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Sample records for activity database chad

  1. The Consolidated Human Activity Database — Master Version (CHAD-Master) Technical Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This technical memorandum contains information about the Consolidated Human Activity Database -- Master version, including CHAD contents, inventory of variables: Questionnaire files and Event files, CHAD codes, and references.

  2. CHAD USER’S GUIDE: Extracting Human Activity Information from CHAD on the PC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) User Guide offers a short tutorial about CHAD Access; background on the CHAD Databases; background on individual studies in CHAD; and information about using CHAD data, caveats, known problems, notes, and database design and develop...

  3. Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) for use in human exposure and health studies and predictive models

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA scientists have compiled detailed data on human behavior from 22 separate exposure and time-use studies into CHAD. The database includes more than 54,000 individual study days of detailed human behavior.

  4. COMPARISON OF EXERCISE PARTICIPATION RATES FOR CHILDREN IN THE LITERATURE WITH THOSE IN EPA'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE (CHAD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHAD contains over 22,000 person-days of human activity pattern survey data. Part of the database includes exercise participation rates for children 0-17 years old, as well as for adults. Analyses of this database indicates that approximately 34% of the 0-17 age group (herea...

  5. CHAD User's Guide: Extracting Human Activity Information from CHAD on the PC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    User manual that includes tutorials, what's inside the CHAD databases, background on individuals studies in CHAD, using data form individual studies, caveats, problems, notes, and database design and development.

  6. CHAD-2000

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Detailed data on human behavior from 19 studies has been compiled into the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), enabling researchers to examine specific population groups for unique activity patterns that influence overall exposure to chemicals.

  7. Basic Chad Arabic: The Active Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This third volume in the course on Chad Arabic emphasizes the active development of speaking skills in the target language. The active participation of the student requires imitation and induction of linguistic structures to a large extent. Some 45 units present grammatical material on gender, parts of speech, and verbs. Each unit contains a…

  8. CHAD Explorer - An Enhanced Web Application for CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1999 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed a Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD). CHAD has been used for various exposure modeling studies (McCurdy et al., 2000, Graham & McCurdy, 2004; McCurdy & Graham, 2003). Recently, CHAD has been improved and enha...

  9. CHAD-Master

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Detailed data on human behavior from 19 studies has been compiled into the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) , enabling researchers to examine specific population groups for unique activity patterns that influence overall exposure to chemicals.

  10. Lake Chad, Chad, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The fluctuating water levels of Lake Chad, (13.0N, 15.0E) at the intersection of the borders of Chad, Niger and Cameroon in the Sahara Desert, is an index of the drought in Africa. The lake level continues to decrease as indicated by the growing number and extent of emerging islands as previously submerged ancient sand dunes become visible. The water impounded between the dunes is probably because of local rainfall rather than a reversal of desertification.

  11. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  12. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

  13. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  14. Situational analysis of infant and young child nutrition policies and programmatic activities in Chad.

    PubMed

    Wuehler, Sara E; Nadjilem, Djasndibye

    2011-04-01

    Progress towards reducing mortality and malnutrition among children <5 years of age has been less than needed to achieve related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Therefore, several international agencies joined to 'reposition children's right to adequate nutrition in the Sahel', starting with an analysis of current activities related to infant and young child nutrition (IYCN). The main objectives of the situational analysis are to compile, analyse, and interpret available information on infant and child feeding, and the nutrition situation of children <2 years of age in Chad, as one of the six targeted countries. These findings are available to assist in identifying inconsistencies and filling gaps in current programming. Between June and October of 2008, key informants responsible for IYCN-related activities in Chad were interviewed, and 53 documents were examined on the following themes: the promotion of optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, prevention of micronutrient deficiencies, management of acute malnutrition, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), food security, and promotion of good hygienic practices. Chad is not on track to reaching the MDGs of reducing mortality by two-thirds and malnutrition by half among children <5 years of age between 1990 and 2015. Most of the key IYCN topics were addressed in a national policy to combat malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. No national nutrition policy was yet ratified in Chad, so the target of many documents reviewed was the malnourished child. Researchers have identified some barriers to optimal feeding practices. However, the majority of these surveys were small scale, so they do not necessarily provide information relevant to the general population. Expanded surveys would be needed for developing evidence-based educational messages targeted to local needs. Reviewed training materials and related programmes being implemented in Chad

  15. Spoken Chad Arabic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This intensive course is designed to teach students to understand and speak Chad Arabic. The course is intended to be covered in approximately 360 hours in the classroom and the language laboratory. About 90 hours should be occupied with the pre-speech phase, which emphasizes passive recognition rather than active production. This phase consists…

  16. Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shanshan; Ye, Lan; Liu, Chongxi; Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Zheng, Weiwei; Sun, Pengyu; Li, Jiansong; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2017-04-01

    During an investigation exploring potential sources of novel species and natural products, a novel actinomycete with antifungal activity, designated strain NEAU-Gz11(T), was isolated from a soil sample, which was collected from Gama, Chad. The isolate was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies showed that strain NEAU-Gz11(T) belongs to the genus Streptomyces with high sequence similarity to Streptomyces hiroshimensis JCM 4098(T) (98.0 %). Similarities to other type strains of the genus Streptomyces were lower than 98.0 %. However, the physiological and biochemical characteristics and low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness could differentiate the isolate genotypically and phenotypically from S. hiroshimensis JCM 4098(T). Therefore, the strain is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz11(T) (=CGMCC 4.7304(T)=DSM 101531(T)).

  17. Basic Chad Arabic: Comprehension Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    This text, principally designed for use in a three-volume course on Chad Arabic, complements the pre-speech and active phases of the course in that it provides the answers to comprehension exercises students are required to complete during the course. The comprehension exercises require that students listen to an instructor or tape and write…

  18. Comparison between active and passive surveillance within the network of epidemiological surveillance of animal diseases in Chad.

    PubMed

    Ouagal, Mahamat; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Berkvens, Dirk

    2010-11-01

    A comparative study between passive and active surveillance based on herd visits (villages) was conducted over a period of 24 months. It included 106 surveillance stations of the animal disease epidemiological surveillance network in Chad distributed randomly into 52 stations of active surveillance and 54 stations of passive surveillance. Nine diseases of various vaccination and expected prevalence status were monitored. The active surveillance stations carried out four herd visits monthly to look for the diseases under surveillance and organised four farmers awareness-raising meetings to stimulate them to make disease notifications. The passive surveillance stations held each month four farmer awareness-raising meetings. The suspicions recorded by the stations were consigned to a suspicion form specific to each disease, indicating whether a call from the farmer, a visit to the herd or a awareness-raising meeting was the source. The results showed that, irrespective of surveillance type, all diseases under surveillance, except the rare diseases (Rinderpest and Rift Valley Fever) were reported by the surveillance agents. However, suspicions recorded following farmer calls are significantly more important than suspicions carried out during herd visits or meetings. Nevertheless, a considerable number of suspicions is recorded during awareness-raising meetings. Finally approximately 83% of the herd visits realised by the active surveillance stations showed negative results (no suspicion identified). Passive surveillance stimulated by awareness-raising meetings appears to be better adapted to Chads conditions and less expensive for the surveillance of existing diseases. However, for the rare diseases, other methods of specific active surveillance (such as for example sentinel herds) remain important to complete passive surveillance.

  19. The Peculiar Epidemiology of Dracunculiasis in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, Mark L.; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R.; Farrell, Corey; Toe, Fernand; Weiss, Adam; Withers, P. Craig; Jenks, M. Harley; Thiele, Elizabeth A.; Cotton, James A.; Hance, Zahra; Holroyd, Nancy; Cama, Vitaliano A.; Tahir, Mahamat Ali; Mounda, Tchonfienet

    2014-01-01

    Dracunculiasis was rediscovered in Chad in 2010 after an apparent absence of 10 years. In April 2012 active village-based surveillance was initiated to determine where, when, and how transmission of the disease was occurring, and to implement interventions to interrupt it. The current epidemiologic pattern of the disease in Chad is unlike that seen previously in Chad or other endemic countries, i.e., no clustering of cases by village or association with a common water source, the average number of worms per person was small, and a large number of dogs were found to be infected. Molecular sequencing suggests these infections were all caused by Dracunculus medinensis. It appears that the infection in dogs is serving as the major driving force sustaining transmission in Chad, that an aberrant life cycle involving a paratenic host common to people and dogs is occurring, and that the cases in humans are sporadic and incidental. PMID:24277785

  20. The peculiar epidemiology of dracunculiasis in Chad.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Farrell, Corey; Toe, Fernand; Weiss, Adam; Withers, P Craig; Jenks, M Harley; Thiele, Elizabeth A; Cotton, James A; Hance, Zahra; Holroyd, Nancy; Cama, Vitaliano A; Tahir, Mahamat Ali; Mounda, Tchonfienet

    2014-01-01

    Dracunculiasis was rediscovered in Chad in 2010 after an apparent absence of 10 years. In April 2012 active village-based surveillance was initiated to determine where, when, and how transmission of the disease was occurring, and to implement interventions to interrupt it. The current epidemiologic pattern of the disease in Chad is unlike that seen previously in Chad or other endemic countries, i.e., no clustering of cases by village or association with a common water source, the average number of worms per person was small, and a large number of dogs were found to be infected. Molecular sequencing suggests these infections were all caused by Dracunculus medinensis. It appears that the infection in dogs is serving as the major driving force sustaining transmission in Chad, that an aberrant life cycle involving a paratenic host common to people and dogs is occurring, and that the cases in humans are sporadic and incidental.

  1. Prioritization of prevention activities to combat the spread of HIV/AIDS in resource constrained settings: a cost-effectiveness analysis from Chad, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Guy; Wyss, Kaspar; N'Diékhor, Yemadji

    2003-01-01

    In Chad, as in most sub-Saharan Africa countries, HIV/AIDS poses a massive public health threat as well as an economic burden, with prevalence rates estimated at 9% of the adult population. In defining and readjusting the scope and content of the national HIV/AIDS control activities, policy makers sought to identify the most cost-effective options for HIV/AIDS control. The cost-effectiveness analysis reported in this paper uses a mixture of local and international information sources combined with appropriate assumptions to model the cost-effectiveness of feasible HIV prevention options in Chad, with estimates of the budget impact. The most cost-effective options at under US$100 per infection prevented were peer group education of sex workers and screening of blood donors to identify infected blood before transfusion. These options were followed by mass media and peer group education of high risk men and young people, at around US$500 per infection prevented. Anti-retroviral therapy for HIV infected pregnant women and voluntary counselling and testing were in the order of US$1000 per infection prevented. The paper concludes with recommendations for which activities should be given priority in the next phase of the national HIV/AIDS control programme in Chad.

  2. [Epidemiological situation of Chad].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-10-01

    Chad, the land located in Central Africa nowadays is one of the poorest countries in the world, what is connected with catastrophic demographic indicators and numerous cases of infectious diseases among local population as well as external and internal refugees. Epidemiologic profile is dominated by vector-, water-, food-borne, respiratory, and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental factors, such as an effect of high temperature, sand and dust storms also pose essential threat. This is related to location of majority of Chad territory in the area of Sahara and Sahel. The article presents information concerning current epidemiological hazards encountered by visitors in this country. This knowledge is essential for Polish health service and armed forces in the context of forming of EUFOR mission in Chad with participation of our soldiers.

  3. Instability in Chad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-10

    Council. See, for example, S/2008/212, S/2008/222, and S/2008/325. In October 2007, the government signed a peace agreement in Sirte , Libya with the...main rebel groups based in eastern Chad. However, the agreement has not been fully implemented, and the fighting has continued. The Sirte agreement

  4. Instability in Chad

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-06

    Security Council. See, for example, S/2008/212, S/2008/222, and S/2008/325. In October 2007, the government signed a peace agreement in Sirte ...Libya with the main rebel groups based in eastern Chad. However, the agreement has not been fully implemented, and the fighting has continued. The Sirte

  5. Chad: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Chad begins with an overview of the usage patterns of four languages. They include: French, designated the official language as a practical necessity; Chadian Arabic and Sara, important popularly spoken languages in their respective regions; and Toubou, a less prevalent language but one that is spoken by…

  6. The CHAD School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chad School, Newark, NJ.

    This report contains information about the CHAD school, an ungraded, community oriented school for children from ages 3 through 14. Academic offerings, enrollment policies, student background, and institutional characteristics are briefly described. Tables showing student interest in math and science fields and information about the school's…

  7. Central Asia Active Fault Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohadjer, Solmaz; Ehlers, Todd A.; Kakar, Najibullah

    2014-05-01

    The ongoing collision of the Indian subcontinent with Asia controls active tectonics and seismicity in Central Asia. This motion is accommodated by faults that have historically caused devastating earthquakes and continue to pose serious threats to the population at risk. Despite international and regional efforts to assess seismic hazards in Central Asia, little attention has been given to development of a comprehensive database for active faults in the region. To address this issue and to better understand the distribution and level of seismic hazard in Central Asia, we are developing a publically available database for active faults of Central Asia (including but not limited to Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, northern Pakistan and western China) using ArcGIS. The database is designed to allow users to store, map and query important fault parameters such as fault location, displacement history, rate of movement, and other data relevant to seismic hazard studies including fault trench locations, geochronology constraints, and seismic studies. Data sources integrated into the database include previously published maps and scientific investigations as well as strain rate measurements and historic and recent seismicity. In addition, high resolution Quickbird, Spot, and Aster imagery are used for selected features to locate and measure offset of landforms associated with Quaternary faulting. These features are individually digitized and linked to attribute tables that provide a description for each feature. Preliminary observations include inconsistent and sometimes inaccurate information for faults documented in different studies. For example, the Darvaz-Karakul fault which roughly defines the western margin of the Pamir, has been mapped with differences in location of up to 12 kilometers. The sense of motion for this fault ranges from unknown to thrust and strike-slip in three different studies despite documented left-lateral displacements of Holocene and late

  8. Dust storm in Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Lake Chad (lower left) and the surrounding wetlands are under increasing pressure from desertification. The encroachment of the Sahara occurs with creeping sand dunes and major dust storms, such as the one pictured in this MODIS image from October 28, 2001. The amount of open water (lighter green patch within the darker one) has declined markedly over the last decades and the invasion of dunes is creating a rippled effect through the wetlands that is all too clear in the high-resolution images. Growing population and increasing demands on the lake give it an uncertain future. The loss of such an important natural resource will have profound effects on the people who depend on the rapidly diminishing source of fresh water. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brundu, Giuseppe; Camarda, Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the flora of Chad has been compiled by the authors, based on literature, on-line data-bases, herbarium collections and land surveys (1998-2011). It counts 2,460 records, i.e. 2,288 species (including 128 autonyms), 83 subspecies, 81 varieties, 8 forms, while all the previous available information reported 1,600 species. They belong to 151 Families, with 48.7% of the taxa belonging to the 6 largest families, i.e. Poaceae (14.6%), Fabaceae (13.6%), Cyperaceae (7.0%), Asteraceae (6.2 %), Malvaceae (3.9%) and Rubiaceae (3.4%). A total number or 2,173 species (88.3%) are native to Chad, including 55 (2.2%) endemic species, while 274 (11.0%) are alien to Chad, and 13 (0.5%) are considered cryptogenic, i.e. of uncertain status. It represents a considerable update on previous knowledge on the alien flora of Chad that counted for 131 taxa (5.3%). There are 657 therophytes (26.7%), 546 phanerophytes (22.2%), 378 hemicryptophytes (15.4%), 256 chamaephytes (10.4%), 160 geophytes (6.5%), 107 helophytes (4.3%), 104 hydrophytes (4.2%). A total of 252 taxa (10.2) may have different life forms (e.g. terophytes or chamaephytes). PMID:23805051

  10. Seminar on the Associated Schools: N'Djamena, Chad, 4-6 May 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Recommendations of a seminar held in N'Djamena, Chad, from May 4-6, 1982, to support the activities of the Associated Schools project intended to promote international understanding and peace are described. (RM)

  11. Chad: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports on Mango 1, which is an exploration well started in September 1990 on a block adjacent to Lake Chad by Esso, Chevron and Shell was suspended after the coup in that nation's capital later in the year. The small Sedigi oil field, discovered in the 70s, will be developed with a pipeline to a 3,000-bpd refinery. Improved relations with Libya and future internal stability may further open the door to exploration.

  12. Progress toward poliomyelitis eradication--Chad, January 2011-August 2012.

    PubMed

    2012-10-26

    In 1988, the World Health Assembly launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). By January 2012, indigenous WPV transmission had been interrupted in all countries except Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria. However, importation of WPV caused outbreaks in 29 and reestablished transmission in four, previously polio-free African countries during 2003-2011. Transmission after WPV importation is considered reestablished when it continues for ≥ 12 months; in Chad, transmissions of WPV type 3 (WPV3) and WPV type 1 (WPV1) were reestablished. WPV3 was imported from Nigeria in 2007 and continued to circulate; the latest reported WPV3 case occurred on March 10, 2011. Transmission of WPV1 continued after a WPV1 case was imported from Nigeria in September 2010; the latest reported WPV1 occurred on June 14, 2012. This report updates previous reports and describes polio eradication activities and progress in Chad during January 2011-August 2012, as of October 2, 2012. Five WPV1 cases were reported during January-August 2012, compared with 111 WPV1 cases and three WPV3 cases reported during the same period in 2011. Five circulating type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) cases occurred during July-August 2012. Current progress suggests that Chad could interrupt reestablished WPV transmission in 2012, although limitations in surveillance hamper the ability to detect ongoing transmission. Furthermore, with ongoing endemic WPV transmission in Nigeria, Chad remains at risk for new WPV importations. Efforts to strengthen surveillance and enhance routine and campaign immunization performance will need to continue in Chad to ensure interruption of reestablished WPV transmission, limit circulation after any WPV importation, and interrupt transmission of cVDPV.

  13. Renewed transmission of dracunculiasis--Chad, 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-06-10

    Transmission of dracunculiasis (Guinea worm disease), a waterborne, parasitic disease targeted for eradication, was thought to have been interrupted in Chad since 2000, when the last case was reported. However, in 2010, 10 cases were confirmed by the Chad Ministry of Public Health (Ministère de la Santé Publique [MSP]) and the World Health Organization (WHO) during field investigations in which rumored cases were investigated and nearby villages were actively searched for additional cases. Because patients were not prevented from contaminating water sources, new cases were expected in 2011. During January-February 2011, MSP, WHO, and CDC conducted an investigation to gather additional information to guide prevention and response activities before the 2011 transmission season. Seven districts where cases had been confirmed or suspected in 2010 or where dracunculiasis was endemic during 1994-2000 were surveyed. The results of those surveys indicated that residents of 116 (55%) of 210 villages and 13 (87%) of 15 nomad camps consumed water from unsafe sources; 157 (75%) of 209 village key informants (KIs) and five (33%) of 15 nomad camp KIs knew about dracunculiasis. Thirty-one villages had confirmed or suspected cases during 2009-2011 and were classified as at-risk, requiring weekly active surveillance and urgent pre-positioning of materials for the 2011 transmission season. Nomadic populations are at risk for dracunculiasis because of unsafe water consumption and minimal knowledge of the disease. These populations also require targeted surveillance and prevention efforts (e.g., filter distribution, education, and case containment) to interrupt dracunculiasis transmission .

  14. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many endocrine disruptors are estrogenic and affect the normal estrogen signaling pathways. However, ERs can also serve as therapeutic targets for various medical conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and ER-positive breast cancer. Because of the decades-long interest in the safety and therapeutic utility of estrogenic chemicals, a large number of chemicals have been assayed for estrogenic activity, but these data exist in various sources and different formats that restrict the ability of regulatory and industry scientists to utilize them fully for assessing risk-benefit. To address this issue, we have developed an Estrogenic Activity Database (EADB; http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/ BioinformaticsTools/EstrogenicActivityDatabaseEADB/default. htm) and made it freely available to the public. EADB contains 18,114 estrogenic activity data points collected for 8212 chemicals tested in 1284 binding, reporter gene, cell proliferation, and in vivo assays in 11 different species. The chemicals cover a broad chemical structure space and the data span a wide range of activities. A set of tools allow users to access EADB and evaluate potential endocrine activity of

  15. Key decisions near for Chad pipeline proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, P.

    1997-05-12

    The World Bank is expected to play a key role in a proposed $3 billion development of oil fields in Chad and an export pipeline through Cameroon to the Atlantic Ocean. The project, which has been at least 4 years in the making, could see a breakthrough later this year. Esso Exploration and production Chad Inc. is operator for the consortium proposing the project. It holds a 40% interest, Ste. Shell Tchadienne de Recherches et d`Exploitation has 40%, and Elf Hydrocarbures Tchad has a 20% share it purchased from Chevron Corp. in 1993 (OGJ, February 1, 1993, p 25). The governments of Chad and Cameroon, which had approved a framework agreement for the pipeline in 1995, now are studying an assessment of the pipeline`s environmental impact. If they approve the plans, they are expected to apply to the World Bank for financing. The paper describes the Chad fields, the export pipeline, background information, and the Banks role.

  16. Usefulness of frequent supraventricular extrasystoles and a high CHADS2 score to predict first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shinya; Sagara, Koichi; Otsuka, Takayuki; Kano, Hiroto; Matsuno, Shunsuke; Takai, Hideaki; Uejima, Tokuhisa; Oikawa, Yuji; Koike, Akira; Nagashima, Kazuyuki; Kirigaya, Hajime; Yajima, Junji; Tanabe, Hiroaki; Sawada, Hitoshi; Aizawa, Tadanori; Yamashita, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Frequent supraventricular extrasystoles (SVEs) are associated with the subsequent first-time appearance of atrial fibrillation (AF) and ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined role of SVEs and an AF-related risk score for ischemic stroke, the CHADS2 score, on the occurrence of new AF in patients in sinus rhythm. The Shinken Database 2004-2010 lists 3,263 patients who underwent 24-hour Holter monitoring. A total of 2,589 patients were analyzed, after excluding 674 patients previously diagnosed with AF. Frequent SVEs were defined as ≥102 beats/day (the top quartile) and the presence of a clinical background for a CHADS2 score ≥2 points as a high CHADS2 score. During the mean follow-up period of 571.4 ± 606.4 days, new AF occurred in 38 patients (9.4 per 1,000 patient-years). The incidence of new AF was 2.7 and 37.7 per 1,000 patient-years for patients with nonfrequent SVEs (<102 beats/day) and low CHADS2 scores and those with frequent SVEs and high CHADS2 scores, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that the hazard ratio for frequent SVEs and a high CHADS2 score compared with nonfrequent SVEs and a low CHADS2 score was 9.49 (95% confidence interval 3.20 to 28.15, p <0.001), even after adjustment for gender, age, medications, and echocardiographic parameters. In conclusion, frequent SVEs and a high CHADS2 score independently and synergistically predict the first-time appearance of AF in patients in sinus rhythm, indicating an approximately 10-fold higher risk. Patients meeting these criteria should have more aggressive early intervention for preventing AF.

  17. Continuing effectiveness of serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Chad, 2013.

    PubMed

    Gamougam, Kadidja; Daugla, Doumagoum M; Toralta, Jacques; Ngadoua, Cyriaque; Fermon, Florence; Page, Anne-Laure; Djingarey, Mamoudou H; Caugant, Dominique A; Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline L; Stuart, James M; Greenwood, Brian M

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, vaccination with a serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine was implemented in 3 of 23 regions in Chad. Cases of meningitis declined dramatically in vaccinated areas, but an epidemic continued in the rest of Chad. In 2012, the remaining Chad population was vaccinated, and the epidemic was halted.

  18. EADB: an estrogenic activity database for assessing potential endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Xu, Lei; Fang, Hong; Richard, Ann M; Bray, Jeffrey D; Judson, Richard S; Zhou, Guangxu; Colatsky, Thomas J; Aungst, Jason L; Teng, Christina; Harris, Steve C; Ge, Weigong; Dai, Susie Y; Su, Zhenqiang; Jacobs, Abigail C; Harrouk, Wafa; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2013-10-01

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body's endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many endocrine disruptors are estrogenic and affect the normal estrogen signaling pathways. However, ERs can also serve as therapeutic targets for various medical conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and ER-positive breast cancer. Because of the decades-long interest in the safety and therapeutic utility of estrogenic chemicals, a large number of chemicals have been assayed for estrogenic activity, but these data exist in various sources and different formats that restrict the ability of regulatory and industry scientists to utilize them fully for assessing risk-benefit. To address this issue, we have developed an Estrogenic Activity Database (EADB; http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/BioinformaticsTools/EstrogenicActivityDatabaseEADB/default.htm) and made it freely available to the public. EADB contains 18,114 estrogenic activity data points collected for 8212 chemicals tested in 1284 binding, reporter gene, cell proliferation, and in vivo assays in 11 different species. The chemicals cover a broad chemical structure space and the data span a wide range of activities. A set of tools allow users to access EADB and evaluate potential endocrine activity of chemicals. As a case study, a classification model was developed using EADB for predicting ER binding of chemicals.

  19. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ACTIVITY DATA FOR USE IN MODELING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity data are a critical part of exposure models being developed by the US EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL). An analysis of human activity data within NERL's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) was performed in two areas relevant to exposure ...

  20. Area Handbook Series: Chad, A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    manta, a book by the pseudonymous French officer, "Colonel Spartacus ," provides detail on the political and military aspects of French involvement in...York: Africana, 1986. "Colonel Spartacus " (pseud.). Opiration manta: Tchad, 1983-84. Paris: Plon, 1985. Cowell, Alan. "The Bitter Life of Chad," New

  1. Overview of the LDEF MSIG databasing activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the accompanying experiments were composed of and contained a wide variety of materials, representing the largest collection of materials flown in low earth orbit (LEO) and retrieved for ground-based analysis to date. The results and implications of the mechanical, thermal, optical, and electrical data from these materials are the foundation on which future LEO spacecraft and missions will be built. The LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG) has been charged with establishing and developing databases to document these materials and their performance to assure not only that the data are archived for future generations but also that the data are available to the spacecraft user community in an easily accessed, user-friendly form. This paper gives an overview of the current LDEF Materials Databases, their capabilities, and availability. An overview of the philosophy and format of a developing handbook on LEO effects on materials is also described.

  2. The Need for a Harmonized Repository for Next-Generation Human Activity Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-tiered human time-activity-location data can inform many efforts to describe human exposures to air pollutants and other chemicals on a range of temporal and spatial scales. In the last decade, EPA's Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) has served as a harmonized rep...

  3. DBAASP: database of antimicrobial activity and structure of peptides.

    PubMed

    Gogoladze, Giorgi; Grigolava, Maia; Vishnepolsky, Boris; Chubinidze, Mindia; Duroux, Patrice; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Pirtskhalava, Malak

    2014-08-01

    The Database of Antimicrobial Activity and Structure of Peptides (DBAASP) is a manually curated database for those peptides for which antimicrobial activity against particular targets has been evaluated experimentally. The database is a depository of complete information on: the chemical structure of peptides; target species; target object of cell; peptide antimicrobial/haemolytic/cytotoxic activities; and experimental conditions at which activities were estimated. The DBAASP search page allows the user to search peptides according to their structural characteristics, complexity type (monomer, dimer and two-peptide), source, synthesis type (ribosomal, nonribosomal and synthetic) and target species. The database prediction algorithm provides a tool for rational design of new antimicrobial peptides. DBAASP is accessible at http://www.biomedicine.org.ge/dbaasp/.

  4. A climate trend analysis of Chad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Adoum, Alkhalil; Eilerts, Gary; White, Libby

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), identifies significant decreases in rainfall and increases in air temperature across Chad, especially in the eastern part of the country. These analyses are based on quality-controlled station observations. Conclusions:* Summer rains have decreased in eastern Chad during the past 20 years. * Temperatures have increased by 0.8 °Celsius since 1975, amplifying the effect of droughts. * Crop yields are very low and stagnant. * The amount of farmland per person is low, and decliningrapidly.* Population growth combined with stagnating yieldscould lead to a 30 percent reduction in per capita cereal production by 2025.* In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, indicating some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood.

  5. Interdisciplinary Database Activities for Fifth Graders at Tomas Rivera.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennis, Demetria

    1997-01-01

    Describes the practical application of interdisciplinary activities in a fifth-grade classroom. Twenty-eight students participated in a two-month unit which integrated database activities with mathematics, art, English, U.S. history, and public speaking. Illustrates that student leaders were able to understand and construct search strategies,…

  6. Database of Active Structures From the Indo-Asian Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styron, Richard; Taylor, Michael; Okoronkwo, Kelechi

    2010-05-01

    The ongoing collision of India and Asia has produced a vast system of folds and faults, many of which are active today, as evidenced by such recent deadly earthquakes as the 12 May 2008 Sichuan quake [Parsons et al., 2008]. Understanding these events requires knowledge of the region’s geologic structures. Taylor and Yin [2009] have assembled HimaTibetMap-1.0, a multiformat, comprehensive database of first-order active structures in central Asia that may aid researchers, educators, and students in their studies of Indo-Asian tectonics. For example, this database may be used by seismologists, geodesists, and modelers to identify structures in particular locations that contribute to active deformation, or it may be used by teachers to illustrate concepts such as continental collision or distributed deformation of continents.

  7. An authoritative global database for active submarine hydrothermal vent fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Stace E.; Baker, Edward T.; German, Christopher R.; Maffei, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    The InterRidge Vents Database is available online as the authoritative reference for locations of active submarine hydrothermal vent fields. Here we describe the revision of the database to an open source content management system and conduct a meta-analysis of the global distribution of known active vent fields. The number of known active vent fields has almost doubled in the past decade (521 as of year 2009), with about half visually confirmed and others inferred active from physical and chemical clues. Although previously known mainly from mid-ocean ridges (MORs), active vent fields at MORs now comprise only half of the total known, with about a quarter each now known at volcanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers. Discoveries in arc and back-arc settings resulted in an increase in known vent fields within exclusive economic zones, consequently reducing the proportion known in high seas to one third. The increase in known vent fields reflects a number of factors, including increased national and commercial interests in seafloor hydrothermal deposits as mineral resources. The purpose of the database now extends beyond academic research and education and into marine policy and management, with at least 18% of known vent fields in areas granted or pending applications for mineral prospecting and 8% in marine protected areas.

  8. Chad Basin: Paleoenvironments of the Sahara since the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Roquin, Claude; Sepulchre, Pierre; Moussa, Abderamane; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-08-01

    Since the mid 1990s, the Mission paléoanthropologique francotchadienne (MPFT) conducts yearly paleontological field investigations of the Miocene-Pliocene of the Chad Basin. This article synthesizes some of the results of the MPFT, with focus on the Chad Basin development during the Neogene. We propose an overview of the depositional paleoenvironments of this part of Africa at different scales of time and space, based on a multidisciplinary approach (sedimentary geology, geomorphology, geophysic, numerical simulations and geochronology). The Miocene-Pliocene paleoenvironments are examined through the sedimentary archives of the early hominids levels and the Holocene Lake Mega-Chad episode illustrates the last major paleoenvironmental change in this area. The sedimentary record of the Chad Basin since the Late Miocene can be schematized as the result of recurrent interactions from lake to desert environments.

  9. United States Assistance to CHAD: Qadhafi-Bashing?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-18

    Chad’s recent history, refer to Alex Rondos, ,Why Chad?" C$1S Africa No~s, (Washington: Center for Strategic and Intez-n. ational Studies, Number 18...For a more liberal view of CIA covert suppor~ to "freedom fighters," refer to Jay Peterzell, Reaqan’s Secret Wars, (Washington: The Center for...Washington: Center for Strategic and International Studies, Number 75, 6 August 1987), p. 4. 22 John Vinocur, "France Replaces Foreign Minister

  10. Climate Change in Africa: Impacts and Effects on the Inhabitants of the Lake Chad Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.; Tahir, S. M.; Olisa, O.

    2009-05-01

    The Department of Energy and Climate Change defined climate as the average weather experienced over a long period. This includes temperature, wind and rainfall patterns. The climate of the Earth is not static, and has changed many times in response to a variety of natural causes. Due to human activities in emmiting green house gases has resulted the Earth to get warmed by 0.74°C over the last hundred years. Around 0.4°C of this warming has occurred since the 1970s. Climate is now one of the major phenomenon threatening lives and humanity in general since the beginning of industrial revolution. Climate exerts a profound influence on the lives of poor populations in the Lake Chad region of Africa who depend on fishing and crop cultivation for livelihood and sustenance, who are unprotected against climate-related diseases, who lacked secure access to water and food and who are vulnerable to hydro meteorological hazard. The effects of climate change on the study area are many and include diminishing resources and conflicts over the available limited water resources. The Lake Chad region is a fragile area with high climate variability and extremes of weather. As this inland water is used for domestic and agricultural purposes, salt mining, as well as transportation by Nigerians, Nigeriens, Chadian and Cameroonians, it is an area of trans-boundary water conflicts. This paper examines the part played by climate change in the decline of fishery resources and livelihood activities in the Lake Chad region. Data from field studies, structured interview and secondary sources show that fish catches and livelihood activities have declined tremendously in recent times due to several factors including overexploitation and increasing demands on the aquatic resources. Findings from the study show that droughty periods have resulted in the reduction of open lake water surface from about 25,000 km2 in 1973 to less than 2,000 km2 in the 1990s. This has led to the diminishing aquatic

  11. The precipitation response to the desiccation of Lake Chad

    SciTech Connect

    Lauwaet D.; VanWeverberg K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M., Weverberg, K. V., Ridderb, K. D., and Goyens, C.

    2012-04-01

    Located in the semi-arid African Sahel, Lake Chad has shrunk from a surface area of 25000 km2 in 1960 to about 1350 km2 due to a series of droughts and anthropogenic influences. The disappearance of such a large open-water body can be expected to have a noticeable effect on the meteorology in the surroundings of the lake. The impact could extend even further to the west as westward propagating convective systems pass Lake Chad in the rainfall season. This study examines the sensitivity of the regional hydrology and convective processes to the desiccation of the lake using a regional atmospheric model. Three Lake Chad scenarios are applied reflecting the situation in 1960, the current situation and a potential future scenario in which the lake and the surrounding wetlands have disappeared. The model simulations span the months July-September in 2006, which includes the rainfall season in the Lake Chad area. Total precipitation amounts and the components of the hydrological cycle are found to be hardly affected by the existence of the lake. A filled Lake Chad does, however, increase the precipitation at the east side of the lake. The model results indicate that the boundary layer moisture and temperature are significantly altered downwind of the lake. By investigating a mesoscale convective system (MCS) case, this is found to affect the development and progress of the system. At first, the MCS is intensified by the more unstable boundary layer air but the persistence of the system is altered as the cold pool propagation becomes less effective. The proposed mechanism is able to explain the differences in the rainfall patterns nearby Lake Chad between the scenarios. This highlights the local sensitivity to the desiccation of Lake Chad whereas the large-scale atmospheric processes are not affected.

  12. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing Potential Endocrine Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many ...

  13. IUEAGN: A database of ultraviolet spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, G.; Edelson, R.; Shull, J. M.; Saken, J.

    1993-01-01

    In 13 years of operation, IUE has gathered approximately 5000 spectra of almost 600 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). In order to undertake AGN studies which require large amounts of data, we are consistently reducing this entire archive and creating a homogeneous, easy-to-use database. First, the spectra are extracted using the Optimal extraction algorithm. Continuum fluxes are then measured across predefined bands, and line fluxes are measured with a multi-component fit. These results, along with source information such as redshifts and positions, are placed in the IUEAGN relational database. Analysis algorithms, statistical tests, and plotting packages run within the structure, and this flexible database can accommodate future data when they are released. This archival approach has already been used to survey line and continuum variability in six bright Seyfert 1s and rapid continuum variability in 14 blazars. Among the results that could only be obtained using a large archival study is evidence that blazars show a positive correlation between degree of variability and apparent luminosity, while Seyfert 1s show an anti-correlation. This suggests that beaming dominates the ultraviolet properties for blazars, while thermal emission from an accretion disk dominates for Seyfert 1s. Our future plans include a survey of line ratios in Seyfert 1s, to be fitted with photoionization models to test the models and determine the range of temperatures, densities and ionization parameters. We will also include data from IRAS, Einstein, EXOSAT, and ground-based telescopes to measure multi-wavelength correlations and broadband spectral energy distributions.

  14. Application of CHAD hydrodynamics to shock-wave problems

    SciTech Connect

    Trease, H.E.; O`Rourke, P.J.; Sahota, M.S.

    1997-12-31

    CHAD is the latest in a sequence of continually evolving computer codes written to effectively utilize massively parallel computer architectures and the latest grid generators for unstructured meshes. Its applications range from automotive design issues such as in-cylinder and manifold flows of internal combustion engines, vehicle aerodynamics, underhood cooling and passenger compartment heating, ventilation, and air conditioning to shock hydrodynamics and materials modeling. CHAD solves the full unsteady Navier-Stoke equations with the k-epsilon turbulence model in three space dimensions. The code has four major features that distinguish it from the earlier KIVA code, also developed at Los Alamos. First, it is based on a node-centered, finite-volume method in which, like finite element methods, all fluid variables are located at computational nodes. The computational mesh efficiently and accurately handles all element shapes ranging from tetrahedra to hexahedra. Second, it is written in standard Fortran 90 and relies on automatic domain decomposition and a universal communication library written in standard C and MPI for unstructured grids to effectively exploit distributed-memory parallel architectures. Thus the code is fully portable to a variety of computing platforms such as uniprocessor workstations, symmetric multiprocessors, clusters of workstations, and massively parallel platforms. Third, CHAD utilizes a variable explicit/implicit upwind method for convection that improves computational efficiency in flows that have large velocity Courant number variations due to velocity of mesh size variations. Fourth, CHAD is designed to also simulate shock hydrodynamics involving multimaterial anisotropic behavior under high shear. The authors will discuss CHAD capabilities and show several sample calculations showing the strengths and weaknesses of CHAD.

  15. Spatial analysis from remotely sensed observations of Congo basin of East African high Land to drain water using gravity for sustainable management of low laying Chad basin of Central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modu, B.; Herbert, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Chad basin which covers an area of about 2.4 million kilometer square is one of the largest drainage basins in Africa in the centre of Lake Chad .This basin was formed as a result of rifting and drifting episode, as such it has no outlet to the oceans or seas. It contains large area of desert from the north to the west. The basin covers in part seven countries such as Chad, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroun, Niger, Sudan and Algeria. It is named Chad basin because 43.9% falls in Chad republic. Since its formation, the basin continues to experienced water shortage due to the activities of Dams combination, increase in irrigations and general reduction in rainfall. Chad basin needs an external water source for it to be function at sustainable level, hence needs for exploitation of higher east African river basin called Congo basin; which covers an area of 3.7 million square km lies in an astride the equator in west-central Africa-world second largest river basin after Amazon. The Congo River almost pans around republic of Congo, the democratic republic of Congo, the Central African Republic, western Zambia, northern Angola, part of Cameroun, and Tanzania. The remotely sensed imagery analysis and observation revealed that Congo basin is on the elevation of 275 to 460 meters and the Chad basin is on elevation of 240 meters. This implies that water can be drained from Congo basin via headrace down to the Chad basin for the water sustainability.

  16. Dr. Chad E. Finn, 2013 Wilder Medal Recipient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dr. Chad Finn took over the leadership of the USDA-ARS small fruit breeding program in Corvallis, Oregon in 1993 after three years working as an extension horticulturist in the Department of Horticulture at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Since taking over this program he has developed what is...

  17. Basic Chad Arabic: The Pre-Speech Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Absi, Samir Abu; Sinaud, Andre

    The first of a three-volume course in Chad Arabic, principally developed for those seeking to acquire proficiency in speaking and comprehension, emphasizes the passive recognition of linguistic features of the target language. It is suggested for use in intensive training programs of no longer than three weeks' duration. This phase of the course…

  18. Active in-database processing to support ambient assisted living systems.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Wagner O; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-08-12

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  19. Teaching Tip: Active Learning via a Sample Database: The Case of Microsoft's Adventure Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitri, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the use and benefits of Microsoft's Adventure Works (AW) database to teach advanced database skills in a hands-on, realistic environment. Database management and querying skills are a key element of a robust information systems curriculum, and active learning is an important way to develop these skills. To facilitate active…

  20. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Wagner O.; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare. PMID:25120164

  1. Is Library Database Searching a Language Learning Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordonaro, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how non-native speakers of English think of words to enter into library databases when they begin the process of searching for information in English. At issue is whether or not language learning takes place when these students use library databases. Language learning in this study refers to the use of strategies employed by…

  2. Treating Cattle to Protect People? Impact of Footbath Insecticide Treatment on Tsetse Density in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Ndeledje, Noël; Bouyer, Jérémy; Stachurski, Frédéric; Grimaud, Patrice; Belem, Adrien Marie Gaston; Molélé Mbaïndingatoloum, Fidèle; Bengaly, Zakaria; Oumar Alfaroukh, Idriss; Cecchi, Guiliano; Lancelot, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    Background In Chad, several species of tsetse flies (Genus: Glossina) transmit African animal trypanosomoses (AAT), which represents a major obstacle to cattle rearing, and sleeping sickness, which impacts public health. After the failure of past interventions to eradicate tsetse, the government of Chad is now looking for other approaches that integrate cost-effective intervention techniques, which can be applied by the stake holders to control tsetse-transmitted trypanosomoses in a sustainable manner. The present study thus attempted to assess the efficacy of restricted application of insecticides to cattle leg extremities using footbaths for controlling Glossina m. submorsitans, G. tachinoides and G. f. fuscipes in southern Chad. Methodology/Principal Findings Two sites were included, one close to the historical human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) focus of Moundou and the other to the active foci of Bodo and Moissala. At both sites, a treated and an untreated herd were compared. In the treatment sites, cattle were treated on a regular basis using a formulation of deltamethrin 0.005% (67 to 98 cattle were treated in one of the sites and 88 to 102 in the other one). For each herd, tsetse densities were monthly monitored using 7 biconical traps set along the river and beside the cattle pen from February to December 2009. The impact of footbath treatment on tsetse populations was strong (p < 10-3) with a reduction of 80% in total tsetse catches by the end of the 6-month footbath treatment. Conclusions/Significance The impact of footbath treatment as a vector control tool within an integrated strategy to manage AAT and HAT is discussed in the framework of the “One Health” concept. Like other techniques based on the treatment of cattle, this technology should be used under controlled conditions, in order to avoid the development of insecticide and acaricide resistance in tsetse and tick populations, respectively. PMID:23799148

  3. Megalake Chad impact on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, C.; Jost, A.; Ramstein, G.; Sepulchre, P.; Krinner, G.; Schuster, M.

    2013-07-01

    Given the growing evidence for megalakes in the geological record, assessing their impact on climate and vegetation is important for the validation of palaeoclimate simulations and therefore the accuracy of model-data comparison in lacustrine environments. Megalake Chad (MLC) occurrences are documented not only for the mid-Holocene but also for the Mio-Pliocene (Schuster et al., 2009). At this time, the surface covered by water would have reached up to ~350 000 km2 (Ghienne et al., 2002; Schuster et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2006), making it an important evaporation source, possibly modifying climate and vegetation in the Chad Basin. We investigated the impact of such a giant continental water area in two different climatic backgrounds within the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (PMIP3): the late Pliocene (3.3 to 3 Ma, i.e. the mid-Piacenzian warm period) and the mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP). In all simulations including MLC, precipitation is drastically reduced above the lake surface because deep convection is inhibited by overlying colder air. Meanwhile, convective activity is enhanced around MLC because of the wind increase generated by the flat surface of the megalake, transporting colder and moister air towards the eastern shore of the lake. The effect of MLC on precipitation and temperature is not sufficient to widely impact vegetation patterns. Nevertheless, tropical savanna is present in the Chad Basin in all climatic configurations, even without MLC presence, showing that the climate itself is the driver of favourable environments for sustainable hominid habitats.

  4. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    PubMed

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  5. Bypassing health providers: the quest for better price and quality of health care in Chad.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Bernard; Wane, Waly

    2011-08-01

    This paper investigates individuals' bypassing behavior in the health sector in Chad and the determinants of individuals' facility choice. We introduce a new way for measuring bypassing which uses the patients' own knowledge of alternative health providers available to them, instead of assuming perfect information as previously done. We analyze how objective and perceived health care quality and prices impact patients' bypassing decisions. The analysis uses data from a health sector survey carried out in 2004 covering 281 primary health care centers and 1801 patients. We observe that income inequalities translate into health service inequalities. We find evidence of two distinct types of bypassing activities in Chad: (1) patients from low-income households bypass high quality facilities they cannot afford and go to low-quality facilities, and (2) rich individuals bypass low-quality facilities and aim for more expensive facilities which also offer a higher quality of care. These significant differences in patients' facility choices are observed across income groups as well as between rural and urban areas.

  6. Antiherpetic efficacy of aqueous extracts of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira fusiformis from Chad.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, M; Amara, A; Aboul-Enein, A; Helmi, S; Ballot, A; Schnitzler, P

    2013-05-01

    Natural substances offer interesting pharmacological perspectives for antiviral drug development with regard to broad spectrum antiviral properties and novel modes of action. Drugs currently used to treat cutaneous or genital herpetic infections are effective in limiting disease, but the emergence of drug-resistant viruses in immunocompromised individuals can be problematic. A nontoxic cyanobacterium Arthrospira strain from Chad has been characterized by sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer region of the phycocyanin gene. This cyanobacterium was identified as Arthrospira fusiformis by phylogenetic tree analysis. The antiherpetic activity of crude aqueous extracts from the Chad A. fusiformis isolate was determined. Antiviral efficacy against herpes simplex virus of cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract was assessed in plaque reduction assays and their mode of antiherpetic action was analysed. In virus suspension assays, cold water extract, hot water extract and phosphate buffer extract inhibited virus infectivity by 54.9%, 64.6%, and 99.8%, respectively, in a dose-dependent manner. The mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of cyanobacterial extracts separately at different time periods during the viral infection cycle. Extracts of A. fusiformis strain clearly inhibited herpesvirus multiplication before and during virus infection of host cells. The phosphate buffer extract of the A. fusiformis strain affected free herpes simplex virus prior to infection of host cells and inhibited intracellular viral replication. It is concluded, that Arthrospira compounds warrant further investigation to examine their potential role in the treatment of herpetic infections.

  7. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in rural areas in Chad].

    PubMed

    Dionadji, M; Boy, B; Mouanodji, M; Batakao, G

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study conducted from January 10 to 28, 2004, was to determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a sedentary rural population over the age of 18 years old in Chad. The study population included a total of 412 persons, i.e., 222 men (54%) and 190 women (46%), with a mean age of 35 years (range, 18 to 90 years). Hypertension and obesity were observed in 16.4% and 8.7% of subjects respectively. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 7.39%. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 5.44% overall, 9% in women and 2.77% in men (p < 0.0001). This study indicated a high prevelence of diabetes mellitus and female IGF in rural areas of Chad. Further study is needed to evaluate risk factors.

  8. Conflict for Resources: Water in the Lake Chad Basin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    saline and unfit for human use.77 Of the remaining three percent of fresh water, eighty seven percent is located in polar ice. The thirteen percent of...correspondently moved the Sahel south. The change of the ecosystem affected the long term rainfalls which the Lake Chad system depends upon. As a result of the...desertification of the Sahel region causing population migration to the region, competition for water will grow. The competition for water increases

  9. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Chad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Chad Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of the...(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Chad and I hereby waive such restriction. This determination...

  10. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Chad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Chad Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the...(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Chad and I hereby waive this restriction. This determination...

  11. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Chad

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Chad Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of the...(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to Chad and I...

  12. Somma-Vesuvius' activity: a mineral chemistry database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Daniele; Cannatelli, Claudia; Esposito, Rosario; Lima, Annamaria; Petrosino, Paola; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-08-01

    Clinopyroxene and olivine are ubiquitous phases in Somma-Vesuvius (SV) volcanics and for the first time they were systematically studied in several products younger than 40 ka. In this manuscript chemical compositions (major, trace and rare earth elements) of a large set of olivine and clinopyroxene crystals from selected rock samples are presented and discussed. Fourteen pumice samples from Plinian pyroclastic deposits as well as three scoriae and eight lava samples from inter-Plinian deposits were collected. A representative number of olivine and clinopyroxene crystals (n ~ 50) were selected for each sample and analysed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, resulting in a large database, which is now available to the scientific community. All studied eruptive products contain olivine and clinopyroxene crystals spanning a wide range of compositions. Olivines show Fo content varying from 91 to 68, while clinopyroxenes display Mg# ranging from 93 to 71. In samples younger than A.D. 79, the more evolved (Mg#82-72) clinopyroxene crystals show clear Ca enrichment (~23.5-24.5 wt% CaO) with respect to those from older samples (before-A.D.79, ~23-21 wt% CaO). The results corroborate disequilibrium between olivine, clinopyroxene and the hosting melt, and an increasing role of carbonate assimilation in SV magma evolution in the last 2 ka. The database here produced is thought as a share product that makes available mineral data and can be used for further studies by researchers to investigate geochemical evolution of the SV system.

  13. Somma-Vesuvius' activity: a mineral chemistry database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redi, Daniele; Cannatelli, Claudia; Esposito, Rosario; Lima, Annamaria; Petrosino, Paola; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-02-01

    Clinopyroxene and olivine are ubiquitous phases in Somma-Vesuvius (SV) volcanics and for the first time they were systematically studied in several products younger than 40 ka. In this manuscript chemical compositions (major, trace and rare earth elements) of a large set of olivine and clinopyroxene crystals from selected rock samples are presented and discussed. Fourteen pumice samples from Plinian pyroclastic deposits as well as three scoriae and eight lava samples from inter-Plinian deposits were collected. A representative number of olivine and clinopyroxene crystals (n 50) were selected for each sample and analysed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer, resulting in a large database, which is now available to the scientific community. All studied eruptive products contain olivine and clinopyroxene crystals spanning a wide range of compositions. Olivines show Fo content varying from 91 to 68, while clinopyroxenes display Mg# ranging from 93 to 71. In samples younger than A.D. 79, the more evolved (Mg#82-72) clinopyroxene crystals show clear Ca enrichment ( 23.5-24.5 wt% CaO) with respect to those from older samples (before-A.D.79, 23-21 wt% CaO). The results corroborate disequilibrium between olivine, clinopyroxene and the hosting melt, and an increasing role of carbonate assimilation in SV magma evolution in the last 2 ka. The database here produced is thought as a share product that makes available mineral data and can be used for further studies by researchers to investigate geochemical evolution of the SV system.

  14. [Feasibility of cervical smear in HIV-positive women living in Chad].

    PubMed

    Mortier, E; Doudéadoum, N; Némian, F; Gaulier, A; Kemian, M

    2016-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancerrelated death in Sub-Saharan African women. HIV-infected women are at increased risk for cervical intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. WHO guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are regularly actualized. There are no data on cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in Chad. Between August 2013 and May 2015, screening for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions was proposed to HIV-infected women living in Moundou (Chad). Cytology examination was performed after with Papanicolaou coloration. Three hundred and eleven HIV-seropositive women accepted the screening without refusal. Mean age of the patients was 38 years (95% Confidence Interval: 37.7-39.9). The women declared a mean of 4.1 pregnancies (range: 0-12). The patients had been followed-up for their seropositivity for 8 years (range: 0-25). All were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Of the patients whose results were known (N = 231), 98% had a CD4 lymphocyte nadir count less than 350/mm(3). Cytological results were as follows: normal smear (N = 59; 19%), inflammatory or hemorrhagic smear (N = 139; 44%), low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 58; 19%), high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (N = 28; 9%), epidermoid carcinoma (N = 13; 4%), and uninterpretable smear (N = 14; 5%). The inflammatory lesions were due to cervicitis (N = 54), vaginosis (N = 22), and trichomonas infection (N = 3). The patients' age, CD4 lymphocyte nadir count, and CD4 count at the time of the cervical smear were not different according to the cytological results. Only five patients had a cone biopsy. Three patients deceased during the study of whom two from a gynaecological cancer diagnosed too late. The screening of dysplasia and cervical cancer in HIV-seropositive women is possible in Chad. In our study, 13% of the women had highgrade dysplasia or carcinoma needing curative care. We also showed that simple

  15. Malaria vectors and transmission dynamics in Goulmoun, a rural city in south-western Chad

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Knowledge of some baseline entomological data such as Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR) is crucially needed to assess the epidemiological impact of malaria control activities directed either against parasites or vectors. In Chad, most published surveys date back to the 1960's. In this study, anopheline species composition and their relation to malaria transmission were investigated in a dry Sudanian savannas area of Chad. Methods A 12-month longitudinal survey was conducted in the irrigated rice-fields area of Goulmoun in south western Chad. Human landing catches were performed each month from July 2006 to June 2007 in three compounds (indoors and outdoors) and pyrethrum spray collections were conducted in July, August and October 2006 in 10 randomly selected rooms. Mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex and to the An. funestus group were identified by molecular diagnostic tools. Plasmodium falciparum infection and blood meal sources were detected by ELISA. Results Nine anopheline species were collected by the two sampling methods. The most aggressive species were An. arabiensis (51 bites/human/night), An. pharoensis (12.5 b/h/n), An. funestus (1.5 b/h/n) and An. ziemanni (1.3 b/h/n). The circumsporozoite protein rate was 1.4% for An. arabiensis, 1.4% for An. funestus, 0.8% for An. pharoensis and 0.5% for An. ziemanni. Malaria transmission is seasonal, lasting from April to December. However, more than 80% of the total EIR was concentrated in the period from August to October. The overall annual EIR was estimated at 311 bites of infected anophelines/human/year, contributed mostly by An. arabiensis (84.5%) and An. pharoensis (12.2%). Anopheles funestus and An. ziemanni played a minor role. Parasite inoculation occurred mostly after 22:00 hours but around 20% of bites of infected anophelines were distributed earlier in the evening. Conclusion The present study revealed the implication of An. pharoensis in malaria transmission in the

  16. African monsoon variations and persistence of the Megalake Chad during the late Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, Camille; Ramstein, Gilles; Jost, Anne; Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Braconnot, Pascale

    2013-04-01

    Megalake Chad (MLC) occurrences are widely documented for the mid-Holocene period but also for the Mio-Pliocene (Schuster et al., 2009). From 7 to 3 Ma, analysis of sedimentary deposits of the Djurab desert region show desertic to full-lacustrine facies, suggesting an alternance of dry to wet climates (Schuster, 2002, Schuster et al., 2009), lacustrine conditions being associated to fauna dispersal and early hominid presence (e.g. Brunet et al., 1995, 2002). Some studies (e.g. Braconnot and Marti, 2003) suggest a control of precession on monsoon. Using late Pliocene climate simulations and different orbital configurations, can we constrain variations of the Megalake and reach the water volume of 350 000 km² proposed by several authors (Ghienne et al., 2002; Leblanc et al., 2006)? Can we propose a timing for the MLC occurrences? First, in order to better characterize the precession role on Megalake Chad occurrences during the late Pliocene, we use the IPSLCM5A coupled ocean atmosphere climate model forced with four different orbital configurations and mid-Pliocene boundary conditions. The four orbital configurations, all around 3 Ma, correspond to maximum and minimum insolations at 30°N at summer solstice or autumn equinox. We find important increases of precipitation in North Africa, controlled by insolation maxima at 30°N at summer solstice and autumn equinox, i.e. related to an angular precession between 270° and 10°. When used to force a surface routing model (HYDRA, Coe, 2000), these precipitation increases lead to MLC episodes, suggesting the MLC could be sustained during at least 5 kyr of a precession cycle. However, this method does not account for the lake feedback on climate. Indeed, during wet phases, the MLC becomes an important evaporation source, modifying the climate of the Chad basin. To investigate this aspect, we use the LMDZ4 atmospheric model including an open water surface module (Krinner, 2003). We find that deep convection is suppressed

  17. KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity Database for retrieving the relationships between metabolites and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yukiko; Afendi, Farit Mochamad; Parvin, Aziza Kawsar; Ono, Naoaki; Tanaka, Ken; Hirai Morita, Aki; Sato, Tetsuo; Sugiura, Tadao; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2014-01-01

    Databases (DBs) are required by various omics fields because the volume of molecular biology data is increasing rapidly. In this study, we provide instructions for users and describe the current status of our metabolite activity DB. To facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between the metabolites of organisms and the chemical-level contribution of metabolites to human health, we constructed a metabolite activity DB known as the KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB. It comprises 9,584 triplet relationships (metabolite-biological activity-target species), including 2,356 metabolites, 140 activity categories, 2,963 specific descriptions of biological activities and 778 target species. Approximately 46% of the activities described in the DB are related to chemical ecology, most of which are attributed to antimicrobial agents and plant growth regulators. The majority of the metabolites with antimicrobial activities are flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. The metabolites with plant growth regulatory effects include plant hormones. Over half of the DB contents are related to human health care and medicine. The five largest groups are toxins, anticancer agents, nervous system agents, cardiovascular agents and non-therapeutic agents, such as flavors and fragrances. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB is integrated within the KNApSAcK Family DBs to facilitate further systematized research in various omics fields, especially metabolomics, nutrigenomics and foodomics. The KNApSAcK Metabolite Activity DB could also be utilized for developing novel drugs and materials, as well as for identifying viable drug resources and other useful compounds.

  18. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-01-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes—Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria—Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria—Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes—Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health. PMID:23254516

  19. Microbial hitchhikers on intercontinental dust: catching a lift in Chad.

    PubMed

    Favet, Jocelyne; Lapanje, Ales; Giongo, Adriana; Kennedy, Suzanne; Aung, Yin-Yin; Cattaneo, Arlette; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Brown, Christopher T; Kort, Renate; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen; Schnetger, Bernhard; Chappell, Adrian; Kroijenga, Jaap; Beck, Andreas; Schwibbert, Karin; Mohamed, Ahmed H; Kirchner, Timothy; de Quadros, Patricia Dorr; Triplett, Eric W; Broughton, William J; Gorbushina, Anna A

    2013-04-01

    Ancient mariners knew that dust whipped up from deserts by strong winds travelled long distances, including over oceans. Satellite remote sensing revealed major dust sources across the Sahara. Indeed, the Bodélé Depression in the Republic of Chad has been called the dustiest place on earth. We analysed desert sand from various locations in Chad and dust that had blown to the Cape Verde Islands. High throughput sequencing techniques combined with classical microbiological methods showed that the samples contained a large variety of microbes well adapted to the harsh desert conditions. The most abundant bacterial groupings in four different phyla included: (a) Firmicutes-Bacillaceae, (b) Actinobacteria-Geodermatophilaceae, Nocardiodaceae and Solirubrobacteraceae, (c) Proteobacteria-Oxalobacteraceae, Rhizobiales and Sphingomonadaceae, and (d) Bacteroidetes-Cytophagaceae. Ascomycota was the overwhelmingly dominant fungal group followed by Basidiomycota and traces of Chytridiomycota, Microsporidia and Glomeromycota. Two freshwater algae (Trebouxiophyceae) were isolated. Most predominant taxa are widely distributed land inhabitants that are common in soil and on the surfaces of plants. Examples include Bradyrhizobium spp. that nodulate and fix nitrogen in Acacia species, the predominant trees of the Sahara as well as Herbaspirillum (Oxalobacteraceae), a group of chemoorganotrophic free-living soil inhabitants that fix nitrogen in association with Gramineae roots. Few pathogenic strains were found, suggesting that African dust is not a large threat to public health.

  20. Depositional and structural styles in Chad basin of northeastern Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Avbovbo, A.A.; Ayoola, E.O.; Osahon, G.A.

    1986-12-01

    Seismic reflection data in the Maiduguri area of the Chad basin reveal a significant juxtaposition of faults and folds, the primary structural orientation of which is northeast-southwest and parallel to the surface structural pattern in the contiguous Benue trough. The faults in the basin consist of both basement-involved faults and detached faults. The folds are simple symmetrical structures, restricted to the deeper parts of the basin. Concomitant compressive structures are notably scarce. The structural pattern is complicated further by the presence of intrusions that are presumed to be the subsurface extension of volcanic outcrops that rim the southeastern part of the Maiduguri subbasin. Seismic reflection data also reveal distinguishable seismic sequences that correlate with the established stratigraphic sequence of the basin. The apparent structure and the seismically derived stratigraphy suggest a rift origin for the basin. Furthermore, the seismic stratigraphy, sedimentologic implications, and seismically determined structural features suggest that the Maiduguri area of the Chad basin has good prospects for hydrocarbon plays in Cretaceous rocks, with high potentials for both structural and stratigraphic traps. 9 figures.

  1. Possible illnesses: assessing the health impacts of the Chad Pipeline Project.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessments associated with large-scale infrastructure projects, such as the Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project, monitor pre-existing conditions and new diseases associated with particular industries or changes in social organization. This paper suggests that illness self-reports constitute a complementary set of benchmarks to measure the health impacts of these projects, and presents data gathered in ongoing household and health service surveys in Ngalaba, a village near a major oilfield in Chad. In an initial 16-week period of weekly data collection, 363 people reported few of the clinically chronic or asymptomatic conditions expected according to health transition theory, and the overall level of illness reporting was low. Illnesses often were described by symptoms or lay diagnoses. Health care practitioners were consulted rarely; when they were, resources for diagnosis and treatment were limited. Clinically acute, short-duration illnesses (e.g. parasitic infections, toothaches, or hernias) were experienced as chronic conditions and were reported week after week. The low levels of illness reporting and lack of clinically chronic conditions are not taken to mean that rural Chadians are healthy. Rather, the patterns of morbidity reflect a particular local ecology in which health services are organized and care dispensed in ways that limit the possibilities for illness in terms of types of illnesses that can be diagnosed and reported, forms illnesses take, and ways in which illnesses are experienced. Illness self-reports are useful adjuncts to "harder" biological measures in HIAs, particularly in the context of large-scale infrastructure projects with explicit development goals. Rather than providing data on the extent to which harm has been mitigated by corporate, state, and donor activities, self-reports show the possibilities of illness in local contexts. PMID:12894327

  2. Activated charcoal. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theoretical aspects and industrial applications of activated charcoal. Topics include adsorption capacity and mechanism studies, kinetic and thermodynamic aspects, and description and evaluation of adsorptive abilities. Applications include use in water analyses and waste treatment, air pollution control and measurement, and in nuclear facilities. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Impact of the Megalake Chad on climate and vegetation during the late Pliocene and the mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, C.; Jost, A.; Ramstein, G.; Sepulchre, P.; Krinner, G.; Schuster, M.

    2013-03-01

    Given the growing evidence for megalakes in the geological record, assessing their impact on climate and vegetation is important for the validation of paleoclimate simulations and therefore the accuracy of model/data comparison in lacustrine environments. Megalake Chad (MLC) occurrences are documented for the mid-Holocene but also for the Mio-Pliocene (Schuster et al., 2009). The surface covered by water would have reached up to ~350 000 km2 (Ghienne et al., 2002; Schuster et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2006) making it an important evaporation source, possibly modifying the climate and vegetation in the Chad basin. We investigated the impact of such a giant continental water area in two different climatic backgrounds within the Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (PMIP3): the late Pliocene (3.3 to 3 Ma, i.e. the mid-Piacenzian warm period) and the mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP). In all simulations including a MLC, precipitation is drastically reduced above the lake surface because deep convection is inhibited by colder air above the lake surface. Meanwhile, convective activity is enhanced around the MLC, because of the wind increase generated by the flat surface of the megalake, transporting colder and moister air towards the eastern shore of the lake. Effect of the MLC on precipitation and temperature is not sufficient to widely impact vegetation patterns. Nevertheless, tropical savanna is present in the Chad Basin in all climatic configurations, even without the MLC presence, showing that the climate itself is the driver of favourable environments for sustainable hominid habitats.

  4. A database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region uranium province.

    PubMed

    Doering, Che; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a database of radionuclide activity and metal concentrations for the Alligator Rivers Region (ARR) uranium province in the Australian wet-dry tropics. The database contains 5060 sample records and 57,473 concentration values. The data are for animal, plant, soil, sediment and water samples collected by the Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist (ERISS) as part of its statutory role to undertake research and monitoring into the impacts of uranium mining on the environment of the ARR. Concentration values are provided in the database for 11 radionuclides ((227)Ac, (40)K, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (234)U, (238)U) and 26 metals (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Th, U, V, Zn). Potential uses of the database are discussed.

  5. Spatio-temporal variability of droughts and terrestrial water storage over Lake Chad Basin using independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndehedehe, Christopher E.; Agutu, Nathan O.; Okwuashi, Onuwa; Ferreira, Vagner G.

    2016-09-01

    Lake Chad has recently been perceived to be completely desiccated and almost extinct due to insufficient published ground observations. Given the high spatial variability of rainfall in the region, and the fact that extreme climatic conditions (for example, droughts) could be intensifying in the Lake Chad basin (LCB) due to human activities, a spatio-temporal approach to drought analysis becomes essential. This study employed independent component analysis (ICA), a fourth-order cumulant statistics, to decompose standardised precipitation index (SPI), standardised soil moisture index (SSI), and terrestrial water storage (TWS) derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) into spatial and temporal patterns over the LCB. In addition, this study uses satellite altimetry data to estimate variations in the Lake Chad water levels, and further employs relevant climate teleconnection indices (El-Niño Southern Oscillation-ENSO, Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation-AMO, and Atlantic Meridional Mode-AMM) to examine their links to the observed drought temporal patterns over the basin. From the spatio-temporal drought analysis, temporal evolutions of SPI at 12 month aggregation show relatively wet conditions in the last two decades (although with marked alterations) with the 2012-2014 period being the wettest. In addition to the improved rainfall conditions during this period, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.04 m/yr in altimetry water levels observed over Lake Chad between 2008 and 2014, which confirms a shift in the hydrological conditions of the basin. Observed trend in TWS changes during the 2002-2014 period shows a statistically insignificant increase of 3.0 mm/yr at the centre of the basin, coinciding with soil moisture deficit indicated by the temporal evolutions of SSI at all monthly accumulations during the 2002-2003 and 2009-2012 periods. Further, SPI at 3 and 6 month scales indicated fluctuating drought conditions at the extreme south

  6. Molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks from Ethiopia and Chad.

    PubMed

    Mura, Alessandra; Socolovschi, Cristina; Ginesta, Jacques; Lafrance, Bertrand; Magnan, Stéphan; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Davoust, Bernard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2008-09-01

    DNA extracted from 363 ticks collected in Ethiopia and 9 ticks collected in Chad, Africa were screened by PCR to detect DNA from spotted fever group rickettsiae. Fifteen ticks (4.1%) collected in Ethiopia and one tick (11%) collected in Chad tested positive when PCR targeting the gltA and ompA rickettsial genes was performed. PCR-positive products of the gltA and ompA genes were used for DNA sequencing. Rickettsia africae was detected in 12/118 Amblyomma lepidum and in 1/2 A. variegatum. Also, 2/12 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes collected in Ethiopia and one H. marginatum rufipes collected in Chad were positive for R. aeschlimannii. Our results confirm the previously reported presence of R. africae in Ethiopia and also show the first evidence of R. aeschlimannii in ticks collected in Ethiopia and Chad.

  7. Chad 1996-97: results from the Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    The Chad Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), or Enquete Demographique et de Sante (EDS) Tchad 1996-97, was conducted by the Bureau Central du Recensement, Direction de la Statisque, des Etudes Economiques et Demographiques, Ministere du Plan et de l'Amenagement du Territoire N'Djamena, Chad, within the framework of the DHS Program of Macro International. Data for the EDS were collected from 6840 households, and complete interviews were conducted with 7454 women aged 15-49 and 2320 men aged 15-59. The interviews took place between December 1996 and July 1997. The summary statistics presented were taken from the Chad country report, with exceptions as noted. Included in this article are table and charts presenting valuable data on the general characteristics of the Chad population, fertility, fertility preferences, contraceptive use, knowledge about contraception, marital and contraceptive status, postpartum variables, infant mortality, health, and nutritional status.

  8. Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F.; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa’s remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time ≈10% of nomadic children (>1–11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p<0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level. PMID:17552089

  9. [Anthrax in Chad: a zoonosis that still exists today].

    PubMed

    Lamarque, D; Haessler, C; Champion, R; Granga, D; Bendina; Steinmetz, P; Guelina, A; Maurice, Y

    1989-01-01

    An epidemic of human and animal anthrax raged in Chad mainly in the Department of Chari Baguirmi from September to December 1988, infesting more than 50% of donkeys and horses. 716 human cases have been reported, with 88 deaths. Thanks to a geographical distribution of animal and human prevalence, one sees immediately the interdependency between sanitary state of live-stock and public health. An unusual means of transmission from donkey to donkey by insects as the vector is suggested to explain the intensity of animal epidemics. Two strains of B. anthracis were isolated and described. Systematic annual prophylactic inoculation of the live-stock is recommended, and also resumption of research to create a polyvalent vaccine for cattle plague/peripneumonia and anthrax.

  10. C RE-SLC: Database for conservation and renewable energy activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Tompkins, M.M.; Fisher, A.G.

    1992-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all its long-term power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. The hope is that these measures could significantly reduce the amount of environmental damage associated with electricity production. As part of preparing the environmental impact statement for Western's Electric Power Marketing Program, Argonne National Laboratory constructed a database of the conservation and renewable energy activities in which Western's Salt Lake City customers are involved. The database provides information on types of conservation and renewable energy activities and allows for comparisons of activities being conducted at different utilities in the Salt Lake City region. Sorting the database allows Western's Salt Lake City customers to be classified so the various activities offered by different classes of utilities can be identified; for example, comparisons can be made between municipal utilities and cooperatives or between large and small customers. The information included in the database was collected from customer planning documents in the files of Western's Salt Lake City office.

  11. C&RE-SLC: Database for conservation and renewable energy activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, J.D.; Tompkins, M.M.; Fisher, A.G.

    1992-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all its long-term power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. The hope is that these measures could significantly reduce the amount of environmental damage associated with electricity production. As part of preparing the environmental impact statement for Western`s Electric Power Marketing Program, Argonne National Laboratory constructed a database of the conservation and renewable energy activities in which Western`s Salt Lake City customers are involved. The database provides information on types of conservation and renewable energy activities and allows for comparisons of activities being conducted at different utilities in the Salt Lake City region. Sorting the database allows Western`s Salt Lake City customers to be classified so the various activities offered by different classes of utilities can be identified; for example, comparisons can be made between municipal utilities and cooperatives or between large and small customers. The information included in the database was collected from customer planning documents in the files of Western`s Salt Lake City office.

  12. C&RE-SLC: Database for conservation and renewable energy activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, J. D.; Tompkins, M. M.; Fisher, A. G.

    1992-08-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) requires all its long-term power customers to implement programs that promote the conservation of electric energy or facilitate the use of renewable energy resources. The hope is that these measures could significantly reduce the amount of environmental damage associated with electricity production. As part of preparing the environmental impact statement for Western's Electric Power Marketing Program, Argonne National Laboratory constructed a database of the conservation and renewable energy activities in which Western's Salt Lake City customers are involved. The database provides information on types of conservation and renewable energy activities and allows for comparisons of activities being conducted at different utilities in the Salt Lake City region. Sorting the database allows Western's Salt Lake City customers to be classified so the various activities offered by different classes of utilities can be identified; for example, comparisons can be made between municipal utilities and cooperatives or between large and small customers. The information included in the database was collected from customer planning documents in the files of Western's Salt Lake City office.

  13. [The care of patients with tuberculosis in Chad: a multicenter analysis in N'djamena and Moundou (2009)].

    PubMed

    Ngangro, Ndeindo Ndeikoundam; Ngarhounoum, Doudéadoum; Ngangro, Ndeikoundam Mosurel; Rangar, Ngakoutou; des Fontaines, Virginie Halley; Chauvin, Pierre

    2012-06-08

    TB is a major public health concern throughout the world. In the developing world, informal care is one of the factors that contribute to the spread of the epidemic through delayed treatment initiation. The objective of this study was to examine the care-seeking behavior of TB patients from the onset of symptoms to the start of treatment and to assess the risk factors associated with the informal treatment of symptoms of tuberculosis in N'djamena and Moundou (Chad). A questionnaire survey was conducted among 286?newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis patients (? 15 years old). A logistic regression model was used to assess the factors associated with informal care use. The study found that 40% of the patients had used informal care before undergoing treatment. Informal care use was found to be associated with the treatment site, belonging to a lower social class, the belief in the effectiveness of traditional treatment methods, a chronic disease and the belief that other people hide their disease. Although the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis are both free in Chad, delayed treatment initiation is common among many patients, who often resort to informal care. Health education, interventions aimed at reducing the financial impact of the disease and the active involvement of traditional healers in the detection of tuberculosis can contribute to promoting early access to public health services for the treatment of TB symptoms.

  14. A Toolkit for Active Object-Oriented Databases with Application to Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger

    1996-01-01

    In our original proposal we stated that our research would 'develop a novel technology that provides a foundation for collaborative information processing.' The essential ingredient of this technology is the notion of 'deltas,' which are first-class values representing collections of proposed updates to a database. The Heraclitus framework provides a variety of algebraic operators for building up, combining, inspecting, and comparing deltas. Deltas can be directly applied to the database to yield a new state, or used 'hypothetically' in queries against the state that would arise if the delta were applied. The central point here is that the step of elevating deltas to 'first-class' citizens in database programming languages will yield tremendous leverage on the problem of supporting updates in collaborative information processing. In short, our original intention was to develop the theoretical and practical foundation for a technology based on deltas in an object-oriented database context, develop a toolkit for active object-oriented databases, and apply this toward collaborative information processing.

  15. A Toolkit for Active Object-Oriented Databases with Application to Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger

    1996-01-01

    In our original proposal we stated that our research would 'develop a novel technology that provides a foundation for collaborative information processing.' The essential ingredient of this technology is the notion of 'deltas,' which are first-class values representing collections of proposed updates to a database. The Heraclitus framework provides a variety of algebraic operators for building up, combining, inspecting, and comparing deltas. Deltas can be directly applied to the database to yield a new state, or used 'hypothetically' in queries against the state that would arise if the delta were applied. The central point here is that the step of elevating deltas to 'first-class' citizens in database programming languages will yield tremendous leverage on the problem of supporting updates in collaborative information processing. In short, our original intention was to develop the theoretical and practical foundation for a technology based on deltas in an object- oriented database context, develop a toolkit for active object-oriented databases, and apply this toward collaborative information processing.

  16. Adherence to Guidelines for Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation According to CHADS2 Score before and after Stroke: A Multicenter Observational Study from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wook-Joo; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Lee, Soo Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Jun; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Byung-Chul; Oh, Mi-Sun; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, JiSung; Jang, Myung Suk; Han, Moon-Ku

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose A substantial proportion of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are not treated optimally; however, the inappropriateness of drug therapy has never been evaluated before or after a stroke event. We investigated the adherence to guidelines for therapy in AF patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) before stroke onset and at discharge, with the aim of identifying the factors associated with inappropriate therapy. Methods AIS patients with AF hospitalized within 7 days of onset were identified from a prospective nine-center stroke registry database. Two cohorts were defined: patients diagnosed with AF prior to the stroke event (admission cohort) and patients diagnosed with AF at discharge from hospital (discharge cohort). Any of the following conditions were regarded as nonadherence to guidelines in this study: use of anticoagulant or nonuse of antithrombotics with CHADS2 score=0, nonuse of antithrombotics with CHADS2 score=1, or nonuse of anticoagulant with CHADS2 score ≥2. Results Overall, 406 patients were enrolled in the admission cohort and 518 in the discharge cohort. The rates of nonadherence before a stroke event and at discharge were 77.8% and 33.3%, respectively. These rates varied widely for both cohorts, with interhospital differences being statistically significant. Multivariable analysis revealed that old age, stroke history, and congestive heart failure were associated with nonadherence before stroke. At discharge, males, coronary heart disease, inappropriate antithrombotic use before stroke, and functional disability at discharge were associated with nonadherence. Conclusions This study shows that antithrombotic use in AIS patients with AF might be not optimal before and after stroke in Korea. PMID:26541495

  17. Using non-local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: The case of Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer

    2010-04-15

    Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.

  18. Chad Genetic Diversity Reveals an African History Marked by Multiple Holocene Eurasian Migrations.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Bergström, Anders; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Hallast, Pille; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Al-Habori, Molham; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Blue-Smith, Jason; Wells, R Spencer; Xue, Yali; Zalloua, Pierre A; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-12-01

    Understanding human genetic diversity in Africa is important for interpreting the evolution of all humans, yet vast regions in Africa, such as Chad, remain genetically poorly investigated. Here, we use genotype data from 480 samples from Chad, the Near East, and southern Europe, as well as whole-genome sequencing from 19 of them, to show that many populations today derive their genomes from ancient African-Eurasian admixtures. We found evidence of early Eurasian backflow to Africa in people speaking the unclassified isolate Laal language in southern Chad and estimate from linkage-disequilibrium decay that this occurred 4,750-7,200 years ago. It brought to Africa a Y chromosome lineage (R1b-V88) whose closest relatives are widespread in present-day Eurasia; we estimate from sequence data that the Chad R1b-V88 Y chromosomes coalesced 5,700-7,300 years ago. This migration could thus have originated among Near Eastern farmers during the African Humid Period. We also found that the previously documented Eurasian backflow into Africa, which occurred ∼3,000 years ago and was thought to be mostly limited to East Africa, had a more westward impact affecting populations in northern Chad, such as the Toubou, who have 20%-30% Eurasian ancestry today. We observed a decline in heterozygosity in admixed Africans and found that the Eurasian admixture can bias inferences on their coalescent history and confound genetic signals from adaptation and archaic introgression.

  19. Second Research Coordination Meeting on Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis -- Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B.; Kellett, Mark A.

    2008-03-19

    The second meeting of the Co-ordinated Research Project on"Reference Database for Neutron Activation Analysis" was held at the IAEA, Vienna from 7-9 May, 2007. A summary of the presentations made by participants is given, along with reports on specifically assigned tasks and subsequent discussions. In order to meet the overall objectives of this CRP, the outputs have been reiterated and new task assignments made.

  20. 3 CFR - Drawdown Under Section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended, for Chad and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended, for Chad and France To Support Their Efforts in Mali Presidential... Support Their Efforts in Mali Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to... immediate military assistance to Chad and France in their efforts to secure Mali from terrorists and...

  1. Trends in active pharmaceutical ingredient salt selection based on analysis of the Orange Book database.

    PubMed

    Paulekuhn, G Steffen; Dressman, Jennifer B; Saal, Christoph

    2007-12-27

    The Orange Book database published by the U.S. Drug and Food Administration (FDA) was analyzed for the frequency of occurrence of different counterions used for the formation of pharmaceutical salts. The data obtained from the present analysis of the Orange Book are compared to reviews of the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and of the Martindale "The Extra Pharmacopoeia". As well as showing overall distributions of counterion usage, results are broken down into 5-year increments to identify trends in counterion selection. Chloride ions continue to be the most frequently utilized anionic counterions for the formation of salts as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), while sodium ions are most widely utilized for the formation of salts starting from acidic molecules. A strong trend toward a wider variety of counterions over the past decade is observed. This trend can be explained by a stronger need to improve physical chemical properties of research and development compounds.

  2. Perceptions of the usefulness of external support to immunization coverage in Chad: an analysis of the GAVI-Alliance cash-based support

    PubMed Central

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Dramé, Mohammed; Tumusiime, Prosper

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chad is one of the countries supported by the GAVI-Alliance that remains with unsatisfactory vaccination coverage. This paper tries to understand the main barriers to better coverage. Methods These barriers were categorised as up or downstream against the health system building blocks as proposed by WHO and compared with barriers and activities identified by the country in its health system's strengthening grant proposal as approved by the GAVI Alliance in 2007. Data were collected using a modified Delphi system and by analysis of grant and annual report documents. Results Most of the activities anticipated under the GAVI health system's strengthening proposal are activities targeting downstream barriers (the neglect of upstream issues is of major importance in a decentralised state like Chad) and aligned with, not complementary to, immunization services strengthening activities. Further, both set of cash grants are blind to important recommendations such as the need to address barriers at the level of leadership and governance and at the level of the financing system and also about initiatives to promote community demand of vaccination services. Conclusion In Chad slow vaccination progress is aggravated by several contextual barriers: the size of the country, the low population density, the nomadic nature of a significant part of its peoples, the recent civil war, associated with civil unrest and political instability and its geographical localization. In this situation it would be important to sustain downstream operations (the major focus of the ISS grant) while taking a long term view of the needs of the health system. The GAVI effectively supports downstream operations, but neglects the long term view. PMID:24106572

  3. Space Radar of Image Aorounga Impact Crater, Chad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The impact of an asteroid or comet several hundred million years ago left scars in the landscape that are still visible in this spaceborne radar image of an area in the Sahara Desert of northern Chad. The concentric ring structure is the Aorounga impact crater, with a diameter of about 17 kilometers (10.5 miles). The original crater was buried by sediments, which were then partially eroded to reveal the current ring-like appearance. The dark streaks are deposits of windblown sand that migrate along valleys cut by thousands of years of wind erosion. The dark band in the upper right of the image is a portion of a proposed second crater. Scientists are using radar images to investigate the possibility that Aorounga is one of a string of impact craters formed by multiple impacts. Radar imaging is a valuable tool for the study of desert regions because the radar waves can penetrate thin layers of dry sand to reveal details of geologic structure that are invisible to other sensors. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on April 18 and 19, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is 22 kilometers by 28 kilometers (14 miles by 17 miles) and is centered at 19.1 degrees north latitude, 19.3 degrees east longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  4. The INFN-CNAF Tier-1 GEMSS Mass Storage System and database facility activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, Pier Paolo; Cavalli, Alessandro; Dell'Agnello, Luca; Favaro, Matteo; Gregori, Daniele; Prosperini, Andrea; Pezzi, Michele; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Zizzi, Giovanni; Vagnoni, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    The consolidation of Mass Storage services at the INFN-CNAF Tier1 Storage department that has occurred during the last 5 years, resulted in a reliable, high performance and moderately easy-to-manage facility that provides data access, archive, backup and database services to several different use cases. At present, the GEMSS Mass Storage System, developed and installed at CNAF and based upon an integration between the IBM GPFS parallel filesystem and the Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) tape management software, is one of the largest hierarchical storage sites in Europe. It provides storage resources for about 12% of LHC data, as well as for data of other non-LHC experiments. Files are accessed using standard SRM Grid services provided by the Storage Resource Manager (StoRM), also developed at CNAF. Data access is also provided by XRootD and HTTP/WebDaV endpoints. Besides these services, an Oracle database facility is in production characterized by an effective level of parallelism, redundancy and availability. This facility is running databases for storing and accessing relational data objects and for providing database services to the currently active use cases. It takes advantage of several Oracle technologies, like Real Application Cluster (RAC), Automatic Storage Manager (ASM) and Enterprise Manager centralized management tools, together with other technologies for performance optimization, ease of management and downtime reduction. The aim of the present paper is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of the INFN-CNAF Tier1 Storage department infrastructures and software services, and to give a brief outlook to forthcoming projects. A description of the administrative, monitoring and problem-tracking tools that play a primary role in managing the whole storage framework is also given.

  5. The Cenozoic volcanic province of Tibesti (Sahara of Chad): major units, chronology, and structural features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniel, C.; Vincent, P. M.; Beauvilain, A.; Gourgaud, A.

    2015-09-01

    Using both field relationships and some absolute ages, the sequence of volcanic units in the Cenozoic Tibesti Volcanic Province (TVP) (Chad) is established as follows: (1) plateau volcanism, between at least 17 and 8 Ma, consisting of flood basalts and silicic lava plugs, with intercalated ignimbritic sheets in the upper basalt succession increasing in amount upwards. Ages decrease from NE to SW, following the migration of the small NW-SE flexures concentrating the feeding dike swarms; (2) Late Miocene large central composite volcanoes exhibiting diverse and original structures. Some of them (Tarso Toon, Ehi Oyé, and Tarso Yéga) are located along a major NNE fault, representing the main tectonic direction in Tibesti since Precambrian times; (3) construction of three large ignimbritic volcanoes, associated with significant updoming of the basement, ending with the collapse of large calderas: Voon (about 5-7 Ma), Emi Koussi (2.4-1.33 Ma), and Yirrigué (0.43 Ma); (4) basaltic activity, starting at about 5-7 Ma, and essentially consisting of cinder cones and associated lava flows (Tarso Tôh, Tarso Ahon, and Tarso Emi Chi); and (5) final volcanic activity represented by post-Yirrigué caldera activity in the Tarso Toussidé Volcanic Complex, and especially Ehi Toussidé (the only active volcano in Tibesti), plus Ehi Timi and Ehi Mousgou volcanoes, similar to Ehi Toussidé. The two tectonic directions controlling some volcanic features of the province correspond to the major old lithospheric structures delimiting the volcanic province, namely, the great NW-SE Tassilian flexure to the SW and a major NE-NNE fault zone to the E. Unusual conditions of uplift and erosion in the TVP enable exceptional exposure of the internal structure of its volcanoes.

  6. The Design and Implementation of the Ariel Active Database Rule System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    8217 iO AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21 ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION n , %CASSI ;D)’NLIMITED El SAME AS PPT 01 DTIC USERS Unclassified 𔃼’a NArMt OF...obsolete SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS .AIC, [1NC IASS I F I El ) JQ&% It 14t i(Al .. The Design and Implementation of the Ariel Active Database Rule...is at user-issued transition, and T,[Rj] is a transition induced by an execution of rule R2 : El E2 E3 En SO S1 S2 S3 ... m,. Sn T1 T2[R1I T2(R2] Tn

  7. Les rhyolites hyperalcalines (pantellérites) du lac Tchad. Composition et signification tectonomagmatiqueThe peralkaline rhyolites (pantellerites) of the Lake Chad. Composition and tectonomagmatic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicat, Jean-Paul; Pouclet, André; Bellion, Yves; Doumnang, Jean-Claude

    2002-09-01

    Remnants of rhyolite lava-dome and of alkaline microgranite extrusions emerge, as inselbergs, in the alluvial plain, south of Lake Chad. The peralkaline, arfvedsonite- and acmite-bearing rhyolites are determined as pantellerites. They can be related to a tectonomagmatic stage, dated of the Late Cretaceous, of the western central Africa rift system. They may constitute the NNE extension of a N50° to 30° elongated succession of small alkaline complexes, from the Gulf of Guinea to the North-Cameroon, which initiated the magmatic activity of the Cameroon Line. To cite this article: J.-P. Vicat et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 885-891.

  8. Efforts to Unravel the Cause of Shrinkage of Lake Chad: Development of Hydrologic Real-time Observatory Network in the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Ichoku, C. M.; Bolten, J. D.; Policelli, F. S.; Djimadoumngar, K. N.; Abdullahi, S. I.; Bila, M. D.; Djoret, D.; Ibrahim, G.; Selker, J. S.; Hochreutener, R.; Annor, F. O.

    2015-12-01

    Lake Chad, the fourth largest lake in Africa, is well known as a shrinking lake due to adverse impact of climate change and increased population during drought periods in the 1980s and 1990s. While the shrinkage of the Lake has been studied broadly using remote sensing data, the main cause of shrinkage is still uncertain due to limited availability of ground-truth data. Lack of infrastructure, insecure site conditions, vandalism, and limited site accessibility make it difficult to establish a real-time monitoring network in many parts of Africa including the Lake Chad Basin. For a better understanding of how the Lake responds to the change of weather patterns and other hydrologic processes such as runoff, groundwater flow, and evapotranspiration, a real-time monitoring network is essential in the region. In early 2015, a team from NASA, the Lake Chad Basin Commission, and the University of Missouri - Kansas City set up a hydrologic real-time observatory network in the Chari-Logone catchment, the main feeder of water to the Lake, to monitor meteorological conditions, soil moisture, and groundwater. The TAHMO (Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory) weather stations were adopted to monitor rainfall, relative humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, and temperature. The present study shows preliminary analysis of the correlations between meteorological and hydrological parameters from real-time monitoring data in the Chari-Logone catchment. We also discuss the importance of partnership with local government and community involvement for data collection and share for sustainable hydrological research in the Lake Chad Basin.

  9. [Intestinal parasite diagnoses in Chad and North Cameroon, 1963-2009].

    PubMed

    Massenet, D; Gamougam, K; Djerané, L; Toukour, A

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the results of parasitological analyses of stool samples in N'Djamena (Chad) since 1963 and in Garoua (North Cameroon) since 1990. The number of positive stool examinations has fallen, with a significant decline in helminthiases, although the level of protozoan infections has remained essentially the same.

  10. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Christopher A.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J.; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts. PMID:27560598

  11. Guinea Worm (Dracunculus medinensis) Infection in a Wild-Caught Frog, Chad.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Cleveland, Christopher A; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Yabsley, Michael J; Ouakou, Philippe Tchindebet; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-11-01

    A third-stage (infective) larva of Dracunculus medinensis, the causative agent of Guinea worm disease, was recovered from a wild-caught Phrynobatrachus francisci frog in Chad. Although green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) have been experimentally infected with D. medinensis worms, our findings prove that frogs can serve as natural paratenic hosts.

  12. Recently active traces of the Bartlett Springs Fault, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to show the location of and evidence for recent movement on active fault traces within the Bartlett Springs Fault Zone, California. The location and recency of the mapped traces is primarily based on geomorphic expression of the fault as interpreted from large-scale aerial photography. In a few places, evidence of fault creep and offset Holocene strata in trenches and natural exposures have confirmed the activity of some of these traces. This publication is formatted both as a digital database for use within a geographic information system (GIS) and for broader public access as map images that may be browsed on-line or download a summary map. The report text describes the types of scientific observations used to make the map, gives references pertaining to the fault and the evidence of faulting, and provides guidance for use of and limitations of the map.

  13. Shorelines in the Sahara desert: Archives of the hydrodynamics of Megalake Chad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Roquin, Claude; Moussa, Abderamane; Duringer, Philippe; Bouchette, Frédéric; Ghienne, Jean-François; Allenbach, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    The African Humid Period corresponds to a major climate change event paced by the orbital parameters of Earth (precession of the equinoxes) with enhanced monsoon regime which has strongly modified the Holocene paleoenvironments of Africa. In sub-tropical north-Africa related reactivation of ancient river networks and the development of numerous lakes, have in turn temporarily favored human occupation of the Sahara. Megalake Chad, which extended over an area swept by the latitudinal fluctuations of the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), represents one of the most emblematic case study of these climate-controlled environmental changes. This very large paleolake had a water-surface of more than 350000 sqkm (10°N-18°N, 12°E-19°E) and maximum depths of ~150 m to the North and of ~40 m in the area of the present-day Lake Chad. Satellite imagery (SRTM, Landsat, Pleiades) over the Chad basin reveals conspicuous clastic morphosedimentary structures which do not correspond to eolian or terrestrial landforms but that clearly correspond to typical coastal features. They include isolated ridges, Azov-type spits, beach ridges, wave-ravinement surface and wave-dominated deltas. These paleoshorelines provide firm outlines of the maximal extension of Megalake Chad and allow to track its size evolution which in turn informs about the precipitation/evaporation budget at basin-scale (~2000000 sqkm). Moreover, the particular shape and distribution of coastal landforms are mostly controlled by the alongshore drift induced by the prevailing winds. Wind-driven hydrodynamics was the major process for clastic sediments redistribution at basin-scale in the nearshore zone and resulted in the building of prominent sedimentary bodies (up to hundreds of kilometer long and few tens of meter thick). As a consequence, paleoshorelines of Megalake Chad represent a record of the paleo-wind regime over the Sahara-Sahel zone which was apparently dominated by an Harmattan-like wind.

  14. Identification of promiscuous ene-reductase activity by mining structural databases using active site constellations

    PubMed Central

    Steinkellner, Georg; Gruber, Christian C.; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Binter, Alexandra; Steiner, Kerstin; Winkler, Christoph; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Schwamberger, Orsolya; Oberer, Monika; Schwab, Helmut; Faber, Kurt; Macheroux, Peter; Gruber, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of catalytic promiscuity and the application of de novo design have recently opened the access to novel, non-natural enzymatic activities. Here we describe a structural bioinformatic method for predicting catalytic activities of enzymes based on three-dimensional constellations of functional groups in active sites (‘catalophores’). As a proof-of-concept we identify two enzymes with predicted promiscuous ene-reductase activity (reduction of activated C–C double bonds) and compare them with known ene-reductases, that is, members of the Old Yellow Enzyme family. Despite completely different amino acid sequences, overall structures and protein folds, high-resolution crystal structures reveal equivalent binding modes of typical Old Yellow Enzyme substrates and ligands. Biochemical and biocatalytic data show that the two enzymes indeed possess ene-reductase activity and reveal an inverted stereopreference compared with Old Yellow Enzymes for some substrates. This method could thus be a tool for the identification of viable starting points for the development and engineering of novel biocatalysts. PMID:24954722

  15. The U.S. Geological Survey mapping and cartographic database activities, 2006-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craun, Kari J.; Donnelly, John P.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began systematic topographic mapping of the United States in the 1880s, beginning with scales of 1:250,000 and 1:125,000 in support of geological mapping. Responding to the need for higher resolution and more detail, the 1:62,500-scale, 15-minute, topographic map series was begun in the beginning of the 20th century. Finally, in the 1950s the USGS adopted the 1:24,000-scale, 7.5-minute topographic map series to portray even more detail, completing the coverage of the conterminous 48 states of the United States with this series in 1992. In 2001, the USGS developed the vision and concept of The National Map, a topographic database for the 21st century and the source for a new generation of topographic maps (http://nationalmap.gov/). In 2008, the initial production of those maps began with a 1:24,000-scale digital product. In a separate, but related project, the USGS began scanning the existing inventory of historical topographic maps at all scales to accompany the new topographic maps. The USGS also had developed a digital database of The National Atlas of the United States. The digital version of Atlas is now Web-available and supports a mapping engine for small scale maps of the United States and North America. These three efforts define topographic mapping activities of the USGS during the last few years and are discussed below.

  16. Digital Database of Recently Active Traces of the Hayward Fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to show the location of and evidence for recent movement on active fault traces within the Hayward Fault Zone, California. The mapped traces represent the integration of the following three different types of data: (1) geomorphic expression, (2) creep (aseismic fault slip),and (3) trench exposures. This publication is a major revision of an earlier map (Lienkaemper, 1992), which both brings up to date the evidence for faulting and makes it available formatted both as a digital database for use within a geographic information system (GIS) and for broader public access interactively using widely available viewing software. The pamphlet describes in detail the types of scientific observations used to make the map, gives references pertaining to the fault and the evidence of faulting, and provides guidance for use of and limitations of the map. [Last revised Nov. 2008, a minor update for 2007 LiDAR and recent trench investigations; see version history below.

  17. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  18. Water Resources in the Lake Chad Basin, Assesment, Uses and Social Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genthon, P.; Sylvestre, F.; Favreau, G.

    2009-04-01

    Located at the sahel-desert boundary, the Lake Chad receives a 300 mm yearly rainfall for a 2200 mm evaporation. It is sensitive to changes in the West African Monsoon, which controls water input from its tributaries. The Lake Chad Basin (LCB) includes a series of superposed aquifers which contain mostly fossil water and were recharged during humid climatic periods. Assessment of the hydrological budget of LCB may help the agricultural and human development of the 4 African countries who share this basin (Niger, Nigeria, Chad, and Cameroon). As the Lake is located in a flat area, any change of its volume is associated to large change in its area and larges displacements of its edges, with noticeable consequences for the different tribes of fisher, stockbreeders, and farmers who share these moving shores. In turn land surface changes induced by these populations introduce a feedback on water transfers in LCB. Hydrological studies and social studies must be therefore conducted simultaneously. The LCB has been subjected recently to a renewed interest from the different French research agencies (IRD, ANR, INSU) which support a bundle of collaborating projects. These projects are focussed on the following topics: - Hydrological modeling of the Lake Chad Basin - Coupling between surface and underground water near rivers valleys and near the Lake - Gravimetric detection of water resources from field and space data -Aquifer properties and heterogeneities, their detection by geophysical methods and their consequences on water resources availability. - Lake sediments and underground water isotopic composition as markers of climatic and /or anthropic changes. - Consequences of agricultural development on underground water resources. - Adaptation of farmers, fishers and stockbreeders to Lake Chad fluctuations and interaction between these different communities. A short presentation of these different topics is given (with reference to more extensive talks and posters presented

  19. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  20. A bidirectional corridor in the Sahel-Sudan belt and the distinctive features of the Chad Basin populations: a history revealed by the mitochondrial DNA genome.

    PubMed

    Cerný, V; Salas, A; Hájek, M; Zaloudková, M; Brdicka, R

    2007-07-01

    The Chad Basin was sparsely inhabited during the Stone Age, and its continual settlement began with the Holocene. The role played by Lake Chad in the history and migration patterns of Africa is still unclear. We studied the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variability in 448 individuals from 12 ethnically and/or economically (agricultural/pastoral) different populations from Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria. The data indicate the importance of this region as a corridor connecting East and West Africa; however, this bidirectional flow of people in the Sahel-Sudan Belt did not erase features peculiar to the original Chad Basin populations. A new sub-clade, L3f2, is described, which together with L3e5 is most probably autochthonous in the Chad Basin. The phylogeography of these two sub-haplogroups seems to indicate prehistoric expansion events in the Chad Basin around 28,950 and 11,400 Y.B.P., respectively. The distribution of L3f2 is virtually restricted to the Chad Basin alone, and in particular to Chadic speaking populations, while L3e5 shows evidence for diffusion into North Africa at about 7,100 Y.B.P. The absence of L3f2 and L3e5 in African-Americans, and the limited number of L-haplotypes shared between the Chad Basin populations and African-Americans, indicate the low contribution of the Chad region to the Atlantic slave trade.

  1. Recently Active Traces of the Berryessa Fault, California: A Digital Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to show the location of and evidence for recent movement on active fault traces within the Berryessa section and parts of adjacent sections of the Green Valley Fault Zone, California. The location and recency of the mapped traces is primarily based on geomorphic expression of the fault as interpreted from large-scale 2010 aerial photography and from 2007 and 2011 0.5 and 1.0 meter bare-earth LiDAR imagery (that is, high-resolution topographic data). In a few places, evidence of fault creep and offset Holocene strata in trenches and natural exposures have confirmed the activity of some of these traces. This publication is formatted both as a digital database for use within a geographic information system (GIS) and for broader public access as map images that may be browsed on-line or download a summary map. The report text describes the types of scientific observations used to make the map, gives references pertaining to the fault and the evidence of faulting, and provides guidance for use of and limitations of the map.

  2. Petrology of peraluminous and peralkaline rhyolites from the SE Lake Chad (northernmost Cameroon Line)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbowou, Gbambié Isaac Bertrand; Botelho, Nilson Francisquini; Lagmet, Claudial Amane; Ngounouno, Ismaïla

    2015-12-01

    Peraluminous (P.I. < 1) and peralkaline (P.I. > 1) rhyolites from SE Lake Chad consisted of quartz, alkali feldspar and oxides-hydroxides phenocrysts, display negative Eu anomaly. F-arfvedsonite, augite-hedenbergite, aegirine and aegirine-augite are present in peralkaline rhyolites. The peralkaline and peraluminous rhyolitic magmas of the SE Lake Chad derive likely from the same source, according to their coexistence on the same volcano (Hadjer Bigli); their similar Zr/Nb, Zr/Hf ratios and their linear trends established in Zr vs Nb, Zr vs Ta and Zr vs Y diagrams, which linked to removal of successive batches of magma from a mantle source or to different degrees of partial melting. These magmas generated from the partial melting model of the underplated mantle, which would have induced the intrusion of crustal materials, triggering the hydrothermal reactions. Although, the high Zr amounts are not related to bulk assimilation of partially melted crustal materials.

  3. STS-65 Earth observation of Lake Chad, Africa, taken aboard Columbia, OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Lake Chad, Africa. This is another long term ecological monitoring site for NASA scientists. Lake Chad was first photographed from space in 1965. A 25-year length-of-record data set exists for this environmentally important area. A number of these scenes have been digitized, rectified, classified and results show that the lake area has been shrinking and only 15% to 20% of the surface water is visible on space images. NASA's objective in monitoring this lake is to document the intra- and interannual areal changes of the largest standing water body in the Sahelian biome of North Africa. These areal changes are an indicator of the presence or absence of drought across the arguably overpopulated, overgrazed, and over biological carrying capacity limits nations of the Sahel.

  4. A pilot GIS database of active faults of Mt. Etna (Sicily): A tool for integrated hazard evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreca, Giovanni; Bonforte, Alessandro; Neri, Marco

    2013-02-01

    A pilot GIS-based system has been implemented for the assessment and analysis of hazard related to active faults affecting the eastern and southern flanks of Mt. Etna. The system structure was developed in ArcGis® environment and consists of different thematic datasets that include spatially-referenced arc-features and associated database. Arc-type features, georeferenced into WGS84 Ellipsoid UTM zone 33 Projection, represent the five main fault systems that develop in the analysed region. The backbone of the GIS-based system is constituted by the large amount of information which was collected from the literature and then stored and properly geocoded in a digital database. This consists of thirty five alpha-numeric fields which include all fault parameters available from literature such us location, kinematics, landform, slip rate, etc. Although the system has been implemented according to the most common procedures used by GIS developer, the architecture and content of the database represent a pilot backbone for digital storing of fault parameters, providing a powerful tool in modelling hazard related to the active tectonics of Mt. Etna. The database collects, organises and shares all scientific currently available information about the active faults of the volcano. Furthermore, thanks to the strong effort spent on defining the fields of the database, the structure proposed in this paper is open to the collection of further data coming from future improvements in the knowledge of the fault systems. By layering additional user-specific geographic information and managing the proposed database (topological querying) a great diversity of hazard and vulnerability maps can be produced by the user. This is a proposal of a backbone for a comprehensive geographical database of fault systems, universally applicable to other sites.

  5. Renal Dysfunction, CHADS2 Score, and Adherence to the Anticoagulant Treatment in Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yihong; Wang, Yitong; Jiang, Juan; Wang, Lina; Hu, Dayi

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the risk of stroke associated with renal dysfunction and the impact of warfarin therapies in Chinese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Information was collected on age, sex, height, weight, type of atrial fibrillation, and serum creatinine within the previous 6 months, together with the variables needed to calculate the CHADS2 score. For patients not taking warfarin, reasons why not were recorded. Three thousand seventeen eligible patients with NVAF, mean (1 standard deviation [SD]) age of 67.7 (13.0) years, from 50 Chinese hospitals were included from May 2012 to October 2012, with a mean (1SD) CHADS2 score of 2.0 (1.5). Of these, 58.3% were male and 86.2% were at high risk of stroke with a CHADS2 score ≥1. Only 42.6% were on warfarin, and 22.5% of the patients had moderate or severe renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). After adjustment for the CHADS2 score, renal dysfunction remained moderately but significantly associated with the risk of stroke/TIA (odds ratio = 1.005, 95% confidence interval: 1.002-1.009, P = .002). There was, however, no significant difference in anticoagulant usage between patients with or without impaired renal dysfunction. The most common anticoagulant concerns were the low proportion of patients with regular international normalized ratio monitoring (43.0%) and the risk of bleeding (33.3%). Renal impairment was common and independently associated with the risk of cerebrovascular embolism in Chinese patients with NVAF but not independently related to underuse of anticoagulant treatment.

  6. Lake Mega-Chad, a West African Monsoon indicator and tipping element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Simon; Bristow, Charlie; Drake, Nick

    2015-04-01

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterised by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines and fluvio-lacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ~15 ka, followed by a return to relatively arid conditions. By 11.5 ka Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at 5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly non-linear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles since the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the World's greatest single dust source, and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred prior to 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Chad Basin Province, North-Central Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    The Chad Basin Province located in north-central Africa recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.32 billion barrels of oil, 14.65 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 391 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  8. Petroleum geology of Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1993-08-01

    This overview of the petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic (CAR) is based on exploration work by Exxon and partners in the years 1969-1991. The work included 50,000 km of modern reflection seismic, 53 exploration wells, 1,000,000 km[sup 2] of aeromagnetic coverage, and about 10,500 km of gravity profiles. The results outline ten Cretaceous and Tertiary rift basins, which constitute a major part of the West and Central African rift system (WCARS). The rift basins derive from a multiphased geologic history dating from the Pan-African (approximately 750-550 Ma) to the Holocene. WCARS in the study area is divided into the West African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (WAS) and the Central African rift subsystem (CAS). WAS basins in Niger and Chad are chiefly extensional, and are filled by up to 13,000 m of Lower Cretaceous to Holocene continental and marine clastics. The basins contain five oil (19-43[degrees]API) and two oil and gas accumulations in Upper Cretaceous and Eocene sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced and sealed by Upper Cretaceous and Eocene marine and lacustrine shales. The most common structural styles and hydrocarbon traps usually are associated with normal fault blocks. CAS rift basins in Chad and CAR are extensional and transtensional, and are filled by up to 7500 m of chiefly Lower Cretaceous continental clastics. The basins contain eight oil (15-39[degrees]API) and one oil and gas discovery in Lower and Upper Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs. The hydrocarbons are sourced by Lower Cretaceous shales and sealed by interbedded lacustrine and flood-plain shales. Structural styles range from simple fault blocks through complex flower structures. The main hydrocarbon traps are in contractional anticlines. Geological conditions favor the discovery of potentially commercial volumes of oil in WCARS basins, of Niger, Chad and CAR. 108 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Simon J; Bristow, Charlie S; Drake, Nick A

    2015-07-14

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ∼ 15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ∼ 5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world's greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent.

  10. West African monsoon dynamics inferred from abrupt fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Simon J.; Bristow, Charlie S.; Drake, Nick A.

    2015-01-01

    From the deglacial period to the mid-Holocene, North Africa was characterized by much wetter conditions than today. The broad timing of this period, termed the African Humid Period, is well known. However, the rapidity of the onset and termination of the African Humid Period are contested, with strong evidence for both abrupt and gradual change. We use optically stimulated luminescence dating of dunes, shorelines, and fluviolacustrine deposits to reconstruct the fluctuations of Lake Mega-Chad, which was the largest pluvial lake in Africa. Humid conditions first occur at ∼15 ka, and by 11.5 ka, Lake Mega-Chad had reached a highstand, which persisted until 5.0 ka. Lake levels fell rapidly at ∼5 ka, indicating abrupt aridification across the entire Lake Mega-Chad Basin. This record provides strong terrestrial evidence that the African Humid Period ended abruptly, supporting the hypothesis that the African monsoon responds to insolation forcing in a markedly nonlinear manner. In addition, Lake Mega-Chad exerts strong control on global biogeochemical cycles because the northern (Bodélé) basin is currently the world’s greatest single dust source and possibly an important source of limiting nutrients for both the Amazon Basin and equatorial Atlantic. However, we demonstrate that the final desiccation of the Bodélé Basin occurred around 1 ka. Consequently, the present-day mode and scale of dust production from the Bodélé Basin cannot have occurred before 1 ka, suggesting that its role in fertilizing marine and terrestrial ecosystems is either overstated or geologically recent. PMID:26124133

  11. Petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and the Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1991-03-01

    Ten Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.) are defined and the petroleum geology is overviewed. This paper is based on proprietary exploration results derived from more than 1 million km{sup 2} of aeromagnetics, 10,520 line km of gravity profiles, 49,721 km of reflection seismic, and 50 exploration wells. The data were acquired by Exxon with partners Shell, Chevron, Elf, Conoco, Texaco, and Amax Oil Gas, Inc., during the years 1969-1989. In Niger and Chad, the West African rift subsystem includes the extensional basins of Termit, Tefidet, Tenere, Grein/Kafra, N'Djel Edji, and Bongor. These rift basins contain up to 15,000 m of Cretaceous to Cenozoic continental and marine clastics. Key exploration elements are Tertiary and Cretaceous fluvial to tidal sandstone reservoirs, Tertiary and Cretaceous marine to lacustrine shale source rocks, and seals, with traps in normal fault blocks and anticlinal closures. There are six oil discoveries in the Termit basin. In Chad and the C.A.R., the Central African rift subsystem incorporates the extensional Doba and transtensional Doseo and Salamat basins flanking the Borogop dextral wrench fault. These basins contain up to 7,500 m of chiefly Cretaceous continental clastics. Key exploration elements are Lower and Upper Cretaceous fluvial to lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, Lower Cretaceous lacustrine shale source rocks, lacustrine to flood plain shale and mudstone seals, with traps in mainly faulted anticlinal closures. There are six oil discoveries in the Doba basin and three in the Doseo basin. The studied petroleum geology in the rifts of Niger, Chad, and the C.A.R. indicates that potentially commercial volumes of oil remain to be discovered.

  12. Third millenium ideal gas and condensed phase thermochemical database for combustion (with update from active thermochemical tables).

    SciTech Connect

    Burcat, A.; Ruscic, B.; Chemistry; Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech.

    2005-07-29

    The thermochemical database of species involved in combustion processes is and has been available for free use for over 25 years. It was first published in print in 1984, approximately 8 years after it was first assembled, and contained 215 species at the time. This is the 7th printed edition and most likely will be the last one in print in the present format, which involves substantial manual labor. The database currently contains more than 1300 species, specifically organic molecules and radicals, but also inorganic species connected to combustion and air pollution. Since 1991 this database is freely available on the internet, at the Technion-IIT ftp server, and it is continuously expanded and corrected. The database is mirrored daily at an official mirror site, and at random at about a dozen unofficial mirror and 'finger' sites. The present edition contains numerous corrections and many recalculations of data of provisory type by the G3//B3LYP method, a high-accuracy composite ab initio calculation. About 300 species are newly calculated and are not yet published elsewhere. In anticipation of the full coupling, which is under development, the database started incorporating the available (as yet unpublished) values from Active Thermochemical Tables. The electronic version now also contains an XML file of the main database to allow transfer to other formats and ease finding specific information of interest. The database is used by scientists, educators, engineers and students at all levels, dealing primarily with combustion and air pollution, jet engines, rocket propulsion, fireworks, but also by researchers involved in upper atmosphere kinetics, astrophysics, abrasion metallurgy, etc. This introductory article contains explanations of the database and the means to use it, its sources, ways of calculation, and assessments of the accuracy of data.

  13. [History of the public health policy in Chad 1900-1995].

    PubMed

    Massenet, D

    1996-01-01

    Public health policy in Chad began after colonization in 1899 and remained under the control of French Army Medical Corps for a long time. Military doctors shared their time between treating service personnel and indigenous people entitled Medical Assistance and making rounds in their sector. Since independence public health in the country has been based on a two-pronged association including fixed facilities (hospitals and dispensaries) and mobile services such as the Endemic Disease Unit whose most notable success was control of sleeping sickness in the southern part of the country. Over the years Chad has built up a national medical staff comprising 150 physicians. A medical school was opened in N'Djamena in 1990 and paramedical personnel are now trained at the National School for Public Health. War and lack of funds interrupted mobile services and there is presently a recrudescence of sleeping sickness. Since 1990 the World Health Organization has imposed its views and primary care is now available for all. However, it is now too early to judge the efficacity of this program in Chad.

  14. [Drug resistance testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from sputum in Chad].

    PubMed

    Abdelhadi, O; Ndokaïn, J; Ali, M Moussa; Friocourt, V; Mortier, E; Heym, B

    2012-02-01

    Culture and resistance testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are not regularly performed in Chad. Sputa were obtained from three different categories of hospitals (district, regional and national) in Chad. All examined sputa were smear-positive and were investigated by culture and drug resistance testing for first-line antituberculosis drugs. From 232 sputa positive for acid-fast bacilli, 135 isolates of M. tuberculosis from different patients (46 women, 89 men, mean age 34 years) were analyzed. All the patients except one corresponded to new cases of tuberculosis. In total, 27 out of 135 isolates (20%) were resistant to at least one major antituberculosis drug. Resistance to isoniazid was the most frequent resistance observed, with 18 isolates (13%) presenting at least this resistance. Three isolates (2.2%) were resistant to isoniazid and rifampicin (multidrug resistance MDR) including one isolate being concomitantly resistant to streptomycin and ethambutol. The resistance rate differed in relation to the category of the hospital; the most important resistance rate was observed in regional hospitals (33%), while it was 16% and 14% in the national and district hospitals, respectively. HIV serology was performed in 81 patients, among whom 20 (25%) were positive. This is the first study that shows that drug resistance of M. tuberculosis is present in Chad. Besides single drug-resistant isolates, multidrug-resistant strains of M. tuberculosis could also be identified. This result highlights the urgency of initiating actions to detect drug resistance and limit the spread of drug-resistant strains.

  15. The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad)

    PubMed

    Brunet, M; Beauvilain, A; Coppens, Y; Heintz, E; Moutaye, A H; Pilbeam, D

    1995-11-16

    The first sites with Pliocene and Pleistocene mammals west of the Rift Valley in Central Africa in northern Chad were reported in 1959 (ref. 1), and documented the presence of mixed savannah and woodland habitats. Further sites and a probable Homo erectus cranio-facial fragment were subsequently discovered. In 1993 a survey of Pliocene and Pleistocene formations in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Province of Chad (B.E.T.) led to the discovery of 17 new sites in the region of Bahr el Ghazal (classical Arabic for River of the Gazelles) near Koro Toro. One site, KT 12 (15 degrees 58'10"N, 18 degrees 52'46"E) yielded an australopithecine mandible associated with a fauna biochronologically estimated to be 3.0-3.5 Myr old. Australopithecine species described since 1925 are known from southern Africa and from sites spread along the eastern Rift Valley from Tanzania to Ethiopia (Fig. 1). This new find from Chad, which is most similar in morphology to Australopithecus afarensis, documents the presence of an early hominid a considerable distance, 2,500 km, west of the Rift Valley.

  16. Reliability of the TTC approach: learning from inclusion of pesticide active substances in the supporting database.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Alexandre; Pinalli, Roberta; Giannetto, Marco; Barlow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Data on pesticide active substances were used to assess the reliability of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) approach. Pesticides were chosen as a robust test because of their potential for toxicity. 328 pesticide substances were classified on the basis of their chemical structure, according to the generic scheme proposed by the European Food Safety Authority. 43 carbamates and organophosphates were allocated to the group for neurotoxicity alerts, and 279 substances to Cramer structural Class III. For Class III, the 5th percentile value as calculated from the cumulative distribution curve of the no-observed-effect levels (0.20 mg/kg bw per day), was slightly higher than that determined by Munro (0.15 mg/kg bw per day) from his original database. The difference is explained by the inclusion of carbamates and organophosphates in Munro's Class III. Consideration of the acceptable daily intakes and their underlying toxicity data showed that the TTC approach is conservative for 96.2% of the substances. Overall, this analysis gives added support to the utility of the generic scheme of application of the TTC approach for hazard assessment of substances for which few or no experimental toxicity data are available. A convenient alternative to the Cramer decision tree is proposed.

  17. Detection of groundwater from space-based IR data: application to the Lake Chad basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Antoine, Raphaël; Rabinowicz, Michel; Darrozes, José; Kerr, Yann; Cazenave, Anny

    2015-04-01

    In Lake Chad basin, the Quaternary phreatic Aquifer (named hereafter QPA) presents large piezometric anomalies referred as domes and depressions. The depth of these piezometric anomalies are ~15 m and ~60 m, respectively [1]. Three others aquifers have been described in the Lake Chad basin and they are separated from the QPA by a thick layer of Pliocene clay. Leblanc et al. (2003) discovered that brightness temperatures from METEOSAT infrared images of the Lake Chad basin show a correlation with the QPA piezometry. Indeed, during wet seasons, domes are associated with warm brightness temperatures, at the contrary of the depressions, which appear cold in METEOSAT images. Through this observation, these authors [2] proposed that this thermal behaviour results from an excess of evapotranspiration that can also explain the formation of the piezometric anomalies. However, data provided by temperature logs in oil wells QPA measurements lead us to propose another hypothesis. Temperature logs obtained in oil wells [3] illustrate that in the ancient Lake Chad and in the Bornu depression, at the SW of the Lake, heat transport is made by convection in the ~3 km deep confined aquifers. Moreover, we have estimated that the heat fluxes at the surface of the ancient Lake Chad can reach 138 mW m-2 and in the Bornu depression, ~63 mW m-2. Others oil wells show that, at the exterior of the depression, the heat transport is conductive and the heat fluxes at the surface are ~50 mW m-2. These new observations and our convective model permit us to propose that beneath the depressions, a cold descending convective current suck the QPA. Beneath the dome, a warm ascending current creates an overpressure in the QPA. Now, to explain the link observed with the thermal behaviour, we propose that over the domes, as the QPA is warm, heat is transported by capillarity. The piezometric depressions regions are associated with a presence of clay-rich soils at the surface, which makes difficult the

  18. A field-based investigation of hydrogeologic impacts on the Lake Chad basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Goni, I. B.; Grindley, J.; Bura, B.; Mulugeta, V.; Banks, M. L.; Ndunguru, G. G.; Adisa, S. J.; Adegoke, J. O.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Chad was once one of the largest freshwater lakes in the world but has been shrinking dramatically in the last three decades due to poor water resources management and global climate change. The Lake Chad basin has various scientific issues including extending wetlands with invasive species, shortage of water resources, flooding and drought, geomorphologic alteration from desertification, and chemical and biological transition of soil and vegetation. During the summer of 2009, US-Nigeria research team consisting of five professors and eight students from three universities implemented extensive field research along the Hadejia, Jama'are and Komadugu river systems in the Kumadugu-Yobe basin. This basin is a part of Lake Chad basin located in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of northeastern Nigeria. The downstream of the river system discharges water into the lake. Among many issues mentioned above, we focused on groundwater and surface water interactions, recharge potential of soil cover, water quality, and ground temperature. We collected more than a hundred water samples and over seventy soil samples from upstream of the Hadejia-Jama’are river to downstream terminating at the lake. The preliminary analysis shows that the effluent stream pattern at upstream near the Kano river changes at the midstream of Hadejia-Jama’are wetland where the boundary between the impermeable granite basement rock and the permeable Chad formation exists. As the groundwater in the upstream is mostly stored in the fractured aquifer in the basement rock, water table is relatively shallow compared to the one in the mid- and downstream of the river system where Chad formation is dominant. It is observed that the stage of surface water at Hadejia-Jama’are wetland is higher than groundwater and even surrounding ground elevation. This observation may support the expansion of wetland and frequent flooding events during wet season around the midstream area. The amount of discharge at

  19. DBAASP v.2: an enhanced database of structure and antimicrobial/cytotoxic activity of natural and synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Pirtskhalava, Malak; Gabrielian, Andrei; Cruz, Phillip; Griggs, Hannah L; Squires, R Burke; Hurt, Darrell E; Grigolava, Maia; Chubinidze, Mindia; Gogoladze, George; Vishnepolsky, Boris; Alekseev, Vsevolod; Rosenthal, Alex; Tartakovsky, Michael

    2016-01-04

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are anti-infectives that may represent a novel and untapped class of biotherapeutics. Increasing interest in AMPs means that new peptides (natural and synthetic) are discovered faster than ever before. We describe herein a new version of the Database of Antimicrobial Activity and Structure of Peptides (DBAASPv.2, which is freely accessible at http://dbaasp.org). This iteration of the database reports chemical structures and empirically-determined activities (MICs, IC50, etc.) against more than 4200 specific target microbes for more than 2000 ribosomal, 80 non-ribosomal and 5700 synthetic peptides. Of these, the vast majority are monomeric, but nearly 200 of these peptides are found as homo- or heterodimers. More than 6100 of the peptides are linear, but about 515 are cyclic and more than 1300 have other intra-chain covalent bonds. More than half of the entries in the database were added after the resource was initially described, which reflects the recent sharp uptick of interest in AMPs. New features of DBAASPv.2 include: (i) user-friendly utilities and reporting functions, (ii) a 'Ranking Search' function to query the database by target species and return a ranked list of peptides with activity against that target and (iii) structural descriptions of the peptides derived from empirical data or calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The three-dimensional structural data are critical components for understanding structure-activity relationships and for design of new antimicrobial drugs. We created more than 300 high-throughput MD simulations specifically for inclusion in DBAASP. The resulting structures are described in the database by novel trajectory analysis plots and movies. Another 200+ DBAASP entries have links to the Protein DataBank. All of the structures are easily visualized directly in the web browser.

  20. DBAASP v.2: an enhanced database of structure and antimicrobial/cytotoxic activity of natural and synthetic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Pirtskhalava, Malak; Gabrielian, Andrei; Cruz, Phillip; Griggs, Hannah L.; Squires, R. Burke; Hurt, Darrell E.; Grigolava, Maia; Chubinidze, Mindia; Gogoladze, George; Vishnepolsky, Boris; Alekseev, Vsevolod; Rosenthal, Alex; Tartakovsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are anti-infectives that may represent a novel and untapped class of biotherapeutics. Increasing interest in AMPs means that new peptides (natural and synthetic) are discovered faster than ever before. We describe herein a new version of the Database of Antimicrobial Activity and Structure of Peptides (DBAASPv.2, which is freely accessible at http://dbaasp.org). This iteration of the database reports chemical structures and empirically-determined activities (MICs, IC50, etc.) against more than 4200 specific target microbes for more than 2000 ribosomal, 80 non-ribosomal and 5700 synthetic peptides. Of these, the vast majority are monomeric, but nearly 200 of these peptides are found as homo- or heterodimers. More than 6100 of the peptides are linear, but about 515 are cyclic and more than 1300 have other intra-chain covalent bonds. More than half of the entries in the database were added after the resource was initially described, which reflects the recent sharp uptick of interest in AMPs. New features of DBAASPv.2 include: (i) user-friendly utilities and reporting functions, (ii) a ‘Ranking Search’ function to query the database by target species and return a ranked list of peptides with activity against that target and (iii) structural descriptions of the peptides derived from empirical data or calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The three-dimensional structural data are critical components for understanding structure–activity relationships and for design of new antimicrobial drugs. We created more than 300 high-throughput MD simulations specifically for inclusion in DBAASP. The resulting structures are described in the database by novel trajectory analysis plots and movies. Another 200+ DBAASP entries have links to the Protein DataBank. All of the structures are easily visualized directly in the web browser. PMID:26578581

  1. Assessing urology and nephrology research activity in Arab countries using ISI web of science bibliometric database

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bibliometric analysis is increasingly being used for research assessment. The main objective of this study was to assess research output in Urology and Nephrology subject from the Arab countries. Original scientific articles or reviews published from the 21 Arab countries in “Urology and Nephrology” subject were screened using the ISI Web of Science database. Research productivity was evaluated based on a methodology developed and used in other bibliometric studies by analyzing the annual productivity, names of journals, citations; top 10 active institution and authors as well as country contribution to Urology and Nephrology research. Results Three thousand and seventy six documents in “urology and nephrology” subject category were retrieved from 104 journals. This represents 1.4% of the global research output in “urology and nephrology”. Four hundred and two documents (12.66%) were published in Annales D Urologie Journal. The h-index of the retrieved documents was 57. The total number of citations, at the time of data analysis, was 30401 with an average citation of 9.57 per document. Egypt, with a total publication of 1284 (40.43%) ranked first among the Arab countries in “urology and nephrology” subject category. Mansoura University in Egypt was the most productive institution with a total of 561 (15.33%) documents. Arab researchers collaborated most with researchers from the United States of America (226; 7.12%) in urology and nephrology research. Conclusion The present data reveals a good contribution of some Arab countries to the field of “urology and nephrology”. More efforts are needed by some other Arab countries to bridge the gap in urology and nephrology research. Overall, the quality of urology/nephrology research is considered relatively high as measured by h-index. Cooperation in urology/nephrology research should be encouraged in the Arab world to bridge the gap with that from developed countries. PMID:24758477

  2. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14–0.33 and 6.61–9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients. PMID:26274956

  3. Nutritional Characterization and Phenolic Profiling of Moringa oleifera Leaves Grown in Chad, Sahrawi Refugee Camps, and Haiti.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Fiorillo, Giovanni; Criscuoli, Franca; Ravasenghi, Stefano; Santagostini, Laura; Fico, Gelsomina; Spadafranca, Angela; Battezzati, Alberto; Schiraldi, Alberto; Pozzi, Federica; di Lello, Sara; Filippini, Sandro; Bertoli, Simona

    2015-08-12

    Moringa oleifera is a plant that grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Its leaves are rich of nutrients and bioactive compounds. However, several differences are reported in the literature. In this article we performed a nutritional characterization and a phenolic profiling of M. oleifera leaves grown in Chad, Sahrawi refugee camps, and Haiti. In addition, we investigated the presence of salicylic and ferulic acids, two phenolic acids with pharmacological activity, whose presence in M. oleifera leaves has been scarcely investigated so far. Several differences were observed among the samples. Nevertheless, the leaves were rich in protein, minerals, and β-carotene. Quercetin and kaempferol glycosides were the main phenolic compounds identified in the methanolic extracts. Finally, salicylic and ferulic acids were found in a concentration range of 0.14-0.33 and 6.61-9.69 mg/100 g, respectively. In conclusion, we observed some differences in terms of nutrients and phenolic compounds in M. oleifera leaves grown in different countries. Nevertheless, these leaves are a good and economical source of nutrients for tropical and sub-tropical countries. Furthermore, M. oleifera leaves are a source of flavonoids and phenolic acids, among which salicylic and ferulic acids, and therefore they could be used as nutraceutical and functional ingredients.

  4. Community health outreach program of the Chad-Cameroon petroleum development and pipeline project.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, Jürg; Wyss, Kaspar; Moto, Daugla D; Tanner, Marcel; Singer, Burton H

    2004-02-01

    applying a systemic approach. Other innovations of the project in general, and the CHOP in particular, are the strong emphases on institutional-capacity building, integration, and sustainability. In countries like Chad and Cameroon, there are serious shortages of well-qualified health personnel. The CHOP described in this article provides leverage for initiating better healthcare that will reduce the high burden of disease in the developing world. Reducing mortality rates for infants and children younger than 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa requires massive scaling-up of malaria-control interventions (eg, large-scale distribution of ITNs to protect millions of African children), thereby approaching the Abuja targets (see Armstrong Schellenberg et al). The local NGOs that took a lead within the framework of the CHOP in the distribution of ITNs and accompanying health education messages can extend these activities to communities living outside the vicinity of the project area. Serious shortcomings of the current CHOP, consistently identified by the external monitoring groups, include the lack of a regional health plan, cumulative impact assessment, and provision of clean water and sanitation outside the narrowly defined project area. This point is of central importance, particularly for Chad, where access to clean water and improved sanitation facilities is low. Another limitation of the current CHOP is the insufficient amount of significance addressed to tuberculosis and the apparent lack of concerted control efforts against HIV infection, AIDS, and tuberculosis. These criticisms, however, must be balanced against the lack of clarity in international discourse about the proper extent of responsibility of the corporate sector for dealing with the health problems of countries in which they do business. In an elegant analysis, the environmental risk factor "unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene" was shown to be one of the major contributors to loss of healthy life, particularly

  5. [Computerized temperature monitoring of the vaccine cold chain in a tropical climate, Chad].

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, M; Mireux, F; Tchang, S G; Mboutbogol, D; Cheikh, D O; Hissein, A A; Youssouf, B O; Brahimi, M M; Gamatié, Y

    2011-06-01

    Because new EPI liquid vaccines are highly sensitive to freezing and overheating, close monitoring of the cold chain is mandatory. The new Testostore 171-1 electronic thermometer (Testo) provides more reliable monitoring of cold chain temperature than freezer indicators, vaccine vial monitors and color strips that only indicate if vaccines are out-of-date. The Testo thermometer uses a probe placed in refrigeration units to periodically measure and store temperature readings. Temperature curves are displayed via a USB connection on a laptop computer running special software (Comfort software light). Testo temperature data can easily be communicated to all management levels by e-mail. The first experience using the Testo system in Africa involved regional EPI supervision in Mondou, Logone Occidental, Chad. After a preliminary mission in Chad in 2006 showed the feasibility of using this method to manage the national cold chain at all levels, a nurse was appointed as EPI supervisor and given a refresher course in Chad's capital Ndjamena in March 2009. In April-May 2009, the supervisor was sent back to the Logone Occidental Region to monitor, by himself, refrigeration units making up the regional and district cold chain for vaccine storage in five health centers (rural and urban). Temperature curve readings were performed on site in the presence of the medical staff and results were compared to those recorded twice a day on conventional temperature charts using lamellar thermometers installed in refrigerators doors. Testo curves showed that liquid vaccine storage temperatures fell below freezing too frequently and that temperatures readings of door thermometers were often inaccurate. Testo readings also detected power outages in refrigeration units used in urban settings and flame extinctions in kerosene lamp refrigerators due to refrigerator breakdown or windy weather conditions before the rainy season. The main advantage of this monitoring method is to provide

  6. Petroleum geology of rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Genik, G.J. )

    1991-08-01

    Ten Cretaceous-Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic (C.A.R.) are defined and the petroleum geology is overviewed based on proprietary exploration results derived from more than one million km{sup 2} of aeromagnetics, 10,520 line-km of gravity profiles, 49,721 km of reflection seismic, and 50 exploration wells. The data were acquired by Exxon with partners Shell, Chevron, Elf, Conoco, Texaco, and Amax Oil Gas During 1969-1989. In Niger and Chad, the West African rift subsystem includes the extensional basins of Termit, Tefidet, Tenere, Grein/Kafra, N'Djel Edji, and Bongor. These rift basins contain up to 15,000 m of Cretaceous to Cenozoic continental and marine clastics. Key exploration elements are Tertiary and Cretaceous fluvial to tidal sandstone reservoirs, Tertiary and Cretaceous marine to lacustrine shale source rocks and seals, with traps in normal fault blocks and anticlinal closures. There have been six oil discoveries in the Termit basin. In C.A.R., the Central African rift subsystem incorporates the extensional Doba and transtensional Doseo and Salamat basins flanking the Borogop dextral wrench fault. These basins contain up to 7,500 m of chiefly Cretaceous continental clastics. key exploration elements are Lower and Upper Cretaceous fluvial to lacustrine sandstone reservoirs, Lower Cretaceous lacustrine shale source rocks, lacustrine to flood-plain shale and mudstone seals, with traps in mainly faulted anticlinal closures. There have been six oil discoveries in the Doba basin and three in the Doseo basin. The studied petroleum geology in the rifts of Niger, Chad, and C.A.R. indicates that potentially commercial volumes of oil remain to be discovered.

  7. Development of a database for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis: Summary report of the third research coordination meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, Richard M.; Firestone, Richard B.; Pavi, ???

    2003-04-01

    The main discussions and conclusions from the Third Co-ordination Meeting on the Development of a Database for Prompt Gamma-ray Neutron Activation Analysis are summarized in this report. All results were reviewed in detail, and the final version of the TECDOC and the corresponding software were agreed upon and approved for preparation. Actions were formulated with the aim of completing the final version of the TECDOC and associated software by May 2003.

  8. Detection of Groundwater from Space-Based IR Data: Application to the Lake Chad Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genthon, P.; Lopez, T.; Antoine, R.; Rabinowicz, M.; Darrozes, J.; Kerr, Y. H.; Cazenave, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    In Lake Chad basin, the Quaternary phreatic Aquifer (named hereafter QPA) presents large piezometric anomalies referred as domes and depressions. Depths of these piezometric anomalies are ~15 m and ~60 m, respectively [1]. Leblanc et al., (2003) discovered that brightness temperatures from METEOSAT infrared images of the Lake Chad basin show a correlation with the QPA piezometry. Indeed, during wet seasons, domes are associated with warm brightness temperatures, at the contrary of the depressions, which appear cold in METEOSAT images. Through this observation, these authors [2] proposed that this thermal behaviour results from an excess of evapotranspiration that can also explain the formation of the piezometric anomalies. However, data provided by temperature logs in oil wells lead us to propose another hypothesis. Temperature logs obtained in oil wells [3] illustrate that in the ancient Lake Chad and in the Bornou depression, at the SW of the Lake, heat transport is made by convection in the ~3 km deep confined aquifers. Moreover, we have estimated that the heat fluxes at the surface of the ancient Lake Chad can reach 138 mW m-2 and in the Bornou depression, ~63 mW m-2. Others oil wells show that, at the exterior of the depression, the heat transport is conductive and the heat fluxes at the surface are ~50 mW m-2. These new observations permit us to propose that beneath the depressions, a cold and salty descending convective current suck the QPA. Beneath the dome, a warm and less salty ascending current creates an overpressure in the QPA. Now, to explain the link observed with the thermal behaviour, we propose that over the domes, as the QPA is warm, water can rises by capillarity. The piezometric depressions regions are associated with a presence of clay-rich soils at the surface, which makes difficult the exchange between the QPA and the atmosphere. However, we have discovered some giant dessication cracks that can facilitate the exchanges by increasing the

  9. Chad: An Overview of a Country Plagued with Internal Strife and Regional Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-09

    Chad: An Overview of a Country Plauged with Internal Strife and Regional Conflict 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...F33615-86-C-5169. 5b. GRANT NUMBER. Enter all grant numbers as they appear in the report, e.g. 1F665702D1257. 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER. Enter...all program element numbers as they appear in the report, e.g. AFOSR-82-1234. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER. Enter al project numbers as they appear in the

  10. Evolution of Lake Chad Basin hydrology during the mid-Holocene: A preliminary approach from lake to climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, Pierre; Schuster, Mathieu; Ramstein, Gilles; Krinnezr, Gerhard; Girard, Jean-Francois; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2008-03-01

    During the mid-Holocene (6000 yr Before Present, hereafter yr BP) the Chad Basin was occupied by a large endoreic lake, called Lake Mega-Chad. The existence of this lake at that time seems linked to increased monsoonal moisture supply to the Sahel and the Sahara, which in turn was probably ultimately caused by variations in the orbital forcing and higher temperature gradients between ocean and continent. This study provides a synthesis of several works carried out on the Lake Chad Basin and analyses the results of a simulation of the mid-Holocene climate with an Atmosphere General Circulation Model (LMDZ for Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, IPSL Paris), with emphasis on the possible conditions leading to the existence of Lake Mega-Chad. The aim is to define the best diagnostics to understand which mechanisms lead to the existence of the large lake. This paper is the first step of an ongoing work that intends to understand the environmental conditions that this part of Africa experienced during the Upper Miocene (ca. 7 Ma BP), an epoch that was contemporaneous with the first known hominids. Indeed, early hominids of Lake Chad Basin, Australopithecus bahrelghazali [ Brunet, M., et al., 1995. The first australopithecine 2500 kilometers west of the Rift-Valley (Chad). Nature, 378(6554): 273-275] and Sahelanthropus tchadensis [Brunet, M., et al., 2002. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, central Africa. Nature, 418(6894): 145-151; Brunet, M., et al., 2005. New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad. Nature, 434(7034): 752-755] are systematically associated with wet episodes that are documented for 7 Ma BP [Vignaud, P., et al., 2002. Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad. Nature, 418(6894): 152-155] and testified by extended lacustrine deposits (diatomites, pelites, various aquatic fauna). Because the mid-Holocene was the last such mega-lake episode, our aim here is to assess the

  11. Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad.

    PubMed

    Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Bourlès, Didier L; Duringer, Philippe; Jolivet, Marc; Braucher, Régis; Carcaillet, Julien; Schuster, Mathieu; Arnaud, Nicolas; Monié, Patrick; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2008-03-04

    Ages were determined at two hominid localities from the Chad Basin in the Djurab Desert (Northern Chad). In the Koro Toro fossiliferous area, KT 12 locality (16 degrees 00'N, 18 degrees 53'E) was the site of discovery of Australopithecus bahrelghazali (Abel) and in the Toros-Menalla fossiliferous area, TM 266 locality (16 degrees 15'N, 17 degrees 29'E) was the site of discovery of Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumaï). At both localities, the evolutive degree of the associated fossil mammal assemblages allowed a biochronological estimation of the hominid remains: early Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) at KT 12 and late Miocene ( approximately 7 Ma) at TM 266. Atmospheric (10)Be, a cosmogenic nuclide, was used to quasicontinuously date these sedimentary units. The authigenic (10)Be/(9)Be dating of a pelite relic within the sedimentary level containing Abel yields an age of 3.58 +/- 0.27 Ma that points to the contemporaneity of Australopithecus bahrelghazali (Abel) with Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy). The 28 (10)Be/(9)Be ages obtained within the anthracotheriid unit containing Toumaï bracket, by absolute dating, the age of Sahelanthropus tchadensis to lie between 6.8 and 7.2 Ma. This chronological constraint is an important cornerstone both for establishing the earliest stages of hominid evolution and for new calibrations of the molecular clock.

  12. A fossil aardvark (Mammalia, Tubulidentata) from the lower Pliocene of Chad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Thomas; Vignaud, Patrick; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Brunet, Michel

    2004-12-01

    The Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne (MPFT) found a new species of Orycteropodidae (Mammalia, Tubulidentata) in the Kollé fossiliferous sector, northern Chad. After Orycteropus abundulafus [Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 20 (1) (2000) 205-209; Lehmann, T., Vignaud, P., Likius A., Brunet M., in press. A new Orycteropodidae (Mammalia, Tubulidentata) in the Mio-Pliocene of Northern Chad. Zool. J. Linnean Soc.], this specimen is the second complete skeleton of fossil aardvark found in the Djurab desert. It is the first complete representative of an Orycteropus species found in the Pliocene of Africa. In regard to the Miocene fossil aardvarks, this new taxon, Orycteropus djourabensis nov. sp., shows more affinities with the extant O. afer. The main differences are the larger teeth and the shorter hand in the fossil form. Kossom Bougoudi and Kollé represent a chronological series that gives a unique opportunity for studying the evolution of the African Tubulidentata around the Mio-Pliocene boundary (5.5-4 My). The new species is distinct from the older Chadian Orycteropodid from KB and it embodies the taxonomic turnover that took place within the order Tubulidentata around this boundary in Africa. Moreover, this new species is the oldest known Orycteropus species that clearly belongs to the modern forms including the extant aardvark.

  13. Characteristics of Lake Chad Level Variability and Links to ENSO, Precipitation, and River Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Demoz, Belay; Gebremariam, Sium

    2014-01-01

    This study used trend, correlation, and wavelet analysis to characterize Lake Chad (LC) level fluctuations, river discharge, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and precipitation regimes and their interrelationships. Linear correlation results indicate a negative association between ENSO and LC level, river discharge and precipitation. Trend analysis shows increasing precipitation in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) but decreasing LC level. The mode of interannual variability in LC level, rainfall, and ENSO analyzed using wavelet analysis is dominated by 3-4-year periods. Results show that variability in ENSO could explain only 31% and 13% of variations in LC level at Kindjeria and precipitation in the northern LCB, respectively. The wavelet transform coherency (WTC) between LC level of the southern pool at Kalom and ENSO is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level and phase-locked, implying a cause-and-effect association. These strong coherencies coincide with the La Niña years with the exception of 1997-1998 El Niño events. The WTC shows strong covariance between increasing precipitation and LC level in the northern pool at a 2- to 4-year band and 3- to 4-year band localized from 1996 to 2010. Implications for water resource planning and management are discussed. PMID:25538946

  14. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  15. Isotopic evidence for an early shift to C4 resources by Pliocene hominins in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Thorp, Julia; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane T.; Vignaud, Patrick; Sponheimer, Matt; Brunet, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Foods derived from C4 plants were important in the dietary ecology of early Pleistocene hominins in southern and eastern Africa, but the origins and geographic variability of this relationship remain unknown. Carbon isotope data show that Australopithecus bahrelghazali individuals from Koro Toro in Chad are significantly enriched in 13C, indicating a dependence on C4 resources. As these sites are over 3 million years in age, the results extend the pattern of C4 dependence seen in Paranthropus boisei in East Africa by more than 1.5 million years. The Koro Toro hominin fossils were found in argillaceous sandstone levels along with abundant grazing and aquatic faunal elements that, in combination, indicate the presence of open to wooded grasslands and stream channels associated with a greatly enlarged Lake Chad. In such an environment, the most abundant C4 plant resources available to A. bahrelghazali were grasses and sedges, neither of which is usually considered as standard great ape fare. The results suggest an early and fundamental shift in hominin dietary ecology that facilitated the exploitation of new habitats. PMID:23150583

  16. Characteristics of Lake Chad level variability and links to ENSO, precipitation, and river discharge.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Churchill; Demoz, Belay; Gebremariam, Sium

    2014-01-01

    This study used trend, correlation, and wavelet analysis to characterize Lake Chad (LC) level fluctuations, river discharge, El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and precipitation regimes and their interrelationships. Linear correlation results indicate a negative association between ENSO and LC level, river discharge and precipitation. Trend analysis shows increasing precipitation in the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) but decreasing LC level. The mode of interannual variability in LC level, rainfall, and ENSO analyzed using wavelet analysis is dominated by 3-4-year periods. Results show that variability in ENSO could explain only 31% and 13% of variations in LC level at Kindjeria and precipitation in the northern LCB, respectively. The wavelet transform coherency (WTC) between LC level of the southern pool at Kalom and ENSO is statistically significant at the 95% confidence level and phase-locked, implying a cause-and-effect association. These strong coherencies coincide with the La Niña years with the exception of 1997-1998 El Niño events. The WTC shows strong covariance between increasing precipitation and LC level in the northern pool at a 2- to 4-year band and 3- to 4-year band localized from 1996 to 2010. Implications for water resource planning and management are discussed.

  17. Lake drying and livelihood dynamics in Lake Chad: Unravelling the mechanisms, contexts and responses.

    PubMed

    Okpara, Uche T; Stringer, Lindsay C; Dougill, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    This article examines lake drying and livelihood dynamics in the context of multiple stressors through a case study of the "Small Lake Chad" in the Republic of Chad. Livelihoods research in regions experiencing persistent lake water fluctuations has largely focused on the well-being and security of lakeshore dwellers. Little is known about the mechanisms through which lake drying shapes livelihood drawbacks and opportunities, and whether locally evolved responses are enhancing livelihoods. Here we address these gaps using empirical, mixed-methods field research couched within the framework of livelihoods and human well-being contexts. The analysis demonstrates that limited opportunities outside agriculture, the influx of mixed ethnic migrants and the increasing spate of violence all enhance livelihood challenges. Livelihood opportunities centre on the renewal effects of seasonal flood pulses on lake waters and the learning opportunities triggered by past droughts. Although drying has spurred new adaptive behaviours predicated on seasonality, traditional predictive factors and the availability of assets, responses have remained largely reactive. The article points to where lake drying fits amongst changes in the wider socio-economic landscape in which people live, and suggests that awareness of the particularities of the mechanisms that connect lake drying to livelihoods can offer insights into the ways local people might be assisted by governments and development actors.

  18. Isotopic evidence for an early shift to C₄ resources by Pliocene hominins in Chad.

    PubMed

    Lee-Thorp, Julia; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane T; Vignaud, Patrick; Sponheimer, Matt; Brunet, Michel

    2012-12-11

    Foods derived from C(4) plants were important in the dietary ecology of early Pleistocene hominins in southern and eastern Africa, but the origins and geographic variability of this relationship remain unknown. Carbon isotope data show that Australopithecus bahrelghazali individuals from Koro Toro in Chad are significantly enriched in (13)C, indicating a dependence on C(4) resources. As these sites are over 3 million years in age, the results extend the pattern of C(4) dependence seen in Paranthropus boisei in East Africa by more than 1.5 million years. The Koro Toro hominin fossils were found in argillaceous sandstone levels along with abundant grazing and aquatic faunal elements that, in combination, indicate the presence of open to wooded grasslands and stream channels associated with a greatly enlarged Lake Chad. In such an environment, the most abundant C(4) plant resources available to A. bahrelghazali were grasses and sedges, neither of which is usually considered as standard great ape fare. The results suggest an early and fundamental shift in hominin dietary ecology that facilitated the exploitation of new habitats.

  19. [Morbidity patterns in three nomadic communities in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad].

    PubMed

    Daugla, D M; Daoud, S; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of an multidisciplinary research and action program, morbidity patterns were assessed in three nomadic communities, i.e., Fulani, Arab cattle breeders and Arab camel breeders, living in Chari-Baguirmi and Kanem, Chad. This is the first data about the health of Chadian nomadic pastoralists who account for approximately 6% of the total population. A total of 1092 women, men and children were interviewed and examined in the course of three surveys carried out by a physician during the dry and rainy season. Nomads reporting no health problems were rare. Tuberculosis was suspected in 4.6% of adults after clinical examination and bronchopulmonary disorders in children less than five years of age. Febrile diarrhea was more prevalent during the wet season when access to clean drinking water was more difficult. Simple malaria was rarely diagnosed in Arabs during the dry season. In contrast simple malaria was frequent in Fulani who stay in the vicinity of Lake Chad during the dry period. Protein-energy malnutrition was observed in only 3 of 328 children younger than 15 years of age.

  20. Cosmogenic nuclide dating of Sahelanthropus tchadensis and Australopithecus bahrelghazali: Mio-Pliocene hominids from Chad

    PubMed Central

    Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Bourlès, Didier L.; Duringer, Philippe; Jolivet, Marc; Braucher, Régis; Carcaillet, Julien; Schuster, Mathieu; Arnaud, Nicolas; Monié, Patrick; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Ages were determined at two hominid localities from the Chad Basin in the Djurab Desert (Northern Chad). In the Koro Toro fossiliferous area, KT 12 locality (16°00′N, 18°53′E) was the site of discovery of Australopithecus bahrelghazali (Abel) and in the Toros-Menalla fossiliferous area, TM 266 locality (16°15′N, 17°29′E) was the site of discovery of Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumaï). At both localities, the evolutive degree of the associated fossil mammal assemblages allowed a biochronological estimation of the hominid remains: early Pliocene (3–3.5 Ma) at KT 12 and late Miocene (≈7 Ma) at TM 266. Atmospheric 10Be, a cosmogenic nuclide, was used to quasicontinuously date these sedimentary units. The authigenic 10Be/9Be dating of a pelite relic within the sedimentary level containing Abel yields an age of 3.58 ± 0.27 Ma that points to the contemporaneity of Australopithecus bahrelghazali (Abel) with Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy). The 28 10Be/9Be ages obtained within the anthracotheriid unit containing Toumaï bracket, by absolute dating, the age of Sahelanthropus tchadensis to lie between 6.8 and 7.2 Ma. This chronological constraint is an important cornerstone both for establishing the earliest stages of hominid evolution and for new calibrations of the molecular clock. PMID:18305174

  1. Mousso structure: A deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact crater in northern Chad?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Elmar; Schmieder, Martin

    2007-10-01

    The Mousso structure, a complex, ˜3.8 km circular structure centred on 17°58' N/19°53' E and located near the Mousso oasis, Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti, northern Chad, displays structural features typical for complex impact structures: a circular rim with concentric faults, an annular basin, and a central peak. Remote sensing investigations based on Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data reveal a specific morphological-structural resemblance of the complex central peak of the Mousso structure to the central uplift of the Spider impact structure, Western Australia, and, to some degree, to the central uplifts of the Upheaval Dome, Sierra Madera, and Gosses Bluff impact structures. This is consistent with the layered sedimentary rocks associated with all of these structures. No endogenic geological processes such as magmatism, diapirism, karst dissolution, and glacial or fluvial erosion can conclusively explain the formation of the Mousso structure within a large area of flat-lying early Paleozoic sandstones. Thus, this paper proposes that the Mousso structure might represent a deeply eroded, medium-sized, complex impact structure. As field investigations are currently impossible due to the civil war in Chad, the search for shock-metamorphic effects in rocks of the Mousso structure remains outstanding.

  2. New material of the earliest hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Michel; Guy, Franck; Pilbeam, David; Lieberman, Daniel E; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane T; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Vignaud, Patrick

    2005-04-07

    Discoveries in Chad by the Mission Paleoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne have substantially changed our understanding of early human evolution in Africa. In particular, the TM 266 locality in the Toros-Menalla fossiliferous area yielded a nearly complete cranium (TM 266-01-60-1), a mandible, and several isolated teeth assigned to Sahelanthropus tchadensis and biochronologically dated to the late Miocene epoch (about 7 million years ago). Despite the relative completeness of the TM 266 cranium, there has been some controversy about its morphology and its status in the hominid clade. Here we describe new dental and mandibular specimens from three Toros-Menalla (Chad) fossiliferous localities (TM 247, TM 266 and TM 292) of the same age. This new material, including a lower canine consistent with a non-honing C/P3 complex, post-canine teeth with primitive root morphology and intermediate radial enamel thickness, is attributed to S. tchadensis. It expands the hypodigm of the species and provides additional anatomical characters that confirm the morphological differences between S. tchadensis and African apes. S. tchadensis presents several key derived features consistent with its position in the hominid clade close to the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  3. Detection of groundwater from space-based IR data: application to the Lake Chad basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Teodolina; Antoine, Raphaël; Genthon, Pierre; Rabinowicz, Michel; Darrozes, José; Kerr, Yann; Cazenave, Anny

    2014-05-01

    In Lake Chad basin, the Quaternary phreatic Aquifer (named hereafter QPA) presents large piezometric anomalies referred as domes and depressions. The depth of these piezometric anomalies are ~15 m and ~60 m, respectively [1]. Three others aquifers have been described in the Lake Chad basin and they are separated from the QPA by a thick layer of Pliocene clay. Leblanc et al., (2003) discovered that brightness temperatures from METEOSAT infrared images of the Lake Chad basin show a correlation with the QPA piezometry. Indeed, during wet seasons, domes are associated with warm brightness temperatures, at the contrary of the depressions, which appear cold in METEOSAT images. Through this observation, these authors [2] proposed that this thermal behaviour results from an excess of evapotranspiration that can also explain the formation of the piezometric anomalies. However, data provided by temperature logs in oil wells and recent hydrogeochemicals QPA measurements lead us to propose another hypothesis. Hydrogeochemicals measurements clearly show that the piezometric depressions have a higher electrical conductivity, i.e. ~4800 μS cm-1 [3] and that the first tens of meters of the QPA also show an electrical conductivity increase with depth [4]. Temperature logs obtained in oil wells [5] illustrate that in the ancient Lake Chad and in the Bornou depression, at the SW of the Lake, heat transport is made by convection in the ~3 km deep confined aquifers. Moreover, we have estimated that the heat fluxes at the surface of the ancient Lake Chad can reach 138 mW m-2 and in the Bornou depression, ~63 mW m-2. Others oil wells show that, at the exterior of the depression, the heat transport is conductive and the heat fluxes at the surface are ~50 mW m-2. These new observations permit us to propose that beneath the depressions, a cold and salty descending convective current suck the QPA. Beneath the dome, a warm and less salty ascending current creates an overpressure in the QPA

  4. Understanding Chad Basin Evolution Since Miocene: Climate and Vegetation Simulations, Roles of Orbital Parameters and East African Rift.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, P.; Ramstein, G.; Krinner, G.; Schuster, M.; Fluteau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Tiercelin, J.; Vignaud, P.; Brunet, M.

    2004-12-01

    Since the discovery of the earliest hominid known, Chad basin is a major place to study paleoclimates and hominid evolution. This discovery implies to re-evaluate the "East Side Story" paradigm for early hominids. To achieve this goal, we have performed numerical simulations to quantify the climatic and vegetation response of the Rift Uplift. We used a zoomed (144 X 108) AGCM (LMDz from IPSL). On the one hand, offline continental biosphere model (ORCHIDEE) has been used to simulate the vegetation response over western and eastern parts of the rift. On the other hand, since geomorphologic evidences have shown that from Upper Miocene to mid-Holocene Lake Chad had known several level oscillations leading to a huge lake known as Mega Lake Chad (MLC), we also ran atmospheric simulations to demonstrate, with boundary conditions at 6 000 BP, that orbital forcing allowed the existence of a MLC. Volume and surface of the lake have been calculated using an adapted lake model. These simulations have shown that the ITCZ shift induced by the mid-Holocene orbital parameters drives the existence of a MegaChad. Our model result having been tested successfully for the last occurrence of the MLC, we will apply it to Upper Miocene accounting for topographic changes, in order to reconstruct as accurately as possible the first hominids environments.

  5. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Molecular Diversity of Bacillus anthracis Strains in Chad: Detection of a New Phylogenetic Subgroup

    PubMed Central

    Maho, Angaya; Rossano, Alexandra; Hächler, Herbert; Holzer, Anita; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hassane, Mahamat H.; Toguebaye, Bhen S.; Akakpo, Ayayi J.; Van Ert, Matthew; Keim, Paul; Kenefic, Leo; Frey, Joachim; Perreten, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    We genotyped 15 Bacillus anthracis isolates from Chad, Africa, using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and three additional direct-repeat markers. We identified two unique genotypes that represent a novel genetic lineage in the A cluster. Chadian isolates were susceptible to 11 antibiotics and free of 94 antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:16954291

  6. Curating and Preserving the Big Canopy Database System: an Active Curation Approach using SEAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, J.; Cushing, J. B.; Lynn, P.; Weiner, N.; Ovchinnikova, A.; Nadkarni, N.; McIntosh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Modern research is increasingly dependent upon highly heterogeneous data and on the associated cyberinfrastructure developed to organize, analyze, and visualize that data. However, due to the complexity and custom nature of such combined data-software systems, it can be very challenging to curate and preserve them for the long term at reasonable cost and in a way that retains their scientific value. In this presentation, we describe how this challenge was met in preserving the Big Canopy Database (CanopyDB) system using an agile approach and leveraging the Sustainable Environment - Actionable Data (SEAD) DataNet project's hosted data services. The CanopyDB system was developed over more than a decade at Evergreen State College to address the needs of forest canopy researchers. It is an early yet sophisticated exemplar of the type of system that has become common in biological research and science in general, including multiple relational databases for different experiments, a custom database generation tool used to create them, an image repository, and desktop and web tools to access, analyze, and visualize this data. SEAD provides secure project spaces with a semantic content abstraction (typed content with arbitrary RDF metadata statements and relationships to other content), combined with a standards-based curation and publication pipeline resulting in packaged research objects with Digital Object Identifiers. Using SEAD, our cross-project team was able to incrementally ingest CanopyDB components (images, datasets, software source code, documentation, executables, and virtualized services) and to iteratively define and extend the metadata and relationships needed to document them. We believe that both the process, and the richness of the resultant standards-based (OAI-ORE) preservation object, hold lessons for the development of best-practice solutions for preserving scientific data in association with the tools and services needed to derive value from it.

  7. "Groundwater ages" of the Lake Chad multi-layer aquifers system inferred from 14C and 36Cl data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchez, Camille; Deschamps, Pierre; Goncalves, Julio; Hamelin, Bruno; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of recharge, paleo-recharge and groundwater residence time of aquifer systems of the Sahel is pivotal for a sustainable management of this vulnerable resource. Due to its stratified aquifer system, the Lake Chad Basin (LCB) offers the opportunity to assess recharge processes over time and to link climate and hydrology in the Sahel. Located in north-central Africa at the fringe between the Sahel and the Sahara, the lake Chad basin (LCB) is an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. With a monsoon climate, the majority of the rainfall occurs in the southern one third of the basin, the Chari/Logone River system transporting about 90% of the runoff generated within the drainage basin. A complex multi-layer aquifer system is located in the central part of the LCB. The Quaternary unconfined aquifer, covering 500 000 km2, is characterized by the occurrence of poorly understood piezometric depressions. Artesian groundwaters are found in the Plio-Pleistocene lacustrine and deltaic sedimentary aquifers (early Pliocene and Continental Terminal). The present-day lake is in hydraulic contact with the Quaternary Aquifer, but during past megalake phases, most of the Quaternary aquifer was submerged and may experience major recharge events. To identify active recharge area and assess groundwater dynamics, one hundred surface and groundwater samples of all layers have been collected over the southern part of the LCB. Major and trace elements have been analyzed. Measurements of 36Cl have been carried out at CEREGE, on the French 5 MV AMS National Facility ASTER and 14C activities have been analyzed for 17 samples on the French AMS ARTEMIS. Additionally, the stable isotopic composition was measured on the artesian aquifer samples. In the Quaternary aquifer, results show a large scatter with waters having very different isotopic and geochemical signature. In its southern part and in the vicinity of the surface waters, groundwaters are predominantly Ca-Mg-HCO3 type waters with very

  8. Anticoagulation Stability Depends on CHADS2 Score and Hepatorenal Function in Warfarin-treated Patients, Including Those with Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Odashiro, Keita; Fukata, Mitsuhiro; Arita, Takeshi; Maruyama, Toru; Akashi, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Although warfarin remains important despite the widespread use of nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), to date, the reality of warfarin use in the “NOACs era” is unclear. This multicenter observational study aimed to clarify the key factors contributing to warfarin treatment stability. Methods: The practical use of warfarin, stability of warfarin therapy, and factors contributing to this stability were investigated in community-based hospitals through a real-world study. Clinical data were retrospectively extracted from the medical records of warfarin-treated Japanese patients (age, 71.3 ± 5.5 years) with atrial fibrillation (AF), prosthetic heart valve, or other concerns requiring anticoagulation. Treatment stability was considered as time in therapeutic range of international normalized ratio of prothrombin time (TTR: %). The factors contributing to TTR were investigated, including CHADS2 score components. Results: Mean CHADS2 score was highest (1.38 ± 0.88, p < 0.001), and most CHADS2 score components in addition to hepatorenal dysfunction were factors contributing to the low TTR in patients with AF (n = 176). The similarity was found in overall patients who were prescribed warfarin (n = 518). TTR decreased according to the CHADS2 score component accumulation. Gender, dose and prescription interval of warfarin, and co-administration of antiplatelet agents did not correlate with the low TTR. Conclusions: This retrospective study demonstrated that the CHADS2 score component accumulation and hepatorenal dysfunction are factors significantly contributing to the low TTR, which is indicative of poor warfarin treatment stability, in patients such as those with AF. PMID:27319745

  9. Database of Industrial Technological Information in Kanagawa : Networks for Technology Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akira; Shindo, Tadashi

    This system is one of the databases which require participation by its members and of which premise is to open all the data in it. Aiming at free technological cooperation and exchange among industries it was constructed by Kanagawa Prefecture in collaboration with enterprises located in it. The input data is 36 items such as major product, special and advantageous technology, technolagy to be wanted for cooperation, facility and equipment, which technologically characterize each enterprise. They are expressed in 2,000 characters and written by natural language including Kanji except for some coded items. 24 search items are accessed by natural language so that in addition to interactive searching procedures including menu-type it enables extensive searching. The information service started in Oct., 1986 covering data from 2,000 enterprisen.

  10. The design and implementation of EPL: An event pattern language for active databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giuffrida, G.; Zaniolo, C.

    1994-01-01

    The growing demand for intelligent information systems requires closer coupling of rule-based reasoning engines, such as CLIPS, with advanced data base management systems (DBMS). For instance, several commercial DBMS now support the notion of triggers that monitor events and transactions occurring in the database and fire induced actions, which perform a variety of critical functions, including safeguarding the integrity of data, monitoring access, and recording volatile information needed by administrators, analysts, and expert systems to perform assorted tasks; examples of these tasks include security enforcement, market studies, knowledge discovery, and link analysis. At UCLA, we designed and implemented the event pattern language (EPL) which is capable of detecting and acting upon complex patterns of events which are temporally related to each other. For instance, a plant manager should be notified when a certain pattern of overheating repeats itself over time in a chemical process; likewise, proper notification is required when a suspicious sequence of bank transactions is executed within a certain time limit. The EPL prototype is built in CLIPS to operate on top of Sybase, a commercial relational DBMS, where actions can be triggered by events such as simple database updates, insertions, and deletions. The rule-based syntax of EPL allows the sequences of goals in rules to be interpreted as sequences of temporal events; each goal can correspond to either (1) a simple event, or (2) a (possibly negated) event/condition predicate, or (3) a complex event defined as the disjunction and repetition of other events. Various extensions have been added to CLIPS in order to tailor the interface with Sybase and its open client/server architecture.

  11. 78 FR 12589 - Drawdown Under Section 506(a)(1) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended, for Chad and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... in Mali Memorandum for the Secretary of State the Secretary of Defense Pursuant to the authority... assistance to Chad and France in their efforts to secure Mali from terrorists and violent extremists....

  12. Contextualizing Solar Cycle 24: Report on the Development of a Homogenous Database of Bipolar Active Regions Spanning Four Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Jaramillo, A.; Werginz, Z. A.; DeLuca, M. D.; Vargas-Acosta, J. P.; Longcope, D. W.; Harvey, J. W.; Martens, P.; Zhang, J.; Vargas-Dominguez, S.; DeForest, C. E.; Lamb, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The solar cycle can be understood as a process that alternates the large-scale magnetic field of the Sun between poloidal and toroidal configurations. Although the process that transitions the solar cycle between toroidal and poloidal phases is still not fully understood, theoretical studies, and observational evidence, suggest that this process is driven by the emergence and decay of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) at the photosphere. Furthermore, the emergence of BMRs at the photosphere is the main driver behind solar variability and solar activity in general; making the study of their properties doubly important for heliospheric physics. However, in spite of their critical role, there is still no unified catalog of BMRs spanning multiple instruments and covering the entire period of systematic measurement of the solar magnetic field (i.e. 1975 to present).In this presentation we discuss an ongoing project to address this deficiency by applying our Bipolar Active Region Detection (BARD) code on full disk magnetograms measured by the 512 (1975-1993) and SPMG (1992-2003) instruments at the Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope (KPVT), SOHO/MDI (1996-2011) and SDO/HMI (2010-present). First we will discuss the results of our revitalization of 512 and SPMG KPVT data, then we will discuss how our BARD code operates, and finally report the results of our cross-callibration.The corrected and improved KPVT magnetograms will be made available through the National Solar Observatory (NSO) and Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO), including updated synoptic maps produced by running the corrected KPVT magnetograms though the SOLIS pipeline. The homogeneous active region database will be made public by the end of 2017 once it has reached a satisfactory level of quality and maturity. The Figure shows all bipolar active regions present in our database (as of Aug 2015) colored according to the sign of their leading polarity. Marker size is indicative of the total active region flux. Anti

  13. The Impact of the Colonial Legacy on Civil-Military Relations in Africa: Chad and the Sudan as Comparative Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    DECOLONIZATION PROCESS OF CHAD AND THE SUDAN In Chad, by developing the severely backward South, the French left a developmentally equal but...political development theory, military centrality theory, ethnic antagonism theory, and world system/dependency theory. Although I do not rule out that any...of these causal mechanisms have contributed to some extent to Africa’s political instability. However, in my opinion, these theories underestimate

  14. Possible Role of Fish and Frogs as Paratenic Hosts of Dracunculus medinensis, Chad.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Mark L; Yabsley, Michael J; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Bishop, Henry; Cleveland, Christopher A; Maerz, John C; Bringolf, Robert; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-08-01

    Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2-3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae. Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were fed fish or tadpoles that had been exposed to infected copepods. Only the ferret fed tadpoles harbored developing Dracunculus larvae at necropsy 70-80 days postexposure. These observations confirm that D. medinensis, like other species in the genus Dracunculus, can readily survive and remain infective in potential paratenic hosts, especially tadpoles.

  15. The first fossil fungus gardens of Isoptera: oldest evidence of symbiotic termite fungiculture (Miocene, Chad basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duringer, Philippe; Schuster, Mathieu; Genise, Jorge F.; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-12-01

    Higher termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (fungus-growing termites) are known to build fungus gardens where a symbiotic fungus ( Termitomyces sp.) is cultivated. The fungus grows on a substrate called fungus comb, a structure built with the termites’ own faeces. Here we present the first fossil fungus combs ever found in the world. They were extracted from 7-million-year-old continental sandstone (Chad basin). Fossilized fungus combs have an ovoid morphology with a more or less flattened concave base and a characteristic general alveolar aspect. Under lens, they display a typical millimetre-scale pelletal structure. The latter, as well as the general shape and alveolar aspect, are similar to the morphology of fungus combs from extant fungus-growing termites.

  16. Possible Role of Fish and Frogs as Paratenic Hosts of Dracunculus medinensis, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Yabsley, Michael J.; Zirimwabagabo, Hubert; Bishop, Henry; Cleveland, Christopher A.; Maerz, John C.; Bringolf, Robert; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    Copepods infected with Dracunculus medinensis larvae collected from infected dogs in Chad were fed to 2 species of fish and tadpoles. Although they readily ingested copepods, neither species of fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) nor fathead minnow (Pimephalis promelas), were found to harbor Dracunculus larvae when examined 2–3 weeks later. Tadpoles ingested copepods much more slowly; however, upon examination at the same time interval, tadpoles of green frogs (Lithobates [Rana] clamitans) were found to harbor small numbers of Dracunculus larvae. Two ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) were fed fish or tadpoles that had been exposed to infected copepods. Only the ferret fed tadpoles harbored developing Dracunculus larvae at necropsy 70–80 days postexposure. These observations confirm that D. medinensis, like other species in the genus Dracunculus, can readily survive and remain infective in potential paratenic hosts, especially tadpoles. PMID:27434418

  17. [Noma in a 4 year-old girl: a case report from Chad].

    PubMed

    Cocquempot, K; Javaudin, O; Lerasle, P; Aigle, L

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes a 4-year-old girl in Chad with noma, also called cancrum oris. This acute gangrenous stomatitis has a combined morbidity-mortality rate that can reach 70%. It occurs worldwide but is most common in sub-Saharan Africa in children aged 2 to 16 years. Its pathogenesis is uncertain, but several bacteria including Fusobacterium necrophorum, Prevotella intermedia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa may be responsible for the development of noma, which develops over the oral lesions these bacteria cause. Poverty is its most important risk factor. Due to its rapid course and high lethality, it requires emergency treatment with antibiotics, daily dressing of the lesion, and nutritional rehabilitation. Surgical removal of the remaining necrotic tissue can be followed by reconstructive procedures. Physical and speech therapy should be initiated to prevent functional complications.

  18. Snake bites in Moyen Chari district, Chad: a five-year experience.

    PubMed

    Bregani, Enrico Rino; Maraffi, Tommaso; Tien, Tu Van

    2011-04-01

    Snake bites are of major public health importance in Africa as a cause of morbidity and mortality. Echis ocellatus is responsible for the majority of envenomation cases in West Africa. Antivenom immunotherapy is the only specific treatment available for envenomed patients. From January 1997 to December 2001, 325 patients suffering from snake bites were enrolled in a survey undertaken at Goundi Hospital, Chad. We analysed the percentage of envenomed patients, sex distribution, distribution along the year, lethality, hospital stay and recovery clotting time. Two hundred and ninety-eight patients showed signs of envenomation and were treated with antivenom immunotherapy with three different sera in consecutive periods. Young males were more frequently involved. The overall lethality was 8%. Lethality and hospital stay were significantly different in the differently treated patients. Most of the data in our series were similar to those from other sub-Saharan countries but, overall, the percentage of snake bite victims who were admitted to hospital was higher.

  19. Mixture model of pottery decorations from Lake Chad Basin archaeological sites reveals ancient segregation patterns

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John D.; Lin, Kathryn; MacEachern, Scott

    2016-01-01

    We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type—potsherds—that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeological data types. PMID:27009217

  20. Hyaenidae (Carnivora) from the late Miocene of Toros-Menalla, Chad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonis, Louis de; Peigné, Stéphane; Guy, Franck; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2010-10-01

    The late Miocene Hyaenidae of Toros-Menalla (Chad) belong to four different middle or large body size taxa. The large Chasmaporthetes was a hunting predator probably adapted to open environments. The middle sized Hyaenictitherium minimum was the most abundant hyenid; it probably hunted in packs and, with a dentition far less specialized for bone-cracking than that of extant hyenas, occupied an ecological niche close to that of some extant canids. The wear on the teeth of the middle sized Belbus displays a pattern that could indicate a carcass consumer. The last hyenid, a new genus, was probably adapted to bone-cracking with a major horizontal wear of the premolars and a relatively shallow but robust mandible. Chasmaporthetes did survive until the Pleistocene but the other taxa disappeared during the Pliocene when replaced by the canids and modern hyenids.

  1. Geology and palaeontology of the Upper Miocene Toros-Menalla hominid locality, Chad.

    PubMed

    Vignaud, Patrick; Duringer, Philippe; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Likius, Andossa; Blondel, Cécile; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; De Bonis, Louis; Eisenmann, Véra; Etienne, Marie-Esther; Geraads, Denis; Guy, Franck; Lehmann, Thomas; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Lopez-Martinez, Nieves; Mourer-Chauviré, Cécile; Otero, Olga; Rage, Jean-Claude; Schuster, Mathieu; Viriot, Laurent; Zazzo, Antoine; Brunet, Michel

    2002-07-11

    All six known specimens of the early hominid Sahelanthropus tchadensis come from Toros-Menalla site 266 (TM 266), a single locality in the Djurab Desert, northern Chad, central Africa. Here we present a preliminary analysis of the palaeontological and palaeoecological context of these finds. The rich fauna from TM 266 includes a significant aquatic component such as fish, crocodiles and amphibious mammals, alongside animals associated with gallery forest and savannah, such as primates, rodents, elephants, equids and bovids. The fauna suggests a biochronological age between 6 and 7 million years. Taken together with the sedimentological evidence, the fauna suggests that S. tchadensis lived close to a lake, but not far from a sandy desert, perhaps the oldest record of desert conditions in the Neogene of northern central Africa.

  2. A new hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Michel; Guy, Franck; Pilbeam, David; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Ahounta, Djimdoumalbaye; Beauvilain, Alain; Blondel, Cécile; Bocherens, Hervé; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; De Bonis, Louis; Coppens, Yves; Dejax, Jean; Denys, Christiane; Duringer, Philippe; Eisenmann, Véra; Fanone, Gongdibé; Fronty, Pierre; Geraads, Denis; Lehmann, Thomas; Lihoreau, Fabrice; Louchart, Antoine; Mahamat, Adoum; Merceron, Gildas; Mouchelin, Guy; Otero, Olga; Pelaez Campomanes, Pablo; Ponce De Leon, Marcia; Rage, Jean-Claude; Sapanet, Michel; Schuster, Mathieu; Sudre, Jean; Tassy, Pascal; Valentin, Xavier; Vignaud, Patrick; Viriot, Laurent; Zazzo, Antoine; Zollikofer, Christoph

    2002-07-11

    The search for the earliest fossil evidence of the human lineage has been concentrated in East Africa. Here we report the discovery of six hominid specimens from Chad, central Africa, 2,500 km from the East African Rift Valley. The fossils include a nearly complete cranium and fragmentary lower jaws. The associated fauna suggest the fossils are between 6 and 7 million years old. The fossils display a unique mosaic of primitive and derived characters, and constitute a new genus and species of hominid. The distance from the Rift Valley, and the great antiquity of the fossils, suggest that the earliest members of the hominid clade were more widely distributed than has been thought, and that the divergence between the human and chimpanzee lineages was earlier than indicated by most molecular studies.

  3. Mixture model of pottery decorations from Lake Chad Basin archaeological sites reveals ancient segregation patterns.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John D; Lin, Kathryn; MacEachern, Scott

    2016-03-30

    We present a new statistical approach to analysing an extremely common archaeological data type--potsherds--that infers the structure of cultural relationships across a set of excavation units (EUs). This method, applied to data from a set of complex, culturally heterogeneous sites around the Mandara mountains in the Lake Chad Basin, helps elucidate cultural succession through the Neolithic and Iron Age. We show how the approach can be integrated with radiocarbon dates to provide detailed portraits of cultural dynamics and deposition patterns within single EUs. In this context, the analysis supports ancient cultural segregation analogous to historical ethnolinguistic patterning in the region. We conclude with a discussion of the many possible model extensions using other archaeological data types.

  4. Can mima-like mounds be Vertisol relics (Far North Region of Cameroon, Chad Basin)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Nathalie; Dietrich, Fabienne; Cailleau, Guillaume; Sebag, David; Ngounou Ngatcha, Benjamin; Verrecchia, Eric P.

    2016-05-01

    Non-anthropogenic earth mounds, defined as mima-like mounds in this study, have recently been observed in non-carbonate watersheds along the Sudano-Sahelian belt in the Chad Basin. In the Diamare piedmont (northern Cameroon) they are particularly well developed within stream networks. In less eroded areas, they occur as whaleback, flattened morphologies, or even as buried features. All these shapes are composed of clay-rich sediment associated with high proportions of secondary carbonate nodules and Fesbnd Mn micro-nodules. Their soil structure is prismatic to massive and vertical cracks are observed locally. Grain-size distributions emphasize the clay-rich nature of the sediment, with average clay contents of 32% ± 12.8% (n = 186), which is significantly higher than the clay content in the adjacent sediments in the landscape (mean = 10% ± 4%, n = 21). Moreover, high proportions of smectite characterize the soil, with average contents of 34 ± 7% (n = 25). At the micro-scale, the groundmass has a cross-striated b-fabric, with embedded smooth subangular quartz and feldspar grains of the silt-size fraction. All the characteristics point to altered vertic properties in the clay-rich sediment composing the mima-like mounds. Mima-like mounds are thus interpreted as degraded Vertisols. Compared to present-day Vertisols occurring in the piedmont, mima-like mounds are located upstream. It is thus proposed that the Vertisol areas were more extensive during a former and wetter period than the present-day. Subsequent changing climatic conditions increased erosion, revealing the gilgai micro-relief by preferential erosion in micro-lows rather than in micro-highs. Mima-like mounds of the Chad Basin might thus result from pedogenesis combined with later erosion. These local processes can be inherited from regional climatic variations during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene and likely be related to the African Humid Period.

  5. Seasonal dynamics of human retinol status in mobile pastoralists in Chad.

    PubMed

    Crump, Lisa; Béchir, Mahamat; Ngandolo, Bongo Naré Richard; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a prevalent public health problem in Africa and South-East Asia, although national population based surveys are lacking in many countries. This study investigated seasonal variation of human retinol concentrations in Chadian mobile pastoralists to identify critical time periods for interventions addressing vitamin A deficiency. The repeated cross-sectional study design used convenience sampling during three seasons to include 327 Fulani, Gorane and Arab adult mobile pastoralists in nine camps in the Lake Chad area. Human blood and pooled cattle milk retinol concentrations were rapidly assessed by portable flourometer (iCheck™). Linear regression models with random effects for correlation within camps were applied with human retinol concentration as outcome. Logistic regression models, with camp as random effect, were evaluated for the outcome human retinol deficiency. Human seasonal means were 2.14μmol/L (95% CI 1.82-2.46) in rainy, 0.99μmol/L (95% CI 0.91-1.07) in cold and 1.86μmol/L (95% CI 1.63-2.09) in dry season. Retinol concentration and deficiency varied according to season and ethnic group. Average values were highest in Gorane during rainy and in Fulani in the cold and dry seasons. Arabs had lowest average values in all seasons. Retinol deficiency (<0.70μmol/L) was found in 15% of study participants in the dry, 25% in the rainy and 32% in the cold season. Retinol concentrations varied according to age, sex, milk consumption level and pooled cattle milk retinol concentration. Effect sizes varied and not all were statistically significantly different. Pooled cattle milk retinol concentrations varied seasonally and were positively associated to human retinol concentrations. This study establishes seasonal variation in human blood and pooled cattle milk retinol concentrations in Chad, demonstrating a linkage from animals to humans through milk. Rapid analysis using portable technology is feasible in remote populations under harsh

  6. Subsurface Hydrology of the Lake Chad Basin from Convection Modelling and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, T.; Antoine, R.; Kerr, Y.; Darrozes, J.; Rabinowicz, M.; Ramillien, G.; Cazenave, A.; Genthon, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the Lake Chad basin, the quaternary phreatic aquifer (named hereafter QPA) presents large piezometric anomalies referred to as domes and depressions whose depths are ~15 and ~60 m, respectively. A previous study (Leblanc et al. in Geophys Res Lett, 2003, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018094) noticed that brightness temperatures from METEOSAT infrared images of the Lake Chad basin are correlated with the QPA piezometry. Indeed, at the same latitude, domes are ~4-5 K warmer than the depressions. Leblanc et al. (Geophys Res Lett, 2003, doi: 10.1029/2003GL018094) suggested that such a thermal behaviour results from an evapotranspiration excess above the piezometric depressions, an interpretation implicitly assuming that the QPA is separated from the other aquifers by the clay-rich Pliocene formation. Based on satellite visible images, here we find evidence of giant polygons, an observation that suggests instead a local vertical connectivity between the different aquifers. We developed a numerical water convective model giving an alternative explanation for the development of QPA depressions and domes. Beneath the depressions, a cold descending water convective current sucks down the overlying QPA, while, beneath the dome, a warm ascending current produces overpressure. Such a basin-wide circulation is consistent with the water geochemistry. We further propose that the thermal diurnal and evaporation/condensation cycles specific to the water ascending current explain why domes are warmer. We finally discuss the possible influence of the inferred convective circulation on the transient variations of the QPA reported from observations of piezometric levels and GRACE-based water mass change over the region.

  7. Pliocene large-mammal assemblages from Northern Chad: sampling and ecological structure.

    PubMed

    Fara, Emmanuel; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane T; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2005-11-01

    Numerous Pliocene large-mammal assemblages have been discovered in Chad over the last decade. They offer a unique opportunity to understand the settings in which important chapters of Hominid evolution took place in Central Africa. However, it is crucial to first investigate both sampling and taxonomic homogeneity for these Chadian assemblages because they occur over large sectors in a sandy desert that offers virtually no stratigraphic section. Using cluster analysis and ordination techniques, we show that the three Pliocene sectors from Chad are homogeneous and adequate sampling units. Previous stable isotope analyses on these assemblages have indicated that the environment became richer in C(4) plants between approximately 5.3 and 3.5-3 Ma. To test whether this environmental change has affected the structure of palaeo-communities, we assigned body mass, trophic and locomotor eco-variables to mammal species from the three sectors. Statistical analysis shows that the overall ecological structure of the assemblages is not linked with the opening of the plant cover, and eco-variables show no temporal trend from the oldest sector to the youngest. For example, there is no significant change in the relative diversity of grazing and browsing taxa, although mixed feeders are less diversified in the youngest sector than in the preceding one. This pattern apparently does not result from potential biases such as methodological artefacts or taphonomic imprint. Instead, it seems that local heterogeneous environmental factors have played a major role in shaping the ecological spectrum of Chadian mammal palaeo-communities during the Pliocene.

  8. Pliocene large-mammal assemblages from northern Chad: sampling and ecological structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fara, Emmanuel; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane T.; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2005-11-01

    Numerous Pliocene large-mammal assemblages have been discovered in Chad over the last decade. They offer a unique opportunity to understand the settings in which important chapters of Hominid evolution took place in Central Africa. However, it is crucial to first investigate both sampling and taxonomic homogeneity for these Chadian assemblages because they occur over large sectors in a sandy desert that offers virtually no stratigraphic section. Using cluster analysis and ordination techniques, we show that the three Pliocene sectors from Chad are homogeneous and adequate sampling units. Previous stable isotope analyses on these assemblages have indicated that the environment became richer in C4 plants between approximately 5.3 and 3.5 3 Ma. To test whether this environmental change has affected the structure of palaeo-communities, we assigned body mass, trophic and locomotor eco-variables to mammal species from the three sectors. Statistical analysis shows that the overall ecological structure of the assemblages is not linked with the opening of the plant cover, and eco-variables show no temporal trend from the oldest sector to the youngest. For example, there is no significant change in the relative diversity of grazing and browsing taxa, although mixed feeders are less diversified in the youngest sector than in the preceding one. This pattern apparently does not result from potential biases such as methodological artefacts or taphonomic imprint. Instead, it seems that local heterogeneous environmental factors have played a major role in shaping the ecological spectrum of Chadian mammal palaeo-communities during the Pliocene.

  9. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  10. Polish activity within Orphanet Europe--state of art of database and services.

    PubMed

    Jezela-Stanek, Aleksandra; Karczmarewicz, Dorota; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H; Krajewska-Walasek, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Orphanet is an international project aiming to help in improvement the diagnostic process, care and treatment of patients with rare diseases, and to provide information on development in research and new therapy. Orphanet is currently represented in 38 countries. The infrastructure and coordination activities are jointly funded by Inserm, the French Directorate General for Health, and the European Commission. Moreover, certain services are specially funded by other partners. Orphanet's activities in each country of the network are partially financed by national institutions and(or) specific contracts. In this paper we present the Orphanet portal as well as the Polish national activity within this project.

  11. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  12. Status Report for Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 1.B – Physical and Hydraulic Properties Database and Interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.

    2008-09-26

    The objective of Activity 1.B of the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the objectives of Activity 1.B of the RDS Project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database maintained by PNNL, (2) transfer the physical and hydraulic property data from the Microsoft Access database files used by SoilVision{reg_sign} into HEIS, which has most recently been maintained by Fluor-Hanford, Inc., (3) develop a Virtual Library module for accessing these data from HEIS, and (4) write a User's Manual for the Virtual Library module. The development of the Virtual Library module was to be performed by a third party under subcontract to Fluor. The intent of these activities is to make the available physical and hydraulic property data more readily accessible and useable by technical staff and operable unit managers involved in waste site assessments and

  13. Essential Learnings in Environmental Education--A Database for Building Activities and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Melissa, Comp.; Pandya, Mamata, Comp.

    The purpose of this book is to provide building blocks for designing and reviewing environmental education programs and activities. This handbook provides 600 basic concepts needed to attain the environmental education goals outlined at the Tbilisi, USSR, conference and generally agreed to be the fundamental core of quality environmental…

  14. Development of Novel Repellents Using Structure - Activity Modeling of Compounds in the USDA Archival Database

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    used in efforts to develop QSAR models. Measurement of Repellent Efficacy Screening for Repellency of Compounds with Unknown Toxicology In screening...CPT) were used to develop Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship ( QSAR ) models to predict repellency. Successful prediction of novel...acylpiperidine QSAR models employed 4 descriptors to describe the relationship between structure and repellent duration. The ANN model of the carboxamides did not

  15. Short note: The track of a new cradle of mankind in Sahelo-Saharan Africa (Chad, Libya, Egypt, Cameroon)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, Michel; MPFT

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the successive discovery of two early hominids from Mio-Pliocene of Chad ( Australopithecus bahrelghazali, nicknamed Abel dated to 3.5 Ma and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, nicknamed Toumaï dated to 7 Ma) on our understanding of how far back go the roots of mankind and what kind of environment they lived in. These discoveries introduce new geographic and phylogenetic paradigms to explain the African evolution of our prehuman ancestors.

  16. A Quality System Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  17. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    PubMed

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  18. ["Democracy is a universal value". Interview with S.E.M. Nassour Ouaidou Guelengdouksia, Prime Minister of Chad].

    PubMed

    Ngata, S

    1999-12-01

    Democracy and development are fashionable concepts currently being cited by politicians and organizations involved in promoting development. However, Chad¿s Prime Minister believes that it was necessary for his country to have a one-party government during 1962-75 to better facilitate the nation-building process. He also believes that the concept of democracy refers to the power of the people. Being free to express themselves, the people can censure the actions of their elected government. Far from being reserved for only a selected group of people or countries, democracy has universal vale and appeal. While African populations retain their traditional values, it does not mean that democracy is a luxury phenomenon for the continent. It simply means that prevailing values must be adapted over time. As for democracy in Chad, a multiparty state was created Order 15, enacted at the end of 1991. The first parties then began to form in 1992, and Chad now boasts almost 70 political parties and about 600 civic organizations. The population freely expresses itself and the mass media maintain a free hand to communicate regardless of what they say. Development can be defined as the occurrence of qualitative and quantitative changes in a society¿s path of economic progress. However, overall development must also include the human element in order to successfully effect sustainable human development. One must be optimistic about Africa¿s political, democratic, and development future. The processes of economic development and democratic reform can evolve together.

  19. Database of the Geology and Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flynn, Kathryn; Graham Wall, Brita; White, Donald E.; Hutchinson, Roderick A.; Keith, Terry E.C.; Clor, Laura; Robinson, Joel E.

    2008-01-01

    This dataset contains contacts, geologic units and map boundaries from Plate 1 of USGS Professional Paper 1456, 'The Geology and Remarkable Thermal Activity of Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.' The features are contained in the Annotation, basins_poly, contours, geology_arc, geology_poly, point_features, and stream_arc feature classes as well as a table of geologic units and their descriptions. This dataset was constructed to produce a digital geologic map as a basis for studying hydrothermal processes in Norris Geyser Basin. The original map does not contain registration tic marks. To create the geodatabase, the original scanned map was georegistered to USGS aerial photographs of the Norris Junction quadrangle collected in 1994. Manmade objects, i.e. roads, parking lots, and the visitor center, along with stream junctions and other hydrographic features, were used for registration.

  20. Cost-estimate and proposal for a development impact bond for canine rabies elimination by mass vaccination in Chad.

    PubMed

    Anyiam, Franziska; Lechenne, Monique; Mindekem, Rolande; Oussigéré, Assandi; Naissengar, Service; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Mbilo, Celine; Moto, Daugla Doumagoum; Coleman, Paul G; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2016-11-23

    Close to 69,000 humans die of rabies each year, most of them in Africa and Asia. Clinical rabies can be prevented by post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). However, PEP is commonly not available or not affordable in developing countries. Another strategy besides treating exposed humans is the vaccination of vector species. In developing countries, the main vector is the domestic dog, that, once infected, is a serious threat to humans. After a successful mass vaccination of 70% of the dogs in N'Djaména, we report here a cost-estimate for a national rabies elimination campaign for Chad. In a cross-sectional survey in four rural zones, we established the canine : human ratio at the household level. Based on human census data and the prevailing socio-cultural composition of rural zones of Chad, the total canine population was estimated at 1,205,361 dogs (95% Confidence interval 1,128,008-1,736,774 dogs). Cost data were collected from government sources and the recent canine mass vaccination campaign in N'Djaména. A Monte Carlo simulation was used for the simulation of the average cost and its variability, using probability distributions for dog numbers and cost items. Assuming the vaccination of 100 dogs on average per vaccination post and a duration of one year, the total cost for the vaccination of the national Chadian canine population is estimated at 2,716,359 Euros (95% CI 2,417,353-3,035,081) for one vaccination round. A development impact bond (DIB) organizational structure and cash flow scenario were then developed for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad. Cumulative discounted cost of 28.3 million Euros over ten years would be shared between the government of Chad, private investors and institutional donors as outcome funders. In this way, the risk of the investment could be shared and the necessary investment could be made available upfront - a key element for the elimination of canine rabies in Chad.

  1. Virtual screening for environmental pollutants: structure-activity relationships applied to a database of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Oberg, Tomas

    2006-04-01

    The current risk paradigm calls for individual consideration and evaluation of each separate environmental pollutant, but this does not reflect accurately the cumulative impact of anthropogenic chemicals. In the present study, previously validated structure-activity relationships were used to estimate simultaneously the baseline toxicity and atmospheric persistence of approximately 50,000 compounds. The results from this virtual screening indicate fairly stable statistical distributions among small anthropogenic compounds. The baseline toxicity was not changed much by halogen substitution, but a distinct increase seemed to occur in the environmental persistence with increased halogenation. The ratio of the atmospheric half-lives to the median lethal concentrations provides a continuous scale with which to rank and summarize the incremental environmental impacts in a mixture-exposure situation. Halogenated compounds as a group obtained a high ranking in this data set, with well-known pollutants at the very top: DDT metabolites and derivatives, polychlorinated biphenyls, diphenyl ethers and dibenzofurans, chlorinated paraffins, chlorinated benzenes and derivatives, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and dichlorononylphenol. Environmentally friendly chemicals that obtained the lowest rank are nearly all hydroxylated and water-soluble. Virtual screening can assist with "green chemistry" in designing safe and degradable products and enable assessment of the efficiency in chemicals risk management.

  2. Surface water dynamics in Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad Wetlands from remote sensing and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Getirana, A.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2013-05-01

    The capability of satellites to understand and monitor surface water dynamics in tropical wetlands is presented by analysis various remote sensing technologies over the Amazon, Congo, and Lake Chad regions. Although different in size and location, all these basins are tropical, representing riparian tropical, swamp tropical and inland Saharan wetlands, respectively. First, yearly flooding in the Logone floodplain is investigated using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Flooding has a direct impact on agricultural, pastoral and fishery systems in the Lake Chad Basin. Since the flooding extent, depth, and duration are highly variable, flood inundation mapping facilitates efficient use of water resources and have more knowledge of the coupled human-natural system in the Logone floodplain. Flood maps are generated from 33 multi-temporal ETM+ images acquired during the period 2006 to 2008. The maximum flooding extent in the study area increases up to ~5.8K km2 in late October 2008. A strong correlation is observed between the flooding extents and water height variations in both the floodplain and the river. Second, interferometric processing of JERS-1 SAR data from the central portions of both Amazon and Congo Wetlands provides centimeter-scale measurements of water level change. The Amazon is marked by a myriad of floodplain channels, but the Congo has comparatively few. Amazon floodplain channels, lakes and pans are well interconnected, whereas the Congo wetlands are expanses with few boundaries or flow routes. The hydraulic processes that build the Amazon floodplain are not similarly apparent in the Congo. Third, we evaluate the potential of large altimetry datasets as a complementary gauging network capable of providing water discharge in ungauged regions. A rating-curve-based methodology is adopted to derive water discharge from altimetric data provided by the Envisat satellite within the Amazon basin. From a global-scale perspective, the stage

  3. Advanced Land Use Classification for Nigeriasat-1 Image of Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babamaaji, R.; Park, C.; Lee, J.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Chad is a shrinking freshwater lake that has been significantly reduced to about 1/20 of its original size in the 1960’s. The severe draughts in 1970’s and 1980’s and following overexploitations of water resulted in the shortage of surface water in the lake and the surrounding rivers. Ground water resources are in scarcity too as ground water recharge is mostly made by soil infiltration through soil and land cover, but this surface cover is now experiencing siltation and expansion of wetland with invasive species. Large changes in land use and water management practices have taken place in the last 50 years including: removal of water from river systems for irrigation and consumption, degradation of forage land by overgrazing, deforestation, replacing natural ecosystems with mono-cultures, and construction of dams. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle around the lake and affect the shrinkage of the lake. Before any useful thematic information can be extracted from remote sensing data, a land cover classification system has to be developed to obtain the classes of interest. A combination of classification systems used by Global land cover, Water Resources eAtlass and Lake Chad Basin Commission gave rise to 7 land cover classes comprising of - Cropland, vegetation, grassland, water body, shrub-land, farmland ( mostly irrigated) and bareland (i.e. clear land). Supervised Maximum likelihood classification method was used with 15 reference points per class chosen. At the end of the classification, the overall accuracy is 93.33%. Producer’s accuracy for vegetation is 40% compare to the user’s accuracy that is 66.67 %. The reason is that the vegetation is similar to shrub land, it is very hard to differentiate between the vegetation and other plants, and therefore, most of the vegetation is classified as shrub land. Most of the waterbodies are occupied

  4. Far-infrared Line Spectra of Active Galaxies from the Herschel/PACS Spectrometer: The Complete Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Ontiveros, Juan Antonio; Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Malkan, Matthew A.; Andreani, Paola; Dasyra, Kalliopi M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a coherent database of spectroscopic observations of far-IR fine-structure lines from the Herschel/Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer archive for a sample of 170 local active galactic nuclei (AGNs), plus a comparison sample of 20 starburst galaxies and 43 dwarf galaxies. Published Spitzer/IRS and Herschel/SPIRE line fluxes are included to extend our database to the full 10-600 μm spectral range. The observations are compared to a set of Cloudy photoionization models to estimate the above physical quantities through different diagnostic diagrams. We confirm the presence of a stratification of gas density in the emission regions of the galaxies, which increases with the ionization potential of the emission lines. The new [O iv]{}25.9μ {{m}}/[O iii]{}88μ {{m}} versus [Ne iii]{}15.6μ {{m}}/[Ne ii]{}12.8μ {{m}} diagram is proposed as the best diagnostic to separate (1) AGN activity from any kind of star formation and (2) low-metallicity dwarf galaxies from starburst galaxies. Current stellar atmosphere models fail to reproduce the observed [O iv]{}25.9μ {{m}}/[O iii]{}88μ {{m}} ratios, which are much higher when compared to the predicted values. Finally, the ([Ne iii]{}15.6μ {{m}} + [Ne ii]{}12.8μ {{m}})/([S iv]{}10.5μ {{m}} +[S iii]{}18.7μ {{m}}) ratio is proposed as a promising metallicity tracer to be used in obscured objects, where optical lines fail to accurately measure the metallicity. The diagnostic power of mid- to far-infrared spectroscopy shown here for local galaxies will be of crucial importance to study galaxy evolution during the dust-obscured phase at the peak of the star formation and black hole accretion activity (1\\lt z\\lt 4). This study will be addressed by future deep spectroscopic surveys with present and forthcoming facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, and the Space Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics.

  5. An Interactive Geospatial Database and Visualization Approach to Early Warning Systems and Monitoring of Active Volcanoes: GEOWARN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogu, R. C.; Schwandner, F. M.; Hurni, L.; Dietrich, V. J.

    2002-12-01

    Large parts of southern and central Europe and the Pacific rim are situated in tectonically, seismic and volcanological extremely active zones. With the growth of population and tourism, vulnerability and risk towards natural hazards have expanded over large areas. Socio-economical aspects, land use, tourist and industrial planning as well as environmental protection increasingly require needs of natural hazard assessment. The availability of powerful and reliable satellite, geophysical and geochemical information and warning systems is therefore increasingly vital. Besides, once such systems have proven to be effective, they can be applied for similar purposes in other European areas and worldwide. Technologies today have proven that early warning of volcanic activity can be achieved by monitoring measurable changes in geophysical and geochemical parameters. Correlation between different monitored data sets, which would improve any prediction, is very scarce or missing. Visualisation of all spatial information and integration into an "intelligent cartographic concept" is of paramount interest in order to develop 2-, 3- and 4-dimensional models to approach the risk and emergency assessment as well as environmental and socio-economic planning. In the framework of the GEOWARN project, a database prototype for an Early Warning System (EWS) and monitoring of volcanic activity in case of hydrothermal-explosive and volcanic reactivation has been designed. The platform-independent, web-based, JAVA-programmed, interactive multidisciplinary multiparameter visualization software being developed at ETH allows expansion and utilization to other volcanoes, world-wide databases of volcanic unrest, or other types of natural hazard assessment. Within the project consortium, scientific data have been acquired on two pilot sites: Campi Flegrei (Italy) and Nisyros Greece, including 2&3D Topography and Bathymetry, Elevation (DEM) and Landscape models (DLM) derived from conventional

  6. Assessment of Humoral Immune Responses to Blood-Stage Malaria Antigens following ChAd63-MVA Immunization, Controlled Human Malaria Infection and Natural Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Sean C.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Milne, Kathryn H.; de Cassan, Simone C.; Collins, Katharine A.; Halstead, Fenella D.; Bliss, Carly M.; Ewer, Katie J.; Osier, Faith H.; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Duncan, Christopher J. A.; O’Hara, Geraldine A.; Long, Carole A.; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Draper, Simon J.

    2014-01-01

    The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite – MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors – ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i) ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii) immunization and CHMI, and iii) primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i) total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii) responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii) functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA), iv) IgG avidity, and v) isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM). These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other

  7. Bibliometric analysis of nutrition and dietetics research activity in Arab countries using ISI Web of Science database.

    PubMed

    Sweileh, Waleed M; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Sawalha, Ansam F; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2014-01-01

    Reducing nutrition-related health problems in Arab countries requires an understanding of the performance of Arab countries in the field of nutrition and dietetics research. Assessment of research activity from a particular country or region could be achieved through bibliometric analysis. This study was carried out to investigate research activity in "nutrition and dietetics" in Arab countries. Original and review articles published from Arab countries in "nutrition and dietetics" Web of Science category up until 2012 were retrieved and analyzed using the ISI Web of Science database. The total number of documents published in "nutrition and dietetics" category from Arab countries was 2062. This constitutes 1% of worldwide research activity in the field. Annual research productivity showed a significant increase after 2005. Approximately 60% of published documents originated from three Arab countries, particularly Egypt, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia. However, Kuwait has the highest research productivity per million inhabitants. Main research areas of published documents were in "Food Science/Technology" and "Chemistry" which constituted 75% of published documents compared with 25% for worldwide documents in nutrition and dietetics. A total of 329 (15.96%) nutrition - related diabetes or obesity or cancer documents were published from Arab countries compared with 21% for worldwide published documents. Interest in nutrition and dietetics research is relatively recent in Arab countries. Focus of nutrition research is mainly toward food technology and chemistry with lesser activity toward nutrition-related health research. International cooperation in nutrition research will definitely help Arab researchers in implementing nutrition research that will lead to better national policies regarding nutrition.

  8. Image Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettersson, Rune

    Different kinds of pictorial databases are described with respect to aims, user groups, search possibilities, storage, and distribution. Some specific examples are given for databases used for the following purposes: (1) labor markets for artists; (2) document management; (3) telling a story; (4) preservation (archives and museums); (5) research;…

  9. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  10. Downscaling precipitation in the Sahara-Sahelian region during the Holocene in order to decipher the paleo-variations of Lake Chad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contoux, Camille; Bondeau, Alberte; Barrier, Nicolas; Sylvestre, Florence

    2016-04-01

    In order to understand the paleo-variability of Saharo-Sahelian paleoprecipitation, which is recorded in the sediments of Lake Chad situated in central Sahel, we use a modelling chain going from global climate to basin-scale hydrological model. Namely, climate model outputs for the Holocene, starting with the mid-Holocene (6ka) available from the IPSL-CM5 global climate model are statistically downscaled with the General Additive Model approach (Levavasseur et al., 2011), then used to feed the LPJmL model (Bondeau et al., 2007) which calculates the equilibrium vegetation and runoff. Climate and runoff are then given to the dynamic routing scheme HYDRA (Coe et al., 2000) in order to calculate the paleo river network and paleo extent of Lake Chad. The results at each step are compared with reconstructions derived from continental proxies on the regional scale in order to assess the robustness of the results. For the mid-Holocene, the downscaled precipitation matches very well precipitation estimations derived from lacustrine pollen data. For the historical period, the LPJmL simulated runoff averaged over the Chad basin depicts the same trend than observations of Lake Chad water level, but the absolute water level is overestimated in HYDRA, which can be attributed to humid biases both in LPJmL and HYDRA. Finally, we will investigate the relative changes in river network and Lake Chad extent between the present and the mid-Holocene.

  11. The Impact of Environment and Occupation on the Health and Safety of Active Duty Air Force Members: Database Development and De-Identification.

    PubMed

    Erich, Roger; Eaton, Melinda; Mayes, Ryan; Pierce, Lamar; Knight, Andrew; Genovesi, Paul; Escobar, James; Mychalczuk, George; Selent, Monica

    2016-08-01

    Preparing data for medical research can be challenging, detail oriented, and time consuming. Transcription errors, missing or nonsensical data, and records not applicable to the study population may hamper progress and, if unaddressed, can lead to erroneous conclusions. In addition, study data may be housed in multiple disparate databases and complex formats. Merging methods may be incomplete to obtain temporally synchronized data elements. We created a comprehensive database to explore the general hypothesis that environmental and occupational factors influence health outcomes and risk-taking behavior among active duty Air Force personnel. Several databases containing demographics, medical records, health survey responses, and safety incident reports were cleaned, validated, and linked to form a comprehensive, relational database. The final step involved removing and transforming personally identifiable information to form a Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliant limited database. Initial data consisted of over 62.8 million records containing 221 variables. When completed, approximately 23.9 million clean and valid records with 214 variables remained. With a clean, robust database, future analysis aims to identify high-risk career fields for targeted interventions or uncover potential protective factors in low-risk career fields.

  12. TRANSFORMATION OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY DATA INTO STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE TOXML DATABASE IN SUPPORT OF STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP (SAR) WORKFLOW.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early hazard identification of new chemicals is often difficult due to lack of data on the novel material for toxicity endpoints, including neurotoxicity. At present, there are no structure searchable neurotoxicity databases. A working group was formed to construct a database to...

  13. Factors Determining Water Treatment Behavior for the Prevention of Cholera in Chad

    PubMed Central

    Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment. PMID:25918206

  14. Dust as a tipping element: The Bodélé Depression, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Washington, Richard; Bouet, Christel; Cautenet, Guy; Mackenzie, Elisabeth; Ashpole, Ian; Engelstaedter, Sebastian; Lizcano, Gil; Henderson, Gideon M.; Schepanski, Kerstin; Tegen, Ina

    2009-01-01

    Dust plays a vital role in climate and biophysical feedbacks in the Earth system. One source of dust, the Bodélé Depression in Chad, is estimated to produce about half the mineral aerosols emitted from the Sahara, which is the world's largest source. By using a variety of new remote sensing data, regional modeling, trajectory models, chemical analyses of dust, and future climate simulations, we investigate the current and past sensitivity of the Bodélé. We show that minor adjustments to small features of the atmospheric circulation, such as the Bodélé Low-Level Jet, could profoundly alter the behavior of this feature. Dust production during the mid-Holocene ceased completely from this key source region. Although subject to a great deal of uncertainty, some simulations of the 21st century indicate the potential for a substantial increase in dust production by the end of the century in comparison with current values. PMID:19620716

  15. The earliest modern mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (late Miocene of Chad).

    PubMed

    Peigné, Stéphane; de Bonis, Louis; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2005-06-01

    We report on the earliest modern mongooses of Africa, from the late Miocene (ca. 7 Ma) of the hominid locality TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. The material is based on fragmentary dentitions of three individuals. The main diagnostic feature of the Chadian species is the great development of the shear in the carnassials, which distinguishes the Chadian specimens from all extant herpestids except Herpestes and Galerella. In comparison with most extinct and extant Herpestes, the species from Toros-Menalla differs by a markedly smaller size and, depending on the species, relatively more elongated carnassials, more transversely elongated M1 and more reduced p4. On the basis of a great morphological similarity and the absence of significant differences, we assign our material to Galerella sanguinea; the Chadian finding therefore represents the earliest appearance of an extant species of Herpestidae. This record ties the first appearance of the genus to a minimum age of ca. 7 Ma, which is consistent with the estimated divergence date of 11.4 Ma known from the literature for the species of Galerella.

  16. The earliest modern mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (late Miocene of Chad)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peigné, Stéphane; Bonis, Louis; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2005-06-01

    We report on the earliest modern mongooses of Africa, from the late Miocene (ca. 7 Ma) of the hominid locality TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. The material is based on fragmentary dentitions of three individuals. The main diagnostic feature of the Chadian species is the great development of the shear in the carnassials, which distinguishes the Chadian specimens from all extant herpestids except Herpestes and Galerella. In comparison with most extinct and extant Herpestes, the species from Toros-Menalla differs by a markedly smaller size and, depending on the species, relatively more elongated carnassials, more transversely elongated M1 and more reduced p4. On the basis of a great morphological similarity and the absence of significant differences, we assign our material to Galerella sanguinea; the Chadian finding therefore represents the earliest appearance of an extant species of Herpestidae. This record ties the first appearance of the genus to a minimum age of ca. 7 Ma, which is consistent with the estimated divergence date of 11.4 Ma known from the literature for the species of Galerella.

  17. Factors determining water treatment behavior for the prevention of cholera in Chad.

    PubMed

    Lilje, Jonathan; Kessely, Hamit; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Cholera is a well-known and feared disease in developing countries, and is linked to high rates of morbidity and mortality. Contaminated drinking water and the lack of sufficient treatment are two of the key causes of high transmission rates. This article presents a representative health survey performed in Chad to inform future intervention strategies in the prevention and control of cholera. To identify critical psychological factors for behavior change, structured household interviews were administered to N = 1,017 primary caregivers, assessing their thoughts and attitudes toward household water treatment according to the Risk, Attitude, Norm, Ability, and Self-regulation model. The intervention potential for each factor was estimated by analyzing differences in means between groups of current performers and nonperformers of water treatment. Personal risk evaluation for diarrheal diseases and particularly for cholera was very low among the study population. Likewise, the perception of social norms was found to be rather unfavorable for water treatment behaviors. In addition, self-reported ability estimates (self-efficacy) revealed some potential for intervention. A mass radio campaign is proposed, using information and normative behavior change techniques, in combination with community meetings focused on targeting abilities and personal commitment to water treatment.

  18. Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from soil in Gama, Chad.

    PubMed

    Abagana, Adam Yacoub; Sun, Pengyu; Liu, Chongxi; Cao, Tingting; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiang, Wensheng; Wang, Xiangjing

    2016-06-01

    A novel single spore-producing actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-Gz5(T), was isolated from a soil sample from Gama, Chad. A polyphasic taxonomic study was carried out to establish the status of this strain. The diamino acid present in the cell wall is meso-diaminopimelic acid. Glucose, mannose and madurose occur in whole cell hydrolysates. The polar lipids were found to consist of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unidentified glycolipid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8) and MK-9(H6). The predominant cellular fatty acids were found to be C16:0, iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and C18:0 10-methyl. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) belongs to the genus Actinomadura and is closely related to Actinomadura oligospora JCM 10648(T) (ATCC 43269(T); 98.3 % similarity). However, the low level of DNA-DNA relatedness and some different phenotypic characteristics allowed the strain to be distinguished from its close relatives. Therefore, it is concluded that strain NEAU-Gz5(T) represents a novel species of the genus of Actinomadura, for which the name Actinomadura gamaensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NEAU-Gz5(T) (= CGMCC 4.7301(T) = DSM 100815(T)).

  19. Geodermatophilus saharensis sp. nov., isolated from sand of the Saharan desert in Chad.

    PubMed

    Montero-Calasanz, M C; Göker, M; Pötter, G; Rohde, M; Spröer, C; Schumann, P; Gorbushina, A A; Klenk, H-P

    2013-03-01

    A novel Gram-positive, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, CF5/5, was isolated from soil in the Sahara desert, Chad. It grew best at 20-35 °C and at pH 6.0-8.0 and with 0-4 % (w/v) NaCl, forming black-colored colonies. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G + C content was 75.9 mol%. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid; galactose and xylose were detected as diagnostic sugars. The main phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol; MK-9(H(4)) was the dominant menaquinone. The major cellular fatty acids were: iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(15:0). The 16S rRNA gene showed 95.6-98.3 % sequence similarity with the other named members of the genus Geodermatophilus. Based on the polyphasic taxonomy data, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus saharensis with the type strain CF5/5(T) = DSM 45423 = CCUG 62813 = MTCC 11416.

  20. Incidence of canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad.

    PubMed

    Kayali, U; Mindekem, R; Yémadji, N; Oussiguéré, A; Naïssengar, S; Ndoutamia, A G; Zinsstag, J

    2003-11-12

    This work describes for the first time the incidence risk of passively reported canine rabies, and quantifies reported human exposure in N'Djaména (the capital of Chad). To diagnose rabies, we used a direct immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFAT). From January 2001 to March 2002, we were brought 34 rabies cases in dogs and three cases in cats. Canine cases were geographically clustered. The annual incidence risk of canine rabies was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.7) per 1000 unvaccinated dogs. Most of the rabid dogs were owned-although free-roaming and not vaccinated against rabies. Most showed increased aggressiveness and attacked people without being provoked. Eighty-one persons were exposed to rabid dogs and four persons to rabid cats (mostly children<15 years old). Most of the exposed persons were neighbours or family members of the animal owner. Most exposures were transdermal bites, but nearly half of all exposed persons did not apply any first wound care or only applied a traditional treatment. In N'Djaména, humans are often exposed to canine rabies but do not use the full-course post-exposure treatment and wound care is insufficient. Most rabid dogs would be accessible to parenteral vaccination. Pilot vaccination campaigns are needed to determine the success of dog mass vaccination in N'Djaména as a way to prevent animal and human rabies.

  1. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  2. Two new stygobiotic copepod species from the Tibesti area (Northern Chad) and a re-description of Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915).

    PubMed

    Brancelj, Anton

    2015-08-04

    Between 4th and 18th March 2014, an international group of biologists carried out a hydrobiological expedition to the Ounianga-Tibesti area of northern Chad (Africa). The Tibesti is a desert volcanic area, intersected by the beds of ancient rivers which were active in the Tertiary. In deep canyons there are small water bodies (gueltas/aguelmans), fed by rain and spring water. They are rich in zooplankton, benthos, and even fish, but their groundwater fauna has previously been unknown. Groundwater samples collected in the vicinity of one guelta contained Syncarida, Isopoda, and Copepoda. Among the latter, two new species were recognised, Haplocyclops (H.) henrii sp. nov. and Parastenocaris joi sp. nov., together with a third species, Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915), previously known only from the littoral zone and wet mosses of Lake Victoria. The Tibesti area is thus the third known location of P. schroederi. All these species have a Gondwanaland distribution and are probably relicts of the Tertiary fauna, formerly widespread in the Sahara. Together with descriptions of two new species, a detailed re-description of P. schroederi is presented, along with remarks on their ecology.

  3. ePlantLIBRA: A composition and biological activity database for bioactive compounds in plant food supplements.

    PubMed

    Plumb, J; Lyons, J; Nørby, K; Thomas, M; Nørby, E; Poms, R; Bucchini, L; Restani, P; Kiely, M; Finglas, P

    2016-02-15

    The newly developed ePlantLIBRA database is a comprehensive and searchable database, with up-to-date coherent and validated scientific information on plant food supplement (PFS) bioactive compounds, with putative health benefits as well as adverse effects, and contaminants and residues. It is the only web-based database available compiling peer reviewed publications and case studies on PFS. A user-friendly, efficient and flexible interface has been developed for searching, extracting, and exporting the data, including links to the original references. Data from over 570 publications have been quality evaluated and entered covering 70 PFS or their botanical ingredients.

  4. Assessment of global disease activity in RA patients monitored in the METEOR database: the patient's versus the rheumatologist's opinion.

    PubMed

    Gvozdenović, Emilia; Koevoets, Rosanne; Wolterbeek, Ron; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Allaart, Cornelia F; Landewé, Robert B M

    2014-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the patient's (PtGDA) and physician's (PhGDA) assessment of global disease activity and to identify factors that might influence these differences as well as factors that may influence the patient's and the physician's scores separately. Anonymous data were used from 2,117 Dutch patients included in the Measurement of efficacy of Treatment in the Era of Rheumatology database. PtGDA and PhGDA were scored independently on a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) with 0 and 100 as extremes. The agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), was calculated and a Bland-Altman plot was created to visualize the differences between PtGDA and PhGDA. Linear mixed model analysis was used to model PtGDA and PhGDA. Logistic repeated measurements were used to model the difference in PtGDA and PhGDA (PtGDA > PhGDA versus PtGDA ≤ PhGDA). Gender patient, gender physician, age, swollen joint count (SJC), tender joint count, VAS pain, disease duration, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were considered as possible determinants in both models. Mean (standard deviation) age was 57 (15) years and 67 % of the patients were female. Agreement between PtGDA and PhGDA was moderate (ICC, 0.57). Patients scored on average 11 units higher (worse) than rheumatologists (95 % limits of agreement, -25.2 to 47.6). Patient's perception of pain (VAS) was positively associated with a PtGDA being higher than PhGDA. Similarly, ESR and swollen joint counts were positively associated with a PtGDA being lower or equal to the PhGDA. Patients rate global disease activity consistently higher than their rheumatologists. Patients base their judgment primarily on the level of pain, physicians on the level of SJC and ESR.

  5. A Phase Ia Study to Assess the Safety and Immunogenicity of New Malaria Vaccine Candidates ChAd63 CS Administered Alone and with MVA CS

    PubMed Central

    de Barra, Eoghan; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Ewer, Katie J.; Bliss, Carly M.; Hennigan, Kerrie; Collins, Ann; Berrie, Eleanor; Lawrie, Alison M.; Gilbert, Sarah C.; Nicosia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria remains a significant cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Development of an effective vaccine would be a key intervention to reduce the considerable social and economic impact of malaria. Methodology We conducted a Phase Ia, non-randomized, clinical trial in 24 healthy, malaria-naïve adults of the chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) replication-deficient viral vectored vaccines encoding the circumsporozoite protein (CS) of P. falciparum. Results ChAd63-MVA CS administered in a heterologous prime-boost regime was shown to be safe and immunogenic, inducing high-level T cell responses to CS. With a priming ChAd63 CS dose of 5×109 vp responses peaked at a mean of 1947 SFC/million PBMC (median 1524) measured by ELIspot 7 days after the MVA boost and showed a mixed CD4+/CD8+ phenotype. With a higher priming dose of ChAd63 CS dose 5×1010 vp T cell responses did not increase (mean 1659 SFC/million PBMC, median 1049). Serum IgG responses to CS were modest and peaked at day 14 post ChAd63 CS (median antibody concentration for all groups at day 14 of 1.3 µg/ml (range 0–11.9), but persisted throughout late follow-up (day 140 median antibody concentration groups 1B & 2B 0.9 µg/ml (range 0–4.7). Conclusions ChAd63-MVA is a safe and highly immunogenic delivery platform for the CS antigen in humans which warrants efficacy testing. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01450280 PMID:25522180

  6. Assessment and comparison of CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores in patients with atrial fibrillation in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turaiki, Abdulrahman M.; Al-Ammari, Maha A.; Al-Harbi, Shmeylan A.; Khalidi, Nabil S.; Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M.; Aldebasi, Tariq M.; AbuRuz, Salah M.; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: No previous reports on the utilization of CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Saudi Arabia have been identified in the literature. The main objectives of this study were to assess and compare the distribution of CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores and to identify the most common risk factors for stroke and bleeding among AF patients attending clinical pharmacists managed anticoagulation clinic. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This cross-sectional study was conducted over 2 months period at clinical pharmacists managed anticoagulation clinic. METHODS: CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and HAS-BLED scores were calculated and compared for all eligible patients. RESULTS: Two hundred and sixty-four patients with AF were included in the analysis. The number of patients at low risk for stroke was found to be 14 (5.3%) using CHADS2 and only 4 (1.5%) using CHA2DS2-VASc. On the other hand, 64 patients (24.2%) were found at moderate risk for stroke using CHADS2 compared with 17 patients (6.4%) using CHA2DS2-VASc. Most of the patients were found to be at high risk for stroke using either the CHADS2 (70.5%) and CHA2DS2-VASc (92%). The study also revealed that most of the patients were at moderate (63.3%) to high (27.7%) risk of bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the percentage of patients at high risk for stroke and bleeding is very high. The study revealed that this could be attributed to the high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for stroke and for bleeding in Saudi patients with AF. PMID:27168864

  7. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  8. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanic rocks from the Lake Chad region: An extension of the Cameroon volcanic line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, J. G.; Lee, T.-Y.; Torng, P.-K.; Yang, C.-C.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2016-07-01

    Silicic volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, near Lake Chad, are considered to be an extension of the Cameroon volcanic line (CVL) but their petrogenetic association is uncertain. The silicic rocks are divided into peraluminous and peralkaline groups with both rock types chemically similar to within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma indicating the magmas erupted ˜10 million years before the next oldest CVL rocks (i.e., ˜66 Ma). The Sr isotopes (i.e., ISr = 0.7021-0.7037) show a relatively wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268-0.51271) are uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Thermodynamic modeling shows that the silicic rocks likely formed by fractional crystallization of a mafic parental magma but that the peraluminous rocks were affected by low temperature alteration processes. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts identified within the Late Cretaceous basins (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51245-0.51285) of Chad than the uncontaminated CVL rocks (i.e., 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270-0.51300). The age and isotopic compositions suggest the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad region are related to Late Cretaceous extensional volcanism in the Termit basin. It is unlikely that the silicic volcanic rocks are petrogenetically related to the CVL but it is possible that magmatism was structurally controlled by suture zones that formed during the opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean and/or the Pan-African Orogeny.

  9. Use of remote sensing and a geographical information system in a national helminth control programme in Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Simon; Beasley, Michael; Ndinaromtan, Montanan; Madjiouroum, Ester Mobele; Baboguel, Marie; Djenguinabe, Elie; Hay, Simon I.; Bundy, Don A. P.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To design and implement a rapid and valid epidemiological assessment of helminths among schoolchildren in Chad using ecological zones defined by remote sensing satellite sensor data and to investigate the environmental limits of helminth distribution. METHODS: Remote sensing proxy environmental data were used to define seven ecological zones in Chad. These were combined with population data in a geographical information system (GIS) in order to define a sampling protocol. On this basis, 20 schools were surveyed. Multilevel analysis, by means of generalized estimating equations to account for clustering at the school level, was used to investigate the relationship between infection patterns and key environmental variables. FINDINGS: In a sample of 1023 schoolchildren, 22.5% were infected with Schistosoma haematobium and 32.7% with hookworm. None were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides or Trichuris trichiura. The prevalence of S. haematobium and hookworm showed marked geographical heterogeneity and the observed patterns showed a close association with the defined ecological zones and significant relationships with environmental variables. These results contribute towards defining the thermal limits of geohelminth species. Predictions of infection prevalence were made for each school surveyed with the aid of models previously developed for Cameroon. These models correctly predicted that A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura would not occur in Chad but the predictions for S. haematobium were less reliable at the school level. CONCLUSION: GIS and remote sensing can play an important part in the rapid planning of helminth control programmes where little information on disease burden is available. Remote sensing prediction models can indicate patterns of geohelminth infection but can only identify potential areas of high risk for S. haematobium. PMID:12471398

  10. Trace elements geochemistry of kerogen in Upper Cretaceous sediments, Chad (Bornu) Basin, northeastern Nigeria: Origin and paleo-redox conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Hakimi, Mohammed Hail; Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Mustapha, Khairul Azlan; Aturamu, Adeyinka Oluyemi

    2014-12-01

    Trace element contents in isolated kerogen from Upper Cretaceous sediments within Gongila and Fika formations in the Chad (Bornu) Basin, northeastern Nigeria were determined using Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS), in order to infer the origin of the organic matter and the paleo-redox conditions during their sedimentation. The concentrations of the elements in the kerogen samples varied from 1.01 to 24,740 ppm. The distribution of elements shows that Fe is the most abundant element in Chad (Bornu) Basin kerogen, followed by Ce. Among the biophile elements, V is the most abundant, followed by Ni and Co in that order. Statistical evaluation of the elemental composition data shows that As, Ce, Pb, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni and U exhibit good positive correlations with each other. Molybdenum, on the other hand displays no obvious correlation with most of the trace elements determined including TOC, but has good positive correlation with TS and negative correlation with Tmax, Ce and Th, which suggests that the concentration of Mo decreases with increasing maturity and vice versa. Some trace element concentrations and their ratios suggest mixed marine and terrigenous source input for the organic matter (kerogen) in Chad (Bornu) Basin. More so, the concentrations of redox-sensitive elements, such as V, Ni, Cu, Cr Mo and Mn, in the kerogen samples suggest dysoxic bottom water conditions within the Gongila and Fika sediments. Cross-plots of V and Ni and V/(V + Ni) ratio also indicate that the organic matter of these samples was deposited in slightly reducing environments.

  11. Hydrological budget of Lake Chad: assessment of lake-groundwater interaction by coupling Bayesian approach and chemical budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2014-05-01

    Estimation of lake-groundwater interactions is a crucial step to constrain water balance of lacustrine and aquifer systems. Located in the Sahel, the Lake Chad is at the center of an endorheic basin of 2,5.106 km2. One of the most remarkable features of this terminal lake is that, despite the semi-arid context and high evaporation rates of the area, its waters are fresh. It is proposed in the literature that the solutes are evacuated in the underlying quaternary aquifer bearing witness to the importance of surface water and groundwater exchanges for the chemical regulation of the lake. The water balance of this system is still not fully understood. The respective roles of evaporation versus infiltration into the quaternary aquifer are particularly under constrained. To assess lake-groundwater flows, we used the previous conceptual hydrological model of the lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (Hydrological Sciences Journal, 2011). This model involves six parameters including infiltration rate. A probabilistic inversion of parameters, based on an exploration of the parameters space through a Metropolis algorithm (a Monte Carlo Markov Chain method), allows the construction of an a posteriori Probability Density Function of each parameter yielding to the best fits between observed lake levels and simulated. Then, a chemical budget of a conservative element, such as chloride, is introduced in the water balance model using the optimal parameters resulting from the Bayesian inverse approach. The model simulates lake level and chloride concentration variations of lake Chad from 1956 up to 2008. Simulated lake levels are in overall agreement with the observations, with a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient above 0.94 for all sets of parameters retained. The infiltration value, obtained by such probabilistic inversion approach, accounts for 120±20 mm/yr, representing 5% of the total outputs of the lake. However, simulated chloride concentrations are overestimated in

  12. Crater palaeolakes in the Tibesti mountains (Central Sahara, North Chad) - New insights into past Saharan climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kröpelin, Stefan; Dinies, Michèle; Sylvestre, Florence; Hoelzmann, Philipp

    2016-04-01

    For the first time continuous lacustrine sections were sampled from the volcanic Tibesti Mountains (Chad): In the 900 m deep crater of Trou au Natron at Pic Toussidé (3,315 m a.s.l.) and from the 800 m deep Era Kohor, the major sub-caldera of Emi Koussi (3,445 m a.s.l.). The remnant diatomites on their slopes are located 360 m (Trou au Natron) and 125 m (Era Kohor) above the present day bottom of the calderas. These sediments from highly continental positions in the central Sahara are keys for the reconstruction of the last climatic cycles (Kröpelin et al. 2015). We report first results from sedimentary-geochemical (total organic and total inorganic carbon contents; total nitrogen; major elements; mineralogy) and palynological analyses for palaeo-environmental interpretations. The diatomites from the Trou au Natron comprise 330 cm of mostly calcitic sediments with relatively low organic carbon (<2.5 %) and strongly varying aragonite and gypsum contents. Major elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr), elemental ratios (Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, Fe/Mn) and the mineralogy are used to interpret the lake's salinity, productivity and ecological conditions. Trilete spores are preserved throughout the sequence, probably reflecting local moss/fern stands. Regional pollen rain-e.g. grasses and wormwood-is scarcely represented. Golden algae dominate in the lower section. The results of the first palynological samples suggest a small sedimentation basin. Two 14C-dated charcoals out of the upper part of the section indicate mid-Holocene ages and a linear extrapolation based on a sediment accumulation rate of 1.4mma-1 would lead to tentative dates of ~8650 cal a BP for basal lacustrine sediments and ~4450 cal a BP for the cessation of this lacustrine sequence. The diatomites from the Era Kohor reflect a suite of sections that in total sum up to 145 cm of mostly silica-based sediments with very low carbon contents (< 2% TC). Calcite dominated sediments are only present in the topmost 15

  13. Pulmonary tuberculosis diagnostic delays in Chad: a multicenter, hospital-based survey in Ndjamena and Moundou

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in low-resource countries. One contagious patient can infect 10 to 20 contacts in these settings. Delays in diagnosing TB therefore contribute to the spread of the disease and sustain the epidemic. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess delays in diagnosing tuberculosis and the factors associated with these delays in the public hospitals in Moundou and Ndjamena, Chad. Methods A structured questionnaire was administered to 286 new tuberculosis patients to evaluate patient delay (time from the onset of symptoms to the first formal or informal care), health-care system delay (time from the first health care to tuberculosis treatment) and total delay (sum of the patient and system delays). Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with long diagnostic delays (defined as greater than the median). Results and discussion The median [interquartile range] patient delay, system delay and total delay were 15 [7–30], 36 [19–65] and 57.5 [33–95] days, respectively. Low economic status (aOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.38 [1.08-5.25]), not being referred to a health service (aOR = 1.75 [1.02- 3.02]) and a secondary level education (aOR = 0.33 [0.12-0.92]) were associated with a long patient delay. Risk factors for a long system delay were a low level of education (aOR = 4.71 [1.34-16.51]) and the belief that traditional medicine and informal care can cure TB (aOR = 5.46 [2.37-12.60]). Conclusion Targeted strengthening of the health-care system, including improving patient access, addressing deficiencies in health-related human resources, and improving laboratory networks and linkages as well as community mobilization will make for better outcomes in tuberculosis diagnosis. PMID:22776241

  14. Caregiver behaviors and resources influence child height-for-age in rural Chad.

    PubMed

    Bégin, F; Frongillo, E A; Delisle, H

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver characteristics that influence child nutritional status in rural Chad, when controlling for socioeconomic factors. Variables were classified according to the categories of a UNICEF model of care: caregiving behaviors, household food security, food and economic resources and resources for care and health resources. Sixty-four households with 98 children from ages 12 to 71 mo were part of this study. Caregivers were interviewed to collect information on number of pregnancies, child feeding and health practices, influence on decisions regarding child health and feeding, overall satisfaction with life, social support, workload, income, use of income, and household food expenditures and consumption. Household heads were questioned about household food production and other economic resources. Caregiver and household variables were classified as two sets of variables, and separate regression models were run for each of the two sets. Significant predictors of height-for-age were then combined in the same regression model. Caregiver influence on child-feeding decisions, level of satisfaction with life, willingness to seek advice during child illnesses, and the number of individuals available to assist with domestic tasks were the caregiver factors associated with children's height-for-age. Socioeconomic factors associated with children's height-for-age were the amount of harvested cereals, the sources of household income and the household being monogamous. When the caregiver and household socioeconomic factors were combined in the same model, they explained 54% of the variance in children's height-for-age, and their regression coefficients did not change or only slightly increased, except for caregiver's propensity to seek advice during child illnesses, which was no longer significant. These results indicate that caregiver characteristics influence children's nutritional status, even while controlling for the socioeconomic

  15. Water balance-based estimation of groundwater recharge in the Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2012-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought and shortage of water has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the change of land use and its characteristics must be a first step to find how such changes disturb the water cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and vertical recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires not only reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. Spatial variations in the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and meteorological conditions should be accounted for in the recharge estimation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal average spatial distribution of surface runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB.

  16. Geochemical evidence for a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bata, Timothy; Parnell, John; Samaila, Nuhu K.; Abubakar, M. B.; Maigari, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Paleogeographic studies have shown that Earth was covered with more water during the Cretaceous than it is today, as the global sea level was significantly higher. The Cretaceous witnessed one of the greatest marine transgressions in Earth's history, represented by widespread deposition of sands directly on underlying basement. These sand bodies hold much of the world's heavy oil. Here, we present for the first time, geochemical evidence of a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Bima oil sand is similar to other Cretaceous oil sands, predominantly occurring at shallow depths on basin flanks and generally lacking a seal cover, making the oil susceptible to biodegradation. The bulk properties and distribution of molecular features in oils from the Bima oil sand suggest that they are biodegraded. Sterane maturity parameters and the trisnorhopane thermal indicator for the oils suggest thermal maturities consistent with oils generated as conventional light oils, which later degraded into heavy oils. These oils also show no evidence of 25-norhopane, strongly suggesting that biodegradation occurred at shallow depths, consistent with the shallow depth of occurrence of the Bima Formation at the study locality. Low diasterane/sterane ratios and C29H/C30H ratios greater than 1 suggest a carbonate source rock for the studied oil. The Sterane distribution further suggests that the oils were sourced from marine carbonate rocks. The C32 homohopane isomerization ratios for the Bima oil sand are 0.59-0.60, implying that the source rock has surpassed the main oil generation phase, consistent with burial depths of the Fika and Gongila Formations, which are both possible petroleum source rocks in the basin.

  17. Geodermatophilus arenarius sp. nov., a xerophilic actinomycete isolated from Saharan desert sand in Chad.

    PubMed

    Montero-Calasanz, M C; Göker, M; Pötter, G; Rohde, M; Spröer, C; Schumann, P; Gorbushina, A A; Klenk, H-P

    2012-11-01

    A novel Gram-positive, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, CF5/4(T), was isolated in 2007 during an environmental screening of arid desert soil in Ouré Cassoni, Chad. The isolate grew best in a temperature range of 28-40 °C and at pH 6.0-8.5, with 0-1 % (w/v) NaCl, forming brown-coloured and nearly circular colonies on GYM agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics of the isolate matched those described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G + C content of the novel strain was 75.9 mol %. The peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as diagnostic diaminoacid. The main phospholipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, diphosphatidylglycerol and a small amount of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H(4)) was identified as the dominant menaquinone and galactose as diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were branched-chain saturated acids: iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0). The 16S rRNA gene showed 96.2-98.3 % sequence identity with the three members of the genus Geodermatophilus: G. obscurus (96.2 %), G. ruber (96.5 %), and G. nigrescens (98.3 %). Based on the chemotaxonomic results, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of G. nigrescens, the isolate is proposed to represent a novel species, Geodermatophilus arenarius (type strain CF5/4(T) = DSM 45418(T) = MTCC 11413(T) = CCUG 62763(T)).

  18. High-coercivity minerals from North African Humid Period soil material deposited in Lake Yoa (Chad)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, J.; Kroepelin, S.; Wennrich, V.; Viehberg, F. A.; Wagner, B.; Rethemeyer, J.; Karls, J.; Melles, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the so-called African Humid Period (AHP) have favored the formation of big lake systems. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics together with proxies for lacustrine productivity and biota of a sediment core (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Magnetic properties of AHP sediments show strong indications for reductive diagenesis. An up to ~ 80 m higher lake level is documented by lacustrine deposits in the Ounianga Basin, dating to the early phase of the AHP. The higher lake level and less strong seasonality restricted deep mixing of the lake. Development of anoxic conditions consequently lead to the dissolution of iron oxides. An exception is an interval with high concentration of high-coercivity magnetic minerals, deposited between 7800 - 8120 cal yr BP. This interval post-dates the 8.2 event, which was dry in Northern Africa and probably caused a reduced vegetation cover. We propose that the latter resulted in the destabilization of soils around Lake Yoa. After the re-establishment of humid conditions, these soil materials were eroded and deposited in the lake. Magnetic minerals appear well preserved in the varved Late Holocene sequence, indicating (sub-) oxic conditions in the lake. This is surprising, because the occurrence of varves is often interpreted as an indicator for anoxic conditions of the lake water. However, the salinity of lake water rose strongly after the AHP. We therefore hypothesize that the conservation of varves and absence of benthic organisms rather relates to the high salinity than to anoxic conditions.

  19. Geodermatophilus siccatus sp. nov., isolated from arid sand of the Saharan desert in Chad.

    PubMed

    del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Göker, Markus; Rohde, Manfred; Schumann, Peter; Pötter, Gabriele; Spröer, Cathrin; Gorbushina, Anna A; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-03-01

    A novel Gram-positive, aerobic, actinobacterial strain, CF6/1(T), was isolated in 2007 during environmental screening of arid desert soil in the Sahara near to Ourba, Chad. The isolate was found to grow best in a temperature range of 20-37 °C and at pH 6.0-8.5 and showed no NaCl tolerance, forming black-coloured and nearly circular colonies on GYM agar. Chemotaxonomic and molecular characteristics determined for the isolate match those previously described for members of the genus Geodermatophilus. The DNA G + C content of the novel strain was determined to be 74.9 mol %. The peptidoglycan was found to contain meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The main phospholipids were determined to be phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol and traces of phosphatidylglycerol; MK-9(H(4)) was identified as the dominant menaquinone and galactose as the diagnostic sugar. The major cellular fatty acids were found to be the branched-chain saturated acids iso-C(16:0) and iso-C(15:0), as well as C(17:1ω8c). The 16S rRNA gene sequence shows 97.5-97.9 % sequence identity with the four validly named or at least effectively published members of the genus: Geodermatophilus obscurus (97.5 %), Geodermatophilus arenarius (97.7 %), Geodermatophilus ruber (97.9 %) and Geodermatophilus nigrescens (97.9 %). Based on the results from this polyphasic taxonomic analysis and DNA-DNA hybridizations with all type strains of the genus, we propose that strain CF6/1(T) represents a novel species, Geodermatophilus siccatus, with the type strain CF6/1(T) = DSM 45419(T) = CCUG 62765(T) = MTCC 11414(T).

  20. Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad.

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, U.; Mindekem, R.; Yémadji, N.; Vounatsou, P.; Kaninga, Y.; Ndoutamia, A. G.; Zinsstag, J.

    2003-01-01

    Canine rabies, and thus human exposure to rabies, can be controlled through mass vaccination of the animal reservoir if dog owners are willing to cooperate. Inaccessible, ownerless dogs, however, reduce the vaccination coverage achieved in parenteral campaigns. This study aimed to estimate the vaccination coverage in dogs in three study zones of N'Djaména, Chad, after a pilot free parenteral mass vaccination campaign against rabies. We used a capture-mark-recapture approach for population estimates, with a Bayesian, Markov chain, Monte Carlo method to estimate the total number of owned dogs, and the ratio of ownerless to owned dogs to calculate vaccination coverage. When we took into account ownerless dogs, the vaccination coverage in the dog populations was 87% (95% confidence interval (CI), 84-89%) in study zone I, 71% (95% CI, 64-76%) in zone II, and 64% (95% CI, 58-71%) in zone III. The proportions of ownerless dogs to owned dogs were 1.1% (95% CI, 0-3.1%), 7.6% (95% CI, 0.7-16.5%), and 10.6% (95% CI, 1.6-19.1%) in the three study zones, respectively. Vaccination coverage in the three populations of owned dogs was 88% (95% CI, 84-92%) in zone I, 76% (95% CI, 71-81%) in zone II, and 70% (95% CI, 66-76%) in zone III. Participation of dog owners in the free campaign was high, and the number of inaccessible ownerless dogs was low. High levels of vaccination coverage could be achieved with parenteral mass vaccination. Regular parenteral vaccination campaigns to cover all of N'Djaména should be considered as an ethical way of preventing human rabies when post-exposure treatment is of limited availability and high in cost. PMID:14758434

  1. Quaranfil, Johnston Atoll, and Lake Chad viruses are novel members of the family Orthomyxoviridae.

    PubMed

    Presti, Rachel M; Zhao, Guoyan; Beatty, Wandy L; Mihindukulasuriya, Kathie A; da Rosa, Amelia P A Travassos; Popov, Vsevolod L; Tesh, Robert B; Virgin, Herbert W; Wang, David

    2009-11-01

    Arboviral infections are an important cause of emerging infections due to the movements of humans, animals, and hematophagous arthropods. Quaranfil virus (QRFV) is an unclassified arbovirus originally isolated from children with mild febrile illness in Quaranfil, Egypt, in 1953. It has subsequently been isolated in multiple geographic areas from ticks and birds. We used high-throughput sequencing to classify QRFV as a novel orthomyxovirus. The genome of this virus is comprised of multiple RNA segments; five were completely sequenced. Proteins with limited amino acid similarity to conserved domains in polymerase (PA, PB1, and PB2) and hemagglutinin (HA) genes from known orthomyxoviruses were predicted to be present in four of the segments. The fifth sequenced segment shared no detectable similarity to any protein and is of uncertain function. The end-terminal sequences of QRFV are conserved between segments and are different from those of the known orthomyxovirus genera. QRFV is known to cross-react serologically with two other unclassified viruses, Johnston Atoll virus (JAV) and Lake Chad virus (LKCV). The complete open reading frames of PB1 and HA were sequenced for JAV, while a fragment of PB1 of LKCV was identified by mass sequencing. QRFV and JAV PB1 and HA shared 80% and 70% amino acid identity to each other, respectively; the LKCV PB1 fragment shared 83% amino acid identity with the corresponding region of QRFV PB1. Based on phylogenetic analyses, virion ultrastructural features, and the unique end-terminal sequences identified, we propose that QRFV, JAV, and LKCV comprise a novel genus of the family Orthomyxoviridae.

  2. Experiment Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschoren, Joaquin; Blockeel, Hendrik

    Next to running machine learning algorithms based on inductive queries, much can be learned by immediately querying the combined results of many prior studies. Indeed, all around the globe, thousands of machine learning experiments are being executed on a daily basis, generating a constant stream of empirical information on machine learning techniques. While the information contained in these experiments might have many uses beyond their original intent, results are typically described very concisely in papers and discarded afterwards. If we properly store and organize these results in central databases, they can be immediately reused for further analysis, thus boosting future research. In this chapter, we propose the use of experiment databases: databases designed to collect all the necessary details of these experiments, and to intelligently organize them in online repositories to enable fast and thorough analysis of a myriad of collected results. They constitute an additional, queriable source of empirical meta-data based on principled descriptions of algorithm executions, without reimplementing the algorithms in an inductive database. As such, they engender a very dynamic, collaborative approach to experimentation, in which experiments can be freely shared, linked together, and immediately reused by researchers all over the world. They can be set up for personal use, to share results within a lab or to create open, community-wide repositories. Here, we provide a high-level overview of their design, and use an existing experiment database to answer various interesting research questions about machine learning algorithms and to verify a number of recent studies.

  3. SMALL-SCALE AND GLOBAL DYNAMOS AND THE AREA AND FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGIONS, SUNSPOT GROUPS, AND SUNSPOTS: A MULTI-DATABASE STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C.; Amouzou, Ernest C.; Longcope, Dana W.; Senkpeil, Ryan R.; Tlatov, Andrey G.; Nagovitsyn, Yury A.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Chapman, Gary A.; Cookson, Angela M.; Yeates, Anthony R.; Watson, Fraser T.; Balmaceda, Laura A.; DeLuca, Edward E.; Martens, Petrus C. H.

    2015-02-10

    In this work, we take advantage of 11 different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions—where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) 10{sup 21}Mx (10{sup 22}Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behavior of a power-law distribution (when extended to smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al. We propose that this is evidence of two separate mechanisms giving rise to visible structures on the photosphere: one directly connected to the global component of the dynamo (and the generation of bipolar active regions), and the other with the small-scale component of the dynamo (and the fragmentation of magnetic structures due to their interaction with turbulent convection)

  4. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  5. MSDsite: a database search and retrieval system for the analysis and viewing of bound ligands and active sites.

    PubMed

    Golovin, Adel; Dimitropoulos, Dimitris; Oldfield, Tom; Rachedi, Abdelkrim; Henrick, Kim

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional environments of ligand binding sites have been derived from the parsing and loading of the PDB entries into a relational database. For each bound molecule the biological assembly of the quaternary structure has been used to determine all contact residues and a fast interactive search and retrieval system has been developed. Prosite pattern and short sequence search options are available together with a novel graphical query generator for inter-residue contacts. The database and its query interface are accessible from the Internet through a web server located at: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/msd-srv/msdsite.

  6. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  7. Interpretation of gravity data by the continuous wavelet transform: The case of the Chad lineament (North-Central Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Braitenberg, Carla; Yang, Yushan

    2013-03-01

    A slightly bended gravity high along the Chad lineament in Central North Africa is analyzed and interpreted by the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) method. We use scale normalization on the continuous wavelet transform, allowing analysis of the gravity field in order to determine the sources at different depths. By focusing on homogenous standard sources, such as sphere or cube, horizontal cylinder or prism, sheet and infinite step, we derive the relationships between the source depth and pseudo-wavenumber. Then the source depth can be recovered from tracing the maximal values of the modulus of the complex wavelet coefficients in the CWT-based scalograms that are function of the pseudo-wavenumber. The studied area includes a central gravity high up to 75 km wide, and a secondary high that occurs at the southern part of the anomaly. The interpretation of the depth slices and vertical sections of the modulus maxima of the complex wavelet coefficients allows recognition of a relatively dense terrane located at middle crustal levels (10-25 km depth). A reasonable geological model derived from the 2.5D gravity forward modelling indicates the presence of high density bodies, probably linked to a buried suture, which were thrusted up into the mid-crust during the Neo-Proterozoic terrane collisions between the Saharan metacraton and the Arabian-Nubian shield. We conclude that the Chad line delineates a first order geological boundary, missing on the geologic maps.

  8. The mammal assemblage of the hominid site TM266 (Late Miocene, Chad Basin): ecological structure and paleoenvironmental implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fur, Soizic; Fara, Emmanuel; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-05-01

    Characterizing the paleoenvironmental context of the first hominids is a key issue for understanding their behavioral and morphological evolution. The present study aims at reconstructing the paleoenvironment of the TM266 vertebrate assemblage (Toros-Menalla, Northern Chad) that yielded the earliest known hominid Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7 Ma). For the first time, a quantitative analysis is carried out on the fossil mammal assemblage associated with that hominid. Two complementary approaches were applied: (1) the analysis of the relative abundances of taxa and their habitat preferences; and (2) the study of the distribution of taxa within three meaningful ecovariables: locomotion, feeding preferences, and body mass. The resulting taxonomic and paleoecological structures are used to reconstruct the diversity and the relative extent of the habitats in that part of northern Chad seven million years ago. The paleoenvironment was composed of open areas with dry and humid grasslands, prevailing over wooded habitats. Water was also widely available as freshwater bodies and certainly swamps. It appears that the high habitat diversity of the landscape is a common feature among paleoenvironments associated with early hominids.

  9. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Jason K.; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O’Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning. PMID:26291625

  10. Field evaluation in Chad of community usage of CD4 T lymphocyte counting by alternative single-platform flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Field and community evaluation of the routine usage of CD4 T counting platforms is essential in resource-poor countries for efficient and cost-effective monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children attending health care centers. Methods We herein addressed the principal issues raised by the implementation of the single-platform, volumetric Auto40 flow cytometer (Apogee Flow Systems Ltd, Hemel Hempstead, UK) in 8 community HIV monitoring laboratories of different levels throughout Chad. This is a country with particularly difficult conditions, both in terms of climate and vast geographical territory, making the decentralization of the therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients challenging. Results The routine usage of the Auto40 flow cytometers for a period of 5 years (2008–2013) confirms the reliability and robustness of the analyzer for community-based CD4 T cell enumeration in terms of both absolute numbers and percentages to enable accurate monitoring of HIV-infected adults and children. However, our observations suggest that the Auto40 mini flow cytometer is not suitable for all laboratories as it is oversized and ultimately very expensive. Conclusion The Chad experience with the Auto40 flow cytometer suggests that its usage in resource-limited settings should be mainly reserved to reference (level 1) or district (level 2) laboratories, rather than to laboratories of health care centres (level 3). PMID:24083615

  11. Bacillus anthracis Diversity and Geographic Potential across Nigeria, Cameroon and Chad: Further Support of a Novel West African Lineage.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Odugbo, Moses Ode; Van Ert, Matthew; O'Shea, Bob; Mullins, Jocelyn; Perreten, Vincent; Perrenten, Vincent; Maho, Angaya; Hugh-Jones, Martin; Hadfield, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Zoonoses, diseases affecting both humans and animals, can exert tremendous pressures on human and veterinary health systems, particularly in resource limited countries. Anthrax is one such zoonosis of concern and is a disease requiring greater public health attention in Nigeria. Here we describe the genetic diversity of Bacillus anthracis in Nigeria and compare it to Chad, Cameroon and a broader global dataset based on the multiple locus variable number tandem repeat (MLVA-25) genetic typing system. Nigerian B. anthracis isolates had identical MLVA genotypes and could only be resolved by measuring highly mutable single nucleotide repeats (SNRs). The Nigerian MLVA genotype was identical or highly genetically similar to those in the neighboring countries, confirming the strains belong to this unique West African lineage. Interestingly, sequence data from a Nigerian isolate shares the anthrose deficient genotypes previously described for strains in this region, which may be associated with vaccine evasion. Strains in this study were isolated over six decades, indicating a high level of temporal strain stability regionally. Ecological niche models were used to predict the geographic distribution of the pathogen for all three countries. We describe a west-east habitat corridor through northern Nigeria extending into Chad and Cameroon. Ecological niche models and genetic results show B. anthracis to be ecologically established in Nigeria. These findings expand our understanding of the global B. anthracis population structure and can guide regional anthrax surveillance and control planning.

  12. The mammal assemblage of the hominid site TM266 (Late Miocene, Chad Basin): ecological structure and paleoenvironmental implications.

    PubMed

    Le Fur, Soizic; Fara, Emmanuel; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-05-01

    Characterizing the paleoenvironmental context of the first hominids is a key issue for understanding their behavioral and morphological evolution. The present study aims at reconstructing the paleoenvironment of the TM266 vertebrate assemblage (Toros-Menalla, Northern Chad) that yielded the earliest known hominid Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7 Ma). For the first time, a quantitative analysis is carried out on the fossil mammal assemblage associated with that hominid. Two complementary approaches were applied: (1) the analysis of the relative abundances of taxa and their habitat preferences; and (2) the study of the distribution of taxa within three meaningful ecovariables: locomotion, feeding preferences, and body mass. The resulting taxonomic and paleoecological structures are used to reconstruct the diversity and the relative extent of the habitats in that part of northern Chad seven million years ago. The paleoenvironment was composed of open areas with dry and humid grasslands, prevailing over wooded habitats. Water was also widely available as freshwater bodies and certainly swamps. It appears that the high habitat diversity of the landscape is a common feature among paleoenvironments associated with early hominids.

  13. The genetic impact of the lake chad basin population in North Africa as documented by mitochondrial diversity and internal variation of the L3e5 haplogroup.

    PubMed

    Podgorná, Eliška; Soares, Pedro; Pereira, Luísa; Cerný, Viktor

    2013-11-01

    The presence of sub-Saharan L-type mtDNA sequences in North Africa has traditionally been explained by the recent slave trade. However, gene flow between sub-Saharan and northern African populations would also have been made possible earlier through the greening of the Sahara resulting from Early Holocene climatic improvement. In this article, we examine human dispersals across the Sahara through the analysis of the sub-Saharan mtDNA haplogroup L3e5, which is not only commonly found in the Lake Chad Basin (∼17%), but which also attains nonnegligible frequencies (∼10%) in some Northwestern African populations. Age estimates point to its origin ∼10 ka, probably directly in the Lake Chad Basin, where the clade occurs across linguistic boundaries. The virtual absence of this specific haplogroup in Daza from Northern Chad and all West African populations suggests that its migration took place elsewhere, perhaps through Northern Niger. Interestingly, independent confirmation of Early Holocene contacts between North Africa and the Lake Chad Basin have been provided by craniofacial data from Central Niger, supporting our suggestion that the Early Holocene offered a suitable climatic window for genetic exchanges between North and sub-Saharan Africa. In view of its younger founder age in North Africa, the discontinuous distribution of L3e5 was probably caused by the Middle Holocene re-expansion of the Sahara desert, disrupting the clade's original continuous spread.

  14. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  15. An Arabic-English-French Lexicon of the Dialects Spoken in the Chad-Sudan Area, 1. [Lexique des parlers arabes tchado-soudanais, 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth-Laly, Arlette, Comp.

    This lexicon, a preliminary publication of a project dealing with Arabic dialects in the Chad-Sudan area, has been compiled from four earlier lexicons: G. Trenga, "Le bura-maband du Ouadai"; H. Carbou, "Methode pratique pour l'etude de l'arabe parle au Ouaday et a l'Est du Tchad"; G.L. Lethem, "Colloquial Arabic, Shua…

  16. Response of sorghum accessions from Chad and Uganda to natural infection by the downy mildew pathogen, Peronosclerospora sorghi in Mexico and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, 78 accessions from Chad, West Africa and 20 photoperiod insensitive accessions from Uganda, East Africa were evaluated for downy mildew resistance in Ocotlan, Mexico in 2004 and 2005. Ninety-four of these accessions were also evaluated at two locations in Wharton County, Texas, USA, ...

  17. Sediment composition, varve formation and paleolimnology of Lake Yoa, NE Chad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karls, Jens; Kröpelin, Stefan; Just, Janna; Kuper, Jan; Rethemeyer, Janet; Viehberg, Finn; Wennrich, Volker; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Lake Yoa (19.03° N / 20.31° E, NE Chad, 380 m a.s.l.) is a groundwater-fed lake in the central Sahara situated in a deflation hollow below an escarpment close to the Chadian-Libyan border. The lake persists since the onset of the Holocene "Green Sahara" 11,000 years ago. It has survived the end of the early to mid-Holocene wet phase until today due to extensive groundwater supply from the so-called Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System. Continuous lake sedimentation has generated an unparalleled depositional archive of Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the presently hyper-arid central Sahara, which is characterized by less than 10 mm of annual precipitation against an annual evaporation of more than 6,000 mm. An earlier 7.5 m long sediment core from Lake Yoa (OUNIK03/04) has provided unprecedented insight into the past 6,000 years cal BP (Kröpelin et al. 2008). Within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 "Our Way to Europe - Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary", the record was extended to the base of the lake sediments at a depth of 16.25 m below the lake floor in 2010 (core Co1240). Most of the sedimentary column is annually to sub-annually laminated. Varve counting resulted in a highly resolved robust chronology that is supported by AMS radiocarbon dating of various components (bulk sediment, bulk carbonate, humic acids, semi-aquatic plants and charcoal). The core material was examined in a multiproxy approach, including non-destructive geophysical (e.g. magnetic susceptibility) and elemental (XRF scanning) measurements as well as sedimentological, geochemical and paleontological analyses. The data not only give detailed information on changes in the lake body and catchment of Lake Yoa but also on the regional climate and environmental history during the past 11,000 years cal BP. Kröpelin et al. (2008). Climate-Driven Ecosystem Succession in the Sahara: The Past 6000 Years. Science 320: 765

  18. [Indentification of institutional factors affecting the well-being of sedentary and nomadic populations living in the Waza-Logone flood plain along the border between Cameroon and Chad].

    PubMed

    Fokou, G; Haller, T; Zinsstag, J

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an ongoing research project designed to compile a database to promote pastoral development in the lowlands along the Logone and Chari Rivers in Cameroon. A number of sedentary and nomadic populations depend on these flood plains south of Lake Chad for their livelihood. However the natural resources of the area undergo sharp seasonal variations and sometimes become the property of sedentary groups. As a result nomadic communities experience difficulty not only in gaining access to grazing lands and water but also to quality health care (hospital centers, effective medication). The purpose of this study was to define institutional requirements necessary to ensure access to health care resources for both nomadic and sedentary groups. The main problem for the nomadic population is that, unlike the now defunct pre-colonial structures, today's institutions are not compatible with the subsistence strategies of rural populations. These findings suggest that new institutional frameworks for natural resource management could indirectly improve the health status of nomadic pastoralist.

  19. Late Cretaceous intraplate silicic volcanism in the Lake Chad region: incipient continental rift volcanism vs. Cameroon Line volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, G.; Lee, T. Y.; Torng, P. K.; Yang, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal evolution of west-central Africa during the Cretaceous was directly related to plate motion associated with the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean. Late Cretaceous (~66 Ma) to recent magmatism related to the Cameroon Line stretches from Northern Cameroon (i.e. Golda Zuelva) to the Gulf of Guinea (i.e. Pagalu) and is considered to be due to mantle-crust interaction. The volcanic rocks at Hadjer el Khamis, west-central Chad, are considered to be amongst the oldest volcanic rocks of the Cameroon Line but their relationship is uncertain because they erupted during a period of a regional extension associated with the opening of the Late Cretaceous (~75 Ma) Termit basin. The silicic volcanic rocks can be divided into a peraluminous group and a peralkaline group with both rock types having similar chemical characteristics as within-plate granitoids. In situ U/Pb zircon dating yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 74.4 ± 1.3 Ma and indicates the rocks erupted ~10 million years before the next oldest eruption attributed to the Cameroon Line. The Sr isotopes (i.e. ISr = 0.7050 to 0.7143) show a wide range but the Nd isotopes (i.e. 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51268 to 0.51271) are more uniform and indicate that the rocks were derived from a moderately depleted mantle source. Major and trace elemental modeling show that the silicic rocks likely formed by shallow fractionation of a mafic parental magma where the peraluminous rocks experienced crustal contamination and the peralkaline rocks did not. The silicic rocks are more isotopically similar to Late Cretaceous basalts in the Doba and Bongor basins (i.e. ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7060; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51267 to 0.51277) of southern Chad than to rocks of the Cameroon Line (i.e. ISr = 0.7026 to 0.7038; 143Nd/144Ndi = 0.51270 to 0.51300). Given the age and isotopic compositions, it is likely that the silicic volcanic rocks of the Lake Chad area are related to Late Cretaceous extensional tectonics rather than to Cameroon Line magmatism.

  20. New Insights into the Lake Chad Basin Population Structure Revealed by High-Throughput Genotyping of Mitochondrial DNA Coding SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Černý, Viktor; Carracedo, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    Background Located in the Sudan belt, the Chad Basin forms a remarkable ecosystem, where several unique agricultural and pastoral techniques have been developed. Both from an archaeological and a genetic point of view, this region has been interpreted to be the center of a bidirectional corridor connecting West and East Africa, as well as a meeting point for populations coming from North Africa through the Saharan desert. Methodology/Principal Findings Samples from twelve ethnic groups from the Chad Basin (n = 542) have been high-throughput genotyped for 230 coding region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (mtSNPs) using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. This set of mtSNPs allowed for much better phylogenetic resolution than previous studies of this geographic region, enabling new insights into its population history. Notable haplogroup (hg) heterogeneity has been observed in the Chad Basin mirroring the different demographic histories of these ethnic groups. As estimated using a Bayesian framework, nomadic populations showed negative growth which was not always correlated to their estimated effective population sizes. Nomads also showed lower diversity values than sedentary groups. Conclusions/Significance Compared to sedentary population, nomads showed signals of stronger genetic drift occurring in their ancestral populations. These populations, however, retained more haplotype diversity in their hypervariable segments I (HVS-I), but not their mtSNPs, suggesting a more ancestral ethnogenesis. Whereas the nomadic population showed a higher Mediterranean influence signaled mainly by sub-lineages of M1, R0, U6, and U5, the other populations showed a more consistent sub-Saharan pattern. Although lifestyle may have an influence on diversity patterns and hg composition, analysis of molecular variance has not identified these differences. The present study indicates that analysis of mt

  1. Shallow groundwater from the far north of Cameroon (southern Lake Chad): revisiting a 20 years old survey of hydrochemistry and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, Beatrice; Mohammad, Bello; Fouepe, Alain; Ngo Boum, Suzanne; Nlend, Bertil; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Two field hydrogeological investigation surveys were conducted in 1992 and 2013 using hydrochemistry and isotope techniques in the far north part of Cameroon which corresponds to the southern part of Lake Chad basin. All of these data relate to groundwater and surface water which were collected at the same places to potentially reveal any temporal variation in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the water resources. Groundwater show mainly a Ca-HCO3 water type but CaMg-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types can also be found. The groundwater chemistry is resulting from many processes including pure silicate weathering and cation exchange. It is found that the nitrate content after 20 years has increased by an average factor of 6. These high concentrations in nitrate (up to 400 mg/l) are related to local anthropogenic activities and to the very bad conditions of maintaining of wells and boreholes. This pollution is also correlated to the population growth over the past two decades in the region. The isotopic content of groundwater is ranging from -6.87‰ to -0.32‰ for δ18O in 2013 and from -6.03‰ to +0.25‰ in 1992 without noticeable evolution through time. The conventional δD-δ18O diagram indicates that the groundwater has a meteoric origin more or less influenced by evaporation processes. Different processes involving different water sources were highlighted: (i) groundwater which has been affected by evaporation or in communication with evaporated surface waters; (ii) groundwater which is very close to the Global Meteoric Water Line and corresponding to a recent and direct recharge from precipitation; (iii) groundwater which is more depleted corresponding to a mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. This research is partly supported by the RAF7012and RAF7011 project from IAEA.

  2. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify Region 7 subject to Maximum Achievable Control Technologiy (MACT) standards. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 4) for Healthy Communities & Ecosystems, which are to reduce chemical and/or pesticide risks at facilities.

  3. Atomic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Claudio

    2000-10-01

    Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.

  4. Assessing the potency of oral polio vaccine kept outside of the cold chain during a national immunization campaign in Chad.

    PubMed

    Zipursky, Simona; Boualam, Liliane; Cheikh, Dah Ould; Fournier-Caruana, Jacqueline; Hamid, Djabar; Janssen, Mathias; Kartoglu, Umit; Waeterloos, Genevieve; Ronveaux, Olivier

    2011-08-05

    This study is the first systematic documentation of the potency of monovalent oral polio vaccine type 3 (mOPV3) kept at ambient temperatures during a polio immunization campaign in Chad. During the study test vials were exposed to temperatures of up to 47.1 °C, and kept outside of the 2-8 °C range for a maximum of 86.9 hours. Post-campaign laboratory testing confirmed that the test vials were still potent, and in conformity with the defined release specifications. Further, the Vaccine Vial Monitors performed as expected, giving an early warning indication of when cumulative exposure to heat reached levels that may have negatively affected the vaccine's potency. This study provides proof-of-concept evidence that certain types of OPV remain potent and thus can be kept, for limited periods of time, as well as administered at ambient temperatures.

  5. [Seroprevalence of HBs Ag and of anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people in N'Djamena, Chad].

    PubMed

    Bessimbaye, N; Moussa, A M; Mbanga, D; Tidjani, A; Mahamat, S O; Ngawara, M Nahor; Ngarnayal, G; Fissou, H Y; Sangare, L; Ndoutamia, G; Barro, N

    2014-12-01

    This is a prospective study conducted as part of a voluntary testing for HBV, HCV and HIV. The aim of the study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people and a control group of HIV negative people. HIV prevalence among newly diagnosed volunteers is 9.1%. The overall seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies is respectively 13.5% and 2.0%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCVantibodies in the control group (HIV-negative) is respectively 12.2% and 2%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people (old and new) is respectively 16.1% and 1%.This study, the first one conducted in Chad, has allowed us to know the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people.

  6. A new cichlid fish in the Sahara: The Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad), a biodiversity hotspot in the desert.

    PubMed

    Trape, Sébastien

    In the rare perennial bodies of water of the Sahara desert, only a few fish species have survived to increasing aridification since the end of the last humid period at the Holocene, approximately 5000 years BP. Here, I report the occurrence of an undescribed haplochomine cichlid fish in Lake Boukou, one of the seven Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad). These lakes are located in one of the most arid areas of the Sahara desert, but they persist by virtue of subsurface inflow of fresh groundwater from a large fossil aquifer. Astatotilapia tchadensis sp. nov. is characterized by a black bar between eye and corner of mouth, rounded orange spots on anal fin, scales ctenoid, lower limb of first gill arch with 7-8 gill rackers, dorsal fin with 13-14 spines and 9-11 soft rays, anal fin with 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays, 29 or 30 lateral line scales, and lower pharyngeal dentition with enlarged molariform teeth. The new species is easily distinguished from A. desfontainii and A. flaviijosephii, the northernmost haplochromine species currently isolated from its other group members, and appears close to an unnamed species of Lake Chad basin. Ounianga Serir lakes and especially Lake Boukou present a remarkable diversity of fish, the highest known in the Sahara desert with a total of at least six fish species belonging to six genera and three families. They also constitute an exceptional natural landscape inscribed on the UNESCO world heritage list in 2012 and a biodiversity hotspot for desert vertebrate species.

  7. Estimating population and livestock density of mobile pastoralists and sedentary settlements in the south-eastern Lake Chad area.

    PubMed

    Jean-Richard, Vreni; Crump, Lisa; Abicho, Abbani Alhadj; Abakar, Ali Abba; Mahamat, Abdraman; Bechir, Mahamat; Eckert, Sandra; Engesser, Matthias; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2015-05-18

    Mobile pastoralists provide major contributions to the gross domestic product in Chad, but little information is available regarding their demography. The Lake Chad area population is increasing, resulting in competition for scarce land and water resources. For the first time, the density of people and animals from mobile and sedentary populations was assessed using randomly defined sampling areas. Four sampling rounds were conducted over two years in the same areas to show population density dynamics. We identified 42 villages of sedentary communities in the sampling zones; 11 (in 2010) and 16 (in 2011) mobile pastoralist camps at the beginning of the dry season and 34 (in 2011) and 30 (in 2012) camps at the end of the dry season. A mean of 64.0 people per km2 (95% confidence interval, 20.3-107.8) were estimated to live in sedentary villages. In the mobile communities, we found 5.9 people per km2 at the beginning and 17.5 people per km2 at the end of the dry season. We recorded per km2 on average 21.0 cattle and 31.6 small ruminants in the sedentary villages and 66.1 cattle and 102.5 small ruminants in the mobile communities, which amounts to a mean of 86.6 tropical livestock units during the dry season. These numbers exceed, by up to five times, the published carrying capacities for similar Sahelian zones. Our results underline the need for a new institutional framework. Improved land use management must equally consider the needs of mobile communities and sedentary populations.

  8. Unexpected pattern of pearl millet genetic diversity among ethno-linguistic groups in the Lake Chad Basin.

    PubMed

    Naino Jika, A K; Dussert, Y; Raimond, C; Garine, E; Luxereau, A; Takvorian, N; Djermakoye, R S; Adam, T; Robert, T

    2017-01-25

    Despite of a growing interest in considering the role of sociological factors in seed exchanges and their consequences on the evolutionary dynamics of agro-biodiversity, very few studies assessed the link between ethno-linguistic diversity and genetic diversity patterns in small-holder farming systems. This is key for optimal improvement and conservation of crop genetic resources. Here, we investigated genetic diversity at 17 SSR markers of pearl millet landraces (varieties named by farmers) in the Lake Chad Basin. 69 pearl millet populations, representing 27 landraces collected in eight ethno-linguistic farmer groups, were analyzed. We found that the farmers' local taxonomy was not a good proxy for population's genetic differentiation as previously shown at smaller scales. Our results show the existence of a genetic structure of pearl millet mainly associated with ethno-linguistic diversity in the western side of the lake Chad. It suggests there is a limit to gene flow between landraces grown by different ethno-linguistic groups. This result was rather unexpected, because of the highly outcrossing mating system of pearl millet, the high density of pearl millet fields all along the green belt of this Sahelian area and the fact that seed exchanges among ethno-linguistic groups are known to occur. In the eastern side of the Lake, the pattern of genetic diversity suggests a larger efficient circulation of pearl millet genes between ethno-linguistic groups that are less numerous, spatially intermixed and, for some of them, more prone to exogamy. Finally, other historical and environmental factors which may contribute to the observed diversity patterns are discussed.Heredity advance online publication, 25 January 2017; doi:10.1038/hdy.2016.128.

  9. Association of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc Scores with Left Atrial Thrombus with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: A Single Center Based Retrospective Study in a Cohort of 2695 Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Huang, J.; Xue, YM.; Fei, HW.; Lin, QW.; Ren, SQ.; Liao, HT.; Zhan, XZ.; Fang, XH.; Xu, L.

    2017-01-01

    The main mechanism of the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores to predict stroke in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) is still controversial. We evaluated the association of the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores with left atrial thrombus (LAT) as detected by transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) and compared the predictive ability of these risk stratification schemes with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Data from 2,695 consecutive NVAF patients in whom TEE was performed for screening LAT from July 2007 to February 2014 were analyzed. Only 3% of the subjects had LAT. Presence of LAT was not significantly associated with either CHADS2  (P = 0.07) or CHA2DS2-VASc score (P = 0.12). The area under the curve (AUC) concerning LAT prediction using CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc was 0.574 and 0.569, respectively. A composition model includes previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, nonparoxysmal AF, moderate to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, and cardiomyopathy which improved the discrimination significantly (AUC = 0.743). In our cohort, both CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were of limited value for predicting LAT in patients with NVAF. This questions the CHADS2/CHA2DS2-VASc score predicting stroke mainly through the mechanism of cardiogenic embolism. A scoring scheme combining clinical and echocardiographic parameters may better predict LAT as a surrogate for cardioembolic risk in NVAF patients. PMID:28373985

  10. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc Scores Predict the Risk of Ischemic Stroke Outcome in Patients with Interatrial Block without Atrial Fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jin-Tao; Chu, Ying-Jie; Long, De-Yong; Dong, Jian-Zeng; Fan, Xian-Wei; Yang, Hai-Tao; Duan, Hong-Yan; Yan, Li-Jie; Qian, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the role of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in predicting the risk of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) outcomes in patients with interatrial block (IAB) without a history of atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: A retrospective study was conducted, including 1,046 non-anticoagulated inpatients (612 males, 434 females; mean age: 63 ± 10 years) with IAB and without AF. IAB was defined as P-wave duration > 120 ms using a 12-lead electrocardiogram. CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were retrospectively calculated. The primary outcomes evaluated were ischemic stroke or TIA. Results: During the mean follow-up period of 4.9 ± 0.7 years, 55 (5.3%) patients had an ischemic stroke or TIA. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed that the CHADS2 score [area under the curve (AUC), 0.638; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.562–0.715; P = 0.001] and the CHA2DS2-VASc score (AUC, 0.671; 95% CI, 0.599–0.744; P <0.001) were predictive of ischemic strokes or TIA. Cut-off point analysis showed that a CHADS2 score ≥ 3 (sensitivity = 0.455 and specificity = 0.747) and a CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥ 4 (sensitivity = 0.564 and specificity = 0.700) provided the highest predictive value for ischemic stroke or TIA. The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that CHADS2 [hazard ratio (HR), 1.442; 95% CI, 1.171–1.774; P = 0.001] and CHA2DS2-VASc (HR, 1.420; 95% CI, 1.203–1.677; P <0.001) scores were independently associated with ischemic stroke or TIA following adjustment for smoking, left atrial diameter, antiplatelet agents, angiotensin inhibitors, and statins. Conclusions: CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores may be predictors of risk of ischemic stroke or TIA in patients with IAB without AF. PMID:27301462

  11. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Barnosky, A. D.; Betancourt, J. L.; Bills, B.; Booth, R.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Graham, R. W.; Goring, S. J.; Hausmann, S.; Smith, A. J.; Williams, J. W.; Buckland, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) is a multiproxy, open-access, relational database that includes fossil data for the past 5 million years (the late Neogene and Quaternary Periods). Modern distributional data for various organisms are also being made available for calibration and paleoecological analyses. The project is a collaborative effort among individuals from more than 20 institutions worldwide, including domain scientists representing a spectrum of Pliocene-Quaternary fossil data types, as well as experts in information technology. Working groups are active for diatoms, insects, ostracodes, pollen and plant macroscopic remains, testate amoebae, rodent middens, vertebrates, age models, geochemistry and taphonomy. Groups are also active in developing online tools for data analyses and for developing modules for teaching at different levels. A key design concept of NeotomaDB is that stewards for various data types are able to remotely upload and manage data. Cooperatives for different kinds of paleo data, or from different regions, can appoint their own stewards. Over the past year, much progress has been made on development of the steward software-interface that will enable this capability. The steward interface uses web services that provide access to the database. More generally, these web services enable remote programmatic access to the database, which both desktop and web applications can use and which provide real-time access to the most current data. Use of these services can alleviate the need to download the entire database, which can be out-of-date as soon as new data are entered. In general, the Neotoma web services deliver data either from an entire table or from the results of a view. Upon request, new web services can be quickly generated. Future developments will likely expand the spatial and temporal dimensions of the database. NeotomaDB is open to receiving new datasets and stewards from the global Quaternary community

  12. Tracing thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds: database compilation and structure-activity evaluation for an effect-directed analysis of sediment.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jana M; Andersson, Patrik L; Zhang, Jin; Simon, Eszter; Leonards, Pim E G; Hamers, Timo; Lamoree, Marja H

    2015-07-01

    A variety of anthropogenic compounds has been found to be capable of disrupting the endocrine systems of organisms, in laboratory studies as well as in wildlife. The most widely described endpoint is estrogenicity, but other hormonal disturbances, e.g., thyroid hormone disruption, are gaining more and more attention. Here, we present a review and chemical characterization, using principal component analysis, of organic compounds that have been tested for their capacity to bind competitively to the thyroid hormone transport protein transthyretin (TTR). The database contains 250 individual compounds and technical mixtures, of which 144 compounds are defined as TTR binders. Almost one third of these compounds (n = 52) were even more potent than the natural hormone thyroxine (T4). The database was used as a tool to assist in the identification of thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds (THDCs) in an effect-directed analysis (EDA) study of a sediment sample. Two compounds could be confirmed to contribute to the detected TTR-binding potency in the sediment sample, i.e., triclosan and nonylphenol technical mixture. They constituted less than 1% of the TTR-binding potency of the unfractionated extract. The low rate of explained activity may be attributed to the challenges related to identification of unknown contaminants in combination with the limited knowledge about THDCs in general. This study demonstrates the need for databases containing compound-specific toxicological properties. In the framework of EDA, such a database could be used to assist in the identification and confirmation of causative compounds focusing on thyroid hormone disruption.

  13. The Student-Designed Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Rick

    1988-01-01

    This discussion of the design of data files for databases to be created by secondary school students uses AppleWorks software as an example. Steps needed to create and use a database are explained, the benefits of group activity are described, and other possible projects are listed. (LRW)

  14. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  15. A family of ring system-based structural fragments for use in structure-activity studies: database mining and recursive partitioning.

    PubMed

    Nilakantan, Ramaswamy; Nunn, David S; Greenblatt, Lynne; Walker, Gary; Haraki, Kevin; Mobilio, Dominick

    2006-01-01

    In earlier work from our laboratory, we have described the use of the ring system and ring scaffold as descriptors. We showed that these descriptors could be used for fast compound clustering, novelty determination, compound acquisition, and combinatorial library design. Here we extend the concept to a whole family of structural descriptors with the ring system as the centerpiece. We show how this simple idea can be used to build powerful search tools for mining chemical databases in useful ways. We have also built recursive partition trees using these fragments as descriptors. We will discuss how these trees can help in analyzing complex structure-activity data.

  16. Reef Ecosystem Services and Decision Support Database

    EPA Science Inventory

    This scientific and management information database utilizes systems thinking to describe the linkages between decisions, human activities, and provisioning of reef ecosystem goods and services. This database provides: (1) Hierarchy of related topics - Click on topics to navigat...

  17. The Lake Chad Basin, an Isolated and Persistent Reservoir of Vibrio cholerae O1: A Genomic Insight into the Outbreak in Cameroon, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kaas, Rolf S.; Ngandjio, Antoinette; Nzouankeu, Ariane; Siriphap, Achiraya; Fonkoua, Marie-Christine; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of reported cholera was relatively low around the Lake Chad basin until 1991. Since then, cholera outbreaks have been reported every couple of years. The objective of this study was to investigate the 2010/2011 Vibrio cholerae outbreak in Cameroon to gain insight into the genomic make-up of the V. cholerae strains responsible for the outbreak. Twenty-four strains were isolated and whole genome sequenced. Known virulence genes, resistance genes and integrating conjugative element (ICE) elements were identified and annotated. A global phylogeny (378 genomes) was inferred using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The Cameroon outbreak was found to be clonal and clustered distant from the other African strains. In addition, a subset of the strains contained a deletion that was found in the ICE element causing less resistance. These results suggest that V. cholerae is endemic in the Lake Chad basin and different from other African strains. PMID:27191718

  18. [Contents of macromineral and trace elements in spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) from France, Chad, Togo, Niger, Mali, Burkina-Faso and Central African Republic].

    PubMed

    Vicat, Jean-Paul; Doumnang Mbaigane, Jean-Claude; Bellion, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Data on mineral elements in spirulinas being limited, we analyzed macrominerals and trace elements of samples from France and Africa. Spirulinas cultivated in France have a composition in macromineral elements similar to those of the literature. The entire contents of trace elements are low. Unlike marine cyanobacteria, they do not concentrate rare-earth elements. Spirulina harvested in Chad has high levels in macrominerals and trace elements, due to traditional drying and harvesting methods. Rare-earth element levels are attributed to this pollution and not to their concentration in spirulinas, because rare-earth element normalized profiles of spirulina are strictly parallel to those of ouadis mud and very different from those of ouadis water. Despite the sometimes high content of total As, normal water consumption in Chad presents no health problems. Spirulinas grown in Togo, Niger, Mali, Burkina-Faso and Central African Republic have chemical compositions similar to those of Chad spirulinas, but with a lower content of macromineral and trace elements, reflecting a lower mineral pollution. Rare-earth element normalized patterns dismiss an aeolian pollution and the pollution is rather of pedological origin. They show no toxicity problem except spirulinas from Burkina-Faso, whose Pb content is too high. The variability of composition of spirulinas can be largely attributed to the mineral pollution of the samples. Significant levels of rare-earth elements sometimes found in the literature reflect this pollution.

  19. Lake Chad sedimentation and environments during the late Miocene and Pliocene: New evidence from mineralogy and chemistry of the Bol core sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Abderamane; Novello, Alice; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Decarreau, Alain; Fontaine, Claude; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Bourlès, Didier L.; Paillès, Christine; Buchet, Guillaume; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Maley, Jean; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Roquin, Claude; Schuster, Mathieu; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2016-06-01

    This study presents mineralogical and geochemical data from a borehole drilled near the locality of Bol (13°27‧N, 14°44‧E), in the eastern archipelago of the modern Lake Chad (Chad). Samples were taken from a ∼200 m long core section forming a unique sub-continuous record for Central Africa. Among these samples, 25 are dated between 6.4 and 2.4 Ma. Dominant minerals are clays (66% average) mixed with varying amounts of silt and diatomite. The clay fraction consists of Fe-beidellite (87% average), kaolinite, and traces of illite. Clay minerals originate from the erosion of the vertisols that surrounded the paleolake Chad. Sedimentological data indicate that a permanent lake (or recurrent lakes) existed from 6.7 until 2.4 Ma in the vicinity of Bol. By comparison with modern latitudinal distribution of vertisols in Africa the climate was Sudanian-like. Changes in the sedimentation rate suggest a succession of wetter and dryer periods during at least six million years in the region during the critical time period covering the Miocene-Pliocene transition.

  20. Coherent monsoonal changes in the northern tropics revealed by Chadian lakes (L. Chad and Yoa) sedimentary archives during the African Humid Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvestre, Florence; Kroepelin, Stefan; Pierre, Deschamps; Christine, Cocquyt; Nicolas, Waldmann; Kazuyo, Tachikawa; Amaral Paula, Do; Doriane, Delanghe; Guillaume, Jouve; Edouard, Bard; Camille, Bouchez; Jean-Claude, Doumnang; Jean-Charles, Mazur; Martin, Melles; Guillemette, Menot; Frauke, Rostek; Nicolas, Thouveny; Volkner, Wennrich

    2016-04-01

    In northern African tropics, it is now well established that the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was extremely dry followed by a wetter Holocene. Numerous palaeolake records reveal a fairly consistent pattern of a moister early Holocene resulting in a green Sahara followed by the onset of aridification about 4000 years ago. These palaeoenvironmental conditions are deciphered from several continental records distributed over the sub-Saharan zone and including diverse environments. However, pronounced differences in the timing and amplitude of these moisture changes inferred from sedimentary records point to both regional climatic variability change and site-specific influences of local topographic-hydrogeological factors which biased the evolution of water balance reconstructed from individual lacustrine archives. Here we present hydrological reconstructions from Chadian lakes, i.e. Lake Chad (c. 13°N) and Lake Yoa (19°N). Because of their location, both records allow to reconstruct lake level fluctuations and environmental changes according to a gradient from Sahelian to Saharan latitudes. Whereas Lake Chad is considered as a good sensor of climatic changes because of its large drainage basin covering 610,000 km2 in the Sudanian belt, Lake Yoa logs the northern precipitation changes in the Sahara. Combining sedimentological (laser diffraction grain size) and geochemical (XRF analysis) data associated with bio-indicators proxies (diatoms, pollen), we compare lake-level fluctuations and environmental changes during the last 12,000 years. After the hyperarid Last Glacial Maximum period during which dunes covered the Lake Chad basin, both lake records indicate an onset of more humid conditions between 12.5-11 ka cal BP. These resulted in lacustrine transgressions approaching their maximum extension at c. 10.5 ka cal BP. The lacustrine phase was probably interrupted by a relatively short drying event occurring around 8.2 ka cal BP which is well-defined in Lake Yoa by

  1. The SpaceInn-SISMA Database: Characterization of a Large Sample of Variable and Active Stars by Means of Harps Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.; Mistò, A.; Panzera, M. R.; Molinaro, M.; Cepparo, F.; Roth, M.; Michel, E.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2016-12-01

    We created a large database of physical parameters and variability indicators by fully reducing and analyzing the large number of spectra taken to complement the asteroseismic observations of the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits (CoRoT) satellite. 7103 spectra of 261 stars obtained with the ESO echelle spectrograph HARPS have been stored in the VO-compliant database Spectroscopic Indicators in a SeisMic Archive (SISMA), along with the CoRoT photometric data of the 72 CoRoT asteroseismic targets. The remaining stars belong to the same variable classes of the CoRoT targets and were observed to better characterize the properties of such classes. Several useful variability indicators (mean line profiles, indices of differential rotation, activity and emission lines) together with v\\sin i and radial-velocity measurements have been extracted from the spectra. The atmospheric parameters {T}{eff},{log}g, and [Fe/H] have been computed following a homogeneous procedure. As a result, we fully characterize a sample of new and known variable stars by computing several spectroscopic indicators, also providing some cases of simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy.

  2. Hydrological, chemical, and isotopic budgets of Lake Chad: a quantitative assessment of evaporation, transpiration and infiltration fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchez, Camille; Goncalves, Julio; Deschamps, Pierre; Vallet-Coulomb, Christine; Hamelin, Bruno; Doumnang, Jean-Claude; Sylvestre, Florence

    2016-04-01

    In the Sahelian belt, Lake Chad is a key water body for 13 million people, who live on its resources. It experiences, however, substantial and frequent surface changes. Located at the centre of one of the largest endorheic basins in the world, its waters remain surprisingly fresh. Its low salinity has been attributed to a low infiltration flow whose value remains poorly constrained. Understanding the lake's hydrological behaviour in response to climate variability requires a better constraint of the factors that control its water and chemical balance. Based on the three-pool conceptualization of Lake Chad proposed by Bader et al. (2011), this study aims to quantify the total water outflow from the lake, the respective proportions of evaporation (E), transpiration (T), and infiltration (I), and the associated uncertainties. A Bayesian inversion method based on lake-level data was used, leading to total water loss estimates in each pool (E + T + I = ETI). Sodium and stable isotope mass balances were then used to separate total water losses into E, T, and I components. Despite the scarcity of representative data available on the lake, the combination of these two geochemical tracers is relevant to assess the relative contribution of these three outflows involved in the control of the hydrological budget. Mean evapotranspiration rates were estimated at 2070 ± 100 and 2270 ± 100 mm yr-1 for the southern and northern pools, respectively. Infiltration represents between 100 and 300 mm yr-1 but most of the water is evapotranspirated in the first few kilometres from the shorelines and does not efficiently recharge the Quaternary aquifer. Transpiration is shown to be significant, around 300 mm yr-1 and reaches 500 mm yr-1 in the vegetated zone of the archipelagos. Hydrological and chemical simulations reproduce the marked hydrological change between the normal lake state that occurred before 1972 and the small lake state after 1972 when the lake surface shrunk to a one

  3. Occurrence of 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium (Paraquat) in irrigated soil of the Lake Chad Basin, Niger.

    PubMed

    Crampon, Marc; Copard, Yoann; Favreau, Guillaume; Raux, Julie; Merlet-Machour, Nadine; Le Coz, Mathieu; Ibrahim, Maïmouna; Peulon-Agasse, Valérie; Portet-Koltalo, Florence

    2014-09-01

    Increased use of agrochemical products to improve yields for irrigated crops in sub-Saharan Africa has been accompanied by a significant increase in the risk of environmental contamination. Detailed examples of the fate of pesticides after initial spreading on crop fields are scarce in tropical regions, where safe practices and related health risks are poorly understood by smallholder farmers. In the semi-arid environment of the Lake Chad Basin, SE Niger, both intrinsic properties of pesticides and extrinsic factors such as soil and climate helped to characterize processes leading to an accumulation of pesticides in soils. Analysis by HPLC-UV of a 6 m deep soil profile showed the presence of Paraquat at concentrations from 953 ± 102 μg kg(-1) to 3083 ± 175 μg kg(-1) at depths between 0.80 and 2.75 m below the land surface. Soil analysis revealed that up to approximately 15 % of the total soil matrix consists of smectites, a clay mineral capable of retaining cationic pesticides such as Paraquat, and a very low content of organic matter (<0.15 wt.% TOC). Paraquat could be stored and not bioavailable in a clayey barrier at approximately 2-m depth and therefore does not represent an immediate risk for populations or environment in this form. However, if the Paraquat application rate remains constant, the clayey barrier could reach a saturation limit within 150-200 years and 180-220 years if we consider a DT50 in soil of ~1,000 days (FAO). Consequently, it could lead to a deeper infiltration and so a pollution of groundwater. Such a scenario can represent a health risk for drinking water and for the Lake Chad, which is a major resource for this densely populated region of semi-arid Africa. Further analyses should focus on deeper layers and groundwater Paraquat contents to validate or invalidate the hypothesis of storage in this clay-rich layer.

  4. Hydrological, chemical and isotopic budgets of Lake Chad: a quantitative assessment of evaporation, transpiration and infiltration fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchez, C.; Goncalves, J.; Deschamps, P.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Hamelin, B.; Doumnang, J.-C.; Sylvestre, F.

    2015-10-01

    In the Sahelian belt, Lake Chad is a key water body for 13 million people who live on its resources. It experiences, however, substantial and frequent surface changes. Located at the center of one of the largest endorheic basins in the world, its waters remain surprisingly fresh. Its low salinity has been attributed to a low infiltration flow whose value remains poorly constrained. Understanding the lake's hydrological behavior in response to climate variability requires a better constraint of the factors that control its water and chemical balance. Based on the three-pool conceptualization of Lake Chad proposed by J. C. Bader, J. Lemoalle, and M. Leblanc (Bader et al., 2011), this study aims to quantify the total water outflow from the lake, the respective proportions of evaporation (E), transpiration (T) and infiltration (I), and the associated uncertainties. A Bayesian inversion method based on lake-level data was used, leading to total water loss estimates in each pool (ETI). Sodium and stable isotope mass balances were then used to separate total water losses into E, T and I components. Despite the scarcity of representative data available on the lake, the combination of these two geochemical tracers is relevant to assess the relative contribution of these three outflows involved in the control of the hydrological budget. Mean evapotranspiration rates were estimated at 2070 ± 100 and 2270 ± 100 mm yr-1 for the southern and northern pools respectively. Infiltration represents between 100 and 300 mm yr-1 but most of the water is evapotranspirated in the first few kilometers from the shorelines and does not efficiently recharge the Quaternary aquifer. Transpiration is shown to be significant, around 300 mm yr-1 and reaches 500 mm yr-1 in the vegetated zone of the archipelagos. Hydrological and chemical simulations reproduce the marked hydrological change between the normal lake state that occurred before 1972 and the small lake state after 1972 when the lake

  5. Palynological evidence for gradual vegetation and climate changes during the "African Humid Period" termination at 13° N from a Mega-Lake Chad sedimentary sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, P. G. C.; Vincens, A.; Guiot, J.; Buchet, G.; Deschamps, P.; Doumnang, J.-C.; Sylvestre, F.

    2012-06-01

    Located at the transition between the Saharian and Sahelian zones, at the center of one of the largest endoreic basins, the Lake Chad is ideally located to record regional environmental changes that occurred in the past. However, until now, no continuous archive from Lake Chad covering the Holocene has been studied. In this paper, we present pollen data from the first Holocene sedimentary sequence collected in Lake Chad (13° N; 14° E; Sahel region). Dated between ca. 6700 and ca. 5000 cal yr BP, this record encompasses the termination of the African Humid Period (AHP). Vegetational reconstructions are based on standard analyses of the pollen diagrams and are strengthened by quantitative approaches. Potential biomes that occurred at that time around Mega-Lake Chad are reconstructed using the biomization method and mean annual precipitation is estimated using the modern analogues technique. Results show that between ca. 6700 and ca. 6050 cal yr BP, a vegetation close to humid woodland or humid savanna, including elements currently found much further southward, thrived in the vicinity and/or the extra-local environment of the Mega-Lake Chad in place of the modern steppe, dry woodland and desert vegetation observed today. At the same time, montane forest populations extended further southward on the Adamawa plateau. This vegetation distribution is supported by biome reconstructions as well as by mean annual precipitation estimates of ca. 800 (-400/+700) mm for the period. The high abundance of lowland humid pollen taxa is interpreted as the result of a northward migration of the corresponding plants during the AHP driven by more favorable climatic conditions. Our interpretation in favor of a regional vegetation response to climatic changes is supported by other pollen data from several Northwestern African records. However, we cannot rule out that an increase of Chari-Logone inputs into the Mega-Lake Chad due to variations in hydrological regime might have

  6. Data-Based Teacher Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Describes how data from English language teaching (ELT) classroom research can be exploited in teacher development activities. The contribution data-based activities can make to teacher development is outlined, and examples that illustrate the principles underlying their design are presented. A case is made for using such activities to facilitate…

  7. Spatial Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-19

    astronomy, human anatomy, fluid flow or an electromagnetic field); • biometrics (fingerprints, palm measurements, facial patterns); • engineering...framework. Pr(X |li, Li) can be estimated using kernel functions from the observed values in the training dataset. A more detailed theoretical and...transportation, oil /gas-pipelines, and utilities (e.g. water, electricity, telephone). Thus, activity reports, e.g. crime/insurgency reports, may often use

  8. The Impact of Environment and Occupation on the Health and Safety of Active Duty Air Force Members - Database Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    abuse, and physical altercations), high-risk sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sexual intercourse), and physical health issues, such as high blood... sexual activity questions (section 12- reproductive ) PHA Sexually transmitted disease Sponsor ID (SSN), dependent status, DOB, sponsor pay grade...based on encounters and responses. The requested Health Assessment data consisted of specific information relating to tobacco, alcohol, and sexual

  9. JICST Factual Database JICST DNA Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirokizawa, Yoshiko; Abe, Atsushi

    Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of DNA database in October 1988. This database is composed of EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Library and Genetic Sequence Data Bank. The authors outline the database system, data items and search commands. Examples of retrieval session are presented.

  10. Assessment of humoral immune responses to blood-stage malaria antigens following ChAd63-MVA immunization, controlled human malaria infection and natural exposure.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sumi; Choudhary, Prateek; Elias, Sean C; Miura, Kazutoyo; Milne, Kathryn H; de Cassan, Simone C; Collins, Katharine A; Halstead, Fenella D; Bliss, Carly M; Ewer, Katie J; Osier, Faith H; Hodgson, Susanne H; Duncan, Christopher J A; O'Hara, Geraldine A; Long, Carole A; Hill, Adrian V S; Draper, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    The development of protective vaccines against many difficult infectious pathogens will necessitate the induction of effective antibody responses. Here we assess humoral immune responses against two antigens from the blood-stage merozoite of the Plasmodium falciparum human malaria parasite--MSP1 and AMA1. These antigens were delivered to healthy malaria-naïve adult volunteers in Phase Ia clinical trials using recombinant replication-deficient viral vectors--ChAd63 to prime the immune response and MVA to boost. In subsequent Phase IIa clinical trials, immunized volunteers underwent controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) with P. falciparum to assess vaccine efficacy, whereby all but one volunteer developed low-density blood-stage parasitemia. Here we assess serum antibody responses against both the MSP1 and AMA1 antigens following i) ChAd63-MVA immunization, ii) immunization and CHMI, and iii) primary malaria exposure in the context of CHMI in unimmunized control volunteers. Responses were also assessed in a cohort of naturally-immune Kenyan adults to provide comparison with those induced by a lifetime of natural malaria exposure. Serum antibody responses against MSP1 and AMA1 were characterized in terms of i) total IgG responses before and after CHMI, ii) responses to allelic variants of MSP1 and AMA1, iii) functional growth inhibitory activity (GIA), iv) IgG avidity, and v) isotype responses (IgG1-4, IgA and IgM). These data provide the first in-depth assessment of the quality of adenovirus-MVA vaccine-induced antibody responses in humans, along with assessment of how these responses are modulated by subsequent low-density parasite exposure. Notable differences were observed in qualitative aspects of the human antibody responses against these malaria antigens depending on the means of their induction and/or exposure of the host to the malaria parasite. Given the continued clinical development of viral vectored vaccines for malaria and a range of other diseases

  11. Prototyping a genetics deductive database

    SciTech Connect

    Hearne, C.; Cui, Zhan; Parsons, S.; Hajnal, S.

    1994-12-31

    We are developing a laboratory notebook system known as the Genetics Deductive Database. Currently our prototype provides storage for biological facts and rules with flexible access via an interactive graphical display. We have introduced a formal basis for the representation and reasoning necessary to order genome map data and handle the uncertainty inherent in biological data. We aim to support laboratory activities by introducing an experiment planner into our prototype. The Genetics Deductive Database is built using new database technology which provides an object-oriented conceptual model, a declarative rule language, and a procedural update language. This combination of features allows the implementation of consistency maintenance, automated reasoning, and data verification.

  12. Is drinking water from 'improved sources' really safe? A case study in the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon).

    PubMed

    Sorlini, S; Palazzini, D; Mbawala, A; Ngassoum, M B; Collivignarelli, M C

    2013-12-01

    Within a cooperation project coordinated by the Association for Rural Cooperation in Africa and Latin America (ACRA) Foundation, water supplies were sampled across the villages of the Logone valley (Chad-Cameroon) mostly from boreholes, open wells, rivers and lakes as well as from some piped water. Microbiological analyses and sanitary inspections were carried out at each source. The microbiological quality was determined by analysis of indicators of faecal contamination, Escherichia coli, Enterococci and Salmonellae, using the membrane filtration method. Sanitary inspections were done using WHO query forms. The assessment confirmed that there are several parameters of health concern in the studied area; bacteria of faecal origins are the most significant. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) classification and E. coli measurement are not sufficient to state water safety. In fact, in the studied area, JMP defined 'improved sources' may provide unsafe water depending on their structure and sources without E. coli may have Enterococci and Salmonellae. Sanitary inspections also revealed high health risks for some boreholes. In other cases, sources with low sanitary risk and no E. coli were contaminated by Enterococci and Salmonellae. Better management and protection of the sources, hygiene improvement and domestic water treatment before consumption are possible solutions to reduce health risks in the Logone valley.

  13. A mineralogical investigation of the Late Permian Doba gabbro, southern Chad: Constraints on the parental magma conditions and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellnutt, J. Gregory; Lee, Tung-Yi; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Hu, Shin-Tai; Wu, Jong-Chang; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-02-01

    The late Permian Doba (257 ± 1 Ma) gabbro was discovered at the base of an exploration well through the Cretaceous Doba Basin of Southern Chad. The gabbro is at least 250 m thick, has cumulus mineral textures and consists of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, Fe-Ti oxide, apatite and quartz. The composition of the silicate minerals (i.e. plagioclase, pyroxenes) from the lowest part of the intrusion tend to be more primitive (i.e. An59, Wo40-44En33-47Fs12-25) than the upper part (i.e. An41, Wo39-43En30-44Fs14-29) suggesting the magmatic system differentiated internally by crystal fractionation and crystal redistribution. Based on the chemistry of the pyroxenes, the parental magma was compositionally similar to a Ti-rich, within-plate continental tholeiite that had a bulk Mg# of ˜44. The relative oxidation state of the magma was initially moderately reducing (i.e. ΔFMQ-0.3) and then became more reducing after a period of fractionation (i.e. ΔFMQ-1.2). The estimated initial magma temperature was at least 1100 °C. The within-plate composition suggests there was rifting-related magmatism near the boundary of the Saharan Metacraton that could be related to edge-driven mantle convection.

  14. Sahara and Sahel vulnerability to climate changes, lessons from the past - Focus on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenier, Christophe; Zheng, Weipeng; Lezine, Anne-Marie; Braconnot, Pascale; Krinner, Gerhard; Harel, Marie-Alice; Anglade, Juliette; Paillou, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    Reconstructions from sedimentary records and climate modelling results show an overall drying in the African Sahara and Sahel during the Holocene. Was this change abrupt or gradual, and amplified or not through vegetation change and feedbacks to the atmosphere is still the subject of debate. For instance, while [deMenocal et al. 2000] show from oceanic sediments off the Mauritanian coast, that the end of the African Humid Period (AHP), recorded 5500 years ago, was abrupt. [Kroepelin et al., 2008] studied recently sediments from lake Yoa (Ounianga region, NE Chad) and derived a gradual climate change. The present paper focusses on the Ounianga lake region (NE Chad) where the Kropelin et al. study was carried on. We investigate hydrological reconstructions based on climate scenarios and modelling of water dynamics of the catchment area of the lakes. Under modern conditions, Ounianga lakes are maintained in a hyper arid environment due to groundwater inputs from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS), a very large aquifer covering parts of Chad, Libya, Egypt and Sudan. Moreover, these lakes are situated within 200 km of the Tibesti Mountains ranging over 3000 meters where rainfall is larger than in the plains. So the issue arises as to what extent distant water inputs from the Tibesti and local groundwater recharge could have maintained high lake levels during the climatic transition phase and/or could explain some features analysed from the sediments regarding the abruptness of the salinisation of lake Yoa roughly by 3900 BP. The topography of the region is analyzed from SRTM data to obtain paleo river networks and compared with satellite radar pictures (PALSAR) to identify key features in the Yoa catchement area [refer to Grenier et al. 2009]. A hydrological model is constructed including the river network and depressions interpreted as lakes and modeled dynamically as reservoirs. The groundwater input from the aquifer is modeled within the Cast3m finite element

  15. Groundwater storage change in the Ngadda Catchment of the Lake Chad Basin using GRACE and ground truth data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaskevych, A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    The present study is to analyze groundwater storage variations in the Ngadda Catchment located in the southwestern edge of Lake Chad Basin using Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data. We collected monthly total water storage data from GRACE and monthly soil moisture data from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) for the period of 2005 - 2009 with the spatial resolution of 1 and 0.25 degrees. We assumed surface water contributions to be negligible in the study area. The estimated groundwater storage changes were compared to the ground truth groundwater depth data collected in 2005 and 2009. The challenge of the present study is sparseness of the ground truth data in space and time. The study area is one of the data poor regions in the world due to the limited accessibility to the area. Different geostatistical techniques such as Kriging, Thiessen polygons, and Bayesian updating were applied to overcome such sparseness and modeling uncertainty under different scales and resolution. The study shows a significant increase of groundwater storage in the Ngadda catchment during the study period. Uncertainty is significant though depending on the size of the model and modeling technique. The study discusses advantages of using remote sensing data in data poor regions and how geostatistical techniques can be applied to deal with modeling uncertainty.

  16. Are Salmonella-Induced Gastroenteritis Neglected in Developing Countries? Feedback from Microbiological Investigations in N'Djamena Hospitals, Chad.

    PubMed

    Tabo, Djim-Adjim; Granier, Sophie A; Diguimbaye, Colette D; Marault, Muriel; Brisabois, Anne; Mama, Baïzina; Millemann, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is considered to be one of the main pathogens causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Looking for Salmonella in Africa in patients suffering from gastroenteritis is rather unusual, and the use of antibiotics is not subject to any regulation. This study intends for stressing the possible prominent importance of Salmonella in digestive diseases in Africa as well as identifying antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from faeces samples of human origin. All samples were collected from five N'Djamena hospitals, from patients suffering from diarrhoea. The collecting was undertaken over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Salmonella isolates were obtained by standard cultivation and serotyping methods. A total of 43 Salmonella isolates were identified, belonging to 21 different serovars. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Stanleyville (n = 7), followed by S. Anatum (n = 4) and S. Kottbus (n = 3). The other serovars were under-represented. The majority of these isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards), except two S. Enteritidis isolates that exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones. The different serovars and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in N'Djamena, Chad. Roughly, one out of ten patients who consulted for gastroenteritis was shedding Salmonella spp. and none of them would have been diagnosed outside the context of this research program. This study may encourage local clinicians to explore more often salmonellosis suspicion in their daily practice.

  17. [Nutritional status and dietary diversity in nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad].

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Moto, D D; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2011-12-01

    Malnutrition and undernourishment are widespread in the Sahelian region of Africa. The purpose of this study was to assess nutritional status and associated risk factors among nomadic and sedentary rural women on the southeast bank of Lake Chad. It was a repeated cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews and anthropometric measurements. A total of 734 women including 398 nomads and 336 sedentaries were randomly selected. Only non-pregnant women were included for calculation of the body mass index. Results showed a higher prevalence of malnutrition among nomadic women than sedentary women during the dry season: 48% (95% CI: 42-53) versus 16.2% (95% CI: 12-20). Obesity was observed in 4% (95% CI: 2.4-7) of sedentary women versus 0% of nomadic women. These rates were similar during the wet season. Malnutrition rates differed significantly (p<0.01) between the two groups within each season but not between seasons within each group. The average household dietary diversity score (HDDS) determined on a scale of 12 was low in both nomadic and sedentary women: 4.5 (95% CI: 4.4-4.6) and 5.1 (95% CI: 5.0-5.3) respectively. Malnutrition was significantly correlated with HDDS, number of children and ethnic group.

  18. Are Salmonella-Induced Gastroenteritis Neglected in Developing Countries? Feedback from Microbiological Investigations in N’Djamena Hospitals, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Tabo, Djim-adjim; Granier, Sophie A.; Diguimbaye, Colette D.; Marault, Muriel; Brisabois, Anne; Mama, Baïzina; Millemann, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is considered to be one of the main pathogens causing human gastroenteritis worldwide. Looking for Salmonella in Africa in patients suffering from gastroenteritis is rather unusual, and the use of antibiotics is not subject to any regulation. This study intends for stressing the possible prominent importance of Salmonella in digestive diseases in Africa as well as identifying antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella isolates from faeces samples of human origin. All samples were collected from five N’Djamena hospitals, from patients suffering from diarrhoea. The collecting was undertaken over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Salmonella isolates were obtained by standard cultivation and serotyping methods. A total of 43 Salmonella isolates were identified, belonging to 21 different serovars. The most prevalent serovar was Salmonella Stanleyville (n = 7), followed by S. Anatum (n = 4) and S. Kottbus (n = 3). The other serovars were under-represented. The majority of these isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards), except two S. Enteritidis isolates that exhibited resistance to fluoroquinolones. The different serovars and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in N’Djamena, Chad. Roughly, one out of ten patients who consulted for gastroenteritis was shedding Salmonella spp. and none of them would have been diagnosed outside the context of this research program. This study may encourage local clinicians to explore more often salmonellosis suspicion in their daily practice. PMID:26313150

  19. Transfer of Physical and Hydraulic Properties Databases to the Hanford Environmental Information System - PNNL Remediation Decision Support Project, Task 1, Activity 6

    SciTech Connect

    Rockhold, Mark L.; Middleton, Lisa A.

    2009-03-31

    This report documents the requirements for transferring physical and hydraulic property data compiled by PNNL into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The Remediation Decision Support (RDS) Project is managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to support Hanford Site waste management and remedial action decisions by the U.S. Department of Energy and one of their current site contractors - CH2M-Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The objective of Task 1, Activity 6 of the RDS project is to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for sediments from the Hanford Site, to port these data into the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS), and to make the data web-accessible to anyone on the Hanford Local Area Network via the so-called Virtual Library.1 These physical and hydraulic property data are used to estimate parameters for analytical and numerical flow and transport models that are used for site risk assessments and evaluation of remedial action alternatives. In past years efforts were made by RDS project staff to compile all available physical and hydraulic property data for Hanford sediments and to transfer these data into SoilVision{reg_sign}, a commercial geotechnical software package designed for storing, analyzing, and manipulating soils data. Although SoilVision{reg_sign} has proven to be useful, its access and use restrictions have been recognized as a limitation to the effective use of the physical and hydraulic property databases by the broader group of potential users involved in Hanford waste site issues. In order to make these data more widely available and useable, a decision was made to port them to HEIS and to make them web-accessible via a Virtual Library module. In FY08 the original objectives of this activity on the RDS project were to: (1) ensure traceability and defensibility of all physical and hydraulic property data currently residing in the SoilVision{reg_sign} database

  20. Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints received by Region 7. It contains information about the complaint along with how the complaint was addressed. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 1) for Clean Air & Global Climate Change, which are to achieve healthier outdoor air.

  1. Ariel Database Rule System Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-14

    NOTES EL CT a Distribution unlimited UL 13. ABSTRACT (Mmmuum 200 we~ The Ariel project has culminated in several advancements in active database...4] Moez Chaabouni. A top-level discrimination network for database rule systems. Master’s thesis, Dept. of Computer Science and Eng., Wright State... Moez Chaabouni. The IBS-tree: A data structure for finding all intervals that overlap a point. Technical Report WSU-CS-90-11, Dept. of Computer

  2. Ground-water hydrology of the Chad Basin in Bornu and Dikwa Emirates, northeastern Nigeria, with special emphasis on the flow life of the artesian system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Raymond E.; Johnston, R.H.; Olowu, J.A.I.; Uzoma, J.U.

    1968-01-01

    Bornu and Dikwa Emirates lie in the Nigerian sector of the Chad Basin, a vast region of interior drainage encompassing about 600,000 square miles of north-central Africa. The report area includes about 25,000 square miles of the basin that lie in Nigeria. Most of the area is a featureless plain that slopes gently northeast and east from the uplands of central Nigeria towards Lake Chad. On its eastern side the lake has one surface outlet which overflows only during exceptionally high stages of the lake. This outlet spills into the channel of Bahr al Ghazal, which in turn drains into the Bod616 depression. Because the lake is shallow, the shoreline fluctuates markedly with high and low stages corresponding to the wet and dry seasons. The semiarid climate of Bornu and Dikwa Emirates is characterized by a long dry season and a short wet season that correspond to seasonal winds. Annual rainfall ranges from 15 inches in the northern part of the area to 32 inches in the southern. The Chad Basin in Dikwa and Bornu Emirates is underlain by interbedded sand and clay, collectively termed the Chad Formation. These alluvial and lactustrine sediments were deposited in or near Lake Chad whet it occupied a much greater area during Pliocene and Pleistocene time. The Chad Formation has a very slight primary dip in the direction of Lake Chad and conforms to the gentle slope of land surface. The known thickness of the formation ranges from a few feet where it overlies bedrock on the periphery of the basin to at least 1,800 feet at Maiduguri; however, its total thickness probably exceeds 2,000 feet in the central part of the basin. Three water-bearing units termed upper, middle, and lower zones occur within the Chad Formation. The upper zone yields water to numerous dug wells throughout the rural areas and also is .the major source of the Maiduguri municipal water .supply. The middle zone yields water from flowing artesian boreholes that have heads ranging from a few feet to 70 feet

  3. The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost Database: metadata statistics and prospective analysis on future permafrost temperature and active layer depth monitoring site distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskaborn, B. K.; Lanckman, J.-P.; Lantuit, H.; Elger, K.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Cable, W. L.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2015-03-01

    The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) provides the first dynamic database associated with the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) and the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) programs, which extensively collect permafrost temperature and active layer thickness data from Arctic, Antarctic and Mountain permafrost regions. The purpose of the database is to establish an "early warning system" for the consequences of climate change in permafrost regions and to provide standardized thermal permafrost data to global models. In this paper we perform statistical analysis of the GTN-P metadata aiming to identify the spatial gaps in the GTN-P site distribution in relation to climate-effective environmental parameters. We describe the concept and structure of the Data Management System in regard to user operability, data transfer and data policy. We outline data sources and data processing including quality control strategies. Assessment of the metadata and data quality reveals 63% metadata completeness at active layer sites and 50% metadata completeness for boreholes. Voronoi Tessellation Analysis on the spatial sample distribution of boreholes and active layer measurement sites quantifies the distribution inhomogeneity and provides potential locations of additional permafrost research sites to improve the representativeness of thermal monitoring across areas underlain by permafrost. The depth distribution of the boreholes reveals that 73% are shallower than 25 m and 27% are deeper, reaching a maximum of 1 km depth. Comparison of the GTN-P site distribution with permafrost zones, soil organic carbon contents and vegetation types exhibits different local to regional monitoring situations on maps. Preferential slope orientation at the sites most likely causes a bias in the temperature monitoring and should be taken into account when using the data for global models. The distribution of GTN-P sites within zones of projected temperature change show a high

  4. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  5. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  6. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  7. Re-infection with Fasciola gigantica 6-month post-treatment with triclabendazole in cattle from mobile pastoralist husbandry systems at Lake Chad.

    PubMed

    Greter, Helena; Batil, Annour A; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Grimm, Felix; Ngandolo, Bongo N; Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg; Zinsstag, Jakob; Hattendorf, Jan

    2016-10-30

    At Lake Chad in central Africa, livestock fascioliasis caused by Fasciola gigantica represents a major veterinary health problem, particularly in cattle reared in mobile pastoralist husbandry systems. We assessed re-infection after a single dose of triclabendazole with fascioliasis in cattle in a mobile pastoralist setting towards the end of the dry season. Within the cattle herds of 14 groups of mobile pastoralists, 375 cattle were randomly selected. A faecal sample was obtained from each animal to determine the prevalence of F. gigantica. Animals were administered a single oral dose of triclabendazole (12mg/kg). A second faecal sample was obtained 6-month post-treatment after cattle had returned from the annual migration cycle. Faecal samples were fixed in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin (SAF), and examined for F. gigantica using the sedimentation technique. From the 375 cattle enrolled at baseline, 198 animals (53%) in 12 groups of mobile pastoralists were re-sampled at the 6-month follow-up. Baseline prevalence did not differ noteworthy between animals lost to follow-up and those re-examined. At baseline, bovine fascioliasis prevalence in cattle with follow-up data was 41.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) 35.2-48.9%). At the 6-month post-treatment follow-up, the prevalence was 46.0% (95% CI 39.2-52.9%), ranging between 0% and 75% at the herd level. The mean faecal egg counts at the unit of the herd were higher at follow-up compared to baseline. The observed persistent high prevalence of F. gigantica infection in cattle shows that a single pre-rainy season treatment does not prevent rapid re-infection despite the partial migration away from the high-risk areas at Lake Chad into drier areas. A locally adapted strategic control package for fascioliasis in cattle in the Lake Chad area ought to integrate targeted triclabendazole treatment and seasonal transhumance practices.

  8. Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE’s Marine and Hydrokinetic Technology Database provides up-to-date information on marine and hydrokinetic renewable energy, both in the U.S. and around the world. The database includes wave, tidal, current, and ocean thermal energy, and contains information on the various energy conversion technologies, companies active in the field, and development of projects in the water. Depending on the needs of the user, the database can present a snapshot of projects in a given region, assess the progress of a certain technology type, or provide a comprehensive view of the entire marine and hydrokinetic energy industry. Results are displayed as a list of technologies, companies, or projects. Data can be filtered by a number of criteria, including country/region, technology type, generation capacity, and technology or project stage. The database was updated in 2009 to include ocean thermal energy technologies, companies, and projects.

  9. Prediction of coronary artery disease severity using CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores and a newly defined CHA2DS2-VASc-HS score.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mustafa; Cakici, Musa; Zencir, Cemil; Tasolar, Hakan; Baysal, Erkan; Balli, Mehmet; Akturk, Erdal

    2014-03-15

    As the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores include similar risk factors for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), they may provide crucial information regarding the severity of coronary artery lesions and the risk of thromboembolism. To increase the likelihood of determining CAD severity, we formulated the CHA2DS2-VASc-HS score comprising hyperlipidemia and smoking in addition to the components of the CHA2DS2-VASc score and male instead of female gender. We aimed to investigate whether these 3 risk scores can be used to predict CAD severity. A total of 407 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled in the study. Presence of >50% stenosis in a coronary artery was assessed as significant CAD. Of the patients, 87 had normal coronary angiograms and served as group 1. The remaining 320 patients with coronary stenosis were further classified into 2 groups according to CAD with stenosis of <50% or ≥50%: 123 patients with mild CAD as group 2 and 197 patients with severe CAD as group 3. The CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and CHA2DS2-VASc-HS scores were significantly different among the 3 groups. The CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and CHA2DS2-VASc-HS scores correlated significantly with the number of diseased vessels (r = 0.406, p <0.001; r = 0.308, p <0.001; and r = 0.533, p <0.001, respectively) and the Gensini score (r = 0.383, p <0.001; r = 0.300, p <0.001; and r = 0.500, p <0.001, respectively). The CHA2DS2-VASc-HS score was found to be the best scoring scheme to predict CAD severity in the area under the curve comparison of these scoring systems. For prediction of severe CAD, the cut-off value of CHA2DS2-VASc-HS score was >2 with a sensitivity of 85.2% and a specificity of 57.5% (area under the curve 0.802, 95% confidence interval 0.760 to 0.839, p <0.001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and especially CHA2DS2-VASc-HS scores could be considered predictive of the risk of severe CAD.

  10. Combined Effect of El Nino Southern Oscillation and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation on Lake Chad Level Variability Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okonkwo, Churchill; Demoz, Belay; Sakai, Ricardo; Ichoku, Charles; Anarado, Chigozie; Adegoke, Jimmy; Amadou, Angelina; Abdullahi, Sanusu Imran

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the combined effect of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the Lake Chad (LC) level variability is explored. Our results show that the lake level at the Bol monitoring station has a statistically significant correlation with precipitation (R2 = 0.6, at the 99.5% confidence level). The period between the late 1960s and early 1970s marked a turning point in the response of the regional rainfall to climatic drivers, thereby severely affecting the LC level. Our results also suggest that the negative impact of the cold phase of AMO on Sahel precipitation masks and supersedes the positive effect of La Niña in the early the 1970s. The drop in the size of LC level from 282.5 m in the early 1960s to about 278.1 m in 1983/1984 was the largest to occur within the period of study (1900-2010) and coincides with the combined cold phase of AMO and strong El Niño phase of ENSO. Further analyses show that the current warm phase of AMO and increasing La Niña episodes appear to be playing a major role in the increased precipitation in the Sahel region. The LC level is responding to this increase in precipitation by a gradual recovery, though it is still below the levels of the 1960s. This understanding of the AMO-ENSO-rainfall-LC level association will help in forecasting the impacts of similar combined episodes in the future. These findings also have implications for long-term water resources management in the LC region.

  11. Seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever, Q fever, and brucellosis in ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad.

    PubMed

    Abakar, Mahamat Fayiz; Naré, Ngandolo B; Schelling, Esther; Hattendorf, Jan; Alfaroukh, Idriss O; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-10-01

    The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever (RVF), brucellosis, and Q fever among domestic ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad was studied. The study area consisted of two parts, including mainland and islands. On the mainland, the study was conducted in nine randomly selected villages and camps. On the islands, samples were collected from all four available sites. A total of 985 serum samples were collected and 924 were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for RVF. A total of 561 samples collected from islands were analyzed using ELISA for Q fever and both ELISA and Rose Bengal tests (RBT) for brucellosis. The apparent RVF seroprevalence by species was 37.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.2-41.3) in cattle, 18.8% (95% CI 12.3-25.2) in goats, and 10.8% (95% CI 3.0-18.5) in sheep. For brucellosis and Q fever, only cattle samples from islands were analyzed. For Q fever, the apparent seroprevalence was 7.8% (95% CI 5.6-10.1). For brucellosis, the RBT showed a prevalence of 5.7% (95% CI 3.8-7.6), and ELISA showed 11.9% (95% CI 9.3-14.6) with a kappa value of 0.53 showing a moderate agreement between the two tests. This study confirms the presence of the three diseases in the study area. More research is required to assess the importance for public health and conservation of the Kouri cattle breed.

  12. A new species of Nyanzachoerus (Cetartiodactyla: Suidae) from the late Miocene Toros-Ménalla, Chad, central Africa.

    PubMed

    Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Souron, Antoine; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    During the latest Miocene and the early Pliocene, tetraconodontine suids were the most predominant large omnivorous mammals in Africa. Yet, new species were often identified on the grounds of limited evidence, a situation impacting their value for biochronological correlations as well as for environmental and biogeographical reconstructions. The description of the most abundant known collection of craniodental remains attributed to the tetraconodontine Nyanzachoerus helps to improve this situation. These specimens were collected in the upper Miocene deposits at Toros-Ménalla, northern Chad, central Africa, by the Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne. We compared them with Nyanzachoerus from eastern and southern Africa, using extant species as a reference for patterns of morphological variation. Thanks to a large sample of observations, our work focused as much on craniomandibular morphology as on dental morphology and metrics (improved by an index scoring for the complexity of distal third molars and a detailed investigation of premolar-molar ratios). We recognized two taxa at Toros-Ménalla: Nyanzachoerus khinzir nov. sp. and Ny. cf. australis. We also revised the taxonomic status for other species, including: the restriction of Ny. syrticus to its holotype specimen from Sahabi (Libya), the resurrection of the nomen Ny. tulotos, and the synonymy of Ny. kuseralensis with Ny. waylandi. At Toros-Ménalla, Ny. khinzir was the only suid coexisting with the anthracotheriid Libycosaurus and the hominid Sahelanthropus, whereas Ny. cf. australis was associated with a different, probably younger faunal context. Nyanzachoerus. khinzir, which probably had a diversified diet, supports a latest Miocene biogeographical distinction between central Africa and eastern Africa.

  13. Toros-Menalla (Chad, 7 Ma), the earliest hominin-bearing area: How many mammal paleocommunities?

    PubMed

    Le Fur, Soizic; Fara, Emmanuel; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The fossiliferous area of Toros-Menalla (TM) (Djurab Desert, northern Chad) has yielded one of the richest African mammal faunas of the late Miocene. It is also the place where the earliest known hominin, Sahelanthropus tchadensis, was found. Although more than 300 localities are recorded in that area, previous paleoecological studies focused only on the largest and richest one. The integration of the material from other TM localities, and thus of a significant number of mammal taxa, is crucial to improve the corresponding paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Before such inferences can be drawn, it is necessary to test for the ecological integrity of these mammal assemblages: how many paleocommunities do they represent? The faunal structures of several assemblages selected for their apparent resilience to sampling biases are compared here. The criteria used in the inter-assemblage comparison are ecological diversity, taxonomic structure (taxonomic rank of abundance) and taxonomic composition. Based on multivariate analyses, two groups of TM assemblages can be distinguished. One of them contains the hominin-bearing assemblages. It is taxonomically richer and shows a wider ecological spectrum than its counterpart. The degree of taphonomic alteration undergone by the TM assemblages, as well as the distribution of amphibious mammals among them, suggest different depositional settings for these two groups of assemblages, the richest of which was probably associated with lower hydraulic energy. Overall, it seems that the TM assemblages recorded the same mammal paleocommunity preserved in two contrasted depositional settings. Moreover, the spatial overlap of these assemblages provides further evidence for the mosaic character of the landscape associated with S. tchadensis.

  14. Parasitic infections, anemia and malnutrition among rural settled and mobile pastoralist mothers and their children in Chad.

    PubMed

    Bechir, M; Schelling, E; Hamit, M A; Tanner, M; Zinsstag, J

    2012-06-01

    Malnutrition, resulting from various etiologies, is common in rural Chadian women and children. This cross-sectional study assessed the spectrum of parasitic infection and level of anemia and their effect on nutritional status in settled and mobile pastoral mothers and children near Lake Chad. Intestinal parasites were evaluated using direct fecal smears and the Kato-Katz technique. Malaria status was determined using Paracheck-Pf(®) rapid diagnostic test, and anemia was assessed with the Hemocue photometer. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric parameters. At the end of the 2008 wet season, the prevalence of malnutrition was 36% [confidence interval (CI) 30-42] among women and 15% (CI 11-18) among children. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 75% (CI 68-83) among women and 60% (CI 53-66) among children. The predominant helminth species was Ascaris lumbricoides while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most common protozoan. The hookworm prevalence was 14% (CI 8-20) in women and 18% (CI 13-23) in children. Malaria prevalence was low among women (1%, CI 0.5-2) and children (3% CI 2-5). No significant difference was observed in the prevalence of parasitic infection between the mobile pastoralist and rural sedentary populations. Thirty-four percent (CI 27-40) of nonpregnant women, 53% (CI 34-72) of pregnant women, and 27% (CI 23-32) of children were anemic. In subjects infected with Plasmodium, all women and 54% (CI 22-85) of children were anemic. Malnutrition was significantly associated with anemia in mothers and with selected intestinal parasites, anemia and age in their children.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Trends in Insecticide Resistance among Malaria Vectors in Chad Highlight the Importance of Continual Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Geraldine Marie; Coleman, Michael; Thomsen, Edward; Ranson, Hilary; Yangalbé-Kalnone, Elise; Moundai, Tchomfienet; Demba Kodindo, Israel; Nakebang, Amen; Mahamat, Adoum; Peka, Mallaye; Kerah-Hinzoumbé, Clement

    2016-01-01

    Background A longitudinal Anopheles gambiae s.l. insecticide resistance monitoring programme was established in four sentinel sites in Chad 2008–2010. When this programme ended, only sporadic bioassays were performed in a small number of sites. Methods WHO diagnostic dose assays were used to measure the prevalence of insecticide resistance to 0.1% bendiocarb, 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 1% fenitrothion, and 0.75% permethrin in the main malaria vectors at the beginning and end of the malaria transmission season for three years 2008–2010, with subsequent collections in 2011 and 2014. Species and molecular identification of An. gambiae M and S forms and kdr genotyping was performed using PCR-RLFP; circumsporozoite status was assessed using ELISA. Results Between 2008 and 2010, significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles to deltamethrin and permethrin were seen in 2 of the sites. No significant changes were seen in resistance to DDT in any site during the study period. Testing performed after the period of routine monitoring had ended showed dramatic increases to DDT and pyrethroid resistance in 3 sites. No resistance to organophosphate or carbamate insecticides was detected. An. arabiensis was the predominate member of the An. gambiae complex in all 4 sites; adult collections showed temporal variation in species composition in only 1 site. Kdr analysis identified both 1014F and 1014S alleles in An. gambiae S only. Circumsporozoite analysis showed the highest vector infection rates were present in Donia, a site with extensive use of agricultural insecticides. Conclusions During the monitoring gap of four years, significant changes occurred in resistance prevalence in 3 of the 4 sites (p = <0.001), endangering the efficacy of currently implemented malaria control interventions. Significant changes in insecticide resistance profiles and a lack of kdr resistance alleles in adult populations highlight the urgent need for comprehensive entomological

  16. A New Species of Nyanzachoerus (Cetartiodactyla: Suidae) from the Late Miocene Toros-Ménalla, Chad, Central Africa

    PubMed Central

    Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Souron, Antoine; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    During the latest Miocene and the early Pliocene, tetraconodontine suids were the most predominant large omnivorous mammals in Africa. Yet, new species were often identified on the grounds of limited evidence, a situation impacting their value for biochronological correlations as well as for environmental and biogeographical reconstructions. The description of the most abundant known collection of craniodental remains attributed to the tetraconodontine Nyanzachoerus helps to improve this situation. These specimens were collected in the upper Miocene deposits at Toros-Ménalla, northern Chad, central Africa, by the Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne. We compared them with Nyanzachoerus from eastern and southern Africa, using extant species as a reference for patterns of morphological variation. Thanks to a large sample of observations, our work focused as much on craniomandibular morphology as on dental morphology and metrics (improved by an index scoring for the complexity of distal third molars and a detailed investigation of premolar-molar ratios). We recognized two taxa at Toros-Ménalla: Nyanzachoerus khinzir nov. sp. and Ny. cf. australis. We also revised the taxonomic status for other species, including: the restriction of Ny. syrticus to its holotype specimen from Sahabi (Libya), the resurrection of the nomen Ny. tulotos, and the synonymy of Ny. kuseralensis with Ny. waylandi. At Toros-Ménalla, Ny. khinzir was the only suid coexisting with the anthracotheriid Libycosaurus and the hominid Sahelanthropus, whereas Ny. cf. australis was associated with a different, probably younger faunal context. Nyanzachoerus. khinzir, which probably had a diversified diet, supports a latest Miocene biogeographical distinction between central Africa and eastern Africa. PMID:25162699

  17. Digital database of mining-related features at selected historic and active phosphate mines, Bannock, Bear Lake, Bingham, and Caribou counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Causey, J. Douglas; Moyle, Phillip R.

    2001-01-01

    This report provides a description of data and processes used to produce a spatial database that delineates mining-related features in areas of historic and active phosphate mining in the core of the southeastern Idaho phosphate resource area. The data have varying degrees of accuracy and attribution detail. Classification of areas by type of mining-related activity at active mines is generally detailed; however, the spatial coverage does not differentiate mining-related surface disturbance features at many of the closed or inactive mines. Nineteen phosphate mine sites are included in the study. A total of 5,728 hc (14,154 ac), or more than 57 km2 (22 mi2), of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance are documented in the spatial coverage of the core of the southeast Idaho phosphate resource area. The study includes 4 active phosphate mines—Dry Valley, Enoch Valley, Rasmussen Ridge, and Smoky Canyon—and 15 historic phosphate mines—Ballard, Champ, Conda, Diamond Gulch, Gay, Georgetown Canyon, Henry, Home Canyon, Lanes Creek, Maybe Canyon, Mountain Fuel, Trail Canyon, Rattlesnake Canyon, Waterloo, and Wooley Valley. Spatial data on the inactive historic mines is relatively up-to-date; however, spatially described areas for active mines are based on digital maps prepared in early 1999. The inactive Gay mine has the largest total area of disturbance: 1,917 hc (4,736 ac) or about 19 km2 (7.4 mi2). It encompasses over three times the disturbance area of the next largest mine, the Conda mine with 607 hc (1,504 ac), and it is nearly four times the area of the Smoky Canyon mine, the largest of the active mines with 497 hc (1,228 ac). The wide range of phosphate mining-related surface disturbance features (approximately 80) were reduced to 13 types or features used in this study—adit and pit, backfilled mine pit, facilities, mine pit, ore stockpile, railroad, road, sediment catchment, tailings or tailings pond, topsoil stockpile, water reservoir, and disturbed

  18. Quantitative Structure activity Relationship Analysis of Pyridinone HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors using the k Nearest Neighbor Method and QSAR-based Database Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina-Franco, Jose Luis; Golbraikh, Alexander; Oloff, Scott; Castillo, Rafael; Tropsha, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    We have developed quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for 44 non-nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) of the pyridinone derivative type. The k nearest neighbor ( kNN) variable selection approach was used. This method utilizes multiple descriptors such as molecular connectivity indices, which are derived from two-dimensional molecular topology. The modeling process entailed extensive validation including the randomization of the target property (Y-randomization) test and the division of the dataset into multiple training and test sets to establish the external predictive power of the training set models. QSAR models with high internal and external accuracy were generated, with leave-one-out cross-validated R 2 ( q 2) values ranging between 0.5 and 0.8 for the training sets and R 2 values exceeding 0.6 for the test sets. The best models with the highest internal and external predictive power were used to search the National Cancer Institute database. Derivatives of the pyrazolo[3,4- d]pyrimidine and phenothiazine type were identified as promising novel NNRTIs leads. Several candidates were docked into the binding pocket of nevirapine with the AutoDock (version 3.0) software. Docking results suggested that these types of compounds could be binding in the NNRTI binding site in a similar mode to a known non-nucleoside inhibitor nevirapine.

  19. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  20. ChAd63-MVA–vectored Blood-stage Malaria Vaccines Targeting MSP1 and AMA1: Assessment of Efficacy Against Mosquito Bite Challenge in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sheehy, Susanne H; Duncan, Christopher JA; Elias, Sean C; Choudhary, Prateek; Biswas, Sumi; Halstead, Fenella D; Collins, Katharine A; Edwards, Nick J; Douglas, Alexander D; Anagnostou, Nicholas A; Ewer, Katie J; Havelock, Tom; Mahungu, Tabitha; Bliss, Carly M; Miura, Kazutoyo; Poulton, Ian D; Lillie, Patrick J; Antrobus, Richard D; Berrie, Eleanor; Moyle, Sarah; Gantlett, Katherine; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Long, Carole A; Sinden, Robert E; Gilbert, Sarah C; Lawrie, Alison M; Doherty, Tom; Faust, Saul N; Nicosia, Alfredo; Hill, Adrian VS; Draper, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    The induction of cellular immunity, in conjunction with antibodies, may be essential for vaccines to protect against blood-stage infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. We have shown that prime-boost delivery of P. falciparum blood-stage antigens by chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) followed by the attenuated orthopoxvirus MVA is safe and immunogenic in healthy adults. Here, we report on vaccine efficacy against controlled human malaria infection delivered by mosquito bites. The blood-stage malaria vaccines were administered alone, or together (MSP1+AMA1), or with a pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine candidate (MSP1+ME-TRAP). In this first human use of coadministered ChAd63-MVA regimes, we demonstrate immune interference whereby responses against merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) are dominant over apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and ME-TRAP. We also show that induction of strong cellular immunity against MSP1 and AMA1 is safe, but does not impact on parasite growth rates in the blood. In a subset of vaccinated volunteers, a delay in time to diagnosis was observed and sterilizing protection was observed in one volunteer coimmunized with MSP1+AMA1—results consistent with vaccine-induced pre-erythrocytic, rather than blood-stage, immunity. These data call into question the utility of T cell-inducing blood-stage malaria vaccines and suggest that the focus should remain on high-titer antibody induction against susceptible antigen targets. PMID:23089736

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes isolated from laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena, Chad.

    PubMed

    Tabo, Djim-adjim; Diguimbaye, Colette D; Granier, Sophie A; Moury, Frédérique; Brisabois, Anne; Elgroud, Rachid; Millemann, Yves

    2013-09-27

    This study aimed at updating knowledge on the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella isolated from poultry in the province of N'Djamena, Chad. The results collected during this study provide the first baseline data on the prevalence of contamination by Salmonella in laying hens and broiler chicken farms in N'Djamena. All samples were collected from sixteen poultry farms over two periods of six months each: from August 2010 to January 2011 and from September 2011 to February 2012. Diagnostic methods used during this study allowed to isolate eighty four Salmonella strains, belonging to twenty seven different serotypes. The most frequent serotypes were Salmonella Colindale (19%) followed by S. Minnesota (18%) S. Havana and S. Riggil (each 6%), S. Kottbus and S. Amager (4.7%), S. Idikan, Mississipi, and Muenchen (3.6%). Other serotypes were poorly represented. The majority of these serotypes were susceptible to all antibiotics tested (CLSI Standards), except some S. Colindale isolates that exhibited a decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, S. Limete resistant to three antibiotics and S. Minnesota isolates resistant to five different antimicrobial classes. The different serotypes and antibiotic resistance profiles that were observed highlight the substantial diversity of Salmonella in Chad, the contribution of avian isolates to human salmonellosis and Salmonella's capacity to colonize all types of environment worldwide.

  2. Leprosy and disability control in the Guéra prefecture of Chad, Africa: do women have access to leprosy control services?

    PubMed

    Schäfer, J

    1998-09-01

    In a retrospective study, data from the Guéra Leprosy and Disability Control Project in Chad, covering the years from 1992 to 1996, were analysed in order to determine whether there was any indication that the quality of care provided to female leprosy sufferers is inferior to the care provided for male patients. Data from a total of 741 patient registered for MDT, of whom 351 were newly diagnosed cases, are presented and discussed. The data indicate that women have access to diagnosis and treatment and health education. They do not present for treatment later than men, disability rates are lower and they have slightly higher treatment completion rates. Both women and men benefit from footwear and loan programs. More women than men are involved in patient self-help groups. The study shows that in this part of central Chad, there is no evidence of disadvantage for women with leprosy in either diagnosis, treatment or follow-up, but more qualitative data is needed to confirm these findings.

  3. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for scientific activities in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A.; Brown, J.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic. The Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.baidims.org) is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 9,600 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, and save or print maps and query results. Data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards and are archived at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) where non-proprietary BAID data can be freely downloaded. BAID has been used to: Optimize research site choice; Reduce duplication of science effort; Discover complementary and potentially detrimental research activities in an area of scientific interest; Re-establish historical research sites for resampling efforts assessing change in ecosystem structure and function over time; Exchange knowledge across disciplines and generations; Facilitate communication between western science and traditional ecological knowledge; Provide local residents access to science data that facilitates adaptation to arctic change; (and) Educate the next generation of environmental and computer scientists. This poster describes key activities that will be undertaken over the next three years to provide BAID users with novel software tools to interact with a current and diverse selection of information and data about the Barrow area. Key activities include: 1. Collecting data on research

  4. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  5. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  6. EMU Lessons Learned Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as

  7. The ITPA disruption database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidietis, N. W.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Granetz, R. S.; Kawano, Y.; Lehnen, M.; Lister, J. B.; Pautasso, G.; Riccardo, V.; Tanna, R. L.; Thornton, A. J.; ITPA Disruption Database Participants, The

    2015-06-01

    A multi-device database of disruption characteristics has been developed under the auspices of the International Tokamak Physics Activity magneto-hydrodynamics topical group. The purpose of this ITPA disruption database (IDDB) is to find the commonalities between the disruption and disruption mitigation characteristics in a wide variety of tokamaks in order to elucidate the physics underlying tokamak disruptions and to extrapolate toward much larger devices, such as ITER and future burning plasma devices. In contrast to previous smaller disruption data collation efforts, the IDDB aims to provide significant context for each shot provided, allowing exploration of a wide array of relationships between pre-disruption and disruption parameters. The IDDB presently includes contributions from nine tokamaks, including both conventional aspect ratio and spherical tokamaks. An initial parametric analysis of the available data is presented. This analysis includes current quench rates, halo current fraction and peaking, and the effectiveness of massive impurity injection. The IDDB is publicly available, with instruction for access provided herein.

  8. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  9. Scopus database: a review.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-03-08

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.

  10. JICST Factual Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayase, Shuichi; Okano, Keiko

    Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of JICST Crystal Structure Database (JICST CR) in this January (1990). This database provides the information of atomic positions in a crystal and related informations of the crystal. The database system and the crystal data in JICST CR are outlined in this manuscript.

  11. Effects of Land Cover / Land Use, Soil Texture, and Vegetation on the Water Balance of Lake Chad Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babamaaji, R. A.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lake Chad Basin (LCB) has experienced drastic changes of land cover and poor water management practices during the last 50 years. The successive droughts in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the shortage of surface water and groundwater resources. This problem of drought has a devastating implication on the natural resources of the Basin with great consequence on food security, poverty reduction and quality of life of the inhabitants in the LCB. Therefore, understanding the effects of land use / land cover must be a first step to find how they disturb cycle especially the groundwater in the LCB. The abundance of groundwater is affected by the climate change through the interaction with surface water, such as lakes and rivers, and disuse recharge through an infiltration process. Quantifying the impact of climate change on the groundwater resource requires reliable forecasting of changes in the major climatic variables and other spatial variations including the land use/land cover, soil texture, topographic slope, and vegetation. In this study, we employed a spatially distributed water balance model WetSpass to simulate a long-term average change of groundwater recharge in the LCB of Africa. WetSpass is a water balance-based model to estimate seasonal and spatial distribution of surface runoff, interception, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. The model is especially suitable for studying the effect of land use/land cover change on the water regime in the LCB. The present study describes the concept of the model and its application to the development of recharge map of the LCB. The study shows that major role in the water balance of LCB. The mean yearly actual evapotranspiration (ET) from the basin range from 60mm - 400 mm, which is 90 % (69mm - 430) of the annual precipitation from 2003 - 2010. It is striking that about 50 - 60 % of the total runoff is produced on build-up (impervious surfaces), while much smaller contributions are obtained from vegetated

  12. Magnetic characteristics of aeolian and fluvial sediments and onset of dust accumulation at Lake Yoa (northern Chad) during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Janna; Kröpelin, Stefan; Karls, Jens; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene is a period of fundamental climatic change in North Africa. Humid conditions during the Holocene Humid Period have favored the formation of big lake systems (e.g. Lake Megachad) and are evident in terrestrial and marine archives. Only very few of these lakes persist until today. One of them is Lake Yoa (19°03'N/20°31'E) in the Ounianga Basin, Chad, which maintains its water level by ground water inflow. Here we present the magnetic characteristics of a continuous 16 m long sediment record (Co1240) from Lake Yoa, retrieved in 2010 within the framework of the Collaborative Research Centre 806 - Our Way to Europe (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). The sedimentary section covers the past 11,000 years. In an earlier core (Kröpelin et al. 2008), a humid climate during the Mid-Holocene is indicated by fresh-water conditions in the lake. At about 4,000 cal. years BP, a fresh-to-saline transition is reflected in the record. However, a major rise in magnetic susceptibility, interpreted as an increase in the accumulation of wind-blown material, is only visible after 3,000 cal. years BP. Beyond using the concentration of magnetic minerals (susceptibility), environmental magnetic proxies, e.g. magnetic grain size and the composition of the magnetic mineral fabric, are often used as paleoenvironmental indicators. The underlying assumption is that the formation of magnetic minerals during pedogenesis is catalyzed by precipitation and soil-temperature. The application of magnetic proxies as reliable climofunctions has, however, recently been challenged. Possible problems are that soil formation might not reach an equilibrium state if climate perturbations are too short (e.g. hundreds of years) or that other variables such as soil organic carbon and vegetation have varied. In this study, we will focus on the variability of magnetic parameters in Lake Yoa sediments and its implication for the regional environmental development throughout Holocene times. 400 discrete

  13. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for scientific activities in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Kofoed, K. B.; Copenhaver, W.; Laney, C. M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Collins, J. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic and the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.barrowmapped.org) tracks and facilitates a gamut of research, management, and educational activities in the area. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 12,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, save or print maps and query results, and filter or view information by space, time, and/or other tags. Data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards and are archived at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) where non-proprietary BAID data can be freely downloaded. Recent advances include the addition of more than 2000 new research sites, provision of differential global position system (dGPS) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) support to visiting scientists, surveying over 80 miles of coastline to document rates of erosion, training of local GIS personal to better make use of science in local decision making, deployment and near real time connectivity to a wireless micrometeorological sensor network, links to Barrow area datasets housed at national data archives and substantial upgrades to the BAID website and web mapping applications.

  14. CD-ROM-aided Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    CD-ROM has rapidly evolved as a new information medium with large capacity, In the U.S. it is predicted that it will become two hundred billion yen market in three years, and thus CD-ROM is strategic target of database industry. Here in Japan the movement toward its commercialization has been active since this year. Shall CD-ROM bussiness ever conquer information market as an on-disk database or electronic publication? Referring to some cases of the applications in the U.S. the author views marketability and the future trend of this new optical disk medium.

  15. IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS THROUGH THE INHIBITION OF CYP17 ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO CONAZOLE EXPOSURE INHIBITS TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION IN THE ADULT AND NEONATAL RAT TESTIS THROUGH THE INHIBITION OF CYP17 ACTIVITY

    Chad
    R. Blystone1, David J. Dix2, and John C. Rockett2
    1Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, NC State University, R...

  16. The NCBI Taxonomy database.

    PubMed

    Federhen, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC's nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use the current taxonomic literature to maintain a phylogenetic taxonomy for the source organisms represented in the sequence databases. The taxonomy database is a central organizing hub for many of the resources at the NCBI, and provides a means for clustering elements within other domains of NCBI web site, for internal linking between domains of the Entrez system and for linking out to taxon-specific external resources on the web. Our primary purpose is to index the domain of sequences as conveniently as possible for our user community.

  17. Proteins with CHAD Domains (Conserved Histidine α-Helical Domain) Are Attached to Polyphosphate (polyP) Granules in vivo and Constitute a Novel Family of PolyP-Associated Proteins (Phosins).

    PubMed

    Tumlirsch, Tony; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2017-01-27

    Based on bioinformatic evidence, we suspected that proteins with a CYTH domain (CyaB thiamine tri-phosphatase) and/or a CHAD motif (conserved-histidine-α-helical-domain) could represent polyP granule-associated proteins. No evidence for a polyP-targeting function was found for proteins with CYTH domains. By contrast, the two CHAD motif-containing proteins of Ralstonia eutropha H16 (A0104 and B1017) co-localized with polyP granules when they were expressed as fusions with the enhanced-yellow-fluorescent-protein (eYFP). While B1017 was not detectably expressed the A0104 protein was specifically identified in an isolated polyP granule fraction by proteome analysis. Moreover, eYFP-fusions with the CHAD motif-containing proteins MGMSRV2-1987 of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense and PP2307 of Pseudomonas putida also co-localized with polyP granules in a trans-species-specific manner. These data indicated that CHAD-containing proteins generally are attached to polyP granules. Together with four previously polyP-attached proteins (polyP kinases) the results of this study raised the number of polyP-associated proteins in R. eutropha to six. We suggest to designate polyP granule-bound proteins with CHAD motifs as phosins (phosphate) in analogy to phasins and oleosins that are specifically bound to the surface of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) granules in PHA accumulating bacteria or to oil droplets in oil seed plants, respectively.

  18. IDPredictor: predict database links in biomedical database.

    PubMed

    Mehlhorn, Hendrik; Lange, Matthias; Scholz, Uwe; Schreiber, Falk

    2012-06-26

    Knowledge found in biomedical databases, in particular in Web information systems, is a major bioinformatics resource. In general, this biological knowledge is worldwide represented in a network of databases. These data is spread among thousands of databases, which overlap in content, but differ substantially with respect to content detail, interface, formats and data structure. To support a functional annotation of lab data, such as protein sequences, metabolites or DNA sequences as well as a semi-automated data exploration in information retrieval environments, an integrated view to databases is essential. Search engines have the potential of assisting in data retrieval from these structured sources, but fall short of providing a comprehensive knowledge except out of the interlinked databases. A prerequisite of supporting the concept of an integrated data view is to acquire insights into cross-references among database entities. This issue is being hampered by the fact, that only a fraction of all possible cross-references are explicitely tagged in the particular biomedical informations systems. In this work, we investigate to what extend an automated construction of an integrated data network is possible. We propose a method that predicts and extracts cross-references from multiple life science databases and possible referenced data targets. We study the retrieval quality of our method and report on first, promising results. The method is implemented as the tool IDPredictor, which is published under the DOI 10.5447/IPK/2012/4 and is freely available using the URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.5447/IPK/2012/4.

  19. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  20. TWRS technical baseline database manager definition document

    SciTech Connect

    Acree, C.D.

    1997-08-13

    This document serves as a guide for using the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management Systems Engineering (SE) support tool in performing SE activities for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This document will provide a consistent interpretation of the relationships between the TWRS Technical Baseline Database Management software and the present TWRS SE practices. The Database Manager currently utilized is the RDD-1000 System manufactured by the Ascent Logic Corporation. In other documents, the term RDD-1000 may be used interchangeably with TWRS Technical Baseline Database Manager.

  1. Hydrologic database user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Champman, J.B.; Gray, K.J.; Thompson, C.B.

    1993-09-01

    The Hydrologic Database is an electronic filing cabinet containing water-related data for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of the database is to enhance research on hydrologic issues at the NTS by providing efficient access to information gathered by a variety of scientists. Data are often generated for specific projects and are reported to DOE in the context of specific project goals. The originators of the database recognized that much of this information has a general value that transcends project-specific requirements. Allowing researchers access to information generated by a wide variety of projects can prevent needless duplication of data-gathering efforts and can augment new data collection and interpretation. In addition, collecting this information in the database ensures that the results are not lost at the end of discrete projects as long as the database is actively maintained. This document is a guide to using the database.

  2. Effect of a serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT) on serogroup A meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad: a community study

    PubMed Central

    Daugla, DM; Gami, JP; Gamougam, K; Naibei, N; Mbainadji, L; Narbé, M; Toralta, J; Kodbesse, B; Ngadoua, C; Coldiron, ME; Fermon, F; Page, A-L; Djingarey, MH; Hugonnet, S; Harrison, OB; Rebbetts, LS; Tekletsion, Y; Watkins, ER; Hill, D; Caugant, DA; Chandramohan, D; Hassan-King, M; Manigart, O; Nascimento, M; Woukeu, A; Trotter, C; Stuart, JM; Maiden, MCJ; Greenwood, BM

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background A serogroup A meningococcal polysaccharide–tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA–TT, MenAfriVac) was licensed in India in 2009, and pre-qualified by WHO in 2010, on the basis of its safety and immunogenicity. This vaccine is now being deployed across the African meningitis belt. We studied the effect of PsA–TT on meningococcal meningitis and carriage in Chad during a serogroup A meningococcal meningitis epidemic. Methods We obtained data for the incidence of meningitis before and after vaccination from national records between January, 2009, and June, 2012. In 2012, surveillance was enhanced in regions where vaccination with PsA–TT had been undertaken in 2011, and in one district where a reactive vaccination campaign in response to an outbreak of meningitis was undertaken. Meningococcal carriage was studied in an age-stratified sample of residents aged 1–29 years of a rural area roughly 13–15 and 2–4 months before and 4–6 months after vaccination. Meningococci obtained from cerebrospinal fluid or oropharyngeal swabs were characterised by conventional microbiological and molecular methods. Findings Roughly 1·8 million individuals aged 1–29 years received one dose of PsA–TT during a vaccination campaign in three regions of Chad in and around the capital N'Djamena during 10 days in December, 2011. The incidence of meningitis during the 2012 meningitis season in these three regions was 2·48 per 100 000 (57 cases in the 2·3 million population), whereas in regions without mass vaccination, incidence was 43·8 per 100 000 (3809 cases per 8·7 million population), a 94% difference in crude incidence (p<0·0001), and an incidence rate ratio of 0·096 (95% CI 0·046–0·198). Despite enhanced surveillance, no case of serogroup A meningococcal meningitis was reported in the three vaccinated regions. 32 serogroup A carriers were identified in 4278 age-stratified individuals (0·75%) living in a rural area near the capital 2–4

  3. Danish Palliative Care Database

    PubMed Central

    Groenvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population The study population is all patients in Denmark referred to and/or in contact with SPC after January 1, 2010. Main variables The main variables in DPD are data about referral for patients admitted and not admitted to SPC, type of the first SPC contact, clinical and sociodemographic factors, multidisciplinary conference, and the patient-reported European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care questionnaire, assessing health-related quality of life. The data support the estimation of currently five quality of care indicators, ie, the proportions of 1) referred and eligible patients who were actually admitted to SPC, 2) patients who waited <10 days before admission to SPC, 3) patients who died from cancer and who obtained contact with SPC, 4) patients who were screened with European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionaire-Core-15-Palliative Care at admission to SPC, and 5) patients who were discussed at a multidisciplinary conference. Descriptive data In 2014, all 43 SPC units in Denmark reported their data to DPD, and all 9,434 cancer patients (100%) referred to SPC were registered in DPD. In total, 41,104 unique cancer patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness. PMID:27822111

  4. Computer Databases as an Educational Tool in the Basic Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Charles P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of North Carolina School of Medicine developed a computer database, INQUIRER, containing scientific information in bacteriology, and then integrated the database into routine educational activities for first-year medical students in their microbiology course. (Author/MLW)

  5. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  6. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  7. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - An Interactive Web Mapping Portal and Cyberinfrastructure Showcasing Scientific Activities in the Vicinity of Barrow, Arctic Alaska.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escarzaga, S. M.; Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Barba, M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Manley, W. F.; Mazza Ramsay, F. D.; Vargas, S. A., Jr.; Tarin, G.; Laney, C. M.; Villarreal, S.; Aiken, Q.; Collins, J. A.; Green, E.; Nelson, L.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic and the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.barrowmapped.org) tracks and facilitates a gamut of research, management, and educational activities in the area. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 12,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, save or print maps and query results, and filter or view information by space, time, and/or other tags. Additionally, data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards. Recent advances include the addition of more than 2000 new research sites, the addition of a query builder user interface allowing rich and complex queries, and provision of differential global position system (dGPS) and high-resolution aerial imagery support to visiting scientists. Recent field surveys include over 80 miles of coastline to document rates of erosion and the collection of high-resolution sonar data for bathymetric mapping of Elson Lagoon and near shore region of the Chukchi Sea. A network of five climate stations has been deployed across the peninsula to serve as a wireless net for the research community and to deliver near real time climatic data to the user community. Local GIS personal have also been trained to better make use of scientific data for local decision making. Links to Barrow area datasets are housed at national data archives and substantial upgrades have

  8. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  9. Mugshot Identification Database (MID)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mugshot Identification Database (MID) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 18 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated mugshot identification systems. The database consists of three CD-ROMs, containing a total of 3248 images of variable size using lossless compression. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  10. Databases for Microbiologists

    DOE PAGES

    Zhulin, Igor B.

    2015-05-26

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. Finally, the purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists.

  11. Databases for Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493

  12. HIV Sequence Databases

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette; Shafer, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Two important databases are often used in HIV genetic research, the HIV Sequence Database in Los Alamos, which collects all sequences and focuses on annotation and data analysis, and the HIV RT/Protease Sequence Database in Stanford, which collects sequences associated with the development of viral resistance against anti-retroviral drugs and focuses on analysis of those sequences. The types of data and services these two databases offer, the tools they provide, and the way they are set up and operated are described in detail. PMID:12875108

  13. A study of the relict fish fauna of northern Chad, with the first records of a polypterid and a poeciliid in the Sahara desert.

    PubMed

    Trape, Sébastien

    2013-01-01

    Seventeen species and sub-species of fishes belonging to four families (Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Aplocheilidae, Cichlidae) were known to occur in perennial bodies of water in the Sahara desert. The study of fishes collected in Lake Boukou near Ounianga Serir (Borkou, northern Chad) shows, for the first time, the occurrence in the Sahara desert of relict populations of Polypterus senegalus (Polypteridae) and Poropanchax normani (Poeciliidae). The Cichlidae Tilapia zilli was also collected in this lake. With these new records, the relict fish fauna currently known in lakes and gueltas of the Borkou plateaus comprises six species. In the Ennedi Mountains, where the specific status of Barbus populations was unclear, B. macrops was collected in Bachikere guelta. The toad Amietophrynus regularis was collected in Ounianga Kebir.

  14. The spatial and seasonal distribution of Bulinus truncatus, Bulinus forskalii and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis, in N'Djamena, Chad.

    PubMed

    Moser, Wendelin; Greter, Helena; Schindler, Christian; Allan, Fiona; Ngandolo, Bongo N R; Moto, Daugla D; Utzinger, Jürg; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2014-11-01

    There is a paucity of epidemiological and malacological data pertaining to schistosomiasis in Chad. In view of a recently articulated elimination agenda, a deeper understanding of the spatio-temporal distribution of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails is pivotal. We conducted cross-sectional malacological surveys during the dry season (April/May 2013) and after the short rainy season (October 2013) in N'Djamena, the capital of Chad. Snails were identified at the genus and species level using morphological keys and molecular DNA barcoding approaches. Those belonging to Bulinus and Biomphalaria were examined for cercarial shedding. Snail habitats were characterised and their predictive potential for the presence of schistosomiasis intermediate host snails explored. Seasonal patterns were studied using geographical information system and kriging in order to interpolate snail abundance data to make predictions at non-sampled locations across N'Djamena. Overall, 413 Bulinus truncatus, 369 Bulinus forskalii and 108 Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails were collected and subjected to cercarial shedding. During the dry season, one Bu. truncatus of 119 snails collected shed Schistosoma spp. cercariae (0.84%), while S. mansoni was shed by one of 108 Bi. pfeifferi snails (0.93%). None of the snails collected after the rainy season shed Schistosoma spp. cercariae. The abundance of Bu. truncatus and Bu. forskalii showed an inverse U-shape relationship with the square term of conductivity, i.e. low abundance at the lowest and highest levels of conductivity and high abundance at intermediate levels. Bi. pfeifferi showed a negative, linear association with pH in the dry seasons. It is planned to link these intermediate host snail data to infection data in human populations with the goal to draw a predictive risk map that can be utilised for control and elimination of schistosomiasis in N'Djamena.

  15. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  16. Database of Standardized Questionnaires About Walking & Bicycling

    Cancer.gov

    This database contains questionnaire items and a list of validation studies for standardized items related to walking and biking. The items come from multiple national and international physical activity questionnaires.

  17. Consumer Product Category Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  18. BioImaging Database

    SciTech Connect

    David Nix, Lisa Simirenko

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  19. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  20. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  1. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  2. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  3. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  4. Morchella MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...

  5. Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Jay

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…

  6. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  7. Database Reviews: Legal Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia

    Detailed reviews of two legal information databases--"Laborlaw I" and "Legal Resource Index"--are presented in this paper. Each database review begins with a bibliographic entry listing the title; producer; vendor; cost per hour contact time; offline print cost per citation; time period covered; frequency of updates; and size…

  8. The CARLSBAD database: a confederated database of chemical bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Stephen L; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I

    2013-01-01

    Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical-protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical-protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure-target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure-target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. 'drugs'). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD database

  9. The CARLSBAD Database: A Confederated Database of Chemical Bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Stephen L.; Hines-Kay, Jarrett; Yang, Jeremy J.; Zahoransky-Kohalmi, Gergely; Bologa, Cristian G.; Ursu, Oleg; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2013-01-01

    Many bioactivity databases offer information regarding the biological activity of small molecules on protein targets. Information in these databases is often hard to resolve with certainty because of subsetting different data in a variety of formats; use of different bioactivity metrics; use of different identifiers for chemicals and proteins; and having to access different query interfaces, respectively. Given the multitude of data sources, interfaces and standards, it is challenging to gather relevant facts and make appropriate connections and decisions regarding chemical–protein associations. The CARLSBAD database has been developed as an integrated resource, focused on high-quality subsets from several bioactivity databases, which are aggregated and presented in a uniform manner, suitable for the study of the relationships between small molecules and targets. In contrast to data collection resources, CARLSBAD provides a single normalized activity value of a given type for each unique chemical–protein target pair. Two types of scaffold perception methods have been implemented and are available for datamining: HierS (hierarchical scaffolds) and MCES (maximum common edge subgraph). The 2012 release of CARLSBAD contains 439 985 unique chemical structures, mapped onto 1,420 889 unique bioactivities, and annotated with 277 140 HierS scaffolds and 54 135 MCES chemical patterns, respectively. Of the 890 323 unique structure–target pairs curated in CARLSBAD, 13.95% are aggregated from multiple structure–target values: 94 975 are aggregated from two bioactivities, 14 544 from three, 7 930 from four and 2214 have five bioactivities, respectively. CARLSBAD captures bioactivities and tags for 1435 unique chemical structures of active pharmaceutical ingredients (i.e. ‘drugs’). CARLSBAD processing resulted in a net 17.3% data reduction for chemicals, 34.3% reduction for bioactivities, 23% reduction for HierS and 25% reduction for MCES, respectively. The CARLSBAD

  10. National Database of Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Kannegaard, Pia Nimann; Vinding, Kirsten L; Hare-Bruun, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the National Database of Geriatrics is to monitor the quality of interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of patients admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Study population The database population consists of patients who were admitted to a geriatric hospital unit. Geriatric patients cannot be defined by specific diagnoses. A geriatric patient is typically a frail multimorbid elderly patient with decreasing functional ability and social challenges. The database includes 14–15,000 admissions per year, and the database completeness has been stable at 90% during the past 5 years. Main variables An important part of the geriatric approach is the interdisciplinary collaboration. Indicators, therefore, reflect the combined efforts directed toward the geriatric patient. The indicators include Barthel index, body mass index, de Morton Mobility Index, Chair Stand, percentage of discharges with a rehabilitation plan, and the part of cases where an interdisciplinary conference has taken place. Data are recorded by doctors, nurses, and therapists in a database and linked to the Danish National Patient Register. Descriptive data Descriptive patient-related data include information about home, mobility aid, need of fall and/or cognitive diagnosing, and categorization of cause (general geriatric, orthogeriatric, or neurogeriatric). Conclusion The National Database of Geriatrics covers ∼90% of geriatric admissions in Danish hospitals and provides valuable information about a large and increasing patient population in the health care system. PMID:27822120

  11. Development, deployment and operations of ATLAS databases.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaniachine, A. V.; von der Schmitt, J. G.; High Energy Physics; Mac-Planck-Inst.

    2008-01-01

    In preparation for ATLAS data taking, a coordinated shift from development towards operations has occurred in ATLAS database activities. In addition to development and commissioning activities in databases, ATLAS is active in the development and deployment (in collaboration with the WLCG 3D project) of the tools that allow the worldwide distribution and installation of databases and related datasets, as well as the actual operation of this system on ATLAS multi-grid infrastructure. We describe development and commissioning of major ATLAS database applications for online and offline. We present the first scalability test results and ramp-up schedule over the initial LHC years of operations towards the nominal year of ATLAS running, when the database storage volumes are expected to reach 6.1 TB for the Tag DB and 1.0 TB for the Conditions DB. ATLAS database applications require robust operational infrastructure for data replication between online and offline at Tier-0, and for the distribution of the offline data to Tier-1 and Tier-2 computing centers. We describe ATLAS experience with Oracle Streams and other technologies for coordinated replication of databases in the framework of the WLCG 3D services.

  12. Glycoproteomic and glycomic databases.

    PubMed

    Baycin Hizal, Deniz; Wolozny, Daniel; Colao, Joseph; Jacobson, Elena; Tian, Yuan; Krag, Sharon S; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Protein glycosylation serves critical roles in the cellular and biological processes of many organisms. Aberrant glycosylation has been associated with many illnesses such as hereditary and chronic diseases like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and immunological disorders. Emerging mass spectrometry (MS) technologies that enable the high-throughput identification of glycoproteins and glycans have accelerated the analysis and made possible the creation of dynamic and expanding databases. Although glycosylation-related databases have been established by many laboratories and institutions, they are not yet widely known in the community. Our study reviews 15 different publicly available databases and identifies their key elements so that users can identify the most applicable platform for their analytical needs. These databases include biological information on the experimentally identified glycans and glycopeptides from various cells and organisms such as human, rat, mouse, fly and zebrafish. The features of these databases - 7 for glycoproteomic data, 6 for glycomic data, and 2 for glycan binding proteins are summarized including the enrichment techniques that are used for glycoproteome and glycan identification. Furthermore databases such as Unipep, GlycoFly, GlycoFish recently established by our group are introduced. The unique features of each database, such as the analytical methods used and bioinformatical tools available are summarized. This information will be a valuable resource for the glycobiology community as it presents the analytical methods and glycosylation related databases together in one compendium. It will also represent a step towards the desired long term goal of integrating the different databases of glycosylation in order to characterize and categorize glycoproteins and glycans better for biomedical research.

  13. Lessons Learned From Developing Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Embrittlement Database

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John

    2010-08-01

    Materials behaviors caused by neutron irradiation under fission and/or fusion environments can be little understood without practical examination. Easily accessible material information system with large material database using effective computers is necessary for design of nuclear materials and analyses or simulations of the phenomena. The developed Embrittlement Data Base (EDB) at ORNL is this comprehensive collection of data. EDB database contains power reactor pressure vessel surveillance data, the material test reactor data, foreign reactor data (through bilateral agreements authorized by NRC), and the fracture toughness data. The lessons learned from building EDB program and the associated database management activity regarding Material Database Design Methodology, Architecture and the Embedded QA Protocol are described in this report. The development of IAEA International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials (IDRPVM) and the comparison of EDB database and IAEA IDRPVM database are provided in the report. The recommended database QA protocol and database infrastructure are also stated in the report.

  14. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  15. JICST Factual Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuaki; Shimura, Kazuki; Monma, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Masao; Morishita, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenji

    The Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of JICST/NRIM Materials Strength Database for Engineering Steels and Alloys (JICST ME) in this March (1990). This database has been developed under the joint research between JICST and the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM). It provides material strength data (creep, fatigue, etc.) of engineering steels and alloys. It is able to search and display on-line, and to analyze the searched data statistically and plot the result on graphic display. The database system and the data in JICST ME are described.

  16. Plant Genome Duplication Database.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae-Ho; Kim, Junah; Robertson, Jon S; Paterson, Andrew H

    2017-01-01

    Genome duplication, widespread in flowering plants, is a driving force in evolution. Genome alignments between/within genomes facilitate identification of homologous regions and individual genes to investigate evolutionary consequences of genome duplication. PGDD (the Plant Genome Duplication Database), a public web service database, provides intra- or interplant genome alignment information. At present, PGDD contains information for 47 plants whose genome sequences have been released. Here, we describe methods for identification and estimation of dates of genome duplication and speciation by functions of PGDD.The database is freely available at http://chibba.agtec.uga.edu/duplication/.

  17. Numeric Databases in the Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meschel, S. V.

    1984-01-01

    Provides exploration into types of numeric databases available (also known as source databases, nonbibliographic databases, data-files, data-banks, fact banks); examines differences and similarities between bibliographic and numeric databases; identifies disciplines that utilize numeric databases; and surveys representative examples in the…

  18. THE CTEPP DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) database contains a wealth of data on children's aggregate exposures to pollutants in their everyday surroundings. Chemical analysis data for the environmental media and ques...

  19. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  20. Hawaii bibliographic database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Thomas L.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and s or (if no ) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  1. Enhancing medical database security.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, G; Khair, M; Bozios, L

    1994-08-01

    A methodology for the enhancement of database security in a hospital environment is presented in this paper which is based on both the discretionary and the mandatory database security policies. In this way the advantages of both approaches are combined to enhance medical database security. An appropriate classification of the different types of users according to their different needs and roles and a User Role Definition Hierarchy has been used. The experience obtained from the experimental implementation of the proposed methodology in a major general hospital is briefly discussed. The implementation has shown that the combined discretionary and mandatory security enforcement effectively limits the unauthorized access to the medical database, without severely restricting the capabilities of the system.

  2. Uranium Location Database Compilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has compiled mine location information from federal, state, and Tribal agencies into a single database as part of its investigation into the potential environmental hazards of wastes from abandoned uranium mines in the western United States.

  3. Livestock Anaerobic Digester Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Anaerobic Digester Database provides basic information about anaerobic digesters on livestock farms in the United States, organized in Excel spreadsheets. It includes projects that are under construction, operating, or shut down.

  4. Hawaii bibliographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  5. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  6. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  7. Database computing in HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. ); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. ); Baden, A. . Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. . Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  8. Human mapping databases.

    PubMed

    Talbot, C; Cuticchia, A J

    2001-05-01

    This unit concentrates on the data contained within two human genome databasesGDB (Genome Database) and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man)and includes discussion of different methods for submitting and accessing data. An understanding of electronic mail, FTP, and the use of a World Wide Web (WWW) navigational tool such as Netscape or Internet Explorer is a prerequisite for utilizing the information in this unit.

  9. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  10. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012.

  11. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  12. The Transporter Classification Database

    PubMed Central

    Saier, Milton H.; Reddy, Vamsee S.; Tamang, Dorjee G.; Västermark, Åke

    2014-01-01

    The Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; http://www.tcdb.org) serves as a common reference point for transport protein research. The database contains more than 10 000 non-redundant proteins that represent all currently recognized families of transmembrane molecular transport systems. Proteins in TCDB are organized in a five level hierarchical system, where the first two levels are the class and subclass, the second two are the family and subfamily, and the last one is the transport system. Superfamilies that contain multiple families are included as hyperlinks to the five tier TC hierarchy. TCDB includes proteins from all types of living organisms and is the only transporter classification system that is both universal and recognized by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It has been expanded by manual curation, contains extensive text descriptions providing structural, functional, mechanistic and evolutionary information, is supported by unique software and is interconnected to many other relevant databases. TCDB is of increasing usefulness to the international scientific community and can serve as a model for the expansion of database technologies. This manuscript describes an update of the database descriptions previously featured in NAR database issues. PMID:24225317

  13. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls.

  14. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  15. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  16. The Danish Prostate Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Nielsen, Mary; Høyer, Søren; Friis, Søren; Hansen, Steinbjørn; Brasso, Klaus; Jakobsen, Erik Breth; Moe, Mette; Larsson, Heidi; Søgaard, Mette; Nakano, Anne; Borre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Prostate Cancer Database (DAPROCAdata) is a nationwide clinical cancer database that has prospectively collected data on patients with incident prostate cancer in Denmark since February 2010. The overall aim of the DAPROCAdata is to improve the quality of prostate cancer care in Denmark by systematically collecting key clinical variables for the purposes of health care monitoring, quality improvement, and research. Study population All Danish patients with histologically verified prostate cancer are included in the DAPROCAdata. Main variables The DAPROCAdata registers clinical data and selected characteristics for patients with prostate cancer at diagnosis. Data are collected from the linkage of nationwide health registries and supplemented with online registration of key clinical variables by treating physicians at urological and oncological departments. Main variables include Gleason scores, cancer staging, prostate-specific antigen values, and therapeutic measures (active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy, endocrine therapy, and chemotherapy). Descriptive data In total, 22,332 patients with prostate cancer were registered in DAPROCAdata as of April 2015. A key feature of DAPROCAdata is the routine collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM), including data on quality-of-life (pain levels, physical activity, sexual function, depression, urine and fecal incontinence) and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index). PROM data are derived from questionnaires distributed at diagnosis and at 1-year and 3-year follow-up. Hitherto, the PROM data have been limited by low completeness (26% among newly diagnosed patients in 2014). Conclusion DAPROCAdata is a comprehensive, yet still young clinical database. Efforts to improve data collection, data validity, and completeness are ongoing and of high priority. PMID:27843346

  17. Databases: Peter's Picks and Pans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the best and worst in databases on disk, CD-ROM, and online, and offers judgments and observations on database characteristics. Two databases are praised and three are criticized. (Author/JMV)

  18. The androgen receptor gene mutations database.

    PubMed

    Patterson, M N; Hughes, I A; Gottlieb, B; Pinsky, L

    1994-09-01

    The androgen receptor gene mutations database is a comprehensive listing of mutations published in journals and meetings proceedings. The majority of mutations are point mutations identified in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome. Information is included regarding the phenotype, the nature and location of the mutations, as well as the effects of the mutations on the androgen binding activity of the receptor. The current version of the database contains 149 entries, of which 114 are unique mutations. The database is available from EMBL (NetServ@EMBL-Heidelberg.DE) or as a Macintosh Filemaker file (mc33001@musica.mcgill.ca).

  19. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  20. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  1. ADANS database specification

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  2. The Chandra Bibliography Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, A. H.; Winkelman, S. L.; Paltani, S.; Blecksmith, S. E.; Bright, J. D.

    2004-07-01

    Early in the mission, the Chandra Data Archive started the development of a bibliography database, tracking publications in refereed journals and on-line conference proceedings that are based on Chandra observations, allowing our users to link directly to articles in the ADS from our archive, and to link to the relevant data in the archive from the ADS entries. Subsequently, we have been working closely with the ADS and other data centers, in the context of the ADEC-ITWG, on standardizing the literature-data linking. We have also extended our bibliography database to include all Chandra-related articles and we are also keeping track of the number of citations of each paper. Obviously, in addition to providing valuable services to our users, this database allows us to extract a wide variety of statistical information. The project comprises five components: the bibliography database-proper, a maintenance database, an interactive maintenance tool, a user browsing interface, and a web services component for exchanging information with the ADS. All of these elements are nearly mission-independent and we intend make the package as a whole available for use by other data centers. The capabilities thus provided represent support for an essential component of the Virtual Observatory.

  3. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  4. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  5. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  6. IDBD: infectious disease biomarker database.

    PubMed

    Yang, In Seok; Ryu, Chunsun; Cho, Ki Joon; Kim, Jin Kwang; Ong, Swee Hoe; Mitchell, Wayne P; Kim, Bong Su; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Biomarkers enable early diagnosis, guide molecularly targeted therapy and monitor the activity and therapeutic responses across a variety of diseases. Despite intensified interest and research, however, the overall rate of development of novel biomarkers has been falling. Moreover, no solution is yet available that efficiently retrieves and processes biomarker information pertaining to infectious diseases. Infectious Disease Biomarker Database (IDBD) is one of the first efforts to build an easily accessible and comprehensive literature-derived database covering known infectious disease biomarkers. IDBD is a community annotation database, utilizing collaborative Web 2.0 features, providing a convenient user interface to input and revise data online. It allows users to link infectious diseases or pathogens to protein, gene or carbohydrate biomarkers through the use of search tools. It supports various types of data searches and application tools to analyze sequence and structure features of potential and validated biomarkers. Currently, IDBD integrates 611 biomarkers for 66 infectious diseases and 70 pathogens. It is publicly accessible at http://biomarker.cdc.go.kr and http://biomarker.korea.ac.kr.

  7. Databases and tools in glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Artemenko, Natalia V; McDonald, Andrew G; Davey, Gavin P; Rudd, Pauline M

    2012-01-01

    Glycans are crucial to the functioning of multicellular organisms. They may also play a role as mediators between host and parasite or symbiont. As many proteins (>50%) are posttranslationally modified by glycosylation, this mechanism is considered to be the most widespread posttranslational modification in eukaryotes. These surface modifications alter and regulate structure and biological activities/functions of proteins/biomolecules as they are largely involved in the recognition process of the appropriate structure in order to bind to the target cells. Consequently, the recognition of glycans on cellular surfaces plays a crucial role in the promotion or inhibition of various diseases and, therefore, glycosylation itself is considered to be a critical protein quality control attribute for commercial therapeutics, which is one of the fastest growing segments in the pharmaceutical industry. With the development of glycobiology as a separate discipline, a number of databases and tools became available in a similar way to other well-established "omics." Alleviating the recognized shortcomings of the available tools for data storage and retrieval is one of the highest priorities of the international glycoinformatics community. In the last decade, major efforts have been made, by leading scientific groups, towards the integration of a number of major databases and tools into a single portal, which would act as a centralized data repository for glycomics, equipped with a number of comprehensive analytical tools for data systematization, analysis, and comparison. This chapter provides an overview of the most important carbohydrate-related databases and glycoinformatic tools.

  8. Pulp mill effluents: Activated sludge treatment process. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning plant histories, laboratory analyses, field applications, performance evaluations, and cost factors of pulping mill activated sludge treatment facilities. Monitoring techniques of the activated sludge effluent treatment process, and operating problems and solutions are discussed. Computerized simulation of activated sludge plants is included. (Contains a minimum of 75 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  10. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  11. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  12. The PROSITE database

    PubMed Central

    Hulo, Nicolas; Bairoch, Amos; Bulliard, Virginie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; De Castro, Edouard; Langendijk-Genevaux, Petra S.; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J. A.

    2006-01-01

    The PROSITE database consists of a large collection of biologically meaningful signatures that are described as patterns or profiles. Each signature is linked to a documentation that provides useful biological information on the protein family, domain or functional site identified by the signature. The PROSITE database is now complemented by a series of rules that can give more precise information about specific residues. During the last 2 years, the documentation and the ScanProsite web pages were redesigned to add more functionalities. The latest version of PROSITE (release 19.11 of September 27, 2005) contains 1329 patterns and 552 profile entries. Over the past 2 years more than 200 domains have been added, and now 52% of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries (release 48.1 of September 27, 2005) have a cross-reference to a PROSITE entry. The database is accessible at . PMID:16381852

  13. Medical database security evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pangalos, G J

    1993-01-01

    Users of medical information systems need confidence in the security of the system they are using. They also need a method to evaluate and compare its security capabilities. Every system has its own requirements for maintaining confidentiality, integrity and availability. In order to meet these requirements a number of security functions must be specified covering areas such as access control, auditing, error recovery, etc. Appropriate confidence in these functions is also required. The 'trust' in trusted computer systems rests on their ability to prove that their secure mechanisms work as advertised and cannot be disabled or diverted. The general framework and requirements for medical database security and a number of parameters of the evaluation problem are presented and discussed. The problem of database security evaluation is then discussed, and a number of specific proposals are presented, based on a number of existing medical database security systems.

  14. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  15. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-04

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  16. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288

  17. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  18. Synthesized Population Databases: A US Geospatial Database for Agent-Based Models.

    PubMed

    Wheaton, William D; Cajka, James C; Chasteen, Bernadette M; Wagener, Diane K; Cooley, Philip C; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana; Roberts, Douglas J; Allpress, Justine L

    2009-05-01

    Agent-based models simulate large-scale social systems. They assign behaviors and activities to "agents" (individuals) within the population being modeled and then allow the agents to interact with the environment and each other in complex simulations. Agent-based models are frequently used to simulate infectious disease outbreaks, among other uses.RTI used and extended an iterative proportional fitting method to generate a synthesized, geospatially explicit, human agent database that represents the US population in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in the year 2000. Each agent is assigned to a household; other agents make up the household occupants.For this database, RTI developed the methods for generating synthesized households and personsassigning agents to schools and workplaces so that complex interactions among agents as they go about their daily activities can be taken into accountgenerating synthesized human agents who occupy group quarters (military bases, college dormitories, prisons, nursing homes).In this report, we describe both the methods used to generate the synthesized population database and the final data structure and data content of the database. This information will provide researchers with the information they need to use the database in developing agent-based models.Portions of the synthesized agent database are available to any user upon request. RTI will extract a portion (a county, region, or state) of the database for users who wish to use this database in their own agent-based models.

  19. Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1981 Wayne Erickson founded Microrim, Inc, a company originally focused on marketing a microcomputer version of RIM (Relational Information Manager). Dennis Comfort joined the firm and is now vice president, development. The team developed an advanced spinoff from the NASA system they had originally created, a microcomputer database management system known as R:BASE 4000. Microrim added many enhancements and developed a series of R:BASE products for various environments. R:BASE is now the second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software in the world.

  20. JICST Factual Database(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosawa, Shinji

    The outline of JICST factual database (JOIS-F), which JICST has started from January, 1988, and its online service are described in this paper. First, the author mentions the circumstances from 1973, when its planning was started, to the present, and its relation to "Project by Special Coordination Founds for Promoting Science and Technology". Secondly, databases, which are now under development aiming to start its services from fiscal 1988 or fiscal 1989, of DNA, metallic material intensity, crystal structure, chemical substance regulations, and so forth, are described. Lastly, its online service is briefly explained.

  1. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  2. Databases for plant phosphoproteomics.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Waltraud X; Yao, Qiuming; Xu, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation is the most studied posttranslational modification involved in signal transduction in stress responses, development, and growth. In the recent years large-scale phosphoproteomic studies were carried out using various model plants and several growth and stress conditions. Here we present an overview of online resources for plant phosphoproteomic databases: PhosPhAt as a resource for Arabidopsis phosphoproteins, P3DB as a resource expanding to crop plants, and Medicago PhosphoProtein Database as a resource for the model plant Medicago trunculata.

  3. The C of CHADS: Historical perspective and clinical applications for anticoagulation in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Y; Faillace, R T

    2016-12-01

    The risk stratification of patients with coexisting non valvular atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, is often a clinical challenge, as the definitions of congestive heart failure in the popular CHADS2 and CHA2DS2VASc scoring systems, and amongst major clinical trials on Warfarin and Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOAC) have heterogeneity. Available evidence reveals that any heart failure and/or left ventricular systolic dysfunction is associated with higher rates of stroke/systemic embolism and bleeding in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation compared to patients without heart failure and normal left ventricular function. Most standard dose NOAC regimens have a better safety and efficacy profile over warfarin in most heart failure sub-group types with a few exceptions including patients with NYHA III/IV on Dabigatran 150mg BID from the RE-LY trial, who had higher major bleeding events, and patients with asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤40%) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction on 20mg of Rivaroxaban in the ROCKET-AF trial, when compared to patients on Warfarin in the corresponding groups. With the gaining popularity and use of NOACs, understanding their safety profile in such situations is paramount.

  4. Access to antiretroviral treatment, issues of well-being and public health governance in Chad: what justifies the limited success of the universal access policy?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Chad was officially declared in December 2006. This presidential initiative was and is still funded 100% by the country’s budget and external donors’ financial support. Many factors have triggered the spread of AIDS. Some of these factors include the existence of norms and beliefs that create or increase exposure, the low-level education that precludes access to health information, social unrest, and population migration to areas of high economic opportunities and gender-based discrimination. Social forces that influence the distribution of dimensions of well-being and shape risks for infection also determine the persistence of access barriers to ART. The universal access policy is quite revolutionary but should be informed by the systemic barriers to access so as to promote equity. It is not enough to distribute ARVs and provide health services when health systems are poorly organized and managed. Comprehensive access to ART raises many organizational, ethical and policy problems that need to be solved to achieve equity in access. This paper argues that the persistence of access barriers is due to weak health systems and a poor public health leadership. AIDS has challenged health systems in a manner that is essentially different from other health problems. PMID:23902732

  5. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  6. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  7. An observational study of material durability of three World Health Organization-recommended long-lasting insecticidal nets in eastern Chad.

    PubMed

    Allan, Richard; O'Reilly, Laura; Gilbos, Valery; Kilian, Albert

    2012-09-01

    A total of 876 nets (229 Interceptor(®), 363 Olyset(®), and 284 PermaNet(®)) were collected 14 months post-distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) from 811 households of internally displaced and host communities in Dar Sila District in eastern Chad to examine their physical condition. Holes were recorded by using three hole categories (average diameter = 2, 3.5, and 15 cm) and a Proportionate Hole Index (pHI). A total of 69.5% were in poor or very poor condition. There was no significant difference in the performance between the polyester 75 denier LLINs, but they had 4.22 times the odds of having a pHI ≥ 175 (poor or very poor condition) than polyethylene 150 denier LLINs; and 39.2% were unserviceable (pHI ≥ 300) compared with only 7.7% of the polyethylene LLINs. These results provide the first comparative data on LLIN material durability to guide procurement and replacement practice, and to inform urgently needed changes in LLIN international minimum specifications and product standards.

  8. Occurrence of water-borne enteric viruses in two settlements based in Eastern Chad: analysis of hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and human adenovirus in water sources.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Latorre, Laura; Carratala, Anna; Rodriguez-Manzano, Jesus; Calgua, Byron; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Girones, Rosina

    2011-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of water-borne acute hepatitis in areas with poor sanitation. In 2004 an outbreak of HEV infection affected around 2,000 people in Eastern Chad (Dar Sila). This paper describes the decrease in the incidence of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) from 2004 until 2009 when a mean incidence of 0.48 cases/1,000 people/year was recorded in the region. Outbreaks of AJS were identified in some of the camps in 2007 and 2008. Moreover, water samples from drinking water sources were screened for human adenoviruses considered as viral indicators and for hepatitis A virus and HEV. Screening of faecal samples from donkeys for HEV gave negative results. Some of the samples were also analysed for faecal coliforms showing values before disinfection treatment between 3 and >50 colony forming units per 100 mL. All water samples tested were negative for HEV and HAV; however, the presence of low levels of human adenoviruses in 4 out of 16 samples analysed indicates possible human faecal contamination of groundwater. Consequently, breakdowns in the treatment of drinking water and/or increased excretion of hepatitis viruses, which could be related to the arrival of a new population, could spread future outbreaks through drinking water.

  9. Genetic mapping identifies a major locus spanning P450 clusters associated with pyrethroid resistance in kdr-free Anopheles arabiensis from Chad.

    PubMed

    Witzig, C; Parry, M; Morgan, J C; Irving, H; Steven, A; Cuamba, N; Kerah-Hinzoumbé, C; Ranson, H; Wondji, C S

    2013-04-01

    Prevention of malaria transmission throughout much of Africa is dependent on bednets that are impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides. Anopheles arabiensis is the major malaria vector in Chad and efforts to control this vector are threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid resistance. WHO bioassays revealed that An. arabiensis from Ndjamena is resistant to pyrethroids and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) but fully susceptible to carbamates and organophosphates. No 1014F or 1014S kdr alleles were detected in this population. To determine the mechanisms that are responsible for resistance, genetic crosses were established between the Ndja strain and an insecticide susceptible population from Mozambique. Resistance was inherited as an autosomal trait and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping identified a single major locus on chromosome 2R, which explained 24.4% of the variance in resistance. This QTL is enriched in P450 genes including 25 cytochrome P450s in total. One of these, Cyp6p4 is 22-fold upregulated in the Ndja strain compared with the susceptible. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist and biochemical assays further support a role for P450s in conferring pyrethroid resistance in this population.

  10. Management of the complications of traditional bone setting for upper extremity fractures: the experiences of a French Forward Surgical Team in Chad.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, L; Bertani, A; Chaudier, P; Charpail, C; Rongiéras, F; Chauvin, F

    2014-04-01

    The practice of traditional bone setting (TBS) in sub-Saharan Africa often leads to severe complications after upper extremity fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of these complications by a French Forward Surgical Team deployed in Chad. An observational, prospective study was conducted over a six-month period between 2010 and 2011. During this period 28 patients were included. There were 20 males and 8 females with a mean age of 30.6 years (range 5-65 years). Thirteen patients (47%) had mal-union of their fracture, nine had non-union (32%), three children (10.5%) presented gangrene and three patients (10.5%) suffered from other complications. Fifteen (54%) patients did not undergo a corrective procedure either because it was not indicated or because they declined. Only 13 (46%) patients were operated on. Twelve of these patients were reviewed with a mean follow-up of 2.4 months. All of them were satisfied with conventional treatment. The infection seemed to be under control in every septic patient. Bone union could not be evaluated in most patients because of the short follow-up. Management of TBS complications is always challenging, even in a deployed Western medical treatment facility. Surgical expectations should be low because of the severity of the sequelae and the uncertainty of patient follow-up. Prevention remains the best treatment.

  11. Access to antiretroviral treatment, issues of well-being and public health governance in Chad: what justifies the limited success of the universal access policy?

    PubMed

    Azétsop, Jacquineau; Diop, Blondin A

    2013-08-01

    Universal access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Chad was officially declared in December 2006. This presidential initiative was and is still funded 100% by the country's budget and external donors' financial support. Many factors have triggered the spread of AIDS. Some of these factors include the existence of norms and beliefs that create or increase exposure, the low-level education that precludes access to health information, social unrest, and population migration to areas of high economic opportunities and gender-based discrimination. Social forces that influence the distribution of dimensions of well-being and shape risks for infection also determine the persistence of access barriers to ART. The universal access policy is quite revolutionary but should be informed by the systemic barriers to access so as to promote equity. It is not enough to distribute ARVs and provide health services when health systems are poorly organized and managed. Comprehensive access to ART raises many organizational, ethical and policy problems that need to be solved to achieve equity in access. This paper argues that the persistence of access barriers is due to weak health systems and a poor public health leadership. AIDS has challenged health systems in a manner that is essentially different from other health problems.

  12. First description of a Pliocene ichthyofauna from Central Africa (site KL2, Kolle area, Eastern Djurab, Chad): What do we learn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-06-01

    This is the first extensive study of a freshwater fish fauna from a Pliocene site in Central Africa, based on fossils collected at the KL2 site in the fossiliferous area of Kolle (Lower Pliocene, Chad). A relatively high fish diversity is revealed, confirming the presence of 19 taxa: Polypteriformes, Polypteridae ( Polypterus sp.); Osteoglossiformes, Osteoglossidae ( Heterotis sp.), Mormyriformes, Gymnarchidae ( Gymnarchus sp. cf. niloticus); Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae ( Labeo sp.); Characiformes, Alestidae ( Hydrocynus; Alestinae type Alestes/ Brycinus; Sindacharax sp. cf. deserti, Sindacharax sp.), Distichodontidae ( Distichodus sp.); Siluriformes, Ariidae (cf. Calarius), ?Bagridae (cf. Bagrus), Claroteidae (cf. Clarotes), Mochokidae ( Synodontis sp.), Clariidae ( Clarias sp. or Heterobranchus sp.); Perciformes family indet. ( Semlikiichthys sp. cf. darsao), Latidae ( Lates sp. cf. niloticus), Cichlidae indet., and Perciformes indet.; Tetraodontiformes Tetraodontidae ( Tetraodon sp.). The aquatic environment corresponding to the fossil fish assemblage might be a floodplain crossed by well-oxygenated open waters. Compared with a contemporaneous East African region, the mid-Pliocene Chadian fish diversity reveals a certain endemicity, while connections between the Niger and the Chadian basin are suspected because of the presence of a freshwater ariid fish in Kolle.

  13. Evolution of Database Replication Technologies for WLCG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Lobato Pardavila, Lorena; Blaszczyk, Marcin; Dimitrov, Gancho; Canali, Luca

    2015-12-01

    In this article we summarize several years of experience on database replication technologies used at WLCG and we provide a short review of the available Oracle technologies and their key characteristics. One of the notable changes and improvement in this area in recent past has been the introduction of Oracle GoldenGate as a replacement of Oracle Streams. We report in this article on the preparation and later upgrades for remote replication done in collaboration with ATLAS and Tier 1 database administrators, including the experience from running Oracle GoldenGate in production. Moreover, we report on another key technology in this area: Oracle Active Data Guard which has been adopted in several of the mission critical use cases for database replication between online and offline databases for the LHC experiments.

  14. Virtual Queue in a Centralized Database Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Amitava; Pal, Dibyendu Kumar

    2010-10-01

    Today is the era of the Internet. Every matter whether it be a gather of knowledge or planning a holiday or booking of ticket etc everything can be obtained from the internet. This paper intends to calculate the different queuing measures when some booking or purchase is done through the internet subject to the limitations in the number of tickets or seats. It involves a lot of database activities like read and write. This paper takes care of the time involved in the requests of a service, taken as arrival and the time involved in providing the required information, taken as service and thereby tries to calculate the distribution of arrival and service and the various measures of the queuing. This paper considers the database as centralized database for the sake of simplicity as the alternating concept of distributed database would rather complicate the calculation.

  15. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for scientific activities in the vicinity of Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, R. P.; Kassin, A.; Gaylord, A. G.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In 2013, the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.baid.utep.edu) project resumed field operations in Barrow, AK. The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 11,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, and save or print maps and query results. Data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards and are archived at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) where non-proprietary BAID data can be freely downloaded. Highlights for the 2013 season include the addition of more than 2000 additional research sites, providing differential global position system (dGPS) support to visiting scientists, surveying over 80 miles of coastline to document rates of erosion, training of local GIS personal, deployment of a wireless sensor network, and substantial upgrades to the BAID website and web mapping applications.

  16. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  17. Danish Gynecological Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Thranov, Ingrid Regitze; Hare-Bruun, Helle; Seibæk, Lene; Høgdall, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures for gynecological cancer. Study population DGCD was initiated January 1, 2005, and includes all patients treated at Danish hospitals for cancer of the ovaries, peritoneum, fallopian tubes, cervix, vulva, vagina, and uterus, including rare histological types. Main variables DGCD data are organized within separate data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish “Pathology Registry”, the “National Patient Registry”, and the “Cause of Death Registry” using the unique Danish personal identification number (CPR number). Descriptive data Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation is the registration of oncological treatment data, which is incomplete for a large number of patients. Conclusion The very complete collection of available data from more registries form one of the unique strengths of DGCD compared to many other clinical databases, and provides unique possibilities for validation and completeness of data. The success of the DGCD is illustrated through annual reports, high coverage, and several peer-reviewed DGCD-based publications. PMID:27822089

  18. Uranium Location Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A GIS compiled locational database in Microsoft Access of ~15,000 mines with uranium occurrence or production, primarily in the western United States. The metadata was cooperatively compiled from Federal and State agency data sets and enables the user to conduct geographic and analytical studies on mine impacts on the public and environment.

  19. The Exoplanet Orbit Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. T.; Fakhouri, O.; Marcy, G. W.; Han, E.; Feng, Y.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Valenti, J. A.; Anderson, J.; Piskunov, N.

    2011-04-01

    We present a database of well-determined orbital parameters of exoplanets, and their host stars’ properties. This database comprises spectroscopic orbital elements measured for 427 planets orbiting 363 stars from radial velocity and transit measurements as reported in the literature. We have also compiled fundamental transit parameters, stellar parameters, and the method used for the planets discovery. This Exoplanet Orbit Database includes all planets with robust, well measured orbital parameters reported in peer-reviewed articles. The database is available in a searchable, filterable, and sortable form online through the Exoplanets Data Explorer table, and the data can be plotted and explored through the Exoplanet Data Explorer plotter. We use the Data Explorer to generate publication-ready plots, giving three examples of the signatures of exoplanet migration and dynamical evolution: We illustrate the character of the apparent correlation between mass and period in exoplanet orbits, the different selection biases between radial velocity and transit surveys, and that the multiplanet systems show a distinct semimajor-axis distribution from apparently singleton systems.

  20. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table…

  1. Diatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.

  2. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  3. MARC and Relational Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llorens, Jose; Trenor, Asuncion

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of MARC format in relational databases and addresses problems of incompatibilities. A solution is presented that is in accordance with Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) standards and is based on experiences at the library of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). (four references) (EA)

  4. Databases and data mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of the past decade, the breadth of information that is made available through online resources for plant biology has increased astronomically, as have the interconnectedness among databases, online tools, and methods of data acquisition and analysis. For maize researchers, the numbe...

  5. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  6. Danish Urogynaecological Database

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ulla Darling; Gradel, Kim Oren; Larsen, Michael Due

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Urogynaecological Database is established in order to ensure high quality of treatment for patients undergoing urogynecological surgery. The database contains details of all women in Denmark undergoing incontinence surgery or pelvic organ prolapse surgery amounting to ~5,200 procedures per year. The variables are collected along the course of treatment of the patient from the referral to a postoperative control. Main variables are prior obstetrical and gynecological history, symptoms, symptom-related quality of life, objective urogynecological findings, type of operation, complications if relevant, implants used if relevant, 3–6-month postoperative recording of symptoms, if any. A set of clinical quality indicators is being maintained by the steering committee for the database and is published in an annual report which also contains extensive descriptive statistics. The database has a completeness of over 90% of all urogynecological surgeries performed in Denmark. Some of the main variables have been validated using medical records as gold standard. The positive predictive value was above 90%. The data are used as a quality monitoring tool by the hospitals and in a number of scientific studies of specific urogynecological topics, broader epidemiological topics, and the use of patient reported outcome measures. PMID:27826217

  7. Food composition databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food composition is the determination of what is in the foods we eat and is the critical bridge between nutrition, health promotion and disease prevention and food production. Compilation of data into useable databases is essential to the development of dietary guidance for individuals and populat...

  8. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  9. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  10. Triatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  11. JDD, Inc. Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    JDD Inc, is a maintenance and custodial contracting company whose mission is to provide their clients in the private and government sectors "quality construction, construction management and cleaning services in the most efficient and cost effective manners, (JDD, Inc. Mission Statement)." This company provides facilities support for Fort Riley in Fo,rt Riley, Kansas and the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field here in Cleveland, Ohio. JDD, Inc. is owned and operated by James Vaughn, who started as painter at NASA Glenn and has been working here for the past seventeen years. This summer I worked under Devan Anderson, who is the safety manager for JDD Inc. in the Logistics and Technical Information Division at Glenn Research Center The LTID provides all transportation, secretarial, security needs and contract management of these various services for the center. As a safety manager, my mentor provides Occupational Health and Safety Occupation (OSHA) compliance to all JDD, Inc. employees and handles all other issues (Environmental Protection Agency issues, workers compensation, safety and health training) involving to job safety. My summer assignment was not as considered "groundbreaking research" like many other summer interns have done in the past, but it is just as important and beneficial to JDD, Inc. I initially created a database using a Microsoft Excel program to classify and categorize data pertaining to numerous safety training certification courses instructed by our safety manager during the course of the fiscal year. This early portion of the database consisted of only data (training field index, employees who were present at these training courses and who was absent) from the training certification courses. Once I completed this phase of the database, I decided to expand the database and add as many dimensions to it as possible. Throughout the last seven weeks, I have been compiling more data from day to day operations and been adding the

  12. Tautomerism in large databases

    PubMed Central

    Sitzmann, Markus; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    We have used the Chemical Structure DataBase (CSDB) of the NCI CADD Group, an aggregated collection of over 150 small-molecule databases totaling 103.5 million structure records, to conduct tautomerism analyses on one of the largest currently existing sets of real (i.e. not computer-generated) compounds. This analysis was carried out using calculable chemical structure identifiers developed by the NCI CADD Group, based on hash codes available in the chemoinformatics toolkit CACTVS and a newly developed scoring scheme to define a canonical tautomer for any encountered structure. CACTVS’s tautomerism definition, a set of 21 transform rules expressed in SMIRKS line notation, was used, which takes a comprehensive stance as to the possible types of tautomeric interconversion included. Tautomerism was found to be possible for more than 2/3 of the unique structures in the CSDB. A total of 680 million tautomers were calculated from, and including, the original structure records. Tautomerism overlap within the same individual database (i.e. at least one other entry was present that was really only a different tautomeric representation of the same compound) was found at an average rate of 0.3% of the original structure records, with values as high as nearly 2% for some of the databases in CSDB. Projected onto the set of unique structures (by FICuS identifier), this still occurred in about 1.5% of the cases. Tautomeric overlap across all constituent databases in CSDB was found for nearly 10% of the records in the collection. PMID:20512400

  13. Armenian Astronomical Archives and Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Astsatryan, H. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    The major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength studies (from γ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed in various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomical Data are one of the largest collections of World Data System. The Armenian astronomical databases maintain large amount of data accumulated during dozens of years of observations with a number of telescopes in the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO). Among them most important are two Schmidt type telescopes, 0.5m and 1m (one of the biggest in the world), and the 2.6m classical reflector. Some of these data are unique, such as the First Byurakan Survey (FBS or better known as Mark Arian Survey) objective prism photographic plates and its digitized version, the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS). It consists of 1874 photographic plates containing some 40,000,000 low-dispersion spectra for some 20,000,000 objects covering 17,000 square degrees at declinations δ>-15 ° and galactic latitudes |b|>15°. DFBS provides images and extracted spectra for all objects present in the FBS plates. Programs were developed to compute astrometric solution, extract spectra, and apply wavelength and photometric calibration for objects. A DFBS database and catalog has been assembled. A classification scheme for the DFBS spectra is being developed. A few other digitization projects have been accomplished or are ongoing: Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) spectroscopic plates, FBS Blue Stellar Objects and Late Type Stars photographic spectra taken with the 2.6m telescope, the variability of the Blazar ON 231 obtained from numerous photometric observations, etc. At present BAO Plate Archive Project is active and is aimed at digitization of some 37,000 photographic plates, construction of a full plate database and

  14. JICST Factual DatabaseJICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Atsushi; Sohma, Tohru

    JICST Chemical Substance Safety Regulation Database is based on the Database of Safety Laws for Chemical Compounds constructed by Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology & Information Center (JETOC) sponsored by the Sience and Technology Agency in 1987. JICST has modified JETOC database system, added data and started the online service through JOlS-F (JICST Online Information Service-Factual database) in January 1990. JICST database comprises eighty-three laws and fourteen hundred compounds. The authors outline the database, data items, files and search commands. An example of online session is presented.

  15. Designing a Zoo-Based Endangered Species Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a class activity that uses the database feature of the Appleworks program to create a database from which students may study endangered species. The use of a local zoo as a base of information about the animals is suggested. Procedures and follow-up activities are included. (CW)

  16. Protein Model Database

    SciTech Connect

    Fidelis, K; Adzhubej, A; Kryshtafovych, A; Daniluk, P

    2005-02-23

    The phenomenal success of the genome sequencing projects reveals the power of completeness in revolutionizing biological science. Currently it is possible to sequence entire organisms at a time, allowing for a systemic rather than fractional view of their organization and the various genome-encoded functions. There is an international plan to move towards a similar goal in the area of protein structure. This will not be achieved by experiment alone, but rather by a combination of efforts in crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and computational modeling. Only a small fraction of structures are expected to be identified experimentally, the remainder to be modeled. Presently there is no organized infrastructure to critically evaluate and present these data to the biological community. The goal of the Protein Model Database project is to create such infrastructure, including (1) public database of theoretically derived protein structures; (2) reliable annotation of protein model quality, (3) novel structure analysis tools, and (4) access to the highest quality modeling techniques available.

  17. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  18. Surgical research using national databases.

    PubMed

    Alluri, Ram K; Leland, Hyuma; Heckmann, Nathanael

    2016-10-01

    Recent changes in healthcare and advances in technology have increased the use of large-volume national databases in surgical research. These databases have been used to develop perioperative risk stratification tools, assess postoperative complications, calculate costs, and investigate numerous other topics across multiple surgical specialties. The results of these studies contain variable information but are subject to unique limitations. The use of large-volume national databases is increasing in popularity, and thorough understanding of these databases will allow for a more sophisticated and better educated interpretation of studies that utilize such databases. This review will highlight the composition, strengths, and weaknesses of commonly used national databases in surgical research.

  19. Surgical research using national databases

    PubMed Central

    Leland, Hyuma; Heckmann, Nathanael

    2016-01-01

    Recent changes in healthcare and advances in technology have increased the use of large-volume national databases in surgical research. These databases have been used to develop perioperative risk stratification tools, assess postoperative complications, calculate costs, and investigate numerous other topics across multiple surgical specialties. The results of these studies contain variable information but are subject to unique limitations. The use of large-volume national databases is increasing in popularity, and thorough understanding of these databases will allow for a more sophisticated and better educated interpretation of studies that utilize such databases. This review will highlight the composition, strengths, and weaknesses of commonly used national databases in surgical research. PMID:27867945

  20. Scale out databases for CERN use cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranowski, Zbigniew; Grzybek, Maciej; Canali, Luca; Lanza Garcia, Daniel; Surdy, Kacper

    2015-12-01

    Data generation rates are expected to grow very fast for some database workloads going into LHC run 2 and beyond. In particular this is expected for data coming from controls, logging and monitoring systems. Storing, administering and accessing big data sets in a relational database system can quickly become a very hard technical challenge, as the size of the active data set and the number of concurrent users increase. Scale-out database technologies are a rapidly developing set of solutions for deploying and managing very large data warehouses on commodity hardware and with open source software. In this paper we will describe the architecture and tests on database systems based on Hadoop and the Cloudera Impala engine. We will discuss the results of our tests, including tests of data loading and integration with existing data sources and in particular with relational databases. We will report on query performance tests done with various data sets of interest at CERN, notably data from the accelerator log database.

  1. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  2. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  3. COBE Astronomical Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, I.; Raugh, A. C.; Cheng, E. S.

    A project to store and convert external astronomical survey maps to the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) spacecraft pixelization is described. Established software is reused in order to reduce development costs. The proposed packages and systems include the Image Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF), Interactive Data Language Astronomy Library (IDL), the FITSIO data transfer package and the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS). The software structure of the astronomical databases, projected conversion schemes, quality assurance procedures and outstanding problems will be discussed.

  4. Developing customer databases.

    PubMed

    Rao, S K; Shenbaga, S

    2000-01-01

    There is a growing consensus among pharmaceutical companies that more product and customer-specific approaches to marketing and selling a new drug can result in substantial increases in sales. Marketers and researchers taking a proactive micro-marketing approach to identifying, profiling, and communicating with target customers are likely to facilitate such approaches and outcomes. This article provides a working framework for creating customer databases that can be effectively mined to achieve a variety of such marketing and sales force objectives.

  5. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  6. The Danish Melanoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva; Schmidt, Grethe; Gad, Dorte; Svane, Inge Marie; Schmidt, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik Frank; Ibfelt, Else Helene

    2016-01-01

    Aim of database The aim of the database is to monitor and improve the treatment and survival of melanoma patients. Study population All Danish patients with cutaneous melanoma and in situ melanomas must be registered in the Danish Melanoma Database (DMD). In 2014, 2,525 patients with invasive melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. Main variables The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow’s tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor–node–metastasis stage. Information about the date of diagnosis, treatment, type of surgery, including safety margins, results of lymphoscintigraphy in patients for whom this was indicated (tumors > T1a), results of sentinel node biopsy, pathological evaluation hereof, and follow-up information, including recurrence, nature, and treatment hereof is registered. In case of death, the cause and date are included. Currently, all data are entered manually; however, data catchment from the existing registries is planned to be included shortly. Descriptive data The DMD is an old research database, but new as a clinical quality register. The coverage is high, and the performance in the five Danish regions is quite similar due to strong adherence to guidelines provided by the Danish Melanoma Group. The list of monitored indicators is constantly expanding, and annual quality reports are issued. Several important scientific studies are based on DMD data. Conclusion DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment and research. PMID:27822097

  7. Electronic Journals as Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, A.

    2004-07-01

    The Information Bulletin on Variable Stars is a bulletin fully available in electronic form. We are working on converting the text, tables and figures of the papers published into a database, and, at the same time, making them accessible and addressable. IBVS Data Service will provide information on variable stars --- like finding charts, light curves --- and will be VO compatible. Other services could link to individual figures, data files, etc. this way.

  8. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  9. The Danish Sarcoma Database

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy); complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative complications, and recurrence within 5 years follow-up. The database is also a valuable research tool to study the impact of technical and medical interventions on prognosis of sarcoma patients. PMID:27822116

  10. Unified Database Development Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    unified database (UDB) program was to develop an automated system that would be useful to those responsible for the design , development, testing, and...weapon system design . Baekgound The Air Force is concerned with the lack of adequate logistics consideration during the weapon system design process. To...produce a weapon system with optimal cost and mission effectiveness, logistics factors must be considered very early and throughout the system design

  11. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  12. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  13. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    PubMed

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  14. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, J.M.

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  15. State Analysis Database Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Bennett, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    The State Analysis Database Tool software establishes a productive environment for collaboration among software and system engineers engaged in the development of complex interacting systems. The tool embodies State Analysis, a model-based system engineering methodology founded on a state-based control architecture (see figure). A state represents a momentary condition of an evolving system, and a model may describe how a state evolves and is affected by other states. The State Analysis methodology is a process for capturing system and software requirements in the form of explicit models and states, and defining goal-based operational plans consistent with the models. Requirements, models, and operational concerns have traditionally been documented in a variety of system engineering artifacts that address different aspects of a mission s lifecycle. In State Analysis, requirements, models, and operations information are State Analysis artifacts that are consistent and stored in a State Analysis Database. The tool includes a back-end database, a multi-platform front-end client, and Web-based administrative functions. The tool is structured to prompt an engineer to follow the State Analysis methodology, to encourage state discovery and model description, and to make software requirements and operations plans consistent with model descriptions.

  16. The Cambridge Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Groom, Colin R.; Bruno, Ian J.; Lightfoot, Matthew P.; Ward, Suzanna C.

    2016-01-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal–organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface. PMID:27048719

  17. Fiber pixelated image database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Anant; Perinchery, Sandeep Menon; Matham, Murukeshan Vadakke

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of physically inaccessible parts of the body such as the colon at micron-level resolution is highly important in diagnostic medical imaging. Though flexible endoscopes based on the imaging fiber bundle are used for such diagnostic procedures, their inherent honeycomb-like structure creates fiber pixelation effects. This impedes the observer from perceiving the information from an image captured and hinders the direct use of image processing and machine intelligence techniques on the recorded signal. Significant efforts have been made by researchers in the recent past in the development and implementation of pixelation removal techniques. However, researchers have often used their own set of images without making source data available which subdued their usage and adaptability universally. A database of pixelated images is the current requirement to meet the growing diagnostic needs in the healthcare arena. An innovative fiber pixelated image database is presented, which consists of pixelated images that are synthetically generated and experimentally acquired. Sample space encompasses test patterns of different scales, sizes, and shapes. It is envisaged that this proposed database will alleviate the current limitations associated with relevant research and development and would be of great help for researchers working on comb structure removal algorithms.

  18. US Gateway to SIMBAD Astronomical Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, G.

    1998-01-01

    During the last year the US SIMBAD Gateway Project continued to provide services like user registration to the US users of the SIMBAD database in France. User registration is required by the SIMBAD project in France. Currently, there are almost 3000 US users registered. We also provide user support by answering questions from users and handling requests for lost passwords. We have worked with the CDS SIMBAD project to provide access to the SIMBAD database to US users on an Internet address basis. This will allow most US users to access SIMBAD without having to enter passwords. This new system was installed in August, 1998. The SIMBAD mirror database at SAO is fully operational. We worked with the CDS to adapt it to our computer system. We implemented automatic updating procedures that update the database and password files daily. This mirror database provides much better access to the US astronomical community. We also supported a demonstration of the SIMBAD database at the meeting of the American Astronomical Society in January. We shipped computer equipment to the meeting and provided support for the demonstration activities at the SIMBAD booth. We continued to improve the cross-linking between the SIMBAD project and the Astro- physics Data System. This cross-linking between these systems is very much appreciated by the users of both the SIMBAD database and the ADS Abstract Service. The mirror of the SIMBAD database at SAO makes this connection faster for the US astronomers. The close cooperation between the CDS in Strasbourg and SAO, facilitated by this project, is an important part of the astronomy-wide digital library initiative called Urania. It has proven to be a model in how different data centers can collaborate and enhance the value of their products by linking with other data centers.

  19. Generalized Database Management System Support for Numeric Database Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominick, Wayne D.; Weathers, Peggy G.

    1982-01-01

    This overview of potential for utilizing database management systems (DBMS) within numeric database environments highlights: (1) major features, functions, and characteristics of DBMS; (2) applicability to numeric database environment needs and user needs; (3) current applications of DBMS technology; and (4) research-oriented and…

  20. SmallSat Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropulos, Dolores; Bittner, David; Murawski, Robert; Golden, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The SmallSat has an unrealized potential in both the private industry and in the federal government. Currently over 70 companies, 50 universities and 17 governmental agencies are involved in SmallSat research and development. In 1994, the U.S. Army Missile and Defense mapped the moon using smallSat imagery. Since then Smart Phones have introduced this imagery to the people of the world as diverse industries watched this trend. The deployment cost of smallSats is also greatly reduced compared to traditional satellites due to the fact that multiple units can be deployed in a single mission. Imaging payloads have become more sophisticated, smaller and lighter. In addition, the growth of small technology obtained from private industries has led to the more widespread use of smallSats. This includes greater revisit rates in imagery, significantly lower costs, the ability to update technology more frequently and the ability to decrease vulnerability of enemy attacks. The popularity of smallSats show a changing mentality in this fast paced world of tomorrow. What impact has this created on the NASA communication networks now and in future years? In this project, we are developing the SmallSat Relational Database which can support a simulation of smallSats within the NASA SCaN Compatability Environment for Networks and Integrated Communications (SCENIC) Modeling and Simulation Lab. The NASA Space Communications and Networks (SCaN) Program can use this modeling to project required network support needs in the next 10 to 15 years. The SmallSat Rational Database could model smallSats just as the other SCaN databases model the more traditional larger satellites, with a few exceptions. One being that the smallSat Database is designed to be built-to-order. The SmallSat database holds various hardware configurations that can be used to model a smallSat. It will require significant effort to develop as the research material can only be populated by hand to obtain the unique data

  1. High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 149 NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (Web, free access)   The NIST High Temperature Superconducting Materials Database (WebHTS) provides evaluated thermal, mechanical, and superconducting property data for oxides and other nonconventional superconductors.

  2. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality (formerly the Office of Mobile Sources).

  3. A Case for Database Filesystems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P A; Hax, J C

    2009-05-13

    Data intensive science is offering new challenges and opportunities for Information Technology and traditional relational databases in particular. Database filesystems offer the potential to store Level Zero data and analyze Level 1 and Level 3 data within the same database system [2]. Scientific data is typically composed of both unstructured files and scalar data. Oracle SecureFiles is a new database filesystem feature in Oracle Database 11g that is specifically engineered to deliver high performance and scalability for storing unstructured or file data inside the Oracle database. SecureFiles presents the best of both the filesystem and the database worlds for unstructured content. Data stored inside SecureFiles can be queried or written at performance levels comparable to that of traditional filesystems while retaining the advantages of the Oracle database.

  4. ThermoData Engine Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 103 NIST ThermoData Engine Database (PC database for purchase)   ThermoData Engine is the first product fully implementing all major principles of the concept of dynamic data evaluation formulated at NIST/TRC.

  5. The Reach Address Database (RAD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores reach address information for each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams, lakes, etc) in the National Hydrology Database (NHD) Plus dataset.

  6. Hydrogen Leak Detection Sensor Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Barton D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the characteristics of the Hydrogen Sensor database. The database is the result of NASA's continuing interest in and improvement of its ability to detect and assess gas leaks in space applications. The database specifics and a snapshot of an entry in the database are reviewed. Attempts were made to determine the applicability of each of the 65 sensors for ground and/or vehicle use.

  7. Characterizing 13 Years of Surface Water Variability from MODIS-based Near Real-Time Flood Mapping Products in the Indus River, Tonle Sap Lake, and Lake Chad.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Policelli, F. S.

    2015-12-01

    Driven by an increase in extreme weather events in a warming world, flooding appears to be increasing in many regions. Since 2012, we have been using the twice-daily near-global observations of the two MODIS instruments to operate a near real-time flood mapping capability. Primarily intended to support disaster response efforts, our system generates daily near-global maps of flood water extent, at 250 m resolution. Although cloud cover is a challenge, the twice-daily coverage from the Terra and Aqua satellites helps to capture most major events. We use the MOD44W product (the "MODIS 250-m land-water mask") to differentiate "normal" water from flood water. Products from the system are freely available, and used by disaster response agencies and academic and industry researchers. An open question, however, is: how "normal" are recently observed floods? Destructive and — as reported by the press — record floods seem to be occurring more and more frequently. With the MODIS archive going back to 1999 (Terra satellite) and 2002 (Aqua satellite), we now have more than a decade of twice-daily near-global observations to begin answering this question. Although the 13 years of available twice-daily data (2002-2015) are not sufficient to fully characterize surface water normals (e.g., 100-year floods), we can start examining recent trends in surface water extent and flood frequency. To do so, we have back-processed our surface water product through mid-2002 (Aqua launch) for a few regions, and have used this to evaluate the variability in surface water extent and flood frequency. These results will eventually feed back into an improved characterization of flood water in our near real-time flood product. Here we will present results on trends in surface water extent and flood frequency for a few regions, including the Indus in Pakistan, the Tonle Sap lake in Cambodia, and lake Chad in Africa.

  8. Integrated well log and 2-D seismic data interpretation to image the subsurface stratigraphy and structure in north-eastern Bornu (Chad) basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isyaku, Aminu A.; Rust, Derek; Teeuw, Richard; Whitworth, Malcolm

    2016-09-01

    Structural and stratigraphic mapping within the Bornu Basin in north east Nigeria was commonly carried out using traditional field geological methods. However, such traditional approaches remain inadequate in the semi-arid region characterised by topographically flat areas and lack of continuous bedrock outcrops that are mostly concealed beneath sand cover. Previous studies in the north-eastern part of the basin carried out using ditch cuttings from few wells and disconnected seismic data were largely inadequate and the resulting stratigraphic analyses were more often generalised. This paper presents an integrated structural and stratigraphic study of the basin using combined subsurface geophysical datasets. A Combined Log Pattern (CLP) method is a well log analysis, which utilises various well log data including gamma ray, resistivity, bulk density and sonic logs to identify lithology and stratigraphic boundaries of subsurface formations. This method is applied to constrain the subsurface stratigraphy of the north-eastern part of the Bornu Basin bordering the Lake Chad. In addition to qualitative combined well log analysis, the time-depth relationship of the sonic log and seismic data was quantitatively determined by tying a well with an intersecting seismic section to validate the stratigraphic facies horizons identified. Four well log facies and their environments of deposition were characterised from the combined well log analysis of the different log types. It is discovered that the Cretaceous basement structural features controlled the deposition of overlying formations in the basin. Without intact core data, the shallower wells were discovered to have bottomed over subsurface horst features while deeper wells penetrated into the basal facies contained mainly within the grabens. Main subsurface structural lineaments in the area include NW-SE, NE-SW and NNW-SSE trending faults, which mainly formed the horst and graben features. Some stratigraphic formations

  9. Microbial Properties Database Editor Tutorial

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Microbial Properties Database Editor (MPDBE) has been developed to help consolidate microbial-relevant data to populate a microbial database and support a database editor by which an authorized user can modify physico-microbial properties related to microbial indicators and pat...

  10. Scientific and Technical Document Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scientific and Technical Document Database (PC database for purchase)   The images in NIST Special Database 20 contain a very rich set of graphic elements from scientific and technical documents, such as graphs, tables, equations, two column text, maps, pictures, footnotes, annotations, and arrays of such elements.

  11. Choosing among the physician databases.

    PubMed

    Heller, R H

    1988-04-01

    Prudent examination and knowing how to ask the "right questions" can enable hospital marketers and planners to find the most accurate and appropriate database. The author compares the comprehensive AMA physician database with the less expensive MEDEC database to determine their strengths and weaknesses.

  12. A Spanish American War Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Edmund

    1992-01-01

    Discusses a database used by honors high school U.S. history students learning about the Spanish-American War. Reports that the students compiled the database. Includes some of the historical background of the war, questions for study, a database key, and a table showing U.S. senators' votes relating to the War. (SG)

  13. Back to the Scriptorium: Database Marketplace 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 database marketplace is bounded by two extremes: massive digitization projects to increase access, and retrenchment owing to budget worries. Picture medieval monks hunched over their desks in the scriptorium as they labor to copy manuscripts. A 21st-century version of this activity is being repeated daily in the world's libraries and…

  14. Proteomics: Protein Identification Using Online Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurich, Chris; Fields, Peter A.; Rice, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics is an emerging area of systems biology that allows simultaneous study of thousands of proteins expressed in cells, tissues, or whole organisms. We have developed this activity to enable high school or college students to explore proteomic databases using mass spectrometry data files generated from yeast proteins in a college laboratory…

  15. Solar Sail Propulsion Technology Readiness Level Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Charles L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office has been sponsoring 2 solar sail system design and development hardware demonstration activities over the past 20 months. Able Engineering Company (AEC) of Goleta, CA is leading one team and L Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA is leading the other team. Component, subsystem and system fabrication and testing has been completed successfully. The goal of these activities is to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by 2006. These activities will culminate in the deployment and testing of 20-meter solar sail system ground demonstration hardware in the 30 meter diameter thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in 2005. This paper will describe the features of a computer database system that documents the results of the solar sail development activities to-date. Illustrations of the hardware components and systems, test results, analytical models, relevant space environment definition and current TRL assessment, as stored and manipulated within the database are presented. This database could serve as a central repository for all data related to the advancement of solar sail technology sponsored by the ISPT, providing an up-to-date assessment of the TRL of this technology. Current plans are to eventually make the database available to the Solar Sail community through the Space Transportation Information Network (STIN).

  16. Activated charcoal filters: Water treatment, pollution control, and industrial applications. (Latest citations from the Patent Bibliographic database with exemplary claims. ) Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning activated charcoal filters and their applications in water treatment, pollution control, and industrial processes. Filtering methods and equipment for air and water purification, industrial distillation and extraction, industrial leaching, and filtration of toxic materials and contaminants are described. Applications include drinking water purification, filtering beverages, production of polymer materials, solvent and metal recovery, waste conversion, automotive fuel and exhaust systems, swimming pool filtration, tobacco smoke filters, kitchen ventilators, medical filtration treatment, and odor absorbing materials. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Construction of file database management

    SciTech Connect

    MERRILL,KYLE J.

    2000-03-01

    This work created a database for tracking data analysis files from multiple lab techniques and equipment stored on a central file server. Experimental details appropriate for each file type are pulled from the file header and stored in a searchable database. The database also stores specific location and self-directory structure for each data file. Queries can be run on the database according to file type, sample type or other experimental parameters. The database was constructed in Microsoft Access and Visual Basic was used for extraction of information from the file header.

  18. Databases as an information service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of databases to information services, and the range of information services users and their needs for information is explored and discussed. It is argued that for database information to be valuable to a broad range of users, it is essential that access methods be provided that are relatively unstructured and natural to information services users who are interested in the information contained in databases, but who are not willing to learn and use traditional structured query languages. Unless this ease of use of databases is considered in the design and application process, the potential benefits from using database systems may not be realized.

  19. Publist - a bibliographic database utility

    SciTech Connect

    Peierls, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A few years ago, the Department of Applied Science perceived a need to automate activities related to publications by using some computer based system. Among the objectives were that: (1) it should be easy for a secretary or someone without extensive computer skills to use the system; (2) it should run on PCs (at that time DOS based), Macintosh, and Unix systems, so that different groups or individual investigators could use it on their platform of choice; (3) it should be flexible enough to track evolving views of what information was needed; (4) it should be able to generate output in different formats for different purposes; (5) the information should be able to be selected from and sorted by a wide variety of keys; and (6) individual items should be able to be updated with new information or deleted. This document gives an over view of the PUBLIST database for handling bibliographic data.

  20. NLCD 2011 database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    National Land Cover Database 2011 (NLCD 2011) is the most recent national land cover product created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. NLCD 2011 provides - for the first time - the capability to assess wall-to-wall, spatially explicit, national land cover changes and trends across the United States from 2001 to 2011. As with two previous NLCD land cover products NLCD 2011 keeps the same 16-class land cover classification scheme that has been applied consistently across the United States at a spatial resolution of 30 meters. NLCD 2011 is based primarily on a decision-tree classification of circa 2011 Landsat satellite data. This dataset is associated with the following publication:Homer, C., J. Dewitz, L. Yang, S. Jin, P. Danielson, G. Xian, J. Coulston, N. Herold, J. Wickham , and K. Megown. Completion of the 2011 National Land Cover Database for the Conterminous United States – Representing a Decade of Land Cover Change Information. PHOTOGRAMMETRIC ENGINEERING AND REMOTE SENSING. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Bethesda, MD, USA, 81(0): 345-354, (2015).