational interventions improve the prognosis and considerable progress has been made in

  16. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Hematotoxicity of the Recombinant Spore-Crystal Complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis in Swiss Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Freire, Ingrid; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Barbosa, Lilian Carla Pereira; Martins, Erica Soares; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2014-01-01

    The insecticidal properties of Cry-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have long been used as spore-crystals in commercial spray formulations for insect control. Recently, some Bt-endotoxin genes have been cloned in many different plants. Toxicological evaluations of three spore-crystal endotoxins, BtCry1Ia, BtCry10Aa and BtCry1Ba6 from B. thuringiensis, were carried out on mice to understand their adverse effects on hematological systems and on genetic material. These three spore-crystals have shown toxic activity to the boll weevil, which is one of the most aggressive pests of the cotton crop. Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 did not increase the micronucleus frequency in the peripheral erythrocytes of mice and did not cause changes in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes. However, some hematologic disburbances were observed, specifically related to Cry1Ia and Cry1Ba6, respectively, for the erythroid and lymphoid lineage. Thus, although the profile of such adverse side effects can be related to their high level of exposure, which is not commonly found in the environment, results showed that these Bt spore-crystals were not harmless to mice, indicating that each spore-crystal endotoxin presents a characteristic profile of toxicity and might be investigated individually. PMID:25268978

  17. Tobacco plants expressing the Cry1AbMod toxin suppress tolerance to Cry1Ab toxin of Manduca sexta cadherin-silenced larvae.

    PubMed

    Porta, Helena; Jiménez, Gladys; Cordoba, Elizabeth; León, Patricia; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2011-07-01

    Cry toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria are insecticidal proteins used worldwide in the control of different insect pests. Alterations in toxin-receptor interaction represent the most common mechanism to induce resistance to Cry toxins in lepidopteran insects. Cry toxins bind with high affinity to the cadherin protein present in the midgut cells and this interaction facilitates the proteolytic removal of helix α-1 and pre-pore oligomer formation. Resistance to Cry toxins has been linked with mutations in the cadherin gene. One strategy effective to overcome larval resistance to Cry1A toxins is the production of Cry1AMod toxins that lack helix α-1. Cry1AMod are able to form oligomeric structures without binding to cadherin receptor and were shown to be toxic to cadherin-silenced Manduca sexta larvae and Pectinophora gossypiella strain with resistance linked to mutations in a cadherin gene. We developed Cry1AbMod tobacco transgenic plants to analyze if Cry1AMod toxins can be expressed in transgenic crops, do not affect plant development and are able to control insect pests. Our results show that production of the Cry1AbMod toxin in transgenic plants does not affect plant development, since these plants exhibited healthy growth, produced abundant seeds, and were virtually undistinguishable from control plants. Most importantly, Cry1AbMod protein produced in tobacco plants retains its functional toxic activity against susceptible and tolerant M. sexta larvae due to the silencing of cadherin receptor by RNAi. These results suggest that CryMod toxins could potentially be expressed in other transgenic crops to protect them against both toxin-susceptible and resistant lepidopteran larvae affected in cadherin gene. PMID:21621616

  18. Dual-console robotic surgery: a new teaching paradigm.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ashlee L; Scott, Eirwen M; Krivak, Thomas C; Olawaiye, Alexander B; Chu, Tianjiao; Richard, Scott D

    2013-06-01

    Robotic surgery has emerged as an alternative option in minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. The development of the dual-console da Vinci Si Surgical System(®) has enabled modification of the training atmosphere. We sought to investigate operative times and surgical outcomes while operating with the dual-console model in a training environment for our first fifty cases. We identified the first fifty patients who underwent robot-assisted total hysterectomy (TRH), with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), with or without pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection (PPALND), by use of the dual-console robotic system. Records were reviewed for patient demographics and surgical details. All surgery was conducted using the dual-console system and performed by staff physicians and fellows. Operative time was calculated from robotic docking until completion of the procedure. Cases were identified from November 2009 through July 2010. Mean age was 56.2 years (SD 13.35, 95 % CI 52.46-59.86). Mean BMI was 29.5 (SD 7.67, 95 % CI 27.35-31.61). Seventy-eight percent of these patients were considered overweight, including 12 defined as obese (BMI 30-34.9) and 10 patients classified as morbidly obese (BMI ≥ 35). Surgery completed included PPALND alone (n = 1); radical hysterectomy (n = 1); TRH only (n = 3); TRH/BSO (n = 25); and TRH/BSO/PPALND (n = 20). Mean total operating room time was 188.8 min (SD 55.31, 95 % CI 173.45-204.11). Mean total surgical time for all cases was 118.1 min (SD 44.28, 95 % CI 105.87-130.41). Two vascular injuries were encountered, with one requiring conversion to laparotomy. These results compare favorably with historically reported outcomes from single-console systems. Utilizing the dual-console enables use of an integrated teaching and supervising environment without compromising operative times or patient outcomes.

  19. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in Trichoplusia ni Is Conferred by a Novel Genetic Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaozhao; Kain, Wendy; Cassidy, Douglas; Wang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    The resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry2Ab in a greenhouse-originated Trichoplusia ni strain resistant to both Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was characterized. Biological assays determined that the Cry2Ab resistance in the T. ni strain was a monogenic recessive trait independent of Cry1Ac resistance, and there existed no significant cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in T. ni. From the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni strain, a strain resistant to Cry2Ab only was isolated, and the Cry2Ab resistance trait was introgressed into a susceptible laboratory strain to facilitate comparative analysis of the Cry2Ab resistance with the susceptible T. ni strain. Results from biochemical analysis showed no significant difference between the Cry2Ab-resistant and -susceptible T. ni larvae in midgut proteases, including caseinolytic proteolytic activity and zymogram profile and serine protease activities, in midgut aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and in midgut esterases and hemolymph plasma melanization activity. For analysis of genetic linkage of Cry2Ab resistance with potential Cry toxin receptor genes, molecular markers for the midgut cadherin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aminopeptidase N (APN) genes were identified between the original greenhouse-derived dual-toxin-resistant and the susceptible laboratory T. ni strains. Genetic linkage analysis showed that the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni was not genetically associated with the midgut genes coding for the cadherin, ALP, and 6 APNs (APN1 to APN6) nor associated with the ABC transporter gene ABCC2. Therefore, the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni is conferred by a novel but unknown genetic mechanism. PMID:26025894

  20. Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab in Trichoplusia ni Is Conferred by a Novel Genetic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaozhao; Kain, Wendy; Cassidy, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry2Ab in a greenhouse-originated Trichoplusia ni strain resistant to both Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab was characterized. Biological assays determined that the Cry2Ab resistance in the T. ni strain was a monogenic recessive trait independent of Cry1Ac resistance, and there existed no significant cross-resistance between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in T. ni. From the dual-toxin-resistant T. ni strain, a strain resistant to Cry2Ab only was isolated, and the Cry2Ab resistance trait was introgressed into a susceptible laboratory strain to facilitate comparative analysis of the Cry2Ab resistance with the susceptible T. ni strain. Results from biochemical analysis showed no significant difference between the Cry2Ab-resistant and -susceptible T. ni larvae in midgut proteases, including caseinolytic proteolytic activity and zymogram profile and serine protease activities, in midgut aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase activity, and in midgut esterases and hemolymph plasma melanization activity. For analysis of genetic linkage of Cry2Ab resistance with potential Cry toxin receptor genes, molecular markers for the midgut cadherin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aminopeptidase N (APN) genes were identified between the original greenhouse-derived dual-toxin-resistant and the susceptible laboratory T. ni strains. Genetic linkage analysis showed that the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni was not genetically associated with the midgut genes coding for the cadherin, ALP, and 6 APNs (APN1 to APN6) nor associated with the ABC transporter gene ABCC2. Therefore, the Cry2Ab resistance in T. ni is conferred by a novel but unknown genetic mechanism. PMID:26025894

  1. Phosphorylation negatively regulates exosome mediated secretion of cryAB in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kore, Rajshekhar A; Abraham, Edathara C

    2016-02-01

    Exosomes mediate secretion of crystallin alphaB (cryAB), a well characterized molecular chaperone with anti-apoptotic activity. However, the mechanisms governing its packaging and secretion remained unexplored. In glioma cells, notwithstanding extensive phosphorylation of cryAB at Ser59 followed by Ser45 (Ser19 is largely unphosphorylated), we discovered that the majority of secreted exosomal cryAB is nonphosphorylated. Transient ectopic expression of a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tagged triple phosphomimic (3-SD) cryAB construct in cryAB absent glioma cells led to the formation of large cytosolic inclusions. Our findings demonstrate that mimicking phosphorylation significantly reduces cryAB secretion via exosomes. Moreover, decreased colocalization of 3-SD YFP-cryAB with multivesicular endosome (MVE) and exosome marker, CD63 or Rab27, a small GTPase regulating exocytosis of MVEs, suggests that phosphorylation deters packaging of cryAB in vesicles bound for secretion as exosomes. Additionally, we found that preventing O-GlcNAcylation on cryAB also curtailed its colocalization with CD63 and Rab27 resulting in reduced exosomal secretion. Thus, our study points to O-GlcNAcylation and lack of phosphorylation as being the selective processes involved in the packaging and secretion of cryAB via exosomes. PMID:26620801

  2. Evidence of field-evolved resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt corn expressing Cry1F in Brazil that is still sensitive to modified Bt toxins.

    PubMed

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda.

  3. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance of Spodoptera frugiperda to Bt Corn Expressing Cry1F in Brazil That Is Still Sensitive to Modified Bt Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Monnerat, Rose; Martins, Erica; Macedo, Cristina; Queiroz, Paulo; Praça, Lilian; Soares, Carlos Marcelo; Moreira, Helio; Grisi, Isabella; Silva, Joseane; Soberon, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Brazil ranked second only to the United States in hectares planted to genetically modified crops in 2013. Recently corn producers in the Cerrado region reported that the control of Spodoptera frugiperda with Bt corn expressing Cry1Fa has decreased, forcing them to use chemicals to reduce the damage caused by this insect pest. A colony of S. frugiperda was established from individuals collected in 2013 from Cry1Fa corn plants (SfBt) in Brazil and shown to have at least more than ten-fold higher resistance levels compared with a susceptible colony (Sflab). Laboratory assays on corn leaves showed that in contrast to SfLab population, the SfBt larvae were able to survive by feeding on Cry1Fa corn leaves. The SfBt population was maintained without selection for eight generations and shown to maintain high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa toxin. SfBt showed higher cross-resistance to Cry1Aa than to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins. As previously reported, Cry1A toxins competed the binding of Cry1Fa to brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from SfLab insects, explaining cross-resistance to Cry1A toxins. In contrast Cry2A toxins did not compete Cry1Fa binding to SfLab-BBMV and no cross-resistance to Cry2A was observed, although Cry2A toxins show low toxicity to S. frugiperda. Bioassays with Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod show that they are highly active against both the SfLab and the SfBt populations. The bioassay data reported here show that insects collected from Cry1Fa corn in the Cerrado region were resistant to Cry1Fa suggesting that resistance contributed to field failures of Cry1Fa corn to control S. frugiperda. PMID:25830928

  4. CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTROL CONSOLE FOR MTR FISSION PRODUCT MONITOR, USED TO DETECT BREAKS IN CLADDING OF FUEL ELEMENTS. COUNT-RATE METER IN TOP PANEL INDICATES AMOUNT OF RADIOACTIVITY. LOWER PANELS SUPPLY POWER AND AMPLIFICATION OF SIGNALS GENERATED BY SCINTILLATION COUNTER/PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE COMBINATION IN RESPONSE TO RADIOACTIVITY IN A SAMPLE OF THE COOLING WATER. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-771. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 3/15/1956. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. CRI planning and scheduling for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, Mads

    1994-01-01

    Computer Resources International (CRI) has many years of experience in developing space planning and scheduling systems for the European Space Agency. Activities range from AIT/AIV planning over mission planning to research in on-board autonomy using advanced planning and scheduling technologies in conjunction with model based diagnostics. This article presents four projects carried out for ESA by CRI with various subcontractors: (1) DI, Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems is an on-going research project; (2) GMPT, Generic Mission Planning Toolset, a feasibility study concluded in 1993; (3) OPTIMUM-AIV, Open Planning Tool for AIV, development of a knowledge based AIV planning and scheduling tool ended in 1992; and (4) PlanERS-1, development of an AI and knowledge-based mission planning prototype for the ERS-1 earth observation spacecraft ended in 1991.

  6. Identification of a Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba toxin-binding aminopeptidase from the mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mohd Amir F; Valaitis, Algimantas P; Dean, Donald H

    2006-01-01

    Background Aminopeptidase N (APN) type proteins isolated from several species of lepidopteran insects have been implicated as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin-binding proteins (receptors) for Cry toxins. We examined brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) proteins from the mosquito Anopheles quadrimaculatus to determine if APNs from this organism would bind mosquitocidal Cry toxins that are active to it. Results A 100-kDa protein with APN activity (APNAnq 100) was isolated from the brush border membrane of Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Native state binding analysis by surface plasmon resonance shows that APNAnq 100 forms tight binding to a mosquitocidal Bt toxin, Cry11Ba, but not to Cry2Aa, Cry4Ba or Cry11Aa. Conclusion An aminopeptidase from Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes is a specific binding protein for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11Ba. PMID:16716213

  7. Too many crying babies: a systematic review of pain management practices during immunizations on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early childhood immunizations, although vital for preventative health, are painful and too often lead to fear of needles. Effective pain management strategies during infant immunizations include breastfeeding, sweet solutions, and upright front-to-front holding. However, it is unknown how often these strategies are used in clinical practice. We aimed to review the content of YouTube videos showing infants being immunized to ascertain parents’ and health care professionals’ use of pain management strategies, as well as to assess infants’ pain and distress. Methods A systematic review of YouTube videos showing intramuscular injections in infants less than 12 months was completed using the search terms "baby injection" and "baby vaccine" to assess (1) the use of pain management strategies and (2) infant pain and distress. Pain was assessed by crying duration and pain scores using the FLACC (Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability) tool. Results A total of 142 videos were included and coded by two trained individual viewers. Most infants received one injection (range of one to six). Almost all (94%) infants cried before or during the injections for a median of 33 seconds (IQR = 39), up to 146 seconds. FLACC scores during the immunizations were high, with a median of 10 (IQR = 3). No videos showed breastfeeding or the use of sucrose/sweet solutions during the injection(s), and only four (3%) videos showed the infants being held in a front-to-front position during the injections. Distraction using talking or singing was the most commonly used (66%) pain management strategy. Conclusions YouTube videos of infants being immunized showed that infants were highly distressed during the procedures. There was no use of breastfeeding or sweet solutions and limited use of upright or front-to-front holding during the injections. This systematic review will be used as a baseline to evaluate the impact of future knowledge translation interventions using

  8. Simulation Training Versus Real Time Console Training for New Flight Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    For new flight controllers, the two main learning tools are simulations and real time console performance training. These benefit the new flight controllers in different ways and could possibly be improved. Simulations: a) Allow for mistakes without serious consequences. b) Lets new flight controllers learn the working style of other new flight controllers. c) Lets new flight controllers eventually begin to feel like they have mastered the sim world, so therefore they must be competent in the real time world too. Real time: a) Shows new flight controllers some of the unique problems that develop and have to be accounted for when dealing with certain payloads or systems. b) Lets new flight controllers experience handovers - gathering information from the previous shift on what the room needs to be aware of and what still needs to be done. c) Gives new flight controllers confidence that they can succeed in the position they are training for when they can solve real anomalies. How Sims could be improved and more like real-time ops for the ISS Operations Controller position: a) Operations Change Requests to review. b) Fewer anomalies (but still more than real time for practice). c) Payload Planning Manager Handover sheet for the E-1 and E-3 reviews. d) Flight note in system with at least one comment to verify for the E-1 and E-3 reviews How the real time console performance training could be improved for the ISS Operations Controller position: a) Schedule the new flight controller to be on console for four days but with a different certified person each day. This will force them to be the source of knowledge about every OCR in progress, everything that has happened in those few days, and every activity on the timeline. Constellation program flight controllers will have to learn entirely from simulations, thereby losing some of the elements that they will need to have experience with for real time ops. It may help them to practice real time console performance training

  9. A cadherin-like protein functions as a receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac toxins on midgut epithelial cells of Bombyx mori larvae.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hirotaka; Atsumi, Shogo; Yaoi, Katsuro; Nakanishi, Kazuko; Higurashi, Satoshi; Miura, Nami; Tabunoki, Hiroko; Sato, Ryoichi

    2003-03-13

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) and cadherin-like protein (BtR175) from Bombyx mori larvae were examined for their roles in Cry1Aa- and Cry1Ac-induced lysis of B. mori midgut epithelial cells (MECs). APNs and BtR175 were present in all areas of the midgut, were particularly abundant in the posterior region, and were found only on columnar cell microvilli and not on the lateral membrane that makes cell-cell contacts. This distribution was in accordance with the distribution of Cry1A-susceptible MECs in the midgut. The lytic activity of Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac on collagenase-dissociated MECs was linearly dependent on toxin concentration. Although pre-treatment of MECs with anti-BtR175 antibody was observed to partially inhibit the lytic activity exerted by 0.1-1 nM Cry1Aa toxin or 5 nM Cry1Ac toxin, no significant inhibition was observed when MECs were pre-treated with anti-APN antibody. These results suggest that BtR175 functions as a major receptor for Cry1A toxins in the midgut of B. mori larvae. PMID:12633848

  10. Isolation and characterization of native Cry j 3 from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, T.; Futamura, N.; Midoro-Horiuti, T.; Togawa, A.; Goldblum, R. M.; Yasueda, H.; Saito, A.; Shinohara, K.; Masuda, K.; Kurata, K.; Sakaguchi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollinosis is the most prevalent allergy in Japan. Recently, the Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j 3 was cloned as a homologue of Jun a 3, which is a major allergen from mountain cedar (Juniperus ashei) pollen. However, native Cry j 3 has not been isolated and there are no reports on its allergenic activity. The aims of this study were to isolate native Cry j 3 and assess its immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding capacity in patients with Japanese cedar pollinosis. Methods Native Cry j 3 was purified from Japanese cedar pollen by multidimensional chromatography. We assessed the IgE-binding capacity using sera from patients allergic to Japanese cedar pollen by immunoblot analysis and ELISA. Moreover, we assayed the capacity of Cry j 3 to induce histamine release from the patient’s leukocytes. We cloned cDNA corresponding to purified Cry j 3 from a cDNA library of Japanese cedar pollen. Results We isolated native Cry j 3 as a 27-kDa protein. The IgE-binding frequency of Cry j 3 from the sera of patients allergic to Japanese cedar pollen was estimated as 27% (27/100) by ELISA. Cry j 3 induced the release of histamine from leukocytes. We cloned the cDNA and named it Cry j 3.8. Cry j 3.8 cDNA encoded 225 amino acids and had significant homology with thaumatin-like proteins. Conclusions Cry j 3 is a causative allergen in Japanese cedar pollinosis and may play crucial roles in the cross-reactivity with oral allergy syndrome. PMID:17441795

  11. Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Antimicrobial Effects of Two Bt Cry Proteins on a GMO Safety Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Viana, Martônio Ponte; de Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Beneventi, Magda Aparecida; Soares, Bruno Marques; Pessoa, Claudia; Pessoa, Igor Parra; Silva, Luciano Paulino; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Grossi de Sá, Maria Fátima; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2014-01-01

    Studies have contested the innocuousness of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry proteins to mammalian cells as well as to mammals microbiota. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of two Cry proteins, Cry8Ka5 (a novel mutant protein) and Cry1Ac (a widely distributed protein in GM crops). Evaluation of cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes was performed as well as hemolytic activity coupled with cellular membrane topography analysis in mammal erythrocytes. Effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac upon Artemia sp. nauplii and upon bacteria and yeast growth were assessed. The toxins caused no significant effects on the viability (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) or to the cellular DNA integrity of lymphocytes (no effects at 1,000 µg/mL). The Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins did not cause severe damage to erythrocytes, neither with hemolysis (IC50 > 1,000 µg/mL) nor with alterations in the membrane. Likewise, the Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins presented high LC50 (755.11 and >1,000 µg/mL, resp.) on the brine shrimp lethality assay and showed no growth inhibition of the microorganisms tested (MIC > 1,000 µg/mL). This study contributed with valuable information on the effects of Cry8Ka5 and Cry1Ac proteins on nontarget organisms, which reinforce their potential for safe biotechnological applications. PMID:25165717

  12. Gender Differences in Physiological Reactivity to Infant Cries and Smiles in Military Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Albert L.; Nelson, John P.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Lucas, D. R.; Milner, Joel S.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty male and 29 female active-duty Air Force personnel viewed and listened to videotapes of a crying infant and a smiling infant while heart rate, skin resistance, and respiration rate were monitored. Males showed a larger increase in skin conductance and heart rate than females during the crying infant stimulus. (Author/CR)

  13. 1. Problem crying in infancy.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Harriet; Jordan, Brigid

    2004-11-01

    Up to 20% of parents report a problem with infant crying or irritability in the first 3 months of life. Crying usually peaks at 6 weeks and abates by 12-16 weeks. For most irritable infants, there is no underlying medical cause. In a minority, the cause is cow's milk and other food allergy. Only if frequent vomiting (about five times a day) occurs is gastro-oesophageal reflux a likely cause. It is important to assess the mother-infant relationship and maternal fatigue, anxiety and depression. Management of excessive crying includes: explaining babies' normal crying and sleeping patterns; helping parents help their baby deal with discomfort and distress through a baby-centred approach; helping parents recognise when their baby is tired and apply a consistent approach to settling their baby; encouraging parents to accept help from friends and family, and to simplify household tasks. If they are unable to manage their baby's crying, admission to a parenting centre (day stay or overnight stay) or local hospital should be arranged. PMID:15516199

  14. Learning about Cri du Chat Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... chat syndrome - also known as 5p- syndrome and cat cry syndrome - is a rare genetic condition that ... du chat syndrome usually include a high-pitched cat-like cry, mental retardation, delayed development, distinctive facial ...

  15. Functional significance of membrane associated proteolysis in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin against Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; Contreras, Estefanía; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are widely used as biocontrol agents in bioinsecticides and transgenic plants. In the three domain-Cry toxins, domain II has been identified as an important determinant of their highly specific activity against insects. In this work, we assessed the role in membrane associated proteolysis and toxicity in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) of a previously reported ADAM recognition motif present in Cry3Aa toxin domain II. We used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the Bacillus thuringiensis cry3A gene in amino acid residues 344, 346, 347, 351 and 353 of the ADAM recognition motif in Cry3Aa toxin. Cry3Aa toxin mutants displayed decreased toxicity when compared to the wild type toxin and impaired ability to compete CPB brush border membrane associated cleavage of an ADAM fluorogenic substrate. Although the proteolytic profile of Cry3Aa toxin mutants generated by brush border membrane associated proteases was similar to that of Cry3Aa toxin, the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline was less efficient on the proteolysis of mutants than on that of the wild type toxin. The relevance of the Cry3Aa-ADAM interaction through the predicted recognition sequence was further confirmed by analyzing the effect of membrane integrity disturbance on Cry3Aa toxin membrane associated proteolysis and CPB larvae toxicity. Data support that Cry3Aa proteolysis, as a result of the interaction with ADAM through the Cry3Aa recognition motif, is essential for Cry3Aa toxic action in CPB. Detailed knowledge of Cry3Aa interaction with CPB midgut membrane should facilitate the development of more effective Bt based products against this devastating pest and other Coleoptera. PMID:22884605

  16. Functional significance of membrane associated proteolysis in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin against Colorado potato beetle.

    PubMed

    García-Robles, Inmaculada; Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; Contreras, Estefanía; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina

    2012-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are widely used as biocontrol agents in bioinsecticides and transgenic plants. In the three domain-Cry toxins, domain II has been identified as an important determinant of their highly specific activity against insects. In this work, we assessed the role in membrane associated proteolysis and toxicity in Colorado potato beetle (CPB) of a previously reported ADAM recognition motif present in Cry3Aa toxin domain II. We used site-directed mutagenesis to modify the Bacillus thuringiensis cry3A gene in amino acid residues 344, 346, 347, 351 and 353 of the ADAM recognition motif in Cry3Aa toxin. Cry3Aa toxin mutants displayed decreased toxicity when compared to the wild type toxin and impaired ability to compete CPB brush border membrane associated cleavage of an ADAM fluorogenic substrate. Although the proteolytic profile of Cry3Aa toxin mutants generated by brush border membrane associated proteases was similar to that of Cry3Aa toxin, the metalloprotease inhibitor 1,10-phenanthroline was less efficient on the proteolysis of mutants than on that of the wild type toxin. The relevance of the Cry3Aa-ADAM interaction through the predicted recognition sequence was further confirmed by analyzing the effect of membrane integrity disturbance on Cry3Aa toxin membrane associated proteolysis and CPB larvae toxicity. Data support that Cry3Aa proteolysis, as a result of the interaction with ADAM through the Cry3Aa recognition motif, is essential for Cry3Aa toxic action in CPB. Detailed knowledge of Cry3Aa interaction with CPB midgut membrane should facilitate the development of more effective Bt based products against this devastating pest and other Coleoptera.

  17. Nitrogen regulates CRY1 phosphorylation and circadian clock input pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang-Hong; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Zheng, Chong; Yuan, Shu; He, Yikun

    2016-09-01

    The delayed flowering phenotype caused by nitrogen (N) fertilizer application has been known for a long time, but we know little about the specific molecular mechanism for this phenomenon before. Our study indicated that low nitrogen increases the NADPH/NADP(+) and ATP/AMP ratios which affect adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and phosphorylation and abundance of nuclear CRY1 protein. Then CRY1 acts in the N signal input pathway to the circadian clock. Here we further discuss: (1) the role of C/N ratio in flowering, (2) circadian oscillation of plant AMPK transcripts and proteins, (3) conservation of nutrition-mediated CRY1 phosphorylation and degradation, and (4) crosstalks between nitrogen signals and nitric oxide (NO) signals in flowering. PMID:27617369

  18. Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and Cry3BbL against the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Prasifka, P L; Rule, D M; Storer, N P; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W H

    2013-04-01

    Studies were conducted across nine U.S. states, over 5 yr, to characterize the efficacy of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids producing insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for control of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte. Hybrids tested had the same genetic background, contained one of two single events (DAS-59122-7 expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 or MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1) or a pyramid consisting of both rootworm-active events (SmartStax traits) and were compared with a non-Bt near isoline. Frequency analyses of root feeding data showed that hybrids containing both events sustained less root damage (0-3 node injury scale) than hybrids containing either event alone. The levels of root protection provided by MON 88017 and DAS-59122-7 were not different from each other. Efficacy was also evaluated based on consistency of protection, based on the proportion of plants with root ratings of either < or = 0.25 or < 1.00 on the node injury scale. The combination of two modes of action in SmartStax provided greater product consistency over a single mode of action at the 0.25 level and all hybrids producing Bt proteins provided equally high consistency at the 1.00 level. Overall these data show single and multiple mode of action hybrids provided high, consistent protection over the past 5 yr across the trial geography; however, pyramiding the rootworm Bt events provided greater and more consistent root protection. These findings also support that pyramided traits like SmartStax (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) remain a viable strategy for delaying resistance to either trait.

  19. Child Abuse: The Crying Baby at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, John

    The author considers the relationship between uncontrollable infant crying and child abuse. An integrative scheme is offered from evidence of child abuse literature, experimentally induced infant crying effects, attribution theory, and learned helplessness. It is suggested that infant crying often has causes beyond caregiver control, such as birth…

  20. Coping with Crying in Babies and Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Pamela High, MS, MD, co-director of the Infant Behavior, Cry and Sleep Clinic at the Brown Center for the Study of Children at Risk, discusses the phenomena of infant crying and the impact it has on families. In most cases, infant crying will peak and resolve in the early months, but infant irritability can increase the risk of maternal…

  1. Association of Cry1Ac Toxin Resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with Increased Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in the Midgut Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J.; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J.; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2012-01-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  2. Association of Cry1Ac toxin resistance in Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) with increased alkaline phosphatase levels in the midgut lumen.

    PubMed

    Caccia, Silvia; Moar, William J; Chandrashekhar, Jayadevi; Oppert, Cris; Anilkumar, Konasale J; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Ferré, Juan

    2012-08-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin was characterized in a population of Helicoverpa zea larvae previously shown not to have an alteration in toxin binding as the primary resistance mechanism to this toxin. Cry1Ac-selected larvae (AR1) were resistant to protoxins and toxins of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and the corresponding modified proteins lacking helix α-1 (Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod). When comparing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs) prepared from susceptible (LC) and AR1 larval midguts, there were only negligible differences in overall Cry1Ac toxin binding, though AR1 had 18% reversible binding, in contrast to LC, in which all binding was irreversible. However, no differences were detected in Cry1Ac-induced pore formation activity in BBMVs from both strains. Enzymatic activities of two putative Cry1Ac receptors (aminopeptidase N [APN] and alkaline phosphatase [ALP]) were significantly reduced (2-fold and 3-fold, respectively) in BBMVs from AR1 compared to LC larvae. These reductions corresponded to reduced protein levels in midgut luminal contents only in the case of ALP, with an almost 10-fold increase in specific ALP activity in midgut fluids from AR1 compared to LC larvae. Partially purified H. zea ALP bound Cry1Ac toxin in ligand blots and competed with Cry1Ac toxin for BBMV binding. Based on these results, we suggest the existence of at least one mechanism of resistance to Cry1A toxins in H. zea involving binding of Cry1Ac toxin to an ALP receptor in the larval midgut lumen of resistant larvae. PMID:22685140

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal three-domain Cry toxins: mode of action, insect resistance and consequences for crop protection.

    PubMed

    Pardo-López, Liliana; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis bacteria are insect pathogens that produce different Cry and Cyt toxins to kill their hosts. Here we review the group of three-domain Cry (3d-Cry) toxins. Expression of these 3d-Cry toxins in transgenic crops has contributed to efficient control of insect pests and a reduction in the use of chemical insecticides. The mode of action of 3d-Cry toxins involves sequential interactions with several insect midgut proteins that facilitate the formation of an oligomeric structure and induce its insertion into the membrane, forming a pore that kills midgut cells. We review recent progress in our understanding of the mechanism of action of these Cry toxins and focus our attention on the different mechanisms of resistance that insects have evolved to counter their action, such as mutations in cadherin, APN and ABC transporter genes. Activity of Cry1AMod toxins, which are able to form toxin oligomers in the absence of receptors, against different resistant populations, including those affected in the ABC transporter and the role of dominant negative mutants as antitoxins, supports the hypothesis that toxin oligomerization is a limiting step in the Cry insecticidal activity. Knowledge of the action of 3d-Cry toxin and the resistance mechanisms to these toxins will set the basis for a rational design of novel toxins to overcome insect resistance, extending the useful lifespan of Cry toxins in insect control programs.

  4. Three toxins, two receptors, one mechanism: Mode of action of Cry1A toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis in Heliothis virescens.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Anne; Heckel, David G; Pauchet, Yannick

    2016-09-01

    Insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are highly active against Lepidoptera. However, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins is on the rise. The 12-cadherin domain protein HevCaLP and the ABC transporter HevABCC2 are both genetically linked to Cry toxin resistance in Heliothis virescens. We investigated their interaction using stably expressing non-lytic clonal Sf9 cell lines expressing either protein or both together. Untransfected Sf9 cells are innately sensitive to Cry1Ca toxin, but not to Cry1A toxins; and quantitative PCR revealed negligible expression of genes involved in Cry1A toxicity such as cadherin, ABCC2, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aminopeptidase N (APN). Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac caused swelling of Sf9 cells expressing HevABCC2, and caused faster swelling, lysis and up to 86% mortality in cells expressing both proteins. No such effect was observed in control Sf9 cells or in cells expressing only HevCaLP. The results of a mixing experiment demonstrated that both proteins need to be expressed within the same cell for high cytotoxicity, and suggest a novel role for HevCaLP. Binding assays showed that the toxin-receptor interaction is specific. Our findings confirm that HevABCC2 is the central target in Cry1A toxin mode of action, and that HevCaLP plays a supporting role in increasing Cry1A toxicity. PMID:27456115

  5. Video game console usage and US national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    SciTech Connect

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah K.; Young, Scott J.; Donovan, Sally M.; Ganeshalingam, Mohan

    2014-10-23

    There has been an increased in attention placed on the energy consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads in buildings by energy analysts and policymakers in recent years. The share of electricity consumed by consumer electronics in US households has increased in the last decade. Many devices, however, lack robust energy use data, making energy consumption estimates difficult and uncertain. Video game consoles are high-performance machines present in approximately half of all households and can consume a considerable amount of power. The precise usage of game consoles has significant uncertainty, however, leading to a wide range of recent national energy consumption estimates. We present here an analysis based on field-metered usage data, collected as part of a larger field metering study in the USA. This larger study collected data from 880 households in 2012 on a variety of devices, including 113 game consoles (the majority of which are Generation 7 consoles). From our metering, we find that although some consoles are left on nearly 24 h/day, the overall average usage is lower than many other studies have assumed, leading to a US national energy consumption estimate of 7.1 TWh in 2012. Nevertheless, there is an opportunity to reduce energy use with proper game console power management, as a substantial amount of game console usage occurs with the television turned off. The emergence of Generation 8 consoles may increase national energy consumption.

  6. Video game console usage and US national energy consumption: Results from a field-metering study

    DOE PAGES

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Claybaugh, Erin; Beraki, Bereket; Nagaraju, Mythri; Price, Sarah K.; Young, Scott J.; Donovan, Sally M.; et al

    2014-10-23

    There has been an increased in attention placed on the energy consumption of miscellaneous electronic loads in buildings by energy analysts and policymakers in recent years. The share of electricity consumed by consumer electronics in US households has increased in the last decade. Many devices, however, lack robust energy use data, making energy consumption estimates difficult and uncertain. Video game consoles are high-performance machines present in approximately half of all households and can consume a considerable amount of power. The precise usage of game consoles has significant uncertainty, however, leading to a wide range of recent national energy consumption estimates.more » We present here an analysis based on field-metered usage data, collected as part of a larger field metering study in the USA. This larger study collected data from 880 households in 2012 on a variety of devices, including 113 game consoles (the majority of which are Generation 7 consoles). From our metering, we find that although some consoles are left on nearly 24 h/day, the overall average usage is lower than many other studies have assumed, leading to a US national energy consumption estimate of 7.1 TWh in 2012. Nevertheless, there is an opportunity to reduce energy use with proper game console power management, as a substantial amount of game console usage occurs with the television turned off. The emergence of Generation 8 consoles may increase national energy consumption.« less

  7. Effects of Knowledge Representation during Computer-Based Training of Console Operation Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, John D.; Regian, J. Wesley

    Console-operation skill is procedural knowledge of control panel actions. The console operator must select appropriate sequences of steps (e.g., setting dials, pressing buttons, etc.) as mandated by desired goals and subgoals. A computer-based training (CBT) environment can simulate an environment where knowledge acquisition is efficiently and…

  8. 9. PAYLOAD CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR EAST WALL OF SLC3W CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. PAYLOAD CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR EAST WALL OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. PAYLOAD CONTROLS INSTALLED IN CONSOLE BY THE PAYLOAD SPONSOR PRIOR TO EACH LAUNCH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 13. DETAIL OF CENTER OF CENTRAL CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC3W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF CENTER OF CENTRAL CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM SHOWING USAF LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND ASSISTANT USAF LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS. CONSOLES AND CHAIRS NEAR NORTH WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Co-Evolution of Mobile Language Learning: Going Global with Games Consoles in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Akiko; Narumi-Munro, Fumiko; Alexander, Wilma; Parker, Helen; Yamauchi, Yoko

    2014-01-01

    Game consoles have been adopted as a learning platform in school education. However, there is a scarcity of studies examining the utility of games consoles with built-in WiFi as affordable learning platforms in universities. This paper contributes to knowledge about the capacity of the Nintendo DSi to create new learning spaces mediated and…

  11. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CONTEXTUAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, NORTH HALF. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF INSTRUMENT PANELS, DATA CONSOLES, AND OTHER INDICATOR DISPLAYS. CAMERA FACES EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-17-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. 10. PAYLOAD CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR SOUTH WALL OF SLC3W CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. PAYLOAD CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR SOUTH WALL OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. DECALS ON CONSOLE IN FOREGROUND INDICATE PAYLOAD PROGRAMS LAUNCHED FROM SLC-3W. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. The theoretical three-dimensional structure of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry5Aa and its biological implications.

    PubMed

    Xin-Min, Zhao; Li-Qiu, Xia; Xue-Zhi, Ding; Fa-Xiang, Wang

    2009-02-01

    Cry5Aa is a crystal protein produced by Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. damstadiensis during its stationary phase, this delta-endotoxin is active against nematodes and has great potential for nematodes control. The theoretical model of the three-dimensional structure of Cry5Aa was predicted by homology modeling on the structures of the Cry1Aa which is specific to Lepidopteran insects. The structure of the Cry5Aa resembles previously reported Cry toxin structures but shows the following distinctions. Cry5Aa has a long insertion in alpha2 of domain I. Some loops in the domain II and III of Cry5Aa are exposed to the solvent. In this work we give a brief description of our model and hypothesize the residues of the Cry5Aa that could be important in receptor recognition and pore formation. This model will be helpful for the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed to the improvement of toxicity, and lead to a deep understanding of the mechanism of action of nematicidal toxins.

  14. Sympathy Crying: Insights from Infrared Thermal Imaging on a Female Sample

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Paul; Terry, Samantha; Baker, Marc; Gallese, Vittorio; Reddy, Vasudevi

    2016-01-01

    Sympathy crying is an odd and complex mixture of physiological and emotional phenomena. Standard psychophysiological theories of emotion cannot attribute crying to a single subdivision of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and disagreement exists regarding the emotional origin of sympathy crying. The current experiment examines sympathy crying using functional thermal infrared imaging (FTII), a novel contactless measure of ANS activity. To induce crying female participants were given the choice to decide which film they wanted to cry to. Compared to baseline, temperature started increasing on the forehead, the peri-orbital region, the cheeks and the chin before crying and reached even higher temperatures during crying. The maxillary area showed the opposite pattern and a gradual temperature decrease was observed compared to baseline as a result of emotional sweating. The results suggest that tears of sympathy are part of a complex autonomic interaction between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems, with the latter preceding the former. The emotional origin of the phenomenon seems to derive from subjective internal factors that relate to one’s personal experiences and attributes with tears arising in the form of catharses or as part of shared sadness. PMID:27716801

  15. Is crying a self-soothing behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Gračanin, Asmir; Bylsma, Lauren M.; Vingerhoets, Ad J. J. M.

    2014-01-01

    This contribution describes the current state-of-the-art of the scientific literature regarding the self-soothing effects of crying. Starting from the general hypothesis that crying is a self-soothing behavior, we consider different mechanisms through which these effects may appear. In the first section, we briefly explain the main functions of human crying. Then we define self-soothing in terms of homeostatic processes of mood regulation and stress reduction and we underline the importance of distinguishing self-soothing effects of crying from social-soothing that it may elicit. We then provide a comprehensive review of the putative mood-enhancing and -relieving effects of crying and their variations stemming from characteristics of crying person, antecedents, manifestations, and social consequences of crying. We also discuss the possible methodological explanations for the seemingly discrepant findings regarding mood improvement and relief that may follow crying. We then provide theoretical and empirical support for our general hypothesis that crying is a self-soothing behavior by presenting and evaluating the possible physiological, cognitive, and behavioral mechanisms that may play a mediating role in the relationship between crying and homeostatic regulation that includes mood improvement and relief. Starting from the idea that social-soothing and self-soothing mechanisms share the same physiological systems, we propose that biological processes act in parallel with learning and reappraisal processes that accompany crying, which results in homeostatic regulation. Given the parallels between self-soothing behaviors in humans and animals, we also propose that crying might self-soothe through a mechanism that shares key properties with rhythmical, stereotypic behaviors. We conclude that, in addition to the importance of socially mediated mechanisms for the mood-enhancing effects of crying, there is converging evidence for the direct, self-soothing effects of

  16. 15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NBS TOP SIDE CONTROL ROOM. THE SUIT SYSTEMS CONSOLE IS USED TO CONTROL AIR FLOW AND WATER FLOW TO THE UNDERWATER SPACE SUIT DURING THE TEST. THE SUIT SYSTEMS ENGINEER MONITORS AIR FLOW ON THE PANEL TO THE LEFT, AND SUIT DATA ON THE COMPUTER MONITOR JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS LEFT. WATER FLOW IS MONITORED ON THE PANEL JUST SLIGHTLY TO HIS RIGHT AND TEST VIDEO TO HIS FAR RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF MONITORS THE DIVER'S DIVE TIMES ON THE COMPUTER IN THE UPPER RIGHT. THE DECK CHIEF LOGS THEM IN AS THEY ENTER THE WATER, AND LOGS THEM OUT AS THEY EXIT THE WATER. THE COMPUTER CALCULATES TOTAL DIVE TIME. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. EBR-II fuel handling console digital upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, G.G.; Wiege, D.D.; Christensen, L.J.

    1995-06-01

    The main fuel handling console and control system at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) are being upgraded to a computerized system using high-end workstations for the operator interface and a programmable logic controller (PLC) for the control system. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics will be provided for the operator which will show the relative position of under-sodium fuel handling equipment. This equipment is operated remotely with no means of directly viewing the transfer. This paper describes various aspects of the modification including reasons for the upgrade, capabilities the new system provides over the old control system, philosophies and rationale behind the new design, testing and simulation work, diagnostic features, and the advanced graphics techniques used to display information to the operator.

  18. A Data-Based Console Logger for Mission Operations Team Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronesbery, Carroll; Malin, Jane T.; Jenks, Kenneth; Overland, David; Oliver, Patrick; Zhang, Jiajie; Gong, Yang; Zhang, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Concepts and prototypes1,2 are discussed for a data-based console logger (D-Logger) to meet new challenges for coordination among flight controllers arising from new exploration mission concepts. The challenges include communication delays, increased crew autonomy, multiple concurrent missions, reduced-size flight support teams that include multidisciplinary flight controllers during quiescent periods, and migrating some flight support activities to flight controller offices. A spiral development approach has been adopted, making simple, but useful functions available early and adding more extensive support later. Evaluations have guided the development of the D-Logger from the beginning and continue to provide valuable user influence about upcoming requirements. D-Logger is part of a suite of tools designed to support future operations personnel and crew. While these tools can be used independently, when used together, they provide yet another level of support by interacting with one another. Recommendations are offered for the development of similar projects.

  19. Objective confirmation of crying durations in infants referred for excessive crying.

    PubMed Central

    St James-Roberts, I; Hurry, J; Bowyer, J

    1993-01-01

    Parents commonly seek clinicians' help for infant crying that they judge to be excessive. To date there is no independent evidence whether such babies actually cry more than average. To assess this, maternal diary and 24 hour audiotape recordings of the crying periods of 16 infants referred for excessive crying were compared with equivalent measures of a normative sample. The overall amounts of crying measured by the two methods were similar. The referred infants cried substantially more over 24 hours and in the afternoon and evening. The difference approached significance in the morning but was insignificant at night time. Some qualifications to the findings are indicated. PMID:8435015

  20. Histopathological effects and determination of the putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Da toxin in Spodoptera littoralis midgut.

    PubMed

    BenFarhat-Touzri, Dalel; Saadaoui, Marwa; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Saadaoui, Imen; Azzouz, Hichem; Tounsi, Slim

    2013-02-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. aizawai strain HD133, known by its effectiveness against Spodoptera species, produces many insecticidal proteins including Cry1Ab, Cry1Ca and Cry1Da. In the present study, the insecticidal activity of Cry1Da against Spodoptera littoralis was investigated. It showed toxicity with an LC(50) of 224.4 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (178.61-270.19) and an LC(90) of 467.77 ng/cm(2) with 95% confidence limits of (392.89-542.65). The midgut histopathology of Cry1Da fed larvae showed vesicle formation in the apical region, vacuolization and destruction of epithelial cells. Biotinylated-activated Cry1Da toxin bound protein of about 65 kDa on blots of S. littoralis brush border membrane preparations. This putative receptor differs in molecular size from those recognized by Cry1C and Vip3A which are active against this polyphagous insect. This difference in midgut receptors strongly supports the use of Cry1Da as insecticidal agent, particularly in case of Cry and/or Vip-resistance management. PMID:23220238

  1. Identification of an alkaline phosphatase as a putative Cry1Ac binding protein in Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Jin, Tingting; Duan, Xiaoli; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai

    2016-07-01

    Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, is an important insect pest of maize susceptible to different Cry1A toxins. Based on amino acid sequence alignment of ALP sequences from lepidopteran larvae an alp gene was cloned from ACB, named ofalp. Pull dawn assays using biotinylated Cry1Ac and brush border membrane vesicles isolated from second instar ACB larvae showed that four proteins of 50, 65, 68 and 70kDa precipitated with the Cry1Ac. The 65kDa band cross-reacted with the anti-OfALP monoclonal antibody. GalNac was able to release the binding of Cry1Ac to the 65kDa OfALP in pull down assays. A 37kDa fragment from residues D173 to D473 of OfALP was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. We show that this ALP-fragment was able to bind Cry1Ac in ligand blot analysis. Our data also indicate that different ALP isoforms or variants may be also Cry1Ac binding proteins since more ALP enzymatic activity was pull down with Cry1Ac than with anti-OfALP antibody. We also analyzed the expression levels of ALP throughout the larval development by qPCR and ALP enzymatic activity. Our data indicated that ALP expression in ACB was observed preferentially in young instar larvae. Finally, we show that resistance in O. furnacalis ACB-AcR strain resistant to Cry1Ac did not correlate with changes in expression of this ALP protein since it shows similar gene expression of ofalp than the susceptible insect strain. Identification of Cry1Ac receptors will help to understand mechanism of action of Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis and to understand mechanism of Cry toxin resistance. Our data indicate that at least one ALP protein is involved in the binding interaction with Cry1Ac in O. furnacalis. PMID:27265829

  2. Toxicity and mode of action of insecticidal Cry1A proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in an insect cell line, CF-1.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Leivi; Gringorten, J Lawrence; Caputo, Guido F; Soberón, Mario; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Bravo, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins used to control insect pests. The interaction of Cry toxins with the midgut of susceptible insects is a dynamic process involving activation of the toxin, binding to midgut receptors in the apical epithelium and conformational changes in the toxin molecule, leading to pore formation and cell lysis. An understanding of the molecular events underlying toxin mode of action is essential for the continued use of Cry toxins. In this work, we examined the mechanism of action of Cry1A toxins in the lepidopteran cell line CF-1, using native Cry1Ab and mutant forms of this protein that interfer with different steps in the mechanism of action, specifically, receptor binding, oligomerization or pore formation. These mutants lost activity against both Manduca sexta larvae and CF-1 cells. We also analyzed a mutation created in domain I of Cry1Ab, in which helix α-1 and part of helix α-2 were deleted (Cry1AbMod). Cry1AbMod is able to oligomerize in the absence of toxin receptors, and although it shows reduced activity against some susceptible insects, it kills insect pests that have developed resistance to native Cry1Ab. Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to CF-1, suggesting that oligomerization of native Cry1Ab may be a limiting step in its activity against CF-1 cells. The toxicity of Cry1Ac and Cry1AcMod were also analyzed. Our results suggest that some of the steps in the mode of action of Cry1A toxins are conserved in vivo in insect midgut cells and in vitro in an established cell line, CF-1. PMID:24189038

  3. Toxicity and mode of action of insecticidal Cry1A proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis in an insect cell line, CF-1.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Leivi; Gringorten, J Lawrence; Caputo, Guido F; Soberón, Mario; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Bravo, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are insecticidal proteins used to control insect pests. The interaction of Cry toxins with the midgut of susceptible insects is a dynamic process involving activation of the toxin, binding to midgut receptors in the apical epithelium and conformational changes in the toxin molecule, leading to pore formation and cell lysis. An understanding of the molecular events underlying toxin mode of action is essential for the continued use of Cry toxins. In this work, we examined the mechanism of action of Cry1A toxins in the lepidopteran cell line CF-1, using native Cry1Ab and mutant forms of this protein that interfer with different steps in the mechanism of action, specifically, receptor binding, oligomerization or pore formation. These mutants lost activity against both Manduca sexta larvae and CF-1 cells. We also analyzed a mutation created in domain I of Cry1Ab, in which helix α-1 and part of helix α-2 were deleted (Cry1AbMod). Cry1AbMod is able to oligomerize in the absence of toxin receptors, and although it shows reduced activity against some susceptible insects, it kills insect pests that have developed resistance to native Cry1Ab. Cry1AbMod showed enhanced toxicity to CF-1, suggesting that oligomerization of native Cry1Ab may be a limiting step in its activity against CF-1 cells. The toxicity of Cry1Ac and Cry1AcMod were also analyzed. Our results suggest that some of the steps in the mode of action of Cry1A toxins are conserved in vivo in insect midgut cells and in vitro in an established cell line, CF-1.

  4. Identification of a New cry1I-Type Gene as a Candidate for Gene Pyramiding in Corn To Control Ostrinia Species Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Can; Abdelgaffar, Heba M.; Pan, Hongyu; Song, Fuping

    2015-01-01

    Pyramiding of diverse cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis with different modes of action is a desirable strategy to delay the evolution of resistance in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Considering the dependency of susceptibility to Cry toxins on toxin binding to receptors in the midgut of target pests, a diverse mode of action is commonly defined as recognition of unique binding sites in the target insect. In this study, we present a novel cry1Ie toxin gene (cry1Ie2) as a candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to control Ostrinia species larvae. The new toxin gene encodes an 81-kDa protein that is processed to a protease-resistant core form of approximately 55 kDa by trypsin digestion. The purified protoxin displayed high toxicity to Ostrinia furnacalis and O. nubilalis larvae but low to no activity against Spodoptera or heliothine species or the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor. Results of binding assays with 125I-labeled Cry1Ab toxin and brush border membrane vesicles from O. nubilalis larvae demonstrated that Cry1Ie2 does not recognize the Cry1Ab binding sites in that insect. Reciprocal competition binding assays with biotin-labeled Cry1Ie2 confirmed the lack of shared sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis brush border membrane vesicles. These data support Cry1Ie2 as a good candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to increase the control of O. nubilalis and reduce the risk of resistance evolution. PMID:25795679

  5. Identification of a New cry1I-Type Gene as a Candidate for Gene Pyramiding in Corn To Control Ostrinia Species Larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Can; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Abdelgaffar, Heba M; Pan, Hongyu; Song, Fuping; Zhang, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Pyramiding of diverse cry toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis with different modes of action is a desirable strategy to delay the evolution of resistance in the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis). Considering the dependency of susceptibility to Cry toxins on toxin binding to receptors in the midgut of target pests, a diverse mode of action is commonly defined as recognition of unique binding sites in the target insect. In this study, we present a novel cry1Ie toxin gene (cry1Ie2) as a candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to control Ostrinia species larvae. The new toxin gene encodes an 81-kDa protein that is processed to a protease-resistant core form of approximately 55 kDa by trypsin digestion. The purified protoxin displayed high toxicity to Ostrinia furnacalis and O. nubilalis larvae but low to no activity against Spodoptera or heliothine species or the coleopteran Tenebrio molitor. Results of binding assays with (125)I-labeled Cry1Ab toxin and brush border membrane vesicles from O. nubilalis larvae demonstrated that Cry1Ie2 does not recognize the Cry1Ab binding sites in that insect. Reciprocal competition binding assays with biotin-labeled Cry1Ie2 confirmed the lack of shared sites with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis brush border membrane vesicles. These data support Cry1Ie2 as a good candidate for pyramiding with Cry1Ab or Cry1Fa in corn to increase the control of O. nubilalis and reduce the risk of resistance evolution. PMID:25795679

  6. RNAi induced knockdown of a cadherin-like protein (EF531715) does not affect toxicity of Cry34/35Ab1 or Cry3Aa to Diabrotica virgifera virgifera larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Tan, Sek Yee; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Wang, Haichuan; Vélez, Ana María; Hasler, James; McCaskill, David; Xu, Tao; Chen, Hong; Jurzenski, Jessica; Kelker, Matthew; Xu, Xiaoping; Narva, Kenneth; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-08-01

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is an important maize pest throughout most of the U.S. Corn Belt. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins including modified Cry3Aa and Cry34/35Ab1 have been expressed in transgenic maize to protect against WCR feeding damage. To date, there is limited information regarding the WCR midgut target sites for these proteins. In this study, we examined whether a cadherin-like gene from Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (DvvCad; GenBank accession # EF531715) associated with WCR larval midgut tissue is necessary for Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 toxicity. Experiments were designed to examine the sensitivity of WCR to trypsin activated Cry3Aa and Cry34/35Ab1 after oral feeding of the DvvCad dsRNA to knockdown gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that DvvCad mRNA transcript levels were reduced in larvae treated with cadherin dsRNA. Relative cadherin expression by immunoblot analysis and nano-liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS) of WCR neonate brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) preparations exposed to DvvCad dsRNA confirmed reduced cadherin expression when compared to BBMV from untreated larvae. However, the larval mortality and growth inhibition of WCR neonates exposed to cadherin dsRNA for two days followed by feeding exposure to either Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 for four days was not significantly different to that observed in insects exposed to either Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 alone. In combination, these results suggest that cadherin is unlikely to be involved in the toxicity of Cry3Aa or Cry34/35Ab1 to WCR. PMID:27334721

  7. Bonobos Respond to Distress in Others: Consolation across the Age Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Clay, Zanna; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2013-01-01

    How animals respond to conflict provides key insights into the evolution of socio-cognitive and emotional capacities. Evidence from apes has shown that, after social conflicts, bystanders approach victims of aggression to offer stress-alleviating contact behavior, a phenomenon known as consolation. This other-orientated behavior depends on sensitivity to the other's emotional state, whereby the consoler acts to ameliorate the other's situation. We examined post-conflict interactions in bonobos (Pan paniscus) to identify the determinants of consolation and reconciliation. Thirty-six semi-free bonobos of all ages were observed at the Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary, DR Congo, using standardized Post-conflict/Matched Control methods. Across age and sex classes, bonobos consoled victims and reconciled after conflicts using a suite of affiliative and socio-sexual behaviors including embracing, touching, and mounting. Juveniles were more likely to console than adults, challenging the assumption that comfort-giving rests on advanced cognitive mechanisms that emerge only with age. Mother-reared individuals were more likely to console than orphans, highlighting the role of rearing in emotional development. Consistent with previous studies, bystanders were more likely to console relatives or closely bonded partners. Effects of kinship, affiliation and rearing were similarly indicated in patterns of reconciliation. Nearby bystanders were significantly more likely to contact victims than more distal ones, and consolation was more likely in non-food contexts than during feeding. The results did not provide convincing evidence that bystander contacts served for self-protection or as substitutes for reconciliation. Overall, results indicate that a suite of social, developmental and contextual factors underlie consolation and reconciliation in bonobos and that a sensitivity to the emotions of others and the ability to provide appropriate consolatory behaviors emerges early in development

  8. Mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry and Cyt toxins and their potential for insect control.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Alejandra; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario

    2007-03-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal (Cry) and Cytolitic (Cyt) protein families are a diverse group of proteins with activity against insects of different orders--Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and also against other invertebrates such as nematodes. Their primary action is to lyse midgut epithelial cells by inserting into the target membrane and forming pores. Among this group of proteins, members of the 3-Domain Cry family are used worldwide for insect control, and their mode of action has been characterized in some detail. Phylogenetic analyses established that the diversity of the 3-Domain Cry family evolved by the independent evolution of the three domains and by swapping of domain III among toxins. Like other pore-forming toxins (PFT) that affect mammals, Cry toxins interact with specific receptors located on the host cell surface and are activated by host proteases following receptor binding resulting in the formation of a pre-pore oligomeric structure that is insertion competent. In contrast, Cyt toxins directly interact with membrane lipids and insert into the membrane. Recent evidence suggests that Cyt synergize or overcome resistance to mosquitocidal-Cry proteins by functioning as a Cry-membrane bound receptor. In this review we summarize recent findings on the mode of action of Cry and Cyt toxins, and compare them to the mode of action of other bacterial PFT. Also, we discuss their use in the control of agricultural insect pests and insect vectors of human diseases. PMID:17198720

  9. Intravital imaging of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin binding sites in the midgut of silkworm.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Jing; Han, Heyou; Huang, Liang; Shao, Feng; Li, Xuepu

    2014-02-15

    Identification of the resistance mechanism of insects against Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin is becoming an increasingly challenging task. This fact highlights the need for establishing new methods to further explore the molecular interactions of Cry1A toxin with insects and the receptor-binding region of Cry1A toxins for their wider application as biopesticides and a gene source for gene-modified crops. In this contribution, a quantum dot-based near-infrared fluorescence imaging method has been applied for direct dynamic tracking of the specific binding of Cry1A toxins, CrylAa and CrylAc, to the midgut tissue of silkworm. The in vitro fluorescence imaging displayed the higher binding specificity of CrylAa-QD probes compared to CrylAc-QD to the brush border membrane vesicles of midgut from silkworm. The in vivo imaging demonstrated that more CrylAa-QDs binding to silkworm midgut could be effectively and distinctly monitored in living silkworms. Furthermore, frozen section analysis clearly indicated the broader receptor-binding region of Cry1Aa compared to that of Cry1Ac in the midgut part. These observations suggest that the insecticidal activity of Cry toxins may depend on the receptor-binding sites, and this scatheless and visual near-infrared fluorescence imaging could provide a new avenue to study the resistance mechanism to maintain the insecticidal activity of B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:24252542

  10. Can Newborns Discriminate between Their Own Cry and the Cry of Another Newborn Infant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dondi, Marco; Simion, Francesca; Caltran, Giovanna

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments tested whether newborns could discriminate their own and another newborn's cry. Results indicated that awake newborns expressed facial distress more frequently and longer to another newborn's cry than to their own. Sucking decreased significantly between pretest phase and first minute of another infant's cry. Asleep infants'…

  11. The blue light-dependent phosphorylation of the CCE domain determines the photosensitivity of Arabidopsis CRY2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Barshop, William D; Bian, Mingdi; Vashisht, Ajay A; He, Reqing; Yu, Xuhong; Liu, Bin; Nguyen, Paula; Liu, Xuanming; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wohlschlegel, James A; Lin, Chentao

    2015-04-01

    Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) is a blue light receptor that mediates light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and long-day promotion of floral initiation. CRY2 is known to undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation, which is believed to serve regulatory roles in the function of CRY2. We report here on a biochemical and genetics study of CRY2 phosphorylation. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we identified three serine residues in the CCE domain of CRY2 (S588, S599, and S605) that undergo blue light-dependent phosphorylation in Arabidopsis seedlings. A study of serine-substitution mutations in the CCE domain of CRY2 demonstrates that CRY2 contains two types of phosphorylation in the CCE domain, one in the serine cluster that causes electrophoretic mobility upshift and the other outside the serine cluster that does not seem to cause mobility upshift. We showed that mutations in the serine residues within and outside the serine cluster diminished blue light-dependent CRY2 phosphorylation, degradation, and physiological activities. These results support the hypothesis that blue light-dependent phosphorylation of the CCE domain determines the photosensitivity of Arabidopsis CRY2.

  12. Bactrian camel nanobody-based immunoassay for specific and sensitive detection of Cry1Fa toxin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pingyan; Li, Guanghui; Yan, Junrong; Hu, Yonghong; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Xianjin; Wan, Yakun

    2014-12-15

    The variable domain of the heavy-chain-only antibody (VHH) or nanobody (Nb), derived from camelids, begins to play an important role on the detection of protein markers. In this study, we constructed a phage-displayed library of VHHs against Cry1Fa by immunizing a healthy Bactrian camel with Cry1Fa toxin. After a series of bio-panning and screening by phage display technology, three anti-Cry1Fa nanobodies (Nbs) with great difference in complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) were obtained and they were highly specific to Cry1Fa as well as showed full of activity when exposed to 70 °C for 3 h. Through modifying Nbs with Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP) and biotin, two Nbs which can recognize the different epitopes of Cry1Fa were determined and they were used to establish a novel sandwich immune ELISA based on biotin-SA interaction for Cry1Fa detection. The immunoassay exhibited a linear range from 1 to 100 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.88 ng/mL. The recoveries from spiked corn and soybean samples were ranged from 83.33 to 117.17%, with a coefficient of variation (C.V) less than 6.0%. All together, the proposed immunoassay will be a promising way for sensitive and accurate determination of Cry1Fa toxin. PMID:25448390

  13. Isolation and characterization of a new Bacillus thuringiensis strain Lip harboring a new cry1Aa gene highly toxic to Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Micheline; Azzouz, Hichem; Chavanieu, Alain; Abdelmalak, Nouha; Chopineau, Joël; Awad, Mireille Kallassy

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize new Bacillus thuringiensis strains that have a potent insecticidal activity against Ephestia kuehniella larvae. Strains harboring cry1A genes were tested for their toxicity, and the Lip strain showed a higher insecticidal activity compared to that of the reference strain HD1 (LC50 of Lip and HD1 were 33.27 and 128.61 μg toxin/g semolina, respectively). B. thuringiensis Lip harbors and expresses cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ad and cry2A. DNA sequencing revealed several polymorphisms in Lip Cry1Aa and Cry1Ac compared to the corresponding proteins of HD1. The activation process using Ephestia kuehniella midgut juice showed that Lip Cry1A proteins were more stable in the presence of larval proteases. Moreover, LipCry1A proteins exhibited higher insecticidal activity against these larvae. These results indicate that Lip is an interesting strain that could be used as an alternative to the worldwide used strain HD1.

  14. Differential Brain Responses to Cries of Infants with Autistic Disorder and Typical Development: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Venuti, Paola; Caria, Andrea; Esposito, Gianluca; De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; de Falco, Simona

    2012-01-01

    This study used fMRI to measure brain activity during adult processing of cries of infants with autistic disorder (AD) compared to cries of typically developing (TD) infants. Using whole brain analysis, we found that cries of infants with AD compared to those of TD infants elicited enhanced activity in brain regions associated with verbal and prosodic processing, perhaps because altered acoustic patterns of AD cries render them especially difficult to interpret, and increased activity in brain regions associated with emotional processing, indicating that AD cries also elicit more negative feelings and may be perceived as more aversive and/or arousing. Perceived distress engendered by AD cries related to increased activation in brain regions associated with emotional processing. This study supports the hypothesis that cry is an early and meaningful anomaly displayed by children with AD. It could be that cries associated with AD alter parent-child interactions much earlier than the time that reliable AD diagnosis normally occurs. PMID:22835685

  15. Psychophysiological Responses to an Infant Cry: Comparison of Groups of Women in Different Phases of the Maternal Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleichfeld, Bruce; Moely, Barbara E.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates psychophysiological reactions of 60 women to an infant's cry and to a control sound. The 30-second pain cry evoked greater cardiac and electrodermal activity than did the control stimulus, although selected groups varied in the nature and extent of their reactions. Both maternal state and experience with infants affected reactions.…

  16. 77 FR 43118 - Certain Gaming and Entertainment Consoles, Related Software, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... 6, 2012 (77 FR 40082) contained an error that incorrectly identified ``337-TA-745'' as the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Gaming and Entertainment Consoles, Related Software, and Components Thereof; Notice...

  17. 11. CENTRAL ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC3W CONTROL ROOM. COMMUNICATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. CENTRAL ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE IN SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. COMMUNICATIONS HEADSETS IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Mass flow calibration of the helios CL1 and CL2 laser control consoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentman, L. H.; Theodoropoulos, P.; Gumus, A.

    1986-08-01

    Calibration curves of laser control console pressure versus mass flow rate for the four input species H2, SF6, O2 and He were measured for the single and two channel laser control consoles. Several interesting phenomena were observed. The mass flow meter choked unless placed upstream of the flow control orifice and a laminar to turbulent transition occurred in the flow control orifice.

  19. Phosphorylation Regulating the Ratio of Intracellular CRY1 Protein Determines the Circadian Period

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Eric Erquan

    2016-01-01

    The core circadian oscillator in mammals is composed of transcription/translation feedback loop, in which cryptochrome (CRY) proteins play critical roles as repressors of their own gene expression. Although post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation of CRY1, are crucial for circadian rhythm, little is known about how phosphorylated CRY1 contributes to the molecular clockwork. To address this, we created a series of CRY1 mutants with single amino acid substitutions at potential phosphorylation sites and performed a cell-based, phenotype-rescuing screen to identify mutants with aberrant rhythmicity in CRY-deficient cells. We report 10 mutants with an abnormal circadian period length, including long period (S280D and S588D), short period (S158D, S247D, T249D, Y266D, Y273D, and Y432D), and arrhythmicity (S71D and S404D). When expressing mutated CRY1 in HEK293 cells, we show that most of the mutants (S71D, S247D, T249D, Y266D, Y273D, and Y432D) exhibited reduction in repression activity compared with wild-type (WT) CRY1, whereas other mutants had no obvious change. Correspondingly, these mutants also showed differences in protein stability and cellular localization. We show that most of mutants are more stable than WT, except S158D, T249D, and S280D. Although the characteristics of the 10 mutants are various, they all impair the ratio balance of intracellular CRY1 protein. Thus, we conclude that the mutations caused distinct phenotypes most likely through the ratio of functional CRY1 protein in cells. PMID:27721804

  20. The effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry6A on the survival, growth, reproduction, locomotion, and behavioral response of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui; Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Qiaoni; Xia, Liqiu; Yu, Ziquan

    2013-12-01

    Several families of crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis exhibit nematicidal activity. Cry5B protein, a pore-forming toxin, has been intensively studied yielding many insights into the mode of action of crystal protein at molecular level and pathogenesis of pore-forming toxins. However, little attention was paid to Cry6A, another representative nematicidal crystal protein. Cry6A shares very low homology with Cry5B at amino acid sequence and probably acts in a distinct pathway from Cry5B and even the other main commercial crystal proteins. In the current study, we comprehensively investigated the nematicidal properties of Cry6Aa2 against the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and examined the physical response of C. elegans to Cry6Aa2 attack. Our results indicate that Cry6Aa2 exhibits high lethal activity to C. elegans and could cause detrimental effects on C. elegans, including obviously suppressed growth, decreased brood size, and even abnormal motility. Meanwhile, our study additionally shows that C. elegans could defend against the Cry6Aa2 toxin harmful threat through behavioral defense responses, such as reduced oral uptake and physical avoidance. In general, this study suggests that Cry6Aa2 possesses diverse nematicidal properties, which strongly indicates that Cry6Aa2 is a promising potential candidate of nematicidal agent. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of behavioral responses in defense of C. elegans for survival and demonstrates the key role of crystal protein in the interaction of B. thuringiensis-C. elegans. These findings could shed light on understanding the interaction of C. elegans with B. thuringiensis and provide a perfect model to study the role of pathogenic factor in the interaction of pathogen-host.

  1. Characterization of Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 insecticidal crystal proteins expressed in transgenic corn plants and Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Schafer, Barry W; Collins, Randy A; Herman, Rod A; Xu, Xiaoping; Gilbert, Jeffrey R; Ni, Weiting; Langer, Vickie L; Tagliani, Laura A

    2004-12-29

    Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins, identified from Bacillus thuringiensis strain PS149B1, act together to control corn rootworms. Transgenic corn lines coexpressing the two proteins were developed to protect corn against rootworm damage. Large quantities of the two proteins were needed to conduct studies required for assessing the safety of this transgenic corn crop. Because it was technically infeasible to obtain sufficient quantities of high purity Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from the transgenic corn plants, the proteins were produced using a recombinant Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf) production system. The two proteins from both the transgenic corn and the Pf were purified and characterized. The proteins from each host had the expected molecular mass and were immunoreactive to specific antibodies in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis. Data from N-terminal sequencing, tryptic peptide mass fingerprinting, internal peptide sequencing, and biological activity provided direct evidence that the Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins produced in Pf and transgenic corn were, respectively, comparable or equivalent molecules. In addition, neither protein had detectable glycosylation regardless of the host.

  2. "It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.

    PubMed

    Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy. PMID:27156177

  3. "It could have been worse": Developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy.

    PubMed

    Payir, Ayse; Guttentag, Robert

    2016-08-01

    In two experiments, we investigated developmental change in the use of a counterfactual consoling strategy: "it could have been worse." In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds, 12-year-olds, and adults were presented with two stories in which a character feels bad as the result of an event that could have turned out better or could have turned out worse. Participants were asked what they would say or do to make the characters feel better. The results revealed that the frequency with which participants mentioned a counterfactual consoling strategy increased dramatically with age. In Experiment 2, using the same stories with similar-aged participants, we tested whether providing children with several consoling strategies (rather than asking them to create one) would prompt greater use of a counterfactual consoling strategy. Under these conditions, the 10- and 12-year-olds responded in a manner very similar to that of adults, whereas the 8-year-olds selected a counterfactual consoling strategy less often than participants at any other age. The findings from the two experiments suggest that, up through at least age 12years, children are less likely than adults to spontaneously apply counterfactual thinking when generating a consoling strategy.

  4. Women's Responses to Young Infants' Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Gwen E.; Harris, Karen L.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed 40 women's responses to young infants' cries. Mothers and nonmothers were similar in basic features of caregiving behaviors. Although the sound of infant cries may inform caregivers about distress level, caregiving behaviors appear to be determined by additional factors. (RH)

  5. Function of Infant Crying in Stranger Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Colleen S. W.; Jennings, Kay D.

    This study investigated infant crying as a form of communication, with fear considered only one of many possible motivating emotions. Crying, along with fretting and withdrawal, are the major ways infants have to indicate that they desire to change the present situation. Subjects were 91 white, middle class infants whose mothers wete their primary…

  6. Effects of Posture on Newborn Crying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hung-Chu; Green, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Acoustic properties of the cries of 14 infants were evaluated at both 2 and 4 weeks of age when the infants were lying in a supine position and when they were sitting upright in a car seat. In the upright position, infants' breathing was more rapid and showed less individual variability. The fundamental frequency of their cries increased in the…

  7. Potency of insect-specific scorpion toxins on mosquito control using Bacillus thuringiensis Cry4Aa.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Riku; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Howlader, Mohammad Tofazzal Hossain; Namba, Maho; Iwamoto, Aya; Sakai, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Tohru

    2014-06-01

    Two insect-specific scorpion toxins, BjαIT and AahIT were produced as alkali-soluble protein inclusions in Escherichia coli. The inclusion bodies themselves exhibited no toxicity against Culex pipiens larvae. However, coadministration with Cry4Aa toxin enhanced the mosquitocidal activity by 2-3 fold. Insect-specific scorpion toxins can be good supplements for Cry toxin-based bioinsecticides. PMID:24508022

  8. Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 μg/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 μg/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

  9. Joystick-controlled video console game practice for developing power wheelchairs users' indoor driving skills.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei Pin; Wang, Chia Cheng; Hung, Jo Hua; Chien, Kai Chun; Liu, Wen-Yu; Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Ng, How-Hing; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of joystick-controlled video console games in enhancing subjects' ability to control power wheelchairs. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy young adults without prior experience of driving power wheelchairs were recruited. Four commercially available video games were used as training programs to practice joystick control in catching falling objects, crossing a river, tracing the route while floating on a river, and navigating through a garden maze. An indoor power wheelchair driving test, including straight lines, and right and left turns, was completed before and after the video game practice, during which electromyographic signals of the upper limbs were recorded. The paired t-test was used to compare the differences in driving performance and muscle activities before and after the intervention. [Results] Following the video game intervention, participants took significantly less time to complete the course, with less lateral deviation when turning the indoor power wheelchair. However, muscle activation in the upper limbs was not significantly affected. [Conclusion] This study demonstrates the feasibility of using joystick-controlled commercial video games to train individuals in the control of indoor power wheelchairs.

  10. Identification of a calmodulin-binding site within the domain I of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Campuzano, Camila; Sánchez, Jorge; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Real, M Dolores; Rausell, Carolina; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin is a coleopteran specific toxin highly active against Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB).We have recently shown that Cry3Aa toxin is proteolytically cleaved by CPB midgut membrane associated metalloproteases and that this cleavage is inhibited by ADAM metalloprotease inhibitors. In the present study, we investigated whether the Cry3Aa toxin is a calmodulin (CaM) binding protein, as it is the case of several different ADAM shedding substrates. In pull-down assays using agarose beads conjugated with CaM, we demonstrated that Cry3Aa toxin specifically binds to CaM in a calcium-independent manner. Furthermore, we used gel shift assays and (1)H NMR spectra to demonstrate that CaM binds to a 16-amino acid synthetic peptide corresponding to residues N256-V271 within the domain I of Cry3Aa toxin. Finally, to investigate whether CaM has any effect on Cry3Aa toxin CPB midgut membrane associated proteolysis, cleavage assays were performed in the presence of the CaM-specific inhibitor trifluoperazine. We showed that trifluoperazine significantly increased Cry3Aa toxin proteolysis and also decreased Cry3Aa larval toxicity. PMID:22836907

  11. Sex-Specific Automatic Responses to Infant Cries: TMS Reveals Greater Excitability in Females than Males in Motor Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Irene; Cattaneo, Luigi; Venuti, Paola; de Pisapia, Nicola; Serra, Mauro; Esposito, Gianluca; Rigo, Paola; Farneti, Alessandra; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging reveals that infant cries activate parts of the premotor cortical system. To validate this effect in a more direct way, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here, we investigated the presence and the time course of modulation of motor cortex excitability in young adults who listened to infant cries. Specifically, we recorded motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the biceps brachii (BB) and interosseus dorsalis primus (ID1) muscles as produced by TMS delivered from 0 to 250 ms after sound onset in six steps of 50 ms in 10 females and 10 males. We observed an excitatory modulation of MEPs at 100 ms from the onset of infant cry specific to females and to the ID1 muscle. We regard this modulation as a response to natural cry sounds because it was attenuated to stimuli increasingly different from natural cry and absent in a separate group of females who listened to non-cry stimuli physically matched to natural infant cries. Furthermore, the 100-ms latency of this response is not compatible with a voluntary reaction to the stimulus but suggests an automatic, bottom-up audiomotor association. The brains of adult females appear to be tuned to respond to infant cries with automatic motor excitation. PMID:26779061

  12. "Built-In" Action/Issues Tracking and Post-Ops Analysis Tool for Realtime Console Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for the International Space Station (ISS) uses a number of formal databases to manage and track flight plan changes, onboard and ground equipment anomalies, and other events. However, individual console positions encounter many action items and/or occurrences that don't fit neatly into the databases, and while console logs are comprehensive, manual or automated searches do not always yield consistent results. The Payload Communications Manager (PAYCOM) team, whose members speak directly with the ISS onboard crew with respect to NASA payload operations, has found a creative way to reformat a mandatory Daily Report to organize action items, standing reminders, significant events, and other comments. While the report keeps others appraised of PAYCOMs activities and issues of the moment, the format makes it easy to capture very brief summaries of the items in a "Roll Off Matrix", including start and stop dates, resolution, and possible applicability to future ops. The matrix provides accountability for all action items, gives direct insight into the issues surrounding various payloads and methods of dealing with them, yields indirect information on PAYCOM priorities and processes, and provides a roadmap that makes it easier to get back to extensive details if needed. This paper describes how the ISS PAYCOM Daily Report and Roll Off Matrix are organized, used, and inter-related to each other and the PAYCOM operations log. While the application is for a manned vehicle, the concepts could apply in a wide spectrum of operational settings.

  13. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying.

    PubMed

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G; Hart, Claire M; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes "crying is healthy" and "crying is controllable" consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature. PMID:27458402

  14. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat body is one of the most abundant not-gut hemocoelic tissues that may serve as the potential target tissues of Cry toxins in insect larvae, but nothing is known about its susceptibility to any Cry toxins. To estimate the susceptibilities to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab of fat body, we measured the cytotoxi...

  15. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying.

    PubMed

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G; Hart, Claire M; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes "crying is healthy" and "crying is controllable" consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature.

  16. Holding Back the Tears: Individual Differences in Adult Crying Proneness Reflect Attachment Orientation and Attitudes to Crying

    PubMed Central

    Millings, Abigail; Hepper, Erica G.; Hart, Claire M.; Swift, Louise; Rowe, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being a universal human attachment behavior, little is known about individual differences in crying. To facilitate such examination we first recommend shortened versions of the attitudes and proneness sections of the Adult Crying Inventory using two independent samples. Importantly, we examine attachment orientation differences in crying proneness and test the mediating role of attitudes toward crying in this relationship. Participants (Sample 1 N = 623, Sample 2 N = 781), completed online measures of adult attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety), attitudes toward crying, and crying proneness. Exploratory factor analyses in Sample 1 revealed four factors for crying attitudes: crying helps one feel better; crying is healthy; hatred of crying; and crying is controllable; and three factors for crying proneness: threat to self; sadness; and joy. Confirmatory factor analyses in Sample 2 replicated these structures. Theoretically and statistically justified short forms of each scale were created. Multiple mediation analyses revealed similar patterns of results across the two samples, with the attitudes “crying is healthy” and “crying is controllable” consistently mediating the positive links between attachment anxiety and crying proneness, and the negative links between attachment avoidance and crying proneness. Results are discussed in relation to attachment and emotion regulation literature. PMID:27458402

  17. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents.

  18. Alkaline phosphatases and aminopeptidases are altered in a Cry11Aa resistant strain of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Bum; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is widely used for the biological control of mosquito populations. However, the mechanism of Bti toxins is still not fully understood. To further elucidate the mechanism of Bti toxins, we developed an Aedes aegypti resistant strain that shows high-level resistance to Cry11Aa toxin. After 27 selections with Cry11Aa toxin, the larvae showed a 124-fold resistance ratio for Cry11Aa (strain G30). G30 larvae showed cross-resistance to Cry4Aa (66-fold resistance), less to Cry4Ba (13-fold), but not to Cry11Ba (2-fold). Midguts from these resistant larvae did not show detectable difference in the processing of the Cry11Aa toxin compared to that in susceptible larvae (WT). Brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from resistant larvae bound slightly less Cry11Aa compared to WT BBMV. To identify potential proteins associated with Cry11A resistance, not only transcript changes in the larval midgut were analyzed using Illumina sequencing and qPCR, but alterations of previously identified receptor proteins were investigated using immunoblots. The transcripts of 375 genes were significantly increased and those of 208 genes were down regulated in the resistant larvae midgut compared to the WT. None of the transcripts for previously identified receptors of Cry11Aa (Aedes cadherin, ALP1, APN1, and APN2) were altered in these analyses. The genes for the identified functional receptors in resistant larvae midgut did not contain any mutation in their sequences nor was there any change in their transcript expression levels compared to WT. However, ALP proteins were expressed at reduced levels (∼ 40%) in the resistant strain BBMV. APN proteins and their activity were also slightly reduced in resistance strain. The transcript levels of ALPs (AAEL013330 and AAEL015070) and APNs (AAEL008158, AAEL008162) were significantly reduced. These results strongly suggest that ALPs and APNs could be associated with Cry11Aa resistance in Ae. aegypti. PMID

  19. The theoretical 3D structure of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry5Ba.

    PubMed

    Xia, Li-Qiu; Zhao, Xin-Min; Ding, Xue-Zhi; Wang, Fa-Xiang; Sun, Yun-Jun

    2008-09-01

    Cry5Ba is a delta-endotoxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis PS86A1 NRRL B-18900. It is active against nematodes and has great potential for nematode control. Here, we predict the first theoretical model of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a Cry5Ba toxin by homology modeling on the structure of the Cry1Aa toxin, which is specific to Lepidopteran insects. Cry5Ba resembles the previously reported Cry1Aa toxin structure in that they share a common 3D structure with three domains, but there are some distinctions, with the main differences being located in the loops of domain I. Cry5Ba exhibits a changeable extending conformation structure, and this special structure may also be involved in pore-forming and specificity determination. A fuller understanding of the 3D structure will be helpful in the design of mutagenesis experiments aimed at improving toxicity, and lead to a deep understanding of the mechanism of action of nematicidal toxins.

  20. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression

    PubMed Central

    Jakka, Siva R. K.; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J.; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae. PMID:26637593

  1. Field-Evolved Mode 1 Resistance of the Fall Armyworm to Transgenic Cry1Fa-Expressing Corn Associated with Reduced Cry1Fa Toxin Binding and Midgut Alkaline Phosphatase Expression.

    PubMed

    Jakka, Siva R K; Gong, Liang; Hasler, James; Banerjee, Rahul; Sheets, Joel J; Narva, Kenneth; Blanco, Carlos A; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L

    2015-12-04

    Insecticidal protein genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are expressed by transgenic Bt crops (Bt crops) for effective and environmentally safe pest control. The development of resistance to these insecticidal proteins is considered the most serious threat to the sustainability of Bt crops. Resistance in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) populations from Puerto Rico to transgenic corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein resulted, for the first time in the United States, in practical resistance, and Bt corn was withdrawn from the local market. In this study, we used a field-collected Cry1Fa corn-resistant strain (456) of S. frugiperda to identify the mechanism responsible for field-evolved resistance. Binding assays detected reduced Cry1Fa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac but not Cry1Ca toxin binding to midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) from the larvae of strain 456 compared to that from the larvae of a susceptible (Ben) strain. This binding phenotype is descriptive of the mode 1 type of resistance to Bt toxins. A comparison of the transcript levels for putative Cry1 toxin receptor genes identified a significant downregulation (>90%) of a membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which translated to reduced ALP protein levels and a 75% reduction in ALP activity in BBMV from 456 compared to that of Ben larvae. We cloned and heterologously expressed this ALP from susceptible S. frugiperda larvae and demonstrated that it specifically binds with Cry1Fa toxin. This study provides a thorough mechanistic description of field-evolved resistance to a transgenic Bt crop and supports an association between resistance and reduced Cry1Fa toxin binding and levels of a putative Cry1Fa toxin receptor, ALP, in the midguts of S. frugiperda larvae.

  2. Crying - excessive (0 to 6 months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Discomfort or irritation from a wet or dirty diaper, excessive gas, or feeling cold Hunger or thirst ... or discomfort in a crying baby. When cloth diapers are used, look for diaper pins that have ...

  3. Why lions roar like babies cry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titze, Ingo

    2012-11-01

    When an angry lion roars, the sounds it emits can terrify anyone within earshot. But, as Ingo Titze explains, the properties of a lion's roar have some surprising similarities with those of a crying baby.

  4. SREBP1c-CRY1 signalling represses hepatic glucose production by promoting FOXO1 degradation during refeeding.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hagoon; Lee, Gha Young; Selby, Christopher P; Lee, Gung; Jeon, Yong Geun; Lee, Jae Ho; Cheng, Kenneth King Yip; Titchenell, Paul; Birnbaum, Morris J; Xu, Aimin; Sancar, Aziz; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    SREBP1c is a key lipogenic transcription factor activated by insulin in the postprandial state. Although SREBP1c appears to be involved in suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, the molecular mechanism is not thoroughly understood. Here we show that CRY1 is activated by insulin-induced SREBP1c and decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis through FOXO1 degradation, at least, at specific circadian time points. SREBP1c(-/-) and CRY1(-/-) mice show higher blood glucose than wild-type (WT) mice in pyruvate tolerance tests, accompanied with enhanced expression of PEPCK and G6Pase genes. CRY1 promotes degradation of nuclear FOXO1 by promoting its binding to the ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. Although SREBP1c fails to upregulate CRY1 expression in db/db mice, overexpression of CRY1 attenuates hyperglycaemia through reduction of hepatic FOXO1 protein and gluconeogenic gene expression. These data suggest that insulin-activated SREBP1c downregulates gluconeogenesis through CRY1-mediated FOXO1 degradation and that dysregulation of hepatic SREBP1c-CRY1 signalling may contribute to hyperglycaemia in diabetic animals. PMID:27412556

  5. SREBP1c-CRY1 signalling represses hepatic glucose production by promoting FOXO1 degradation during refeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hagoon; Lee, Gha Young; Selby, Christopher P.; Lee, Gung; Jeon, Yong Geun; Lee, Jae Ho; Cheng, Kenneth King Yip; Titchenell, Paul; Birnbaum, Morris J.; Xu, Aimin; Sancar, Aziz; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-01-01

    SREBP1c is a key lipogenic transcription factor activated by insulin in the postprandial state. Although SREBP1c appears to be involved in suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis, the molecular mechanism is not thoroughly understood. Here we show that CRY1 is activated by insulin-induced SREBP1c and decreases hepatic gluconeogenesis through FOXO1 degradation, at least, at specific circadian time points. SREBP1c−/− and CRY1−/− mice show higher blood glucose than wild-type (WT) mice in pyruvate tolerance tests, accompanied with enhanced expression of PEPCK and G6Pase genes. CRY1 promotes degradation of nuclear FOXO1 by promoting its binding to the ubiquitin E3 ligase MDM2. Although SREBP1c fails to upregulate CRY1 expression in db/db mice, overexpression of CRY1 attenuates hyperglycaemia through reduction of hepatic FOXO1 protein and gluconeogenic gene expression. These data suggest that insulin-activated SREBP1c downregulates gluconeogenesis through CRY1-mediated FOXO1 degradation and that dysregulation of hepatic SREBP1c-CRY1 signalling may contribute to hyperglycaemia in diabetic animals. PMID:27412556

  6. The 60-Kilodalton Protein Encoded by orf2 in the cry19A Operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan Functions Like a C-Terminal Crystallization Domain

    PubMed Central

    Barboza-Corona, J. Eleazar; Park, Hyun-Woo; Bideshi, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    The cry19A operon of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan encodes two proteins, mosquitocidal Cry19A (ORF1; 75 kDa) and an ORF2 (60 kDa) of unknown function. Expression of the cry19A operon in an acrystalliferous strain of B. thuringiensis (4Q7) yielded one small crystal per cell, whereas no crystals were produced when cry19A or orf2 was expressed alone. To determine the function of the ORF2 protein, different combinations of Cry19A, ORF2, and the N- or C-terminal half of Cry1C were synthesized in strain 4Q7. Stable crystalline inclusions of these fusion proteins similar in shape to those in the strain harboring the wild-type operon were observed in sporulating cells. Comparative analysis showed that ORF2 shares considerable amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal region of large Cry proteins. Together, these results suggest that ORF2 assists in synthesis and crystallization of Cry19A by functioning like the C-terminal domain characteristic of Cry protein in the 130-kDa mass range. In addition, to determine whether overexpression of the cry19A operon stabilized its shape and increased Cry19A yield, it was expressed under the control of the strong chimeric cyt1A-p/STAB-SD promoter. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression seen with the native promoter, overexpression of the operon yielded uniform bipyramidal crystals that were 4-fold larger on average than the wild-type crystal. In bioassays using the 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus, the strain producing the larger Cry19A crystal showed moderate larvicidal activity that was 4-fold (95% lethal concentration [LC95] = 1.9 μg/ml) more toxic than the activity produced in the strain harboring the wild-type operon (LC95 = 8.2 μg/ml). PMID:22247140

  7. Variable cross-resistance to Cry11B from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) resistant to single or multiple toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M C; Delécluse, A; Federici, B A; Walton, W E

    1998-11-01

    A novel mosquitocidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan, and one of its toxins, Cry11B, in a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain were evaluated for cross-resistance with strains of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that are resistant to single and multiple toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The levels of cross-resistance (resistance ratios [RR]) at concentrations which caused 95% mortality (LC95) between B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan and the different B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-resistant mosquito strains were low, ranging from 2.3 to 5.1. However, the levels of cross-resistance to Cry11B were much higher and were directly related to the complexity of the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxin mixtures used to select the resistant mosquito strains. The LC95 RR obtained with the mosquito strains were as follows: 53.1 against Cq4D, which was resistant to Cry11A; 80.7 against Cq4AB, which was resistant to Cry4A plus Cry4B; and 347 against Cq4ABD, which was resistant to Cry4A plus Cry4B plus Cry11A. Combining Cyt1A with Cry11B at a 1:3 ratio had little effect on suppressing Cry11A resistance in Cq4D but resulted in synergism factors of 4.8 and 11.2 against strains Cq4AB and Cq4ABD, respectively; this procedure eliminated cross-resistance in the former mosquito strain and reduced it markedly in the latter strain. The high levels of activity of B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, both of which contain a complex mixture of Cry and Cyt proteins, against Cry4- and Cry11-resistant mosquitoes suggest that novel bacterial strains with multiple Cry and Cyt proteins may be useful in managing resistance to bacterial insecticides in mosquito populations.

  8. Variable Cross-Resistance to Cry11B from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Resistant to Single or Multiple Toxins of Bacillus thuringienisis subsp. israelensis

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Delécluse, Armelle; Federici, Brian A.; Walton, William E.

    1998-01-01

    A novel mosquitocidal bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan, and one of its toxins, Cry11B, in a recombinant B. thuringiensis strain were evaluated for cross-resistance with strains of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus that are resistant to single and multiple toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The levels of cross-resistance (resistance ratios [RR]) at concentrations which caused 95% mortality (LC95) between B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan and the different B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis-resistant mosquito strains were low, ranging from 2.3 to 5.1. However, the levels of cross-resistance to Cry11B were much higher and were directly related to the complexity of the B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxin mixtures used to select the resistant mosquito strains. The LC95 RR obtained with the mosquito strains were as follows: 53.1 against Cq4D, which was resistant to Cry11A; 80.7 against Cq4AB, which was resistant to Cry4A plus Cry4B; and 347 against Cq4ABD, which was resistant to Cry4A plus Cry4B plus Cry11A. Combining Cyt1A with Cry11B at a 1:3 ratio had little effect on suppressing Cry11A resistance in Cq4D but resulted in synergism factors of 4.8 and 11.2 against strains Cq4AB and Cq4ABD, respectively; this procedure eliminated cross-resistance in the former mosquito strain and reduced it markedly in the latter strain. The high levels of activity of B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan and B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, both of which contain a complex mixture of Cry and Cyt proteins, against Cry4- and Cry11-resistant mosquitoes suggest that novel bacterial strains with multiple Cry and Cyt proteins may be useful in managing resistance to bacterial insecticides in mosquito populations. PMID:9797262

  9. Sound spectrographic analysis of pain cry in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Michelsson, K; Järvenpää, A L; Rinne, A

    1983-07-01

    Sound spectrographic cry analysis was performed on 302 cries of 48 preterm infants born at 30-37 gestational weeks. The cries were recorded during the first week of life and thereafter weekly until the infants were discharged. The control series comprised 54 cries from 27 fullterm healthy infants. The results showed that the cries of the smallest prematures compared with the controls were shorter, more high-pitched, and included bi-phonation and glide more often. The cry characteristics changed with increasing conceptual age and the older the child the more the cry pattern resembled that of the fullterm. The cries of the preterm infants when they had reached 38 conceptual weeks were similar to those of newly born fullterm infants. The results indicate that the gestational age should be taken into consideration in cry analysis. PMID:6884256

  10. ETRA, TRA642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. IBEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETRA, TRA-642. ON BASEMENT FLOOR. I-BEAM COLUMNS SUPPORTING CONSOLE FLOOR HAVE BEEN SURROUNDED BY CONCRETE IN RECTANGULAR PILLARS. BASEMENT FLOOR IS BEING PREPARED FOR PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE. ABOVE CEILING IS CONSOLE FLOOR, IN WHICH CUT-OUT HAS PRESERVED SPACE FOR REACTOR AND ITS SHIELDING. CIRCULAR FORM IN REACTOR AREA IS CONCRETE FORMING. NOTE VERTICAL CONDUIT AT INTERVALS AROUND REACTOR PITS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1237. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 4/17/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Does transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton pollen affect hypopharyngeal gland development and midgut proteolytic enzyme activity in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae)?

    PubMed

    Han, Peng; Niu, Chang-Ying; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas

    2012-11-01

    The transgenic Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) cotton cultivar CCRI41 is increasingly used in China and potential side effects on the honey bee Apis mellifera L. have been documented recently. Two studies have assessed potential lethal and sublethal effects in young bees fed with CCRI41 cotton pollen but no effect was observed on learning capacities, although lower feeding activity in exposed honey bees was noted (antifeedant effect). The present study aimed at providing further insights into potential side effects of CCRI41 cotton on honey bees. Emerging honey bees were exposed to different pollen diets using no-choice feeding protocols (chronic exposure) in controlled laboratory conditions and we aimed at documenting potential mechanisms underneath the CCRI41 antifeedant effect previously reported. Activity of midgut proteolytic enzyme of young adult honey bees fed on CCRI41 cotton pollen were not significantly affected, i.e. previously observed antifeedant effect was not linked to disturbed activity of the proteolytic enzymes in bees' midgut. Hypopharyngeal gland development was assessed by quantifying total extractable proteins from the glands. Results suggested that CCRI41 cotton pollen carries no risk to hypopharyngeal gland development of young adult honey bees. In the two bioassays, honey bees exposed to 1 % soybean trypsin inhibitor were used as positive controls for both midgut proteolytic enzymes and hypopharyngeal gland proteins quantification, and bees exposed to 48 ppb (part per billion) (i.e. 48 ng g(-1)) imidacloprid were used as controls for exposure to a sublethal concentration of toxic product. The results show that the previously reported antifeedant effect of CCRI41 cotton pollen on honey bees is not linked to effects on their midgut proteolytic enzymes or on the development of their hypopharyngeal glands. The results of the study are discussed in the framework of risk assessment of transgenic crops on honey bees. PMID

  12. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects.

  13. More Than a Repair Enzyme: Aspergillus nidulans Photolyase-like CryA Is a Regulator of Sexual Development

    PubMed Central

    Bayram, Özgür; Biesemann, Christoph; Krappmann, Sven; Galland, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Cryptochromes are blue-light receptors that have presumably evolved from the DNA photolyase protein family, and the genomes of many organisms contain genes for both types of molecules. Both protein structures resemble each other, which suggests that light control and light protection share a common ancient origin. In the genome of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, however, only one cryptochrome/photolyase-encoding gene, termed cryA, was identified. Deletion of the cryA gene triggers sexual differentiation under inappropriate culture conditions and results in up-regulation of transcripts encoding regulators of fruiting body formation. CryA is a protein whose N- and C-terminal synthetic green fluorescent protein fusions localize to the nucleus. CryA represses sexual development under UVA350-370 nm light both on plates and in submerged culture. Strikingly, CryA exhibits photorepair activity as demonstrated by heterologous complementation of a DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli strain as well as overexpression in an A. nidulans uvsBΔ genetic background. This is in contrast to the single deletion cryAΔ strain, which does not show increased sensitivity toward UV-induced damage. In A. nidulans, cryA encodes a novel type of cryptochrome/photolyase that exhibits a regulatory function during light-dependent development and DNA repair activity. This represents a paradigm for the evolutionary transition between photolyases and cryptochromes. PMID:18495868

  14. A Toxin-Binding Alkaline Phosphatase Fragment Synergizes Bt Toxin Cry1Ac against Susceptible and Resistant Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  15. A toxin-binding alkaline phosphatase fragment synergizes Bt toxin Cry1Ac against susceptible and resistant Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenbo; Liu, Chenxi; Xiao, Yutao; Zhang, Dandan; Zhang, Yongdong; Li, Xianchun; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Evolution of resistance by insects threatens the continued success of pest control using insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in sprays and transgenic plants. In this study, laboratory selection with Cry1Ac yielded five strains of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, with resistance ratios at the median lethal concentration (LC50) of activated Cry1Ac ranging from 22 to 1700. Reduced activity and reduced transcription of an alkaline phosphatase protein that binds Cry1Ac was associated with resistance to Cry1Ac in the four most resistant strains. A Cry1Ac-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase from H. armigera (HaALP1f) was not toxic by itself, but it increased mortality caused by Cry1Ac in a susceptible strain and in all five resistant strains. Although synergism of Bt toxins against susceptible insects by toxin-binding fragments of cadherin and aminopeptidase N has been reported previously, the results here provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by a toxin-binding fragment of alkaline phosphatase. The results here also provide the first evidence of synergism of a Bt toxin by any toxin-binding peptide against resistant insects. PMID:25885820

  16. Why Try (Not) to Cry: Intra- and Inter-Personal Motives for Crying Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Gwenda; Bruder, Martin; van der Löwe, Ilmo; Parkinson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses inter- and intra-personal motives for the regulation of crying, and presents illustrative findings from an online survey (N = 110) exploring why and how people regulate crying in their everyday lives. In line with current theorizing on emotion regulation and crying (e.g., Vingerhoets et al., 2000), we propose that emotional crying is regulated using both antecedent-focused techniques targeting the underlying emotion and response-focused techniques targeting the act of crying itself. Indeed, our survey respondents reported having used both antecedent- and response-focused strategies to either up-regulate or down-regulate their crying. Motives for crying regulation may be both inter- and intra-personal and may serve both immediate, pleasure motives, and future, utility motives (Tamir, 2009). Our findings suggest that down-regulation attempts are often driven by inter-personal motives (e.g., protecting the well-being of others; impression management) in addition to intra-personal motives such as maintaining subjective well-being, whereas up-regulation attempts are mostly driven by intra-personal motives. Further progress requires methodologies for manipulating or tracking regulation motives and strategies in real-time crying episodes. PMID:23335904

  17. Trp triad-dependent rapid photoreduction is not required for the function of Arabidopsis CRY1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Meng; Bian, Mingdi; Deng, Weixian; Zuo, Zecheng; Yang, Zhenming; Zhong, Dongping; Lin, Chentao

    2015-07-21

    Cryptochromes in different evolutionary lineages act as either photoreceptors or light-independent transcription repressors. The flavin cofactor of both types of cryptochromes can be photoreduced in vitro by electron transportation via three evolutionarily conserved tryptophan residues known as the "Trp triad." It was hypothesized that Trp triad-dependent photoreduction leads directly to photoexcitation of cryptochrome photoreceptors. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing mutations of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) altered in each of the three Trp-triad tryptophan residues (W324, W377, and W400). Surprisingly, in contrast to a previous report all photoreduction-deficient Trp-triad mutations of CRY1 remained physiologically and biochemically active in Arabidopsis plants. ATP did not enhance rapid photoreduction of the wild-type CRY1, nor did it rescue the defective photoreduction of the CRY1(W324A) and CRY1(W400F) mutants that are photophysiologically active in vivo. The lack of correlation between rapid flavin photoreduction or the effect of ATP on the rapid flavin photoreduction and the in vivo photophysiological activities of plant cryptochromes argues that the Trp triad-dependent photoreduction is not required for the function of cryptochromes and that further efforts are needed to elucidate the photoexcitation mechanism of cryptochrome photoreceptors. PMID:26106155

  18. Competing E3 Ubiquitin Ligases Determine Circadian Period by Regulated Degradation of CRY in Nucleus and Cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Seung-Hee; Mohawk, Jennifer A.; Siepka, Sandra M.; Shan, Yongli; Huh, Seong Kwon; Hong, Hee-Kyung; Kornblum, Izabela; Kumar, Vivek; Koike, Nobuya; Xu, Ming; Nussbaum, Justin; Liu, Xinran; Chen, Zheng; Chen, Zhijian J.; Green, Carla B.; Takahashi, Joseph S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Period determination in the mammalian circadian clock involves the turnover rate of the repressors, CRY and PER. Here we show that CRY ubiquitination engages two competing E3 ligase complexes that either lengthen or shorten circadian period in mice. Cloning of a short-period circadian mutant, Past-time, revealed a glycine to glutamate (G149E) missense mutation in Fbxl21, an F-box protein gene that is a paralog of Fbxl3 that targets the CRY proteins for degradation. While loss-of-function of FBXL3 leads to period lengthening, mutation of Fbxl21 causes period shortening. FBXL21 forms an SCF E3 ligase complex that slowly degrades CRY in the cytoplasm, but antagonizes the stronger E3 ligase activity of FBXL3 in the nucleus. FBXL21 plays a dual role: protecting CRY from FBXL3 degradation in the nucleus and promoting CRY degradation within the cytoplasm. Thus, the balance and cellular compartmentalization of competing E3 ligases for CRY determine circadian period of the clock in mammals. PMID:23452855

  19. Insilico Structural 3D Modelling of Novel Cry1Ib9 and Cry3A Toxins from Local Isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Mahadeva Swamy, H M; Asokan, R; Mahmood, Riaz

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) models for the 79.2 kDa activated Cry1Ib9 and 77.4 kDa activated Cry3A δ-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) native isolates that are specifically toxic to Coleopteran insect pests were constructed by utilizing homology modeling online tool. Evidences presented here, based on the identification of structural equivalent residues of Cry1Ib9 and Cry3A toxin through homology modelling indicate that, they share a common Bt toxin tridimensional structure. The main differences observed in Cry1I9 domain I at positions α2b (S56-I60), α4 (F78-l93) and additionally β0 (Q10-L12), α8a (T280-V282) were observed, in domain II at positions α9b (P333-L339), β6(T390-Q393), β7(V398-W404), β8 (V418-W425), β9 (E453-N454), β10 (S470-I479) where as in domain III the changes were observed at positions β19 (R601-F607), β20 (609-L613), β21 (S618-F627) and α11a (K655-F664), α13, α14 components present at downstream sites, where as in Cry3A main differences observed in domain I is at the position of α4 (P105-I152), α5 (Q163-A185), β1A(E190-L192), α6 (F193-Y217), Domain II is not consevered and main variations were observed at β2 (E292-L295), β3(V299-L308), β4(I340-F347), β5(D356-P368), β6(I375-T377), β7(V389-F394), β8(K398-N405), β9(Y416-Y427), β10 (T436-Y439), β12(G476-H495), β12A (M503-I504) where as in domain III main variations observed at positions of β18 (P583-I593), β19(F604-S610), β20(P611-L615), β21(N619-G626). Cry1Ib9 and Cry3A contain the most variable regions in the loops of domain II, which determine the specificity of these toxins. These are the first models of Coleopteran-active protein from native isolates of Bt and its importance can be perceived since members of this group of toxins are potentially important candidates for coleoptera insect pest control programs. PMID:24426173

  20. ETR, TRA642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CONSOLE FLOOR ALLOCATION PLAN CA. 1958. GENERAL ELECTRIC (GEFP) AND KNOLLS ATOMIC POWER LABORATORY (KAPL) CONSUME MOST OF THE SPACE. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1293, 1958. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020209, REV. K. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. ETR, TRA642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTORGENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. FLOOR PLAN UNDER BALCONY ON CONSOLE FLOOR. MOTOR-GENERATOR SETS AND OTHER ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY ETR-D-1781, 7/1960. INL INDEX NO. 532-0642-00-706-020384, REV. 1. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. PBF Control Building (PER619). Interior of control room. Control console ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Control Building (PER-619). Interior of control room. Control console in center of room. Indicator panels along walls. Window shown in ID-33-F-120 is between control panels at left. Camera facing northwest. Date: May 2004. INEEL negative no. HD-41-7-3 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. From ancient consolation and negative care to modern empathy and the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Reich, Warren T

    2012-02-01

    A historical understanding of the virtue of consolation, as contrasted to empathy, compassion, or sympathy, is developed. Recent findings from neuroscience are presented which support and affirm this understanding. These findings are related to palliative care and its current practice in bioethics.

  4. MTR, TRA603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, USHAPED CONSOLE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. CONTROL ROOM DETAILS. ACOUSTIC PLASTER CEILING, U-SHAPED CONSOLE, INSTRUMENT PANELS, GLASS DOOR, ASPHALT TILE FLOOR AND COLORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-11, 10/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100570, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. IET control building (TAN620). control room. facing north. control consoles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). control room. facing north. control consoles have been removed. Openings in floor were communication and control conduits. Periscope controls at center left (see also HAER No. ID-33-E-20). INEEL negative no. HD-21-3-1 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. SOUTH SIDE OF ETR REACTOR, CAMERA FACING NORTH. CABINET CONTAINING "NUCLEAR INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS" IS RESTRICTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. "New Directions for Traditional Lessons": Can Handheld Game Consoles Enhance Mental Mathematics Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Susan; O'Rourke, John

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study that compared the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) handheld game consoles (HGCs) with traditional teaching methods to develop the automaticity of mathematical calculations and self-concept towards mathematics for year 4 students in two metropolitan schools. One class conducted daily sessions using the HGCs…

  8. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CABLE TUNNEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CABLE TUNNEL. CAMERA FACING SOUTH INTO ETR ELECTRICAL BUILDING (TRA-648). INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-20-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Processing the CONSOL Energy, Inc. Mine Maps and Records Collection at the University of Pittsburgh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rougeux, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the efforts of archivists and student assistants at the University of Pittsburgh's Archives Service Center to organize, describe, store, and provide timely and efficient access to over 8,000 maps of underground coal mines in southwestern Pennsylvania, as well the records that accompanied them, donated by CONSOL Energy, Inc.…

  10. ETR BUILDING, TRA642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA FACES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BUILDING, TRA-642, INTERIOR. CONSOLE FLOOR, SOUTH HALF. CAMERA FACES EAST ALONG CORRIDOR. DATA CABINETS ON LEFT. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-18-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying

    PubMed Central

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca’s homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and

  12. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying.

    PubMed

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H; Wilhelm, Frank H; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca's homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and may

  13. Cry1Ac toxicity enhancement towards lepidopteran pest Ephestia kuehniella through its protection against excessive proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Jihen; Jaoua, Samir; Tounsi, Slim; Zghal, Raida Z

    2016-09-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been extensively used in agroecosystems for four decades due to its high specific toxicity. Strategies based on B. thuringiensis proteins combinations for the improvement of its activity present an important focus for biopesticides development. However, the widespread use of B. thuringiensis δ-endotoxins has often been challenged by a lack of understanding of the target insect physiology as well as its midgut biochemistry. In the present investigation, we have evidenced and explained the toxicity improvement of Cry1Ac δ-endotoxins against Ephestia kuehniella larvae through in vivo combination with P20 helper protein. Tracking the fate of Cry1Ac in tested midgut larvae showed considerable differences between δ-endotoxins produced in the presence of P20 and those produced in its absence which could explain the obtained larvicidal activity enhancement. The P20 presence slightly increased Cry1Ac inclusions solubility in E. kuehniella midgut conditions. However, a protection against excessive degradation of protoxin and toxin forms of Cry1Ac was strongly decreased in the case of δ-endotoxins produced in the presence of P20 as compared to those from P20 lacking control. Thus, the P20 protective effect on Cry1Ac after larvae ingestion has been proven. This finding could be helpful to further understand the roles of P20 helper protein in toxicity enhancement of B. thuringiensis toxins. PMID:27452929

  14. The Cat Cry Syndrome (5p-) in Adolescents and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebuhr, E.

    1971-01-01

    Summarized are clinical findings (including chromosome analysis and dermatoglyphics, as well as cytogenic findings in relatives) on five female and three male patients (age 15 years or older) with the cat cry or cri du chat syndrome. (KW)

  15. The Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Stewart C.; Christie, Margarette A.

    1987-01-01

    The developmental history of a 14-year-old girl with Cri-Du-Chat Syndrome (a genetic disorder characterized by a distinctive cry and severe physical and intellectual disabilities) is reported. (Author/DB)

  16. Altered Phase-Relationship between Peripheral Oscillators and Environmental Time in Cry1 or Cry2 Deficient Mouse Models for Early and Late Chronotypes

    PubMed Central

    Destici, Eugin; Jacobs, Edwin H.; Tamanini, Filippo; Loos, Maarten; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Oklejewicz, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system is composed of a light-entrainable central clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the brain and peripheral clocks in virtually any other tissue. It allows the organism to optimally adjust metabolic, physiological and behavioral functions to the physiological needs it will have at specific time of the day. According to the resonance theory, such rhythms are only advantageous to an organism when in tune with the environment, which is illustrated by the adverse health effects originating from chronic circadian disruption by jetlag and shift work. Using short-period Cry1 and long-period Cry2 deficient mice as models for morningness and eveningness, respectively, we explored the effect of chronotype on the phase relationship between the central SCN clock and peripheral clocks in other organs. Whereas the behavioral activity patterns and circadian gene expression in the SCN of light-entrained Cry1-/- and Cry2-/- mice largely overlapped with that of wild type mice, expression of clock and clock controlled genes in liver, kidney, small intestine, and skin was shown to be markedly phase-advanced or phase-delayed, respectively. Likewise, circadian rhythms in urinary corticosterone were shown to display a significantly altered phase relationship similar to that of gene expression in peripheral tissues. We show that the daily dissonance between peripheral clocks and the environment did not affect the lifespan of Cry1-/- or Cry2-/- mice. Nonetheless, the phase-shifted peripheral clocks in light-entrained mice with morningness and eveningness-like phenotypes may have implications for personalized preventive and therapeutic (i.e. chronomodulation-based) health care for people with early and late chronotypes. PMID:24386234

  17. Drosophila small heat shock protein CryAB ensures structural integrity of developing muscles, and proper muscle and heart performance.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Inga; Jabłońska, Jadwiga; Zmojdzian, Monika; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Renaud, Yoan; Junion, Guillaume; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Huelsmann, Sven; Jagla, Krzysztof; Jagla, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Molecular chaperones, such as the small heat shock proteins (sHsps), maintain normal cellular function by controlling protein homeostasis in stress conditions. However, sHsps are not only activated in response to environmental insults, but also exert developmental and tissue-specific functions that are much less known. Here, we show that during normal development the Drosophila sHsp CryAB [L(2)efl] is specifically expressed in larval body wall muscles and accumulates at the level of Z-bands and around myonuclei. CryAB features a conserved actin-binding domain and, when attenuated, leads to clustering of myonuclei and an altered pattern of sarcomeric actin and the Z-band-associated actin crosslinker Cheerio (filamin). Our data suggest that CryAB and Cheerio form a complex essential for muscle integrity: CryAB colocalizes with Cheerio and, as revealed by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, binds to Cheerio, and the muscle-specific attenuation of cheerio leads to CryAB-like sarcomeric phenotypes. Furthermore, muscle-targeted expression of CryAB(R120G), which carries a mutation associated with desmin-related myopathy (DRM), results in an altered sarcomeric actin pattern, in affected myofibrillar integrity and in Z-band breaks, leading to reduced muscle performance and to marked cardiac arrhythmia. Taken together, we demonstrate that CryAB ensures myofibrillar integrity in Drosophila muscles during development and propose that it does so by interacting with the actin crosslinker Cheerio. The evidence that a DRM-causing mutation affects CryAB muscle function and leads to DRM-like phenotypes in the fly reveals a conserved stress-independent role of CryAB in maintaining muscle cell cytoarchitecture.

  18. Drosophila small heat shock protein CryAB ensures structural integrity of developing muscles, and proper muscle and heart performance.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Inga; Jabłońska, Jadwiga; Zmojdzian, Monika; Taghli-Lamallem, Ouarda; Renaud, Yoan; Junion, Guillaume; Daczewska, Malgorzata; Huelsmann, Sven; Jagla, Krzysztof; Jagla, Teresa

    2015-03-01

    Molecular chaperones, such as the small heat shock proteins (sHsps), maintain normal cellular function by controlling protein homeostasis in stress conditions. However, sHsps are not only activated in response to environmental insults, but also exert developmental and tissue-specific functions that are much less known. Here, we show that during normal development the Drosophila sHsp CryAB [L(2)efl] is specifically expressed in larval body wall muscles and accumulates at the level of Z-bands and around myonuclei. CryAB features a conserved actin-binding domain and, when attenuated, leads to clustering of myonuclei and an altered pattern of sarcomeric actin and the Z-band-associated actin crosslinker Cheerio (filamin). Our data suggest that CryAB and Cheerio form a complex essential for muscle integrity: CryAB colocalizes with Cheerio and, as revealed by mass spectrometry and co-immunoprecipitation experiments, binds to Cheerio, and the muscle-specific attenuation of cheerio leads to CryAB-like sarcomeric phenotypes. Furthermore, muscle-targeted expression of CryAB(R120G), which carries a mutation associated with desmin-related myopathy (DRM), results in an altered sarcomeric actin pattern, in affected myofibrillar integrity and in Z-band breaks, leading to reduced muscle performance and to marked cardiac arrhythmia. Taken together, we demonstrate that CryAB ensures myofibrillar integrity in Drosophila muscles during development and propose that it does so by interacting with the actin crosslinker Cheerio. The evidence that a DRM-causing mutation affects CryAB muscle function and leads to DRM-like phenotypes in the fly reveals a conserved stress-independent role of CryAB in maintaining muscle cell cytoarchitecture. PMID:25715399

  19. Between Teacher & Parent: Helping the Child Who Cries Easily

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodkin, Adele M.

    2004-01-01

    Parents need to remember that crying is the first method of communication for children younger than 5 or 6. It is their way of getting attention. While it isn't easy for new parents to interpret their baby's cries, most learn to distinguish the "I am hungry--feed me" cry from the "My tummy hurts" or the "I am just fussy and bored" cry. This…

  20. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis YC-10, a novel active strain against plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixue; Wang, Jian; Song, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Ju'e; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong

    2015-09-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial biopesticide for controlling agricultural pests by the production of toxic parasporal crystals proteins.Here,we report the finished annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YC-10,which is highly toxic to nematodes.The complete genome sequence consists of a circular chromosome and nine circular plasmids,which the biggest plasmid harbors six parasporal crystals proteins genes consisting of cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Aa, cry2Ab and cryB1. The crystals proteins of Cry1Ia and Cry1Aa have high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita.

  1. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis YC-10, a novel active strain against plant-parasitic nematodes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Feixue; Wang, Jian; Song, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Ju'e; Zhang, Deyong; Liu, Yong

    2015-09-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an important microbial biopesticide for controlling agricultural pests by the production of toxic parasporal crystals proteins.Here,we report the finished annotated genome sequence of B. thuringiensis YC-10,which is highly toxic to nematodes.The complete genome sequence consists of a circular chromosome and nine circular plasmids,which the biggest plasmid harbors six parasporal crystals proteins genes consisting of cry1Aa, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Aa, cry2Ab and cryB1. The crystals proteins of Cry1Ia and Cry1Aa have high nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita. PMID:26100235

  2. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  3. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  4. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  5. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.505 Section 174.505... thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement...

  6. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  7. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 174.506 Section 174.506... thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of...

  8. Cry4Ba and Cyt1Aa proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis: Interactions and toxicity mechanism against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Jihen; Jaoua, Samir; Darriet, Frédéric; Chandre, Fabrice; Tounsi, Slim; Zghal, Raida Zribi

    2015-09-15

    Individual crystal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis exhibit variable levels of insecticidal activities against mosquito larvae. In all cases, they are much less active compared to the whole crystal proteins due to described complex synergistic interactions among them. In the present study we investigated the effects of Cyt1A98 (a Cyt1Aa type protein) on Cry4BLB (a Cry4Ba type toxin) insecticidal activity toward the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. The bioassay analyses demonstrated the ability of Cyt1A98 protein to enhance Cry4BLB toxin larvicidal activity even at a low proportion in the mixture (1%). In vitro interaction assays showed that Cyt1A98 provides supplementary binding sites for Cry4BLB in A. aegypti BBMVs. Moreover, it enhances the formation of Cry4BLB oligomeric structure. These results support that Cyt1A98 protein could act as a membrane-bound receptor fixing Cry4BLB δ-endotoxins and promoting its oligomerization.

  9. Investigation of radiation detection properties of CRY-018 and CRY-019 scintillators for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, R.; Colarieti-Tosti, M.; Cinti, M. N.; Polito, C.; Trigila, C.; Ridolfi, S.

    2016-09-01

    During the last years the research for new scintillation crystals has been crucial for the improvement of imaging performance in nuclear medicine applications. Crytur company has recently released two new scintillators named CRY-018 and CRY-019 which are non hygroscopic, have short decay time and low refraction index. They represent the ideal candidates to substitute NaI:Tl and BGO crystals in future PET ad SPECT applications. The purpose of this work is to characterize this unknown crystals, look for possible applications in imaging for nuclear medicine. The results of this work were compared with the results obtained with a LaBr3:ce scintillation crystal. This particular crystal is used as a comparison benchmark because of its strong linear pulse height uniformity response and high energy resolution. Measurements have been performed with a high count rate which is typical for medical applications. Irradiation of the crystals have been performed in three different geometries and in a photon energy range suitable with SPECT and PET applications. The experimental results identify the CRY-018 as an Yttrium and Silicon mixture and the CRY-019 with as Lutetium and Silicon one. Moreover a light yield of about 45% of LaBr3 one, was obtained for both the CRY-018 and CRY-019. This is one of the higher light yield between most of the scintillation crystals usually used in nuclear medicine. Both crystals are characterized by a non-proportionality in the pulse height linearity response. Energy resolutions of 7.4% for CRY-018 and 8.4% for CRY-019 at 661 keV, have been measured. The intrinsic component of the energy resolution has been esteemed for all three scintillators. An intrinsic detection efficiency of about 45% at 122 keV for CRY-018 and 14% at 661 keV for CRY-019 has been measured. Compared with LaBr3:Ce efficiency, which is highly deteriorated by the coating required by the hygroscopicity, CRY-018 and CRY-019 are really interesting considering that these two samples

  10. Cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the cotton bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Guo, Yuyuan; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Jie; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between two toxins in pyramided Bt cotton (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab). Selection with Cry1Ac for 125 generations produced 1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac and 6.8-fold cross-resistance to Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry2Ab for 29 generations caused 5.6-fold resistance to Cry2Ab and 61-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Without exposure to Bt toxins, resistance to both toxins decreased. For each of the four resistant strains examined, 67 to 100% of the combinations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab tested yielded higher than expected mortality, reflecting synergism between these two toxins. Results showing minor cross-resistance to Cry2Ab caused by selection with Cry1Ac and synergism between these two toxins against resistant insects suggest that plants producing both toxins could prolong the efficacy of Bt cotton against this pest in China. Including toxins against which no cross-resistance occurs and integrating Bt cotton with other control tactics could also increase the sustainability of management strategies. PMID:25586723

  11. Medical Operations Console Procedure Evaluation: BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Troop; Pettys, Marianne; Hurst, Victor, IV; Smaka, Todd; Paul, Bonnie; Rosenquist, Kevin; Gast, Karin; Gillis, David; McCulley, Phyllis

    2006-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Mission Operations are managed by multiple flight control disciplines located at the lead Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC). ISS Medical Operations are supported by the complementary roles of Flight Surgeons (Surgeon) and Biomedical Engineer (BME) flight controllers. The Surgeon, a board certified physician, oversees all medical concerns of the crew and the BME provides operational and engineering support for Medical Operations Crew Health Care System. ISS Medical Operations is currently addressing the coordinated response to a crew call down for an emergent medical event, in particular when the BME is the only Medical Operations representative in MCC. In this case, the console procedure BME Response to Crew Call Down for an Emergency will be used. The procedure instructs the BME to contact a Surgeon as soon as possible, coordinate with other flight disciplines to establish a Private Medical Conference (PMC) for the crew and Surgeon, gather information from the crew if time permits, and provide Surgeon with pertinent console resources. It is paramount that this procedure is clearly written and easily navigated to assist the BME to respond consistently and efficiently. A total of five BME flight controllers participated in the study. Each BME participant sat in a simulated MCC environment at a console configured with resources specific to the BME MCC console and was presented with two scripted emergency call downs from an ISS crew member. Each participant used the procedure while interacting with analog MCC disciplines to respond to the crew call down. Audio and video recordings of the simulations were analyzed and each BME participant's actions were compared to the procedure. Structured debriefs were conducted at the conclusion of both simulations. The procedure was evaluated for its ability to elicit consistent responses from each BME participant. Trials were examined for deviations in procedure task

  12. You can't take it with you? Effects of handheld portable media consoles on physiological and psychological responses to video game and movie content.

    PubMed

    Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G

    2009-06-01

    Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience. PMID:19445637

  13. You can't take it with you? Effects of handheld portable media consoles on physiological and psychological responses to video game and movie content.

    PubMed

    Ivory, James D; Magee, Robert G

    2009-06-01

    Portable media consoles are becoming extremely popular devices for viewing a number of different types of media content, both for entertainment and for educational purposes. Given the increasingly heavy use of portable consoles as an alternative to traditional television-style monitors, it is important to investigate how physiological and psychological effects of portable consoles may differ from those of television-based consoles, because such differences in physiological and psychological responses may precipitate differences in the delivered content's effectiveness. Because portable consoles are popular as a delivery system for multiple types of media content, such as movies and video games, it is also important to investigate whether differences between the effects of portable and television-based consoles are consistent across multiple types of media. This article reports a 2 x 2 (console: portable or television-based x medium: video game or movie) mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent across different media. Results indicate that portable media consoles evoke lower levels of physiological arousal and flow experience and that this effect is consistent for both video games and movies. These findings suggest that even though portable media consoles are often convenient compared to television-based consoles, the convenience may come at a cost in terms of the user experience.

  14. Reduced Levels of Membrane-Bound Alkaline Phosphatase Are Common to Lepidopteran Strains Resistant to Cry Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; Jakka, Siva Rama Krishna; Ning, Changming; Liu, Chenxi; Wu, Kongming; Jackson, Jerreme; Gould, Fred; Blanco, Carlos; Portilla, Maribel; Perera, Omaththage; Adang, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Development of insect resistance is one of the main concerns with the use of transgenic crops expressing Cry toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Identification of biomarkers would assist in the development of sensitive DNA-based methods to monitor evolution of resistance to Bt toxins in natural populations. We report on the proteomic and genomic detection of reduced levels of midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (mALP) as a common feature in strains of Cry-resistant Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda when compared to susceptible larvae. Reduced levels of H. virescens mALP protein (HvmALP) were detected by two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analysis in Cry-resistant compared to susceptible larvae, further supported by alkaline phosphatase activity assays and Western blotting. Through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) we demonstrate that the reduction in HvmALP protein levels in resistant larvae are the result of reduced transcript amounts. Similar reductions in ALP activity and mALP transcript levels were also detected for a Cry1Ac-resistant strain of H. armigera and field-derived strains of S. frugiperda resistant to Cry1Fa. Considering the unique resistance and cross-resistance phenotypes of the insect strains used in this work, our data suggest that reduced mALP expression should be targeted for development of effective biomarkers for resistance to Cry toxins in lepidopteran pests. PMID:21390253

  15. Uptake and bioaccumulation of Cry toxins by an aphidophagous predator.

    PubMed

    Paula, Débora P; Andow, David A

    2016-02-01

    Uptake of Cry toxins by insect natural enemies has rarely been considered and bioaccumulation has not yet been demonstrated. Uptake can be demonstrated by the continued presence of Cry toxin after exposure has stopped and gut contents eliminated. Bioaccumulation can be demonstrated by showing uptake and that the concentration of Cry toxin in the natural enemy exceeds that in its food. We exposed larvae of the aphidophagous predator, Harmonia axyridis, to Cry1Ac and Cry1F through uniform and constant tritrophic exposure via an aphid, Myzus persicae, and looked for toxin presence in the pupae. We repeated the experiment using only Cry1F and tested newly emerged adults. Both Cry toxins were detected in pupae, and Cry1F was detected in recently emerged, unfed adults. Cry1Ac was present 2.05 times and Cry1F 3.09 times higher in predator pupae than in the aphid prey. Uptake and bioaccumulation in the third trophic level might increase the persistence of Cry toxins in the food web and mediate new exposure routes to natural enemies. PMID:26686057

  16. The Infant Crying Questionnaire: Initial Factor Structure and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Haltigan, John D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Burney, Regan V.; Brien, Marion O’; Supple, Andrew J.; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    The current project reports on an initial investigation into the factor structure of the Infant Crying Questionnaire (ICQ), a measure designed to assess parental beliefs about infant crying, in a sample of 259 primiparous mothers. Exploratory factor analyses yielded evidence for a five-factor structure to the ICQ, with two factors that may be conceptually viewed as infant-oriented beliefs regarding infant crying (Attachment/Comfort and Crying as Communication) and three factors conceptually reflecting parent-oriented beliefs regarding infant crying (Minimization, Directive Control, and Spoiling). Each of the scales demonstrated strong internal consistency and was associated with concurrent measures of mothers’ causal attributions about emotional responses to infant crying. Predictive validity to observed maternal sensitivity at 6 months and mother-reported infant behavioral problems at one year was demonstrated. The importance of a questionnaire method to assess parents’ beliefs regarding infant crying in developmental research is discussed and future methodological directions are outlined. PMID:23007097

  17. High CRI phosphor blends for near-UV LED lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radkov, Emil; Setlur, Anant; Brown, Zena; Reginelli, James

    2004-10-01

    Currently, the highest color rendering index (CRI) value obtained in commercially available LED devices is around 90. This falls short of the CRI values typical for incandescent lamps (defined at 100). Similarly, the commercially available LEDs for higher color temperature have CRI values of 65-85, well below the theoretical maximum of 100. New phosphor blends are proposed for use with LED chips emitting in the 350-450 nm range. The application of such blends can afford CRI values greater than 95, over the entire range of color temperatures of interest for general illumination (2500K - 8000K). In some cases, the CRI values approach the theoretical maximum of 100. LED based lamps with a steady state performance of 23 LPW and 25 lumens per chip at 3000K, with a general CRI (Ra) of 97 and a mean CRI (R1-R14) of 96 are demonstrated.

  18. Training effectiveness of an intelligent tutoring system for a propulsion console trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Debra Steele

    1990-01-01

    A formative evaluation was conducted on an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) developed for tasks performed on the Propulsion Console. The ITS, which was developed primarily as a research tool, provides training on use of the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK). Three subjects completed three phases of training using the ITS: declarative, speed, and automaticity training. Data were collected on several performance dimensions, including training time, number of trials performed in each training phase, and number of errors. Information was also collected regarding the user interface and content of training. Suggestions for refining the ITS are discussed. Further, future potential uses and limitations of the ITS are discussed. The results provide an initial demonstration of the effectiveness of the Propulsion Console ITS and indicate the potential benefits of this form of training tool for related tasks.

  19. Sign Communication in Cri du Chat Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlenkamp, Sonja; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study on the use of sign supported Norwegian (SSN) in two individuals with Cri du chat syndrome (CCS). The study gives a first account of some selected aspects of production and intelligibility of SSN in CCS. Possible deviance in manual parameters, in particular inter- and/or intra-subject variation in the use…

  20. Different binding sites for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ba and Cry9Ca proteins in the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Martínez, Patricia; Hernández-Rodríguez, Carmen Sara; Van Rie, Jeroen; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2014-07-01

    Binding studies using (125)I-Cry9Ca and biotinylated-Cry1Ba proteins showed the occurrence of independent binding sites for these proteins in Ostrinia nubilalis. Our results, along with previously available binding data, indicate that combinations of Cry1A or Cry1Fa proteins with Cry1Ba and/or Cry9Ca could be a good strategy for the resistance management of O. nubilalis. PMID:24799046

  1. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1154 CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of... plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1154 CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of... plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1154 CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of... plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  4. ETR, TRA642. CONSOLE FLOOR. CAMERA IS ON WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR, TRA-642. CONSOLE FLOOR. CAMERA IS ON WEST SIDE OF FLOOR AND FACES NORTH. OUTER WALL OF STORAGE CANAL IS AT RIGHT. SHIELDING IS THICKER AT LOWER LEVEL, WHERE SPENT FUEL ELEMENTS WILL COOL AFTER REMOVAL FROM REACTOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 56-1401. Jack L. Anderson, Photographer, 5/1/1956 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 20. VIEW OF CONSOLE IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC3W CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF CONSOLE IN NORTHWEST CORNER OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM. PANELS FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: OPERATIONS AND CHECKOUT (LABELED POWER CONTROL AND MONITOR PANEL); RANGE SAFETY (LABELED DESTRUCT SYSTEM CONTROL AND MONITOR PANEL); BATTERY CLOCK PANELS. PEDAL FOR FOOT CONTROL OF COMMUNICATIONS HEADSET AND HEADSET IN FOREGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. Replicas of Snoopy and Charlie Brown decorate top of console in MCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Replicas of Snoopy and Charlie Brown, the two characters from Charles Schulz's syndicated comic strip 'Peanuts', decorate the top of a console in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, on the first day of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. During the Apollo 10 lunar orbit operations the Lunar Module will be called Snoopy when it is separated from the Command/Service Modules. The code words for the Command Module will be Charlie Brown.

  7. Use of Game Console for Rehabilitation of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Özgönenel, Levent; Çağırıcı, Sultan; Çabalar, Murat; Durmuşoğlu, Gülis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) predisposes to falls due to postural instability and decreased coordination. Postural and coordination exercises could ameliorate the incoordination and decrease falls. Aims: In this study, we explored the efficiency of a game console as an adjunct to an exercise program in treating incoordination in patients with PD. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: In this single-blind, prospective clinical trial, rehabilitation with the Xbox (Microsoft; Washington, USA) game console was used as an adjunct to a standard rehabilitation program. Thirty-three patients with PD at stages 1-3 were enrolled in the study. All patients received the three-times weekly exercise program and electrotherapy to back and hip extensors for 5 weeks. Study patients played catch the ball and obstacle games on the Xbox in addition to the standard exercise program. Patients were evaluated based on the scores from the Timed Up-and-Go Test, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-II (UPDRS-II). Post-treatment scores were compared between groups. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled in the study (15 in the game-console group, and 18 controls). Patients in both groups had improvements in all scores. The end-of-treatment scores were significantly better in the study group compared to the control group in all parameters: UPDRS (10±5 versus 16±6, p=0.002), BBS (53±4 versus 47±8, p=0.004), and TUG (11±4 seconds versus 20±8 seconds, p<0.001). Conclusion: Game-exercise with a game-console was noted to be a significant adjunct to the rehabilitation program in patients with PD in this study. PMID:27606134

  8. Use of Game Console for Rehabilitation of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Özgönenel, Levent; Çağırıcı, Sultan; Çabalar, Murat; Durmuşoğlu, Gülis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) predisposes to falls due to postural instability and decreased coordination. Postural and coordination exercises could ameliorate the incoordination and decrease falls. Aims: In this study, we explored the efficiency of a game console as an adjunct to an exercise program in treating incoordination in patients with PD. Study Design: Case-control study. Methods: In this single-blind, prospective clinical trial, rehabilitation with the Xbox (Microsoft; Washington, USA) game console was used as an adjunct to a standard rehabilitation program. Thirty-three patients with PD at stages 1-3 were enrolled in the study. All patients received the three-times weekly exercise program and electrotherapy to back and hip extensors for 5 weeks. Study patients played catch the ball and obstacle games on the Xbox in addition to the standard exercise program. Patients were evaluated based on the scores from the Timed Up-and-Go Test, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale-II (UPDRS-II). Post-treatment scores were compared between groups. Results: Thirty-three patients were enrolled in the study (15 in the game-console group, and 18 controls). Patients in both groups had improvements in all scores. The end-of-treatment scores were significantly better in the study group compared to the control group in all parameters: UPDRS (10±5 versus 16±6, p=0.002), BBS (53±4 versus 47±8, p=0.004), and TUG (11±4 seconds versus 20±8 seconds, p<0.001). Conclusion: Game-exercise with a game-console was noted to be a significant adjunct to the rehabilitation program in patients with PD in this study.

  9. Communications and tracking subsystem approach and landing test phase task 501 RF path console acceptance test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doland, G. D.

    1976-01-01

    The RF downlink S-band path in the RF path console was tested under quality assurance inspection. The UHF RF paths were also tested. The acceptance test plans, procedures, and results of the acceptance tests are included.

  10. The effects of a dynamic graphical model during simulation-based training of console operation skill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, John D.; Regian, J. Wesley

    1993-01-01

    LOADER is a Windows-based simulation of a complex procedural task. The task requires subjects to execute long sequences of console-operation actions (e.g., button presses, switch actuations, dial rotations) to accomplish specific goals. The LOADER interface is a graphical computer-simulated console which controls railroad cars, tracks, and cranes in a fictitious railroad yard. We hypothesized that acquisition of LOADER performance skill would be supported by the representation of a dynamic graphical model linking console actions to goal and goal states in the 'railroad yard'. Twenty-nine subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatments (i.e., dynamic model or no model). During training, both groups received identical text-based instruction in an instructional-window above the LOADER interface. One group, however, additionally saw a dynamic version of the bird's-eye view of the railroad yard. After training, both groups were tested under identical conditions. They were asked to perform the complete procedure without guidance and without access to either type of railroad yard representation. Results indicate that rather than becoming dependent on the animated rail yard model, subjects in the dynamic model condition apparently internalized the model, as evidenced by their performance after the model was removed.

  11. The design of the m-health service application using a Nintendo DS game console.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjoon; Kim, Jungkuk; Lee, Myoungho

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we developed an m-health monitoring system using a Nintendo DS game console to demonstrate its utility. The proposed system consists of a biosignal acquisition device, wireless sensor network, base-station for signal reception from the sensor network and signal conversion according to Internet protocol, personal computer display program, and the Nintendo DS game console. The system collects three-channel electrocardiogram (ECG) signals for cardiac abnormality detection and three-axis accelerometer signals for fall detection of a person. The collected signals are then transmitted to the base-station through the wireless sensor network, where they are transformed according to the transmission control protocol/Internet protocol (TCP/IP) and sent to the destination IP through Internet network. To test the developed system, the collected signals were displayed on a computer located in different building through wired Internet network and also simultaneously displayed on the Nintendo DS game console connected to Internet network wirelessly. The system was able to collect and transmit signals for more than 24 h without any interruptions or malfunctions, showing the possibility of integrating healthcare monitoring functions into a small handheld-type electronic device developed for different purposes without significant complications. It is expected that the system can be used in an ambulance, nursing home, or general hospital where efficient patient monitoring from long distance is necessary. PMID:21214393

  12. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  13. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  14. Inheritance, stability, and dominance of cry resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) selected with the three cry toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Margaret C; Walton, William E; Federici, Brian A

    2012-07-01

    Mendelian crosses were used to study the mode of inheritance of Cry toxin resistance in a Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) colony (CqAB11A) that evolved insecticide resistance under laboratory selection with a deletion mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis de Barjac lacking the Cyt1Aa toxin component but containing its three major Cry toxins, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Aa. High levels of resistance were observed to Cry toxins. F1 offspring of reciprocal crosses to a sensitive colony showed intermediate levels of resistance with no maternal effect, indicating autosomal inheritance. Dose-response data for backcross offspring deviated significantly from the monofactorial model when tested with Cry4Aa + Cry4Ba + Cry11Aa, Cry4Aa + Cry4Ba, or Cry11Aa. However, tests with Cry11Ba from B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan (Seleena, Lee, Lecadet) fit the monofactorial model. Dominance of F1 offspring was calculated at different concentrations of Cry-toxin suspensions and, as reported for other Cry-resistant Culex, generally decreased as concentration increased. A subset of colony CqAB11A was reared without selection pressure for 18 generations with little change in susceptibility, indicating a highly homozygous population. Consistent with reports for other Cry-resistant Culex, the data show these mosquitoes evolved resistance to B. thuringiensis Cry toxins at multiple loci in response to selection pressure and that cross-resistance to Cry11Ba was conferred by one of those loci.

  15. Specific PCR primers directed to identify cryI and cryIII genes within a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection.

    PubMed Central

    Cerón, J; Ortíz, A; Quintero, R; Güereca, L; Bravo, A

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we describe a PCR strategy that can be used to rapidly identify Bacillus thuringiensis strains that harbor any of the known cryI or cryIII genes. Four general PCR primers which amplify DNA fragments from the known cryI or cryIII genes were selected from conserved regions. Once a strain was identified as an organism that contains a particular type of cry gene, it could be easily characterized by performing additional PCR with specific cryI and cryIII primers selected from variable regions. The method described in this paper can be used to identify the 10 different cryI genes and the five different cryIII genes. One feature of this screening method is that each cry gene is expected to produce a PCR product having a precise molecular weight. The genes which produce PCR products having different sizes probably represent strains that harbor a potentially novel cry gene. Finally, we present evidence that novel crystal genes can be identified by the method described in this paper. PMID:8526493

  16. Auschwitz: If You Cried, You Died. Teacher's Guide to the Video Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore Foundation, Indianapolis, IN.

    Designed to accompany a videotape chronicling the journey of two Holocaust survivors as they revisit the site of the concentration camp at Auschwitz (Poland), the guide provides questions, exercises, and suggestions for further activities. The guide begins with a description of how to present the 28-minute videotape "Auschwitz: If You Cried, You…

  17. Proteomics-based identification of midgut proteins correlated with Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Xia, Jixing; Guo, Zhaojiang; Yang, Zezhong; Zhu, Xun; Kang, Shi; Yang, Xin; Yang, Fengshan; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Xu, Weijun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-09-01

    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is a worldwide pest of cruciferous crops and can rapidly develop resistance to many chemical insecticides. Although insecticidal crystal proteins (i.e., Cry and Cyt toxins) derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been useful alternatives to chemical insecticides for the control of P. xylostella, resistance to Bt in field populations of P. xylostella has already been reported. A better understanding of the resistance mechanisms to Bt should be valuable in delaying resistance development. In this study, the mechanisms underlying P. xylostella resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin were investigated using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and ligand blotting for the first time. Comparative analyses of the constitutive expression of midgut proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible and -resistant P. xylostella larvae revealed 31 differentially expressed proteins, 21 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. Of these identified proteins, the following fell into diverse eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) subcategories may be involved in Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella: ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter subfamily G member 4 (ABCG4), trypsin, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, actin, glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1 protein (GAA1) and solute carrier family 30 member 1 (SLC30A1). Additionally, ligand blotting identified the following midgut proteins as Cry1Ac-binding proteins in Cry1Ac-susceptible P. xylostella larvae: ABC transporter subfamily C member 1 (ABCC1), solute carrier family 36 member 1 (SLC36A1), NADH dehydrogenase iron-sulfur protein 3 (NDUFS3), prohibitin and Rap1 GTPase-activating protein 1. Collectively, these proteomic results increase our understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in P. xylostella and also demonstrate that resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin is complex and multifaceted. PMID:27521921

  18. Effects of Transgenic cry1Ca Rice on the Development of Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haojun; Li, Yunhe; Ding, Jiatong; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    In fields of genetically modified, insect-resistant rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins, frogs are exposed to Bt Cry proteins by consuming both target and non-target insects, and through their highly permeable skin. In the present study, we assessed the potential risk posed by transgenic cry1Ca rice (T1C-19) on the development of a frog species by adding purified Cry1Ca protein or T1C-19 rice straw into the rearing water of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, and by feeding X. laevis froglets diets containing rice grains of T1C-19 or its non-transformed counterpart MH63. Our results showed that there were no significant differences among groups receiving 100 μg L–1 or 10 μg L–1 Cry1Ca and the blank control in terms of time to completed metamorphosis, survival rate, body weight, body length, organ weight and liver enzyme activity after being exposed to the Cry1Ca (P > 0.05). Although some detection indices in the rice straw groups were significantly different from those of the blank control group (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference between the T1C-19 and MH63 rice straw groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, body weight, daily weight gain, liver and fat body weight of the froglets between the T1C-19 and MH63 dietary groups after 90 days, and there were no abnormal pathological changes in the stomach, intestines, livers, spleens and gonads. Thus, we conclude that the planting of transgenic cry1Ca rice will not adversely affect frog development. PMID:26695426

  19. Effects of Transgenic cry1Ca Rice on the Development of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuping; Wang, Jiamei; Zhu, Haojun; Li, Yunhe; Ding, Jiatong; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    In fields of genetically modified, insect-resistant rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins, frogs are exposed to Bt Cry proteins by consuming both target and non-target insects, and through their highly permeable skin. In the present study, we assessed the potential risk posed by transgenic cry1Ca rice (T1C-19) on the development of a frog species by adding purified Cry1Ca protein or T1C-19 rice straw into the rearing water of Xenopus laevis tadpoles, and by feeding X. laevis froglets diets containing rice grains of T1C-19 or its non-transformed counterpart MH63. Our results showed that there were no significant differences among groups receiving 100 μg L-1 or 10 μg L-1 Cry1Ca and the blank control in terms of time to completed metamorphosis, survival rate, body weight, body length, organ weight and liver enzyme activity after being exposed to the Cry1Ca (P > 0.05). Although some detection indices in the rice straw groups were significantly different from those of the blank control group (P < 0.05), there was no significant difference between the T1C-19 and MH63 rice straw groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, body weight, daily weight gain, liver and fat body weight of the froglets between the T1C-19 and MH63 dietary groups after 90 days, and there were no abnormal pathological changes in the stomach, intestines, livers, spleens and gonads. Thus, we conclude that the planting of transgenic cry1Ca rice will not adversely affect frog development. PMID:26695426

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are versatile proteins with multiple modes of action: two distinct pre-pores are involved in toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Matus, Violeta; Gill, Sarjeet S; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2014-04-15

    Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are insecticidal PFTs (pore-forming toxins). In the present study, we show that two distinct functional pre-pores of Cry1Ab are formed after binding of the protoxin or the protease-activated toxin to the cadherin receptor, but before membrane insertion. Both pre-pores actively induce pore formation, although with different characteristics, and contribute to the insecticidal activity. We also analysed the oligomerization of the mutant Cry1AbMod protein. This mutant kills different insect populations that are resistant to Cry toxins, but lost potency against susceptible insects. We found that the Cry1AbMod-protoxin efficiently induces oligomerization, but not the activated Cry1AbMod-toxin, explaining the loss of potency of Cry1AbMod against susceptible insects. These data are relevant for the future control of insects resistant to Cry proteins. Our data support the pore-formation model involving sequential interaction with different midgut proteins, leading to pore formation in the target membrane. We propose that not only different insect targets could have different receptors, but also different midgut proteases that would influence the rate of protoxin/toxin activation. It is possible that the two pre-pore structures could have been selected for in evolution, since they have differential roles in toxicity against selected targets, increasing their range of action. These data assign a functional role for the protoxin fragment of Cry PFTs that was not understood previously. Most PFTs produced by other bacteria are secreted as protoxins that require activation before oligomerization, to finally form a pore. Thus different pre-pores could be also part of the general mechanism of action of other PFTs.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxins are versatile proteins with multiple modes of action: two distinct pre-pores are involved in toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Matus, Violeta; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis are insecticidal PFTs (pore-forming toxins). In the present study, we show that two distinct functional pre-pores of Cry1Ab are formed after binding of the protoxin or the protease-activated toxin to the cadherin receptor, but before membrane insertion. Both pre-pores actively induce pore formation, although with different characteristics, and contribute to the insecticidal activity. We also analysed the oligomerization of the mutant Cry1AbMod protein. This mutant kills different insect populations that are resistant to Cry toxins, but lost potency against susceptible insects. We found that the Cry1AbMod-protoxin efficiently induces oligomerization, but not the activated Cry1AbMod-toxin, explaining the loss of potency of Cry1AbMod against susceptible insects. These data are relevant for the future control of insects resistant to Cry proteins. Our data support the pore-formation model involving sequential interaction with different midgut proteins, leading to pore formation in the target membrane. We propose that not only different insect targets could have different receptors, but also different midgut proteases that would influence the rate of protoxin/toxin activation. It is possible that the two pre-pore structures could have been selected for in evolution, since they have differential roles in toxicity against selected targets, increasing their range of action. These data assign a functional role for the protoxin fragment of Cry PFTs that was not understood previously. Most PFTs produced by other bacteria are secreted as protoxins that require activation before oligomerization, to finally form a pore. Thus different pre-pores could be also part of the general mechanism of action of other PFTs. PMID:24456341

  2. Nitric oxide participates in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin to kill Manduca sexta larvae.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Carolina; Recio-Tótoro, Benito; Flores-Escobar, Biviana; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Sanchez, Jorge; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzyme is a reactive oxygen molecule widely considered as important participant in the immune system of different organisms to confront microbial infections. In insects the NO molecule has also been implicated in immune response against microbial pathogens. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is an insect-pathogenic bacterium that produces insecticidal proteins such as Cry toxins. These proteins kill insects because they form pores in the larval-midgut cells. Here we show that intoxication of Manduca sexta larvae with Cry1Ab activates expression of NOS with a corresponding increase in NO. This effect is not observed with a non-toxic mutant toxin Cry1Ab-E129K that is affected in pore formation. The increased production of NO triggered by intoxication with LC50 dose of Cry1Ab toxin is not associated with higher expression of antimicrobial peptides. NO participates in Cry1Ab toxicity since inhibition of NOS by selective l-NAME inhibitor prevented NO production and resulted in reduced mortality of the larvae. The fact that mortality was not completely abolished by L-NAME indicates that other processes participate in toxin action and induction of NO production upon Cry1Ab toxin administration accounts only for a part of the toxicity of this protein to M. sexta larvae.

  3. Identification of two Amino Acids in the C-terminal Domain of Mouse CRY2 Essential for PER2 Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cryptochromes (CRYs) are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants and animals, and they control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. They also act as integral parts of the central circadian oscillator in humans and other animals. In mammals, the CLOCK-BMAL1 heterodimer activates transcription of the Per and Cry genes as well as clock-regulated genes. The PER2 proteins interact with CRY and CKIε, and the resulting ternary complexes translocate into the nucleus, where they negatively regulate the transcription of Per and Cry core clock genes and other clock-regulated output genes. Recent studies have indicated that the extended C-termini of the mammalian CRYs, as compared to photolyase proteins, interact with PER proteins. Results We identified a region on mCRY2 (between residues 493 and 512) responsible for direct physical interaction with mPER2 by mammalian two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation assays. Moreover, using oligonucleotide-based degenerate PCR, we discovered that mutation of Arg-501 and Lys-503 of mCRY2 within this C-terminal region totally abolishes interaction with PER2. Conclusions Our results identify mCRY2 amino acid residues that interact with the mPER2 binding region and suggest the potential for rational drug design to inhibit CRYs for specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:20840750

  4. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Zhang, Min; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Guo, Yuyuan; Ni, Xinzhi; Li, Xianchun

    2016-01-01

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are phylogenetically divided into eight clusters, designated as APN1–8. Although APN1 has been implicated as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in several species, its potential role in the mode of action of Cry2Ab has not been functionally determined so far. To test whether APN1 also acts as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in Helicoverpa zea and even for Cry2Ab in this species, we conducted a gain of function analysis by heterologously expressing H. zea APN1 (HzAPN1) in the midgut and fat body cell lines of H. zea and the ovarian cell line of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) and a loss of function analysis by RNAi (RNA interference) silencing of the endogenous APN1 in the three cell lines using the HzAPN1 double strand RNA (dsRNA). Heterologous expression of HzAPN1 significantly increased the susceptibility of the three cell lines to Cry1Ac, but had no effects on their susceptibility to Cry2Ab. Knocking down of the endogenous APN1 made the three cell lines resistant to Cry1Ac, but didn’t change cell lines susceptibility to Cry2Ab. The findings from this study demonstrate that HzAPN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac, but not Cry2Ab. PMID:26755166

  5. Asymmetrical cross-resistance between Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in pink bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Unnithan, Gopalan C.; Masson, Luke; Crowder, David W.; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests and can reduce reliance on insecticide sprays. Sustainable use of such crops requires methods for delaying evolution of resistance by pests. To thwart pest resistance, some transgenic crops produce 2 different Bt toxins targeting the same pest. This “pyramid” strategy is expected to work best when selection for resistance to 1 toxin does not cause cross-resistance to the other toxin. The most widely used pyramid is transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Cross-resistance between these toxins was presumed unlikely because they bind to different larval midgut target sites. Previous results showed that laboratory selection with Cry1Ac caused little or no cross-resistance to Cry2A toxins in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a major cotton pest. We show here, however, that laboratory selection of pink bollworm with Cry2Ab caused up to 420-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac as well as 240-fold resistance to Cry2Ab. Inheritance of resistance to high concentrations of Cry2Ab was recessive. Larvae from a laboratory strain resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in diet bioassays survived on cotton bolls producing only Cry1Ac, but not on cotton bolls producing both toxins. Thus, the asymmetrical cross-resistance seen here does not threaten the efficacy of pyramided Bt cotton against pink bollworm. Nonetheless, the results here and previous evidence indicate that cross-resistance occurs between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in some key cotton pests. Incorporating the potential effects of such cross-resistance in resistance management plans may help to sustain the efficacy of pyramided Bt crops. PMID:19581574

  6. Cyt1Aa Protein of Bacillus thuringiensis Is Toxic to the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle, Chrysomela scripta, and Suppresses High Levels of Resistance to Cry3Aa

    PubMed Central

    Federici, Brian A.; Bauer, Leah S.

    1998-01-01

    The insecticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis is due primarily to Cry and Cyt proteins. Cry proteins are typically toxic to lepidopterous, coleopterous, or dipterous insects, whereas the known toxicity of Cyt proteins is limited to dipterans. We report here that a Cyt protein, Cyt1Aa, is also highly toxic to the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta, with a median lethal concentration of 2.5 ng/mm2 of leaf surface for second-instar larvae. Additionally, we show that Cyt1Aa suppresses resistance to Cry3Aa greater than 5,000-fold in C. scripta, a level only partially overcome by Cry1Ba due to cross-resistance. Studies of the histopathology of C. scripta larvae treated with Cyt1Aa revealed disruption and sloughing of midgut epithelial cells, indicating that its mechanism of action against C. scripta is similar to that observed in mosquito and blackfly larvae. These novel properties suggest that Cyt proteins may have an even broader spectrum of activity against insects and, owing to their different mechanism of action in comparison to Cry proteins, might be useful in managing resistance to Cry3 and possibly other Cry toxins used in microbial insecticides and transgenic plants. PMID:9797292

  7. Crying of a newborn child: alarm signal or protocommunication?

    PubMed

    Clarici, A; Travan, L; Accardo, A; De Vonderweid, U; Bava, A

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore whether the new-born cry is a simple alarm signal or differentiated cries with different meanings. 12 digital audio taped recordings of 6 full-term healthy babies were analysed. Cries of 6 newborns in this preliminary study were recorded in a pain condition after a prick for the hematic check-up the third day after delivery and then while crying spontaneously in the cradle. The sounds were sampled at 44100 Hz with a 16-bit resolution and converted to the .wav format. All the analyses were performed with a software written in the MAT-LAB environment. The most important result was that these new-born children modulated the supralaryngeal tract considerably more in cries following the painful stimulus than in "spontaneous" ones, as would be expected by the hypothesis of crying as "protolanguage."

  8. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Michael A.; Chougule, Nanasaheb P.; Deist, Benjamin R.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance. PMID:27171411

  9. Modification of Cry4Aa toward Improved Toxin Processing in the Gut of the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Rausch, Michael A; Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Deist, Benjamin R; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-01-01

    Aphids are sap-sucking insects (order: Hemiptera) that cause extensive damage to a wide range of agricultural crops. Our goal was to optimize a naturally occurring insecticidal crystalline (Cry) toxins produced by the soil-dwelling bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for use against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. On the basis that activation of the Cry4Aa toxin is a rate-limiting factor contributing to the relatively low aphicidal activity of this toxin, we introduced cathepsin L and cathepsin B cleavage sites into Cry4Aa for rapid activation in the aphid gut environment. Incubation of modified Cry4Aa and aphid proteases in vitro demonstrated enhanced processing of the toxin into the active form for some of the modified constructs relative to non-modified Cry4Aa. Aphids fed artificial diet with toxin at a final concentration of 125 μg/ml showed enhanced mortality after two days for one of the four modified constructs. Although only modest toxin improvement was achieved by use of this strategy, such specific toxin modifications designed to overcome factors that limit aphid toxicity could be applied toward managing aphid populations via transgenic plant resistance. PMID:27171411

  10. Cross-Resistance and Stability of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1C in Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Meyer, Susan K.; Crickmore, Neil

    2001-01-01

    We tested toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis against larvae from susceptible, Cry1C-resistant, and Cry1A-resistant strains of diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella). The Cry1C-resistant strain, which was derived from a field population that had evolved resistance to B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki and B. thuringiensis subsp. aizawai, was selected repeatedly with Cry1C in the laboratory. The Cry1C-resistant strain had strong cross-resistance to Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F, low to moderate cross-resistance to Cry1Aa and Cry9Ca, and no cross-resistance to Cry1Bb, Cry1Ja, and Cry2A. Resistance to Cry1C declined when selection was relaxed. Together with previously reported data, the new data on the cross-resistance of a Cry1C-resistant strain reported here suggest that resistance to Cry1A and Cry1C toxins confers little or no cross-resistance to Cry1Bb, Cry2Aa, or Cry9Ca. Therefore, these toxins might be useful in rotations or combinations with Cry1A and Cry1C toxins. Cry9Ca was much more potent than Cry1Bb or Cry2Aa and thus might be especially useful against diamondback moth. PMID:11425744

  11. Peters anomaly in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hope, William C; Cordovez, Jose A; Capasso, Jenina E; Hammersmith, Kristin M; Eagle, Ralph C; Lall-Trail, Joel; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The cri-du-chat syndrome is a rare genetic disorder caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 5. It presents with a distinctive catlike high-pitched cry, psychomotor delays, microcephaly, craniofacial abnormalities, and, in many cases, ocular findings. We report the first child with cri-du-chat and the findings of unilateral corneal staphyloma due to Peters anomaly and retinal dysplasia. PMID:26059676

  12. Hypertension due to loss of clock: novel insight from the molecular analysis of Cry1/Cry2-deleted mice.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Hitoshi; Doi, Masao; Yamaguchi, Yoshiaki; Fustin, Jean-Michel

    2011-04-01

    In our consumer-oriented society, in which productivity requires around-the-clock activity and demanding shift work, the biologic system that regulates our internal rhythms is being compromised. Poor sleep patterns and hectic lifestyle are detrimental to harmonious physiological and metabolic body systems, with severe impact on public health. Over a trillion peripheral cellular clocks throughout the body, supervised by the master clock located in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus, govern most aspects of physiology and behavior. To exemplify the importance of the biologic clock for health, we have recently demonstrated that mice that are arrhythmic because of the deletion of Cry1 and Cry2 clock genes suffer from salt-sensitive hypertension. In these mice, a novel 3β-hydroxyl-steroid dehydrogenase (3β-Hsd) gene under clock control is severely overexpressed specifically in aldosterone-producing cells in the adrenal cortex, leading to hyperaldosteronism and ultimately to salt-sensitive hypertension. The human homologue of this aldosterone-producing, cell-specific enzyme was also characterized and represents a new possibility in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  13. Electrical hypothesis of toxicity of the Cry toxins for mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Lemeshko, Victor V; Orduz, Sergio

    2013-01-11

    Many electrical properties of insect larval guts have been studied, but their importance for toxicity of the Cry-type toxins has never been reported in the literature. In the present work, we observed potential-dependent permeabilization of plasma membrane by several polycationic peptides derived from the Cry11Bb protoxin. The peptide BTM-P1d, all D-type amino acid analogue of the earlier reported peptide BTM-P1, demonstrated high membrane-permeabilizing activity in experiments with isolated rat liver mitochondria, RBC (red blood cells) and mitochondria in homogenates of Aedes aegypti larval guts. Two larger peptides, BTM-P2 and BTM-P3, as well as the Cry11Bb protoxin treated with the protease extract of mosquito larval guts showed similar effects. Only protease-resistant BTM-P1d, in comparison with other peptides, displayed A. aegypti larval toxicity. Taking into account the potential-dependent mechanism of membrane permeabilization by studied fragments of the Cry11Bb protoxin and the literature data related to the distribution of membrane and transepithelial potentials in the A. aegypti larval midgut, we suggest an electrical hypothesis of toxicity of the Cry toxins for mosquito larvae. According to this hypothesis, the electrical field distribution is one of the factors determining the midgut region most susceptible for insertion of activated toxins into the plasma membrane to form pores. In addition, potential-dependent penetration of short active toxin fragments into the epithelial cells could induce permeabilization of mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis or necrosis.

  14. Susceptibility of northern corn rootworm Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab Bacillus thuringiensis proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of the northern corn rootworm (NCR), to mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was determined using a diet bioassay. Northern corn rootworm neonates were exposed to different concentrations of mCry3A and eCry3.1Ab, incorporated into artificial diet. Lar...

  15. Brain stem hypoplasia associated with Cri-du-Chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lee, Ha Young; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  16. Brain Stem Hypoplasia Associated with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jin Ho; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Mi Young; Kang, Young Hye; Lee, Kyung Hee; Cho, Soon Gu

    2013-01-01

    Cri-du-Chat syndrome, also called the 5p-syndrome, is a rare genetic abnormality, and only few cases have been reported on its brain MRI findings. We describe the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 1-year-old girl with Cri-du-Chat syndrome who showed brain stem hypoplasia, particularly in the pons, with normal cerebellum and diffuse hypoplasia of the cerebral hemispheres. We suggest that Cri-du-Chat syndrome chould be suspected in children with brain stem hypoplasia, particularly for those with high-pitched cries. PMID:24265573

  17. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for heat denaturation of Cry1a(b) protein from transgenic maize (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    De Luis, R; Pérez, M D; Sánchez, L; Lavilla, M; Calvo, M

    2008-08-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the denaturation of Cry1A(b) protein expressed in transgenic maize was studied over a temperature range of 69 to 77 degrees C. Denaturation of Cry1A(b) protein was measured by the loss of reactivity with its specific antibodies using a sandwich ELISA. The process of denaturation was studied by analyzing the values of inmunoreactive protein after each heat treatment by kinetic analysis. Denaturation of Cry1A(b) protein was best described assuming a reaction order of 1.5. D-values calculated were 4338, 2350, 1272, 734, and 601 s at 69, 71, 73, 75, and 77 degrees C, respectively. Z-value was estimated to be 9.0 degrees C and the activation energy value was 266.15 kJ/mol. Thermodynamic parameters for the process of denaturation of Cry1A(b) protein were also calculated. The high values of the enthalpy of activation and the positive values of the entropy of activation obtained for Cry1A(b) protein are typical of a reaction in which the denaturation of the protein is the rate-determining process that predominates over an aggregation process during heating.

  18. Overexpression of circadian clock protein cryptochrome (CRY) 1 alleviates sleep deprivation-induced vascular inflammation in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bing; Deng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Disturbance of the circadian clock by sleep deprivation has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of inflammation. However, the underlying mechanism of circadian oscillator components in regulating the pro-inflammatory process during sleep deprivation remains poorly understood. Using a sleep deprivation mouse model, we showed here that sleep deprivation increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and decreased the expression of cryptochrome 1 (CRY1) in vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, the adhesion molecules including intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin were elevated in vascular endothelial cells and the monocytes binding to vascular endothelial cells were also increased by sleep deprivation. Interestingly, overexpression of CRY1 in a mouse model by adenovirus vector significantly inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules, and NF-κB signal pathway activation, as well as the binding of monocytes to vascular endothelial cells. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we found that CRY1 could repress the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that overexpression of CRY1 inhibited the basal concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to decreased protein kinase A activity, which resulted in decreased phosphorylation of p65. Taken together, these results suggested that the overexpression of CRY1 inhibited sleep deprivation-induced vascular inflammation that might be associated with NF-κB and cAMP/PKA pathways.

  19. Circuit for connecting the Videoton-340 with the ES-1030 as an operator console

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uskov, V. A.; PRYADIN

    1979-01-01

    A system of connection of the Videoton-340 text display to the standard ES-7070 unit, for use as an operator console, partially replacing and supplementing the ES-7070 electric typewriter, is described. The interactions, including the specific instructions, among the Videoton-340, the Consul-260.1 electric typewriter and the ES-7070, which is the means of user access to the unified system of computers, are presented. Users at the Institute of Space Research note the reliability, high information output rate, noiselessness and convenience of the keyboard of the system.

  20. Binding of phylogenetically distant Bacillus thuringiensis cry toxins to a Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N suggests importance of Cry toxin's conserved structure in receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Shinkawa, A; Yaoi, K; Kadotani, T; Imamura, M; Koizumi, N; Iwahana, H; Sato, R

    1999-07-01

    We investigated the binding proteins for three Cry toxins, Cry1Aa, Cry1Ac, and the phylogenetically distant Cry9Da, in the midgut cell membrane of the silkworm. In a ligand blot experiment, Cry1Ac and Cry9Da bound to the same 120-kDa aminopeptidase N (APN) as Cry1Aa. A competition experiment with the ligand blot indicated that the three toxins share the same binding site on several proteins. The values of the dissociation constants of the three Cry toxins and 120-kDa APN are as low as the case of other Cry toxins and receptors. These results suggest that distantly related Cry toxins bind to the same site on the same proteins, especially with APN. We propose that the conserved structure in these three toxins includes the receptor-binding site. PMID:10387111

  1. Persistence of detectable insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry) and toxicity after adsorption on contrasting soils.

    PubMed

    Hung, T P; Truong, L V; Binh, N D; Frutos, R; Quiquampoix, H; Staunton, S

    2016-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry, or Bt, proteins are produced by the soil-endemic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis and some genetically modified crops. Their environmental fate depends on interactions with soil. Little is known about the toxicity of adsorbed proteins and the change in toxicity over time. We incubated Cry1Ac and Cry2A in contrasting soils subjected to different treatments to inhibit microbial activity. The toxin was chemically extracted and immunoassayed. Manduca sexta was the target insect for biotests. Extractable toxin decreased during incubation for up to four weeks. Toxicity of Cry1Ac was maintained in the adsorbed state, but lost after 2 weeks incubation at 25 °C. The decline in extractable protein and toxicity were much slower at 4 °C with no significant effect of soil sterilization. The major driving force for decline may be time-dependent fixation of adsorbed protein, leading to a decrease in the extraction yield in vitro, paralleled by decreasing solubilisation in the larval gut. PMID:26549751

  2. An overview of the safety and biological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in mammals.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Infante, Néstor; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2016-05-01

    Crystal proteins (Cry) produced during the growth and sporulation phases of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium are known as delta endotoxins. These toxins are being used worldwide as bioinsecticides to control pests in agriculture, and some Cry toxins are used against mosquitoes to control vector transmission. This review summarizes the relevant information currently available regarding the biosafety and biological effects that Bt and its insecticidal Cry proteins elicit in mammals. This work was performed because of concerns regarding the possible health impact of Cry toxins on vertebrates, particularly because Bt toxins might be associated with immune-activating or allergic responses. The controversial data published to date are discussed in this review considering earlier toxicological studies of B. thuringiensis, spores, toxins and Bt crops. We discussed the experimental studies performed in humans, mice, rats and sheep as well as in diverse mammalian cell lines. Although the term 'toxic' is not appropriate for defining the effects these toxins have on mammals, they cannot be considered innocuous, as they have some physiological effects that may become pathological; thus, trials that are more comprehensive are necessary to determine their effects on mammals because knowledge in this field remains limited. PMID:26537666

  3. An overview of the safety and biological effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins in mammals.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Infante, Néstor; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2016-05-01

    Crystal proteins (Cry) produced during the growth and sporulation phases of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium are known as delta endotoxins. These toxins are being used worldwide as bioinsecticides to control pests in agriculture, and some Cry toxins are used against mosquitoes to control vector transmission. This review summarizes the relevant information currently available regarding the biosafety and biological effects that Bt and its insecticidal Cry proteins elicit in mammals. This work was performed because of concerns regarding the possible health impact of Cry toxins on vertebrates, particularly because Bt toxins might be associated with immune-activating or allergic responses. The controversial data published to date are discussed in this review considering earlier toxicological studies of B. thuringiensis, spores, toxins and Bt crops. We discussed the experimental studies performed in humans, mice, rats and sheep as well as in diverse mammalian cell lines. Although the term 'toxic' is not appropriate for defining the effects these toxins have on mammals, they cannot be considered innocuous, as they have some physiological effects that may become pathological; thus, trials that are more comprehensive are necessary to determine their effects on mammals because knowledge in this field remains limited.

  4. Persistence of detectable insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Cry) and toxicity after adsorption on contrasting soils.

    PubMed

    Hung, T P; Truong, L V; Binh, N D; Frutos, R; Quiquampoix, H; Staunton, S

    2016-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry, or Bt, proteins are produced by the soil-endemic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis and some genetically modified crops. Their environmental fate depends on interactions with soil. Little is known about the toxicity of adsorbed proteins and the change in toxicity over time. We incubated Cry1Ac and Cry2A in contrasting soils subjected to different treatments to inhibit microbial activity. The toxin was chemically extracted and immunoassayed. Manduca sexta was the target insect for biotests. Extractable toxin decreased during incubation for up to four weeks. Toxicity of Cry1Ac was maintained in the adsorbed state, but lost after 2 weeks incubation at 25 °C. The decline in extractable protein and toxicity were much slower at 4 °C with no significant effect of soil sterilization. The major driving force for decline may be time-dependent fixation of adsorbed protein, leading to a decrease in the extraction yield in vitro, paralleled by decreasing solubilisation in the larval gut.

  5. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  6. Cry1Ab-expressing rice did not influence expression of fecundity-related genes in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Peng, Yuan-De; He, Chao; Wei, Bao-Yang; Liang, Yun-Shan; Yang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhi; Stanley, David; Song, Qi-Sheng

    2016-10-30

    The impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin proteins on non-target predatory arthropods is not well understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Here, we investigated the potential effects of Cry1Ab expressing rice on fecundity of the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, and some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that brown planthoppers (BPHs) reared on Cry1Ab-expressing rice accumulated the Cry toxin and that reproductive parameters (pre-oviposition period, post-oviposition stage, number of eggs, and egg hatching rate) of the spiders that consumed BPHs reared on Bt rice were not different from those that consumed BPHs reared on the non-Bt control rice. The accumulated Cry1Ab did not influence several vitellin (Vt) parameters, including stored energy and amino acid composition, during one generation. We considered the possibility that the Cry toxins exert their influence on beneficial predators via more subtle effects detectable at the molecular level in terms of gene expression. This led us to transcriptome analysis to detect differentially expressed genes in the ovaries of spiders exposed to dietary Cry1Ab and their counterpart control spiders. Eight genes, associated with vitellogenesis, vitellogenin receptor activity, and vitellin membrane formation were not differentially expressed between ovaries from the treated and control spiders, confirmed by qPCR analysis. We infer that dietary Cry1Ab expressing rice does not influence fecundity, nor expression levels of Vt-associated genes in P. pseudoannulata.

  7. Cry1Ab-expressing rice did not influence expression of fecundity-related genes in the wolf spider Pardosa pseudoannulata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Peng, Yuan-De; He, Chao; Wei, Bao-Yang; Liang, Yun-Shan; Yang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Zhi; Stanley, David; Song, Qi-Sheng

    2016-10-30

    The impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin proteins on non-target predatory arthropods is not well understood at the cellular and molecular levels. Here, we investigated the potential effects of Cry1Ab expressing rice on fecundity of the wolf spider, Pardosa pseudoannulata, and some of the underlying molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that brown planthoppers (BPHs) reared on Cry1Ab-expressing rice accumulated the Cry toxin and that reproductive parameters (pre-oviposition period, post-oviposition stage, number of eggs, and egg hatching rate) of the spiders that consumed BPHs reared on Bt rice were not different from those that consumed BPHs reared on the non-Bt control rice. The accumulated Cry1Ab did not influence several vitellin (Vt) parameters, including stored energy and amino acid composition, during one generation. We considered the possibility that the Cry toxins exert their influence on beneficial predators via more subtle effects detectable at the molecular level in terms of gene expression. This led us to transcriptome analysis to detect differentially expressed genes in the ovaries of spiders exposed to dietary Cry1Ab and their counterpart control spiders. Eight genes, associated with vitellogenesis, vitellogenin receptor activity, and vitellin membrane formation were not differentially expressed between ovaries from the treated and control spiders, confirmed by qPCR analysis. We infer that dietary Cry1Ab expressing rice does not influence fecundity, nor expression levels of Vt-associated genes in P. pseudoannulata. PMID:27452121

  8. No impact of transgenic cry1C rice on the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes, a generalist predator of brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jiarong; Mabubu, Juma Ibrahim; Han, Yu; He, Yueping; Zhao, Jing; Hua, Hongxia; Feng, Yanni; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    T1C-19 is newly developed transgenic rice active against lepidopteran pests, and expresses a synthesized cry1C gene driven by the maize ubiquitin promoter. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is a major non-target pest of rice, and the rove beetle (Paederus fuscipes) is a generalist predator of N. lugens nymphs. As P. fuscipes may be exposed to the Cry1C protein through preying on N. lugens, it is essential to assess the potential effects of transgenic cry1C rice on this predator. In this study, two experiments (a direct feeding experiment and a tritrophic experiment) were conducted to evaluate the ecological risk of cry1C rice to P. fuscipes. No significant negative effects were observed in the development, survival, female ratio and body weight of P. fuscipes in both treatments of direct exposure to elevated doses of Cry1C protein and prey-mediated exposure to realistic doses of the protein. This indicated that cry1C rice had no detrimental effects on P. fuscipes. This work represents the first study of an assessment continuum for the effects of transgenic cry1C rice on P. fuscipes. Use of the rove beetle as an indicator species to assess potential effects of genetically modified crops on non-target arthropods is feasible. PMID:27444416

  9. Oligomerization is a key step in Cyt1Aa membrane insertion and toxicity but not necessary to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity in Aedes aegypti larvae

    PubMed Central

    López-Diaz, Jazmin A.; Cantón, Pablo Emiliano; Gill, Sarjeet S.; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Summary Bacillus thuringiensis produces insecticidal Cry and Cyt proteins that are toxic to different insect orders. In addition, Cyt toxins also display haemolytic activity. Both toxins are pore-forming proteins that form oligomeric structures that insert into the target membrane to lyse cells. Cyt toxins play an important role in mosquitocidal activity since they synergize Cry toxins and are able to overcome resistance to Cry toxins. Cry and Cyt toxins interact by specific epitopes, and this interaction is important to induce the synergistic activity observed. It was proposed that Cyt toxins do not interact with protein receptors but directly interacting with the specific midgut cell lipids. Here, we analysed if oligomerization and membrane insertion of Cyt1Aa are necessary steps to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity. We characterized Cyt1Aa helix α-C mutants that were affected in oligomerization, in membrane insertion and also in haemolytic and insecticidal activities. However, these mutants were still able to synergize Cry11Aa toxicity indicating these steps are independent events of Cyt1Aa synergistic activity. Furthermore, the data indicate that formation of stable Cyt1Aa-oligomeric structure is a key step for membrane insertion, haemolysis and insecticidal activity. PMID:24112611

  10. pH-Controlled Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Protoxin Loading and Release from Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenhui; He, Kanglai; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Shuyuan

    2012-01-01

    Crystal proteins synthesized by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been used as biopesticides because of their toxicity to the insect larval hosts. To protect the proteins from environmental stress to extend their activity, we have developed a new microcapsule formulation. Poly (acrylic acid) (PAH) and poly (styrene sulfonate) (PSS) were fabricated through layer-by-layer self-assembly based on a CaCO3 core. Cry1Ac protoxins were loaded into microcapsules through layer-by-layer self-assembly at low pH, and the encapsulated product was stored in water at 4°C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the morphology of the capsules. To confirm the successful encapsulation, the loading results were observed with a confocal laser scattering microscope (CLSM), using fluorescein-labeled Cry1Ac protoxin (FITC-Cry1Ac). The protoxins were released from the capsule under the alkaline condition corresponding to the midgut of certain insects, a condition which seldom exists elsewhere in the environment. The following bioassay experiment demonstrated that the microcapsules with Cry1Ac protoxins displayed approximately equivalent insecticidal activity to the Asian corn borer compared with free Cry1Ac protoxins, and empty capsules proved to have no effect on insects. Further result also indicated that the formulation could keep stable under the condition of heat and desiccation. These results suggest that this formulation provides a promising methodology that protects protoxins from the environment and releases them specifically in the target insects’ midgut, which has shown potential as biopesticide in the field. PMID:23024810

  11. Bt proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab do not affect cotton aphid Aphis gossypii and ladybeetle Propylea japonica

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Cui, Jin-Jie; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Plant varieties expressing the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) insecticidal proteins Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab have potential commercialization prospects in China. However, their potential effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) remain uncharacterized. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii is a worldwide pest that damages various important crops. The ladybeetle Propylea japonica is a common and abundant natural enemy in many cropping systems in East Asia. In the present study, the effects of Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins on A. gossypii and P. japonica were assessed from three aspects. First, neither of the Cry proteins affected the growth or developmental characteristics of the two test insects. Second, the expression levels of the detoxification-related genes of the two test insects did not change significantly in either Cry protein treatment. Third, neither of the Cry proteins had a favourable effect on the expression of genes associated with the amino acid metabolism of A. gossypii and the nutrition utilization of P. japonica. In conclusion, the Cry1Ah and Cry2Ab proteins do not appear to affect the cotton aphid A. gossypii or the ladybeetle P. japonica. PMID:26829252

  12. Inheritance patterns, dominance and cross-resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantao; He, Mingxia; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Wang, Zhenying; Edwards, Martin G; Li, Qing; He, Kanglai

    2014-09-11

    Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS) for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR) toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR) of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively), indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased.

  13. Inheritance Patterns, Dominance and Cross-Resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-Selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tiantao; He, Mingxia; Gatehouse, Angharad M. R.; Wang, Zhenying; Edwards, Martin G.; Li, Qing; He, Kanglai

    2014-01-01

    Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS) for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR) toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR) of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively), indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased. PMID:25216083

  14. Inheritance patterns, dominance and cross-resistance of Cry1Ab- and Cry1Ac-selected Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tiantao; He, Mingxia; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Wang, Zhenying; Edwards, Martin G; Li, Qing; He, Kanglai

    2014-09-01

    Two colonies of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), artificially selected from a Bt-susceptible colony (ACB-BtS) for resistance to Cry1Ab (ACB-AbR) and Cry1Ac (ACB-AcR) toxins, were used to analyze inheritance patterns of resistance to Cry1 toxins. ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR evolved significant levels of resistance, with resistance ratios (RR) of 39-fold and 78.8-fold to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively. The susceptibility of ACB-AbR larvae to Cry1Ac and Cry1F toxins, which had not previously been exposed, were significantly reduced, being >113-fold and 48-fold, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility of ACB-AcR larvae to Cry1Ab and Cry1F were also significantly reduced (RR > nine-fold, RR > 18-fold, respectively), indicating cross-resistance among Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F toxins. However, ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR larvae were equally susceptible to Cry1Ie as were ACB-BtS larvae, indicating no cross-resistance between Cry1Ie and Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxins; this may provide considerable benefits in preventing or delaying the evolution of resistance in ACB to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac toxins. Backcrossing studies indicated that resistance to Cry1Ab toxin was polygenic in ACB-AbR, but monogenic in ACB-AcR, whilst resistance to Cry1Ac toxin was primarily monogenic in both ACB-AbR and ACB-AcR, but polygenic as resistance increased. PMID:25216083

  15. Driver/passenger discrimination for the interaction with the dual-view touch screen integrated to the automobile centre console

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Enrico; Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to further develop and evaluate the optical recognition systems for distinguishing between driver and frontseat passenger during their interactions with dual-view touch screen integrated to the automobile centre console, this work focuses on the enhancement of both image processing algorithms and experimental environment. In addition to the motion based forearm and hand segmentation and the texture based arm direction analysis, the adaptive boosting classifiers with Haar-like features have been engaged for the learning of driver's and passenger's hand patterns. The user discrimination system was completely reproduced in a laboratory, including passenger compartment with genuine dashboard, touch screen, camera and near-infrared lamps, so that different illumination conditions could be modeled. The new acquisition system allows automatic and unambiguous registration of all touch screen interactions and their synchronization with the video stream. This results in credible evaluation of the image processing routines. The adjustment of the camera position and the active infrared illumination made it possible to reduce the recognition error rates and to achieve superior discrimination performance compared to previous works.

  16. Isolation and distribution of mosquito-larvicidal cry genes in Bacillus thuringiensis strains native to Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-kersh, T A; Al-akeel, R A; Al-sheikh, Y A; Alharbi, S A

    2014-12-01

    A total of 157 environmental samples were collected from 11 ecological regions across Saudi Arabia to isolate native Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains. Bt isolates (n=103) were recovered by the 50% (v/v) ethanol treatment method with Bt index range of 0.01 to 0.4. Most of Bt isolates showed spherical crystals (54%), while, irregular, bi-pyramidal, and spore-attached crystal constituted 27, 16 and 3% respectively. PCR analysis with eight general and specific dipteran primers of Cry and Cyt genes, revealed positive amplification for cry4 & cyt1, and cry4A, cry4B and cyt2, and cry 10 and cry 11 genes in 28%, 26%, 22%, and 25% of tested strains respectively; whereas cry2 gene was not detected except with the reference Bt kurstaki HD-1 strain. Bioassays against Aedes caspuis and Culex pipiens larvae indicated that 11 strains displayed better larvicidal activity compared with Bacillus thuringiensis H14 (Bti) reference (LC50 0.6 μg/ml) strain against Ae. caspuis, but only two strains (620A & 633R1, LC50 of 0.09 μg/ml & 0.064 μg/ml) that gave significant enhancement. Additionally, one strain (633R1) showed LC50 similar to that of Bti H14 (LC50 0.064 μg/ml) against Cx. pipiens. With the exception of cyt primers, sequenced DNA of all positive primers amplicons revealed 95 to 99% identity in GenBank with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis plasmid pBtoxis and also correlated with its SDS-PAGE expressed protein profiles analysis. It is hoped that our wild bio-insecticide Bt strains can be explored in future in the control of mosquito-vector borne diseases in Saudi Arabia.

  17. The expression and crystallization of Cry65Aa require two C-termini, revealing a novel evolutionary strategy of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Dong-hai; Pang, Cui-yun; Wu, Han; Huang, Qiong; Zheng, Jin-shui; Sun, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The insecticidal crystal protein (Cry) genes of Bacillus thuringiensis are a key gene resource for generating transgenic crops with pest resistance. However, many cry genes cannot be expressed or form crystals in mother cells. Here, we report a novel Cry protein gene, cry65Aa1, which exists in an operon that contains a downstream gene encoding a hypothetical protein ORF2. We demonstrated that ORF2 is required for Cry65Aa1 expression and crystallization by function as a C-terminal crystallization domain. The orf2 sequence is also required for Cry65Aa expression, because orf2 transcripts have a stabilizing effect on cry65Aa1 transcripts. Furthermore, we found that the crystallization of Cry65Aa1 required the Cry65Aa1 C-terminus in addition to ORF2 or a typical Cry protein C-terminal region. Finally, we showed that Cry65Aa1 has a selective cytotoxic effect on MDA-MB231 cancer cells. This report is the first description of a 130-kDa mass range Cry protein requiring two C-termini for crystallization. Our findings reveal a novel evolutionary strategy of Cry proteins and provide an explanation for the existence of Cry protein genes that cannot form crystals in B. thuringiensis. This study also provides a potential framework for isolating novel cry genes from “no crystal” B. thuringiensis strains. PMID:25656389

  18. The willingness to pay of parties to traffic accidents for loss of productivity and consolation compensation.

    PubMed

    Jou, Rong-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Ying

    2015-12-01

    In this study, willingness to pay (WTP) for loss of productivity and consolation compensation by parties to traffic accidents is investigated using the Tobit model. In addition, WTP is compared to compensation determined by Taiwanese courts. The modelling results showed that variables such as education, average individual monthly income, traffic accident history, past experience of severe traffic accident injuries, the number of working days lost due to a traffic accident, past experience of accepting compensation for traffic accident-caused productivity loss and past experience of accepting consolation compensation caused by traffic accidents have a positive impact on WTP. In addition, average WTP for these two accident costs were obtained. We found that parties to traffic accidents were willing to pay more than 90% of the compensation determined by the court in the scenario of minor and moderate injuries. Parties were willing to pay approximately 80% of the compensation determined by the court for severe injuries, disability and fatality. Therefore, related agencies can use our study findings as the basis for determining the compensation that parties should pay for productivity losses caused by traffic accidents of different types.

  19. The Console in A Briefcase: An Approach to Remote Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaton, Andy F.; Hagopian, Jeff; Wooten, Lewis (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The CIAB (Console in a Briefcase) is conceived as an ISS (International Space Station) Payload Operations remote console that would run via an Internet connection, consisting of components (primarily a laptop PC) that fit into a briefcase, and intended for use from home in an 'on call' scenario. The primary purpose of the CIAB project is to verify that the technology and tools exist to support remote-access payload operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and to build, test, and demonstrate a prototype system. The project can potentially provide cost savings and increased morale to the space operations community by reducing demands on staff. Also, the CIAB project provides a vehicle for examining innovative concepts pertaining to Mission Planning software tools that have potential benefits beyond just the immediate needs of remote access. To date we have implemented and tested the basic capability. Current research is focused on reducing bandwidth demands via the adoption of innovative software solutions. Research into current Internet connectivity and bandwidth is also being pursued.

  20. Binding Analyses of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry δ-Endotoxins Using Brush Border Membrane Vesicles of Ostrinia nubilalis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Gang; Masson, Luke; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Schwab, George; Adang, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic corn expressing the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab gene is highly insecticidal to Ostrinia nubilalis (European corn borer) larvae. We ascertained whether Cry1F, Cry9C, or Cry9E recognizes the Cry1Ab binding site on the O. nubilalis brush border by three approaches. An optical biosensor technology based on surface plasmon resonance measured binding of brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) injected over a surface of immobilized Cry toxin. Preincubation with Cry1Ab reduced BBMV binding to immobilized Cry1Ab, whereas preincubation with Cry1F, Cry9C, or Cry9E did not inhibit BBMV binding. BBMV binding to a Cry1F-coated surface was reduced when vesicles were preincubated in Cry1F or Cry1Ab but not Cry9C or Cry9E. A radioligand approach measured 125I-Cry1Ab toxin binding to BBMV in the presence of homologous (Cry1Ab) and heterologous (Cry1Ac, Cry1F, Cry9C, or Cry9E) toxins. Unlabeled Cry1Ac effectively competed for 125I-Cry1Ab binding in a manner comparable to Cry1Ab itself. Unlabeled Cry9C and Cry9E toxins did not inhibit 125I-Cry1Ab binding to BBMV. Cry1F inhibited 125I-Cry1Ab binding at concentrations greater than 500 nM. Cry1F had low-level affinity for the Cry1Ab binding site. Ligand blot analysis identified Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F binding proteins in BBMV. The major Cry1Ab signals on ligand blots were at 145 kDa and 154 kDa, but a strong signal was present at 220 kDa and a weak signal was present at 167 kDa. Cry1Ac and Cry1F binding proteins were detected at 220 and 154 kDa. Anti-Manduca sexta aminopeptidase serum recognized proteins of 145, 154, and 167 kDa, and anti-cadherin serum recognized the 220 kDa protein. We speculate that isoforms of aminopeptidase and cadherin in the brush border membrane serve as Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1F binding proteins. PMID:11157257

  1. Bases for maternal perceptions of infant crying and colic behaviour.

    PubMed Central

    James-Roberts, I S; Conroy, S; Wilsher, K

    1996-01-01

    According to the commonest definition, infant colic is distinguished by crying which is 'paroxysmal'-that is, intense and different in type from normal fussing and crying. To test this, maternal reports of the distress type of 67 infants whose fuss/crying usually exceeded three hours a day ('persistent criers') were scrutinised using 24 hour audiorecordings of the infants' distressed vocalisation. 'Moderate criers' (n = 55) and 'evening criers' (n = 38) were also assessed. Most of the distress in all three groups was fussing. In the audiorecordings the persistent criers showed a higher crying: fussing ratio than the moderate criers, but intense crying was rare. A third of the persistent criers were reported by their mothers to have occasional, distinct colic bouts of 'intense, unsoothable crying and other behaviour, perhaps due to stomach or bowel pain.' In the audiorecordings these periods were longer, but not paroxysmal in onset or more intense than the crying of persistent criers not judged to have colic. The audible features of the crying may be less important than its unpredictable, prolonged, hard to soothe, and unexplained nature. PMID:8957949

  2. Spectrum Analysis of Low and Full Birthweight Newborn Cries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; And Others

    Based on findings that report differences between cries of normal and clinically abnormal infants, this study examined the relationship between birthweight and behavioral and acoustic features of neonatal cry because of the long-standing association between birthweight, perinatal trauma, and subsequent development. Subjects were 88 neonates…

  3. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Burney, Regan V.

    2010-01-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers…

  4. Safety assessment of Cry1Ab/Ac fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wentao; Cao, Sishuo; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Guo, Xing; Yuan, Yanfang; Huang, Kunlun

    2009-07-01

    Cry1ab/ac gene was fused by both the cry1ab gene (GenBank Accession No. X54939) and the cry1ac gene (GenBank Accession No. Y09787), which was widely used in genetically modified (GM) rice, cotton, maize and so on. In order to support the safety assessment of GM food or feed products containing Cry1Ab/Ac protein, sufficient quantities of Cry1Ab/Ac protein were produced in Escherichia coli for in vitro evaluation and animal studies. The Cry1Ab/Ac protein does not possess the characteristics associated with food toxins or allergens, i.e., it has no sequence homology with any known allergens or toxins, and no N-glycosylation sites, can be rapidly degraded in gastric and intestinal fluids, and is devoid of adverse effects in mice by gavage at a high dose level of 5g (Cry1Ab/Ac protein)/kg body weight. In conclusion, there is a reasonable certainty of no harm resulting from the inclusion of the Cry1Ab/Ac protein in human food or animal feed.

  5. Perceptual Responses to Infant Crying: Maternal Recognition and Sex Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murry, Thomas; And Others

    1975-01-01

    A study is described, the results of which indicate that mothers can recognize the cries of their own infants from tape-recorded cry samples with few instances of confusion, and that the sex of an unknown infant cannot be reliably identified using a simple auditory identification paradigm. (Author/RM)

  6. Spectrographic analysis of pain cry in neonates with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Michelsson, K; Sirviö, P; Koivisto, M; Sovijärvi, A; Wasz-Höckert, O

    1975-01-01

    52 phonations of 13 cleft palate neonates were analyzed by sound spectrographic methods. 17 phonetical attributes were included in the study and the first signal after the pain stimulus was analyzed. The cries of the cleft palate infants were compared with the crying of 75 normal babies of the same age. No change in the fundamental frequency, melody type and duration of the cries was seen in association with these anatomical defects. Two of the characteristics studied, vibrato and the 'tonal pit', occurred significantly more often in cries of the cleft palate infants than in cries of the control series. The changes in the qualities seen in association with cleft palate and/or cleft lip do not mimic the abnormalities produced by brain damage.

  7. Identification and characterization of Aedes aegypti aminopeptidase N as a putative receptor of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry11A toxin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G.; Pan, Songqin; Gill, Sarjeet S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, which is used worldwide to control Aedes aegypti larvae, produces Cry11Aa and other toxins during sporulation. In this study, pull-down assays were performed using biotinylated Cry11Aa toxin and solubilized brush border membrane vesicles prepared from midguts of Aedes larvae. Three of the eluted proteins were identified as aminopeptidease N (APN), one of which was a 140 kDa protein, named AaeAPN1 (AAEL 012778 in VectorBase). This protein localizes to the apical side of posterior midgut epithelial cells of larva. The full-length AaeAPN1 was cloned and expressed in E. coli and in Sf21 cells. AaeAPN1 protein expressed in Sf21 cells was enzymatically active, had a GPI-anchor but did not bind Cry11Aa. A truncated AaeAPN1, however, binds Cry11Aa with high affinity, and also Cry11Ba but with lower affinity. BBMV but not Sf21 expressed AaeAPN1 can be detected by wheat germ agglutinin suggesting the native but Sf21 cell expressed APN1 contains N-acetylglucosamine moieties. PMID:19698787

  8. APN1 is a functional receptor of Cry1Ac but not Cry2Ab in Helicoverpa zea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lepidopteran midgut aminopeptidases N (APNs) are phylogenetically divided into eight clusters, designated as APN1-8. Although APN1 has been implicated as one of the receptors for Cry1Ac in several species, its potential role in the mode of action of Cry2Ab has not been functionally determined so fa...

  9. Behavioral and genetic correlates of the neural response to infant crying among human fathers

    PubMed Central

    Mascaro, Jennifer S.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Gouzoules, Harold; Lori, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Although evolution has shaped human infant crying and the corresponding response from caregivers, there is marked variation in paternal involvement and caretaking behavior, highlighting the importance of understanding the neurobiology supporting optimal paternal responses to cries. We explored the neural response to infant cries in fathers of children aged 1–2, and its relationship with hormone levels, variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene, parental attitudes and parental behavior. Although number of AR CAG trinucleotide repeats was positively correlated with neural activity in brain regions important for empathy (anterior insula and inferior frontal gyrus), restrictive attitudes were inversely correlated with neural activity in these regions and with regions involved with emotion regulation (orbitofrontal cortex). Anterior insula activity had a non-linear relationship with paternal caregiving, such that fathers with intermediate activation were most involved. These results suggest that restrictive attitudes may be associated with decreased empathy and emotion regulation in response to a child in distress, and that moderate anterior insula activity reflects an optimal level of arousal that supports engaged fathering. PMID:24336349

  10. Aedes aegypti Mos20 cells internalizes cry toxins by endocytosis, and actin has a role in the defense against Cry11Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Vega-Cabrera, Adriana; Cancino-Rodezno, Angeles; Porta, Helena; Pardo-Lopez, Liliana

    2014-01-28

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins are used to control Aedes aegypti, an important vector of dengue fever and yellow fever. Bt Cry toxin forms pores in the gut cells, provoking larvae death by osmotic shock. Little is known, however, about the endocytic and/or degradative cell processes that may counteract the toxin action at low doses. The purpose of this work is to describe the mechanisms of internalization and detoxification of Cry toxins, at low doses, into Mos20 cells from A. aegypti, following endocytotic and cytoskeletal markers or specific chemical inhibitors. Here, we show that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis are involved in the internalization into Mos20 cells of Cry11Aa, a toxin specific for Dipteran, and Cry1Ab, a toxin specific for Lepidoptera. Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab are not directed to secretory lysosomes. Instead, Mos20 cells use the Rab5 and Rab11 pathways as a common mechanism, most probably for the expulsion of Cry11Aa and Cry1Ab toxins. In conclusion, we propose that endocytosis is a mechanism induced by Cry toxins independently of specificity, probably as part of a basal immune response. We found, however, that actin is necessary for defense-specific response to Cry11Aa, because actin-silenced Mos20 cells become more sensitive to the toxic action of Cry11A toxin. Cry toxin internalization analysis in insect cell lines may contribute to a better understanding to Cry resistance in mosquitoes.

  11. Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of aminopeptidase N in the host insect leading to its evolutionary success.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, K; Yaoi, K; Shimada, N; Kadotani, T; Sato, R

    1999-06-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein, Cry1Aa toxin, binds to a specific receptor in insect midguts and has insecticidal activity. Therefore, the structure of the receptor molecule is probably a key factor in determining the binding affinity of the toxin and insect susceptibility. The cDNA fragment (PX frg1) encoding the Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of an aminopeptidase N (APN) or an APN family protein from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella midgut was cloned and sequenced. A comparison between the deduced amino acid sequence of PX frg1 and other insect APN sequences shows that Cry1Aa toxin binds to a highly conserved region of APN family protein. In this paper, we propose a model to explain the mechanism that causes B. thuringiensis evolutionary success and differing insect susceptibility to Cry1Aa toxin. PMID:10366728

  12. Enhanced nematicidal potential of the chitinase pachi from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in association with Cry21Aa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Jiang, Huang; Cheng, Qipeng; Chen, Junpeng; Wu, Gaobing; Kumar, Ashok; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are known to be harmful to various crops, vegetables, plants and insects. The present study reports that, chitin upregulates the activity of chitinase (20%) and nematicidal potential (15%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chitinase gene (pachi) from P. aeruginosa was cloned, and its nematicidal activity of pachi protein against Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. The mortality rate induced by pachi increased by 6.3-fold when in association with Cry21Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis. Pachi efficiently killed C. elegans in its native state (LC50 = 387.3 ± 31.7 μg/ml), as well as in association with Cry21Aa (LC50 = 30.9 ± 4.1 μg/ml), by degrading the cuticle, egg shell and intestine in a relatively short time period of 24 h. To explore the nematidal potential of chitinase, six fusion proteins were constructed using gene engineering techniques. The CHACry showed higher activity against C. elegans than others owing to its high solubility. Notably, the CHACry showed a synergistic factor of 4.1 versus 3.5 a mixture [1:1] of pachi and Cry21Aa. The present study has identified eco-friendly biological routes (e.g., mixed proteins, fusion proteins) with potent nematicidal activity, which not only can help to prevent major crop losses but also strengthen the agro-economy and increase gross crop yield. PMID:26400097

  13. Enhanced nematicidal potential of the chitinase pachi from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in association with Cry21Aa

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Jiang, Huang; Cheng, Qipeng; Chen, Junpeng; Wu, Gaobing; Kumar, Ashok; Sun, Ming; Liu, Ziduo

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes are known to be harmful to various crops, vegetables, plants and insects. The present study reports that, chitin upregulates the activity of chitinase (20%) and nematicidal potential (15%) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The chitinase gene (pachi) from P. aeruginosa was cloned, and its nematicidal activity of pachi protein against Caenorhabditis elegans was studied. The mortality rate induced by pachi increased by 6.3-fold when in association with Cry21Aa from Bacillus thuringiensis. Pachi efficiently killed C. elegans in its native state (LC50 = 387.3 ± 31.7 μg/ml), as well as in association with Cry21Aa (LC50 = 30.9 ± 4.1 μg/ml), by degrading the cuticle, egg shell and intestine in a relatively short time period of 24 h. To explore the nematidal potential of chitinase, six fusion proteins were constructed using gene engineering techniques. The CHACry showed higher activity against C. elegans than others owing to its high solubility. Notably, the CHACry showed a synergistic factor of 4.1 versus 3.5 a mixture [1:1] of pachi and Cry21Aa. The present study has identified eco-friendly biological routes (e.g., mixed proteins, fusion proteins) with potent nematicidal activity, which not only can help to prevent major crop losses but also strengthen the agro-economy and increase gross crop yield. PMID:26400097

  14. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  15. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  16. Occurrence of maize detritus and a transgenic insecticidal protein (Cry1Ab) within the stream network of an agricultural landscape

    PubMed Central

    Tank, Jennifer L.; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J.; Royer, Todd V.; Whiles, Matt R.; Griffiths, Natalie A.; Frauendorf, Therese C.; Treering, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread planting of maize throughout the agricultural Midwest may result in detritus entering adjacent stream ecosystems, and 63% of the 2009 US maize crop was genetically modified to express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Six months after harvest, we conducted a synoptic survey of 217 stream sites in Indiana to determine the extent of maize detritus and presence of Cry1Ab protein in the stream network. We found that 86% of stream sites contained maize leaves, cobs, husks, and/or stalks in the active stream channel. We also detected Cry1Ab protein in stream-channel maize at 13% of sites and in the water column at 23% of sites. We found that 82% of stream sites were adjacent to maize fields, and Geographical Information Systems analyses indicated that 100% of sites containing Cry1Ab-positive detritus in the active stream channel had maize planted within 500 m during the previous crop year. Maize detritus likely enters streams throughout the Corn Belt; using US Department of Agriculture land cover data, we estimate that 91% of the 256,446 km of streams/rivers in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana are located within 500 m of a maize field. Maize detritus is common in low-gradient stream channels in northwestern Indiana, and Cry1Ab proteins persist in maize leaves and can be measured in the water column even 6 mo after harvest. Hence, maize detritus, and associated Cry1Ab proteins, are widely distributed and persistent in the headwater streams of a Corn Belt landscape. PMID:20876106

  17. Occurrence of maize detritus and a transgenic insecticidal protein (Cry1Ab) within the stream network of an agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Tank, Jennifer L; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Royer, Todd V; Whiles, Matt R; Griffiths, Natalie A; Frauendorf, Therese C; Treering, David J

    2010-10-12

    Widespread planting of maize throughout the agricultural Midwest may result in detritus entering adjacent stream ecosystems, and 63% of the 2009 US maize crop was genetically modified to express insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis. Six months after harvest, we conducted a synoptic survey of 217 stream sites in Indiana to determine the extent of maize detritus and presence of Cry1Ab protein in the stream network. We found that 86% of stream sites contained maize leaves, cobs, husks, and/or stalks in the active stream channel. We also detected Cry1Ab protein in stream-channel maize at 13% of sites and in the water column at 23% of sites. We found that 82% of stream sites were adjacent to maize fields, and Geographical Information Systems analyses indicated that 100% of sites containing Cry1Ab-positive detritus in the active stream channel had maize planted within 500 m during the previous crop year. Maize detritus likely enters streams throughout the Corn Belt; using US Department of Agriculture land cover data, we estimate that 91% of the 256,446 km of streams/rivers in Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana are located within 500 m of a maize field. Maize detritus is common in low-gradient stream channels in northwestern Indiana, and Cry1Ab proteins persist in maize leaves and can be measured in the water column even 6 mo after harvest. Hence, maize detritus, and associated Cry1Ab proteins, are widely distributed and persistent in the headwater streams of a Corn Belt landscape.

  18. Fundamental Bulk/Surface Structure Photoactivity Relationships of Supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Roberts, Charles; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT. The supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst was examined as a model nitride photocatalyst system to assist in the development of fundamental structure photoactivity relationships for UV activated water splitting. Surface characterization of the outermost surface layers by High Sensitivity-LEIS and High Resolution-XPS revealed for the first time that the GaN support consists of a GaOx outermost surface layer and a thin film of GaOxNy in the surface region. HR-XPS also demonstrates that the supported (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide nanoparticles (NPs) exclusively consist of Cr+3 and Rh+3 cations and are surface enriched for the supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN photocatalyst. Bulk analysis by Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy show that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of the GaN support are not perturbed by the deposition of the (Rh2-yCryO3) mixed oxide NPs. The function of the GaN bulk lattice is to generate photoexcited electrons/holes, with the electrons harnessed by the surface Rh+3 sites for evolution of H2 and the holes trapped at the Ga oxide/oxynitride surface sites for splitting of water and evolving O2. These new structure-photoactivity relationships for supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/GaN also extend to the best performing visible light activated supported (Rh2-yCryO3)/(Ga1-xZnx)(N1-xOx) photocatalyst.

  19. Development of a Software Tool to Automate ADCO Flight Controller Console Planning Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark G.

    2011-01-01

    This independent study project covers the development of the International Space Station (ISS) Attitude Determination and Control Officer (ADCO) Planning Exchange APEX Tool. The primary goal of the tool is to streamline existing manual and time-intensive planning tools into a more automated, user-friendly application that interfaces with existing products and allows the ADCO to produce accurate products and timelines more effectively. This paper will survey the current ISS attitude planning process and its associated requirements, goals, documentation and software tools and how a software tool could simplify and automate many of the planning actions which occur at the ADCO console. The project will be covered from inception through the initial prototype delivery in November 2011 and will include development of design requirements and software as well as design verification and testing.

  20. Metamorphoses of ONAV console operations: From prototype to real time application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millis, Malise; Wang, Lui

    1991-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System is being developed as a real time console assistant to the ONAV flight controller for use in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. Currently the entry and rendezvous systems are in verification, and the ascent is being prototyped. To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, what is verification, and availability, stability, and the size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware stability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  1. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2015-12-15

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (V(am)) of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from -82.9 ± 6.6 mV to -19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; V(am) was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and V(am) decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The V(am) of A. ipsilon (-33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51) was only half that of M. separata (-80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75). The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes.

  2. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (Vam) of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from −82.9 ± 6.6 mV to −19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; Vam was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and Vam decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The Vam of A. ipsilon (−33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51) was only half that of M. separata (−80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75). The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes. PMID:26694463

  3. Different Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on Midgut Cell Transmembrane Potential of Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon Larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingying; Hu, Zhaonong; Wu, Wenjun

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins from the Cry1A family demonstrate significantly different toxicities against members of the family Noctuidae for unknown reasons. In this study, membrane potential was measured and analyzed in freshly isolated midgut samples from Mythimna separata and Agrotis ipsilon larvae under oral administration and in vitro incubation with Bt toxin Cry1Ab to elucidate the mechanism of action for further control of these pests. Bioassay results showed that the larvae of M. separata achieved a LD50 of 258.84 ng/larva at 24 h after ingestion; M. separata larvae were at least eightfold more sensitive than A. ipsilon larvae to Cry1Ab. Force-feeding showed that the observed midgut apical-membrane potential (V(am)) of M. separata larvae was significantly depolarized from -82.9 ± 6.6 mV to -19.9 ± 7.2 mV at 8 h after ingestion of 1 μg activated Cry1Ab, whereas no obvious changes were detected in A. ipsilon larvae with dosage of 5 μg Cry1Ab. The activated Cry1Ab caused a distinct concentration-dependent depolarization of the apical membrane; V(am) was reduced by 50% after 14.7 ± 0.2, 9.8 ± 0.4, and 7.6 ± 0.6 min of treatment with 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL Cry1Ab, respectively. Cry1Ab showed a minimal effect on A. ipsilon larvae even at 20 μg/mL, and V(am) decreased by 26.3% ± 2.3% after 15 min. The concentrations of Cry1Ab displayed no significant effect on the basolateral side of the epithelium. The V(am) of A. ipsilon (-33.19 ± 6.29 mV, n = 51) was only half that of M. separata (-80.94 ± 6.95 mV, n = 75). The different degrees of sensitivity to Cry1Ab were speculatively associated with various habits, as well as the diverse physiological or biochemical characteristics of the midgut cell membranes. PMID:26694463

  4. The power of consoling presence - hospice nurses’ lived experience with spiritual and existential care for the dying

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Being with dying people is an integral part of nursing, yet many nurses feel unprepared to accompany people through the process of dying, reporting a lack of skills in psychosocial and spiritual care, resulting in high levels of moral distress, grief and burnout. The aim of this study is to describe the meaning of hospice nurses’ lived experience with alleviating dying patients’ spiritual and existential suffering. Methods This is a qualitative study. Hospice nurses were interviewed individually and asked to narrate about their experiences with giving spiritual and existential care to terminally ill hospice patients. Data analysis was conducted using phenomenological hermeneutical method. Results The key spiritual and existential care themes identified, were sensing existential and spiritual distress, tuning inn and opening up, sensing the atmosphere in the room, being moved and touched, and consoling through silence, conversation and religious consolation. Conclusions Consoling existential and spiritual distress is a deeply personal and relational practice. Nurses have a potential to alleviate existential and spiritual suffering through consoling presence. By connecting deeply with patients and their families, nurses have the possibility to affirm the patients’ strength and facilitate their courage to live a meaningful life and die a dignified death. PMID:25214816

  5. Differential Role of Manduca sexta Aminopeptidase-N and Alkaline Phosphatase in the Mode of Action of Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Escobar, Biviana; Rodríguez-Magadan, Hector; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Aminopeptidase-N (APN1) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) proteins located in the midgut epithelium of Manduca sexta have been implicated as receptors for Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. In this study, we analyzed the roles of ALP and APN1 in the toxicity of these three Cry1A proteins. Ligand blot analysis using brush border membrane vesicles of M. sexta showed that Cry1Aa and Cry1Ab bind preferentially to ALP during early instars while binding to APN was observed after the third instar of larval development. Cry1Ac binds to APN throughout all larval development, with no apparent binding to ALP. ALP was cloned from M. sexta midgut RNA and expressed in Escherichia coli. Surface plasmon resonance binding analysis showed that recombinant ALP binds to Cry1Ac with 16-fold lower affinity than to Cry1Aa or Cry1Ab. Downregulation of APN1 and ALP expression by RNA interference (RNAi) using specific double-stranded RNA correlated with a reduction of transcript and protein levels. Toxicity analysis of the three Cry1A proteins in ALP- or APN1-silenced larvae showed that Cry1Aa relies similarly on both receptor molecules for toxicity. In contrast, RNAi experiments showed that ALP is more important than APN for Cry1Ab toxicity, while Cry1Ac relied principally on APN1. These results indicated that ALP and APN1 have a differential role in the mode of action of Cry1A toxins, suggesting that B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki produces different Cry1A toxins that in conjunction target diverse midgut proteins to exert their insecticidal effect. PMID:23686267

  6. Segregation of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, aminopeptidase 1, cadherin, and bre5-like alleles, from a colony resistant to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxins, are not associated ...fed a diet containing Cry1Ab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peptide receptors may be required for activated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins to bind midgut epithelium prior to pore formation. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from two Ostrinia nubilalis midgut peptide receptors, cadherin (OnCad) and aminopeptidase N 1 (OnAPN1), and OnBre5 (...

  7. Multiple assays indicate varying levels of cross resistance of Cry3Bb1-selected field populations of the western corn rootworm to mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minnesota populations of the western corn rootworm (WCR) surviving Cry3Bb1-expressing corn in the field and WCR populations assumed to be susceptible to all Bt proteins were evaluated for susceptibility to Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, eCry3.1Ab, and Cry34/35Ab1 in diet assays and three different plant-based ass...

  8. Aedes cadherin mediates the in vivo toxicity of the Cry11Aa toxin to Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Bum; Chen, Jianwu; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S

    2015-06-01

    Cadherin plays an important role in the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins. We previously cloned a full-length cadherin from Aedes aegypti larvae and reported this protein binds Cry11Aa toxin from B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis with high affinity, ≈16.7nM. Based on these results, we investigated if Aedes cadherin is involved in the in vivo toxicity of Cry11Aa toxin to Ae. aegypti. We established a mosquito cell line stably expressing the full-length Aedes cadherin and transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression. Cells expressing the Aedes cadherin showed increased sensitivity to Cry11Aa toxin. Cry11Aa toxin at 400nM killed approximately 37% of the cells in 3h. Otherwise, transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed increased tolerance to Cry11Aa toxin. Furthermore, cells expressing Aedes cadherin triggered Cry11Aa oligomerization. These results show the Aedes cadherin plays a pivotal role in Cry11Aa toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae by mediating Cry11Aa oligomerization. However, since high toxicity was not obtained in cadherin-expressing cells, an additional receptor may be needed for manifestation of full toxicity. Moreover, cells expressing Aedes cadherin were sensitive to Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba, but not Cry4Ba. However transgenic mosquitoes with silenced Aedes cadherin expression showed no tolerance to Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba, and Cry11Ba toxins. These results suggest that while Aedes cadherin may mediate Cry4Aa and Cry11Ba toxicity, this cadherin but is not the main receptor of Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Ba toxin in Ae. aegypti.

  9. A GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase is a functional midgut receptor of Cry11Aa toxin in Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Luisa E; Aimanova, Karlygash G; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2006-02-15

    A 65 kDa GPI (glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol)-anchored ALP (alkaline phosphatase) was characterized as a functional receptor of the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin in Aedes aegypti midgut cells. Two (a 100 kDa and a 65 kDa) GPI-anchored proteins that bound Cry11Aa toxin were preferentially extracted after treatment of BBMV (brush boder membrane vesicles) from Ae. aegypti midgut epithelia with phospholipase C. The 65 kDa protein was further purified by toxin affinity chromatography. The 65 kDa protein showed ALP activity. The peptide-displaying phages (P1.BBMV and P8.BBMV) that bound to the 65 kDa GPI-ALP (GPI-anchored ALP) and competed with the Cry11Aa toxin to bind to BBMV were isolated by selecting BBMV-binding peptide-phages by biopanning. GPI-ALP was shown to be preferentially distributed in Ae. aegypti in the posterior part of the midgut and in the caeca, by using P1.BBMV binding to fixed midgut tissue sections to determine the location of GPI-ALP. Cry11Aa binds to the same regions of the midgut and competed with P1.BBMV and P8.BBMV to bind to BBMV. The importance of this interaction was demonstrated by the in vivo attenuation of Cry11Aa toxicity in the presence of these phages. Our results shows that GPI-ALP is an important receptor molecule involved in Cry11Aa interaction with midgut cells and toxicity to Ae. aegypti larvae.

  10. Nontarget organism effects tests on eCry3.1Ab and their application to the ecological risk assessment for cultivation of Event 5307 maize.

    PubMed

    Burns, Andrea; Raybould, Alan

    2014-12-01

    Event 5307 transgenic maize produces the novel insecticidal protein eCry3.1Ab, which is active against certain coleopteran pests such as Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera). Laboratory tests with representative nontarget organisms (NTOs) were conducted to test the hypothesis of no adverse ecological effects of cultivating Event 5307 maize. Estimates of environmental eCry3.1Ab concentrations for each NTO were calculated from the concentrations of eCry3.1Ab produced by 5307 maize in relevant plant tissues. Nontarget organisms were exposed to diets containing eCry3.1Ab or diets comprising Event 5307 maize tissue and evaluated for effects compared to control groups. No statistically significant differences in survival were observed between the control group and the group exposed to eCry3.1Ab in any organism tested. Measured eCry3.1Ab concentrations in the laboratory studies were equal to or greater than the most conservative estimates of environmental exposure. The laboratory studies corroborate the hypothesis of negligible ecological risk from the cultivation of 5307 maize.

  11. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  12. Independent Action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 Protein in Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Steven L.; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Uffman, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  13. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action.

  14. The Heliothis virescens cadherin protein expressed in Drosophila S2 cells functions as a receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A but not Cry1Fa toxins.

    PubMed

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Adang, Michael J

    2006-08-15

    Genetic knockout of the BtR4 gene encoding the Heliothis virescens cadherin-like protein (HevCaLP) is linked to resistance against Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis. However, the functional Cry1Ac receptor role of this protein has not been established. We previously proposed HevCaLP as a shared binding site for B. thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1A and Cry1Fa toxins in the midgut epithelium of H. virescens larvae. Considering that Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa are coexpressed in second-generation transgenic cotton for enhanced control of Heliothine and Spodoptera species, our model suggests the possibility of evolution of cross resistance via alteration of HevCaLP. To test whether HevCaLP is a Cry1Ac and Cry1Fa receptor, HevCaLP was transiently expressed on the surface of Drosophila melanogaster Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Expressed HevCaLP bound [(125)I]Cry1A toxins under native (dot blot) and denaturing (ligand blot) conditions. Affinity pull-down assays demonstrated that Cry1Fa does not bind to HevCaLP expressed in S2 cells or in solubilized brush border membrane proteins. Using a fluorescence-based approach, we tested the ability of expressed HevCaLP to mediate toxicity of Cry1A and Cry1Fa toxins. Cry1A toxins killed S2 cells expressing HevCaLP, whereas Cry1Fa toxin did not. Our results demonstrate that HevCaLP is a functional Cry1A but not Cry1Fa receptor. PMID:16893170

  15. Genetics Home Reference: cri-du-chat syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... for This Condition 5p deletion syndrome 5p- syndrome cat cry syndrome chromosome 5p- syndrome monosomy 5p Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus ( ...

  16. 78 FR 70043 - Pesticide Product Registration; Receipt of an Application for a New Active Ingredient

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... name: DAS-81419-2 Soybean. Active ingredients: Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac protein expressed in soybean and Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F protein expressed in soybean. Proposed classification/Use:...

  17. Localization of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A toxin-binding molecules in gypsy moth larval gut sections using fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Valaitis, Algimantas P

    2011-10-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produces Cry toxins, proteins that bind to the brush border membranes of gut epithelial cells of insects that ingest it, disrupting the integrity of the membranes, and leading to cell lysis and insect death. In gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, two toxin-binding molecules for the Cry1A class of Bt toxins have been identified: an aminopeptidase N (APN-1) and a 270kDa anionic glycoconjugate (BTR-270). Studies have shown that APN-1 has a relatively weak affinity and a very narrow specificity to Cry1Ac, the only Cry1A toxin that it binds. In contrast, BTR-270 binds all toxins that are active against L. dispar larvae, and the affinities for these toxins to BTR-270 correlate positively with their respective toxicities. In this study, an immunohistochemical approach was coupled with fluorescence microscopy to localize APN-1 and BTR-270 in paraffin embedded midgut sections of L. dispar larvae. The distribution of cadherin and alkaline phosphatase in the gut tissue was also examined. A strong reaction indicative of polyanionic material was detected with alcian blue staining over the entire epithelial brush border, suggesting the presence of acidic glycoconjugates in the microvillar matrix. The Cry1A toxin-binding sites were confined to the apical surface of the gut epithelial cells with intense labeling of the apical tips of the microvilli. APN-1, BTR-270, and alkaline phosphatase were found to be present exclusively along the brush border microvilli along the entire gut epithelium. In contrast, cadherin, detected only in older gypsy moth larvae, was present both in the apical brush border and in the basement membrane anchoring the midgut epithelial cells. The topographical relationship between the Bt Cry toxin-binding molecules BTR-270 and APN-1 and the Cry1A toxin-binding sites that were confined to the apical brush border of the midgut cells is consistent with findings implicating their involvement in the mechanism of the

  18. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A... of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement of... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.505...

  19. 40 CFR 174.505 - Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A... of Bacillus thuringiensis modified Cry3A protein (mCry3A) in corn are exempt from the requirement of... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.505...

  20. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.506...

  1. 40 CFR 174.506 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn; exemption from the requirement of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and... Bacillus thuringiensis Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins in corn are exempted from the requirement of a... REQUIREMENTS FOR PLANT-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.506...

  2. Determination of periodontopathogens in patients with Cri du chat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ballesta-Mudarra, Sofía; Torres-Lagares, Daniel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Ángela; Yáñez-Vico, Rosa M.; Solano-Reina, Enrique; Perea-Pérez, Evelio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic alteration associated with some oral pathologies. However, it has not been described previously any clinical relationship between the periodontal disease and the syndrome. The purpose of this comparative study was to compare periodontopathogenic flora in a group with Cri du chat syndrome and another without the síndrome, to assess a potential microbiological predisposition to suffer a periodontitis. Study Design: The study compared nineteen subjects with Cri du chat Syndrome with a control group of nineteen patients without it. All patients were clinically evaluated by periodontal probing, valuing the pocket depth, the clinical attachmente level and bleeding on probing. There were no significant differences between both groups. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were detected by multiplex-PCR using 16S rDNA (microIDENT). Results: When A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and T. denticola were compared, no statistically significant differences were found between the two groups (p>0.05). The value of T. forsythia was significantly higher for Cri du chat syndrome (31.6%) than for the control group (5.3%). The odds ratio for T. forsythia was 8.3. Conclusions: In the present study T. forsythia is associated with Cri du chat syndrome subjects and not with healthy subjects. Key words:Cri du Chat syndrome, periodontal health, microbiology, special care dentistry. PMID:24121919

  3. Cry Protein Crystals: A Novel Platform for Protein Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Bonnegarde-Bernard, Astrid; Wallace, Julie A.; Dean, Donald H.; Ostrowski, Michael C.; Burry, Richard W.; Boyaka, Prosper N.; Chan, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Protein delivery platforms are important tools in the development of novel protein therapeutics and biotechnologies. We have developed a new class of protein delivery agent based on sub-micrometer-sized Cry3Aa protein crystals that naturally form within the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. We demonstrate that fusion of the cry3Aa gene to that of various reporter proteins allows for the facile production of Cry3Aa fusion protein crystals for use in subsequent applications. These Cry3Aa fusion protein crystals are efficiently taken up and retained by macrophages and other cell lines in vitro, and can be delivered to mice in vivo via multiple modes of administration. Oral delivery of Cry3Aa fusion protein crystals to C57BL/6 mice leads to their uptake by MHC class II cells, including macrophages in the Peyer’s patches, supporting the notion that the Cry3Aa framework can be used to stabilize cargo protein against degradation for delivery to gastrointestinal lymphoid tissues. PMID:26030844

  4. Cry protein crystals: a novel platform for protein delivery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Manoj S; Lee, Marianne M; Bonnegarde-Bernard, Astrid; Wallace, Julie A; Dean, Donald H; Ostrowski, Michael C; Burry, Richard W; Boyaka, Prosper N; Chan, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Protein delivery platforms are important tools in the development of novel protein therapeutics and biotechnologies. We have developed a new class of protein delivery agent based on sub-micrometer-sized Cry3Aa protein crystals that naturally form within the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. We demonstrate that fusion of the cry3Aa gene to that of various reporter proteins allows for the facile production of Cry3Aa fusion protein crystals for use in subsequent applications. These Cry3Aa fusion protein crystals are efficiently taken up and retained by macrophages and other cell lines in vitro, and can be delivered to mice in vivo via multiple modes of administration. Oral delivery of Cry3Aa fusion protein crystals to C57BL/6 mice leads to their uptake by MHC class II cells, including macrophages in the Peyer's patches, supporting the notion that the Cry3Aa framework can be used to stabilize cargo protein against degradation for delivery to gastrointestinal lymphoid tissues. PMID:26030844

  5. Role of helix 3 in pore formation by the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin Cry1Aa.

    PubMed

    Vachon, Vincent; Préfontaine, Gabrielle; Coux, Florence; Rang, Cécile; Marceau, Lucie; Masson, Luke; Brousseau, Roland; Frutos, Roger; Schwartz, Jean-Louis; Laprade, Raynald

    2002-05-14

    Helix 3 of the Cry1Aa toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis possesses eight charged amino acids. These residues, with the exception of those involved in intramolecular salt bridges (E90, R93, E112, and R115), were mutated individually either to a neutral or to an oppositely charged amino acid. The mutated genes were expressed, and the resultant, trypsin-activated toxins were assessed for their toxicity to Manduca sexta larvae and their ability to permeabilize M. sexta larval midgut brush border membrane vesicles to KCl, sucrose, raffinose, potassium gluconate, and N-methyl-D-glucamine hydrochloride with a light-scattering assay based on osmotic swelling. Most mutants were considerably less toxic than Cry1Aa. Replacing either E101, E116, E118, or D120 by cysteine, glutamine, or lysine residues had only minor effects on the properties of the pores formed by the modified toxins. However, half of these mutants (E101C, E101Q, E101K, E116K, E118C, and D120K) had a significantly slower rate of pore formation than Cry1Aa. Mutations at R99 (R99C, R99E, and R99Y) resulted in an almost complete loss of pore-forming ability. These results are consistent with a model in which alpha-helix 3 plays an important role in the mechanism of pore formation without being directly involved in determining the properties of the pores. PMID:11994014

  6. Bt-maize event MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1 does not cause harm to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; Kiss, József; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    This review paper explores whether the cultivation of the genetically modified Bt-maize transformation event MON 88017, expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein against corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), causes adverse effects to non-target organisms (NTOs) and the ecological and anthropocentric functions they provide. Available data do not reveal adverse effects of Cry3Bb1 on various NTOs that are representative of potentially exposed taxonomic and functional groups, confirming that the insecticidal activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein is limited to species belonging to the coleopteran family of Chrysomelidae. The potential risk to non-target chrysomelid larvae ingesting maize MON 88017 pollen deposited on host plants is minimal, as their abundance in maize fields and the likelihood of encountering harmful amounts of pollen in and around maize MON 88017 fields are low. Non-target adult chrysomelids, which may occasionally feed on maize MON 88017 plants, are not expected to be affected due to the low activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein on adults. Impacts on NTOs caused by potential unintended changes in maize MON 88017 are not expected to occur, as no differences in composition, phenotypic characteristics and plant-NTO interactions were observed between maize MON 88017 and its near-isogenic line. PMID:22576225

  7. Characterization of a Cry1Ac-receptor alkaline phosphatase in susceptible and resistant Heliothis virescens larvae.

    PubMed

    Jurat-Fuentes, Juan L; Adang, Michael J

    2004-08-01

    We reported previously a direct correlation between reduced soybean agglutinin binding to 63- and 68-kDa midgut glycoproteins and resistance to Cry1Ac toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis in the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens). In the present work we describe the identification of the 68-kDa glycoprotein as a membrane-bound form of alkaline phosphatase we term HvALP. Lectin blot analysis of HvALP revealed the existence of N-linked oligosaccharides containing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine required for [125I]Cry1Ac binding in ligand blots. Based on immunoblotting and alkaline phosphatase activity detection, reduced soybean agglutinin binding to HvALP from Cry1Ac resistant larvae of the H. virescens YHD2 strain was attributable to reduced amounts of HvALP in resistant larvae. Quantification of specific alkaline phosphatase activity in brush border membrane proteins from susceptible (YDK and F1 generation from backcrosses) and YHD2 H. virescens larvae confirmed the observation of reduced HvALP levels. We propose HvALP as a Cry1Ac binding protein that is present at reduced levels in brush border membrane vesicles from YHD2 larvae. PMID:15265032

  8. Bt-maize event MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1 does not cause harm to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; Kiss, József; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    This review paper explores whether the cultivation of the genetically modified Bt-maize transformation event MON 88017, expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein against corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), causes adverse effects to non-target organisms (NTOs) and the ecological and anthropocentric functions they provide. Available data do not reveal adverse effects of Cry3Bb1 on various NTOs that are representative of potentially exposed taxonomic and functional groups, confirming that the insecticidal activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein is limited to species belonging to the coleopteran family of Chrysomelidae. The potential risk to non-target chrysomelid larvae ingesting maize MON 88017 pollen deposited on host plants is minimal, as their abundance in maize fields and the likelihood of encountering harmful amounts of pollen in and around maize MON 88017 fields are low. Non-target adult chrysomelids, which may occasionally feed on maize MON 88017 plants, are not expected to be affected due to the low activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein on adults. Impacts on NTOs caused by potential unintended changes in maize MON 88017 are not expected to occur, as no differences in composition, phenotypic characteristics and plant-NTO interactions were observed between maize MON 88017 and its near-isogenic line.

  9. Cry analysis in infants with Rh haemolytic disease.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, M

    1987-01-01

    The influence of hyperbilirubinaemia on the infants' cries and the feasibility of the use of cry analysis for the early identification of developing kernicterus were studied by analyzing the cries of 100 healthy one-day-old infants and 31 infants with Rh haemolytic disease of the newborn (Rh-HDN) by using sound spectrographic methods. The newborn infants with Rh-HDN were divided into three subgroups according to the findings in a neurological examination: an evident group (10 infants), a transient group (13 infants) and an asymptomatic group (8 infants) and followed up until one year of age. Cry recording and a neurological examination were carried out once for each of the healthy one-day-old infants and twice a day during the first week of life for the infants with Rh-HDN, and thereafter once a day until discharged and at the ages of 1 and 3 months. Additional neurological examinations were performed on the Rh-HDN infants at the ages of 6 and 12 months. Bilirubin determination was carried out in connection with the cry recordings during the first week of life. The effect of blood exchange transfusion on the cry sound was investigated in infants with a bilirubin level above 250 mumol/l (n = 12) and below this level (n = 15) before the procedure. An electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded once during the neonatal period and once during the follow-up. The cries of the healthy infants were used to develop a cry score comprising 16 characteristics (latency, duration of phonation, maximum and minimum pitch of fundamental frequency, occurrence and maximum pitch of shift, glide, melody form, biphonation, furcation, noise concentration, voice quality, double harmonic break, glottal plosives, vibrato and glottal roll), which was then applied to the analysis of the cries of the 31 infants with Rh-HDN. In addition, maximum pitch of fundamental frequency, furcation and combination of biphonation and/or furcation were studied. The cry score and maximum pitch of fundamental

  10. Mixing console design for telematic applications in live performance and remote recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, David J.

    The development of a telematic mixing console addresses audio engineers' need for a fully integrated system architecture that improves efficiency and control for applications such as distributed performance and remote recording. Current systems used in state of the art telematic performance rely on software-based interconnections with complex routing schemes that offer minimal flexibility or control over key parameters needed to achieve a professional workflow. The lack of hardware-based control in the current model limits the full potential of both the engineer and the system. The new architecture provides a full-featured platform that, alongside customary features, integrates (1) surround panning capability for motorized, binaural manikin heads, as well as all sources in the included auralization module, (2) self-labelling channel strips, responsive to change at all remote sites, (3) onboard roundtrip latency monitoring, (4) synchronized remote audio recording and monitoring, and (5) flexible routing. These features combined with robust parameter automation and precise analog control will raise the standard for telematic systems as well as advance the development of networked audio systems for both research and professional audio markets.

  11. Possibilities for retracing of copyright violations on current video game consoles by optical disk analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmler, Frank; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with the possibilities of retracing copyright violations on current video game consoles (e.g. Microsoft Xbox, Sony PlayStation, ...) by studying the corresponding optical storage media DVD and Blu-ray. The possibilities of forensic investigation of DVD and Blu-ray Discs are presented. It is shown which information can be read by using freeware and commercial software for forensic examination. A detailed analysis is given on the visualization of hidden content and the possibility to find out information about the burning hardware used for writing on the optical discs. In connection with a forensic analysis of the Windows registry of a suspects PC a detailed overview of the crime scene for forged DVD and Blu-ray Discs can be obtained. Optical discs are examined under forensic aspects and the obtained results are implemented into automatic analysis scripts for the commercial forensics program EnCase Forensic. It is shown that for the optical storage media a possibility of identification of the drive used for writing can be obtained. In particular Blu-ray Discs contain the serial number of the burner. These and other findings were incorporated into the creation of various EnCase scripts for the professional forensic investigation with EnCase Forensic. Furthermore, a detailed flowchart for a forensic investigation of copyright infringement was developed.

  12. Crying as communication in psychotherapy: The influence of client and therapist attachment dimensions and client attachment to therapist on amount and type of crying.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Noah; Hill, Clara E; Kivlighan, Dennis M

    2015-07-01

    Nelson (2005) associated 3 types of crying (inhibited, protest, despair) with 3 dimensions of attachment (avoidant, anxious, and secure). To test this theory, trained judges rated the intensity of inhibition, protest, and despair in 347 crying episodes for 40 clients and 14 therapists in 1,074 psychotherapy sessions. Crying occurred once out of every 7 sessions, and usually was characterized by protest or inhibition. Pre-therapy attachment dimensions of both therapist and client influenced crying. Therapists with high attachment avoidance had clients who cried frequently but less over time, whereas therapists with high attachment anxiety had clients who cried with more protest over time. Clients with high attachment anxiety initially cried with more protest and inhibition, but decreased over time, whereas clients with low attachment anxiety increased protest over time. Throughout the course of psychotherapy, therapists who were seen by their clients as establishing a secure attachment elicited more overall crying and a higher intensity of protest, whereas therapists who were seen by their clients as establishing insecure attachments had clients who cried less. Clients who established a secure or avoidant relationship with their therapists, relative to other clients of that therapist, cried infrequently and with inhibition, whereas clients who established a preoccupied relationship cried relatively often. Changes are suggested for Nelson's (2005) typology. PMID:26010287

  13. Lack of Cross-Resistance to Cry19A from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Resistant to Cry Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Margaret C.; Delécluse, Armelle; Walton, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes with high levels of resistance to single or multiple toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis were tested for cross-resistance to the Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan polypeptide Cry19A. No cross-resistance was detected in mosquitoes that had been selected with the Cry11A, Cry4A and Cry4B, or Cry4A, Cry4B, Cry11A, and CytA toxins. A low but statistically significant level of cross-resistance, three to fourfold, was detected in the colony selected with Cry4A, Cry4B, and Cry11A. This cross-resistance was similar to that previously detected with B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan in the same colony. These data help explain the toxicity of B. thuringiensis subsp. jegathesan against the resistant colonies and indicate that the Cry19A polypeptide might be useful in managing resistance and/or as a component of synthetic combinations of mosquitocidal toxins. PMID:11282656

  14. Cadherin is involved in the action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lin; Hou, Leilei; Zhang, Boyao; Liu, Lang; Li, Bo; Deng, Pan; Ma, Weihua; Wang, Xiaoping; Fabrick, Jeffrey A; Chen, Lizhen; Lei, Chaoliang

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins are effective against some insect pests in sprays and transgenic crops, although the evolution of resistance could threaten the long-term efficacy of such Bt use. One strategy to delay resistance to Bt crops is to "pyramid" two or more Bt proteins that bind to distinct receptor proteins within the insect midgut. The most common Bt pyramid in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employs Cry1Ac with Cry2Ab to target several key lepidopteran pests, including the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), which is a serious migratory pest of many vegetable crops and is increasingly important in cotton in China. While cadherin and aminopeptidase-N are key receptors of Cry1 toxins in many lepidopterans including S. exigua, the receptor for Cry2A toxins remains poorly characterized. Here, we show that a heterologous expressed peptide corresponding to cadherin repeat 7 to the membrane proximal extracellular domain (CR7-MPED) in the S. exigua cadherin 1b (SeCad1b) binds Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa. Moreover, SeCad1b transcription was suppressed in S. exigua larvae by oral RNA interference and susceptibility to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa was significantly reduced. These results indicate that SeCad1b plays important functional roles of both Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa, having major implications for resistance management for S. exigua in Bt crops. PMID:25754522

  15. Dominant Negative Mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Function as Anti-Toxins: Demonstration of the Role of Oligomerization in Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Zavala, Luis Enrique; Muñoz-Garay, Carlos; Jiménez-Juárez, Nuria; Pacheco, Sabino; Masson, Luke; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins, that are used worldwide in insect control, kill insects by a mechanism that depends on their ability to form oligomeric pores that insert into the insect-midgut cells. These toxins are being used worldwide in transgenic plants or spray to control insect pests in agriculture. However, a major concern has been the possible effects of these insecticidal proteins on non-target organisms mainly in ecosystems adjacent to agricultural fields. Methodology/Principal Findings We isolated and characterized 11 non-toxic mutants of Cry1Ab toxin affected in different steps of the mechanism of action namely binding to receptors, oligomerization and pore-formation. These mutant toxins were analyzed for their capacity to block wild type toxin activity, presenting a dominant negative phenotype. The dominant negative phenotype was analyzed at two levels, in vivo by toxicity bioassays against susceptible Manduca sexta larvae and in vitro by pore formation activity in black lipid bilayers. We demonstrate that some mutations located in helix α-4 completely block the wild type toxin activity at sub-stoichiometric level confirming a dominant negative phenotype, thereby functioning as potent antitoxins. Conclusions/Significance This is the first reported case of a Cry toxin dominant inhibitor. These data demonstrate that oligomerization is a fundamental step in Cry toxin action and represent a potential mechanism to protect special ecosystems from the possible effect of Cry toxins on non-target organisms. PMID:19440244

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin interaction with Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N in a model membrane environment.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, M A; Carroll, J; Travis, E R; Williams, D H; Ellar, D J

    1998-01-01

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac delta-endotoxin was shown to bind in a biphasic manner to Manduca sexta aminopeptidase N (APN) present in a novel model membrane. Surface plasmon resonance analysis allowed the quantification of toxin binding to M. sexta APN in a supported lipid monolayer. The initial binding was rapid and reversible, with an affinity constant of 110 nM. The second phase was slower and resulted in an overall affinity constant of 3.0 nM. Reagents used to disrupt protein-protein interactions did not dissociate the toxin after high-affinity binding was attained. The initial association between Cry1Ac and APN was inhibited by the sugar GalNAc, but the higher-affinity state was resistant to GalNAc-induced dissociation. The results suggest that after binding to M. sexta APN, the Cry1Ac toxin undergoes a rate-limiting step leading to a high-affinity state. A site-directed Cry1Ac mutant, N135Q, exhibited a similar initial binding affinity for APN but did not show the second slower phase. This inability to form an irreversible association with the APN-lipid monolayer helps explain the lack of toxicity of this protein towards M. sexta larvae and its deficient membrane-permeabilizing activity on M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:9677328

  17. CytA enables CryIV endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis to overcome high levels of CryIV resistance in the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, M. C.; Georghiou, G. P.; Federici, B. A.

    1997-01-01

    Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis are selective biodegradable insecticides used increasingly in bacterial insecticides and transgenic plants as alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides. However, the potential for development of resistance and cross-resistance in target insect populations to Cry proteins used alone or in combination threatens the more widespread use of this novel pest control technology. Here we show that high levels of resistance to CryIV proteins in larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, can be suppressed or reduced markedly by combining these proteins with sublethal quantities of CytA, a cytolytic endotoxin of B. thuringiensis. Resistance at the LC95 level of 127-fold for a combination of three CryIV toxins (CryIVA, B, and D), resulting from 60 generations of continuous selection, was completely suppressed by combining sporulated powders of CytA in a 1:3 ratio with sporulated powders of a CryIVA, CryIVB, and CryIVD strain. Combining the CytA strain with a CryIVA and CryIVB strain also completely suppressed mosquito resistance of 217-fold to the latter toxins at the LC95 level, whereas combination of CytA with CryIVD reduced resistance in a CryIVD-selected mosquito strain from greater than 1,000-fold to less than 8-fold. The CytA/CryIV model provides a potential molecular genetic strategy for engineering resistance management for Cry proteins directly into bacterial insecticides and transgenic plants. PMID:9380670

  18. CytA enables CryIV endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis to overcome high levels of CryIV resistance in the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Wirth, M C; Georghiou, G P; Federici, B A

    1997-09-30

    Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis are selective biodegradable insecticides used increasingly in bacterial insecticides and transgenic plants as alternatives to synthetic chemical insecticides. However, the potential for development of resistance and cross-resistance in target insect populations to Cry proteins used alone or in combination threatens the more widespread use of this novel pest control technology. Here we show that high levels of resistance to CryIV proteins in larvae of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, can be suppressed or reduced markedly by combining these proteins with sublethal quantities of CytA, a cytolytic endotoxin of B. thuringiensis. Resistance at the LC95 level of 127-fold for a combination of three CryIV toxins (CryIVA, B, and D), resulting from 60 generations of continuous selection, was completely suppressed by combining sporulated powders of CytA in a 1:3 ratio with sporulated powders of a CryIVA, CryIVB, and CryIVD strain. Combining the CytA strain with a CryIVA and CryIVB strain also completely suppressed mosquito resistance of 217-fold to the latter toxins at the LC95 level, whereas combination of CytA with CryIVD reduced resistance in a CryIVD-selected mosquito strain from greater than 1,000-fold to less than 8-fold. The CytA/CryIV model provides a potential molecular genetic strategy for engineering resistance management for Cry proteins directly into bacterial insecticides and transgenic plants.

  19. Structural basis for the specific recognition of the major antigenic peptide from the Japanese cedar pollen allergen Cry j 1 by HLA-DP5.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Seisuke; Kukimoto-Niino, Mutsuko; Satta, Yoko; Ohsawa, Noboru; Uchikubo-Kamo, Tomomi; Wakiyama, Motoaki; Ikeda, Mariko; Terada, Takaho; Yamamoto, Ken; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Shirouzu, Mikako; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2014-08-26

    The major allergen, Cry j 1, was isolated from Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica (Cry j) pollen and was shown to react with immunoglobulin E antibodies in the sera from pollinosis patients. We previously reported that the frequency of HLA-DP5 was significantly higher in pollinosis patients and the immunodominant peptides from Cry j 1 bound to HLA-DP5 to activate Th2 cells. In the present study, we determined the crystal structure of the HLA-DP5 heterodimer in complex with a Cry j 1-derived nine-residue peptide, at 2.4Å resolution. The peptide-binding groove recognizes the minimal peptide with 10 hydrogen bonds, including those between the negatively charged P1 pocket and the Lys side chain at the first position in the peptide sequence. We confirmed that HLA-DP5 exhibits the same Cry j 1-binding mode in solution, through pull-down experiments using structure-based mutations of Cry j 1. We also identified the characteristic residues of HLA-DP5 that are responsible for the distinct properties of the groove, by comparing the structure of HLA-DP5 and the previously reported structures of HLA-DP2 in complexes with pDRA of the self-antigen. The comparison revealed that the HLA-DP5·pCry j 1 complex forms several hydrogen bond/salt bridge networks between the receptor and the antigen that were not observed in the HLA-DP2·pDRA complex. Evolutionary considerations have led us to conclude that HLA-DP5 and HLA-DP2 represent two major groups of the HLA-DP family, in which the properties of the P1 and P4 pockets have evolved and acquired the present ranges of epitope peptide-binding specificities.

  20. Comparing Single and Dual Console Systems in the Robotic Surgical Training of Graduating OB/GYN Residents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mikhail, Emad; Salemi, Jason L.; Hart, Stuart; Imudia, Anthony N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the impact of a single versus dual console robotic system on the perceptions of program directors (PD) and residents (RES) towards robotic surgical training among graduating obstetrics and gynecology residents. Design. An anonymous survey was developed using Qualtrics, a web-based survey development and administration system, and sent to obstetrics and gynecology program directors and graduating residents. Participants. 39 program directors and 32 graduating residents (PGY4). Results. According to residents perception, dual console is utilized in about 70% of the respondents' programs. Dual console system programs were more likely to provide a robotics training certificate compared to single console programs (43.5% versus 0%, p = 0.03). A greater proportion of residents graduating from a dual console program perform more than 20 robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomies, 30% versus 0% (p = 0.15). Conclusions. Utilization of dual console system increased the likelihood of obtaining robotic training certification without significantly increasing the case volume of robotic-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy. PMID:26955485

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis plants expressing Cry1Ac, Cry2Ab and Cry1F are not toxic to the assassin bug, Zelus renardii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton and maize delivering insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), have been commercialized since 1996. Bt plants are subjected to environmental risk assessments for non-target organisms, especially natural enemies that suppress pest populations. In th...

  2. Purification of the insecticidal Cry2Ad protein from a Bt-isolated BRC-HZP10 strain and toxin assay to the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.).

    PubMed

    Liao, J Y; Gao, Y Q; Wu, Q Y; Zhu, Y C; You, M S

    2015-07-13

    The present study aims to characterize the Cry2Ad toxin protein isolated from a Bacillus thuringiensis strain, BRC-HZP10, which have a potential insecticidal activity against larvae of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). The crude Bt toxin proteins were isolated and purified by cation exchange chromatography, then equilibrated with 0.2 M NaOH buffer, pH 4.0, followed by ultraviolet detection at 280 nm and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A refined Cry2Ad toxin protein with 88.34% purity was eventually obtained and used for a bioassay by feeding it to P. xylostella. The results showed conspicuous insecticidal activity towards P. xylostella with 50% lethal concentration of 6.84 μg/mL and 95% confidence interval of 5.77-7.91 mg/mL. At a concentration of 16.38 μg/mL, the intake of Cry2Ad protein significantly shortened the oviposition period and larval developmental duration, but significantly reduced the fecundity and egg hatchability of the population compared to those of control (without treatment with Cry2Ad protein) (P < 0.05). These results indicate that the Cry2Ad protein plays an effective role in controlling the population of P. xylostella.

  3. Alkaline phosphatases are involved in the response of Aedes aegypti larvae to intoxication with Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis Cry toxins.

    PubMed

    Stalinski, Renaud; Laporte, Frédéric; Després, Laurence; Tetreau, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is a natural pathogen of dipterans widely used as a biological insecticide for mosquito control. To characterize the response of mosquitoes to intoxication with Bti, the transcriptome profile of Bti-exposed susceptible Aedes aegypti larvae was analysed using Illumina RNA-seq. Gene expression of 11 alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) was further investigated by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and ALP activity was measured in the susceptible strain and in four strains resistant to a single Bti Cry toxin or to Bti. These strains were unexposed or exposed to their toxin of selection. Although all resistant strains constitutively exhibited a higher level of transcription of ALP genes than the susceptible strain, they showed a lower total ALP activity. The intoxication with different individual Cry toxins triggered a global pattern of ALP gene under-transcription in all the one-toxin-resistant strains but involving different specific sets of ALPs in each resistant phenotype. Most of the ALPs involved are not known Cry-binding proteins. RNA interference experiment demonstrated that reducing ALP expression conferred increased the survival of larvae exposed to Cry4Aa, confirming the involvement of ALP in Cry4Aa toxicity. PMID:26663676

  4. Crying abnormalities in congenital hypothyroidism: preliminary spectrographic study.

    PubMed

    Boero, D L; Weber, G; Vigone, M C; Lenti, C

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the acoustic patterns of the cries of hypothyroid newborns at the time of diagnosis and after the beginning of therapy. Cries were recorded at the nursery of the San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy from 12 full-term subjects (three boys and nine girls) affected by congenital hypothyroidism. Results show that untreated hypothyroid infants at first recording had fewer voiceless and partially voiced cries than normal controls. The percent distribution of this pattern did not change at the second recording after the onset of substitutive therapy. Also, untreated hypothyroid infants had many more cry units showing a vibrato contour than did controls, and this pattern did not change after the onset of treatment. Starting, maximum, minimum, and end frequencies measured on the fundamental were significantly lower in the hypothyroid sample. Four hypothyroid subjects recorded before therapy and within 4 weeks after therapy onset significantly augmented their fundamental frequency parameters; however, in 25% of the sample, sound parameters remained unaltered after 3 or more weeks of treatment. To our knowledge the present preliminary study is the first one performed on follow-up of hypothyroid newborns and indicates that both central and peripheral damage might influence the pattern of crying in untreated hypothyroid infants. PMID:11019791

  5. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica.

  6. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  7. Consumption of Bt rice pollen containing Cry1C or Cry2A does not pose a risk to Propylea japonica (Thunberg) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Zhang, Xiaojie; Chen, Xiuping; Romeis, Jörg; Yin, Xinming; Peng, Yufa

    2015-01-01

    As a pollen feeder, Propylea japonica would be directly exposed to Cry proteins in Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-transgenic rice fields. The effect of Cry1C- or Cry2A-containing transgenic rice pollen on the fitness of P. japonica was assessed using two dietary-exposure experiments in the laboratory. In the first experiment, larval developmental time of P. japonica was significantly longer when fed pollen from Bt rice lines rather than control pollen but other life table parameters were not significantly affected. In the second experiment, P. japonica was not affected when fed a rapeseed pollen-based diet containing purified Cry1C or Cry2A at concentrations that were >10-times higher than in pollen, but P. japonica was affected when the diet contained E-64 as a positive control. In both experiments, the stability and bioactivity of the Cry proteins in the food sources and the uptake of the proteins by P. japonica were confirmed. The results show that P. japonica is not sensitive to Cry1C or Cry2A proteins; the effect observed in the first experiment was likely attributable to unknown differences in the nutritional composition of Bt rice pollen. Overall, the data indicate that the growing of Cry1C- or Cry2A-transgenic rice should pose a negligible risk to P. japonica. PMID:25567127

  8. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle’ adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized. PMID:26914608

  9. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized.

  10. Bacillus thuringiensis DB27 produces two novel protoxins, Cry21Fa1 and Cry21Ha1, which act synergistically against nematodes.

    PubMed

    Iatsenko, Igor; Boichenko, Iuliia; Sommer, Ralf J

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis has been widely used as a biopesticide, primarily for the control of insect pests, but some B. thuringiensis strains specifically target nematodes. However, nematicidal virulence factors of B. thuringiensis are poorly investigated. Here, we describe virulence factors of nematicidal B. thuringiensis DB27 using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. We show that B. thuringiensis DB27 kills a number of free-living and animal-parasitic nematodes via intestinal damage. Its virulence factors are plasmid-encoded Cry protoxins, since plasmid-cured derivatives do not produce Cry proteins and are not toxic to nematodes. Whole-genome sequencing of B. thuringiensis DB27 revealed multiple potential nematicidal factors, including several Cry-like proteins encoded by different plasmids. Two of these proteins appear to be novel and show high similarity to Cry21Ba1. Named Cry21Fa1 and Cry21Ha1, they were expressed in Escherichia coli and fed to C. elegans, resulting in intoxication, intestinal damage, and death of nematodes. Interestingly, the effects of the two protoxins on C. elegans are synergistic (synergism factor, 1.8 to 2.5). Using purified proteins, we determined the 50% lethal concentrations (LC50s) for Cry21Fa1 and Cry21Ha1 to be 13.6 μg/ml and 23.9 μg/ml, respectively, which are comparable to the LC50 of nematicidal Cry5B. Finally, we found that signaling pathways which protect C. elegans against Cry5B toxin are also required for protection against Cry21Fa1. Thus, B. thuringiensis DB27 produces novel nematicidal protoxins Cry21Fa1 and Cry21Ha1 with synergistic action, which highlights the importance of naturally isolated strains as a source of novel toxins.

  11. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab Rice Huahui 1 on Adult Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xia; Guo, Yunling; Kong, Hua; Zuo, Jiao; Huang, Qixing; Jia, Ruizong; Guo, Anping; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Micraspis discolor (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a widely distributed coleoptera predator in southern Asia in rice ecosystem, and adult M. discolor feed on both rice pollen and soft-bodied arthropods. Bitrophic bioassay and tritrophic bioassay were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab-expressing rice Huahui 1 and its non-transgenic counterpart Minghui 63 on fitness parameters of adult M. discolor. The results showed that the survival, and fecundity of this beetle' adults were not different when they fed on Bt rice or non-Bt rice pollen or Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) reared on Bt rice or non-Bt rice. Toxicity assessment to ensure M. discolor adults were not sensitive to Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac protein independent from the pollen background, M. discolor adults were fed with an artificial diet containing Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab or both protein approximately 10 times higher concentration than in Huahui 1 rice pollen. No difference was detected for any of the life-table parameters tested between Cry protein-containing and pure diet. Artificial diet containing E-64 (N-(trans-Epoxysuccinyl)-L-leucine 4-guanidinobutylamide) was included as a positive control. In contrast, the pre-oviposition and fecundity of M. discolor were significantly adversely affected by feeding on E-64-containing diet. In both bioassays, the uptakes of Cry protein by adult M. discolor were tested by ELISA measurements. These results indicated that adults of M. discolor are not affected by Cry1Ab- or Cry1Ac-expressing rice pollen and are not sensitive to Cry protein at concentrations exceeding the levels in rice pollen in Huahui1. This suggests that M. discolor adults would not be harmed by Cry1Ac/Cry1Ab rice if Bt rice Huahui 1 were commercialized. PMID:26914608

  12. Adult Perceptions of Pain and Hunger Cries: A Synchrony of Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeskind, Philip Sanford; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Male and female nonparent adults rated tape-recordings of initial, middle, and final 10-second segments of pain and hunger cries on four 7-point Likert-type scale items describing how urgent, arousing, aversive, and sick cry segments sounded. Results suggest that different segments of cries resulting from the same stimulus provide different…

  13. Comparative Analysis of Crying in Children with Autism, Developmental Delays, and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Gianluca; Venuti, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Crying behavior and mother-infant interactions during episodes of crying were coded using the Cry Observation Codes and then compared for 48 mother-infant dyads of children with autism, children with developmental delays, and typically developing children. At 1 year of age, children who would later be diagnosed with autism showed a different…

  14. Degradation of Arabidopsis CRY2 is regulated by SPA proteins and phytochrome A.

    PubMed

    Weidler, Guido; Zur Oven-Krockhaus, Sven; Heunemann, Michael; Orth, Christian; Schleifenbaum, Frank; Harter, Klaus; Hoecker, Ute; Batschauer, Alfred

    2012-06-01

    The UV-A/blue light photoreceptor crytochrome2 (cry2) plays a fundamental role in the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive phase in the facultative long-day plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The cry2 protein level strongly decreases when etiolated seedlings are exposed to blue light; cry2 is first phosphorylated, polyubiquitinated, and then degraded by the 26S proteasome. COP1 is involved in cry2 degradation, but several cop1 mutants show only reduced but not abolished cry2 degradation. SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 (SPA) proteins are known to work in concert with COP1, and recently direct physical interaction between cry2 and SPA1 was demonstrated. Thus, we hypothesized that SPA proteins could also play a role in cry2 degradation. To this end, we analyzed cry2 protein levels in spa mutants. In all spa mutants analyzed, cry2 degradation under continuous blue light was alleviated in a fluence rate-dependent manner. Consistent with a role of SPA proteins in phytochrome A (phyA) signaling, a phyA mutant had enhanced cry2 levels, particularly under low fluence rate blue light. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy studies showed a robust physical interaction of cry2 with SPA1 in nuclei of living cells. Our results suggest that cry2 stability is controlled by SPA and phyA, thus providing more information on the molecular mechanisms of interaction between cryptochrome and phytochrome photoreceptors.

  15. The Cry in the Holy Quran and the Effect on the Human Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    al-Domi, Mohammad Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    This study aims that cry is the ideal way to release the negative emotions distress, sorrow, and sadness. Which sometimes is also a way to express situations of joy and pleasure of humans. The Almighty Allah also said about cry in The Holy Quran. The prophet pbuh also cry for the expressions of reverence and fear of Allah in perhaps the sort of…

  16. Kinetic Modeling of the Arabidopsis Cryptochrome Photocycle: FADH(o) Accumulation Correlates with Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Procopio, Maria; Link, Justin; Engle, Dorothy; Witczak, Jacques; Ritz, Thorsten; Ahmad, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors with multiple signaling roles during plant de-etiolation and development. Arabidopsis cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) absorb light through an oxidized flavin (FADox) cofactor which undergoes reduction to both FADH° and FADH(-) redox states. Since the FADH° redox state has been linked to biological activity, it is important to estimate its concentration formed upon illumination in vivo. Here we model the photocycle of isolated cry1 and cry2 proteins with a three-state kinetic model. Our model fits the experimental data for flavin photoconversion in vitro for both cry1 and cry2, providing calculated quantum yields which are significantly lower in cry1 than for cry2. The model was applied to the cryptochrome photocycle in vivo using biological activity in plants as a readout for FADH° concentration. The fit to the in vivo data provided quantum yields for cry1 and cry2 flavin reduction similar to those obtained in vitro, with decreased cry1 quantum yield as compared to cry2. These results validate our assumption that FADH° concentration correlates with biological activity. This is the first reported attempt at kinetic modeling of the cryptochrome photocycle in relation to macroscopic signaling events in vivo, and thereby provides a theoretical framework to the components of the photocycle that are necessary for cryptochrome response to environmental signals. PMID:27446119

  17. Kinetic Modeling of the Arabidopsis Cryptochrome Photocycle: FADHo Accumulation Correlates with Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Procopio, Maria; Link, Justin; Engle, Dorothy; Witczak, Jacques; Ritz, Thorsten; Ahmad, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Cryptochromes are flavoprotein photoreceptors with multiple signaling roles during plant de-etiolation and development. Arabidopsis cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) absorb light through an oxidized flavin (FADox) cofactor which undergoes reduction to both FADH° and FADH− redox states. Since the FADH° redox state has been linked to biological activity, it is important to estimate its concentration formed upon illumination in vivo. Here we model the photocycle of isolated cry1 and cry2 proteins with a three-state kinetic model. Our model fits the experimental data for flavin photoconversion in vitro for both cry1 and cry2, providing calculated quantum yields which are significantly lower in cry1 than for cry2. The model was applied to the cryptochrome photocycle in vivo using biological activity in plants as a readout for FADH° concentration. The fit to the in vivo data provided quantum yields for cry1 and cry2 flavin reduction similar to those obtained in vitro, with decreased cry1 quantum yield as compared to cry2. These results validate our assumption that FADH° concentration correlates with biological activity. This is the first reported attempt at kinetic modeling of the cryptochrome photocycle in relation to macroscopic signaling events in vivo, and thereby provides a theoretical framework to the components of the photocycle that are necessary for cryptochrome response to environmental signals. PMID:27446119

  18. Loop replacements with gut-binding peptides in Cry1Ab domain II enhanced toxicity against the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ensi; Lin, Li; Chen, Chen; Chen, Hanze; Zhuang, Haohan; Wu, Songqing; Sha, Li; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins have been used widely in pest managements. However, Cry toxins are not effective against sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera), which limits the application of Bt for pest management. In order to extend the insecticidal spectrum of Bt toxins to the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, we modified Cry1Ab putative receptor binding domains with selected BPH gut-binding peptides (GBPs). Three surface exposed loops in the domain II of Cry1Ab were replaced with two GBPs (P2S and P1Z) respectively. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of modified toxin L2-P2S increased significantly (~9 folds) against BPH nymphs. In addition, damage of midgut cells was observed from the nymphs fed with L2-P2S. Our results indicate that modifying Cry toxins based on the toxin-gut interactions can broaden the insecticidal spectrum of Bt toxin. This method provides another approach for the development of transgenic crops with novel insecticidal activity against hemipteran insects and insect populations resistant to current Bt transgenic crops. PMID:26830331

  19. Domain II loop 3 of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin is involved in a "ping pong" binding mechanism with Manduca sexta aminopeptidase-N and cadherin receptors.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sabino; Gómez, Isabel; Arenas, Ivan; Saab-Rincon, Gloria; Rodríguez-Almazán, Claudia; Gill, Sarjeet S; Bravo, Alejandra; Soberón, Mario

    2009-11-20

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used worldwide as insecticides in agriculture, in forestry, and in the control of disease transmission vectors. In the lepidopteran Manduca sexta, cadherin (Bt-R(1)) and aminopeptidase-N (APN) function as Cry1A toxin receptors. The interaction with Bt-R(1) promotes cleavage of the amino-terminal end, including helix alpha-1 and formation of prepore oligomer that binds to APN, leading to membrane insertion and pore formation. Loops of domain II of Cry1Ab toxin are involved in receptor interaction. Here we show that Cry1Ab mutants located in domain II loop 3 are affected in binding to both receptors and toxicity against Manduca sexta larvae. Interaction with both receptors depends on the oligomeric state of the toxin. Monomers of loop 3 mutants were affected in binding to APN and to a cadherin fragment corresponding to cadherin repeat 12 but not with a fragment comprising cadherin repeats 7-12. In contrast, the oligomers of loop 3 mutants were affected in binding to both Bt-R(1) fragments but not to APN. Toxicity assays showed that either monomeric or oligomeric structures of Cry1Ab loop 3 mutations were severely affected in insecticidal activity. These data suggest that loop 3 is differentially involved in the binding with both receptor molecules, depending on the oligomeric state of the toxin and also that possibly a "ping pong" binding mechanism with both receptors is involved in toxin action.

  20. Changes in gene expression in the larval gut of Ostrinia nubilalis in Response to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protoxin ingestion.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianxiu; Buschman, Lawrent L; Lu, Nanyan; Khajuria, Chitvan; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2014-04-01

    We developed a microarray based on 2895 unique transcripts assembled from 15,000 cDNA sequences from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larval gut. This microarray was used to monitor gene expression in early third-instar larvae of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-susceptible O. nubilalis after 6 h feeding on diet, with or without the Bt Cry1Ab protoxin. We identified 174 transcripts, for which the expression was changed more than two-fold in the gut of the larvae fed Cry1Ab protoxin (p < 0.05), representing 80 down-regulated and 94 up-regulated transcripts. Among 174 differentially expressed transcripts, 13 transcripts putatively encode proteins that are potentially involved in Bt toxicity, and these transcripts include eight serine proteases, three aminopeptidases, one alkaline phosphatase, and one cadherin. The expressions of trypsin-like protease and three aminopeptidase transcripts were variable, but two potential Bt-binding proteins, alkaline phosphatase and cadherin were consistently up-regulated in larvae fed Cry1Ab protoxin. The significantly up and down-regulated transcripts may be involved in Cry1Ab toxicity by activation, degradation, toxin binding, and other related cellular responses. This study is a preliminary survey of Cry1Ab protoxin-induced transcriptional responses in O. nubilalis gut and our results are expected to help with further studies on Bt toxin-insect interactions at the molecular level. PMID:24704690

  1. Loop replacements with gut-binding peptides in Cry1Ab domain II enhanced toxicity against the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål).

    PubMed

    Shao, Ensi; Lin, Li; Chen, Chen; Chen, Hanze; Zhuang, Haohan; Wu, Songqing; Sha, Li; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry toxins have been used widely in pest managements. However, Cry toxins are not effective against sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera), which limits the application of Bt for pest management. In order to extend the insecticidal spectrum of Bt toxins to the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, we modified Cry1Ab putative receptor binding domains with selected BPH gut-binding peptides (GBPs). Three surface exposed loops in the domain II of Cry1Ab were replaced with two GBPs (P2S and P1Z) respectively. Bioassay results showed that toxicity of modified toxin L2-P2S increased significantly (~9 folds) against BPH nymphs. In addition, damage of midgut cells was observed from the nymphs fed with L2-P2S. Our results indicate that modifying Cry toxins based on the toxin-gut interactions can broaden the insecticidal spectrum of Bt toxin. This method provides another approach for the development of transgenic crops with novel insecticidal activity against hemipteran insects and insect populations resistant to current Bt transgenic crops. PMID:26830331

  2. Achieving high CRI from warm to super white

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Edward; Tormey, Ellen S.

    2007-09-01

    Light sources which produce a high color rendering index (CRI) have many applications in the lighting industry today. High color rendering accents the rich color which abounds in nature, interior design, theatrical costumes and props, clothing and fabric, jewelry, and machine vision applications. Multi-wavelength LED sources can pump phosphors at multiple stokes shift emission regimes and when combined with selected direct emission sources can allow for greater flexibility in the production of warm-white and cool white light of specialty interest. Unique solutions to R8 and R14 CRI >95 at 2850K, 4750K, 5250K, and 6750K presented.

  3. Creation of Bt rice expressing a fusion protein of Cry1Ac and Cry1I-like using a green tissue-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Yi; Mei, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhicheng; Fang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    The insecticidal genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have long been successfully used for development of insect-resistant rice. However, commercial planting of Bt rice has been delayed by the concern over food safety, although no scientific evidence is ever found to justify the concern. To address this safety concern, we developed a transgenic insect-resistant rice line using a green tissue promoter to minimize the Bt protein expression in the rice seeds. The Bt protein expressed in the rice was a fusion protein of two different Bt toxins, Cry1Ac and Cry1I-like protein. The fusion of the two toxins may be helpful to delay the development of insect resistance to Bt rice. Laboratory and field bioassays demonstrated that the transgenic rice plants created by this study were highly active against the rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) and the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Western analysis indicated that the fusion protein was specifically expressed in green tissues but not in seeds. Therefore, the transgenic rice created in this study should be useful to mitigate the food safety concern and to delay the development of insect resistance.

  4. Creation of Bt rice expressing a fusion protein of Cry1Ac and Cry1I-like using a green tissue-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Yi; Mei, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhicheng; Fang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    The insecticidal genes from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have long been successfully used for development of insect-resistant rice. However, commercial planting of Bt rice has been delayed by the concern over food safety, although no scientific evidence is ever found to justify the concern. To address this safety concern, we developed a transgenic insect-resistant rice line using a green tissue promoter to minimize the Bt protein expression in the rice seeds. The Bt protein expressed in the rice was a fusion protein of two different Bt toxins, Cry1Ac and Cry1I-like protein. The fusion of the two toxins may be helpful to delay the development of insect resistance to Bt rice. Laboratory and field bioassays demonstrated that the transgenic rice plants created by this study were highly active against the rice leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) and the striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker). Western analysis indicated that the fusion protein was specifically expressed in green tissues but not in seeds. Therefore, the transgenic rice created in this study should be useful to mitigate the food safety concern and to delay the development of insect resistance. PMID:25195461

  5. A Western Corn Rootworm Cadherin-like Protein is not Involved in the Binding and Toxicity of Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Aa Bacillus Thuringiensis Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important insect pest of corn. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins Cry3Aa (as mCry3A) and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 have been expressed in transgenic corn and are used to control the insect in the U.S. To date, there ...

  6. Mutations in domain I interhelical loops affect the rate of pore formation by the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin in insect midgut brush border membrane vesicles.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Geneviève; Vachon, Vincent; Préfontaine, Gabrielle; Girard, Frédéric; Masson, Luke; Juteau, Marc; Bah, Aliou; Larouche, Geneviève; Vincent, Charles; Laprade, Raynald; Schwartz, Jean-Louis

    2009-06-01

    Pore formation in the apical membrane of the midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insects constitutes a key step in the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins. In order to study the mechanism of toxin insertion into the membrane, at least one residue in each of the pore-forming-domain (domain I) interhelical loops of Cry1Aa was replaced individually by cysteine, an amino acid which is normally absent from the activated Cry1Aa toxin, using site-directed mutagenesis. The toxicity of most mutants to Manduca sexta neonate larvae was comparable to that of Cry1Aa. The ability of each of the activated mutant toxins to permeabilize M. sexta midgut brush border membrane vesicles was examined with an osmotic swelling assay. Following a 1-h preincubation, all mutants except the V150C mutant were able to form pores at pH 7.5, although the W182C mutant had a weaker activity than the other toxins. Increasing the pH to 10.5, a procedure which introduces a negative charge on the thiol group of the cysteine residues, caused a significant reduction in the pore-forming abilities of most mutants without affecting those of Cry1Aa or the I88C, T122C, Y153C, or S252C mutant. The rate of pore formation was significantly lower for the F50C, Q151C, Y153C, W182C, and S252C mutants than for Cry1Aa at pH 7.5. At the higher pH, all mutants formed pores significantly more slowly than Cry1Aa, except the I88C mutant, which formed pores significantly faster, and the T122C mutant. These results indicate that domain I interhelical loop residues play an important role in the conformational changes leading to toxin insertion and pore formation.

  7. Cry1Aa binding to the cadherin receptor does not require conserved amino acid sequences in the domain II loops

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yuki; Tanaka, Shiho; Otsuki, Manami; Hoshino, Yasushi; Morimoto, Chinatsu; Kotani, Takuya; Harashima, Yuko; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Sato, Ryoichi

    2012-01-01

    Characterizing the binding mechanism of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) Cry toxin to the cadherin receptor is indispensable to understanding the specific insecticidal activity of this toxin. To this end, we constructed 30 loop mutants by randomly inserting four serial amino acids covering all four receptor binding loops (loops α8, 1, 2 and 3) and analysed their binding affinities for Bombyx mori cadherin receptors via Biacore. High binding affinities were confirmed for all 30 mutants containing loop sequences that differed from those of wild-type. Insecticidal activities were confirmed in at least one mutant from loops 1, 2 and 3, suggesting that there is no critical amino acid sequence for the binding of the four loops to BtR175. When two mutations at different loops were integrated into one molecule, no reduction in binding affinity was observed compared with wild-type sequences. Based on these results, we discussed the binding mechanism of Cry toxin to cadherin protein. PMID:23145814

  8. User and Task Analysis of the Flight Surgeon Console at the Mission Control Center of the NASA Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy A.; Shek, Molly

    2003-01-01

    Astronauts in a space station are to some extent like patients in an intensive care unit (ICU). Medical support of a mission crew will require acquisition, transmission, distribution, integration, and archiving of significant amounts of data. These data are acquired by disparate systems and will require timely, reliable, and secure distribution to different communities for the execution of various tasks of space missions. The goal of the Comprehensive Medical Information System (CMIS) Project at Johnson Space Center Flight Medical Clinic is to integrate data from all Medical Operations sources, including the reference information sources and the electronic medical records of astronauts. A first step toward the full CMIS implementation is to integrate and organize the reference information sources and the electronic medical record with the Flight Surgeons console. In order to investigate this integration, we need to understand the usability problems of the Flight Surgeon's console in particular and medical information systems in general. One way to achieve this understanding is through the use of user and task analyses whose general purpose is to ensure that only the necessary and sufficient task features that match users capacities will be included in system implementations. The goal of this summer project was to conduct user and task analyses employing cognitive engineering techniques to analyze the task of the Flight Surgeons and Biomedical Engineers (BMEs) while they worked on Console. The techniques employed were user interviews, observations and a questionnaire to collect data for which a hierarchical task analysis and an information resource assessment were performed. They are described in more detail below. Finally, based on our analyses, we make recommendations for improvements to the support structure.

  9. MAPK Signaling Pathway Alters Expression of Midgut ALP and ABCC Genes and Causes Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac Toxin in Diamondback Moth

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W.; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  10. Fate of the insecticidal Cry1Ab protein of GM crops in two agricultural soils as revealed by ¹⁴C-tracer studies.

    PubMed

    Valldor, Petra; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Martens, Rainer; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2015-09-01

    Insecticidal delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis are among the most abundant recombinant proteins released by genetically modified (GM) crops into agricultural soils worldwide. However, there is still controversy about their degradation and accumulation in soils. In this study, (14)C-labelled Cry1Ab protein was applied to soil microcosms at two concentrations (14 and 50 μg g(-1) soil) to quantify the mineralization of Cry1Ab, its incorporation into the soil microbial biomass, and its persistence in two soils which strongly differed in their texture but not in silt or pH. Furthermore, ELISA was used to quantify Cry1Ab and its potential immunoreactive breakdown products in aqueous soil extracts. In both soils, (14)CO2-production was initially very high and then declined during a total monitoring period of up to 135 days. A total of 16 to 23 % of the (14)C activity was incorporated after 29 to 37 days into the soil microbial biomass, indicating that Cry1Ab protein was utilized by microorganisms as a growth substrate. Adsorption in the clay-rich soil was the most important factor limiting microbial degradation; as indicated by higher degradation rates in the more sandy soil, extremely low concentrations of immunoreactive Cry1Ab molecules in the soils' aqueous extracts and a higher amount of (14)C activity bound to the soil with more clay. Ecological risk assessments of Bt-crops should therefore consider that the very low concentrations of extractable Cry1Ab do not reflect the actual elimination of the protein from soils but that, on the other hand, desorbed proteins mineralize quickly due to efficient microbial degradation.

  11. MAPK signaling pathway alters expression of midgut ALP and ABCC genes and causes resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in diamondback moth.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Chen, Defeng; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhu, Xun; Baxter, Simon W; Zhou, Xuguo; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-04-01

    Insecticidal crystal toxins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely used as biopesticide sprays or expressed in transgenic crops to control insect pests. However, large-scale use of Bt has led to field-evolved resistance in several lepidopteran pests. Resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), was previously mapped to a multigenic resistance locus (BtR-1). Here, we assembled the 3.15 Mb BtR-1 locus and found high-level resistance to Cry1Ac and Bt biopesticide in four independent P. xylostella strains were all associated with differential expression of a midgut membrane-bound alkaline phosphatase (ALP) outside this locus and a suite of ATP-binding cassette transporter subfamily C (ABCC) genes inside this locus. The interplay between these resistance genes is controlled by a previously uncharacterized trans-regulatory mechanism via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Molecular, biochemical, and functional analyses have established ALP as a functional Cry1Ac receptor. Phenotypic association experiments revealed that the recessive Cry1Ac resistance was tightly linked to down-regulation of ALP, ABCC2 and ABCC3, whereas it was not linked to up-regulation of ABCC1. Silencing of ABCC2 and ABCC3 in susceptible larvae reduced their susceptibility to Cry1Ac but did not affect the expression of ALP, whereas suppression of MAP4K4, a constitutively transcriptionally-activated MAPK upstream gene within the BtR-1 locus, led to a transient recovery of gene expression thereby restoring the susceptibility in resistant larvae. These results highlight a crucial role for ALP and ABCC genes in field-evolved resistance to Cry1Ac and reveal a novel trans-regulatory signaling mechanism responsible for modulating the expression of these pivotal genes in P. xylostella. PMID:25875245

  12. The Flavoproteins CryD and VvdA Cooperate with the White Collar Protein WcoA in the Control of Photocarotenogenesis in Fusarium fujikuroi

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, Marta; Avalos, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Light stimulates carotenoid biosynthesis in the ascomycete fungus Fusarium fujikuroi through transcriptional activation of the structural genes of the pathway carRA, carB, and cart, but the molecular basis of this photoresponse is unknown. The F. fujikuroi genome contains genes for different predicted photoreceptors, including the WC protein WcoA, the DASH cryptochrome CryD and the Vivid-like flavoprotein VvdA. We formerly found that null mutants of wcoA, cryD or vvdA exhibit carotenoid photoinduction under continuous illumination. Here we show that the wild type exhibits a biphasic response in light induction kinetics experiments, with a rapid increase in carotenoid content in the first hours, a transient arrest and a subsequent slower increase. The mutants of the three photoreceptors show different kinetic responses: the wcoA mutants are defective in the rapid response, the cryD mutants are affected in the slower response, while the fast and slow responses were respectively enhanced and attenuated in the vvdA mutants. Transcriptional analyses of the car genes revealed a strong reduction of dark and light-induced transcript levels in the wcoA mutants, while minor or no reductions were found in the cryD mutants. Formerly, we found no change on carRA and carB photoinduction in vvdA mutants. Taken together, our data suggest a cooperative participation of WcoA and CryD in early and late stages of photoinduction of carotenoid biosynthesis in F. fujikuroi, and a possible modulation of WcoA activity by VvdA. An unexpected transcriptional induction by red light of vvdA, cryD and carRA genes suggest the participation of an additional red light-absorbing photoreceptor. PMID:25774802

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, K; Nakanishi, K; Kadotani, T; Imamura, M; Koizumi, N; Iwahana, H; Sato, R

    1999-12-17

    The Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin-binding region of Bombyx mori aminopeptidase N (APN) was analyzed, to better understand the molecular mechanism of susceptibility to the toxin and the development of resistance in insects. APN was digested with lysylendopeptidase and the ability of the resulting fragments to bind to Cry1Aa and 1Ac toxins was examined. The binding abilities of the two toxins to these fragments were different. The Cry1Aa toxin bound to the fragment containing 40-Asp to 313-Lys, suggesting that the Cry1Aa toxin-binding site is located in the region between 40-Asp and 313-Lys, while Cry1Ac toxin bound exclusively to mature APN. Next, recombinant APN of various lengths was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and its ability to bind to Cry1Aa toxin was examined. The results localized the Cry1Aa toxin binding to the region between 135-Ile and 198-Pro. PMID:10606725

  14. Past Tense Morphology in Cri Du Chat Syndrome: Experimental Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wium, Kristin; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    It has been observed that persons with Cri du chat syndrome (CDCS) have poor language production. However, very few studies have addressed the question whether all aspects of language production are equally afflicted, or whether there are differences between for instance phonological and morphological abilities. The present study was aimed at…

  15. Consonants in Cri du Chat Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a longitudinal case study of consonant productions in one Norwegian girl with Cri du chat syndrome from age 4;6 to age 9;4. It was shown that she had many articulation errors throughout the period of observation. Furthermore, these errors were shown to fall into three main categories: (1) errors of differentiation and…

  16. The Teacher-Teacher Reliability of the CRI and ERI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christine, Charles T.; And Others

    Thirty-two children aged 7 to 12 participated in a study to determine the reliability of the Ekwall Reading Inventory (ERI) and the Classroom Reading Inventory (CRI). The children were randomly assigned to take one of the two inventories, which were administered by four different specially trained teachers. The study used a test-retest design, in…

  17. Cry the Beloved Country. A Sound Filmstrip Program. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, John; Peters, Frances

    Based on the novel and motion picture "Cry, the Beloved Country," this filmstrip program is a re-creation of the story of a black minister and a white farmer in South Africa whose lives are bound together in mutual tragedy. The three filmstrips examine the people, problems, laws, and institutions of South Africa and expose the evils of its…

  18. Crying Behavior and the "Nonviolent" Leboyer Method of Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Joan Safran

    This paper reports on a 3-month longitudinal study comparing the crying behavior of a group of babies delivered by the "nonviolent" Leboyer method with a control group delivered by traditional methods. Subjects were 24 white, middle class infants delivered by minimally medicated, multiparous and primiparous mothers. Fourteen newborns were "Leboyer…

  19. Physiological Reactivity to Infant Crying and Observed Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosen, Katharina J.; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Pieper, Suzanne; Zeskind, Philip S.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between maternal sensitivity and physiological reactivity to infant crying were examined using measures of heart rate (HR) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in 49 mothers of second-born infants. Using the Ainsworth Sensitivity Scale, an independent assessment of maternal sensitivity was made during maternal free play and bathing of…

  20. Improvement of Bacillus sphaericus toxicity against dipteran larvae by integration, via homologous recombination, of the Cry11A toxin gene from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis.

    PubMed Central

    Poncet, S; Bernard, C; Dervyn, E; Cayley, J; Klier, A; Rapoport, G

    1997-01-01

    Integrative plasmids were constructed to enable integration of foreign DNA into the chromosome of Bacillus sphaericus 2297 by in vivo recombination. Integration of the aphA3 kanamycin resistance gene by a two-step procedure demonstrated that this strategy was applicable with antibiotic resistance selection. Hybridization experiments evidenced two copies of the operon encoding the binary toxin from B. sphaericus in the recipient strain. The Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis cry11Aal gene (referred to as cry11A), encoding a delta-endotoxin with toxicity against Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles larvae, was integrated either by a single crossover event [strain 2297 (::pHT5601), harboring the entire recombinant plasmid] or by two successive crossover events [strain 2297 (::cry11A)]. The level of the Cry11A production in B. sphaericus was high; two crystalline inclusions were produced in strain 2297 (::pHT5601). Synthesis of the Cry11A toxin conferred toxicity to the recombinant strains against Aedes aegypti larvae, for which the parental strain was not toxic. Interestingly, the level of larvicidal activity of strain 2297 (::pHT5601) against Anopheles stephensi was as high as that of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and suggested synergy between the B. thuringiensis and B. sphaericus toxins. The toxicities of parental and recombinant B. sphaericus strains against Culex quinquefasciatus were similar, but the recombinant strains killed the larvae more rapidly. The production of the Cry11A toxin in B. sphaericus also partially restored toxicity for C. quinquefasciatus larvae from a population resistant to B. sphaericus 1593. In vivo recombination therefore appears to be a promising approach to the creation of new B. sphaericus strains for vector control. PMID:9361428

  1. Essential Role of an Unusually Long-lived Tyrosyl Radical in the Response to Red Light of the Animal-like Cryptochrome aCRY.

    PubMed

    Oldemeyer, Sabine; Franz, Sophie; Wenzel, Sandra; Essen, Lars-Oliver; Mittag, Maria; Kottke, Tilman

    2016-07-01

    Cryptochromes constitute a group of flavin-binding blue light receptors in bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects. Recently, the response of cryptochromes to light was extended to nearly the entire visible spectral region on the basis of the activity of the animal-like cryptochrome aCRY in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii This finding was explained by the absorption of red light by the flavin neutral radical as the dark state of the receptor, which then forms the anionic fully reduced state. In this study, time-resolved UV-visible spectroscopy on the full-length aCRY revealed an unusually long-lived tyrosyl radical with a lifetime of 2.6 s, which is present already 1 μs after red light illumination of the flavin radical. Mutational studies disclosed the tyrosine 373 close to the surface to form the long-lived radical and to be essential for photoreduction. This residue is conserved exclusively in the sequences of other putative aCRY proteins distinguishing them from conventional (6-4) photolyases. Size exclusion chromatography showed the full-length aCRY to be a dimer in the dark at 0.5 mm injected concentration with the C-terminal extension as the dimerization site. Upon illumination, partial oligomerization was observed via disulfide bridge formation at cysteine 482 in close proximity to tyrosine 373. The lack of any light response in the C-terminal extension as evidenced by FTIR spectroscopy differentiates aCRY from plant and Drosophila cryptochromes. These findings imply that aCRY might have evolved a different signaling mechanism via a light-triggered redox cascade culminating in photooxidation of a yet unknown substrate or binding partner. PMID:27189948

  2. Characterization of a Novel Plasma Membrane Protein, Expressed in the Midgut Epithelia of Bombyx mori, That Binds to Cry1A Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Delwar M.; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Moriyama, Kenta; Higuchi, Masahiro; Hayakawa, Tohru; Mitsui, Toshiaki; Sato, Ryoichi; Hori, Hidetaka

    2004-01-01

    We describe the properties of a novel 252-kDa protein (P252) isolated from brush border membranes of Bombyx mori. P252 was found in a Triton X-100-soluble brush border membrane vesicle fraction, suggesting that it may be a component of the midgut epithelial cell membrane. P252 was purified to homogeneity, and the amino acid sequence of two internal peptides was determined, but neither of the peptides matched protein sequences in the available databases. The apparent molecular mass of the purified protein was estimated by denaturing gel electrophoresis to be 252 kDa, and it migrated as a single band on native gels. However, gel filtration chromatography indicated an apparent mass of 985 kDa, suggesting that P252 may exist as a homo-oligomer. The associations of P252 with Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, and Cry1Ac were specific, and Kd constants were determined to be 28.9, 178.5, and 20.0 nM, respectively. A heterologous competition assay was also done. P252 did not exhibit Leu-pNA hydrolysis activity, and binding to the Cry1A toxins was not inhibited by GalNAc. Binding assays of P252 with various lectins indicated the presence of three antennal N-linked high-mannose-type as well as O-linked mucin-type sugar side chains. While the function of P252 is not yet clear, we propose that it may function with Cry1A toxins during the insecticidal response and/or Cry toxin resistance mechanism. PMID:15294792

  3. Field assessment of Bt cry1Ah corn pollen on the survival, development and behavior of Apis mellifera ligustica.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ping-Li; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Cui, Hong-Juan; Wang, Qiang; Jiang, Wei-Yu; Sun, Ji-Hu; Wu, Yan-Yan; Zhou, Ting

    2012-05-01

    Honeybees may be exposed to insecticidal proteins from transgenic plants via pollen. An assessment of the impact of such exposures on the honeybee is an essential part of the risk assessment process for transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn. A field trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of transgenic Bt cry1Ah corn on the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Colonies of honeybees were moved to Bt or non-Bt corn fields during anthesis and then sampled to record their survival, development and behavior. No differences in immature stages, worker survival, bee body weight, hypopharyngeal gland weight, colony performance, foraging activity or olfactory learning abilities were detected between colonies that were placed in non-Bt corn fields and those placed in Bt corn fields. We conclude that cry1Ah corn carries no risk for the survival, development, colony performance or behavior of the honeybee A. mellifera ligustica. PMID:22364780

  4. Production of marker-free transgenic Jatropha curcas expressing hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis δ-endotoxin Cry1Ab/1Ac for resistance to larvae of tortrix moth (Archips micaceanus)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential biofuel plant Jatropha curcas L. is affected by larvae of Archips micaceanus (Walker), a moth of the family Tortricidae. The hybrid Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) δ-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac confers resistance to lepidopteran insects in transgenic rice. Results Here, we report the production of a marker-free transgenic line of J. curcas (L10) expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and a chemically regulated, Cre/loxP-mediated DNA recombination system. L10 carries a single copy of marker-free T-DNA that contains the Cry1Ab/1Ac gene under the control of a maize phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene promoter (P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos ). The P Pepc :Cry1Ab/1Ac:T Nos gene was highly expressed in leaves of L10 plants. Insecticidal bioassays using leaf explants of L10 resulted in 80-100% mortality of larvae of A. micaceanus at 4 days after infestation. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the hybrid Bt δ-endotoxin protein Cry1Ab/1Ac expressed in Jatropha curcas displays strong insecticidal activity to A. micaceanus. The marker-free transgenic J. curcas line L10 can be used for breeding of insect resistance to A. micaceanus. PMID:24808924

  5. Toward a more precise, clinically--informed pathophysiology of pathological laughing and crying.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Edward C; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Kuppuswamy, Preetha Sharone

    2013-09-01

    Involuntary emotional expression disorder (IEED) includes the syndromes of pathological laughing and crying (PLC) and emotional lability (EL). Review of the lesion, epilepsy, and brain stimulation literature leads to an updated pathophysiology of IEED. A volitional system involving frontoparietal (primary motor, premotor, supplementary motor, posterior insular, dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), primary sensory and related parietal) corticopontine projections inhibits an emotionally-controlled system involving frontotemporal (orbitofrontal, ventral ACG, anterior insular, inferior temporal, and parahippocampal) projections targeting the amygdala-hypothalamus-periaqueductal gray (PAG)-dorsal tegmentum (dTg) complex that regulates emotional displays. PAG activity is regulated by glutamatergic NMDA, muscarinic M1-3, GABA-A, dopamine D2, norepinephrine alpha-1,2, serotonin 5HT1a, 5HT1b/d, and sigma-1 receptors, with an acetylcholine/GABA balance mediating volitional inhibition of the PAG. Lesions of the volitional corticopontine projections (or of their feedback or processing circuits) can produce PLC. Direct activation of the emotional pathway can result in EL and the laughing or crying of gelastic and dacrystic epilepsy. A criterion-based nosology of PLC and EL subtypes is offered.

  6. Persistence of Bt Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Aa toxin in various soils determined by physicochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helassa, N.; Noinville, S.; Déjardin, P.; Janot, J. M.; Quiquampoix, H.; Staunton, S.

    2009-04-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from the soil bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are produced by a class of genetically modified (GM) crops, and released into soils through root exudates and upon decomposition of residues. In contrast to the protoxin produced by the Bacillus, the protein produced in GM crops does not require activation in insect midguts and thereby potentially looses some of its species specificity. Although gene transfer and resistance emergence phenomena are well documented, the fate of these toxins in soil has not yet been clearly elucidated. Cry proteins, in common with other proteins, are adsorbed on soils and soil components. Adsorption on soil, and the reversibility of this adsorption is an important aspect of the environmental behaviour of these toxins. The orientation of the molecule and conformational changes on surfaces may modify the toxicity and confer some protection against microbial degradation. Adsorption will have important consequences for both the risk of exposition of non target species and the acquisition of resistance by target species. We have adopted different approaches to investigate the fate of Cry1Aa in soils and model minerals. In each series of experiments we endeavoured to maintain the protein in a monomeric form (pH above 6.5 and a high ionic strength imposed with 150 mM NaCl). The adsorption and the desorbability of the Cry1Aa Bt insecticidal protein were measured on two different homoionic clays: montmorillonite and kaolinite. Adsorption isotherms obtained followed a low affinity interaction for both clays and could be fitted using the Langmuir equation. Binding of the toxin decreased as the pH increased from 6.5 (close to the isoelectric point) to 9. Maximum adsorption was about 40 times greater on montmorillonite (1.71 g g-1) than on kaolinite (0.04 g g-1) in line with the contrasting respective specific surface areas of the minerals. Finally, some of the adsorbed toxin was desorbed by water and more, about 36

  7. The cryptochrome gene family in pea includes two differentially expressed CRY2 genes.

    PubMed

    Platten, J Damien; Foo, Eloise; Foucher, Fabrice; Hecht, Valérie; Reid, James B; Weller, James L

    2005-11-01

    The cryptochromes are a family of blue light photoreceptors that play important roles in the control of plant development. We have characterised the cryptochrome gene family in the model legume garden pea (Pisum sativum L.). Pea contains three expressed cryptochrome genes; a single CRY1 orthologue, and two distinct CRY2 genes that we have termed CRY2a and CRY2b. Genomic southern blots indicate that there are unlikely to be more CRY genes in pea. Each of the three genes encodes a full-length CRY protein that contains all the major domains characteristic of other higher plant cryptochromes. Database searches have identified Medicago truncatula expressed sequence tags (ESTs) corresponding to all three genes, whereas only a single CRY2 is represented in EST collections from the more distantly related legumes soybean and Lotus japonicus. The proteins encoded by the pea and Medicago CRY2b genes are distinguished from other CRY2 proteins by their shorter C-terminus. Expression analyses have identified marked differences in the regulation of the three genes, with CRY2b expression in particular distinguished by high-amplitude diurnal cycling and rapid repression in seedlings transferred from darkness to blue light.

  8. Daphnia magna negatively affected by chronic exposure to purified Cry-toxins.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Thomas; Rover, Carina Macagnan; Semenchuk, Philipp Robert

    2016-05-01

    Cry-toxin genes originating from Bacillus thuringiensis are inserted into genetically modified (GM) plants, often called Bt-plants, to provide insect resistance to pests. Significant amounts of Bt-plant residues, and thus Cry-toxins, will be shed to soil and aquatic environments. We exposed Daphnia magna to purified Cry1Ab and Cry2Aa toxins for the full life-span of the animals. We used single toxins in different doses and combinations of toxins and Roundup(®), another potential stressor on the rise in agricultural ecosystems. Animals exposed to 4.5 mg/L (ppm) of Cry1Ab, Cry2Aa and the combination of both showed markedly higher mortality, smaller body size and very low juvenile production compared to controls. Animals exposed to 0.75 mg/L also showed a tendency towards increased mortality but with increased early fecundity compared to the controls. Roundup(®) stimulated animals to strong early reproductive output at the cost of later rapid mortality. We conclude that i) purified Cry-toxins in high concentrations are toxic to D. magna, indicating alternative modes-of-action for these Cry-toxins; ii) Cry-toxins act in combination, indicating that 'stacked events' may have stronger effects on non-target organisms; iii) further studies need to be done on combinatorial effects of multiple Cry-toxins and herbicides that co-occur in the environment. PMID:26993955

  9. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the... Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the expression plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the... Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the expression plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  11. Intended Sensitive and Harsh Caregiving Responses to Infant Crying: The Role of Cry Pitch and Perceived Urgency in an Adult Twin Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Out, Dorothee; Pieper, Suzanne; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Zeskind, Philip Sanford; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the underlying mechanisms of adults' intended caregiving responses to cry sounds in a behavioral genetic design and to investigate the role of cry pitch and perceived urgency in sensitive and harsh caregiving responses. Methods: The sample consisted of 184 adult twin pairs (18-69 years), including males and females, parents…

  12. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue; Roelofs, Dick; Chen, Fajun; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Liang, Yuyong; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues.

  13. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii(™) (Nintendo(®); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  14. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity. PMID:24416640

  15. Pre-selecting resistance against individual Bti Cry toxins facilitates the development of resistance to the Bti toxins cocktail.

    PubMed

    Stalinski, Renaud; Tetreau, Guillaume; Gaude, Thierry; Després, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    The bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis is a larvicide used worldwide for mosquito control, which contains three Cry toxins and one Cyt toxin. We investigated for the first time in Aedes aegypti (1) the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance of strains selected with each Cry toxin, and (2) the effect of pre-selection with Cry toxin on the evolution of resistance to a mix of Bti toxins. Cross resistance was higher between Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa than between Cry4Aa and either Cry4Ba or Cry11Aa, suggesting both common and specific mechanisms of resistance. Pre-selecting resistance to each Cry toxins facilitated the development of resistance to the full Bti toxins cocktail.

  16. Electroclinical and cytogenetic features of epilepsy in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Yukako; Terada, Kiyohito; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Hiyoshi, Toshio; Inoue, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome (CdCs) is caused by deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5, occurring in 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live births. Recent genotype-phenotype correlation studies show the importance of 5p15.2 for facial dysmorphism and intellectual disability, and 5p15.3 for cat-like cry. Numerous reports have shown the relative rarity of epilepsy in this syndrome. We identified two cases with epilepsy in CdCs, and described their electroclinical and cytogenetic features. The first case was a 25-year-old female who had axial tonic seizures with flexion of the neck and shoulders. Interictal EEG was characterized by generalized spike-and-slow-wave complexes. Her ictal EEG started with diffuse electrodecremental pattern, followed by alpha-range activities. High-resolution banding analysis of chromosomes revealed a terminal deletion of 5p14.1. The second case was a 30-year-old female who had startle epilepsy with falling. Interictal EEG demonstrated generalized spike and slow waves. High-resolution banding analysis revealed a terminal deletion of 5p13.3 with additional chromosomal material of unknown origin. Based on the cases presented here, as well as those previously reported, the relationship between epilepsy and CdCs is discussed. The data suggests that although CdCs patients rarely suffer from epileptic seizures, the seizures may vary in type. PMID:26576006

  17. Electroclinical and cytogenetic features of epilepsy in cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nakagami, Yukako; Terada, Kiyohito; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Hiyoshi, Toshio; Inoue, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Cri-du-chat syndrome (CdCs) is caused by deletion in the short arm of chromosome 5, occurring in 1:15,000 to 1:50,000 live births. Recent genotype-phenotype correlation studies show the importance of 5p15.2 for facial dysmorphism and intellectual disability, and 5p15.3 for cat-like cry. Numerous reports have shown the relative rarity of epilepsy in this syndrome. We identified two cases with epilepsy in CdCs, and described their electroclinical and cytogenetic features. The first case was a 25-year-old female who had axial tonic seizures with flexion of the neck and shoulders. Interictal EEG was characterized by generalized spike-and-slow-wave complexes. Her ictal EEG started with diffuse electrodecremental pattern, followed by alpha-range activities. High-resolution banding analysis of chromosomes revealed a terminal deletion of 5p14.1. The second case was a 30-year-old female who had startle epilepsy with falling. Interictal EEG demonstrated generalized spike and slow waves. High-resolution banding analysis revealed a terminal deletion of 5p13.3 with additional chromosomal material of unknown origin. Based on the cases presented here, as well as those previously reported, the relationship between epilepsy and CdCs is discussed. The data suggests that although CdCs patients rarely suffer from epileptic seizures, the seizures may vary in type.

  18. Emergence of amae crying in early infancy as a possible social communication tool between infants and mothers.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroko

    2015-08-01

    Amae is defined as "wishing to be loved (Scheidlinger (1999). The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 27(1), p. 91)". Amae crying is known as crying of infants when seeking intimate emotional communication with caregivers. The objective of this study was to delineate when and how amae crying emerges in early infancy. Crying episodes of four infants were observed bimonthly, in the natural context of their homes, from birth to 6 months of age, for approximately 60min per session. Crying episodes (total=275) as determined by two coders were analyzed with respect to several behavioral measures. Results indicated that amae crying emerged at the age of 2 months, and consistently accounted for 30-40% of the total crying episodes after the ages of 3 months. Amae crying could be accurately identified when infants were not in acute discomfort and had already got the attention of their mothers. At such times, infants did not shed tears, cried with a fussy voice, and frequently looked at their mothers. Mothers responded to amae crying more promptly than they did to other types of crying behaviors. It is concluded that 3 months of age, when infants probably begin to use crying as a social communication tool is a major turning point for crying behavior from the perspective of its biological and social roles. It is suggested that amae crying might play an important role in strengthening and encouraging mother-infant interactions.

  19. Differential Protection of Cry1Fa Toxin against Spodoptera frugiperda Larval Gut Proteases by Cadherin Orthologs Correlates with Increased Synergism

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Khalidur; Abdullah, Mohd Amir F.; Ambati, Suresh; Taylor, Milton D.

    2012-01-01

    The Cry proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are the most widely used biopesticides effective against a range of crop pests and disease vectors. Like chemical pesticides, development of resistance is the primary threat to the long-term efficacy of Bt toxins. Recently discovered cadherin-based Bt Cry synergists showed the potential to augment resistance management by improving efficacy of Cry toxins. However, the mode of action of Bt Cry synergists is thus far unclear. Here we elucidate the mechanism of cadherin-based Cry toxin synergism utilizing two cadherin peptides, Spodoptera frugiperda Cad (SfCad) and Manduca sexta Cad (MsCad), which differentially enhance Cry1Fa toxicity to Spodoptera frugiperda neonates. We show that differential SfCad- and MsCad-mediated protection of Cry1Fa toxin in the Spodoptera frugiperda midgut correlates with differential Cry1Fa toxicity enhancement. Both peptides exhibited high affinity for Cry1Fa toxin and an increased rate of Cry1Fa-induced pore formation in S. frugiperda. However, only SfCad bound the S. frugiperda brush border membrane vesicle and more effectively prolonged the stability of Cry1Fa toxin in the gut, explaining higher Cry1Fa enhancement by this peptide. This study shows that cadherin fragments may enhance B. thuringiensis toxicity by at least two different mechanisms or a combination thereof: (i) protection of Cry toxin from protease degradation in the insect midgut and (ii) enhancement of pore-forming ability of Cry toxin. PMID:22081566

  20. A Comprehensive Assessment of the Effects of Bt Cotton on Coleomegilla maculata Demonstrates No Detrimental Effects by Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yunhe; Romeis, Jörg; Wang, Ping; Peng, Yufa; Shelton, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    The ladybird beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (DeGeer), is a common and abundant predator in many cropping systems. Its larvae and adults are predaceous, feeding on aphids, thrips, lepidopteran larvae and plant tissues, such as pollen. Therefore, this species is exposed to insecticidal proteins expressed in insect-resistant, genetically engineered cotton expressing Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). A tritrophic bioassay was conduced to evaluate the potential impact of Cry2Ab- and Cry1Ac-expressing cotton on fitness parameters of C. maculata using Bt-susceptible and -resistant larvae of Trichoplusia ni as prey. Coleomegilla maculata survival, development time, adult weight and fecundity were not different when they were fed with resistant T. ni larvae reared on either Bt or control cotton. To ensure that C. maculata were not sensitive to the tested Cry toxins independent from the plant background and to add certainty to the hazard assessment, C. maculata larvae were fed artificial diet incorporated with Cry2Ab, Cry1Ac or both at >10 times higher concentrations than in cotton tissue. Artificial diet containing E-64 was included as a positive control. No differences were detected in any life-table parameters between Cry protein-containing diet treatments and the control diet. In contrast, larvae of C. maculata fed the E-64 could not develop to the pupal stage and the 7-d larval weight was significantly negatively affected. In both feeding assays, the stability and bioactivity of Cry proteins in the food sources were confirmed by ELISA and sensitive-insect bioassays. Our results show that C. maculata is not affected by Bt cotton and is not sensitive to Cry2Ab and Cry1Ac at concentrations exceeding the levels in Bt cotton, thus demonstrating that Bt cotton will pose a negligible risk to C. maculata. More importantly, this study demonstrates a comprehensive system for assessing the risk of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms. PMID

  1. Luminal proteinases from Plodia interpunctella and the hydrolysis of Bacillus thuringiensis CryIA(c) protoxin.

    PubMed

    Oppert, B; Kramer, K J; Johnson, D; Upton, S J; Mcgaughey, W H

    1996-06-01

    The ability of proteinases in gut extracts of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella, to hydrolyze Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protoxin, casein, and rho-nitroanilide substrates was investigated. A polyclonal antiserum to protoxin CryIA(c) was used in Western blots to demonstrate slower protoxin processing by gut enzymes from Bt subspecies entomocidus-resistant larvae than enzymes from susceptible or kurstaki-resistant strains. Enzymes from all three strains hydrolyzed N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine rho-nitroanilide, N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-phenylalanine rho-nitroanilide, and N-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-leucine rho-nitroanilide. Zymograms and activity blots were used to estimate the apparent molecular masses, number of enzymes, and relative activities in each strain. Several serine proteinase inhibitors reduced gut enzyme activities, with two soybean trypsin inhibitors, two potato inhibitors, and chymostatin the most effective in preventing protoxin hydrolysis.

  2. Depressed Mothers’ Newborns Show Less Discrimination of Other Newborns’ Cry Sounds

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Fernandez, Mercedes

    2007-01-01

    Newborns’ crying in response to the cry of another newborn has been called an empathetic response. The purpose of this study was to determine whether newborns of depressed mothers showed the same response. Newborns of depressed and non-depressed mothers were presented with cry sounds of themselves or other infants, and their sucking and heart rate were recorded. The newborns of non-depressed mothers responded to the cry sounds of other infants with reduced sucking and decreased heart rate. In contrast, the newborns of depressed mothers did not show a change in their sucking or heart rate to the cry sound of other infants. This lesser attentiveness/responsiveness to other infants’ cry sounds may predict their later lack of empathy. PMID:17412424

  3. Newborns' cry melody is shaped by their native language.

    PubMed

    Mampe, Birgit; Friederici, Angela D; Christophe, Anne; Wermke, Kathleen

    2009-12-15

    Human fetuses are able to memorize auditory stimuli from the external world by the last trimester of pregnancy, with a particular sensitivity to melody contour in both music and language. Newborns prefer their mother's voice over other voices and perceive the emotional content of messages conveyed via intonation contours in maternal speech ("motherese"). Their perceptual preference for the surrounding language and their ability to distinguish between prosodically different languages and pitch changes are based on prosodic information, primarily melody. Adult-like processing of pitch intervals allows newborns to appreciate musical melodies and emotional and linguistic prosody. Although prenatal exposure to native-language prosody influences newborns' perception, the surrounding language affects sound production apparently much later. Here, we analyzed the crying patterns of 30 French and 30 German newborns with respect to their melody and intensity contours. The French group preferentially produced cries with a rising melody contour, whereas the German group preferentially produced falling contours. The data show an influence of the surrounding speech prosody on newborns' cry melody, possibly via vocal learning based on biological predispositions.

  4. Hematotoxicity and genotoxicity evaluations in Swiss mice intraperitoneally exposed to Bacillus thuringiensis (var kurstaki) spore crystals genetically modified to express individually Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, or Cry2Aa.

    PubMed

    Mezzomo, Bélin Poletto; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Barbosa, Lilian Carla Pereira; Albernaz, Vanessa Lima; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe

    2016-08-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been widely used in foliar sprays as part of integrated pest management strategies against insect pests of agricultural crops. Since the advent of genetically modified plants expressing Bt δ-endotoxins, the bioavailability of Cry proteins has increased, and therefore for biosafety reasons their adverse effects should be studied, mainly for nontarget organisms. We evaluated, in Swiss mice, the hematotoxicity and genotoxicity of the genetically modified strains of Bt spore crystals Cry1Aa, 1Ab, 1Ac, or 2Aa at 27 mg/kg, and Cry1Aa, 1Ab and 2Aa also at 136 and 270 mg/kg, administered with a single intraperitoneal injection 24 h before euthanasia. Controls received filtered water or cyclophosphamide. Blood samples collected by cardiac puncture were used to perform hemogram, and bone marrow was extracted for the micronucleus test. Bt spore crystals presented toxicity for lymphocytes when in higher doses, which varied according to the type of spore crystal studied, besides promoting cytotoxic and genotoxic effects for the erythroid lineage of bone marrow, mainly at highest doses. Although the profile of such adverse side effects can be related to their high level of exposure, which is not commonly found in the environment, results indicated that these Bt spore crystals were not harmless to mice. This suggests that a more specific approach should be taken to increase knowledge about their toxicological properties and to establish the toxicological risks to nontarget organisms. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 970-978, 2016.

  5. Design of Main Control Console Software in EAST Neutral Beam Injector's Control System for the First Beam Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, De-Yun; Hu, Chun-Dong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuan-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Cui, Qing-Long

    2013-10-01

    Neutral beam injector is one of the main plasma heating and plasma current driving methods for experimental advanced superconducting tokomaks (EAST). In order to realize visual operation of EAST neutral beam injector's control system (NBICS), main control console (MCC) is developed to work as the human-machine interface between the NBICS and physical operator. It can meet the requirements of visual control of NBICS by providing a user graphic interface. With the specific algorithms, the setup of power supply sequence is relatively independent and simple. Displaying the real-time feedback of the subsystems provides a reference for operators to monitor the status of the system. The MCC software runs on a Windows system and uses C++ language code while using client/server (C/S) mode, multithreading and cyclic redundancy check technology. The experimental results have proved that MCC provides a stability and reliability operation of NBICS and works as an effective man-machine interface at the same time.

  6. A preliminary user-friendly, digital console for the control room parameters supervision in old-generation Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Memmi, F.; Falconi, L.; Cappelli, M.; Palomba, M.; Santoro, E.; Bove, R.; Sepielli, M.

    2012-07-01

    Improvements in the awareness of a system status is an essential requirement to achieve safety in every kind of plant. In particular, in the case of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), a progress is crucial to enhance the Human Machine Interface (HMI) in order to optimize monitoring and analyzing processes of NPP operational states. Firstly, as old-fashioned plants are concerned, an upgrading of the whole console instrumentation is desirable in order to replace an analog visualization with a full-digital system. In this work, we present a novel instrument able to interface the control console of a nuclear reactor, developed by using CompactRio, a National Instruments embedded architecture and its dedicated programming language. This real-time industrial controller composed by a real-time processor and FPGA modules has been programmed to visualize the parameters coming from the reactor, and to storage and reproduce significant conditions anytime. This choice has been made on the basis of the FPGA properties: high reliability, determinism, true parallelism and re-configurability, achieved by a simple programming method, based on LabVIEW real-time environment. The system architecture exploits the FPGA capabilities of implementing custom timing and triggering, hardware-based analysis and co-processing, and highest performance control algorithms. Data stored during the supervisory phase can be reproduced by loading data from a measurement file, re-enacting worthwhile operations or conditions. The system has been thought to be used in three different modes, namely Log File Mode, Supervisory Mode and Simulation Mode. The proposed system can be considered as a first step to develop a more complete Decision Support System (DSS): indeed this work is part of a wider project that includes the elaboration of intelligent agents and meta-theory approaches. A synoptic has been created to monitor every kind of action on the plant through an intuitive sight. Furthermore, another important

  7. A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-07-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. PMID:19416969

  8. A novel Tenebrio molitor cadherin is a functional receptor for Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Aa toxin.

    PubMed

    Fabrick, Jeff; Oppert, Cris; Lorenzen, Marcé D; Morris, Kaley; Oppert, Brenda; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis

    2009-07-01

    Cry toxins produced by the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis are effective biological insecticides. Cadherin-like proteins have been reported as functional Cry1A toxin receptors in Lepidoptera. Here we present data that demonstrate that a coleopteran cadherin is a functional Cry3Aa toxin receptor. The Cry3Aa receptor cadherin was cloned from Tenebrio molitor larval midgut mRNA, and the predicted protein, TmCad1, has domain structure and a putative toxin binding region similar to those in lepidopteran cadherin B. thuringiensis receptors. A peptide containing the putative toxin binding region from TmCad1 bound specifically to Cry3Aa and promoted the formation of Cry3Aa toxin oligomers, proposed to be mediators of toxicity in lepidopterans. Injection of TmCad1-specific double-stranded RNA into T. molitor larvae resulted in knockdown of the TmCad1 transcript and conferred resistance to Cry3Aa toxicity. These data demonstrate the functional role of TmCad1 as a Cry3Aa receptor in T. molitor and reveal similarities between the mode of action of Cry toxins in Lepidoptera and Coleoptera.

  9. An ethological analysis of human infant crying: answering Tinbergen's four questions.

    PubMed

    Zeifman, D M

    2001-12-01

    The proximate causes, survival value, ontogeny, and evolutionary history of human infant crying are examined. Experiments and field observations involving infant distress vocalizations and begging calls in avian, mammalian, and nonhuman primate species are considered, as are ethnographic records of infant care and responses to crying in nonindustrialized societies. It is argued that human infant crying evolved as a primarily acoustic, graded signal, that it is a fairly reliable, if imperfect, indicator of need for parental care and that its primary function is to promote parental caregiving. Selection pressures that may have shaped the evolution of crying and its potential for corruption through dishonesty also are discussed.

  10. Sequestration and Transfer of Cry Entomotoxin to the Eggs of a Predaceous Ladybird Beetle.

    PubMed

    Paula, Débora P; Souza, Lucas M; Andow, David A

    2015-01-01

    In the past 10 years, sequestration of Cry toxins and transfer to offspring has been indicated in three insect species in laboratory studies. This work directly demonstrates the sequestration and intergenerational transfer of Cry1F by the parents of the aphidophagous coccinellid predator, Harmonia axyridis, to its offspring. Recently emerged adults (10 individual couples/cage/treatment) were exposed during 20 days to aphids (100 Myzus persicae each day) that fed on a holidic diet containing 20 μg/mL Cry1F (and a control-group). Egg batches and neonate larvae were monitored daily, and counted and weighed for immunodetection of Cry1F by ELISA. At the end of the bioassay, the parents were weighed and analyzed by ELISA. Cry1F was detected in the offspring, both eggs and neonate larvae, of exposed H. axyridis adults. On average the neonate larvae had 60% of the Cry1F concentration of the eggs from the same egg batch. The Cry1F concentration in the adults was positively correlated with the concentration in their eggs. These three results provided independent evidence of transfer to offspring. No detrimental effects of Cry1F were observed on the age of first reproduction, total number of eggs laid per female, age-specific fecundity, egg development time, hatching rate, or fertility rate. The occurrence and generality of intergenerational transfer of Cry toxins should be investigated in the field to determine its potential ecological implications. PMID:26661738

  11. Sequestration and Transfer of Cry Entomotoxin to the Eggs of a Predaceous Ladybird Beetle.

    PubMed

    Paula, Débora P; Souza, Lucas M; Andow, David A

    2015-01-01

    In the past 10 years, sequestration of Cry toxins and transfer to offspring has been indicated in three insect species in laboratory studies. This work directly demonstrates the sequestration and intergenerational transfer of Cry1F by the parents of the aphidophagous coccinellid predator, Harmonia axyridis, to its offspring. Recently emerged adults (10 individual couples/cage/treatment) were exposed during 20 days to aphids (100 Myzus persicae each day) that fed on a holidic diet containing 20 μg/mL Cry1F (and a control-group). Egg batches and neonate larvae were monitored daily, and counted and weighed for immunodetection of Cry1F by ELISA. At the end of the bioassay, the parents were weighed and analyzed by ELISA. Cry1F was detected in the offspring, both eggs and neonate larvae, of exposed H. axyridis adults. On average the neonate larvae had 60% of the Cry1F concentration of the eggs from the same egg batch. The Cry1F concentration in the adults was positively correlated with the concentration in their eggs. These three results provided independent evidence of transfer to offspring. No detrimental effects of Cry1F were observed on the age of first reproduction, total number of eggs laid per female, age-specific fecundity, egg development time, hatching rate, or fertility rate. The occurrence and generality of intergenerational transfer of Cry toxins should be investigated in the field to determine its potential ecological implications.

  12. Sequestration and Transfer of Cry Entomotoxin to the Eggs of a Predaceous Ladybird Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Débora P.; Souza, Lucas M.; Andow, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 10 years, sequestration of Cry toxins and transfer to offspring has been indicated in three insect species in laboratory studies. This work directly demonstrates the sequestration and intergenerational transfer of Cry1F by the parents of the aphidophagous coccinellid predator, Harmonia axyridis, to its offspring. Recently emerged adults (10 individual couples/cage/treatment) were exposed during 20 days to aphids (100 Myzus persicae each day) that fed on a holidic diet containing 20 μg/mL Cry1F (and a control-group). Egg batches and neonate larvae were monitored daily, and counted and weighed for immunodetection of Cry1F by ELISA. At the end of the bioassay, the parents were weighed and analyzed by ELISA. Cry1F was detected in the offspring, both eggs and neonate larvae, of exposed H. axyridis adults. On average the neonate larvae had 60% of the Cry1F concentration of the eggs from the same egg batch. The Cry1F concentration in the adults was positively correlated with the concentration in their eggs. These three results provided independent evidence of transfer to offspring. No detrimental effects of Cry1F were observed on the age of first reproduction, total number of eggs laid per female, age-specific fecundity, egg development time, hatching rate, or fertility rate. The occurrence and generality of intergenerational transfer of Cry toxins should be investigated in the field to determine its potential ecological implications. PMID:26661738

  13. Familial factors responsible for persistent crying-induced asthma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, A G

    1987-10-01

    Crying behavior of the asthmatic child may induce wheezing symptoms. This may be a clinical problem for families with asthmatic children who exhibit frequent and persistent crying behavior. This case report identifies behaviors by the child and parents that may be responsible for continual crying. Child factors include (1) "spoiled" personality, (2) poor self-image, (3) biologic sensitivity to foods, medication, and environmental allergens producing irritability. Parental factors include poor disciplinary practices secondary to (1) disrupted home life, (2) guilt, and (3) overprotective behavior. Identification of these factors may be helpful in establishing clinical management strategies to reduce crying-induced asthma. PMID:3116889

  14. So the Kids Are Busy, What Now? Teacher Perceptions of the Use of Hand-Held Game Consoles in West Australian Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, John; Main, Susan; Ellis, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Games technology in the form of hand-held game consoles (HGCs) when focussed on specific academic skill development has the capacity to engage students in learning and in turn produce positive academic results. This current research explores teacher perceptions of the implementation of HGCs to enhance the development of mental maths skills (namely…

  15. Transformation and Evaluation of Cry1Ac+Cry2A and GTGene in Gossypium hirsutum L.

    PubMed Central

    Puspito, Agung N.; Rao, Abdul Q.; Hafeez, Muhammad N.; Iqbal, Muhammad S.; Bajwa, Kamran S.; Ali, Qurban; Rashid, Bushra; Abbas, Muhammad A.; Latif, Ayesha; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Nasir, Idrees A.; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    More than 50 countries around the globe cultivate cotton on a large scale. It is a major cash crop of Pakistan and is considered “white gold” because it is highly important to the economy of Pakistan. In addition to its importance, cotton cultivation faces several problems, such as insect pests, weeds, and viruses. In the past, insects have been controlled by insecticides, but this method caused a severe loss to the economy. However, conventional breeding methods have provided considerable breakthroughs in the improvement of cotton, but it also has several limitations. In comparison with conventional methods, biotechnology has the potential to create genetically modified plants that are environmentally safe and economically viable. In this study, a local cotton variety VH 289 was transformed with two Bt genes (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) and a herbicide resistant gene (cp4 EPSPS) using the Agrobacterium mediated transformation method. The constitutive CaMV 35S promoter was attached to the genes taken from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and to an herbicide resistant gene during cloning, and this promoter was used for the expression of the genes in cotton plants. This construct was used to develop the Glyphosate Tolerance Gene (GTGene) for herbicide tolerance and insecticidal gene (Cry1Ac and Cry2A) for insect tolerance in the cotton variety VH 289. The transgenic cotton variety performed 85% better compared with the non-transgenic variety. The study results suggest that farmers should use the transgenic cotton variety for general cultivation to improve the production of cotton. PMID:26617613

  16. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  17. Pretreatment with Cry1Ac Protoxin Modulates the Immune Response, and Increases the Survival of Plasmodium-Infected CBA/Ca Mice

    PubMed Central

    Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Oviedo Meza, Rodrigo; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem that kills 1-2 million people each year. Despite exhaustive research, naturally acquired immunity is poorly understood. Cry1A proteins are potent immunogens with adjuvant properties and are able to induce strong cellular and humoral responses. In fact, it has been shown that administration of Cry1Ac protoxin alone or with amoebic lysates induces protection against the lethal infection caused by the protozoa Naegleria fowleri. In this work, we studied whether Cry1Ac is able to activate the innate immune response to induce protection against Plasmodium berghei ANKA (lethal) and P. chabaudi AS (nonlethal) parasites in CBA/Ca mice. Treatment with Cry1Ac induced protection against both Plasmodium species in terms of reduced parasitaemia, longer survival time, modulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and increased levels of specific antibodies against Plasmodium. Understanding how to boost innate immunity to Plasmodium infection should lead to immunologically based intervention strategies. PMID:20300584

  18. The protoxin Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis improves the protection conferred by intranasal immunization with Brucella abortus RB51 in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    González-González, Edith; García-Hernández, Ana Lilia; Flores-Mejía, Raúl; López-Santiago, Rubén; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2015-02-25

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease affecting many people and animals worldwide. Preventing this infection requires improving vaccination strategies. The protoxin Cry1Ac of Bacillus thuringiensis is an adjuvant that, in addition to increasing the immunogenicity of different antigens, has shown to be protective in different models of parasitic infections. The objective of the present study was to test whether the intranasal co-administration of pCry1Ac with the RB51 vaccine strain of Brucella abortus confers protection against an intranasal challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice. The results showed that co-administration of pCry1Ac and RB51, increased the immunoprotection conferred by the vaccine as evidenced by the following: (1) decrease of the splenic bacterial load when challenged intranasally with the virulent strain; (2) greater in vivo cytotoxic activity in response to the transference of previously infected cells; (3) further proliferation of cytotoxic TCD8+ cells in response to stimulation with heat-inactivated bacteria; (4) increased production of TNF-α and IFN-γ; and (5) significant IgG2a response. These results indicate that the use of the Cry1Ac protein as a mucosal adjuvant via the intranasal route can be a promising alternative for improving current RB51 vaccine against brucellosis. PMID:25497237

  19. In-Silico Determination of Insecticidal Potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac Fusion Protein Against Lepidopteran Targets Using Molecular Docking

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Aftab; Javed, Muhammad R.; Rao, Abdul Q.; Khan, Muhammad A. U.; Ahad, Ammara; Din, Salah ud; Shahid, Ahmad A.; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac) insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa) have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN) and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua, and Spodoptera litura) revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340, and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein. PMID:26697037

  20. Domains II and III of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Toxin Remain Exposed to the Solvent after Insertion of Part of Domain I into the Membrane*

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Luis Enrique; Pardo-López, Liliana; Cantón, Pablo Emiliano; Gómez, Isabel; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis produces insecticidal proteins named Cry toxins, that are used commercially for the control of economical important insect pests. These are pore-forming toxins that interact with different receptors in the insect gut, forming pores in the apical membrane causing cell burst and insect death. Elucidation of the structure of the membrane-inserted toxin is important to fully understand its mechanism of action. One hypothesis proposed that the hairpin of α-helices 4–5 of domain I inserts into the phospholipid bilayer, whereas the rest of helices of domain I are spread on the membrane surface in an umbrella-like conformation. However, a second hypothesis proposed that the three domains of the Cry toxin insert into the bilayer without major conformational changes. In this work we constructed single Cys Cry1Ab mutants that remain active against Manduca sexta larvae and labeled them with different fluorescent probes that have different responses to solvent polarity. Different soluble quenchers as well as a membrane-bound quencher were used to compare the properties of the soluble and brush border membrane-inserted forms of Cry1Ab toxin. The fluorescence and quenching analysis presented here, revealed that domains II and III of the toxin remain in the surface of the membrane and only a discrete region of domain I is inserted into the lipid bilayer, supporting the umbrella model of toxin insertion. PMID:21464133